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Sample records for 50-mhz doppler radar

  1. Implementation and evaluation of the new wind algorithm in NASA's 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Manobianco, John T.; Schumann, Robin S.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Applied Meteorology Unit's implementation and evaluation of the wind algorithm developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on the data analysis processor (DAP) of NASA's 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler (DRWP). The report also includes a summary of the 50 MHz DRWP characteristics and performance and a proposed concept of operations for the DRWP.

  2. Distribution of mean Doppler shift, spectral width, and skewness of coherent 50-MHz auroral radar backscatter

    SciTech Connect

    Watermann, J.; McNamara, A.G. ); Sofko, G.J.; Koehler, J.A. )

    1989-06-01

    Some 7,700 radio aurora spectra obtained from a six link 50-MHz CW radar network set up on the Canadian prairies were analyzed with respect to the distributions of mean Doppler shift, spectral width and skewness. A comparison with recently published SABRE results obtained at 153 MHz shows substantial differences in the distributions which are probably due to different experimental and geophysical conditions. The spectra are mostly broad with mean Doppler shifts close to zero (type II spectra). The typical groupings of type I and type III spectra are clearly identified. All types appear to be in general much more symmetric than those recorded with SABRE, and the skewness is only weakly dependent on the sign of the mean Doppler shift. Its distribution peaks near zero and shows a weak positive correlation with the type II Doppler shifts while the mostly positive type I Doppler shifts are slightly negatively correlated with the skewness.

  3. Quality Control of Wind Data from 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacek, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Upper-level wind profiles obtained from a 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) instrument at Kennedy Space Center are incorporated in space launch vehicle design and day-of-launch operations to assess wind effects on the vehicle during ascent. Automated and manual quality control (QC) techniques are implemented to remove spurious data in the upper-level wind profiles caused from atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts over the 2010-2012 period of record (POR). By adding the new quality controlled profiles with older profiles from 1997-2009, a robust database will be constructed of upper-level wind characteristics. Statistical analysis will determine the maximum, minimum, and 95th percentile of the wind components from the DRWP profiles over recent POR and compare against the older database. Additionally, this study identifies specific QC flags triggered during the QC process to understand how much data is retained and removed from the profiles.

  4. Quality Control of Wind Data from 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacek, Austin D.

    2015-01-01

    Upper-level wind profiles obtained from a 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) instrument at Kennedy Space Center are incorporated in space launch vehicle design and day-of-launch operations to assess wind effects on the vehicle during ascent. Automated and manual quality control (QC) techniques are implemented to remove spurious data in the upper-level wind profiles caused from atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts over the 2010-2012 period of record (POR). By adding the new quality controlled profiles with older profiles from 1997-2009, a robust database will be constructed of upper-level wind characteristics. Statistical analysis will determine the maximum, minimum, and 95th percentile of the wind components from the DRWP profiles over recent POR and compare against the older database. Additionally, this study identifies specific QC flags triggered during the QC process to understand how much data is retained and removed from the profiles.

  5. Results of the NASA Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Operational Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre', Robert E., Jr.; Decker, Ryan K.; Leahy, Frank B.; Huddleston, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the new Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT). The goal of the OAT was to verify the data quality of the new DRWP against the performance of the previous DRWP in order to use wind data derived by the new DRWP for space launch vehicle operations support at the Eastern Range. The previous DRWP was used as a situational awareness asset for mission operations to identify rapid changes in the wind environment that weather balloons cannot depict. The Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch assessed data from the new DRWP collected during Jan-Feb 2015 against a specified set of test criteria. Data examination verified that the DRWP provides complete profiles every five minutes from 1.8-19.5 km in vertical increments of 150 m. Analysis of 49 concurrent DRWP and balloon profiles presented root mean square wind component differences around 2.0 m/s. Evaluation of the DRWP's coherence between five-minute wind pairs found the effective vertical resolution to be Nyquist-limited at 300 m for both wind components. In addition, the sensitivity to rejecting data that do not have adequate signal was quantified. This paper documents the data, quality control procedures, methodology, and results of each analysis.

  6. KSC 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT) Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents analysis results of the Kennedy Space Center updated 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT). This test was designed to demonstrate that the new DRWP operates in a similar manner to the previous DRWP for use as a situational awareness asset for mission operations at the Eastern Range to identify rapid changes in the wind environment that weather balloons cannot depict. Data examination and two analyses showed that the updated DRWP meets the specifications in the OAT test plan and performs at least as well as the previous DRWP. Data examination verified that the DRWP provides complete profiles every five minutes from 1.8-19.5 km in vertical increments of 150 m. Analysis of 5,426 wind component reports from 49 concurrent DRWP and balloon profiles presented root mean square (RMS) wind component differences around 2.0 m/s. The DRWP's effective vertical resolution (EVR) was found to be 300 m for both the westerly and southerly wind component, which the best EVR possible given the DRWP's vertical sampling interval. A third analysis quantified the sensitivity to rejecting data that do not have adequate signal by assessing the number of first-guess propagations at each altitude. This report documents the data, quality control procedures, methodology, and results of each analysis. It also shows that analysis of the updated DRWP produced results that were at least as good as the previous DRWP with proper rationale. The report recommends acceptance of the updated DRWP for situational awareness usage as per the OAT's intent.

  7. Application of 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler to launch operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Robin S.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Smith, Steve A.; Wilfong, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case study where a significant wind shift, not detected by jimspheres, was detected by the 50 MHz DRWP (Doppler Radar Wind Profiler) and evaluated to be acceptable prior to the launch of a Shuttle. This case study illustrates the importance of frequent upper air wind measurements for detecting significant rapidly changing features as well as for providing confidence that the features really exist and are not due to instrumentation error. Had the release of the jimsphere been timed such that it would have detected the entire wind shift, there would not have been sufficient time to release another jimsphere to confirm the existence of the feature prior to the scheduled launch. We found that using a temporal median filter on the one minute spectral estimates coupled with a constraining window about a first guess velocity effectively removes nearly all spurious signals from the velocity profile generated by NASA's 50 MHz DRWP while boosting the temporal resolution to as high as one profile every 3 minutes. The higher temporal resolution of the 50 MHz DRWP using the signal processing algorithm described in this paper ensures the detection of rapidly changing features as well as provides the confidence that the features are genuine. Further benefit is gained when the profiles generated by the DRWP are examined in relation to the profiles measured by jimspheres and/or rawinsondes. The redundancy offered by using two independent measurements can dispel or confirm any suspicion regarding instrumentation error or malfunction and wind profiles can be examined in light of their respective instruments' strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Results of the Updated NASA Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Operational Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre', Robert E., Jr.; Deker, Ryan K.; Leahy, Frank B.; Huddleston, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We present here the methodology and results of the Operational Acceptance Test (OAT) performed on the new Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP). On day-of-launch (DOL), space launch vehicle operators have used data from the DRWP to invalidate winds in prelaunch loads and trajectory assessments due to the DRWP's capability to quickly identify changes in the wind profile within a rapidly-changing wind environment. The previous DRWP has been replaced with a completely new system, which needs to undergo certification testing before being accepted for use in range operations. The new DRWP replaces the previous three-beam system made of coaxial cables and a copper wire ground plane with a four-beam system that uses Yagi antennae with enhanced beam steering capability. In addition, the new system contains updated user interface software while maintaining the same general capability as the previous system. The new DRWP continues to use the Median Filter First Guess (MFFG) algorithm to generate a wind profile from Doppler spectra at each range gate. DeTect (2015) contains further details on the upgrade. The OAT is a short-term test designed so that end users can utilize the new DRWP in a similar manner to the previous DRWP during mission operations at the Eastern Range in the midst of a long-term certification process. This paper describes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch's (MSFC NE's) analyses to verify the quality and accuracy of the DRWP's meteorological data output as compared to the previous DRWP. Ultimately, each launch vehicle program has the responsibility to certify the system for their own use.

  9. Comparison of FPS-16 radar/jimsphere and NASA's 50-MHz radar wind profiler turbulence indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the wind and turbulent regions from the surface to 16 km by the FPS-11 radar/jimsphere system are reported with particular attention given to the use of these turbulence and wind assessments to validate the NASA 50-MHz radar wind profiler. Wind profile statistics were compared at 150-m wavelengths, a wavelength validated from 20 jimspheres, simultaneously tracked by FPS-16 and FPQ-14 radar, and the resulting analysis of auto spectra, cross-spectra, and coherence squared spectra of the wind profiles. Results demonstrate that the NASA prototype wind profiler is an excellent monitoring device illustrating the measurements of the winds within 1/2 hour of launch zero.

  10. A New 50-MHz VHF Digital Bistatic Radar for E-region Space Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, G. C.; Huyghebaert, D. R.; St-Maurice, J. P.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new fully digital bistatic 50-MHz VHF radar is currently being developed by the radar group in the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies (ISAS) at the University of Saskatchewan. This paper presents the scientific motivation for the new radar. Traditionally bistatic radars have had excellent time resolution, but were significantly lacking in range resolution. With the now available accurate timing abilities and advanced pulse modulation techniques, bistatic radar configurations with both excellent temporal and spatial resolution are able to map or 'image' the E-region. The E-region portion of the ionosphere being the base of the magnetosphere has both global (ionosphere-magnetosphere system) and local phenomena of interest. The currents in the magnetosphere close in the E-region. Field-aligned currents (FACs) and Alfven waves are phenomena with origins in the magnetosphere which present their 'signatures' in the E-region. For example, Alfven waves (produced by the Alfven wave resonator) have different time scales, from less than a Hertz to periods of tens of minutes --- and the high temporal and spatial resolution of this new digital E-region radar will be able to detect them all. The E-region is also a dynamic plasma medium with the two-steam and gradient drift instabilities present and the improved measurement abilities will give fresh physical insight.

  11. A Comparison of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System High Resolution Flight Element to the Kennedy Space Center 50 MHz Doppler Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Leahy, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Wind profile measurement and the simulation of aerodynamic loads on a launch vehicle play an important role in determining launch capability and post launch assessment of the vehicle's performance. To date, all United States range certified wind profile measurement systems have been based on balloon tracking. Since the 1960's, the standard used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Air Force at the Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) for detailed wind profile measurements has been the radar tracked, aerodynamically stabilized Jimsphere balloon system. Currently, the Air Force is nearing certification and operational implementation of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) at CCAS and Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB). AMPS uses the Global Positioning System for tracking the Jimsphere balloon. It is anticipated that the AMPS/Jimsphere, named the High Resolution Flight Element (HRFE), will have equivalent, or better resolution than the radar tracked Jimsphere, especially when the balloon is far downrange, at a low elevation angle. By the 1980's, the development of Doppler Wind Profilers (DWP) had become sufficiently advanced to justify an experimental measurement program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In 1989 a 50 MHz DWP was installed at KSC. In principal, the 50 MHz DWP has the capability to track the evolution of wind profile dynamics within 5 minutes of a launch. Because of fundamental differences in the measurement technique, there is a significant time and space differential between 50 MHz DWP and HRFE wind profiles. This paper describes a study to quantify these differences from a sample of 50 MHz DWP/HRFE pairs obtained during the AMPS certification test program.

  12. A New 50 MHz Phased-Array Radar on Pohnpei: A Fresh Perspective on Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    A new, phased-array antenna-steering capability has recently been added to an existing 50-MHz radar on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, in the central Pacific region. This radar, which we refer to as PAR-50, is capable of scanning in the vertical east-west plane, ±60° about the zenith. The alignment in the magnetic east-west direction allows detection of radar backscatter from small-scale irregularities that develop in the equatorial ionosphere, including those associated with equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). The coverage, about ±800 km in zonal distance, at an altitude of 500 km, is essentially identical to that provided by ALTAIR, a fully-steerable incoherent-scatter radar, which has been used in a number of studies of EPBs. Unlike ALTAIR, which has only been operated for several hours on a handful of selected nights, the PAR-50 has already been operated continuously, while performing repeated scans, since April 2014. In this presentation, we describe the PAR-50, then, compare it to ALTAIR and the Equatorial Atmospheric Radar (EAR); the latter is the only other phased-array system in use for equatorial studies. We then assess what we have learned about EPBs from backscatter radar measurements, and discuss how the PAR-50 can provide a fresh perspective to our understanding. Clearly, the ability to sort out the space-time ambiguities in EPB development from sequences of spatial maps of EPBs is crucial to our understanding of how EPBs develop.

  13. Equatorial electrojet irregularities investigations using a 50MHz back-scatter radar and a digisonde at Sa~o Luís: some initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Denardini, C. M.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.; Muralikrishna, P.; de Paula, E. R.

    2002-08-01

    A new 50MHz coherent back-scatter radar has recently become operational at the Equatorial Space Observatory of INPE at Sa~o Luís (/2.33°S, /44.2°W, dip: /-0.5°), in Brazil, located close to the center of the equatorial electrojet. Preliminary results from a 12-day campaign in December 1999 involving this radar and a nearby digisonde are presented in this paper. The range-time-intensity (RTI) maps of electrojet irregularities show short-period (~5min or larger) fluctuations and significant day-to-day variability. A notable characteristic is the midday descent in the altitude of the RTI pattern observed on some days when the dominant Doppler spectra are of type-2. This feature is similar to the diurnal variation of the base height of the /q-type sporadic-/E-layer (h'Es-q) simultaneously observed by the digisonde. Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the RTI and type-1 and type-2 spectral intensities seem to indicate electric field modulation from winds associated with typical gravity wave periods. Large surges in the westward irregularity drift velocity, presenting a higher velocity tail to the Doppler spectral distribution, is observed at sunset concurrent with the evening /F-layer vertical uplift as observed by the digisonde. Some implications of these results on the /E- and /F-region electrodynamics are discussed.

  14. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  15. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  16. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  17. Radio aurora magnetic and streaming aspect sensitivities on 6 simultaneous links at 50 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Sofko, G.J.; Koehler, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The functional dependency of radar signal amplitudes and Doppler shifts on magnetic field and streaming aspect angles were studied in Canada by directing three CW 50 MHz narrow beams into the ionsosphere. Reception of the beams, which provided six magnetic aspect angles varying by 1.5-7 deg from the vertical, was by two narrow beam antennas. Several hundred hours of data in the controlled geometric factors experiment were obtained. Data analysis consisted of digitizing the received analog signals and then performing Fast Fourier Transforms for later averaging. The system was verified through calculations of the Doppler spectra of Perseid meteor showers. Antiphase behavior was found in signals measured from two different beams. Oppositely directed Doppler shifts were also recorded. A negative magnetic aspect sensitivity was observed. Finally, the effects of the presence of ion-acoustic waves are discussed.

  18. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  19. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation.

  20. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W; Jordan, Jay D; Kim, Theodore J

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  1. NEXRAD - An advanced Doppler weather radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, A. F.

    The WSR-57 system, which was first placed into operation in 1957, forms the backbone of the current radar observation network of the National Weather Service. However, in connection with its age, it has become increasingly difficult and expensive to maintain this system. The present investigation is concerned with the replacement of the WSR-57 by a new system which incorporates important advances made in radar technology since the 1950s. The new system considered, called the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) makes use of highly automated Doppler techniques to measure the radial velocity of air movement within the internal structure of a storm system. Attention is given to background regarding the NEXRAD system development, the four phases of the NEXRAD program, NEXRAD system capabilities, operational (display) products, and questions of siting.

  2. How to Create and Manipulate Radar Range-Doppler Plots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED How to Create and Manipulate Radar Range–Doppler Plots Don Koks Cyber & Electronic Warfare Division Defence Science and Technology...to the approach taken in addressing the jamming task in a later report. We discuss in detail how a radar generates a range–Doppler plot , using a set...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ii UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DSTO–TN–1386 How to Create and Manipulate Radar Range–Doppler Plots Executive Summary This report lays

  3. Eliminating Doppler Effects in Synthetic-Aperture Radar Optical Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantindes, N. J.; Bicknell, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Pair of photodetectors generates correction signals. Instrument detects Doppler shifts in radar and corrects processing parameters so ambiguities caused by shifts not manifested as double or overlapping images.

  4. Doppler radar detection of vortex hazard indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespor, Jerald D.; Hudson, B.; Stegall, R. L.; Freedman, Jerome E.

    1994-01-01

    Wake vortex experiments were conducted at White Sands Missile Range, NM using the AN/MPS-39 Multiple Object Tracking Radar (MOTR). The purpose of these experiments was twofold. The first objective was to verify that radar returns from wake vortex are observed for some time after the passage of an aircraft. The second objective was to verify that other vortex hazard indicators such as ambient wind speed and direction could also be detected. The present study addresses the Doppler characteristics of wake vortex and clear air returns based upon measurements employing MOTR, a very sensitive C-Band phased array radar. In this regard, the experiment was conducted so that the spectral characteristics could be determined on a dwell to-dwell basis. Results are presented from measurements of the backscattered power (equivalent structure constant), radial velocity and spectral width when the aircraft flies transverse and axial to the radar beam. The statistics of the backscattered power and spectral width for each case are given. In addition, the scan strategy, experimental test procedure and radar parameters are presented.

  5. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  6. The new Adelaide medium frequency Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, I. M.; Vandepeer, B. G. W.; Dillon, S.; Fuller, B.

    1993-08-01

    The Buckland Park Aerial Array (35 deg S, 138 deg E) is situated about 40 km north of Adelaide on a flat coastal plain. It was designed by Basil Briggs and Graham Elford, and constructed between 1965 and 1968. The first results were published in the late 1960's. Some aspects of the history of the array are described in Briggs (1993). A new MF Doppler Radar utilizing the array has been developed. This paper describes some of the technical details of this new facility.

  7. Doppler shifts of radar return from the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S. A.; Kapustin, I. A.; Molkov, A. A.; Sergievskaya, I. A.; Shomina, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Investigation of the Doppler shift of radar return from the sea surface is very important for better understanding of capabilities of exploitation of microwave radar for measuring velocities of marine currents. Here new field experiments carried out from a Platform on the Black Sea with a coherent X-band scatterometer, and a Doppler multifrequency (X- /C-/S-band) dual-polarized radar recently designed at IAP RAS are discussed. It is shown that the radar return contains both Bragg (polarized) and non polarized scattering components, presumably giving different contributions to radar Doppler shifts. Radar Doppler shifts were estimated using two different definitions as a) a frequency of the "centre of gravity" of an instantaneous radar return spectrum (ASIS) averaged over periods of dominant wind waves and b) the "centre of gravity" of the averaged over dominant wave periods spectrum (SAS). The ASIS and SAS values for both VV and HH-polarizations are shown to be different due to effects of radar backscatter modulation by dominant (long) wind waves. The radar Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) has been analyzed from experimental data and difference between SAS- and ASIS-values has been satisfactory explained using the measured MTF-values. It is obtained that experimental values of ASIS can be satisfactory described by the Bragg model despite the significant contribution of NP component to the radar backscatter. A physical explanation of the effect is given.

  8. Ambiguity Of Doppler Centroid In Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Paper discusses performances of two algorithms for resolution of ambiguity in estimated Doppler centroid frequency of echoes in synthetic-aperture radar. One based on range-cross-correlation technique, other based on multiple-pulse-repetition-frequency technique.

  9. Software For Clear-Air Doppler-Radar Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    System of software developed to present plan-position-indicator scans of clear-air Doppler radar station on color graphical cathode-ray-tube display. Designed to incorporate latest accepted standards for equipment, computer programs, and meteorological data bases. Includes use of Ada programming language, of "Graphical-Kernel-System-like" graphics interface, and of Common Doppler Radar Exchange Format. Features include portability and maintainability. Use of Ada software packages produced number of software modules reused on other related projects.

  10. Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntman, Daryal

    1991-01-01

    The status of Bendix research on Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capability is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the RDR-4A, a fully coherent, solid state transmitter having Doppler turbulence capability. Frequency generation data, plans, modifications, system characteristics and certification requirements are covered.

  11. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector.

  12. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar

    DOEpatents

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  13. Quality Control Algorithms for the Kennedy Space Center 50-Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Winds Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the process used by the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) to quality control (QC) data from the Kennedy Space Center's 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler for use in vehicle wind loads and steering commands. The database has been built to mitigate limitations of using the currently archived databases from weather balloons. The DRWP database contains wind measurements from approximately 2.7-18.6 km altitude at roughly five minute intervals for the August 1997 to December 2009 period of record, and the extensive QC process was designed to remove spurious data from various forms of atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts. The QC process is largely based on DRWP literature, but two new algorithms have been developed to remove data contaminated by convection and excessive first guess propagations from the Median Filter First Guess Algorithm. In addition to describing the automated and manual QC process in detail, this paper describes the extent of the data retained. Roughly 58% of all possible wind observations exist in the database, with approximately 100 times as many complete profile sets existing relative to the EV44 balloon databases. This increased sample of near-continuous wind profile measurements may help increase launch availability by reducing the uncertainty of wind changes during launch countdown

  14. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of space vehicle loads and trajectories during design requires a large sample of wind profiles at the altitudes where winds affect the vehicle. Traditionally, this altitude region extends from near 8-14 km to address maximum dynamic pressure upon ascent into space, but some applications require knowledge of measured wind profiles at lower altitudes. Such applications include crew capsule pad abort and plume damage analyses. Two Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) systems exist at the United States Air Force (USAF) Eastern Range and at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center. The 50-MHz DRWP provides wind profiles every 3-5 minutes from roughly 2.5-18.5 km, and five 915-MHz DRWPs provide wind profiles every 15 minutes from approximately 0.2-3.0 km. Archived wind profiles from all systems underwent rigorous quality control (QC) processes, and concurrent measurements from the QC'ed 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives were spliced into individual profiles that extend from about 0.2-18.5 km. The archive contains combined profiles from April 2000 to December 2009, and thousands of profiles during each month are available for use by the launch vehicle community. This paper presents the details of the QC and splice methodology, as well as some attributes of the archive.

  15. Extracting radar micro-Doppler signatures of helicopter rotating rotor blades using K-band radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rachel; Liu, Baokun

    2014-06-01

    Helicopter identification has been an attractive topic. In this paper, we applied radar micro-Doppler signatures to identify helicopter. For identifying the type of a helicopter, besides its shape and size, the number of blades, the length of the blade, and the rotation rate of the rotor are important features, which can be estimated from radar micro-Doppler signatures of the helicopter's rotating rotor blades. In our study, K-band CW/FMCW radars are used for collecting returned signals from helicopters. By analyzing radar micro-Doppler signatures, we can estimate the number of blades, the length of the blade, the angular rotation rate of the rotating blade, and other necessary parameters for identifying the type of a helicopter.

  16. Reducing Spaceborne-Doppler-Radar Rainfall-Velocity Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    A combined frequency-time (CFT) spectral moment estimation technique has been devised for calculating rainfall velocity from measurement data acquired by a nadir-looking spaceborne Doppler weather radar system. Prior spectral moment estimation techniques used for this purpose are based partly on the assumption that the radar resolution volume is uniformly filled with rainfall. The assumption is unrealistic in general but introduces negligible error in application to airborne radar systems. However, for spaceborne systems, the combination of this assumption and inhomogeneities in rainfall [denoted non-uniform beam filling (NUBF)] can result in velocity measurement errors of several meters per second. The present CFT spectral moment estimation technique includes coherent processing of a series of Doppler spectra generated in a standard manner from data over measurement volumes that are partially overlapping in the along-track direction. Performance simulation of this technique using high-resolution data from an airborne rain-mapping radar shows that a spaceborne Ku-band Doppler radar operating at signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 dB can achieve root-mean-square accuracy between 0.5 and 0.6 m/s in vertical-velocity estimates.

  17. Tracking driver's heart rate by continuous-wave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Kwang Jin Lee; Chanki Park; Boreom Lee

    2016-08-01

    Developing driving safety system with medical assistance devices for preventing accidents has become a major social issue in recent year. These devices have been developed using electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) for measuring the heart rate (HR). However, driver should directly contact with the sensor for monitoring the HR. Recently, non-contact system based on continuous-wave Doppler radar has widely studied for monitoring HR. The periodogram by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was used for estimating HR. However, if motion artifacts by movement of driver and vehicle vibration contaminate the radar signal, we cannot find spectral peak of HR using FFT. In this paper, we propose a method using multiple signal classification (MUSIC) for estimating HR. We compared MUSIC algorithms with a commonly used FFT method using real experiment data while driving. The results indicate that our proposed method can estimate HR accurately from received radar Doppler signal with motion artifacts.

  18. Doppler radar sensing of fish physiological motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Noah

    The monitoring vital of signs for fish is critical for advancing the study of trophic and energetic strategies, distributions and behavior, environmental impact, and aquaculture approaches. Presented here is a new approach for monitoring fish metabolic state without the trauma and stress associated with capture, surgical ECG, or other implanted sensing systems. Original research contributions include analysis for radar operation under water, development of radar systems for aquatic operation, and application of these systems to non invasively sense the heart and gill motion of fish. Tilapia and Sturgeon were studied to test the efficacy across varied fish body shapes and sizes, ranging from 0.1 to 1.3m in snout to tail length. Monitoring experiments were conducted with eleven tilapia and three sturgeons to assess activity level participated in these experiments, the results from which include activity level monitoring (tilapia: still or fidgeting 94% of time observed), ventilation rate (tilapia: 42 bpm, sturgeon: 145 bpm), and heart rate (tilapia: 41 bpm, sturgeon: 35 bpm). Bland-Altman analysis of radar and ECG measured heart rate indicate agreement between the two measurement techniques and the suitability of radar as an alternative to ECG. The initial steps for developing a system for practical application is also presented including designs for radar system miniaturization and discussion on further characterization steps with less constrained environments.

  19. Doppler-Offset Waveforms for MIMO Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Division Multiple Access, or FDMA . In the MIMO radar literature, the term FDMA is used, generically, to refer to sets of waveforms occupying different...frequencies at the same time. Mathematically, the lit" FDMA waveform can be written as: S" (I) = s (I) ej 2K I.’ 0 5, 1 5, T . for /I = I, ... ,N...noise) whenever i i’ j . Page 3 of 13 Pages On transmit, FDMA MIMO radars emit all N, frequency offset waveforms simultaneously. Then, each of the N

  20. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  1. Doppler-Only Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    means finer resolution in this dimension. The length of the radar antenna determines the resolution in the azimuth (along-track) direction of the image...resolution cell can be obtained. SAR may also be used in guidance applications by pointing or “squinting” the antenna beam in the direction of motion of...thesis advisor, Professor Brett Borden, many thanks for the guidance, patience and direction throughout this journey. There were many simple and

  2. Coupling Between Doppler Radar Signatures and Tornado Damage Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carey, Lawrence; Carcione, Brian; Smith, Matthew; Schultz, Elise V.; Schultz, Christopher; Lafontaine, Frank

    2011-01-01

    On April 27, 2011, the southeastern United States was raked with several episodes of severe weather. Numerous tornadoes caused extensive damage, and tragically, the deaths of over 300 people. In Alabama alone, there were 61 confirmed tornados, 4 of them produced EF5 damage, and several were on the ground an hour or more with continuous damage tracks exceeding 80km. The use of Doppler radars covering the region provided reflectivity and velocity signatures that allowed forecasters to monitors the severe storms from beginning to end issuing hundreds of severe weather warnings throughout the day. Meteorologists from the the NWS performed extensive surveys to assess the intensity, duration, and ground track of tornadoes reported during the event. Survey activities included site visits to the affected locations, analysis of radar and satellite data, aerial surveys, and interviews with eyewitnesses. Satellite data from NASA's MODIS and ASTER instruments played a helpful role in determining the location of tornado damage paths and in the assessment. High resolution multispectral and temporal composites helped forecasters corroborate their damage assessments, determine starting and ending points for tornado touchdowns, and helped to provide forecasters with a better big-picture view of the damage region. The imagery also helped to separate damage from the April 27th tornados from severe weather that occurred earlier that month. In a post analysis of the outbreak, tornado damage path signatures observed in the NASA satellite data have been correlated to "debris ball" signatures in the NWS Doppler radars and a special ARMOR dual-polarization radar operated by the University of Alabama Huntsville during the event. The Doppler radar data indicates a circular enhanced reflectivity signal and rotational couplet in the radial velocity likely associated with the tornado that is spatially correlated with the damage tracks in the observed satellite data. An algorithm to detect and

  3. Doppler weather radar as a meteorite recovery tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Marc; Fries, Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    We report the use of Doppler weather radar as a tool for locating meteorites, both at the time of a fall and from archived radar data. This asset is especially useful for meteorite recovery as it can provide information on the whereabouts of falling meteorites in "dark flight" portion of their descent where information on their flight paths cannot be discerned from more traditional meteorite location techniques such as eyewitness accounts. Weather radar data can provide information from detection in three distinct regimes: (A) direct detection of the rapidly moving, optically bright fireball by distant radars, (B) detection of falling debris to include hand-sample sized rocks, and (C) detection of dust produced by detonation events that can occur tens of minutes and many kilometers laterally removed from the actual fireball locality. We present examples of each, as well as comparisons against man-made debris from a re-entering Soyuz rocket and the Stardust Sample Return Capsule. The use of Doppler weather radar as a supplement to traditional meteorite recovery methods holds the promise of improving both the speed and total number of meteorite recoveries, thereby increasing the number of freshly fallen meteorites for scientific study.

  4. Wideband infrared receiver backend. [Doppler radar, radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flattau, T.; Mellars, J.

    1974-01-01

    The design, operation, and configuration of the receiver backend for a wideband infrared tracking receiver are described. A squaring loop is incorporated into the receiver design to enable it to track the Doppler shifted carrier which is Phase Shift Keyed modulated. The receiver has a 400 MHz instantaneous bandwidth and tracks signals whose carrier frequency at the backend input is between 200 and 900 MHz with frequency variation rates greater than 20 MHz/second. The output data is compatible with MECL 3 logic.

  5. Novel Doppler laser radar for diagnostics in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Madhavan; Slotwinski, Anthony

    2004-10-01

    We describe the development of a novel Doppler laser radar (DOLAR) for remote measurement of flow velocity (0-10 m/s) and film thickness of liquid metal walls, currently being studied for their superior heat handling and self-healing characteristics. Small fluctuations in flow velocity({approx}mm/s) and flow thickness ({approx}50 {mu}m) that may arise during plasma discharges can also be measured. The DOLAR is also designed for non intrusive mapping of features of plasma-facing solid surfaces with very high precision ({approx}50 {mu}m). It can also measure the motion of structural components of a fusion reactor during plasma discharges and during plasma disruptions. The device utilizes frequency modulation laser radar principles for precision range measurements. Compensation of Doppler frequency shift is used to measure flow velocity. The DOLAR probe head is designed with acousto-optic and piezoelectric devices for operation in the harsh fusion environment.

  6. A preliminary investigation of bird classification by Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the application of Doppler radar to the classification of birds is reported. The desirability for improvements in bird classification stems primarily from the hazards they present to jet aircraft in flight and in the vicinity of airports. A secondary need exists in the study of bird migration. The wing body and tail motion of a bird in flight reflect signals which, when analyzed properly present a signature of wing beat pattern which is unique for each bird species. Although the results of this investigation did not validate the feasibility of classifying bird species, they do indicate that a more thorough investigation is warranted. Certain gross characteristics such as wing beat rates, multiple bird patterns, and bird maneuverability, were indicated clearly in the results. Large birds with slow wing beat rates appear to be the most optimum subject for further study with the X-band Doppler radar used in this investigation.

  7. Radar/sonar signal design for bounded Doppler shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altes, R. A.

    1982-07-01

    In many detection and estimation problems, Doppler frequency shifts are bounded. For clutter or multipath that is uniformly distributed in range and symmetrically distributed in Doppler shift relative to the signal, detectability of a point target or a communication signal is improved by minimizing the weighted volume of the magnitude-squared autoambiguity function. When clutter Doppler shifts are bounded, this volume is in a strip containing the range axis on the range-Doppler plane. For scattering function estimation, e.g., for weather radar, Doppler flow meters, and distributed target classifiers, it is again relevant to minimize ambiguity volume in a strip. Strip volume is minimized by using a pulse train, but such a signal has unacceptably large range sidelobe for most applications. Other waveforms that have relatively small sidelobe level within a strip on the range-Doppler plane, as well as small ambiguity volume in the strip, are obtained. The waveforms are composed of pulse pairs that are phase modulated with Golay complementary codes.

  8. Micro-Doppler Radar Signatures for Itelligent Target Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    es. En tant qu’outil d’identification et de reconnaissance, l’effet m-D semble prometteur pour les syst~mes op ~ rationnels susceptibles d’am~liorer...Defence Research and Recherche et developpement Development Canada pour la defense Canada DEFENCE DE7 DEFENS . Micro-Doppler radar signatures for... recherche permettant d’atteindre les objectifs techniques d6sir6s. ii DRDC Ottawa TM 2004-170 Executive summary Mechanical vibrations or rotations of

  9. 94 GHz doppler wind radar satellite mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Rommen, Björn; Buck, Christopher; Schüttemeyer, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Extreme weather such as storms, hurricanes and typhoons, also called `high impact weather', is a high priority area of research for the atmospheric dynamics and meteorological science communities. 94 GHz Doppler wind radar satellite mission concepts have been elaborated, which use cloud and precipitation droplets/particles as tracers to measure 3-D wind fields. The so-called polarisation-diversity pulse-pair (PDPP) technique enables to derive line-of-sight wind speed with good accuracy (< 2-3 m/s) and large unambiguous dynamic range (e.g. 75 m/s). Two distinct system concepts have been elaborated: (1) a conically scanning radar concept with large coverage (> 800 km) and ˜50 km along-track sampling, and; (2) a stereo viewing concept with high sampling resolution (< 4 km) within an inclined cut through the atmosphere. The former concept is adequate for studying large-scale severe/extreme weather systems, whereas the latter would be more suitable for understanding of small-scale convective phenomena. For demonstrating the potential of the FDPP technique for deriving accurate Doppler observations, ground-based and airborne Doppler radar campaigns are in preparation. The Galileo 94 GHz radar, upgraded recently to include a FDPP capability, at Chilbolton in the UK, will be used for an extended ground-based campaign (6 months). For the airborne campaign, the dual-frequency (9.4 + 94 GHz) NAWX radar on board a Convair-580 aircraft of the National Science Council of Canada will be upgraded and flown. This paper describes the observation requirements, preliminary satellite mission concepts, associated wind retrieval aspects and the planned demonstration campaigns.

  10. Multi-sensor Doppler radar for machine tool collision detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, T. J.; Siart, U.; Eibert, T. F.; Bonerz, S.

    2014-11-01

    Machine damage due to tool collisions is a widespread issue in milling production. These collisions are typically caused by human errors. A solution for this problem is proposed based on a low-complexity 24 GHz continuous wave (CW) radar system. The developed monitoring system is able to detect moving objects by evaluating the Doppler shift. It combines incoherent information from several spatially distributed Doppler sensors and estimates the distance between an object and the sensors. The specially designed compact prototype contains up to five radar sensor modules and amplifiers yet fits into the limited available space. In this first approach we concentrate on the Doppler-based positioning of a single moving target. The recorded signals are preprocessed in order to remove noise and interference from the machinery hall. We conducted and processed system measurements with this prototype. The Doppler frequency estimation and the object position obtained after signal conditioning and processing with the developed algorithm were in good agreement with the reference coordinates provided by the machine's control unit.

  11. Doppler effects on velocity spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, wind data from mesophere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars have been used to study the spectra of gravity waves in the atmosphere (Scheffler and Liu, 1985; VanZandt et al., 1985). Since MST radar measures the line-of-sight Doppler velocities, it senses the components of the wave-associated velocities along its beam directions. These components are related through the polarization relations which depend on the frequency and wave number of the wave. Therfore, the radar-observed velocity spectrum will be different from the original gravity-wave spectrum. Their relationship depends on the frequency and wave number of the wave as well as the propagation geometry. This relation can be used to interpret the observed data. It can also be used to test the assumption of gravity-wave spectrum (Scheffler and Liu, 1985). In deriving this relation, the background atmosphere has been assumed to be motionless. Obviously, the Doppler shift due to the background wind will change the shape of the gravity-wave power spectrum as well as its relation with the radar-observed spectrum. Here, researcher's investigate these changes.

  12. Doppler radar sensor positioning in a fall detection system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Ho, K C; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Falling is a common health problem for more than a third of the United States population over 65. We are currently developing a Doppler radar based fall detection system that already has showed promising results. In this paper, we study the sensor positioning in the environment with respect to the subject. We investigate three sensor positions, floor, wall and ceiling of the room, in two experimental configurations. Within each system configuration, subjects performed falls towards or across the radar sensors. We collected 90 falls and 341 non falls for the first configuration and 126 falls and 817 non falls for the second one. Radar signature classification was performed using a SVM classifier. Fall detection performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for each sensor deployment. We found that a fall is more likely to be detected if the subject is falling toward or away from the sensor and a ceiling Doppler radar is more reliable for fall detection than a wall mounted one.

  13. Data acquisition system for Doppler radar vital-sign monitor.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander M; Lubecke, Victor M

    2007-01-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) units increase the dynamic range of a system to compensate for the limited dynamic range of analog to digital converters. This problem is compounded in wireless systems in which large changes in signal strength are effects of a changing environment. These issues are evident in the direct-conversion Doppler radar vital-sign monitor. Utilizing microwave radar signals reflecting off a human subject, a two-channel quadrature receiver can detect periodic movement resulting from cardio-pulmonary activity. The quadrature signal is analyzed using an arctangent demodulation that extracts vital phase information. A data acquisition (DAQ) system is proposed to deal with issues inherent in arctangent demodulation of a quadrature radar signal.

  14. Doppler capable FMCW cloud detection radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, Salih; Ćelik, Mert; Yilmaz, Ali Özgur; Koç, Sencer

    2015-10-01

    This study which was conducted as a Master's thesis, is a radar system working at X band. In this system, a 0.8 Watts continuous electromagnetic wave which is modulated with a frequency ramp of 30 MHz bandwidth is generated and radiated through transmit antenna. The scattered signal from the hydrometeors is multiplied with the transmitted one and the beat signal is obtained. By this deramping process the range information of the target is converted into frequency domain. Data is processed in Matlab after passing through analog to digital converters. The range and velocity information is obtained with signal processing algorithms in fast and slow time. Some special techniques such as clipping, windowing, coherent data integration, and slow time signal processing are performed to the captured beat signal. Verification of the system is performed by buildings and cars whose range and velocities are known. The range of cloud and the speed of wind are estimated by processing the return signal in fast and slow time.

  15. Quality-Controlled Wind Data from the Kennedy Space Center 915 Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has installed a five-instrument 915-Megahertz (MHz) Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) system that records atmospheric wind profile properties. The purpose of these profilers is to fill data gaps between the top of the KSC wind tower network and the lowest measurement altitude of the KSC 50-MHz DRWP. The 915-MHz DRWP system has the capability to generate three-dimensional wind data outputs from approximately 150 meters (m) to 6,000 m at roughly 15-minute (min) intervals. NASA s long-term objective is to combine the 915-MHz and 50-MHz DRWP systems to create complete vertical wind profiles up to 18,300 m to be used in trajectory and loads analyses of space vehicles and by forecasters on day-of-launch (DOL). This analysis utilizes automated and manual quality control (QC) processes to remove erroneous and unrealistic wind data returned by the 915-MHz DRWP system. The percentage of data affected by each individual QC check in the period of record (POR) (i.e., January to April 2006) was computed, demonstrating the variability in the amount of data affected by the QC processes. The number of complete wind profiles available at given altitude thresholds for each profiler in the POR was calculated and outputted graphically, followed by an assessment of the number of complete wind profiles available for any profiler in the POR. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the QC process on a day of a known weather event.

  16. 3D wind field from spaceborne Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, Y.; Viltard, N.

    2013-10-01

    Numerous space radar missions are presently envisioned to study the water cycle in the tropics. Among them, the DYCECT (DYnamique, énergie et Cycle de l'Eau dans la Convection Tropicale) mission, a French proposal (submitted to the French CNES Agency), could embark a Doppler radar (W-band or Ka-band) with scanning possibilities onboard a low-orbiting satellite. This instrument could be implemented in addition to a Passive Microwave Radiometer (PMR), and eventually an improved ScaraB-like broadband radiometer, and a lightning detection instrument. This package will document the ice microphysics and the heat budgets. Since the microphysics and the water and energy budgets are strongly driven by the dynamics, the addition of a Doppler radar with scanning possibilities could provide valuable information (3D wind and rain fields) and a large statistic of such critical information over the entire tropics and for all the stages of development. These new information could be used to better understand the tropical convection and to improve convection parameterization relevant for cloud and climate models. It could be used also to associate direct applications such as now-casting and risk prevention. The present study focuses on the feasibility of such 3D wind field retrieval from spaceborne radar. It uses a simulator of some parts of the spaceborne radar in order i) to evaluate the sensitivity of the retrieved wind fields to the scanning strategies and sampling parameters, and to the instrumental and platform parameters and ii) to determine the best parameters providing the most accurate wind fields.

  17. 3D wind field retrieval from spaceborne Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaêtre, Y.; Viltard, N.

    2012-11-01

    Numerous space missions carrying a radar are presently envisioned, particularly to study tropical rain systems. Among those missions, BOITATA is a joint effort between Brazil (INPE/AEB) and France (CNES). The goal is to embark a Doppler radar with scanning possibilities onboard a low-orbiting satellite. This instrument should be implemented in addition to a Passive Microwave Radiometer (PMR) between 19 and 183 GHz, an improved ScaraB-like broadband radiometer, a mm/submm PMR and a lightning detection instrument. This package would be meant to document the feedback of the ice microphysics on the rain systems life cycle and on their heat and radiative budgets. Since the microphysics and the water and energy budgets are strongly driven by the dynamics, the addition of a Doppler radar with scanning possibilities could provide precious information (3D wind and rain fields). It would allow us to build a large statistics of such critical information over the entire tropics and for all the stages of development of the convection. This information could be used to better understand the tropical convection and to improve convection parameterization relevant for cloud and climate models and associated applications such as now-casting and risk prevention. The present work focuses on the feasibility to retrieve 3D winds in precipitating areas from such a radar. A simulator of some parts of the spaceborne radar is developed to estimate the precision on the retrieved wind field depending on the scanning strategies and instrumental parameters and to determine the best sampling parameters.

  18. Microwave and millimeter-wave Doppler radar heart sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lin, Jenshan; Lubecke, Victor M.; Host-Madsen, Anders; Sizer, Tod

    2007-04-01

    Technology that can be used to unobtrusively detect and monitor the presence of human subjects from a distance and through barriers can be a powerful tool for meeting new security challenges, including asymmetric battlefield threats abroad and defense infrastructure needs back home. Our team is developing mobile remote sensing technology for battle-space awareness and warfighter protection, based on microwave and millimeter-wave Doppler radar motion sensing devices that detect human presence. This technology will help overcome a shortfall of current see-through-thewall (STTW) systems, which is, the poor detection of stationary personnel. By detecting the minute Doppler shifts induced by a subject's cardiopulmonary related chest motion, the technology will allow users to detect personnel that are completely stationary more effectively. This personnel detection technique can also have an extremely low probability of intercept since the signals used can be those from everyday communications. The software and hardware developments and challenges for personnel detection and count at a distance will be discussed, including a 2.4 GHz quadrature radar single-chip silicon CMOS implementation, a low-power double side-band Ka-band transmission radar, and phase demodulation and heart rate extraction algorithms. In addition, the application of MIMO techniques for determining the number of subjects will be discussed.

  19. Validation of a radar doppler spectra simulator using measurements from the ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect

    Remillard, J.; Luke, E.; Kollias, P.

    2010-03-15

    The use of forward models as an alternative approach to compare models with observations contains advantages and challenges. Radar Doppler spectra simulators are not new; their application in high- resolution models with bin microphysics schemes could help to compare model output with the Doppler spectra recorded from the vertically pointing cloud radars at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites. The input parameters to a Doppler spectra simulator are both microphysical (e.g., particle size, shape, phase, and number concentration) and dynamical (e.g., resolved wind components and sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy). Libraries for spherical and non-spherical particles are then used to compute the backscattering cross-section and fall velocities, while the turbulence is parameterized as a Gaussian function with a prescribed width. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is used to determine the amount of noise added throughout the spectrum, and the spectral smoothing due to spectral averages is included to reproduce the averaging realized by cloud radars on successive returns. Thus, realistic Doppler spectra are obtained, and several parameters that relate to the morphological characteristics of the synthetically generated spectra are computed. Here, the results are compared to the new ARM microARSCL data products in an attempt to validate the simulator. Drizzling data obtained at the SGP site by the MMCR and the AMF site at Azores using the WACR are used to ensure the liquid part and the turbulence representation part of the simulator are properly accounted in the forward model.

  20. DC information preservation for cardiopulmonary monitor utilizing CW Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander M; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor M

    2008-01-01

    Direct conversion RF receivers introduce large DC offsets, reducing the dynamic range of the baseband signal. Coupled with the relatively small time varying signals in human vital sign monitoring using CW Doppler radar, extraction of cardio-pulmonary information becomes difficult. Previous DC offset compensation techniques utilizing AC coupling have proven detrimental to the performance of the system and the integrity of the low-frequency cardiopulmonary signals. A proposed system utilizing digitally controlled voltage feedback and center finding preserves the important DC information for optimal extraction of phase information in the quadrature system.

  1. Clutter Rejection for Doppler Weather Radars with Multirate Sampling Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-11

    L > 0 02 0 j z uj>cq r LL) M:5ul -j CD <> . t<> t cc 0 0 uj m I.- CL CL ri) CL LU CL U) u S .) cc cr <m > Ij’ I I m 1-20 0 0 6 04 LU wm 0 wcc cc0...Zrni6, Doppler Radar and Weather Observations, Academic Press, New York, 1984. Evans83a. J.E. Evans, "Ground Clutter Cancellation for the NEXRAD System...Witt87a. A. Witt and S.D. Smith, Development and Testing of the Gust Front Algo- rithm, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, National Severe Storms

  2. Non-contact displacement estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaomeng; Singh, Aditya; Yavari, Ehsan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Non-contact Doppler radar has been used extensively for detection of physiological motion. Most of the results published to date have been focused on estimation of the physiological rates, such as respiratory rate and heart rate, with CW and modulated waveforms in various settings. Accurate assessment of chest displacement may take this type of monitoring to the new level, by enabling the estimation of associated cardiopulmonary volumes, and possibly pulse pressure. To obtain absolute chest displacement with highest precision, full nonlinear phase demodulation of the quadrature radar outputs must be performed. The accuracy of this type of demodulation is limited by the drifting received RF power, varying dc offset, and channel quadrature imbalance. In this paper we demonstrate that if relatively large motion is used to calibrate the system, smaller motion displacement may be acquired with the accuracy on the order of 30 µm.

  3. Doppler radar observation of the evolution of a thunderstorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Srivastava, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Triple-Doppler radar observations of the evolution of the three-dimensional structure of a thunderstorm on May 19, 1978 are analyzed. Continuous data were taken over a long period of the non-severe storm's lifetime as it passed through the radar and the portable automated mesonet network. A fairly low cloud top of 10 km and high reflectivities were observed, and horizontal rotations developed in the middle troposphere, which never reached lower levels. The cyclonic and anticyclonic circulations at mid-levels intensified after the maximum cell height was reached, and a high reflectivity maximum lasted 15-20 min aloft, with the core descending to the surface because of rapid fallout from the largest precipitation particles. Due to the fairly small scale of the updrafts, future use of smaller grid spacings is considered a necessity.

  4. Doppler frequency in interplanetary radar and general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvittie, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The change of frequency of an interplanetary radar signal sent from the earth to another planet or to a space probe is worked out according to general relativity. The Schwarzschild spacetime is employed and its null geodesics control the motion of the signals. Exact Doppler frequency formulas are derived for one-way and two-way radar in terms of an arbitrary Schwarzschild radial coordinate. A reduction to the special relativity case is used to interpret the formulas in terms of the relative radial velocity of emitter and target. The general relativity corrections are worked out approximately for each of three possible Schwarzschild radial coordinates, and a numerical example is given. The amount of the correction is different according as one or the other of the Schwarzschild coordinates is identified with the radius vector deduced from classical celestial mechanics. The identification problem is discussed.

  5. Range ambiguity resolution for high PRF pulse-Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postema, G. B.

    The range ambiguity resolution for high 'PRF pulse-Doppler radars can be resolved using a simple algorithm based on residue arithmetic. The unambiguous range is found from R = T + R(a), where T is the output of a look-up table and R(a) is one of the measured ambiguous ranges. This formula is easily extended to multiple PRF ranging systems, where three or more measurements are required for the ambiguity resolution. Target obscuration in clutter reduces the visibility and leads, especially in dense target environments, to ghost ranges. It is shown that long range coverage requires a small resolved pulse length and PRFs as low as practical in the intended clutter and target environment. Special attention is given to the generation of sparsely populated look-up tables that reduce the ghosting problem. A practical example for an S-band surveillance radar is presented.

  6. Micro-Doppler analysis of multiple frequency continuous wave radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Rogers, Robert L.

    2007-04-01

    Micro-Doppler refers to Doppler scattering returns produced by non rigid-body motion. Micro-Doppler gives rise to many detailed radar image features in addition to those associated with bulk target motion. Targets of different classes (for example, humans, animals, and vehicles) produce micro-Doppler images that are often distinguishable even by nonexpert observers. Micro-Doppler features have great potential for use in automatic target classification algorithms. Although the potential benefit of using micro-Doppler in classification algorithms is high, relatively little experimental (non-synthetic) micro-Doppler data exists. Much of the existing experimental data comes from highly cooperative targets (human or vehicle targets directly approaching the radar). This research involved field data collection and analysis of micro-Doppler radar signatures from non-cooperative targets. The data was collected using a low cost Xband multiple frequency continuous wave (MFCW) radar with three transmit frequencies. The collected MFCW radar signatures contain data from humans, vehicles, and animals. The presented data includes micro-Doppler signatures previously unavailable in the literature such as crawling humans and various animal species. The animal micro-Doppler signatures include deer, dog, and goat datasets. This research focuses on the analysis of micro-Doppler from noncooperative targets approaching the radar at various angles, maneuvers, and postures.

  7. Hurricane properties by principal component analysis of Doppler radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasti, Paul Robert

    A novel approach based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Doppler radar data establishes hurricane properties such as the positions of the circulation centre and wind maxima. The method was developed in conjunction with a new Doppler radar wind model for both mature and weak hurricanes. The tangential wind (Vt) is modeled according to Vtζx = constant, where ζ is the radius, and x is an exponent. The maximum Vt occurs at the Radius of Maximum Wind (RMW). For the mature (weak) hurricane case, x = 1 ( x < 1) within the RMW, and x = 0.5 ( x = 0) beyond the RMW. The radial wind is modeled in a similar fashion in the radial direction with up to two transition radii but it is also varied linearly in the vertical direction. This is the first Doppler radar wind model to account for the vertical variations in the radial wind. The new method employs an S2-mode PCA on the Doppler velocity data taken from a single PPI scan and arranged sequentially in a matrix according to their azimuth and range coordinates. The first two eigenvectors of both the range and azimuth eigenspaces represent over 95% of the total variance in the modeled data; one eigenvector from each pair is analyzed separately to estimate particular hurricane properties. These include the bearing and range to the hurricane's circulation centre, the RMW, and the transition radii of the radial wind. Model results suggest that greater accuracy is achievable and fewer restrictions apply in comparison to other methods. The PCA method was tested on the Doppler velocity data of Hurricane Erin (1995) and Typhoon Alex (1987). In both cases, the similarity of the eigenvectors to their theoretical counterparts was striking even in the presence of significant missing data. Results from Hurricane Erin were in agreement with concurrent aircraft observations of the wind centre corrected for the storm motion. Such information was not available for Typhoon Alex, however, the results agreed with those from other methods

  8. Localized Optimization and Effectiveness Analysis of Medium PRF Airborne Pulse Doppler Radars in the Turkish Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISAR Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ITU International Telecommunications Union LOS Line of...Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) • Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ( ISAR ) • Weapon control radar 18...can be detected and tracked. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ( ISAR ) pulse Doppler designs are capable of

  9. A 10 cm dual frequency Doppler weather radar. Part 1: The radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, A. W.; Armstrong, G. M.

    1982-10-01

    Design concepts and test results are summarized for a Doppler weather radar system suitable for precipitation measurements over a wide span of radial velocities and slant ranges, even in the presence of ground clutter. The radar transmits two uniform pulse trains at 2.710 and 2.760 GHz. Uniformly spaced pulses permit ground clutter cancellation of up to 50 dB to be achieved with a three-pole elliptic filter. Pulse spacing at one frequency is consistent with long-range coverage in reflectivity, while spacing of the second is consistent with a wide unambiguous velocity measurement span.

  10. Turbulence as observed by concurrent measurements made at NSSL using weather radar, Doppler radar, Doppler lidar and aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jean T.

    1987-01-01

    As air traffic increases and aircraft capability increases in range and operating altitude, the exposure to weather hazards increases. Turbulence and wind shears are two of the most important of these hazards that must be taken into account if safe flight operations are to be accomplished. Beginning in the early 1960's, Project Rough Rider began thunderstorm investigations. Past and present efforts at the National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) to measure these flight safety hazards and to describe the use of Doppler radar to detect and qualify these hazards are summarized. In particular, the evolution of the Doppler-measured radial velocity spectrum width and its applicability to the problem of safe flight is presented.

  11. An image-based approach for classification of human micro-doppler radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivive, Fok Hing Chi; Phung, Son Lam; Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam

    2013-05-01

    With the advances in radar technology, there is an increasing interest in automatic radar-based human gait identification. This is because radar signals can penetrate through most dielectric materials. In this paper, an image-based approach is proposed for classifying human micro-Doppler radar signatures. The time-varying radar signal is first converted into a time-frequency representation, which is then cast as a two-dimensional image. A descriptor is developed to extract micro-Doppler features from local time-frequency patches centered along the torso Doppler frequency. Experimental results based on real data collected from a 24-GHz Doppler radar showed that the proposed approach achieves promising classification performance.

  12. Rapid and stable measurement of respiratory rate from Doppler radar signals using time domain autocorrelation model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact measurement of respiratory rate using Doppler radar will play a vital role in future clinical practice. Doppler radar remotely monitors the tiny chest wall movements induced by respiration activity. The most competitive advantage of this technique is to allow users fully unconstrained with no biological electrode attachments. However, the Doppler radar, unlike other contact-type sensors, is easily affected by the random body movements. In this paper, we proposed a time domain autocorrelation model to process the radar signals for rapid and stable estimation of the respiratory rate. We tested the autocorrelation model on 8 subjects in laboratory, and compared the respiratory rates detected by noncontact radar with reference contact-type respiratory effort belt. Autocorrelation model showed the effects of reducing the random body movement noise added to Doppler radar's respiration signals. Moreover, the respiratory rate can be rapidly calculated from the first main peak in the autocorrelation waveform within 10 s.

  13. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flying insects, birds, and bats contribute to radar reflectivity and radial velocity measured by Doppler weather radars. A study was conducted in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas to determine the capability of Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) to monitor migratory flights of corn ea...

  14. Observing volcanic ash plumes and ballistics using Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-01-01

    When volcanoes erupt, they often emit coarse rocks with ballistic trajectories that fall onto the slopes of the volcano, as well as a plume of fine ash that drifts into the atmosphere. It can be challenging to monitor both simultaneously and discriminate between the two to collect quantitative data, but Valade and Donnadieu have done that with a ground-based Doppler radar, which they used to make measurements of smallscale eruptions at Arenal volcano in Costa Rica. They were able to estimate the mass of the ballistic rocks and the mass of ash particles ejected into the atmosphere. Such studies could be useful for understanding and mitigating the hazards associated with volcanic eruptions. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL049415, 2011)

  15. A Doppler Radar System for Sensing Physiological Parameters in Walking and Standing Positions

    PubMed Central

    Pour Ebrahim, Malikeh; Sarvi, Majid; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-01-01

    Doppler radar can be implemented for sensing physiological parameters wirelessly at a distance. Detecting respiration rate, an important human body parameter, is essential in a range of applications like emergency and military healthcare environments, and Doppler radar records actual chest motion. One challenge in using Doppler radar is being able to monitor several patients simultaneously and in different situations like standing, walking, or lying. This paper presents a complete transmitter-receiver Doppler radar system, which uses a 4 GHz continuous wave radar signal transmission and receiving system, to extract base-band data from a phase-shifted signal. This work reports experimental evaluations of the system for one and two subjects in various standing and walking positions. It provides a detailed signal analysis of various breathing rates of these two subjects simultaneously. These results will be useful in future medical monitoring applications. PMID:28257039

  16. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

  17. VHF Doppler Radar Observations of Buoyancy Waves Associated with Thunderstorms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Daren; Vanzandt, T. E.; Clark, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Platteville VHF Doppler radar, located on the Colorado piedmont near Platteville, Colorado, continuously measured the vertical wind velocity during a 12-day period in late July and early August 1981. Measurements were made every 2.5 min on the average with range gates centered at 3.3, 5.7, 8.1, 10.5, 12.9, 15.3, 17.7, and 20.1 km above sea level.Periods of active thunderstorms were identified from the PPI maps from the National Weather Service 10 cm weather radar at Limon, Colorado. When no thunderstorm activity was present, the vertical velocity fluctuations were small and erratic. But a few hours after strong thunderstorm activity began, large quasi-sinusoidal wave trains with periods of about 40 min were observed. Power spectra of the vertical velocity time series showed enhancements at all frequencies during thunderstorm activity, but for periods longer than 30 min the enhancements were larger, particularly for the mid-tropospheric range gates from 5.7 to 12.9 km.Some of the implications of these observations on the relations between thunderstorms and buoyancy waves in the free atmosphere are discussed.

  18. Development of a Low-Cost UAV Doppler Radar Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuble, Joseph; Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Gerry

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the design of a low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) doppler radar data system is presented. The topics include: 1) Science and Mission Background; 2) Radar Requirements and Specs; 3) Radar Realization: RF System; 4) Processing of RF Signal; 5) Data System Design Process; 6) Can We Remove the DSP? 7) Determining Approximate Speed Requirements; 8) Radar Realization: Data System; 9) Data System Operation; and 10) Results.

  19. UWB micro-doppler radar for human gait analysis using joint range-time-frequency representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yazhou; Fathy, Aly E.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, standalone ultra wideband (UWB) micro-Doppler radar sensor that goes beyond simple range or micro-Doppler detection to combined range-time-Doppler frequency analysis. Moreover, it can monitor more than one human object in both line-of-sight (LOS) and through wall scenarios, thus have full human objects tracking capabilities. The unique radar design is based on narrow pulse transceiver, high speed data acquisition module, and wideband antenna array. For advanced radar post-data processing, joint range-time-frequency representation has been performed. Characteristics of human walking activity have been analyzed using the radar sensor by precisely tracking the radar object and acquiring range-time-Doppler information simultaneously. The UWB micro-Doppler radar prototype is capable of detecting Doppler frequency range from -180 Hz to +180 Hz, which allows a maximum target velocity of 9 m/s. The developed radar sensor can also be extended for many other applications, such as respiration and heartbeat detection of trapped survivors under building debris.

  20. Wake Vortex Tracking Using a 35 GHz Pulsed Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neece, Robert T.; Britt, Charles L.; White, Joseph H.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Nguyen, Chi; Hooper, Bill

    2005-01-01

    A 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system has been designed and assembled for wake vortex detection and tracking in low visibility conditions. Aircraft wake vortices continue to be an important factor in determining safe following distances or spacings for aircraft in the terminal area. Currently, under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), aircraft adhere to conservative, fixed following-distance guidelines based primarily on aircraft weight classifications. When ambient conditions are such that vortices will either drift or dissipate, leaving the flight corridor clear, the prescribed spacings are unnecessarily long and result in decreased airport throughput. There is a potential for significant airport efficiency improvement, if a system can be employed to aid regulators and pilots in setting safe and efficient following distances based on airport conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Agency, and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center have promoted and worked to develop systems that would increase airport capacity and provide for safe reductions in aircraft separation. The NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), a wake vortex spacing system that can provide dynamic adjustment of spacings based on real-time airport weather conditions, has demonstrated that Lidar systems can be successfully used to detect and track vortices in clear air conditions. To fill the need for detection capability in low-visibility conditions, a 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system is being investigated for use as a complimentary, low-visibility sensor for wake vortices. The radar sensor provides spatial and temporal information similar to that provided by Lidar, but under weather conditions that a Lidar cannot penetrate. Currently, we are analyzing the radar design based upon the data and experience gained during the wake vortex Lidar deployment with AVOSS at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of this study

  1. Estimation of physiological sub-millimeter displacement with CW Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Jia Xu; Xiaomeng Gao; Padasdao, Bryson E; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar physiological sensing has been studied for non-contact detection of vital signs including respiratory and heartbeat rates. This paper presents the first micrometer resolution Wi-Fi band Doppler radar for sub-millimeter physiological displacement measurement. A continuous-wave Doppler radar working at 2.4GHz is used for the measurement. It is intended for estimating small displacements on the body surface resulting from physiological activity. A mechanical mover was used as target, and programmed to conduct sinusoidal motions to simulate pulse motions. Measured displacements were compared with a reference system, which indicates a superior performance in accuracy for having absolute errors less than 10μm, and relative errors below 4%. It indicates the feasibility of highly accurate non-contact monitoring of physiological movements using Doppler radar.

  2. On the unified estimation of turbulence eddy dissipation rate using Doppler cloud radars and lidars: Radar and Lidar Turbulence Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Borque, Paloma; Luke, Edward; Kollias, Pavlos

    2016-05-27

    Coincident profiling observations from Doppler lidars and radars are used to estimate the turbulence energy dissipation rate (ε) using three different data sources: (i) Doppler radar velocity (DRV), (ii) Doppler lidar velocity (DLV), and (iii) Doppler radar spectrum width (DRW) measurements. Likewise, the agreement between the derived ε estimates is examined at the cloud base height of stratiform warm clouds. Collocated ε estimates based on power spectra analysis of DRV and DLV measurements show good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.86 and 0.78 for both cases analyzed here) during both drizzling and nondrizzling conditions. This suggests that unified (below and above cloud base) time-height estimates of ε in cloud-topped boundary layer conditions can be produced. This also suggests that eddy dissipation rate can be estimated throughout the cloud layer without the constraint that clouds need to be nonprecipitating. Eddy dissipation rate estimates based on DRW measurements compare well with the estimates based on Doppler velocity but their performance deteriorates as precipitation size particles are introduced in the radar volume and broaden the DRW values. And, based on this finding, a methodology to estimate the Doppler spectra broadening due to the spread of the drop size distribution is presented. Furthermore, the uncertainties in ε introduced by signal-to-noise conditions, the estimation of the horizontal wind, the selection of the averaging time window, and the presence of precipitation are discussed in detail.

  3. On the unified estimation of turbulence eddy dissipation rate using Doppler cloud radars and lidars: Radar and Lidar Turbulence Estimation

    DOE PAGES

    Borque, Paloma; Luke, Edward; Kollias, Pavlos

    2016-05-27

    Coincident profiling observations from Doppler lidars and radars are used to estimate the turbulence energy dissipation rate (ε) using three different data sources: (i) Doppler radar velocity (DRV), (ii) Doppler lidar velocity (DLV), and (iii) Doppler radar spectrum width (DRW) measurements. Likewise, the agreement between the derived ε estimates is examined at the cloud base height of stratiform warm clouds. Collocated ε estimates based on power spectra analysis of DRV and DLV measurements show good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.86 and 0.78 for both cases analyzed here) during both drizzling and nondrizzling conditions. This suggests that unified (below and abovemore » cloud base) time-height estimates of ε in cloud-topped boundary layer conditions can be produced. This also suggests that eddy dissipation rate can be estimated throughout the cloud layer without the constraint that clouds need to be nonprecipitating. Eddy dissipation rate estimates based on DRW measurements compare well with the estimates based on Doppler velocity but their performance deteriorates as precipitation size particles are introduced in the radar volume and broaden the DRW values. And, based on this finding, a methodology to estimate the Doppler spectra broadening due to the spread of the drop size distribution is presented. Furthermore, the uncertainties in ε introduced by signal-to-noise conditions, the estimation of the horizontal wind, the selection of the averaging time window, and the presence of precipitation are discussed in detail.« less

  4. Spectral analyses of the dual polarization Doppler weather radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Svetlana Monakhova

    2007-12-01

    Echoes in clear air from biological scatterers mixed within the resolution volumes over a large region are presented. These echoes were observed with the polarimetric prototype of the forthcoming WSR-88D weather radar. The study case occurred in the evening of September 7, 2004, at the beginning of the bird migrating season. Novel polarimetric spectral analyses are used for distinguishing signatures of birds and insects in multimodal spectra. These biological scatterers were present at the same time in the radar resolution volumes over a large area. Spectral techniques for (1) data censoring, (2) wind retrieval and (3) estimation of intrinsic values/functions of polarimetric variables for different types of scatterers are presented. The technique for data censoring in the frequency domain allows detection of weak signals. Censoring is performed on the level of spectral densities, allowing exposure of contributions to the spectrum from multiple types of scatterers. The spectral techniques for wind retrieval allow simultaneous estimation of wind from the data that are severely contaminated by migrating birds, and assessment of bird migration parameters. The intrinsic polarimetric signatures associated with the variety of scatterers can be evaluated using presented methodology. Algorithms for echo classification can be built on these. The possibilities of spectral processing using parametric estimation techniques are explored for resolving contributions to the Doppler spectrum from the three types of scatterers: passive wind tracers, actively flying insects and birds. A combination of parametric and non-parametric polarimetric spectral analyses is used to estimate the small bias introduced to the wind velocity by actively flying insects.

  5. Clutter isolation and cardiac monitoring using harmonic doppler radar with heterodyne receiver and passive RF tags.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lubecke, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A harmonic radar employing the use of harmonic passive RF tags can be successfully used to isolate the human respiration from environmental clutter. This paper describes the successful use of heterodyne receiver architecture with Doppler radar to track the heart-rate of a human being using passive body-worn harmonic tags in presence of a controlled noise generator at distances up to 120 cm. The heterodyne system results have been compared with those of a conventional Doppler radar for cardiopulmonary monitoring that fails to isolate the noise from heart-rate in presence of a noise source.

  6. Natural noise above 50 MHZ from terrestrial and extraterrestrial sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. K.; Flock, W. L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper offers a brief overview of natural radio noise for frequencies above 50 MHz in terms of brightness temperature as observed from two vantage points. The first is from an Earth station located at 40 degrees north latitude and observing at elevation angles from 0 to 90 degrees with an ideal antenna. The second is a satellite in geostationary orbit communicating with the Earth. Earth station noise at VHF and UHF is dominated by galactic and solar noise. Emission from the atmosphere, gases and hydrometeors, are dominant at EHF and SHF. Radiative transfer theory is invoked in the calculation of brightness temperature from the atmosphere. The situation is not vastly different from geostationary orbit if communications is with the Earth. Emission from the land and sea, even under idealized conditions, enters significantly. Land is a much more effective emitter than sea water, but at frequencies above 30 GHz the differential becomes much less due to the increasing significance of atmospheric emission.

  7. A Method for the Automatic Detection of Insect Clutter in Doppler-Radar Returns.

    SciTech Connect

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.

    2006-06-12

    The accurate detection and removal of insect clutter from millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR) returns is of high importance to boundary layer cloud research (e.g., Geerts et al., 2005). When only radar Doppler moments are available, it is difficult to produce a reliable screening of insect clutter from cloud returns because their distributions overlap. Hence, screening of MMCR insect clutter has historically involved a laborious manual process of cross-referencing radar moments against measurements from other collocated instruments, such as lidar. Our study looks beyond traditional radar moments to ask whether analysis of recorded Doppler spectra can serve as the basis for reliable, automatic insect clutter screening. We focus on the MMCR operated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility in Oklahoma. Here, archiving of full Doppler spectra began in September 2003, and during the warmer months, a pronounced insect presence regularly introduces clutter into boundary layer returns.

  8. Non-contact physiological signal detection using continuous wave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dengyu; He, Tan; Hu, Boping; Li, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show non-contact physiological signal monitoring system based on continuous-wave (CW) Doppler radar, which is becoming highly attractive in the field of health care monitoring of elderly people. Two radar signal processing methods were introduced in this paper: one to extract respiration and heart rates of a single person and the other to separate mixed respiration signals. To verify the validity of the methods, physiological signal is obtained from stationary human subjects using a CW Doppler radar unit. The sensor operating at 24 GHz is located 0.5 meter away from the subject. The simulation results show that the respiration and heart rates are clearly extracted, and the mixed respiration signals are successfully separated. Finally, reference respiration and heart rate signals are measured by an ECG monitor and compared with the results tracked by the CW Doppler radar monitoring system.

  9. Doppler-radar wind-speed measurements in tornadoes: A comparison of real and simulated spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B.; LaDue, J.G.; Stein, H.; Speheger, D.; Unruh, W.P.

    1993-03-01

    Bluestein and Unruh have discussed the advantages of using a portable doppler radar to map the wind field in tornadoes. during the spring of 1991 a storm-intercept team from the University of Oklahoma (OU) collected data near five supercell tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas. Details about the 1-W, 3-cm, 5-deg half-power beamwidth, CW/FM-CW Doppler radar we used and the methods of data collection and analysis are found in Bluestein and Unruh and Bluestein et al. Using the portable radar, we approximately doubled in only one year the number of tornado spectra that had been collected over a period of almost 20 years by NSSL`s fixed-site Doppler radar. In this paper we will compare observed tornado wind spectra with simulated wind spectra (Zmic and Doviak 1975) in order to learn more about tornado structure.

  10. Doppler-radar wind-speed measurements in tornadoes: A comparison of real and simulated spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B.; LaDue, J.G.; Stein, H.; Speheger, D. ); Unruh, W.P. )

    1993-01-01

    Bluestein and Unruh have discussed the advantages of using a portable doppler radar to map the wind field in tornadoes. during the spring of 1991 a storm-intercept team from the University of Oklahoma (OU) collected data near five supercell tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas. Details about the 1-W, 3-cm, 5-deg half-power beamwidth, CW/FM-CW Doppler radar we used and the methods of data collection and analysis are found in Bluestein and Unruh and Bluestein et al. Using the portable radar, we approximately doubled in only one year the number of tornado spectra that had been collected over a period of almost 20 years by NSSL's fixed-site Doppler radar. In this paper we will compare observed tornado wind spectra with simulated wind spectra (Zmic and Doviak 1975) in order to learn more about tornado structure.

  11. Characterization of micro-Doppler radar signature of commercial wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fanxing; Zhang, Yan; Palmer, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The large utility-scale wind turbines are reported to have negative impact on nearby radars due to complex scattering mechanisms, which is usually referred to as the radar Wind Turbine Clutter (WTC). Extremely complicated time-varying Doppler spectrum have been observed. Conventional ground clutter filter techniques thus have failed in mitigating the non-stationary components in the frequency domain. Rotation of the blades is a micro-motion as the wind turbine always stays at the same location. The time-evolving spectrum associated with the blade rotation is therefore a Micro-Doppler signature, which is important in characterizing radar WTC. This paper will disclose some latest findings from our recent studies in characterizing the Micro-Doppler radar signatures of wind turbine through electromagnetic modeling.

  12. PATH TO NEXRAD: Doppler Radar Development at the National Severe Storms Laboratory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Rodger A.; Lewis, John M.

    2005-10-01

    In this historical paper, we trace the scientific- and engineering-based steps at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) and in the larger weather radar community that led to the development of NSSL's first 10-cm-wavelength pulsed Doppler radar. This radar was the prototype for the current Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), or Weather Surveillance Radar-1998 Doppler (WSR-88D) network.We track events, both political and scientific, that led to the establishment of NSSL in 1964. The vision of NSSL's first director, Edwin Kessler, is reconstructed through access to historical documents and oral histories. This vision included the development of Doppler radar, where research was to be meshed with the operational needs of the U.S. Weather Bureau and its successor—the National Weather Service.Realization of the vision came through steps that were often fit-ful, where complications arose due to personnel concerns, and where there were always financial concerns. The historical research indicates that 1) the engineering prowess and mentorship of Roger Lhermitte was at the heart of Doppler radar development at NSSL; 2) key decisions by Kessler in the wake of Lhermitte's sudden departure in 1967 proved crucial to the ultimate success of the project; 3) research results indicated that Doppler velocity signatures of mesocyclones are a precursor of damaging thunderstorms and tornadoes; and 4) results from field testing of the Doppler-derived products during the 1977 79 Joint Doppler Operational Project—especially the noticeable increase in the verification of tornado warnings and an associated marked decrease in false alarms—led to the government decision to establish the NEXRAD network.

  13. VHF radar measurements during MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Klostermeyer, J.; Ruster, R.; Schmidt, G.; Rottger, J.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive Doppler radars which operate in the very high frequency (VHF) band, usually near 50 MHz can measure profiles of background winds, tides, atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence at tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric heights. Their ability to observe simultaneously large and small-scale processes makes them unique instruments for studying not only each process separately but also their nonlinear interactions. The mobile VHF radar to be used during the MAP/WINE campaign on Andoya is a modified version of the SOUSY VHF radar being in operation for six years in the Harz Mountains.

  14. 50 MHz dual-mode buck DC—DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhang; Xing, Wang; Wencheng, Yu; Ye, Tan; Yizhong, Yang; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-08-01

    A 50 MHz 1.8/0.9 V dual-mode buck DC—DC converter is proposed in this paper. A dual-mode control for high-frequency DC—DC converter is presented to enhance the conversion efficiency of light-load in this paper. A novel zero-crossing detector is proposed to shut down synchronous rectification transistor NMOS when the inductor crosses zero, which can decrease the power loss caused by reverse current and the trip point is adjusted by regulating IBIAS (BIAS current). A new logic control for pulse-skipping modulation loop is also presented in this paper, which has advantages of simple structure and low power loss. The proposed converter is realized in SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed signal CMOS process. With switching loss, conduction loss and reverse current related loss optimized, an efficiency of 57% is maintained at 10 mA, and a peak efficiency of 71% is measured at nominal operating conditions with a voltage conversion of 1.8 to 0.9 V. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Material and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, CAS (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  15. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%–18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  16. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment.

  17. Micro-doppler radar classification of human motions under various training scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Dustin P.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2013-05-01

    The identification and classification of human motions has become a popular area of research due to its broad range of applications. Knowledge of a person's movements can be a useful tool in surveillance, security, military combat, search and rescue operations, and the medical fields. Classification of common stationary human movements has been performed under various scenarios for two different micro-Doppler radar systems: S-band radar and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radar. Each radar system has been designed for a specific scenario. The S-band radar is intended for through-the-wall situations at close distances, whereas the mm-wave radar is designed for long distance applications and also for through light foliage. Here, the performance of these radars for different training scenarios is investigated. The S-band radar will be analyzed for classification without a wall barrier, through a brick wall, and also through a cinder block wall. The effect of a wall barrier on micro-Doppler signatures will be briefly discussed. The mm-wave radar will be analyzed for classification at distances of 30, 60, and 91 meters.

  18. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalesse, H.; Szyrmer, W.; Kneifel, S.; Kollias, P.; Luke, E.

    2015-10-01

    Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediments through a supercooled liquid water (SLW) layer. The observations were collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland during the BAECC (Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate Snowfall Experiment) field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are taken into account by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in-situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  19. Users guide for an Airborne Windshear Doppler Radar Simulation (AWDRS) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    A description is provided of the Airborne Windshear Doppler Radar Simulation (AWDRS) program developed for NASA-Langley by the Research Triangle Institute. The radar simulation program is a comprehensive calculation of the signal characteristics and expected outputs of an airborne coherent pulsed Doppler radar system viewing a low level microburst along or near the approach path of the aircraft. The detailed nature of the simulation permits the quick evaluation of proposed trade-offs in radar system parameters and the evaluation of the performance of proposed configurations in various microburst/clutter environments. The simulation also provides a test bed for various proposed signal processing techniques for minimizing the effects of noise, phase jitter, and ground clutter and maximizing the useful information derived for avoidance of microburst windshear by aircraft.

  20. Multi-Antenna Radar Systems for Doppler Rain Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen; Tanelli, Simone; Siqueira, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Use of multiple-antenna radar systems aboard moving high-altitude platforms has been proposed for measuring rainfall. The basic principle of the proposed systems is a variant of that of along-track interferometric synthetic-aperture radar systems used previously to measure ocean waves and currents.

  1. 77 FR 37470 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C65a, Airborne Doppler Radar Ground Speed and/or Drift Angle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C65a, Airborne Doppler Radar Ground Speed... Doppler radar ground speed and/or drift angle measuring equipment (for air carrier aircraft). SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's intent to cancel TSO-C65a, Airborne Doppler radar ground speed...

  2. Potential of Higher Moments of the Radar Doppler Spectrum for Studying Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehnert, U.; Maahn, M.

    2015-12-01

    More observations of ice clouds are required to fill gaps in understanding of microphysical properties and processes. However, in situ observations by aircraft are costly and cannot provide long term observations which are required for a deeper understanding of the processes. Ground based remote sensing observations have the potential to fill this gap, but their observations do not contain sufficient information to unambiguously constrain ice cloud properties which leads to high uncertainties. For vertically pointing cloud radars, usually only reflectivity and mean Doppler velocity are used for retrievals; some studies proposed also the use of Doppler spectrum width.In this study, it is investigated whether additional information can be obtained by exploiting also higher moments of the Doppler spectrum such as skewness and kurtosis together with the slope of the Doppler peak. For this, observations of pure ice clouds from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in Alaska 2008 are analyzed. Using the ISDAC data set, an Optimal Estimation based retrieval is set up based on synthetic and real radar observations. The passive and active microwave radiative transfer model (PAMTRA) is used as a forward model together with the Self-Similar Rayleigh-Gans approximation for estimation of the scattering properties. The state vector of the retrieval consists of the parameters required to simulate the radar Doppler spectrum and describes particle mass, cross section area, particle size distribution, and kinematic conditions such as turbulence and vertical air motion. Using the retrieval, the information content (degrees of freedom for signal) is quantified that higher moments and slopes can contribute to an ice cloud retrieval. The impact of multiple frequencies, radar sensitivity and radar calibration is studied. For example, it is found that a single-frequency measurement using all moments and slopes contains already more information content than a dual

  3. Potential of Higher Moments of the Radar Doppler Spectrum for Studying Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, M. F.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Saito, T.; Harth, C. M.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P.; Arnold, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, P.; Fraser, P. J.; Li, S.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Young, D.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    More observations of ice clouds are required to fill gaps in understanding of microphysical properties and processes. However, in situ observations by aircraft are costly and cannot provide long term observations which are required for a deeper understanding of the processes. Ground based remote sensing observations have the potential to fill this gap, but their observations do not contain sufficient information to unambiguously constrain ice cloud properties which leads to high uncertainties. For vertically pointing cloud radars, usually only reflectivity and mean Doppler velocity are used for retrievals; some studies proposed also the use of Doppler spectrum width.In this study, it is investigated whether additional information can be obtained by exploiting also higher moments of the Doppler spectrum such as skewness and kurtosis together with the slope of the Doppler peak. For this, observations of pure ice clouds from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in Alaska 2008 are analyzed. Using the ISDAC data set, an Optimal Estimation based retrieval is set up based on synthetic and real radar observations. The passive and active microwave radiative transfer model (PAMTRA) is used as a forward model together with the Self-Similar Rayleigh-Gans approximation for estimation of the scattering properties. The state vector of the retrieval consists of the parameters required to simulate the radar Doppler spectrum and describes particle mass, cross section area, particle size distribution, and kinematic conditions such as turbulence and vertical air motion. Using the retrieval, the information content (degrees of freedom for signal) is quantified that higher moments and slopes can contribute to an ice cloud retrieval. The impact of multiple frequencies, radar sensitivity and radar calibration is studied. For example, it is found that a single-frequency measurement using all moments and slopes contains already more information content than a dual

  4. Non-contact Doppler radar monitoring of cardiorespiratory motion for Siberian sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Noah; Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first reported use of Doppler radar to remotely sense heart and ventilation rates of fish. The Radar reported 35 to 40 BPM heart rate and 115 to 145 BPM ventilation rates for Siberian Sturgeon, with agreement from a video reference. Conventional fish vital signs measurements require invasive surgery and human handling--these are problematic for large scale monitoring, for measuring deep sea fish, and other situations which preclude human interaction with each individual subject. These results show a useful application of radar to augment existing cardiovascular and ventilatory activity sensing techniques and enable monitoring in a wider range of situations.

  5. Mixed-phase cloud phase partitioning using millimeter wavelength cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Verlinde, J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Chen, Y.-S.

    2014-06-01

    Retrieving and quantifying cloud liquid drop contributions to radar returns from mixed-phase clouds remains a challenge because the radar signal is frequently dominated by the returns from the ice particles within the radar sample volume. We present a technique that extracts the weak cloud liquid drop contributions from the total radar returns in profiling cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra. Individual spectra are first decomposed using a continuous wavelet transform, the resulting coefficients of which are used to identify the region in the spectra where cloud liquid drops contribute. By assuming that the liquid contribution to each Doppler spectrum is Gaussian shaped and centered on an appropriate peak in the wavelet coefficients, the cloud liquid drop contribution may be estimated by fitting a Gaussian distribution centered on the velocity of this peak to the original Doppler spectrum. The cloud liquid drop contribution to reflectivity, the volume mean vertical air motion, subvolume vertical velocity variance, and ice particle mean fall speed can be estimated based on the separation of the liquid contribution to the radar Doppler spectrum. The algorithm is evaluated using synthetic spectra produced from output of a state-of-the-art large eddy simulation model study of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud. The retrievals of cloud liquid drop mode reflectivities were generally consistent with the original model values with errors less than a factor of 2. The retrieved volume mean vertical air velocities reproduced the updraft and downdraft structures, but with an overall bias of approximately -0.06 m s-1. Retrievals based on Ka-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Zenith Radar observations from Barrow, Alaska, during October 2011 are also presented.

  6. Radar stimulator interface protocol, preliminary interface design and Doppler Beam Sharpening implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, C.H.

    1993-06-30

    This is the final report for a subcontract to supply a Doppler Beam Sharpening model to interface with the radar stimulation package running on the Cray supercomputers. The article describes the beam sharpening model, and the way beam sharpening is implemented by the model. Changes from previous work are emphasized in this report.

  7. Low-Altitude Wind Shear Detection With Doppler Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    feasibility of using the next generation weather radar ( NEXRAD ) sys- tem to detect low-altitude horizontal wind shear near airports is investi- gated. We...requires that NEXRAD radar coverage havd’> lowest scan of 60 m above the surface in the airport area (within 20 km of the,,airport); the strongest...Availability Codes * Avail ~id/or Di’.t Special LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. FAA requirements of altitude limits of NEXRAD coverage and resolu- tion in

  8. Detection and discrimination of fauna in the aerosphere using Doppler weather surveillance radar.

    PubMed

    Gauthreaux, Sidney A; Livingston, John W; Belser, Carroll G

    2008-07-01

    Organisms in the aerosphere have been detected by radar since its development in the 1940s. The national network of Doppler weather radars (WSR-88D) in the United States can readily detect birds, bats, and insects aloft. Level-II data from the radar contain information on the reflectivity and radial velocity of targets and on width of the spectrum (SD of radial velocities in a radar pulse volume). Information on reflectivity can be used to quantify density of organisms aloft and radial velocity can be used to discriminate different types of targets based on their air speeds. Spectral width can also provide some useful information when organisms with very different air speeds are aloft. Recent work with dual-polarization radar suggests that it may be useful for discriminating birds from insects in the aerosphere, but more development and biological validation are required.

  9. A simple method for retrieving significant wave height from Dopplerized X-band radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Ruben; Streßer, Michael; Horstmann, Jochen

    2017-02-01

    Retrieving spectral wave parameters such as the peak wave direction and wave period from marine radar backscatter intensity is very well developed. However, the retrieval of significant wave height is difficult because the radar image spectrum (a backscatter intensity variance spectrum) has to be transferred to a wave spectrum (a surface elevation variance spectrum) using a modulation transfer function (MTF) which requires extensive calibration for each individual radar setup. In contrast to the backscatter intensity, the Doppler velocity measured by a coherent radar is induced by the radial velocity (or line-of-sight velocity) of the surface scattering and its periodic component is mainly the contribution of surface waves. Therefore, the variance of the Doppler velocity can be utilized to retrieve the significant wave height. Analyzing approximately 100 days of Doppler velocity measurements of a coherent-on-receive radar operating at X-band with vertical polarization in transmit and receive, a simple relation was derived and validated to retrieve significant wave heights. Comparison to wave measurements of a wave rider buoy as well as an acoustic wave and current profiler resulted in a root mean square error of 0.24 m with a bias of 0.08 m. Furthermore, the different sources of error are discussed and investigated.

  10. Fpga based L-band pulse doppler radar design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savci, Kubilay

    As its name implies RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is an electromagnetic sensor used for detection and locating targets from their return signals. Radar systems propagate electromagnetic energy, from the antenna which is in part intercepted by an object. Objects reradiate a portion of energy which is captured by the radar receiver. The received signal is then processed for information extraction. Radar systems are widely used for surveillance, air security, navigation, weather hazard detection, as well as remote sensing applications. In this work, an FPGA based L-band Pulse Doppler radar prototype, which is used for target detection, localization and velocity calculation has been built and a general-purpose Pulse Doppler radar processor has been developed. This radar is a ground based stationary monopulse radar, which transmits a short pulse with a certain pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Return signals from the target are processed and information about their location and velocity is extracted. Discrete components are used for the transmitter and receiver chain. The hardware solution is based on Xilinx Virtex-6 ML605 FPGA board, responsible for the control of the radar system and the digital signal processing of the received signal, which involves Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detection and Pulse Doppler processing. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the Xilinx System Generator for DSP tool. The field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) implementation of the radar system provides the flexibility of changing parameters such as the PRF and pulse length therefore it can be used with different radar configurations as well. A VHDL design has been developed for 1Gbit Ethernet connection to transfer digitized return signal and detection results to PC. An A-Scope software has been developed with C# programming language to display time domain radar signals and detection results on PC. Data are processed both in FPGA chip and on PC. FPGA uses fixed

  11. ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-15

    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has made higher

  12. An FPGA-based Doppler Processor for a Spaceborne Precipitation Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Fischman, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Chu, A. J.; Jourdan, M. N.; Tanelli, S.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of precipitation Doppler velocity by spaceborne radar is complicated by the large velocity of the satellite platform. Even if successive pulses are well correlated, the velocity measurement may be biased if the precipitation target does not uniformly fill the radar footprint. It has been previously shown that the bias in such situations can be reduced if full spectral processing is used. The authors present a processor based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology that can be used for spectral processing of data acquired by future spaceborne precipitation radars. The requirements for and design of the Doppler processor are addressed. Simulation and laboratory test results show that the processor can meet real-time constraints while easily fitting in a single FPGA.

  13. An automatic fall detection framework using data fusion of Doppler radar and motion sensor network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing work of detecting falls in independent living senior apartments. We have developed a fall detection system with Doppler radar sensor and implemented ceiling radar in real senior apartments. However, the detection accuracy on real world data is affected by false alarms inherent in the real living environment, such as motions from visitors. To solve this issue, this paper proposes an improved framework by fusing the Doppler radar sensor result with a motion sensor network. As a result, performance is significantly improved after the data fusion by discarding the false alarms generated by visitors. The improvement of this new method is tested on one week of continuous data from an actual elderly person who frequently falls while living in her senior home.

  14. Designing clutter rejection filters with complex coefficients for airborne pulsed Doppler weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamora, Dennis A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground clutter interference is a major problem for airborne pulse Doppler radar operating at low altitudes in a look-down mode. With Doppler zero set at the aircraft ground speed, ground clutter rejection filtering is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter with real valued coefficients and a stopband notch centered at zero Doppler. Clutter spectra from the NASA Wind Shear Flight Experiments of l991-1992 show that the dominant clutter mode can be located away from zero Doppler, particularly at short ranges dominated by sidelobe returns. Use of digital notch filters with complex valued coefficients so that the stopband notch can be located at any Doppler frequency is investigated. Several clutter mode tracking algorithms are considered to estimate the Doppler frequency location of the dominant clutter mode. From the examination of night data, when a dominant clutter mode away from zero Doppler is present, complex filtering is able to significantly increase clutter rejection over use of a notch filter centered at zero Doppler.

  15. Retrieving microphysical properties and air motion of cirrus clouds based on the doppler moments method using cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lingzhi; Liu, Liping; Deng, Min; Zhou, Xiuji

    2012-05-01

    Radar parameters including radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity, and Doppler spectrum width were obtained from Doppler spectrum moments. The Doppler spectrum moment is the convolution of both the particle spectrum and the mean air vertical motion. Unlike strong precipitation, the motion of particles in cirrus clouds is quite close to the air motion around them. In this study, a method of Doppler moments was developed and used to retrieve cirrus cloud microphysical properties such as the mean air vertical velocity, mass-weighted diameter, effective particle size, and ice content. Ice content values were retrieved using both the Doppler spectrum method and classic Z-IWC (radar reflectivity-ice water content) relationships; however, the former is a more reasonable method.

  16. Chung-Li, Taiwan dual mode (Doppler and spaced antenna) VHF radar: Preliminary specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnahan, J. W.; Chao, J.; Rottger, J.

    1983-01-01

    A major unresolved question in the field of atmospheric research using VHF radar techniques is the relative merit of the two most widely used systems. These systems are the Doppler method and the spaced antenna method. It has been suggested that one radar of each type be operated side by side for a direct comparison of the two techniques. This duplication of effort is not cost effective. The major components of both systems are identical, and one radar could be operated in both modes by proper design of a suitable antenna system and by proper data analysis. The Chung-Li radar will be able to switch between modes on a time scale of seconds and is the first VHF radar to be able to directly compare the Doppler data with spaced antenna data. The system will have performance comparable with the present SOUSY spaced antenna system and will provide mesospheric data in addition to stratospheric and tropospheric data. The major specifications of the Chung-Li radar are given.

  17. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kalesse, Heike; Szyrmer, Wanda; Kneifel, Stefan; Kollias, Pavlos; Luke, Edward

    2016-03-09

    In this paper, Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW) layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. In conclusion, this suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  18. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalesse, Heike; Szyrmer, Wanda; Kneifel, Stefan; Kollias, Pavlos; Luke, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW) layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  19. Velocity profiles inside volcanic clouds from three-dimensional scanning microwave dual-polarization Doppler radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, Mario

    2016-07-01

    In this work, velocity profiles within a volcanic tephra cloud obtained by dual-polarization Doppler radar acquisitions with three-dimensional (3-D) mechanical scanning capability are analyzed. A method for segmenting the radar volumes into three velocity regimes: vertical updraft, vertical fallout, and horizontal wind advection within a volcanic tephra cloud using dual-polarization Doppler radar moments is proposed. The horizontal and vertical velocity components within the regimes are retrieved using a novel procedure that makes assumptions concerning the characteristics of the winds inside these regimes. The vertical velocities retrieved are combined with 1-D simulations to derive additional parameters including particle fallout, mass flux, and particle sizes. The explosive event occurred on 23 November 2013 at the Mount Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy), is considered a demonstrative case in which to analyze the radar Doppler signal inside the tephra column. The X-band radar (3 cm wavelength) in the Catania, Italy, airport observed the 3-D scenes of the Etna tephra cloud ~32 km from the volcano vent every 10 min. From the radar-derived vertical velocity profiles of updraft, particle fallout, and horizontal transportation, an exit velocity of 150 m/s, mass flux rate of 1.37 • 107 kg/s, particle fallout velocity of 18 m/s, and diameters of precipitating tephra particles equal to 0.8 cm are estimated on average. These numbers are shown to be consistent with theoretical 1-D simulations of plume dynamics and local reports at the ground, respectively. A thickness of 3 ± 0.36 km for the downwind ash cloud is also inferred by differentiating the radar-derived cloud top and the height of transition between the convective and buoyancy regions, the latter being inferred by the estimated vertical updraft velocity profile. The unique nature of the case study as well as the novelty of the segmentation and retrieval methods presented potentially give new insights into the

  20. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Kalesse, Heike; Szyrmer, Wanda; Kneifel, Stefan; ...

    2016-03-09

    In this paper, Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW) layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyondmore » the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. In conclusion, this suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.« less

  1. Doppler centroid estimation ambiguity for synthetic aperture radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique for estimation of the Doppler centroid of an SAR in the presence of large uncertainty in antenna boresight pointing is described. Also investigated is the image degradation resulting from data processing that uses an ambiguous centroid. Two approaches for resolving ambiguities in Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are presented: the range cross-correlation technique and the multiple-PRF (pulse repetition frequency) technique. Because other design factors control the PRF selection for SAR, a generalized algorithm is derived for PRFs not containing a common divisor. An example using the SIR-C parameters illustrates that this algorithm is capable of resolving the C-band DCE ambiguities for antenna pointing uncertainties of about 2-3 deg.

  2. Comparison between digital Doppler filtering processes applied to radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desodt, G.

    1983-10-01

    Two families of Doppler processes based on FFT and FIR filters, respectively, are compared in terms of hardware complexity and performance. It is shown that FIR filter banks are characterized by better performance than FFT filter banks. For the same number of pulses, the FIR processor permits a better clutter rejection and greater bandwidth than the FFT one. Also, an FIR-based bank has a much simpler and more adaptable architecture than an FFT-based bank.

  3. Software Defined Doppler Radar as a Contactless Multipurpose Microwave Sensor for Vibrations Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Antonio; Costanzo, Sandra; Di Massa, Giuseppe

    2017-01-08

    A vibration sensor based on the use of a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) platform is adopted in this work to provide a contactless and multipurpose solution for low-cost real-time vibrations monitoring. In order to test the vibration detection ability of the proposed non-contact method, a 1 GHz Doppler radar sensor is simulated and successfully assessed on targets at various distances, with various oscillation frequencies and amplitudes. Furthermore, an SDR Doppler platform is practically realized, and preliminary experimental validations on a device able to produce a harmonic motion are illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Software Defined Doppler Radar as a Contactless Multipurpose Microwave Sensor for Vibrations Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Raffo, Antonio; Costanzo, Sandra; Di Massa, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    A vibration sensor based on the use of a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) platform is adopted in this work to provide a contactless and multipurpose solution for low-cost real-time vibrations monitoring. In order to test the vibration detection ability of the proposed non-contact method, a 1 GHz Doppler radar sensor is simulated and successfully assessed on targets at various distances, with various oscillation frequencies and amplitudes. Furthermore, an SDR Doppler platform is practically realized, and preliminary experimental validations on a device able to produce a harmonic motion are illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:28075345

  5. Doppler radar radial winds in HIRLAM. Part I: observation modelling and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, H.; Salonen, K.; Lindskog, M.; Huuskonen, A.; Niemelä, S.; Eresmaa, R.

    2009-03-01

    An observation operator for Doppler radar radial wind measurements is developed further in this article, based on the earlier work and considerations of the measurement characteristic. The elementary observation operator treats radar observations as point measurements at pre-processed observation heights. Here, modelling of the radar pulse volume broadening in vertical and the radar pulse path bending due to refraction is included to improve the realism of the observation modelling. The operator is implemented into the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) limited area numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. A data set of circa 133000 radial wind measurements is passively monitored against the HIRLAM six-hourly background values in a 1-month experiment. No data assimilation experiments are performed at this stage. A new finding is that the improved modelling reduces the mean observation minus background (OmB) vector wind difference at ranges below 55 km, and the standard deviation of the radial wind OmB difference at ranges over 25 km. In conclusion, a more accurate and still computationally feasible observation operator is developed. The companion paper (Part II) considers optimal super-observation processing of Doppler radar radial winds for HIRLAM, with general applicability in NWP.

  6. Spaceborne Doppler Radar Measurements of Rainfall: Correction of Errors Induced by Pointing Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Kobayashi, Satoru; Mascelloni, Roberto; Facheris, Luca

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a sea surface radar echo spectral analysis technique to correct for the rainfall velocity error caused by radar-pointing uncertainty is presented. The correction procedure is quite straightforward when the radar is observing a homogeneous rainfall field. When nonuniform beam filling (NUBF) occurs and attenuating frequencies are used, however, additional steps are necessary in order to correctly estimate the antenna-pointing direction. This new technique relies on the application of the combined frequency-time (CFT) algorithm to correct for uneven attenuation effects on the observed sea surface Doppler spectrum. The performance of this correction technique was evaluated by a Monte Carlo simulation of the Doppler precipitation radar backscatter from high-resolution 3D rain fields (either generated by a cloud resolving numerical model or retrieved from airborne radar measurements). The results show that the antenna-pointing-induced error can, indeed, be reduced by the proposed technique in order to achieve 1 m s(exp -1) accuracy on rainfall vertical velocity estimates.

  7. A data efficient method for characterization of chameleon tongue motion using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor; Butler, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    A new technique is described for study of the study of high velocity animal movements using a continuous wave Doppler radar operating at 24 GHz. The movement studied was tongue projection kinematics during prey capture by the lizard Chamaeleo Jacksonii. The measurements were verified with a high speed video reference, recorded at 1000 frames per second. The limitations and advantages of both the methodologies are compared and tongue speeds of 3:65 m/s were observed. These results show a useful application of radar to augment visual sensing of biological motion and enable the use of monitoring in a wider range of situations.

  8. Three-Centimeter Doppler Radar Observations of Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices in Clear Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki L. H.; Myers, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a high risk, high pay-off experiment with the objective of detecting, for the first time, the presence of aircraft wake vortices in clear air using X-band Doppler radar. Field experiments were conducted in January 1995 at the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) to demonstrate the capability of the 9.33 GHz (I=3 cm) radar, which was assembled using an existing nine-meter parabolic antenna reflector at VVTT and the receiver/transmitter from the NASA Airborne Windshear Radar-Program. A C-130-aircraft, equipped with wingtip smoke generators, created visually marked wake vortices, which were recorded by video cameras. A C-band radar also observed the wake vortices during detection attempts with the X-band radar. Rawinsonde data was used to calculate vertical soundings of wake vortex decay time, cross aircraft bearing wind speed, and water vapor mixing ratio for aircraft passes over the radar measurement range. This experiment was a pathfinder in predicting, in real time, the location and persistence of C-130 vortices, and in setting the flight path of the aircraft to optimize X-band radar measurement of the wake vortex core in real time. This experiment was conducted in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS).

  9. Radar micro-Doppler based human activity classification for indoor and outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenaldin, Matthew; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of our experimental investigation into how different environments impact the classification of human motion using radar micro-Doppler (MD) signatures. The environments studied include free space, through-thewall, leaf tree foliage, and needle tree foliage. Results on presented on classification of the following three motions: crawling, walking, and jogging. The classification task was designed how to best separate these movements. The human motion data were acquired using a monostatic coherent Doppler radar operating in the C-band at 6.5 GHz from a total of six human subjects. The received signals were analyzed in the time-frequency domain using the Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT) which was used for feature extraction. Classification was performed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) using a Radial Basis Function (RBF). Classification accuracies in the range 80-90% were achieved to separate the three movements mentioned.

  10. Software-defined radar and waveforms for studying micro-Doppler signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baokun; Chen, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of software defined radar (SDR) to analyze the micro-Doppler signatures. The first SDR we use is based on the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) and GNU Radio, and another SDR which has several operation modes is based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Typically, the USRP-based SDR is not optimized for radar applications due to its narrow bandwidth and time-varying additional delay caused by USRP components and operating system. The FPGA-based SDR is more suitable for applications where high-resolution range information is required. Our studies indicate that both of the SDR systems are capable of producing the micro-Doppler signatures. System design challenges and measurement results will be discussed in detail.

  11. Extended Kalman Doppler tracking and model determination for multi-sensor short-range radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermaier, Thomas J.; Siart, Uwe; Eibert, Thomas F.; Bonerz, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A tracking solution for collision avoidance in industrial machine tools based on short-range millimeter-wave radar Doppler observations is presented. At the core of the tracking algorithm there is an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that provides dynamic estimation and localization in real-time. The underlying sensor platform consists of several homodyne continuous wave (CW) radar modules. Based on In-phase-Quadrature (IQ) processing and down-conversion, they provide only Doppler shift information about the observed target. Localization with Doppler shift estimates is a nonlinear problem that needs to be linearized before the linear KF can be applied. The accuracy of state estimation depends highly on the introduced linearization errors, the initialization and the models that represent the true physics as well as the stochastic properties. The important issue of filter consistency is addressed and an initialization procedure based on data fitting and maximum likelihood estimation is suggested. Models for both, measurement and process noise are developed. Tracking results from typical three-dimensional courses of movement at short distances in front of a multi-sensor radar platform are presented.

  12. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  13. Doppler laser radar for range and speed measurement of road targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yanfang; Mao, Xuesong; Fang, Jianchao; Zhang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    A pulsed coherent vehicle laser radar system basing on the measurement of light flight time and Doppler frequency shift is demonstrated for the first time, which features a simple design that uses one photodiode (PD) as its optical detector. Pseudo random noise (PN) code is used for modulating the amplitude of transmitting light. Correlation function of the received echoes and the local modulating codes is calculated for measuring the light flight time. Due to PN code modulation, beat signal output from PD is piecewise continuous, which causes equidistant sampling of Doppler sine wave not feasible. In order that Doppler frequency be correctly measured by using fast Fourier transform (FFT), a simple signal amplitude modification method is derived from the definition of Fourier transform.

  14. Doppler radar detection of exceptional mass-migration of aphids into Finland.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, M; Leskinen, M; Helenius, J

    2000-11-01

    Our objective was to detect mass migrations of insects of economic significance by insect traps and a Doppler weather radar. Migrants were sampled by suction traps, tow nets and light traps in the Helsinki region. We used radar to observe the migrating insects, and trajectories to backtrack mass migrations of aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) in spring 1988. The aphid migrations were clearly observed in trap catches and by radar. The first migration, mainly involving Euceraphis betulae, occurred on 18 May and was tracked back to northern Poland. The second migration, mainly of Rhopalosiphum padi (a serious pest of small-grain cereals), occurred 3 days later and was tracked back to a large area covering Latvia and western Russia south of St Petersburg. The third migration included both E. betulae and R. padi, and took place on 30 May. It originated from Estonia. Neither trap nor radar data provide exact quantitative information on migrations. Trapping efficiency depends strongly on wind speed and insect size. Radar echo intensity is very strongly related to the sizes of insects in the large volume of air measured, and the sizes are not known accurately. Weather data, especially temperature, can be used in predicting the development of aphids, and air-parcel trajectories in estimating the source areas of migrants. These methods for forecasting aphid migrations, combined with radar observations, are useful for warning purposes and to intensify insect trapping. This would contribute to more efficient agricultural pest management.

  15. Doppler radar detection of exceptional mass-migration of aphids into Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, M.; Leskinen, Matti; Helenius, Juha

    Our objective was to detect mass migrations of insects of economic significance by insect traps and a Doppler weather radar. Migrants were sampled by suction traps, tow nets and light traps in the Helsinki region. We used radar to observe the migrating insects, and trajectories to backtrack mass migrations of aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) in spring 1988. The aphid migrations were clearly observed in trap catches and by radar. The first migration, mainly involving Euceraphis betulae, occurred on 18 May and was tracked back to northern Poland. The second migration, mainly of Rhopalosiphum padi (a serious pest of small-grain cereals), occurred 3 days later and was tracked back to a large area covering Latvia and western Russia south of St Petersburg. The third migration included both E. betulae and R. padi, and took place on 30 May. It originated from Estonia. Neither trap nor radar data provide exact quantitative information on migrations. Trapping efficiency depends strongly on wind speed and insect size. Radar echo intensity is very strongly related to the sizes of insects in the large volume of air measured, and the sizes are not known accurately. Weather data, especially temperature, can be used in predicting the development of aphids, and air-parcel trajectories in estimating the source areas of migrants. These methods for forecasting aphid migrations, combined with radar observations, are useful for warning purposes and to intensify insect trapping. This would contribute to more efficient agricultural pest management.

  16. Evaluation of gridded scanning ARM cloud radar reflectivity observations and vertical doppler velocity retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamer, K.; Tatarevic, A.; Jo, I.; Kollias, P.

    2014-04-01

    The scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) cloud radars (SACRs) provide continuous atmospheric observations aspiring to capture the 3-D cloud-scale structure. Sampling clouds in 3-D is challenging due to their temporal-spatial scales, the need to sample the sky at high elevations and cloud radar limitations. Thus, a suggested scan strategy is to repetitively slice the atmosphere from horizon to horizon as clouds advect over the radar (Cross-Wind Range-Height Indicator - CW-RHI). Here, the processing and gridding of the SACR CW-RHI scans are presented. First, the SACR sample observations from the ARM Southern Great Plains and Cape Cod sites are post-processed (detection mask, gaseous attenuation correction, insect filtering and velocity de-aliasing). The resulting radial Doppler moment fields are then mapped to Cartesian coordinates with time as one of the dimensions. Next the Cartesian-gridded Doppler velocity fields are decomposed into the horizontal wind velocity contribution and the vertical Doppler velocity component. For validation purposes, all gridded and retrieved fields are compared to collocated zenith-pointing ARM cloud radar measurements. We consider that the SACR sensitivity loss with range, the cloud type observed and the research purpose should be considered in determining the gridded domain size. Our results also demonstrate that the gridded SACR observations resolve the main features of low and high stratiform clouds. It is established that the CW-RHI observations complemented with processing techniques could lead to robust 3-D cloud dynamical representations up to 25-30 degrees off zenith. The proposed gridded products are expected to advance our understanding of 3-D cloud morphology, dynamics and anisotropy and lead to more realistic 3-D radiative transfer calculations.

  17. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-03-16

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  18. Determination of U, V, and W from single station Doppler radar radial velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Warnock, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The ST/MST (stratosphere troposphere/mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) clear air Doppler radar, or wind profiler, is an important tool in observational meteorology because of its capability to remote observe dynamic parameters of the atmosphere. There are difficulties in transforming the observed radial velocities into meteorological wind components. How this problem has been treated in the past is reviewed, and some of the analysis is recast to a form more suited to the high diagnostic abilities of a number of fixed beam configurations with reference to a linear wind field. The results, in conjunction with other works which treats problems such as the effects of finite sample volumes in the presence of nonhomogeneous atmospheric reflectivity, have implications important to the design of both individual MST/ST radars and MST/ST radar networks. The key parameters to uncoupling terms in the scaling equations are w sub x and w sub y. Whenever the stratiform condition, which states that these two parameters are negligible, is satisfied, a five beam ST radar may determine unbiased values of u, v, and w for sample volumes directly above the radar. The divergence and partial deformation of the flow may also be determined. Three beam systems can determine w and w sub z, but are unable to obtain u and v wind components uncontaminated by vertical sheer terms, even when the stratiform condition is satisfied.

  19. Assessment of Human Respiration Patterns via Noncontact Sensing Using Doppler Multi-Radar System

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique. PMID:25785310

  20. Vertical Air Motion Estimates from W-band Radar Doppler Spectra Observed during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. R.; Gibson, J. S.; Fairall, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    During the DYNAMO field campaign, a vertically pointing NOAA W-band (94 GHz) radar was mounted on the R/V Revelle to sample a wide range of clouds from shallow warm clouds to high cirrus clouds. The Doppler velocity spectra often contained multiple peak structures. In warm clouds, multiple peaks were due to cloud droplets and drizzle droplets in the same radar pulse volume. And in rainfall beneath well-defined reflectivity dim-bands near the melting layer, the multiple peaks were due to Mie scattering signatures from raindrops larger than 1.6 mm. This presentation will describe a method of identifying multiple peaks in Doppler spectra and then determining if the multiple peaks were due to cloud and drizzle droplets or due to large raindrops exciting a Mie scattering signature. In both cases, the multiple peak structure provides a signature to estimate vertical air motion. For spectra containing cloud droplets, the symmetric peak is a tracer used to estimate the air motion. For spectra with asymmetric shapes and large downward Doppler velocities, the Mie scattering notch is used to estimate the air motion. Examples of the retrieval procedure will be provided at the conference.

  1. New Approaches For Asteroid Spin State and Shape Modeling From Delay-Doppler Radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, Chedy; Lamee, Mehdi; Mosiane, Olorato; Vassallo, Corinne; Busch, Michael W.; Greenberg, Adam; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Duong, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Delay-Doppler radar imaging is a powerful technique to characterize the trajectories, shapes, and spin states of near-Earth asteroids; and has yielded detailed models of dozens of objects. Reconstructing objects' shapes and spins from delay-Doppler data is a computationally intensive inversion problem. Since the 1990s, delay-Doppler data has been analyzed using the SHAPE software. SHAPE performs sequential single-parameter fitting, and requires considerable computer runtime and human intervention (Hudson 1993, Magri et al. 2007). Recently, multiple-parameter fitting algorithms have been shown to more efficiently invert delay-Doppler datasets (Greenberg & Margot 2015) - decreasing runtime while improving accuracy. However, extensive human oversight of the shape modeling process is still required. We have explored two new techniques to better automate delay-Doppler shape modeling: Bayesian optimization and a machine-learning neural network.One of the most time-intensive steps of the shape modeling process is to perform a grid search to constrain the target's spin state. We have implemented a Bayesian optimization routine that uses SHAPE to autonomously search the space of spin-state parameters. To test the efficacy of this technique, we compared it to results with human-guided SHAPE for asteroids 1992 UY4, 2000 RS11, and 2008 EV5. Bayesian optimization yielded similar spin state constraints within a factor of 3 less computer runtime.The shape modeling process could be further accelerated using a deep neural network to replace iterative fitting. We have implemented a neural network with a variational autoencoder (VAE), using a subset of known asteroid shapes and a large set of synthetic radar images as inputs to train the network. Conditioning the VAE in this manner allows the user to give the network a set of radar images and get a 3D shape model as an output. Additional development will be required to train a network to reliably render shapes from delay-Doppler

  2. Through Wall Radar Classification of Human Micro-Doppler Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Matthew; Ash, Matthew; Chen, Qingchao; Chetty, Kevin

    2016-08-31

    The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor. The radar was deployed at a standoff distance, of approximately 0.5 m, outside a residential building and used to detect multiple people walking within a room. Through the application of digital filtering, it was shown that significant suppression of the primary wall reflection is possible, significantly enhancing the target signal to clutter ratio. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) signal processing techniques were then applied to the micro-Doppler signatures from different individuals. Features from the SVD information have been used to classify whether the person was carrying an item or walking free handed. Excellent performance of the classifier was achieved in this challenging scenario with accuracies up to 94%, suggesting that future through wall radar sensors may have the ability to reliably recognize many different types of activities in TTW scenarios using these techniques.

  3. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database.

  4. Eruptions of Mount Erebus Volcano Constrained with Infrasound, Video, and Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Jones, K. R.; Aster, R.; Kyle, P.; McIntosh, W.; Gerst, A.

    2008-12-01

    Co-eruptive infrasound recorded within several km of volcanoes can provide effective constraints on atmospheric accelerations or momentum exchange in the vicinity of active volcanic vents. These atmospheric perturbations can be induced by impulsive gas injection into the atmosphere (i.e., eruptive explosions), by deflection of a solid or fluid lava surface, or through a superposition of these effects. The "simple" lava lake bubble-bursting eruptions of Mount Erebus Volcano (Antarctica) provide an ideal test bed for multi- disciplinary observations of volcanic infrasound because of proximal (within few hundred meters) deployment of microphones and line-of-sight viewing geometry of cameras and radar to the vent. Erebus video observations provide timing constraints on the infrasound generation mechanisms, which include both pre- eruptive distension of the lava lake surface and gas expansion and jetting following large explosive bubble bursts. Network infrasound recordings are used to quantify the time history of explosive gas flux and cumulative yield (>103 kg of gas in ~0.5 s), which is corroborated by the video and Doppler radar observations. Infrasound records from a three-station network also show azimuthal variations, which can be attributed to non-isotropic components of the acoustic wavefield radiated during eruption. We model Erebus gas bubble bursts as a combination of symmetric gas expansion (monopole source) and gas jetting (dipole source) and corroborate this explosive asymmetry with video and Doppler radar observations.

  5. Through Wall Radar Classification of Human Micro-Doppler Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Matthew; Ash, Matthew; Chen, Qingchao; Chetty, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor. The radar was deployed at a standoff distance, of approximately 0.5 m, outside a residential building and used to detect multiple people walking within a room. Through the application of digital filtering, it was shown that significant suppression of the primary wall reflection is possible, significantly enhancing the target signal to clutter ratio. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) signal processing techniques were then applied to the micro-Doppler signatures from different individuals. Features from the SVD information have been used to classify whether the person was carrying an item or walking free handed. Excellent performance of the classifier was achieved in this challenging scenario with accuracies up to 94%, suggesting that future through wall radar sensors may have the ability to reliably recognize many different types of activities in TTW scenarios using these techniques. PMID:27589760

  6. An observation of sea-spray microphysics by airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Pezoa, S.; Moran, K.; Wolfe, D.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes observations and analysis of Doppler radar data from a down-looking 94 GHz (W-Band) system operated from a NOAA WP-3 Orion research aircraft in Tropical Storm (TS) Karen. The flight took place on 5 October 2013; Karen had weakened with maximum winds around 20 m s-1. Doppler spectral moments from the radar were processed to retrieve sea-spray microphysical properties (drop size and liquid water mass concentration) profiles in the height range 75-300 m above the sea surface. In the high wind speed regions of TS Karen (U10 > 15 m s-1), sea spray was observed with a nominal mass-mode radius of about 40 µm, a radar-weighted gravitational fall velocity of about 1 m s-1, and a mass concentration of about 10-3 gm-3 at 75 m. Spray-drop mass concentration declined with height to values of about 10-4 gm-3 at 300 m. Drop mass decreased slightly more slowly with increasing height than predicted by surface-layer similarity theory for a balance of turbulent diffusion vs fall velocity.

  7. High-frequency Doppler radar measurements of the Florida current in Summer 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, F.; Leaman, K.; Samuels, G.; Frisch, A. S.; Fontino, I. Popa

    1985-01-01

    An oceanographic evaluation is carried out here of high-frequency (HF) Doppler radar measurements of surface currents made by the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory June 26 to August 4, 1983, at the western side of the Florida Straits in the area between Jupiter and West Palm Beach in the context of the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies. These current measurements are compared with direct current measurements made at various positions in the area covered by the radar, and investigated for their potential as transport indicator. Means and standard deviations of the downstream current component compared well with those from PEGASUS and subsurface moored current measurements carried out in the northern part of the radar current field up to 35 km distance from the coast, but there seemed to exist a bias in the southern part of the current field measured by the radar, causing significant northward mean shear about 20 km offshore. Low-frequency current fluctuations from the radar currents and near-surface moored currents were coherent for the downstream but not the small cross-stream component. Mean downstream components in a center strip of the radar current field, where data quality was found to be best, were compared with Florida Current transports as determined by cable and by moored current measurements, but transport fluctuations were small during the measurement period which fell into the summer maximum of the Florida Current. Coherence with cable transports was significant at the meander time scale of 5 days, but a longer period transport burst of 3×106 m3/s occurring during the time period was not identified in the surface current measurements. In summary, the HF radar as used in this application is useful to determine near-surface patterns of eddies and meanders but doubtful for derived quantities like energy fluxes and vorticity without additional calibration.

  8. Polarimetric and Multi-Doppler Radar Observations of Electrified and Unelectrified Wildfire Smoke Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Dolan, Brenda; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Lindsey, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrocumulus clouds above three Colorado wildfires (Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon; all occurred during summer 2012) electrified and produced small intracloud discharges whenever the smoke plumes grew to high altitudes (over 10 km above mean sea level, or MSL). This occurred during periods of rapid wildfire growth, as indicated by the shortwave infrared channel on a geostationary satellite, as well as by incident reports. In the Hewlett Gulch case, the fire growth led to increased updrafts within the plume, as inferred by multiple- Doppler radar syntheses, which led to the vertical development and subsequent electrification - a life cycle as short as 30 minutes. The lightning, detected by a threedimensional lightning mapping network, was favored in high-altitude regions (10 km MSL) containing modest reflectivities (25 dBZ and lower), 0 dB differential reflectivity, and reduced correlation coefficient (0.6-0.7). This indicated the likely presence of ice particles (crystals and aggregates, possibly rimed) mixed with ash. Though neither multiple-Doppler nor polarimetric observations were available during the electrification of the High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes, their NEXRAD observations showed reflectivity structures consistent with Hewlett Gulch. In addition, polarimetric and multiple-Doppler scanning of unelectrified High Park plumes indicated only irregularly shaped ash, and not ice, was present (i.e., reflectivities < 25 dBZ, differential reflectivity > 5 dB, correlation < 0.4), and there was no broaching of the 10 km altitude. Based on these results, the electrification likely was caused by ice-based processes that did not involve significant amounts of graupel. The results demonstrate the scientific value of multiple-Doppler and polarimetric radar observations of wildfire smoke plumes - including the ability to distinguish between regions of pure hydrometeors, regions of pure ash, and mixtures of both - and also suggest a possible new application

  9. Application of empirical mode decomposition in removing fidgeting interference in doppler radar life signs monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Mostafanezhad, Isar; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor; Mandic, Danilo P

    2009-01-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition has been shown effective in the analysis of non-stationary and non-linear signals. As an application in wireless life signs monitoring in this paper we use this method in conditioning the signals obtained from the Doppler device. Random physical movements, fidgeting, of the human subject during a measurement can fall on the same frequency of the heart or respiration rate and interfere with the measurement. It will be shown how Empirical Mode Decomposition can break the radar signal down into its components and help separate and remove the fidgeting interference.

  10. Using convolutional neural networks for human activity classification on micro-Doppler radar spectrograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Tyler S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the findings of using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to classify human activity from micro-Doppler features. An emphasis on activities involving potential security threats such as holding a gun are explored. An automotive 24 GHz radar on chip was used to collect the data and a CNN (normally applied to image classification) was trained on the resulting spectrograms. The CNN achieves an error rate of 1.65 % on classifying running vs. walking, 17.3 % error on armed walking vs. unarmed walking, and 22 % on classifying six different actions.

  11. A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

    2010-10-01

    Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for

  12. Doppler radar retrievals from lava fountaining paroxysms generating tephra plumes at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin, Freret-Lorgeril; Franck, Donnadieu; Mauro, Coltelli; Simona, Scollo; Patrick, Fréville; Claude, Hervier; Michele, Prestifilippo

    2016-04-01

    Etna volcano is one of the most active European volcanoes. Between January 2011 and December 2013, a new crater called the New South East Crater (NSEC) was built during 46 eruptive episodes characterized by lava fountaining generating tephra plumes that reached up to 10 km (a.s.l). A 23 cm-wavelength Doppler radar (VOLDORAD 2B), located about 3 km from NSEC at the Montagnola station and integrated into the INGV-OE instrumental network, has been continuously monitoring the explosive activity of Mt. Etna's summit craters since 2009. We have studied these paroxysms by analyzing the radar echoes and Doppler signals coming from adjacent volumes of the fixed beam probing the lava fountains close to the eruptive crater, in combination with thermal and visible imagery. The range gating (150 m-deep probed volumes along-beam) allows us to discriminate the active summit craters and to roughly estimate the lava fountain width. The backscattered power, which is related to the erupted tephra mass load in the beam, and Doppler velocities help to mark the transition from Strombolian activity to lava fountaining, providing onset and end times of the fountain. Both radar parameters directly provide a proxy for the mass eruption rate, which is found to follow the time variations of tephra plume height. Oscillations of the echo power during lava fountaining indicate a pulsatile behavior likely originating in the magmatic conduit or deeper reservoir. Ejection velocities retrieved from positive along-beam velocities measured near the emission source, are found to range from 140 to almost 350 m/s during the climax. Maximum along-beam Doppler velocity components from fallouts allow us to infer maximum particle sizes (pluri-decimetric) in agreement with field observations. The mode of power spectral distribution could further be used to constrain the mean diameter of proximal fallout. A reliable quantification of the source mass loading parameters requires more stringent constraints on the

  13. Wind from Indian Doppler Weather Radars: a data assimilation view point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Devajyoti; Mallick, Swapan; Jyothi, K. A.; George, John P.; Kumar, D. Preveen

    2016-05-01

    Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) can provide tropospheric wind observations with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The Volume Velocity Processing (VVP) technique is one of the processing methods which can provide vertical profiles of mean horizontal winds. The DWR observed VVP winds gives a continuous observation of the wind field at various atmospheric levels. The quality of the VVP winds is studied against the short-range forecast of the NCUM model (model background). The biases of the observation are calculated against model background. This study focuses on the quality of VVP winds and seasonal variation of bias of the observed wind. This results shows that the VVP winds provides reasonably accurate estimates of the vertical wind structure in the troposphere over radar locations which can be effectively used in the numerical weather prediction system.

  14. Features associated with radar micro-Doppler signatures of various human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenaldin, Matthew; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of our experimental investigation into the radar micro-Doppler signatures (MDS) of various human activities both in free-space and through-wall environments. The collection of MDS signatures was divided into two categories: stationary and forward-moving. Each category of MDS signatures encompassed a variety of movements associated with it, adding up to a total of 14 human movements. Using a 6.5-GHz C-band coherent radar, the MDS of six human subjects were gathered in free-space and through-wall environments. The MDS for these cases were analyzed in detail and the general properties of the signatures were related to their associated phenomenological characteristics. Based upon the MDS, specific features for designing detectors and classifiers of human targets performing such movements are extracted.

  15. 1983 lightning, turbulence, wind shear, and Doppler radar studies at the National Severe Storms Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    As part of continuing research on aviation related weather hazards, numerous experiments were incorporated into the 1983 Spring Observation Program. This year's program was an abbreviated one because of commitments made to the development of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) project. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) P-3 Orion and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) RB-57B and U-2 were the main aircraft involved in the studies of lightning, wind shear, turbulence, and storm structure. A total of 14 flights were made by these aircraft during the period of May 16 through June 5, 1983. Aircraft instrumentation experiments are described, and resultant data sets available for research are detailed. Aircraft instrumentation and Doppler radar characteristics are detailed.

  16. The 3 December 2015 paroxysm of Voragine crater at Etna: insights from Doppler radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnadieu, Franck; Freret-Lorgeril, Valentin; Gouhier, Mathieu; Coltelli, Mauro; Scollo, Simona; Fréville, Patrick; Hervier, Claude; Prestifilippo, Michele

    2016-04-01

    After a progressive intensification of Strombolian activity inside the Voragine crater in the evening of December 2 2015, Mount Etna produced a short but violent paroxysm in the night of 3 December 2015, the most intense of the last two decades at Voragine. Lava fountains, observed with the network of thermal and visible cameras of INGV-OE, reached well over 1 km in height with some jets of incandescent material reaching 3 km. A tephra column several kilometers high was produced and pyroclastic material was dispersed by winds in altitude to the NE, causing ash fallouts to affect many towns in Sicily and Reggio Calabria. A 23 cm-wavelength Doppler radar (VOLDORAD 2B), located about 3 km from NSEC at the Montagnola station and integrated into the INGV-OE instrumental network, has been continuously monitoring the explosive activity of Mt. Etna's summit craters since 2009. The radar beam probes 13 successive volumes 150 m deep aligned northward above the summit craters, providing two sets of parameters (echo power and velocity) at a rate of 0.2 s. We analyze the paroxysmal event of Voragine using the radar echoes and Doppler signals coming from volumes inside the lava fountain feeding the tephra column in combination with thermal and visible imagery and satellite data. The radar range gating allowed us to immediately discriminate the central craters as the source of the tephra emission and to estimate the lava fountain width between 300 and 450 m. The backscattered power, which is related to the erupted tephra mass load in the beam, and Doppler velocities help to mark the transition from Strombolian activity to lava fountaining, providing onset and end times of the fountain. The tephra flux into the radar beam started to increase after 02:00 UTC with a strong increase at 02:20 UTC marking the transition to continuous lava fountaining. The climax was reached between ca. 02:35 and 03:15 UTC with maintained high echo power and ejection velocities of 190 m/s in average

  17. The Coplane Analysis Technique for Three-Dimensional Wind Retrieval Using the HIWRAP Airborne Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didlake, Anthony C., Jr.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Guimond, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The coplane analysis technique for mapping the three-dimensional wind field of precipitating systems is applied to the NASA High Altitude Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP). HIWRAP is a dual-frequency Doppler radar system with two downward pointing and conically scanning beams. The coplane technique interpolates radar measurements to a natural coordinate frame, directly solves for two wind components, and integrates the mass continuity equation to retrieve the unobserved third wind component. This technique is tested using a model simulation of a hurricane and compared to a global optimization retrieval. The coplane method produced lower errors for the cross-track and vertical wind components, while the global optimization method produced lower errors for the along-track wind component. Cross-track and vertical wind errors were dependent upon the accuracy of the estimated boundary condition winds near the surface and at nadir, which were derived by making certain assumptions about the vertical velocity field. The coplane technique was then applied successfully to HIWRAP observations of Hurricane Ingrid (2013). Unlike the global optimization method, the coplane analysis allows for a transparent connection between the radar observations and specific analysis results. With this ability, small-scale features can be analyzed more adequately and erroneous radar measurements can be identified more easily.

  18. Near-source Doppler radar monitoring of tephra plumes at Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnadieu, F.; Freville, P.; Hervier, C.; Coltelli, M.; Scollo, S.; Prestifilippo, M.; Valade, S.; Rivet, S.; Cacault, P.

    2016-02-01

    Over the last twenty years Mount Etna has produced more than one hundred explosive events ranging from light ash emissions to violent sub-plinian eruptions. Significant hazards arise from tephra plumes which directly threaten air traffic, and generate fallout affecting surrounding towns and infrastructures. We describe the first radar system, named VOLDORAD 2B, fully integrated into a volcano instrumental network dedicated to the continuous near-source monitoring of tephra emissions from Etna's summit craters. This 23.5 cm wavelength pulsed Doppler radar is operated in collaboration between the Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand (OPGC) and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo (INGV-OE) since 2009. Probed volumes inside the fixed, northward-pointing conical beam total about 1.5 km in length, covering the summit craters which produced all recent tephra plumes. The backscattered power, related to the amount of particles crossing the beam, and particle along-beam velocities are recorded every 0.23 s, providing a proxy for the tephra mass eruption rate. Radar raw data are transmitted in real-time to the volcano monitoring center of INGV-OE in Catania and are used to automatically release alerts at onset and end of eruptive events. Processed radar parameters are also made available from the VOLDORAD database online.

  19. Doppler radar signatures of developing thunderstorms and their potential to indicate the onset of cloud-to-ground lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Hondl, K.D.; Eilts, M.D.

    1994-08-01

    The capability of Doppler weather radars to short-term forecast the initiation of thunderstorms and the onset of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is examined. Doppler weather radar data from 28 thunderstorms were analyzed from August 1990 in the central Florida environment. These radar echoes were associated with CG lightning strike locations from the National Lightning Detection Network and two lightning detection systems operated by the U.S. Air Force in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center. From a time history of these radar echoes it was found that a 10-dBZ echo, first detected near the freezing level, may be the first definitive echo of a future thunderstorm. This thunderstorm initiation signature is often accompanied by low-altitude convergence and divergence at the top of the radar echo. The observed lead times between this thunderstorm initiation signature and the first detected CG lightning strike ranged from 5 to 45 min with a median lead time of 15 min. All lightning-producing radar echoes were detected using the thunderstorm initiation signature; however, some echoes exceeded the 10-dBZ threshold and did not produce andy CG lightning. The charecteristics of the WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar systems are evaluated for their capability to detect the thunderstorm initiation signature in central Florida with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

  20. Towards Realtime Assimilation of Doppler Radar Observations for Cloud-Resolving Hurricane Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Gamache, J. F.; Marks, F. D.

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the feasibility and impacts of on-demand, real-time assimilation of Doppler radar observations straight from the planes with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to initialize a cloud-resolving hurricane prediction model. The NOAA P3 aircrafts have being flying into tropical cyclones to gather radar observations since 1994. These observations are significant in investigating and anglicizing hurricane's intensity, eye-wall structure and intensity changes, but the radar data has never been ingested into hurricane prediction models in real-time. Likely reasons are (1) insufficient model resolution due to inadequate computing resources for ingesting convective-scale details observed by the radar, (2) inadequacy of existing data assimilation method for operational models, and (3) lack of sufficient bandwidth in transmitting huge volume radar data to the ground in realtime. This work is built on our recent case studies of predicting the rapid formation and intensification of past hurricanes in assimilating both ground-base and/or airborne radial velocity into a cloud-resolving mesoscale model with EnKF. Under the auspices of NOAA Hurricane Forecasting Improvement Project (HFIP), we have access to the NSF-sponsored high-performance computing facility TACC at University of Texas at Austin that makes realtime cloud-resolving hurricane data assimilation and forecasting possible. We alleviate the requirement of large volume data transfer from the aircraft through developing a radar radial velocity data quality and thinning procedure (namely to produce superobervations or SOs) to significantly reduce the data size before being transferred. We have first conducted near realtime testing of the cloud-resolving data assimilation and forecasting with Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model using 40.5, 13.5, 4.5 and 1.5 km grid spacings and movable nested grids for Hurricanes Dolly and Fay (2008). As of today, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility, data

  1. 77 FR 53962 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C65a, Airborne Doppler Radar Ground Speed and/or Drift Angle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C65a, Airborne Doppler Radar Ground... Doppler Radar Ground Speed and/or Drift Angle Measuring Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's cancellation of TSO-C65a. The effect of the cancelled TSO will...

  2. Analysis and improved design considerations for airborne pulse Doppler radar signal processing in the detection of hazardous windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonggil

    1990-01-01

    High resolution windspeed profile measurements are needed to provide reliable detection of hazardous low altitude windshear with an airborne pulse Doppler radar. The system phase noise in a Doppler weather radar may degrade the spectrum moment estimation quality and the clutter cancellation capability which are important in windshear detection. Also the bias due to weather return Doppler spectrum skewness may cause large errors in pulse pair spectral parameter estimates. These effects are analyzed for the improvement of an airborne Doppler weather radar signal processing design. A method is presented for the direct measurement of windspeed gradient using low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) radar. This spatial gradient is essential in obtaining the windshear hazard index. As an alternative, the modified Prony method is suggested as a spectrum mode estimator for both the clutter and weather signal. Estimation of Doppler spectrum modes may provide the desired windshear hazard information without the need of any preliminary processing requirement such as clutter filtering. The results obtained by processing a NASA simulation model output support consideration of mode identification as one component of a windshear detection algorithm.

  3. HF Doppler and VHF radar observations of upper atmospheric disturbances caused by weak cold front during winter time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Gao, M.; Johnson, D. L.; Yang, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    The simultaneous use of the Taiwan VHF radar and the HF Doppler sounder for remote measurement of three-dimensional winds, gravity waves, and density perturbations at mesospheric and thermospheric heights is demonstrated. A special event of atmospheric disturbances caused by propagating gravity waves excited by weak convective motions in winter time were investigated. The three-dimensional wind velocities at different heights were determined, and the frequency, horizontal wavelength, vertical wavelength, and phase velocity of the gravity waves were measured. The subtropical, low-latitude site makes the VHF radar and HF Doppler array systems unique, and the observations especially valuable for space projects dealing with low-latitude atmosphere.

  4. Non-contact multi-radar smart probing of body orientation based on micro-Doppler signatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiran; Pal, Ranadip; Li, Changzhi

    2014-01-01

    Micro-Doppler signatures carry useful information about body movements and have been widely applied to different applications such as human activity recognition and gait analysis. In this paper, micro-Doppler signatures are used to identify body orientation. Four AC-coupled continuous-wave (CW) smart radar sensors were used to form a multiple-radar network to carry out the experiments in this paper. 162 tests were performed in total. The experiment results showed a 100% accuracy in recognizing eight body orientations, i.e., facing north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west, and northwest.

  5. Modified linear predictive coding approach for moving target tracking by Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yipeng; Lin, Xiaoyi; Sun, Ke-Hui; Xu, Xue-Mei; Liu, Xi-Yao

    2016-07-01

    Doppler radar is a cost-effective tool for moving target tracking, which can support a large range of civilian and military applications. A modified linear predictive coding (LPC) approach is proposed to increase the target localization accuracy of the Doppler radar. Based on the time-frequency analysis of the received echo, the proposed approach first real-time estimates the noise statistical parameters and constructs an adaptive filter to intelligently suppress the noise interference. Then, a linear predictive model is applied to extend the available data, which can help improve the resolution of the target localization result. Compared with the traditional LPC method, which empirically decides the extension data length, the proposed approach develops an error array to evaluate the prediction accuracy and thus, adjust the optimum extension data length intelligently. Finally, the prediction error array is superimposed with the predictor output to correct the prediction error. A series of experiments are conducted to illustrate the validity and performance of the proposed techniques.

  6. Development of a W-band Antenna for Space-borne 94 GHz Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Masahiro; Iida, Yukie; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Horie, Hiroaki; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Sato, Kenji; Okumura, Minoru

    The EarthCARE mission is planned to be launched in 2013. JAXA and NICT have developed a cloud profiling radar (CPR) for the EarthCARE mission to perform observation of the cloud profiles and Doppler velocity of the cloud particles. The CPR is one of the core sensors of the EarthCARE satellite and will be the first space-borne W-band radar with Doppler measurement mode. The CPR employs a light-weighted large reflector which has to assure extremely high beam pointing accuracy and high physical surface accuracy even in the severe thermal environment in orbit of around 450 km height. Therefore, the CPR antenna reflector has been designed to have quite lower thermal deformation compared to the general reflectors used for the communication satellites. This report shows preliminary design result of the CPR antenna main reflector, the measured characteristics of the reflector material, and the results of the bread board model manufacturing and testing. The results concluded the manufacturing feasibility and thermal tolerance of the reflector are almost successfully evaluated.

  7. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Doppler anomalies due to volcanic eruption induced phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; Minet, Christian

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of the EU funded "MEDSUV" supersite project, we use multiple SAR data to investigate Doppler anomalies in the SAR signal occurring during volcanic eruptions. In Synthetic Aperture Radar, variations in the Electro Magnetic Waves travel time results in a change in the Doppler frequency that adds up to the one that is naturally generated by the relative motion between the platform and the ground targets. Within the SAR system, frequencies modulations control the image focusing along the two fundamental SAR directions, the azimuth (i.e. the platform motion direction) and the range (i. e. the sensor looking direction). During the synthetic aperture process (the so called image focusing) a target on the surface is seen along different paths. In standard focusing processing it is assumed both that ground targets are stationary and that between the sensor and the target the medium is the vacuum or a totally homogeneous medium. Therefore, if there is a significant path delay variation along the paths to a specific target this can result either in image defocusing or in pixel misregistration or both. It has been shown that SAR Doppler history anomalies can occur over volcanic areas. The goal of this study is to highlight Doppler history anomalies occurring during the SAR image formation over active volcanoes on a number of test cases. To do so, we apply a sub-aperture cross correlation algorithm on Single Look Complex data. Practically, we measure any pixel misregistration between two sub-looks of the same SAR acquisition. If a pixel shift occurs, it means that the expected radar wave path has been lengthened (or shortened) during the time when ground surface scatterers were illuminated by the sensor radiation either by a ground feature velocity (e. g. water flows, vehicles) or it is refracted by a strong medium discontinuity in the air (volcanic ash plume?). If a Doppler history anomaly is detected by the sub-aperture cross correlation, we try to explore

  8. Observations of tornadoes and wall clouds with a portable FM-CW Doppler radar: 1989--1990 results

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B. . School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on our progress using a portable, 1 W,FM (frequency modulated)-CW (continuous wave) Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to make measurements of the wind field in tornadoes and wall clouds along with simultaneous visual documentation. Results using a CW version of the radar in 1987--1988 are given in Bluestein and Unruh (1989). 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Nexrad-In-Space - A Geostationary Satellite Doppler Weather Radar for Hurricane Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, E.; Chandrasekar, V.; Chen, S. S.; Holland, G. J.; Kakar, R.; Lewis, W. E.; Marks, F. D.; Smith, E. A.; Tanelli, S.; Tripoli, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Nexrad-In-Space (NIS) is a revolutionary atmospheric radar observation concept from the geostationary orbiting platform. It was developed over the last 4 years under the auspices of NASA's Earth Science Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The NIS radar would provide Ka-band (35 GHz) reflectivity and line-of-sight Doppler velocity profiles over a circular Earth region of approximately 5200 km in diameter with a 12-km horizontal resolution, and a minimum detectable signal of 5 dBZ. The NIS radar achieves its superb sampling capabilities by use of a 35-m diameter, deployable antenna made from lightweight membrane material. The antenna has two transmit-receive array pairs that create a dual-beam, spiral-feed combined profile image of both reflectivity and Doppler velocity approximately every 60 minutes. This sampling time can be shortened even further by increasing the number of transmit-receive array pairs. It is generally recognized that the processes important in governing hurricane intensity and structure span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The environmental forcing considerations require a large domain. The vortex response to the environmental forcing ultimately involves convection on small horizontal scales in the eyewall and rainband regions. Resolving this environment-vortex-convection feedback in a numerical model requires observations on the space and time scales necessary to unambiguously define these structures within and surrounding the tropical cyclone. Because the time and space scales of these processes are small, continuous 3-dimensional independent observations of the 3-dimensional wind and precipitation structures will be needed to initialize numerical models critical for this purpose. The proposed NIS Doppler radar would be the first instrument capable of accomplishing this feat at time scales less than hours, and would create the opportunity for hurricane science to enter a new era of understanding and improved prediction. This

  10. Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2–5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  11. Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2-5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  12. NEXRAD-In-Space: A Geostationary Orbiting Doppler Radar for Hurricane Monitoring and Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Under NASA's Earth Science Technology Program, a novel mission concept has been developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a geostationary orbit: "NEXRAD in Space" (NIS). By operating in the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), NIS would enable rapid-update sampling (less than or equal to 1 hour cadence) of three dimenional fields of 35 GHz (Ka-band) radar reflectivity factor (Z) and line-of-sight Doppler velocity (VD) profiles, at mesoscale horizontal resolutions (approx. 10 km) over a circular Earth region of approximately 5300 km in diameter (equivalent to much of an oceanic basin, such as the Atlantic). NIS GEO-radar concept was chosen as one of only four potential post-2020 missions for the Weather Focus area in the 2007-2016 NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Plan. The results of the first project aiming at developing the NIS concept highlighted the enormous potential of such mission, and the technological challenges presented by it. In essence, it is because of its rapid-cadence capability that NIS science planning is focusing on hurricane monitoring and prediction. Hurricanes, or generically tropical cyclones (TCs), have always been among the most devastating natural phenomena. This has been painfully reiterated in recent years with a number of powerful TCs landfalling in North America and elsewhere. In April 2007, the first NIS Science Workshop was convened at the University of Miami to galvanize the scientific community's interest in NIS's measurement capabilities for improved TC monitoring and prediction. The general consensus of the workshop was that a GEO Doppler radar would provide a major breakthrough in regards to the observation of TCs, and, when combined with cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents brief summaries of the instrument concept, the current technology status, the anticipated impacts on hurricane monitoring and model prediction, and the future science

  13. Polarimetric and Multi-Doppler Radar Observations of Sprite-producing Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, TImothy J.; Lyons, Walter A.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Dolan, Brenda; Cummer, Steven A.; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William

    2014-01-01

    Sprites are caused by luminous electrical breakdown of the upper atmosphere, and frequently occur over large mesoscale precipitation systems. Two sprite-producing storms (on 8 and 25 June) were observed in Colorado during the summer of 2012. Unlike most past studies of sprites, these storms were observed by a polarimetric radar - the CSU-CHILL facility - which provided both PPI and RHI scans of the cases. Also available were multiple-Doppler syntheses from CSU-CHILL, local NEXRAD radars, and the CSU-Pawnee radar; as well as data from the Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), high speed cameras, and other lightning-detection instrumentation. This unique dataset provided an unprecedented look at the detailed kinematic and microphysical structures of the thunderstorms as they produced sprites, including electrical alignment signatures in the immediate location of the charge layers neutralized by sprite-parent positive cloud-to-ground lightning strokes. One of the sprite-producing cases (25 June) featured an anomalous charge structure and may serve as a model for how sprites can be produced over convection rather than the more typical stratiform regions. Also to be presented will be evidence for advection of charge into a common stratiform precipitation region (on 8 June), which was then tapped by lightning originating from multiple different convective cores to produce sprites. Depending on the outcome of the 2013 convective season, polarimetric data from additional storms that produce sprites and other transient luminous events (TLEs) may be presented.

  14. Using a low-order model to detect and characterize intense vortices in multiple-Doppler radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potvin, Corey Keith

    A new multiple-Doppler radar analysis technique is presented for the objective detection and characterization of intense vortices. The technique consists of fitting radial wind data from two or more radars to a simple analytical model of a vortex and its near-environment. The model combines a uniform flow, linear shear flow, linear divergence flow (all of which comprise a broadscale flow), and modified combined Rankine vortex. The vortex and its environment are allowed to translate. A cost-function accounting for the discrepancy between the model and observed radial winds is evaluated over space and time so that observations can be used at the actual times and locations they were acquired. The parameters in the low-order model are determined by minimizing this cost function. The development of the method is initially guided by emulated radial velocity observations of analytical vortices. A high-resolution Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) simulation of a supercellular tornado is then used to generate more realistic pseudo-observations. Finally, the technique is tested using real dual-Doppler tornado and mesocyclone observations from a variety of radar platforms including Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Doppler on Wheels (DOW). The technique shows skill in detecting intense vortices and, when the vortex is well-resolved, in retrieving key model parameters including vortex location, translational velocity, radius and maximum tangential wind speed. In cases where the vortex is not well-resolved, additional vortex characteristics computed from the retrieved model parameters and verified against radial velocity observations can still provide useful information about vortex size and strength.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation... Accuracy and Reliability; Evaluation Program G Appendix G to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of experience with the system showing to the satisfaction of the Administrator a history of...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation... Accuracy and Reliability; Evaluation Program G Appendix G to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of experience with the system showing to the satisfaction of the Administrator a history of...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation... Accuracy and Reliability; Evaluation Program G Appendix G to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of experience with the system showing to the satisfaction of the Administrator a history of...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation... Accuracy and Reliability; Evaluation Program G Appendix G to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of experience with the system showing to the satisfaction of the Administrator a history of...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation... Accuracy and Reliability; Evaluation Program G Appendix G to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of experience with the system showing to the satisfaction of the Administrator a history of...

  20. Doppler Radar and Lightning Network Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Goodman, Steven J.; Cammarata, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Data from a single Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak, including three tornadoes that reached F3 intensity, within Tropical Storm Beryl s remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 13 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 h. spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 h. Several other tornadic cells also exhibited great longevity, with cell lifetimes longer than ever previously documented in a landfalling tropical cyclone (TC) tornado event. This event is easily the most intense TC tornado outbreak yet documented with WSR-88Ds. Time-height analyses of the three strongest tornadic supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and to show how these storms appear at different ranges from a WSR-88D. In addition, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data are examined in Beryl s remnants. Although the tornadic cells were responsible for most of Beryl's CG lightning, their flash rates were only weak to moderate, and in all the tornadic storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. A few of the single-tornado storms produced no detectable CG lightning at all. There is evidence that CG lightning rates decreased during the tornadoes, compared to 30-min periods before the tornadoes. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final CG lightning flashes. Contrary to the findings for flash rates, both peak currents and positive flash percentages were larger in Beryl's nontornadic storms than in the tornadic ones.

  1. Measurement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in the mesosphere by a 3 MHz Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latteck, R.; Singer, W.; Hocking, W. K.

    A new narrow beam Doppler radar operating at 3.17 MHz has been installed close to the Andøya Rocket Range in Andenes, Norway in summer 2002 in order to improve the ground based capabilities for measurements of turbulence in the mesosphere. The main feature of the radar is a Mills Cross transmitting/receiving antenna consisting of 29 crossed half-wave dipoles. In combination with the modular transceiver system this provides high flexibility in beam forming and pointing. In general, vertical and oblique beams with a minimum one way half-power full-beam width (HPFW) of 6.6° are used. The observations are usually performed with a height resolution of 1 km and with off-zenith beams at 7.3° directed towards NW, NE, SE, and SW. Turbulence intensities have been estimated from the width of the observed signal spectra using an computationally intensive correction method which requires precise knowledge of the antenna radiation pattern. The program uses real-time measurements of the wind field in all determinations. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates based on radar observations are presented and compared with corresponding climatological summer and winter profiles from rocket measurements, as well as with single profiles from model runs for selected periods from September 2003 to Summer 2004. The mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates based on these radar measurements are about 5 mW/kg at 60 km altitude and about 20 mW/kg at 80 km, in reasonable agreement with mean turbulence intensities obtained from previous rocket soundings at Andenes.

  2. Effects of volume averaging on the line spectra of vertical velocity from multiple-Doppler radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Chen, T.; Wyngaard, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of the ratio of the true one-dimensional spectrum of vertical velocity and that measured with multiple-Doppler radar beams are presented. It was assumed that the effects of pulse volume averaging and objective analysis routines is replacement of a point measurement with a volume integral. A u and v estimate was assumed to be feasible when orthogonal radars are not available. Also, the target fluid was configured as having an infinite vertical dimension, zero vertical velocity at the top and bottom, and having homogeneous and isotropic turbulence with a Kolmogorov energy spectrum. The ratio obtained indicated that equal resolutions among radars yields a monotonically decreasing, wavenumber-dependent response function. A gain of 0.95 was demonstrated in an experimental situation with 40 levels. Possible errors introduced when using unequal resolution radars were discussed. Finally, it was found that, for some flows, the extent of attenuation depends on the number of vertical levels resolvable by the radars.

  3. Stratus cloud measurements with a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the Environmental Technology Laboratory`s cloud sensing Doppler radar and three-channel microwave radiometer were deployed in the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a carbon dioxide Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model that related the model`s three parameters to the first three Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, we are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water, and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  4. Identification of atmospheric boundary layer thickness using doppler radar datas and WRF - ARW model in Merauke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, R. J. A.; Setyawan, T.

    2017-01-01

    In the synoptic scale, one of the important meteorological parameter is the atmospheric boundary layer. Aside from being a supporter of the parameters in weather and climate models, knowing the thickness of the layer of the atmosphere can help identify aerosols and the strength of the vertical mixing of pollutants in it. The vertical wind profile data from C-band Doppler radar Mopah-Merauke which is operated by BMKG through Mopah-Merauke Meteorological Station can be used to identify the peak of Atmospheric Boundaryu Layer (ABL). ABL peak marked by increasing wind shear over the layer blending. Samples in January 2015 as a representative in the wet and in July 2015 as the representation of a dry month, shows that ABL heights using WRF models show that in July (sunny weather) ABL height values higher than in January (cloudy)

  5. Comparison of numerical hindcasted severe waves with Doppler radar measurements in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce de León, Sonia; Bettencourt, João H.; Dias, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Severe sea states in the North Sea present a challenge to wave forecasting systems and a threat to offshore installations such as oil and gas platforms and offshore wind farms. Here, we study the ability of a third-generation spectral wave model to reproduce winter sea states in the North Sea. Measured and modeled time series of integral wave parameters and directional wave spectra are compared for a 12-day period in the winter of 2013-2014 when successive severe storms moved across the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Records were obtained from a Doppler radar and wave buoys. The hindcast was performed with the WAVEWATCH III model (Tolman 2014) with high spectral resolution both in frequency and direction. A good general agreement was obtained for integrated parameters, but discrepancies were found to occur in spectral shapes.

  6. Long-Term Mean Vertical Motion over the Tropical Pacific: Wind-Profiling Doppler Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, K. S.; McAfee, J. R.; Carter, D. A.; Ecklund, W. L.; Riddle, A. C.; Reid, G. C.; Balsley, B. B.

    1991-12-01

    Measurement from Christmas Island (2^circN, 157^circW) of long-term mean vertical motions in the tropical atmosphere using very-high-frequency wind-profiling Doppler radar show that there is a transition from downward motion in the free troposphere to upward motion in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The observations in the free troposphere are consistent with a balance between adiabatic and diabatic heating and cooling rates in a clear atmosphere. Comparison of the results at Christmas Island during El Nino and non-El Nino conditions with earlier results obtained for stratiform rain conditions over Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, show that cirrus clouds in the vicinity of the tropopause likely play an important role in determining the sense and magnitude of vertical motions in this region. These results have implications for the exchange of mass between the troposphere and stratosphere over the tropics.

  7. Homodyne detection of short-range Doppler radar using a forced oscillator model

    PubMed Central

    Kittipute, Kunanon; Saratayon, Peerayudh; Srisook, Suthasin; Wardkein, Paramote

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the homodyne detection in a self-oscillation system, which represented by a short-range radar (SRR) circuit, that is analysed using a multi-time forced oscillator (MTFO) model. The MTFO model is based on a forced oscillation perspective with the signal and system theory, a second-order differential equation, and the multiple time variable technique. This model can also apply to analyse the homodyne phenomenon in a difference kind of the oscillation system under same method such as the self-oscillation system, and the natural oscillation system with external forced. In a free oscillation system, which forced by the external source is represented by a pendulum with an oscillating support experiment, and a modified Colpitts oscillator circuit in the UHF band with input as a Doppler signal is a representative of self-oscillation system. The MTFO model is verified with the experimental result, which well in line with the theoretical analysis. PMID:28252000

  8. Homodyne detection of short-range Doppler radar using a forced oscillator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittipute, Kunanon; Saratayon, Peerayudh; Srisook, Suthasin; Wardkein, Paramote

    2017-03-01

    This article presents the homodyne detection in a self-oscillation system, which represented by a short-range radar (SRR) circuit, that is analysed using a multi-time forced oscillator (MTFO) model. The MTFO model is based on a forced oscillation perspective with the signal and system theory, a second-order differential equation, and the multiple time variable technique. This model can also apply to analyse the homodyne phenomenon in a difference kind of the oscillation system under same method such as the self-oscillation system, and the natural oscillation system with external forced. In a free oscillation system, which forced by the external source is represented by a pendulum with an oscillating support experiment, and a modified Colpitts oscillator circuit in the UHF band with input as a Doppler signal is a representative of self-oscillation system. The MTFO model is verified with the experimental result, which well in line with the theoretical analysis.

  9. A conceptual framework for using Doppler radar acquired atmospheric data for flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W.

    1983-01-01

    A concept is presented which can permit turbulence simulation in the vicinity of microbursts. The method involves a large data base, but should be fast enough for use with flight simulators. The model permits any pilot to simulate any flight maneuver in any aircraft. The model simulates a wind field with three-component mean winds and three-component turbulent gusts, and gust variation over the body of an aircraft so that all aerodynamic loads and moments can be calculated. The time and space variation of mean winds and turbulent intensities associated with a particular atmospheric phenomenon such as a microburst is used in the model. In fact, Doppler radar data such as provided by JAWS is uniquely suited for use with the proposed model. The concept is completely general and is not restricted to microburst studies. Reentry and flight in terrestrial or planetary atmospheres could be realistically simulated if supporting data of sufficient resolution were available.

  10. Shift Register Clock Rate Effects on Coincidence Collection 50MHz versus 4MHz Comparison Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Bourret, Steven C.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-11-03

    The following report identifies and quantifies the timing differences between the older slower Shift Register Coincidence/Multiplicity modules and today’s modern higher speed devices. Modern high speed Shift Register Coincidence/Multiplicity instruments employ high speed internal clocks that run at frequencies more than ten times the older units, typically 50MHz. These higher speed clocks allow for a finer time resolution when recording input pulses.

  11. Assimilation of Doppler Weather Radar Data in WRF Model for Simulation of Tropical Cyclone Aila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Kuldeep; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

    2014-08-01

    For the accurate and effective forecasting of a cyclone, it is critical to have accurate initial structure of the cyclone in numerical models. In this study, Kolkata Doppler weather radar (DWR) data were assimilated for the numerical simulation of a land-falling Tropical Cyclone Aila (2009) in the Bay of Bengal. To study the impact of radar data on very short-range forecasting of a cyclone's path, intensity and precipitation, both reflectivity and radial velocity were assimilated into the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model through the ARPS data assimilation system (ADAS) and cloud analysis procedure. Numerical experiment results indicated that radar data assimilation significantly improved the simulated structure of Cyclone Aila. Strong influences on hydrometeor structures of the initial vortex and precipitation pattern were observed when radar reflectivity data was assimilated, but a relatively small impact was observed on the wind fields at all height levels. The assimilation of radar wind data significantly improved the prediction of divergence/convergence conditions over the cyclone's inner-core area, as well as its wind field in the low-to-middle troposphere (600-900 hPa), but relatively less impact was observed on analyzed moisture field. Maximum surface wind speed produced from DWR-Vr and DWR-ZVr data assimilation experiments were very close to real-time values. The impact of radar data, after final analysis, on minimum sea level pressure was relatively less because the ADAS system does not adjust for pressure due to the lack of pressure observations, and from not using a 3DVAR balance condition that includes pressure. The greatest impact of radar data on forecasting was realized when both reflectivity and wind data (DWR-ZVr and DWR-ZVr00 experiment) were assimilated. It is concluded that after final analysis, the center of the cyclone was relocated very close to the observed position, and simulated cyclone maintained its intensity for a longer

  12. Dual-frequency radar Doppler spectral retrieval of rain drop size distributions and entangled dynamics variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tridon, F.; Battaglia, A.

    2015-06-01

    A novel technique based on Ka-W band dual-wavelength Doppler spectra has been developed for the simultaneous retrieval of binned rain drop size distributions (DSD) and air state parameters like vertical wind and air broadening caused by turbulence and wind shear. The rationale underpinning the method consists in exploiting the peculiar features observed in Doppler spectra caused by the wavelength dependence of scattering and absorption properties. A notional study based on a large data set of DSDs measured by a two-dimensional video disdrometer demonstrates that the retrieval performs best for small/moderate air broadening spectral width and when mean volume diameters exceed at least 1 mm. The retrieval is also limited to ranges below cloud base and where the signal-to-noise ratio of both radars exceed 10 dB, which rules out regions affected by strong attenuation. Broadly speaking, it is applicable to rain rates comprised between roughly 1 and 30 mm h-1. Preliminary retrieval for observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site shows very good agreement with independent reflectivity measurements from a 0.915 GHz wind profiler. The proposed methodology shows great potential in linking microphysics to dynamics in rainfall studies.

  13. Improved W-band Doppler Radar Spectrum Width Estimates during the VOCALS 2008 Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. R.; Fairall, C. W.; Moran, K.

    2011-12-01

    During the VOCALS 2008 cruise, a NOAA W-band (94 GHz) radar was mounted on a stabilized platform and pointed vertically to observe the marine boundary layer cloud structure. Occasionally during drizzle events, while the reflectivity was consistent with time and height, the estimated spectrum width had a few randomly distributed large values. During the post-cruise processing, it was determined that the large spectrum widths occurred when the recorded Doppler velocity spectra contained multiple peaks. The multiple peaks were symmetric about the dominant peak and were at least 30 dB smaller than the dominant peak. The few randomly distributed large spectrum widths were due to the real-time spectra processing routine estimating the spectrum moments across multiple peaks. Since the secondary peaks are so small relative to the dominant peak, there was very little change in the estimated reflectivity as the spectrum width varied from observation to observation. This presentation will describe how a multi-peak picking routine was used to identify the dominant peak in the Doppler velocity reflectivity spectra and how the spectrum moments were recalculated using just the dominant peak. Examples of the multiple peaks will be shown to clarify that the multiple peaks were not due to multi-peaked drizzle droplet size distributions and not due to Mie scattering effects. Improvements in the spectral moments during drizzle will be shown and will show consistent spectrum widths with time and height during drizzle.

  14. Microphysical properties of the November 26 cirrus cloud retrieved by Doppler radar/IR radiometer technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Kropfli, Robert A.; Orr, Brad W.; Snider, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    Gaining information about cirrus cloud microphysics requires development of remote sensing techniques. In an earlier paper. Matrosov et al. (1992) proposed a method to estimate ice water path (IWP) (i.e., vertically integrated ice mass content IMC) and characteristic particle size averaged through the cloud from combined groundbased measurements of radar reflectivities and IR brightness temperatures of the downwelling thermal radiation in the transparency region of 10-12 mu m. For some applications, the vertically averaged characteristic particle sizes and IWP could be the appropriate information to use. However, vertical profiles of cloud microphysical parameters can provide a better understanding of cloud structure and development. Here we describe a further development of the previous method by Matrosov et al. (1992) for retrieving vertical profiles of cirrus particle sizes and IMC rather than their vertically averaged values. In addition to measurements of radar reflectivities, the measurements of Doppler velocities are used in the new method. This provides us with two vertical profiles of measurements to infer two vertical profiles of unknowns, i.e., particle characteristic sizes and IMC. Simultaneous measurements of the IR brightness temperatures are still needed to resolve an ambiguity in particle size-fall velocity relationships.

  15. Doppler Radar and Lightning Network Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis; Goodman, Steven; Cammarata, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Data from a single WSR-88D Doppler radar and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine in detail the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak within Tropical Storm Beryl's remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 13 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 hours, spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 hours. Several other tornadic cells also exhibited great longevity, with cell lifetimes greater than ever previously documented in a landfalling tropical cyclone tornado event, and comparable to those found in major midlatitude tornadic supercell outbreaks. Time-height analyses of the three strongest tornadic supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and to show how these storms appear at different ranges from a WSR-88D radar. In addition, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data are examined for the outbreak, the most intense tropical cyclone tornado event studied thus far. Although the tornadic cells were responsible for most of Beryl's CG lightning, flash rates were only weak to moderate, even in the most intense supercells, and in all the tornadic storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. A few of the single-tornado storms produced no detectable CG lightning at all. In the stronger cells, there is some evidence that CG lightning rates decreased during tornadogenesis, as has been documented before in some midlatitude tornadic storms. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final CG lightning flashes. Surprisingly, both peak currents and positive flash percentages were larger in Beryl s nontornadic storms than in the tornadic

  16. Wind Retrieval Algorithms for the IWRAP and HIWRAP Airborne Doppler Radars with Applications to Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimond, Stephen Richard; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Frasier, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Algorithms for the retrieval of atmospheric winds in precipitating systems from downward-pointing, conically-scanning airborne Doppler radars are presented. The focus in the paper is on two radars: the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler(IWRAP) and the High-altitude IWRAP (HIWRAP). The IWRAP is a dual-frequency (Cand Ku band), multi-beam (incidence angles of 30 50) system that flies on the NOAAWP-3D aircraft at altitudes of 2-4 km. The HIWRAP is a dual-frequency (Ku and Kaband), dual-beam (incidence angles of 30 and 40) system that flies on the NASA Global Hawk aircraft at altitudes of 18-20 km. Retrievals of the three Cartesian wind components over the entire radar sampling volume are described, which can be determined using either a traditional least squares or variational solution procedure. The random errors in the retrievals are evaluated using both an error propagation analysis and a numerical simulation of a hurricane. These analyses show that the vertical and along-track wind errors have strong across-track dependence with values of 0.25 m s-1 at nadir to 2.0 m s-1 and 1.0 m s-1 at the swath edges, respectively. The across-track wind errors also have across-track structure and are on average, 3.0 3.5 m s-1 or 10 of the hurricane wind speed. For typical rotated figure four flight patterns through hurricanes, the zonal and meridional wind speed errors are 2 3 m s-1.Examples of measured data retrievals from IWRAP during an eyewall replacement cycle in Hurricane Isabel (2003) and from HIWRAP during the development of Tropical Storm Matthew (2010) are shown.

  17. Range-Doppler processing of Saturn's Icy Satellites using the Cassini RADAR Scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Ostro, S.; West, R.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2007-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR has obtained disk-integrated 2.2-cm reflectivity measurements for a number of Saturn's major icy satellites (Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Iapetus, Hyperion, Phoebe, and Mimas) [1, 2]. In these observations, the RADAR instrument operates in scatterometer mode, where the low receiver bandwidth of 117 kHz helps to minimize thermal noise. Transmitting a narrow bandwidth pulsed tone further reduces the noise variance [3]. In spite of these precautions to minimize noise, the instrument is often operating at distances as high as 400,000 km, and the signal-to-noise ratio is so low that it is impossible to detect the signal within the individual echoes (which are recorded in time as real 8-bit voltage samples); thus, the echo powers are accumulated in the frequency domain to produce a measurable signal [1, 3]. Yet, in a few observations, the SNR is estimated to be high enough for range compression and a pulsed chirp signal is thus transmitted, allowing us to divide the coarse disk reflectivities into fine annular rings. If the signal is strong enough, we attempt to further discriminate the echo into cells by separating the return into Doppler bins. To date, there are six observations that support higher resolution processing: Rhea (Orbit 18 and 22), Enceladus (Orbit 3), Dione (Orbit 16), Hyperion (Orbit 15), and Iapetus (Orbit B). Here, we present the preliminary results of this processing, obtaining finer resolution radar returns of these bodies than ever before, with the exception of the forthcoming Iapetus SAR imaging flyby, expected to achieve 2-12 km surface resolution [2, 4]. [1] Ostro et al. 2006, Icarus 183, 479-490. [2] Ostro et al. 2007, this conference. [3] West et al. 2007, IEEE TGARS, in preparation. [4] West et al. 2007, this conference.

  18. Normalized vertical ice mass flux profiles from vertically pointing 8-mm-wavelength Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Brad W.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    During the FIRE 2 (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) project, NOAA's Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) operated its 8-mm wavelength Doppler radar extensively in the vertically pointing mode. This allowed for the calculation of a number of important cirrus cloud parameters, including cloud boundary statistics, cloud particle characteristic sizes and concentrations, and ice mass content (imc). The flux of imc, or, alternatively, ice mass flux (imf), is also an important parameter of a cirrus cloud system. Ice mass flux is important in the vertical redistribution of water substance and thus, in part, determines the cloud evolution. It is important for the development of cloud parameterizations to be able to define the essential physical characteristics of large populations of clouds in the simplest possible way. One method would be to normalize profiles of observed cloud properties, such as those mentioned above, in ways similar to those used in the convective boundary layer. The height then scales from 0.0 at cloud base to 1.0 at cloud top, and the measured cloud parameter scales by its maximum value so that all normalized profiles have 1.0 as their maximum value. The goal is that there will be a 'universal' shape to profiles of the normalized data. This idea was applied to estimates of imf calculated from data obtained by the WPL cloud radar during FIRE II. Other quantities such as median particle diameter, concentration, and ice mass content can also be estimated with this radar, and we expect to also examine normalized profiles of these quantities in time for the 1993 FIRE II meeting.

  19. Analysis of the heavy rainfall from Typhoon Plum using Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, W.; Qu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Using reanalysis and observational data and Doppler radar data, the structure and characteristics of the synoptic and mesoscale meteorological background are analyzed for a heavy rainfall over Xiaoshipeng town of Yingkou City in Liaoning province, China. The results show that: (1) several synoptic scale patterns formed the background for the heavy rainfall: the Pacific subtropical high extended to the West; a strong tropical storm named "Plum" moved to the northwest after it had landed; Northwest jet transported a lot of the water vapor to Liaoning; the weak cold air of Baikal Lake moved to south along the ridge before the northwest flow impact to Liaoning. (2) the factors conducive to strong convective precipitation: the existence of a deep wet layer, a narrow CAPE zone and a relative weak vertical wind sheer. (3) there is nonstop generation of new mesoscale convective cells during the heavy rainfall. There exists a maximum wind zone of 24m/s in the lower layer and a strong radar echo with 35dBz above 5km. And the variation of the low level southwest jet is in step with the variation of rainfall amount. The cyclonic convergence of the warm wet air in the mid-low level is a factor triggering and strengthening convection. The nonstop generation of mesoscale convective cells and the water vapor transport from the low level southwest jet are pushing the rainfall radar echo to above 40dBz and lasting for more than 5 hours and are considered the direct cause of this heavy rainfall.

  20. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.

    SciTech Connect

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

    2007-08-06

    The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent

  1. Determining surface winds from Doppler radar data during hurricane passages over Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Philip D.

    A hurricane's destructive nature must be evaluated on as small a scale as possible to reveal the various types of mesoscale circulations that are embedded within the storm's overall wind field. This research develops a technique to estimate small scale surface wind speeds in hurricanes crossing Florida, and thereby identify areas of anomalous winds. Level II Doppler radar data are analyzed onto a high resolution (1 degree radial, 0.5 km gate) grid. An algorithm is developed to estimate the total wind speed from a combination of radial velocity and quality controlled reflectivity. These variables are utilized by identifying the location of the eye and then using radial velocities and an assumed symmetric wind field about the eye to estimate the total wind field over the entire radar scan area. Once the total wind field is computed along a scan, reduction factors are used to transpose the winds at the varying beam altitudes down to the surface using similarity theory. Case studies of Hurricanes Jeanne (2004), Frances (2004), Wilma (2005), Irene(1999), Ivan (2004) and Charlie (2004) are investigated. The success of the algorithm depends greatly on the ability of the Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler (WSR-88D) to sample the velocity data and the ability to properly unfold it. Hurricane Wilma is an example of dry air being entrained into the cyclone, which produces an inadequate concentration of targets to provide a velocity profile, thereby resulting in poor results. Computed wind speeds are compared with National Weather Service (NWS) ASOS observations and independent wind observations supplied by the University of Florida. The estimated winds and those from the two datasets exhibit reasonable agreement; however, additional validation is needed to determine the actual skill of the algorithm. The observed data indicate that gust factors are not optimally estimated by applying a uniform percentage of the total wind speed. Further investigation is needed to determine

  2. The NASA Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) System For GPM Ground Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Schwaller, Mathew; Vega, Manuel; Carswell, James; Vijay Mishra, Kumar; Nguyen, Cuong; Meneghini, Robert; Peterson, Walt

    2010-05-01

    Following on the successful introduction of single-frequency (Ku-Band) weather radar onboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in 1997, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission attempts to advance further the goal of making global scale precipitation observations by deploying the next generation of satellite-borne weather radars. The GPM satellite will carry a Ka-Ku band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) that can make measurements of parameters directly related to the microphysics of precipitation (such as raindrop size distribution). The Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) is a ground validation radar, as a part of the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program, to enable both physical validation support in terms of understanding the microphysical description of the observations as well as algorithm retrieval implications. This paper provides a scientific and technical overview of the D3R system as well as major challenges. The preferred frequency bands of operation for precipitation surveillance in ground radar systems have been nearly non-attenuating frequencies (such as S-, C-band) or short-range measurements of attenuating frequencies (as in X band). However, it is not practical to use traditional ground radar frequencies for precipitation observations in space-borne radars. The GPM mission has embarked on a dual-frequency approach at Ku- and Ka-band for characterizing precipitation. Moving to higher frequencies to observe precipitation though has its own challenges namely, attenuation due to precipitation and reduced Doppler velocity Nyquist limits. Ground radar measurements enjoy the advantage of coincident microphysical observations available to interpret radar signatures but they are currently unavailable at Ku- and Ka-band. An important broader science goal of the NASA D3R is to enhance the database of dual-frequency radar observations on the ground, in conjunction with existing observations, in order to provide a

  3. The Federal Aviation Administration/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (FAA/MIT) Lincoln Laboratory Doppler weather radar program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, James E.

    1988-01-01

    The program focuses on providing real-time information on hazardous aviation weather to end users such as air traffic control and pilots. Existing systems will soon be replaced by a Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), which will be concerned with detecting such hazards as heavy rain and hail, turbulence, low-altitude wind shear, and mesocyclones and tornadoes. Other systems in process are the Central Weather Processor (CWP), and the terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR). Weather measurements near Memphis are central to ongoing work, especially in the area of microbursts and wind shear.

  4. Pulse pressure monitoring through non-contact cardiac motion detection using 2.45 GHz microwave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The use of a Continuous Wave (CW) quadrature Doppler radar is proposed here for continuous non-invasive Pulse Pressure monitoring. A correspondence between the variation in systemic pulse and variation in the displacement of the chest due to heart is demonstrated, establishing feasibility for the approach. Arctangent demodulation technique was used to process baseband data from radar measurements on two test subjects, in order to determine the absolute cardiac motion. An Omron digital Blood pressure cuff was used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures from which the pulse pressure was calculated. Correlation between pulse pressure and cardiac motion was observed through changes induced due to different postures of the body.

  5. Performance of mean-frequency estimators for Doppler radar and lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frehlich, R. G.; Yadlowsky, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of mean-frequency estimators for Doppler radar and lidar measurements of winds is presented in terms of two basic parameters: Phi, the ratio of the average signal energy per estimate to the spectral noise level; and Omega, which is proportional to the number of independent samples per estimate. For fixed Phi and Omega, the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) (theoretical best performance) for unbiased estimators of mean frequency (normalized by the spectral width of the signal), signal power, and spectral width are essentially independent of the number of data samples M. For large Phi, the estimators of mean frequency are unbiased and the performance is independent of M. The spectral domain estimators and covariance based estimators are bounded by the approximate period of M. The spectral domain estimators and covariance based estimators are bounded by the approximate periodogram CRB. The standard deviation of the maximum-likelihood estimator approaches the exact CRB, which can be more than a factor of 2 better than the performance of the spectral domain estimators or covariance-based estimators for typical Omega. For small Phi, the estimators are biased due to the effects of the uncorrelated noise (white noise), which results in uniformly distributed 'bad' estimates. The fraction of bad estimates is a function of Phi and M with weak dependence on the parameter Omega. Simple empirical models describe the standard deviation of the good estimates and the fraction of bad estimates. For Doppler lidar and for large Phi, better performance is obtained by using many low-energy pulses instead of one pulse with the same total energy. For small Phi, the converse is true.

  6. 3D Structure of the Heavy Precipitation in South China by Dual-Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiguang, Z.

    2010-09-01

    As a result of the effect of the trough at 500hPa, the shear line at 850hPa and the low level cold air, it produced a heavy precipitation in the north region of Guangdong province and Pearl River Delta in China, up to 199.5mm rainfall from 01LST to 04LST and 99.1mm rainfall on 02LST 7 May 2010 at Wushan, 107.4mm rainfall on 02LST 7 May at Dongguan station. The one hour precipitation at Wushan has broken the record. The three dimensional wind fields were retrieved by the volume scan data of the dual-Doppler radar located in Guangzhou and Shenzhen cities. The structure evolution of the 3D wind fields of the heavy rainfall was investigated. It is a convective cloud precipitation as the radar echo analyses shown. The reflectivity is very strong at the heavy precipitation period time that the maximum value is more than 55dBZ. The supercell, bow-echo and the squall line located on the MβCS played an important role on this heavy rainfall. The dual-Doppler retrieval wind show that the heavy rainfall was induced by the meso-β-scale convergence line and the meso-β-scale vortex at the low and medium levels. The meso-β-scale convergence line triggered and maintained the heavy rainfall. The meso-β-scale convergence line moved southeastward. It stayed at Guangzhou and Dongguan city for period of time. There were strong convergence and vorticity at the low and medium levels of the MβCS. The rainband moved southeastward while the convergence line propagated along the same direction. Acknowledgements The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the National Science Foundation of China (grant 40975015, 40605014), the Grant Agency of the National Key Basic Research and Development Project of China (grant 2004CB418305), and the foundation of state key laboratory of severe weather.

  7. Simulation of Tornado over Brahmanbaria on 22 March 2013 using Doppler Weather Radar and WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. K.; Chowdhury, M.; Das, S.

    2013-12-01

    A tornado accompanied with thunderstorm, rainfall and hailstorm affected Brahmanbaria of Bangladesh in the afternoon of 22 March 2013. The tornadic storms are studied based on field survey, ground and radar observations. Low level moisture influx by southerly flow from the Bay of Bengal coupled with upper level westerly jet stream causing intense instability and shear in the wind fields triggered a series of storms for the day. The exact time and locations of the storms are investigated by using the Agartala and Cox's Bazar Doppler Weather Radar (DWR). Subsequently, the storms are simulated by using the WRF-ARW model at 1 km horizontal resolution based on 6 hourly analyses and boundary conditions of NCEP-FNL. Among the typical characteristics of the storms, the CAPE, surface wind speed, flow patterns, T-Φ gram, rainfall, sea level pressure, vorticity and vertical velocity are studied. Results show that while there are differences of 2-3 hours between the observed and simulated time of the storms, the distances between observed and simulated locations of the storms are several tens of kilometers. The maximum CAPE was generally above 2400 J kg-1 in the case. The maximum intensity of surface wind speed simulated by the model was only 38 m sec-1. This seems to be underestimated. The highest vertical velocity (updraft) simulated by the model was 250 m sec-1 around 800-950 hPa. The updraft reached up to 150 hPa. It seems that the funnel vortex reached the ground, and might have passed some places a few meters above the surface. According to the Fujita Pearson scale, this tornado can be classified as F-2 with estimated wind speed of 50-70 ms-1. Keywords: Tornado, DWR, NCEP-FNL, T-Φ gram, CAPE.

  8. Measurement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in the mesosphere by a 3 MHz Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Hocking, W. K.

    A new narrow beam Doppler radar at 3.17 MHz has been installed close to the Andöya Rocket Range in Andenes, Norway in summer 2002 to improve the ground based capabilities for measurements of turbulence in the mesosphere. The main feature of the radar is the transmitting/receiving antenna (Mills Cross antenna of 29 crossed half-wave dipoles) which provides in combination with the modular transceiver system high flexibility in beam forming and pointing. In general, vertical and oblique beams with a minimum beam width of about 7 (FWHP, one way) are used; the observations are done with a height resolution of 1 km. Off-zenith beams at 7.3 are directed towards NW, NE, SE, and SW. In addition, beams with different widths at the same pointing angle can be formed for the application of dual-beam width techniques. Turbulence intensities are estimated from the width of the observed signal spectra. Exact and approximate methods of removing non-turbulent processes such as wind shear and beam width broadening are applied. The exact, but computer time consuming correction method requires the knowledge of the antenna radiation pattern and of the measured wind field. The standard approximation is based on background winds and beam width, the dual-beam width approximation needs the beam width only. Examples of the various methods are discussed. Results of measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates obtained with the exact correction method for beam and shear broadening are presented for the period September 2003 to January 2004. In September, mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates amount about 5 mW/kg at 60km and about 20 mW/kg at 80km in agreement with mean turbulence intensities obtained from rocket soundings at Andenes.

  9. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-20

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  10. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method. PMID:26805835

  11. A comparison of three retrieval methods with single Doppler radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shenghui; Wei, Ming; Gao, Li; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Qingfeng; Yang, Kun

    2011-11-01

    In single Doppler radar wind retrieval technique there are three methods proposed in recently years, which is VAP, VPP and SVVP method. Three methods were employed to retrieve wind field with the purpose to find out which one is more suitable in practice according their accuracy by using synthetic data and real data. When tests applied with uniform data, the orders of magnitude for relative error of radial velocity is 10-13 for SVVP, much lower than that of VAP and VPP which both are 10-4. Furthermore, the results under condition of wind direction unchanged and wind velocity varied linearity with altitude are 10-8, 10-3, 10-3 for SVVP, VPP and VAP, respectively. In real wind field of typhoon "Pearl", the authenticity of surrounding wind and wind shear retrieved by SVVP and VPP is better than VAP, the deviation of simulation would be increased at some points missing data. Relative errors of radial velocity achieved by VAP, VPP and SVVP are 7.02, 5.78 and 3.1 respectively. It indicated that SVVP method's performance is better than that of other two and suitable in practical applications.

  12. Assimilation of Wind Profiles from Multiple Doppler Radar Wind Profilers for Space Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Walker, John R.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Leach, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric wind data are required by space launch vehicles in order to assess flight vehicle loads and performance on day-of-launch. Space launch ranges at NASA's Kennedy Space Center co-located with the United States Air Force's (USAF) Eastern Range (ER) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and USAF's Western Range (WR) at Vandenberg Air Force Base have extensive networks of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation to measure atmospheric winds. Each instrument's technique to measure winds has advantages and disadvantages in regards to use within vehicle trajectory analyses. Balloons measure wind at all altitudes necessary for vehicle assessments, but two primary disadvantages exist when applying balloon output. First, balloons require approximately one hour to reach required altitudes. Second, balloons are steered by atmospheric winds down range of the launch site that could significantly differ from those winds along the vehicle ascent trajectory. These issues are mitigated by use of vertically pointing Doppler Radar Wind Profilers (DRWPs). However, multiple DRWP instruments are required to provide wind data over altitude ranges necessary for vehicle trajectory assessments. The various DRWP systems have different operating configurations resulting in different temporal and spatial sampling intervals. Therefore, software was developed to combine data from both DRWP-generated profiles into a single profile for use in vehicle trajectory analyses. This paper will present details of the splicing software algorithms and will provide sample output.

  13. Spectrum Modal Analysis for the Detection of Low-Altitude Windshear with Airborne Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, Matthew W.

    1992-01-01

    A major obstacle in the estimation of windspeed patterns associated with low-altitude windshear with an airborne pulsed Doppler radar system is the presence of strong levels of ground clutter which can strongly bias a windspeed estimate. Typical solutions attempt to remove the clutter energy from the return through clutter rejection filtering. Proposed is a method whereby both the weather and clutter modes present in a return spectrum can be identified to yield an unbiased estimate of the weather mode without the need for clutter rejection filtering. An attempt will be made to show that modeling through a second order extended Prony approach is sufficient for the identification of the weather mode. A pattern recognition approach to windspeed estimation from the identified modes is derived and applied to both simulated and actual flight data. Comparisons between windspeed estimates derived from modal analysis and the pulse-pair estimator are included as well as associated hazard factors. Also included is a computationally attractive method for estimating windspeeds directly from the coefficients of a second-order autoregressive model. Extensions and recommendations for further study are included.

  14. Salient features of the dual-frequency, dual-polarized, Doppler radar for remote sensing of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Manuel A.; Chandrasekar, V.; Carswell, James; Beauchamp, Robert M.; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Nguyen, Cuong

    2014-11-01

    The global precipitation measurement (GPM) mission is an international satellite mission to obtain accurate observations of precipitation on a global scale every 3 h. Its (GPM) core satellite was launched on 27 February 2014 with two science instruments: the microwave imager and the dual-frequency precipitation radar. Ground validation is an integral part of the GPM mission where instruments are deployed to complement and correlate with spacecraft instruments. The dual-frequency, dual-polarization, Doppler radar (D3R) is a critical ground validation instrument that was developed for the GPM program. This paper describes the salient features of the D3R in the context of the GPM ground validation mission. The engineering and architectural overview of the radar is described, and observations from successful GPM ground validation field experiments are presented.

  15. Doppler Radar and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis; Cammarata, Michael; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Data from a single WSR-88D Doppler radar and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak within Tropical Storm Beryl's remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 12 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 hours, spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 hours. Time-height analyses of the three strongest supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and evolution. These Beryl mini-supercells were comparable in radar-observed intensity but much more persistent than other tropical cyclone-spawned tornadic cells documented thus far with Doppler radars. Cloud-to-ground lightning data are also examined for all the tornadic cells in this severe swarm-type tornado outbreak. These data show many of the characteristics of previously reported heavy-precipitation supercells. Lightning rates were weak to moderate, even in the more intense supercells, and in all the storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. No lightning at all was detected in some of the single-tornado storms. In the stronger cells, there is some evidence that lightning rates can decrease during tornadogenesis, as has been documented before in some midlatitude tornadic storms. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. These findings suggest possible benefits from implementation of observing systems capable of monitoring intracloud as well as cloud-to-ground lightning activity.

  16. A new narrow beam Doppler radar at 3 MHz for studies of the high latitude middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Holdsworth, D. A.

    A Doppler radar at 3.17 MHz has been installed close to the Andøya Rocket Range as part of the ALOMAR observatory at Andenes, Norway in summer 2002 to improve the ground based capabilities for measurements of turbulence and gravity wave characteristics in the mesosphere The main feature of the new radar is the transmitting/receiving antenna which is formed by 29 crossed half-wave dipoles arranged as a Mills Cross. The spacing of the crossed dipoles is 0.7 wave lengths resulting in a minimum beam width of about 7 (FWHP, one way). Each dipole is fed by its own transceiver unit with a peak power of 2 kW. The individual phase control of the 58 transceiver modules on transmission and reception provides high flexibility in beam forming and pointing as well as switching of the polarisation between o- and x-mode transmission from data point to data point to estimate electron densities from differential absorption/phase measurements. Off-zenith beams at 7.3 towards NW, NE, SE, SW are formed as the Mills Cross antenna is oriented along the cardinal directions. In addition, beams with different widths at the same pointing angle can be formed. For multiple receiver applications (spaced antenna wind measurements, all-sky meteor detections) four independent receiving channels and two additional crossed dipole arrangements are available. Observations of interleaved Doppler winds, spaced antenna winds using Full Correlation Analysis and IDI technique are discussed in relation with simultaneous observations from nearby located MF/HF/VHF radars (VHF Doppler/spaced antenna winds, wide beam MF radar spaced antenna winds, all-sky meteor radar winds). Results of measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates and momentum flux measurements using co-planar beams are presented. The characteristics of radio wave scatterers can be studied in a wider frequency range by common volume observations with the ALWIN MST radar at 53.5 MHz in summer. The new radar also supports studies

  17. High-Frequency (>50 MHz) Medical Ultrasound Linear Arrays Fabricated From Micromachined Bulk PZT Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhou, Qifa; Djuth, Frank T.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of a high-frequency (65-MHz) ultrasound transducer linear array. The array was built from bulk PZT which was etched using an optimized chlorine-based plasma dry-etching process. The median etch rate of 8 μm/h yielded a good profile (wall) angle (>83°) and a reasonable processing time for etch depths up to 40 μm (which corresponds to a 50-MHz transducer). A backing layer with an acoustic impedance of 6 MRayl and a front-end polymer matching layer yielded a transducer bandwidth of 40%. The major parameters of the transducer have been characterized. The two-way insertion loss and crosstalk between adjacent channels at the center frequency are 26.5 and −25 dB, respectively. PMID:24626041

  18. Delay-Doppler and Radar-Interferometric Imaging of the Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Michael W.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ostro, S. J.; Brisken, W.; Benner, L. A. M.; Nolan, M. C.; Giorgini, J. D.; Brozovic, M.; Magri, C.

    2009-09-01

    Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provides the highest angular resolution of any astronomical imaging technique. VLBI-radar plane-of-sky imaging of near-Earth asteroids can provide astrometry, relative orbits of binaries, unambiguous shapes, and maps of surface properties well beyond conventional delay-Doppler imaging, for a subset of Arecibo radar targets. 2008 EV5 was discovered by the Mt. Lemmon Survey on Mar 4 2008, and approached to within 8.4 lunar distances on 2008 Dec 23. We observed it with delay-Doppler imaging at Goldstone during 2008 Dec 16-23 and at Arecibo during Dec 23-27. On Dec 23 & 24, we also observed with Arecibo CW transmissions and the VLBA and Green Bank receiving. The delay-Doppler data provide 7.5-m spatial resolution, showing that EV5 is a roughly 450 m spheroid, with a slight equatorial ridge and a prominent concavity (150-200 m across). However, the delay-Doppler data alone provide two mirror solutions for the asteroid's pole direction. The two pole directions predict opposite Yarkovsky accelerations, producing a several million kilometer offset in the asteroid's trajectory by 2170. The VLBA+GBT plane-of-sky images have 100 m resolution. We are currently combining the delay-Doppler and VLBI data and will report our results. This material is based partially on work supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate Research and Analysis Programs. The VLBA is operated by Associated Universities for the NSF. Arecibo Observatory is run by Cornell for the NSF. M.W.B. was supported by the Hertz Foundation.

  19. The pulse-pair algorithm as a robust estimator of turbulent weather spectral parameters using airborne pulse Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.; Lee, Jonggil

    1991-01-01

    The pulse pair method for spectrum parameter estimation is commonly used in pulse Doppler weather radar signal processing since it is economical to implement and can be shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator. With the use of airborne weather radar for windshear detection, the turbulent weather and strong ground clutter return spectrum differs from that assumed in its derivation, so the performance robustness of the pulse pair technique must be understood. Here, the effect of radar system pulse to pulse phase jitter and signal spectrum skew on the pulse pair algorithm performance is discussed. Phase jitter effect may be significant when the weather return signal to clutter ratio is very low and clutter rejection filtering is attempted. The analysis can be used to develop design specifications for airborne radar system phase stability. It is also shown that the weather return spectrum skew can cause a significant bias in the pulse pair mean windspeed estimates, and that the poly pulse pair algorithm can reduce this bias. It is suggested that use of a spectrum mode estimator may be more appropriate in characterizing the windspeed within a radar range resolution cell for detection of hazardous windspeed gradients.

  20. The design and development of signal-processing algorithms for an airborne x-band Doppler weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Shaun R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved measurements of precipitation will aid our understanding of the role of latent heating on global circulations. Spaceborne meteorological sensors such as the planned precipitation radar and microwave radiometers on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) provide for the first time a comprehensive means of making these global measurements. Pre-TRMM activities include development of precipitation algorithms using existing satellite data, computer simulations, and measurements from limited aircraft campaigns. Since the TRMM radar will be the first spaceborne precipitation radar, there is limited experience with such measurements, and only recently have airborne radars become available that can attempt to address the issue of the limitations of a spaceborne radar. There are many questions regarding how much attenuation occurs in various cloud types and the effect of cloud vertical motions on the estimation of precipitation rates. The EDOP program being developed by NASA GSFC will provide data useful for testing both rain-retrieval algorithms and the importance of vertical motions on the rain measurements. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and development of real-time embedded parallel algorithms used by EDOP to extract reflectivity and Doppler products (velocity, spectrum width, and signal-to-noise ratio) as the first step in the aforementioned goals.

  1. Statistical Analysis of the Recent Unrest at Volcán de Colima, Mexico, Monitored With a Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharff, L.; Hort, M. K.; Varley, N. R.; Röh, F.; Schultz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcán de Colima was equipped with a Doppler radar monitoring station in 2007 (March to July) and from March 2014 to 11 July 2015, when a pyroclastic flow partly destroyed the instrument. The Doppler radar measures the velocity of ejecta (>0.5 mm) and the reflected energy (a proxy for their cumulative size) within the eruption cloud. These data constrain the dynamics of the eruption cloud between 100-200m above the vent, where the field of view is located. We measure the precise timing of surface activity when tephra is included, while pure gas emissions (white steam clouds and fumaroles) are transparent to the radar. In 2007 a new dome grew slowly within the crater, accompanied by almost daily tephra emissions. This continued until 2011, when a larger explosion signalled the end of the effusion. After 18 months of quiescence, a new eruptive episode commenced in January 2013 and continues to date (Aug. 2015). Analysis of the temporal trends of ejecta velocities reveals that tephra emissions are pulsed. This matches observations, where the ash concentration commonly varies between discrete pulses. The statistical analysis of times between pulses best fits a log-logistic distribution. A log-logistic distribution indicates the interplay of two competing processes: for example short duration pressure release within a few seconds through a shallow fracture network vs. long term (tens of seconds) gas supply from deeper regions. Or it could be the competition of processes affecting the magma viscosity: rapid degassing acting to increase it, whilst a temperature increase from latent heat or shear heat generation acts to decrease the viscosity. The repose-times (in 2007) also follow a log-logistic distribution with different parameters. A single set of parameters fitting both the repose- and inter-pulse-times has not been found. In the recent data set (2014-2015) the number of events remarkably increased from 29 per month (June 2014) up to 23 per day in February 2015. The

  2. Characteristics of Deep Tropical and Subtropical Convection from Nadir-Viewing High-Altitude Airborne Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Li, Lihua; Guimond, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents observations of deep convection characteristics in the tropics and subtropics that have been classified into four categories: tropical cyclone, oceanic, land, and sea breeze. Vertical velocities in the convection were derived from Doppler radar measurements collected during several NASA field experiments from the nadir-viewing high-altitude ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP). Emphasis is placed on the vertical structure of the convection from the surface to cloud top (sometimes reaching 18-km altitude). This unique look at convection is not possible from other approaches such as ground-based or lower-altitude airborne scanning radars. The vertical motions from the radar measurements are derived using new relationships between radar reflectivity and hydrometeor fall speed. Various convective properties, such as the peak updraft and downdraft velocities and their corresponding altitude, heights of reflectivity levels, and widths of reflectivity cores, are estimated. The most significant findings are the following: 1) strong updrafts that mostly exceed 15 m/s, with a few exceeding 30 m/s, are found in all the deep convection cases, whether over land or ocean; 2) peak updrafts were almost always above the 10-km level and, in the case of tropical cyclones, were closer to the 12-km level; and 3) land-based and sea-breeze convection had higher reflectivities and wider convective cores than oceanic and tropical cyclone convection. In addition, the high-resolution EDOP data were used to examine the connection between reflectivity and vertical velocity, for which only weak linear relationships were found. The results are discussed in terms of dynamical and microphysical implications for numerical models and future remote sensors.

  3. Doppler-radar observation of the evolution of downdrafts in convective clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motallebi, N.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the 20 July 1977 thunderstorm complex which formed and evolve over the South Park region in Central Colorado is presented. The storm was extensively analyzed using multiple Doppler radar and surface mesonet data, developed within an environment having very weak wind shear. The storm owed its intensification to the strength of the downdraft, which was nearly coincident with the region where the cloud had grown. The noteworthy features of this storm were its motion to the right of the cloud-level winds, its multicellular nature and discrete propagation, its north-south orientation, and its relatively large storm size and high reflectivity factor (55 dBZ). This scenario accounts for the observed mesoscale and cloud-scale event. A line of convergence was generated at the interface between the easterly upslope winds and westerly winds. During stage II, the convergence line subsequently propagated down the slopes of the Mosquito Range, and was the main forcing mechanism for the development of updraft on the west flank of the storm. The formation of downdraft on the eastern side of updraft blacked surface inflow, and created a detectable gust front. As the original downdraft intensified, the accumulation of evaporatively-chilled air caused the intensification of the mesohigh, which likely destroyed the earlier convergence line and created a stronger convergence line to the east, which forced up-lifting of the moist, westerly inflow and caused the formation of updraft to the east. An organized downdraft circulation, apparently maintained by precipitation drag and evaporational cooling, was responsible in sustaining a well-defined gust front. The storm attained its highest intensity as a consequence of merging with a neighboring cloud. The interaction of downdrafts or gust fronts from two intense cells appeared to be the primary mechanism of this merging process as suggested by Simpson et al. (1980). The merging process coincided with more rain than

  4. Whirl Wind Detection and Identification in Indonesia Utilizing Single Polarization Doppler Weather Radar Volumetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Abdullah; Hidayati, Sabitul

    2016-06-01

    Whirl wind occurrence frequency in Indonesia tends increasing in the last five years. Geospatial data from National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB) recorded 72 cases with the impact of the two victims died, ten injured, 485 people were evacuated, and 1285 buildings were destroyed at period of January-June 2015. Based on the impact, early warning through remote sensing by using single polarization Doppler weather radar is need to be efforted. Whirl wind detection is done by identifying the characteristic pattern of the rotating convective cloud system by hook echo, analyzing the exsistance of vortex and rotation, and the strength of turbulence. The results show horizontal wind profile with a rotational pattern at CAPPI (V) and HWIND (V) by the altitude of 0.5 km, strong turbulence through product CAPPI (W) 0.5 km ranged of 1.75-2.05 ms-1, the vertical wind profile by product VVP (V) with a maximum value updraft reaches more than 20 knots at a 100-200 meters height, strong horizontal wind shear through HSHEAR (V) and CAPPI (HSHEAR) altitude of 0.5 km with a range of 6.23 to 10.12 ms-1/km. SWI and SSA show that the cloud base height is very low ranged from 200-600 meters with a maximum reflectivity reached 61.5 dBZ by top cloud height reached 14 km, while the product CAPPI (Z) 0.5 km and CMAX (Z) is very difficult to identify patterns hook echo. The results of remote sensing are very representative with the physical properties of whirl wind even whirl wind in a smaller scale.

  5. Assimilation of Wind Profiles from Multiple Doppler Radar Wind Profilers for Space Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Brenton, James C.; Walker, James C.; Leach, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Space launch vehicles utilize atmospheric winds in design of the vehicle and during day-of-launch (DOL) operations to assess affects of wind loading on the vehicle and to optimize vehicle performance during ascent. The launch ranges at NASA's Kennedy Space Center co-located with the United States Air Force's (USAF) Eastern Range (ER) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and USAF's Western Range (WR) at Vandenberg Air Force Base have extensive networks of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation to measure atmospheric winds. Each instrument's technique to measure winds has advantages and disadvantages in regards to use for vehicle engineering assessments. Balloons measure wind at all altitudes necessary for vehicle assessments, but two primary disadvantages exist when applying balloon output on DOL. First, balloons need approximately one hour to reach required altitude. For vehicle assessments this occurs at 60 kft (18.3 km). Second, balloons are steered by atmospheric winds down range of the launch site that could significantly differ from those winds along the vehicle ascent trajectory. Figure 1 illustrates the spatial separation of balloon measurements from the surface up to approximately 55 kft (16.8 km) during the Space Shuttle launch on 10 December 2006. The balloon issues are mitigated by use of vertically pointing Doppler Radar Wind Profilers (DRWPs). However, multiple DRWP instruments are required to provide wind data up to 60 kft (18.3 km) for vehicle trajectory assessments. The various DRWP systems have different operating configurations resulting in different temporal and spatial sampling intervals. Therefore, software was developed to combine data from both DRWP-generated profiles into a single profile for use in vehicle trajectory analyses. Details on how data from various wind measurement systems are combined and sample output will be presented in the following sections.

  6. D-region electron densities obtained by differential absorption and phase measurements with a 3-MHz-Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Friedrich, M.; Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S.; Engler, N.; Holdsworth, D.

    2005-08-01

    A Doppler radar at 3.17 MHz has been installed close to the Andøya Rocket Range as part of the ALOMAR observatory at Andenes, Norway (69.3°N, 16.0°E) in summer 2002 to improve the ground based capabilities for measurements of small scale features and electron number densities in the mesosphere. The main feature of the new radar is the transmitting/receiving antenna which is arranged as a Mills Cross of 29 crossed half-wave dipoles with a minimum beam width of about 7°. The modular transceiver system provides high flexibility in beam forming and pointing as well as in switching of the polarisation between ordinary and extraordinary mode on transmission and reception. Doppler winds and electron number densities can be measured between about 55 km and 90 km with a time resolution of 9 minutes. The electron number density profiles derived with differential absorption (DAE) and differential phase (DPE) measurements are in remarkable good agreement. We discuss the diurnal and seasonal variability of electron densities obtained at Andenes in 2004/2005, the response of D-region electron densities to geomagnetic disturbances and solar proton events. The results are compared with rocket measurements from Andenes and with observations from EISCAT VHF radar at Tromsø.

  7. Application of the Doppler weather radar in real-time quality control of hourly gauge precipitation in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lingzhi; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lin; Yang, Jinhong; Zou, Fengling

    2016-05-01

    The current real-time operational quality control method for hourly rain gauge records at meteorological stations of China is primarily based on a comparison with historical extreme records, and the spatial and temporal consistencies of rain records. However, this method might make erroneous judgments for heavy precipitation because of its remarkable inhomogeneous features. In this study, we develop a Radar Supported Operational Real-time Quality Control (RS_ORQC) method to improve hourly gauge precipitation records in eastern China by using Doppler weather radar data and national automatic rain-gauge network in JJA (i.e., June, July and August) between 2010 and 2011. According to the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative probability density function (CDF), we establish the statistic relationships between NSN precipitation records under 7 radar coverage and radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). The other NSN records under 5 radar coverage are used for the verification. The results show that the correct rate of this radar-supported new method in judging gauge precipitation is close to 99.95% when the hourly rainfall rate is below 10 mm h- 1 and is 96.21% when the rainfall intensity is above 10 mm h- 1. Moreover, the improved quality control method is also applied to evaluate the quality of provincial station network (PSN) precipitation records over eastern China. The correct rate of PSN precipitation records is 99.92% when the hourly rainfall rate is below 10 mm h- 1, and it is 93.33% when the hourly rainfall rate is above 10 mm h- 1. Case studies also exhibit that the radar-supported method can make correct judgments for extreme heavy rainfall.

  8. UHF and VHF radar observations of thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, D. N.; Ulbrich, C. W.; Larsen, M. F.; Rottger, J.; Ierkic, H. M.; Swartz, W.

    1986-01-01

    A study of thunderstorms was made in the Summer of 1985 with the 430-MHz and 50-MHz radars at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. Both radars use the 300-meter dish, which gives a beam width of less than 2 degrees even at these long wavelengths. Though the radars are steerable, only vertical beams were used in this experiment. The height resolution was 300 and 150 meters for the UHF and VHF, respectively. Lightning echoes, as well as returns from precipitation and clear-air turbulence were detected with both wavelengths. Large increases in the returned power were found to be coincident with increasing downward vertical velocities at UHF, whereas at VHF the total power returned was relatively constant during the life of a storm. This was attributed to the fact that the VHF is more sensitive to scattering from the turbulence-induced inhomogeneities in the refractive index and less sensitive to scatter from precipitation particles. On occasion, the shape of the Doppler spectra was observed to change with the occurrence of a lightning discharge in the pulse volume. Though the total power and mean reflectivity weighted Doppler velocity changed little during these events, the power is Doppler frequency bins near that corresponding to the updraft did increase substantially within a fraction of a second after a discharge was detected in the beam. This suggests some interaction between precipitation and lightning.

  9. Quantification of Shear-Relative Asymmetries in Eyewall Slope Using Airborne Doppler Radar Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, A.; Rogers, R.; Hart, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, it has become apparent that typical methods for analyzing tropical cyclones (TCs), such as track and intensity, are insufficient for evaluating TC structural evolution and numerical model forecasts of that evolution. Many studies have analyzed different metrics related to TC inner-core structure in an attempt to better understand the processes that drive changes in core structure. One important metric related to vertical TC structure is the slope of the eyewall. Hazelton and Hart (2013) discussed azimuthal mean eyewall slope based on radar reflectivity data, and its relationship with TC intensity and core structure. That study also noted significant azimuthal variation in slopes, but did not significantly explore reasons for this variation. Accordingly, in this study, we attempt to quantify the role of vertical wind shear in causing azimuthal variance of slope, using research quality Doppler radar composites from the NOAA Hurricane Research Division (HRD). We analyze the slope of the 20 dBZ surface as in Hazelton and Hart (2013), and also look at azimuthal variation in other measures of eyewall slope, such as the slope of the radius of maximum winds (RMW), which has been analyzed in an azimuthal mean sense by Stern and Nolan (2009), and an angular momentum surface. The shear-relative slopes are quantified by separating the radar data into four quadrants relative to the vertical shear vector: Downshear Left (DSL), Upshear Left (USL), Upshear Right (USR), and Downshear Right (DSR). This follows the method employed in shear-relative analyses of other aspects of TC core structure, such as Rogers et al. (2013) and Reasor et al. (2013). The data suitable for use in this study consist of 36 flights into 15 different TCs (14 Atlantic, 1 Eastern Pacific) between 1997 and 2010. Preliminary results show apparent shear-induced asymmetries in eyewall slope. The slope of the RMW shows an asymmetry due to the tilt of the vortex approximately along the shear vector, with

  10. Imaging melanin cancer growth in-vivo using raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) at 50 MHz and 100 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Murad; Schwarz, Mathias; Soliman, Dominik; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    We used raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) at 50 MHz, and at 100 MHz, to monitor tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis, which is a central hallmark of cancer, in-vivo. In this study we compared the performance, and the effect of the 50 MHz, and the 100 MHz frequencies on the quality of the final image. The system is based on a reflection-mode implementation of RSOM. The detectors used are custom made, ultrawideband, and spherically focused. The use of such detectors enables light coupling from the same side as the detector, thus reflection-mode. Light is in turn coupled using a fiber bundle, and the detector is raster scanned in the xy-plane. Subsequently, to retrieve small features, the raw data are reconstructed using a multi-bandwidth, beamforming reconstruction algorithm. Comparison of the system performance at the different frequencies shows as expected a higher resolution in case of the 100 MHz detector compared to the 50 MHz. On the other hand the 50 MHz has a better SNR, can detect features from deeper layers, and has higher angular acceptance. Based on these characteristics the 50 MHz detector was mostly used. After comparing the performance we monitored the growth of B16F10 cells, melanin tumor, over the course of 9 days. We see correspondence between the optoacoustic measurements and the cryoslice validations. Additionally, in areas close to the tumor we see sprouting of new vessels, starting at day 4-5, which corresponds to tumor angiogenesis.

  11. The application of the ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP microprocessor in a digital Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.H.; Morrison, R.E.

    1991-08-26

    A continuous wave doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployable and can be remotely controlled. The system is immune to ground clutter and is used for wind speed detection and direction determination. Nearly real time digital signal processing is performed by an Analog Devices ADSP-21020, a 40-bit floating point Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessor. This paper provides an overview of the design of the system including the radio frequency (RF) to digital interface. The various DSP detection algorithms are discussed and compared to system performance and sensitivity. Finally, DSP performance is compared to the performance of an earlier system using Analog Device's ADSP-2100. 6 refs.

  12. An improved version of the extended velocity-azimuth display analysis of single-Doppler radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejka, Thomas; Srivastava, Ramesh C.

    1991-08-01

    Extended velocity-azimuth display (EVAD) analysis is useful for obtaining vertical profiles of horizontal divergence, vertical air velocity, vertical hydrometer velocity, and hydrometeor terminal fall speed in widespread precipitation. The technique uses a volume of velocity data collected with a single Doppler radar. Several improvements to the previously reported EVAD technique are discussed. They include the weighting of Fourier series coefficients to reflect their estimated error, a correction for heteroscedasticity (the systematic variation of residuals) in the regression analysis, and the weighting of data from different elevation angles to compensate for the finite thickness of the layers in which each analysis is performed. Vertical air velocity is obtained through a variational procedure. Procedures for dealiasing the velocity data and for rejecting outliers from the dataset are summarized. Recommendations for collecting radar data for use in EVAD analysis are made.

  13. Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.E.; Robinson, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Turbulence in breaking mountain waves and atmospheric rotors estimated from airborne in situ and Doppler radar measurements.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Lukas; Serafin, Stefano; Haimov, Samuel; Grubišić, Vanda

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric turbulence generated in flow over mountainous terrain is studied using airborne in situ and cloud radar measurements over the Medicine Bow Mountains in southeast Wyoming, USA. During the NASA Orographic Clouds Experiment (NASA06) in 2006, two complex mountain flow cases were documented by the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft carrying the Wyoming Cloud Radar. The structure of turbulence and its intensity across the mountain range are described using the variance of vertical velocity σw2 and the cube root of the energy dissipation rate ɛ(1/3) (EDR). For a quantitative analysis of turbulence from the cloud radar, the uncertainties in the Doppler wind retrieval have to be taken into account, such as the variance of hydrometeor fall speed and the contamination of vertical Doppler velocity by the horizontal wind. A thorough analysis of the uncertainties shows that 25% accuracy or better can be achieved in regions of moderate to severe turbulence in the lee of the mountains, while only qualitative estimates of turbulence intensity can be obtained outside the most turbulent regions. Two NASA06 events exhibiting large-amplitude mountain waves, mid-tropospheric wave breaking, and rotor circulations are examined. Moderate turbulence is found in a wave-breaking region with σw2 and EDR reaching 4.8 m(2) s(-2) and 0.25 m(2/3) s(-1), respectively. Severe turbulence is measured within the rotor circulations with σw2 and EDR respectively in the ranges of 7.8-16.4 m(2) s(-2) and 0.50-0.77 m(2/3) s(-1). A unique result of this study is the quantitative estimation of the intensity of turbulence and its spatial distribution in the interior of atmospheric rotors, provided by the radar-derived turbulence fields.

  15. A new narrow beam Doppler radar at 3 MHz for studies of the high-latitude middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Holdsworth, D. A.

    A Doppler radar at 3.17 MHz has been installed at Saura close to the Andøya Rocket Range as part of the ALOMAR observatory at Andenes, Norway in summer 2002 to improve the ground based capabilities for measurements of small scale features and turbulence in the mesosphere. The main feature of the new Saura MF radar is the transmitting/receiving antenna which is arranged as a Mills Cross of 29 crossed half-wave dipoles with a minimum beam width of about 7°. Each dipole is fed by its own transceiver, and the individual phase control of the 58 transceiver modules on transmission and reception provides high flexibility in beam forming and pointing as well as transmission switching between ordinary and extraordinary mode circular polarisation. In addition, beams with different widths at the same pointing angle can be formed. For multiple receiver applications (spaced antenna wind measurements, all-sky meteor detections) four independent receiving channels are available. The observation capabilities of the radar are demonstrated by wind measurements using various techniques, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates from spectral width measurements, electron density estimates using differential absorption and phase measurements, and meteor observations. The results are discussed in relation with simultaneous observations from co-located MF/HF/VHF radars.

  16. Signal processing for airborne doppler radar detection of hazardous wind shear as applied to NASA 1991 radar flight experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Radar data collected during the 1991 NASA flight tests have been selectively analyzed to support research directed at developing both improved as well as new algorithms for detecting hazardous low-altitude windshear. Analysis of aircraft attitude data from several flights indicated that platform stability bandwidths were small compared to the data rate bandwidths which should support an assumption that radar returns can be treated as short time stationary. Various approaches at detection of weather returns in the presence of ground clutter are being investigated. Non-coventional clutter rejection through spectrum mode tracking and classification algorithms is a subject of continuing research. Based upon autoregressive modeling of the radar return time sequence, this approach may offer an alternative to overcome errors in conventional pulse-pair estimates. Adaptive filtering is being evaluated as a means of rejecting clutter with emphasis on low signal-to-clutter ratio situations, particularly in the presence of discrete clutter interference. An analysis of out-of-range clutter returns is included to illustrate effects of ground clutter interference due to range aliasing for aircraft on final approach. Data are presented to indicate how aircraft groundspeed might be corrected from the radar data as well as point to an observed problem of groundspeed estimate bias variation with radar antenna scan angle. A description of how recorded clutter return data are mixed with simulated weather returns is included. This enables the researcher to run controlled experiments to test signal processing algorithms. In the summary research efforts involving improved modelling of radar ground clutter returns and a Bayesian approach at hazard factor estimation are mentioned.

  17. The NASA Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) System for Gpm Ground Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, C. V.; Schwaller, M.; Vega, M.; Misra, K. V.; Carswell, J.; Nguyen, C.; Petersen, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    The successful introduction of single-frequency (Ku-Band: 13.8 GHz) weather radar onboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in 1997 facilitated improved understanding of the spatial distribution, variability, intensity of rainfall and its role in climate. However, the mission’s inherent limitations of spatiotemporal coverage and limited sensitivity to frozen precipitation hindered knowledge of the role of precipitation in climate and hydrological cycles. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will attempt to advance further the goal of making global scale precipitation observations by deploying the next generation of satellite-borne weather radars. The GPM satellite will carry a Ka-Ku band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) that can make measurements of parameters directly related to the microphysics of precipitation (such as raindrop size distribution). While the Ku-band radar is an updated version of the TRMM precipitation radar, the Ka-band radar would provide higher sensitivity which can prove useful in the measurement of snow and light rain. The Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) is a ground validation radar, proposed as a part of the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program, to enable both physical validation support in terms of understanding the microphysical description of the observations as well as algorithm retrieval implications. This paper provides a scientific and technical overview of the D3R system as well as major challenges. Following the success of TRMM, the GPM mission has embarked on a dual-frequency approach at Ku- and Ka-band for characterizing precipitation. While extensive ground radar observations of precipitation are available at S- and C- band, such measurements do not exist at Ku- and Ka-band. Ground radar measurements enjoy the advantage of coincident microphysical observations available to interpret radar signatures. Another major advantage of the ground radar observations is the ability

  18. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Eyster, R S; Wolf, W W

    2014-07-01

    Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (CEW) populations infesting one crop production area may rapidly migrate and infest distant crop production areas. Although entomological radars have detected corn earworm moth migrations, the spatial extent of the radar coverage has been limited to a small horizontal view above crop production areas. The Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) continuously monitors the radar-transmitted energy reflected by, and radial speed of, biota as well as by precipitation over areas that may encompass crop production areas. We analyzed data from the WSR-88D radar (S-band) at Brownsville, Texas, and related these data to aerial concentrations of CEW estimated by a scanning entomological radar (X-band) and wind velocity measurements from rawinsonde and pilot balloon ascents. The WSR-88D radar reflectivity was positively correlated (r2=0.21) with the aerial concentration of corn earworm-size insects measured by a scanning X-band radar. WSR-88D radar constant altitude plan position indicator estimates of wind velocity were positively correlated with wind speed (r2=0.56) and wind direction (r2=0.63) measured by pilot balloons and rawinsondes. The results reveal that WSR-88D radar measurements of insect concentration and displacement speed and direction can be used to estimate the migratory flux of corn earworms and other nocturnal insects, information that could benefit areawide pest management programs. In turn, identification of the effects of spatiotemporal patterns of migratory flights of corn earworm-size insects on WSR-88D radar measurements may lead to the development of algorithms that increase the accuracy of WSR-88D radar measurements of reflectivity and wind velocity for operational meteorology.

  19. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Eyster, R. S.; Wolf, W. W.

    2014-07-01

    Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (CEW) populations infesting one crop production area may rapidly migrate and infest distant crop production areas. Although entomological radars have detected corn earworm moth migrations, the spatial extent of the radar coverage has been limited to a small horizontal view above crop production areas. The Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) continuously monitors the radar-transmitted energy reflected by, and radial speed of, biota as well as by precipitation over areas that may encompass crop production areas. We analyzed data from the WSR-88D radar (S-band) at Brownsville, Texas, and related these data to aerial concentrations of CEW estimated by a scanning entomological radar (X-band) and wind velocity measurements from rawinsonde and pilot balloon ascents. The WSR-88D radar reflectivity was positively correlated ( r 2 = 0.21) with the aerial concentration of corn earworm-size insects measured by a scanning X-band radar. WSR-88D radar constant altitude plan position indicator estimates of wind velocity were positively correlated with wind speed ( r 2 = 0.56) and wind direction ( r 2 = 0.63) measured by pilot balloons and rawinsondes. The results reveal that WSR-88D radar measurements of insect concentration and displacement speed and direction can be used to estimate the migratory flux of corn earworms and other nocturnal insects, information that could benefit areawide pest management programs. In turn, identification of the effects of spatiotemporal patterns of migratory flights of corn earworm-size insects on WSR-88D radar measurements may lead to the development of algorithms that increase the accuracy of WSR-88D radar measurements of reflectivity and wind velocity for operational meteorology.

  20. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermes, Laurie G.; Witt, Arthur; Smith, Steven D.; Klingle-Wilson, Diana; Morris, Dale; Stumpf, Gregory J.; Eilts, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system was primarily designed to address the operational needs of pilots in the avoidance of low-altitude wind shears upon takeoff and landing at airports. One of the primary methods of wind-shear detection for the TDWR system is the gust-front detection algorithm. The algorithm is designed to detect gust fronts that produce a wind-shear hazard and/or sustained wind shifts. It serves the hazard warning function by providing an estimate of the wind-speed gain for aircraft penetrating the gust front. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms together serve a planning function by providing forecasted gust-front locations and estimates of the horizontal wind vector behind the front, respectively. This information is used by air traffic managers to determine arrival and departure runway configurations and aircraft movements to minimize the impact of wind shifts on airport capacity. This paper describes the gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms to be fielded in the initial TDWR systems. Results of a quantitative performance evaluation using Doppler radar data collected during TDWR operational demonstrations at the Denver, Kansas City, and Orlando airports are presented. The algorithms were found to be operationally useful by the FAA airport controllers and supervisors.

  1. Automatic detection of low altitude wind shear due to gust fronts in the terminal Doppler weather radar operational demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingle-Wilson, Diana

    1990-01-01

    A gust front is the leading edge of the cold air outflow from a thunderstorm. Wind shears and turbulence along the gust front may produce potentially hazardous conditions for an aircraft on takeoff or landing such that runway operations are significantly impacted. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has therefore determined that the detection of gust fronts in the terminal environment be an integral part of the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system. Detection of these shears by the Gust Front Algorithm permits the generation of warnings that can be issued to pilots on approach and departure. In addition to the detection capability, the algorithm provides an estimate of the wind speed and direction following the gust front (termed wind shift) and the forecasted location of the gust front up to 20 minutes before it impacts terminal operations. This has shown utility as a runway management tool, alerting runway supervisors to approaching wind shifts and the possible need to change runway configurations. The formation and characteristics of gust fronts and their signatures in Doppler radar data are discussed. A brief description of the algorithm and its products for use by Air Traffic Control (ATC), along with an assessment of the algorithm's performance during the 1988 Operational Test and Evaluation, is presented.

  2. Focusing vibrating targets in frequency-modulation continuous-wave-synthetic aperture radar with Doppler keystone transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuxin; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Jinping; Lei, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Vibrating targets generally induce sinusoidal micro-Doppler modulation in high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR). They could cause defocused and ghost results by conventional imaging algorithms. This paper proposes a method on vibrating target imaging in frequency-modulation continuous-wave (FMCW) SAR systems. The continuous motion of sensor platform during pulse time is considered in the signal model. Based on Bessel series expansion of the signal in the azimuth direction, the influence of platform motion on the azimuth frequency is eliminated after dechirp and deskew. In addition, the range walk is compensated in the two-dimensional frequency domain by Doppler keystone transform. Next, using range cell migration correction, the azimuth quadratic phase compensation and the range curvature correction are made in range-Doppler domain for the focus of paired echoes. The residual video phase of paired echoes is eliminated, and vibration parameters are estimated to compensate in the sinusoidal modulation phase. Then the deghosted image of vibrating targets can be obtained. The proposed method is applicable to multiple targets with various vibrating states due to no need of a priori knowledge of targets. Finally, simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the method in FMCW-SAR imaging of vibrating targets.

  3. Integrated Range-Doppler Map and Extended Target Classification with Adaptive Waveform for Cognitive Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    wideband waveform. 14. SUBJECT TERMS waveform design, eigen waveform, ambiguity function, target identification , target detection , range Doppler map...are also interested in identification of extended targets . And finally, the third objective (which utilizes the results of the first two) is to...design an integrated scheme for the combined problem of range-Doppler location/ detection with extended target type identification with the use of a

  4. Effects of Analog-to-Digital Converter Nonlinearities on Radar Range-Doppler Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

    2014-07-01

    Radar operation, particularly Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes, are very sensitive to anomalous effects of system nonlinearities. These throw off harmonic spurs that are sometimes detected as false alarms. One significant source of nonlinear behavior is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). One measure of its undesired nonlinearity is its Integral Nonlinearity (INL) specification. We examine in this report the relationship of INL to GMTI performance.

  5. Application of the Fractional Fourier Transform and S-Method in Doppler Radar Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Tomography CPI - Coherent Processing Interval CW - Continuous Wave FFT - Fast Fourier Transform FrFT - Fractional Fourier Transform FT - Fourier Transform ISAR ...range profile of a rotating target from radar with a high sampling rate, which may be the case for radars with an ISAR capability. Alternatively, it may...modulated (LFM) audio signals from bats by Capus et al. in [11]. It has also been applied to the SAR and ISAR imaging problems of moving and

  6. Breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and cloud-top entrainment as revealed by K-band Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martner, Brooks E.; Ralph, F. Martin

    1993-01-01

    Radars have occasionally detected breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves under clear-air conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the free troposphere. However, very few direct measurements of such waves within clouds have previously been reported and those have not clearly documented wave breaking. In this article, we present some of the most detailed and striking radar observations to date of breaking KH waves within clouds and at cloud top and discuss their relevance to the issue of cloud-top entrainment, which is believed to be important in convective and stratiform clouds. Aircraft observations reported by Stith suggest that vortex-like circulations near cloud top are an entrainment mechanism in cumuliform clouds. Laboratory and modeling studies have examined possibility that KH instability may be responsible for mixing at cloud top, but direct observations have not yet been presented. Preliminary analyses shown here may help fill this gap. The data presented in this paper were obtained during two field projects in 1991 that included observations from the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory's K-band Doppler radar (wavelength = 8.7 mm) and special rawinsonde ascents. The sensitivity (-30 dBZ at 10 km range), fine spatial resolution (375-m pulse length and 0.5 degrees beamwidth), velocity measurement precision (5-10 cm s-1), scanning capability, and relative immunity to ground clutter make it sensitive to non-precipitating and weakly precipitating clouds, and make it an excellent instrument to study gravity waves in clouds. In particular, the narrow beam width and short pulse length create scattering volumes that are cylinders 37.5 m long and 45 m (90 m) in diameter at 5 km (10 km) range. These characteristics allow the radar to resolve the detailed structure in breaking KH waves such as have been seen in photographic cloud images.

  7. Stratus cloud liquid water and turbulence profiles using a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability, and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the ETL cloud sensing Doppler radar and three channel microwave radiometer were deployed on the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a CO{sub 2} Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model which related the three parameters of the model to the first 3 Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, the authors are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  8. A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using Doppler Radar spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, E.; Remillard, J.; Kollias, P.

    2010-03-15

    Understanding the onset of coalescence in warm clouds is key in our effort to improve cloud representation in numerical models. Coalescence acts at small scales, and its study requires detailed high-resolution dynamical and microphysical measurements from a comprehensive suite of instruments over a wide range of environmental conditions (e.g., aerosol loading). The first AMF is currently in its second year of a two-year deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores, offering the opportunity to collect a long data set from a stable land-based platform in a marine stratocumulus regime. In this study, recorded WACR Doppler spectra are used to characterize the properties of Doppler spectra from warm clouds with and without drizzle, and from drizzle only, in an effort to observe the transition (onset) to precipitation in clouds. A retrieval technique that decomposes observed Doppler spectra into their cloud and/or drizzle components is applied in order to quantify drizzle growth.

  9. Case study of the March 24, 1976 Elton, Louisiana tornado using satellite infrared imagery, Doppler sounder, rawinsonde, and radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Smith, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The Elton, Louisiana tornado on March 24, 1976 has been studied using GOES digital infrared data for the growth and collapse of the cloud top, the temperature-height relationship and air mass instability from rawinsonde data, gravity waves from Doppler sounder records, and radar summaries from storm activity during the three-hour time period immediately preceding the touchdown of the tornado. In this case, the overshooting turret collapsed 30 minutes before the tornado touchdown as the eastward moving cloud reached Elton, Louisiana. Results show that the gravity waves were excited by the enhanced convection of the storm penetrating through the tropopause in the 2.5 hour time period before the tornado touched down.

  10. Strombolian surface activity regimes at Yasur volcano, Vanuatu, as observed by Doppler radar, infrared camera and infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, K.; Hort, M.; Wassermann, J.; Garaebiti, E.

    2016-08-01

    In late 2008 we recorded a continuous multi-parameter data set including Doppler radar, infrared and infrasound data at Yasur volcano, Vanuatu. Our recordings cover a transition in explosive style from ash-rich to ash-free explosions followed again by a phase of high ash discharge. To assess the present paradigm of Strombolian behavior in this study we investigate the geophysical signature of these different explosive episodes and compare our results to observations at Stromboli volcano, Italy. To this end we characterize Yasur's surface activity in terms of material movement, temperature and excess pressure. The joint temporal trend in these data reveals smooth variations of surface activity and regime-like persistence of individual explosion forms over days. Analysis of all data types shows ash-free and ash-rich explosive styles similar to those found at Stromboli volcano. During ash-free activity low echo powers, high explosion velocities and high temperatures result from the movement of isolated hot ballistic clasts. In contrast, ash-rich episodes exhibit high echo powers, low explosion velocities and low temperatures linked to the presence of colder ash-rich plumes. Furthermore ash-free explosions cause high excess pressure signals exhibiting high frequencies opposed to low-amplitude, low-frequency signals accompanying ash-rich activity. To corroborate these findings we compare fifteen representative explosions of each explosive episode. Explosion onset velocities derived from Doppler radar and infrared camera data are in excellent agreement and consistent with overall observations in each regime. Examination of infrasound recordings likewise confirms our observations, although a weak coupling between explosion velocity and excess pressure indicates changes in wave propagation. The overall trend in explosion velocity and excess pressure however demonstrates a general correlation between explosive style and explosion intensity, and points to stability of the

  11. Ultra-Wide Patch Antenna Array Design at 60 GHz Band for Remote Vital Sign Monitoring with Doppler Radar Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, Muhammad Saqib; Ghafouri-Shiraz, Hooshang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, ultra-wide patch antenna arrays have been presented at 60 GHz band (57.24-65.88 GHz) with improved gain and beam-width capabilities for remote detection of respiration and heart beat rate of a person with Doppler radar principle. The antennas measured and simulation results showed close agreement. The breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR) of a 31-year-old man have been accurately detected from various distances ranging from 5 to 200 cm with both single-antenna and dual-antenna operations. In the case of single-antenna operation, the signal is transmitted and received with the same antenna, whereas in dual-antenna operation, two identical antennas are employed, one for signal transmission and the other for reception. It has been found that in case of the single-antenna operation, the accuracy of the remote vital sign monitoring (RVSM) is good for short distance; however, in the case of the dual-antenna operations, the RVSM can be accurately carried out at relatively much longer distance. On the other hand, it has also been seen that the visual results are more obvious with higher gain antennas when the radar beam is confined just on the subject's body area.

  12. Adaptive clutter rejection filters for airborne Doppler weather radar applied to the detection of low altitude windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.

    1989-01-01

    An optimum adaptive clutter rejection filter for use with airborne Doppler weather radar is presented. The radar system is being designed to operate at low-altitudes for the detection of windshear in an airport terminal area where ground clutter returns may mask the weather return. The coefficients of the adaptive clutter rejection filter are obtained using a complex form of a square root normalized recursive least squares lattice estimation algorithm which models the clutter return data as an autoregressive process. The normalized lattice structure implementation of the adaptive modeling process for determining the filter coefficients assures that the resulting coefficients will yield a stable filter and offers possible fixed point implementation. A 10th order FIR clutter rejection filter indexed by geographical location is designed through autoregressive modeling of simulated clutter data. Filtered data, containing simulated dry microburst and clutter return, are analyzed using pulse-pair estimation techniques. To measure the ability of the clutter rejection filters to remove the clutter, results are compared to pulse-pair estimates of windspeed within a simulated dry microburst without clutter. In the filter evaluation process, post-filtered pulse-pair width estimates and power levels are also used to measure the effectiveness of the filters. The results support the use of an adaptive clutter rejection filter for reducing the clutter induced bias in pulse-pair estimates of windspeed.

  13. Real-Data Tests of a Single-Doppler Radar Assimilation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    data. In this report we describe tests of our prototype system with real data. We briefly review the assimilation procedure in Section 2, but for a more...temperature retrieval step is skipped in the assimilation procedure . Radar data used for the assimilation consisted of full PPI scans at elevation angles 0.3

  14. Computer Implementation of Algorithm for the Analysis of Radar Doppler from Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    perform a Maximum Enthropy Spectral Analysis (MESA) on the data This method has not p r o d very successful for analysis of radar data and will not be...Fourier spedra or MEM (Maxhum Enthropy Method) spedra. The option cxisb to plot ody part of the frequency data and the user must decide which part to

  15. Nowcasting Convective Storm Evolution in East-Central Florida Using Satellite and Doppler Radar Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    better understand convective development, the National Earth Satellite Service (NESS) investigated the dynamics and thermodynamics of arc clouds using...understanding by representing the integrated effect of ongoing dynamic and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere (Purdom, 1982). GOES imagery provides a...rates. Radar provides reflectivity and velocity information, and volumetric echo properties and their changes in time (Purdom et al., 1982). To combine

  16. Wave Field Characterization Using Dual-Polarized Pulse-Doppler X-Band Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    height spectra for runs 265, 267, 268, 269, and 272 (dataset denoted in each subfigure title) 22 Figure 17. Time histories of (a) peak period, (b) mean... history of significant wave height as measured by the buoy, array, Doppler, and RCS. (b) Difference between buoy measured significant wave height and...speed and direction from an anemometer at the end of the SIO pier. The wind speed and direction data was provided hourly, while the tidal data was in 6

  17. A Semiempirical Model for Doppler Spectral Features of Microwave Radar Sea Scatter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-16

    small to moderate wave heights, a point on the sea surface moves in a circular orbit as a large wave passes by. Under these conditions, the linear...Interactions on the Second-order Doppler Spectrum of Sea Echo," JGR 79, 5031-5037 (1974). 4. B.L. Hicks, N. Knable, J.J. Kovaly, G.S. Newell, J.P. Ruina , and

  18. Exponential Decay in Windblown Radar Ground Clutter Doppler Spectra: Multifrequency Measurements and Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of historical usage (now acknowledged as being too narrow) and power -law shapes of more recent usage (which are too wide when extrapolated to...levels 60 to 80 dB down). The ratio of dc to ac spectral power in the model is determined by an empirically derived analytic expression that captures the...apocryphal evidence that spectral tails very much wider than exponential might exist at spectral power levels well below LCE and Phase One radar

  19. A handheld device for simultaneous detection of electrical and mechanical cardio-vascular activities with synchronized ECG and CW-Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Muehlsteff, J; Thijs, J; Pinter, R; Morren, G; Muesch, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a handheld miniaturized sensor embodiment that allows simultaneous measurement of the electrical and related mechanical cardio-vascular activity. Mechanical motion is detected with a continuous wave Doppler radar sensor and interpreted with a synchronously detected ECG. The patient's posture and activity is measured using accelerometers. Challenges of the current technical approach are the positioning of the sensors, the influence of posture and the correct interpretation of the signals. The Doppler signals are compared with phonocardiography measurements, with a focus on the challenges of this technique. There is still research in an improved modeling of the sensor setup and signal interpretation required.

  20. Can ionospheric refraction and oblique reflection explain the Canadian 50 MHz IGY radio aurora observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDiarmid, D. R.; Watermann, J.; McNamara, A. G.

    1990-10-01

    This paper examines the hypothesis of Uspensky and Williams (1988) that the Canadian International Geophysical Year (IGY) radio aurora measurements of low (1-2 dB/deg) magnetic aspect sensitivity of 48 MHz scatter seen during the IGY in the Canadian sector can be explained by inadequate correction. The ionospheric conditions necessary to enable refraction/reflection to explain the Canadian IGY observations were investigated and were compared with those expected in the E-region ionosphere. It is shown that the refraction/oblique reflection is insufficient to explain the low value of aspect sensitivity deduced from the Canadian IGY auroral radar observations assuming ionospheric parameters typical of extended ionospheric layers; neither can these observations be explained by plasma density structures typical of some visual auroral forms. An alternative explanation is discussed.

  1. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    commands, provided the program applies the procedures that this report describes to new DRWP data on DOL. Decker et al. (2015) details how SLS is proposing to use DRWP data and splicing techniques on DOL. Although automation could enhance the current DOL 50-MHz DRWP QC process and could streamline any future DOL 915-MHz DRWP QC and splicing process, the DOL community would still require manual intervention to ensure that the vehicle only uses valid profiles. If a program desires to use high spatial resolution profiles, then the algorithm could randomly add high-frequency components to the DRWP profiles. The spliced DRWP database provides lots of flexibility in how one performs DOL simulations, and the algorithms that this report provides will assist the aerospace and atmospheric communities that are interested in utilizing the DRWP.

  2. Respiratory monitoring using a Doppler radar with passive harmonic tags to reduce interference from environmental clutter.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lubecke, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A harmonic tag was designed and fabricated to show the feasibility of sensing cardiopulmonary related Doppler shift in the received second harmonic signal. A fundamental frequency of 2.45 GHz was transmitted at a target and a quadrature homodyne receiver used to sense the received signal from a tag on the target. The setup was used to successfully isolate periodic motion from a tag on a programmable mechanical target and to sense respiratory motion of a human subject, even when the targets were in close proximity to other moving objects.

  3. Drift Velocity of Small-Scale Artificial Ionospheric Irregularities According to a Multifrequency HF Doppler Radar. II. Observation and Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertogradov, G. G.; Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradov, V. G.; Vertogradova, E. G.; Kubatko, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of observations of the Doppler frequency shift for the radar radio signals of broadcast and exact-time RWM stations, which are scattered by small-scale artificial ionospheric irregularities. By the method described in our previous paper [1] and using the multifrequency HF Doppler radar, estimates were made for a three-dimensional vector of the drift velocity of irregularities. It is shown that the drift velocity of irregularities can vary considerably both in magnitude and direction for short periods of time. The velocity lies in a wide range of values, 20-270 m/s, but sometimes it exceeds 500-700 m/s. The most probable drift velocity ranges from 40 to 70 m/s.

  4. Evaluation of Single-Doppler Radar Wind Retrievals in Flat and Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, Rob K.; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Xu, Qin; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Qing; Shaw, William J.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2014-08-01

    The accuracy of winds derived from NEXRAD level II data is assessed by comparison with independent observations from 915 MHz radar wind profilers. The evaluation is carried out at two locations with very different terrain characteristics. One site is located in an area of complex terrain within the State Line Wind Energy Center in northeast Oregon. The other site is located in an area of flat terrain on the east-central Florida coast. The National Severe Storm Laboratory’s 2DVar algorithm is used to retrieve wind fields from the KPDT (Pendleton OR) and KMLB (Melbourne FL) NEXRAD radars. Comparisons between the 2DVar retrievals and the radar profilers were conducted over a period of about 6 months and at multiple height levels at each of the profiler sites. Wind speed correlations at most observation height levels fell in the range from 0.7 to 0.8, indicating that the retrieved winds followed temporal fluctuations in the profiler-observed winds reasonably well. The retrieved winds, however, consistently exhibited slow biases in the range of1 to 2 ms-1. Wind speed difference distributions were broad with standard deviations in the range from 3 to 4 ms-1. Results from the Florida site showed little change in the wind speed correlations and difference standard deviations with altitude between about 300 and 1400 m AGL. Over this same height range, results from the Oregon site showed a monotonic increase in the wind speed correlation and a monotonic decrease in the wind speed difference standard deviation with increasing altitude. The poorest overall agreement occurred at the lowest observable level (~300 m AGL) at the Oregon site, where the effects of the complex terrain were greatest.

  5. Sleep stage classification by non-contact vital signs indices using Doppler radar sensors.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Suzumura, Kazuki; Matsui, Takemi

    2016-08-01

    Disturbed sleep has become more common in recent years. To improve the quality of sleep, undergoing sleep observation has gained interest as a means to resolve possible problems. In this paper, we evaluate a non-restrictive and non-contact method for classifying real-time sleep stages and report on its potential applications. The proposed system measures heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body movements, and respiratory signals of a sleeping person using two 24-GHz microwave radars placed beneath the mattress. We introduce a method that dynamically selects the window width of the moving average filter to extract the pulse waves from the radar output signals. The Pearson correlation coefficient between two HR measurements derived from the radars overnight, and the reference polysomnography was the average of 88.3% and the correlation coefficient for HRV parameters was the average of 71.2%. For identifying wake and sleep periods, the body-movement index reached sensitivity of 76.0%, and a specificity of 77.0% with 10 participants. Low-frequency (LF) components of HRV and the LF/HF ratio had a high degree of contribution and differed significantly across the three sleep stages (REM, LIGHT, and DEEP; p <; 0.01). In contrast, high-frequency (HF) components of HRV were not significantly different across the three sleep stages (p > 0.05). We applied a canonical discriminant analysis to identify wake or sleep periods and to classify the three sleep stages with leave-one-out cross validation. Classification accuracy was 66.4% for simply identifying wake and sleep, 57.1% for three stages (wake, REM, and NREM) and 34% for four stages (wake, REM, LIGHT, and DEEP). This is a novel system for measuring HRs, HRV, body movements, and respiratory intervals and for measuring high sensitivity pulse waves using two radar signals. It simplifies measurement of sleep stages and may be employed at nursing care facilities or by the general public to improve sleep quality.

  6. Numerical Simulations of a Mountain Thunderstorm. A Comparison with Doppler Radar Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-04

    percentage of saturated soil moisture . ................................. 79 Table 3 : Numerical simulation experiment overview. " Standard " refers to...tor velocities for 1146 MST and at 9.3 /In MSL. 40 07/31/841 11146 MST 3.3 KM MSL 41 RADARS I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 3 2...Axes labeled as in Fig 4. 90 Table 3 : Numerical simulation experimnt overview. " Standard " refers to condition or process employed in the control

  7. Results of the Kansas City 1989 Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) operational Evaluation Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-17

    significant changes to the SP this year. The dual DAA ( DDAA ) configuration of 1988 was used for the bulk of this year’s data gathering, and a new DAA (NDAA...numerical truncation in factor values from the DDAA . Using input data from a simulated radar source, it was found that the DDAA frequently produced...34speckles" occurred frequently in the data displays when the DDAA was used, and to a much lesser extent with the NDAA. These effects have been reduced but

  8. Nowcasting cloud-to-ground lightning over Nanjing area using S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Yang, Bo; Meng, Xin; Zhou, Bihua

    2016-09-01

    The method of using S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar-derived parameters to nowcast the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning of summer (June-August) in Nanjing was examined. The radar data, CG lightning location data and upper-air sounding data during the summer of 2014 were examined for the selected cells. Five reflectivity thresholds (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 dBZ) at three isothermal levels (- 10 °C, - 15 °C, - 20 °C) were analyzed, and 40 dBZ reflectivity at - 10 °C isothermal level was found to be a good predictor. In addition, hydrometeor identification (HID) based on the dual-polarization parameters was also used to analyze the hydrometeor types in the life cycle of cells, and it was indicated that the presence of graupel and ice crystals at - 10 °C isothermal level was a clear lightning initiation signature. In order to further improve the efficiency and accuracy of nowcasting, the combinations of reflectivity thresholds and HID at certain levels were examined. The compared results showed that the combination of 40 dBZ reflectivity and the identification of graupel at - 10 °C isothermal level was the optimal predictor, with the probability of detection (POD) of 87%, false alarm rate (FAR) of 2%, critical success index (CSI) of 85%, and mean lead time of 13.3 min. The conclusions prove that the proposed optimal predictor is operationally useful and efficient of lightning nowcasting over Nanjing area.

  9. Doppler sodar and radar wind-profiler observations of gravity-wave activity associated with a gravity current

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, F.M.; Venkateswaran, S.V. ); Mazaudier, C. ); Crochet, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Observations from two Doppler sodars and a radar wind profiler have been used in conjunction with data from a rawinsonde station and a mesoscale surface observation network to conduct a case study of a gravity current entering into an environment containing a nocturnal inversion and an elevated neutral layer. On the basis of synoptic and mesoscale analyses, it is concluded that the gravity current might have originated either as a scale-contracted cold front or as a gust front resulting from thunderstorm outflows observed very near the leading edge of a cold front. Despite this ambiguity, the detailed vertical structure of the gravity current itself is well resolved from the data. Moreover, the vertical velocity measurements provided by the sodars and the radar wind profiler at high time resolution have given unique information about the height structure of gravity waves excited by the gravity current. Although only wave periods, and not phase speeds or wavelengths, are directly measured, it is possible to make reasonable inferences about wave excitation mechanisms and about the influence and control of ambient stratification on wave-field characteristics. Both Kelvin-Helmholtz waves generated in the regions of high wind shear found in association with the gravity current and lee-type waves forced by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to opposing prefrontal flow are identified. It is also found that the propagation speed of the gravity current and the relative depths of the prefrontal inversion and the postfrontal cold air were not favorable for the formation of either internal bores or solitary waves at the time of day at which the gravity current was being observed. 42 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Extraction of convective cloud parameters from Doppler Weather Radar MAX(Z) product using Image Processing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, M. S.; Puli, Anil; Anuradha, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work continuous extraction of convective cloud optical information and reflectivity (MAX(Z) in dBZ) using online retrieval technique for time series data production from Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) located at Indian Meteorological Department, Chennai has been developed in MATLAB. Reflectivity measurements for different locations within the DWR range of 250 Km radii of circular disc area can be retrieved using this technique. It gives both time series reflectivity of point location and also Range Time Intensity (RTI) maps of reflectivity for the corresponding location. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed for the cloud reflectivity is user friendly; it also provides the convective cloud optical information such as cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical depth (COD). This technique is also applicable for retrieving other DWR products such as Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ), Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ)-Close Range, Volume Velocity Processing (V, in knots), Plan Position Indicator (V, in m/s), Surface Rainfall Intensity (SRI, mm/hr), Precipitation Accumulation (PAC) 24 hrs at 0300UTC. Keywords: Reflectivity, cloud top height, cloud base, cloud optical depth

  11. Airborne derivation of microburst alerts from ground-based Terminal Doppler Weather Radar information: A flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA windshear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne windshear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a windshear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. Microburst information was extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the windshear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which atmospheric 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne reactive windshear detection system. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurements would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the practicality of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  12. Retrieval of Raindrop Size Distribution, Vertical Air Velocity and Water Vapor Attenuation Using Dual-Wavelength Doppler Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; Srivastava, C.

    2005-01-01

    Two techniques for retrieving the slope and intercept parameters of an assumed exponential raindrop size distribution (RSD), vertical air velocity, and attenuation by precipitation and water vapor in light stratiform rain using observations by airborne, nadir looking dual-wavelength (X-band, 3.2 cm and W-band, 3.2 mm) radars are presented. In both techniques, the slope parameter of the RSD and the vertical air velocity are retrieved using only the mean Doppler velocities at the two wavelengths. In the first method, the intercept of the RSD is estimated from the observed reflectivity at the longer wavelength assuming no attenuation at that wavelength. The attenuation of the shorter wavelength radiation by precipitation and water vapor are retrieved using the observed reflectivity at the shorter wavelength. In the second technique, it is assumed that the longer wavelength suffers attenuation only in the melting band. Then, assuming a distribution of water vapor, the melting band attenuation at both wavelengths and the rain attenuation at the shorter wavelength are retrieved. Results of the retrievals are discussed and several physically meaningful results are presented.

  13. Assimilating surface observations in a four-dimensional variational Doppler radar data assimilation system to improve the analysis and forecast of a squall line case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingchao; Zhao, Kun; Sun, Juanzhen; Zhou, Bowen; Lee, Wen-Chau

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines how assimilating surface observations can improve the analysis and forecast ability of a fourdimensional Variational Doppler Radar Analysis System (VDRAS). Observed surface temperature and winds are assimilated together with radar radial velocity and reflectivity into a convection-permitting model using the VDRAS four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system. A squall-line case observed during a field campaign is selected to investigate the performance of the technique. A single observation experiment shows that assimilating surface observations can influence the analyzed fields in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The surface-based cold pool, divergence and gust front of the squall line are all strengthened through the assimilation of the single surface observation. Three experiments—assimilating radar data only, assimilating radar data with surface data blended in a mesoscale background, and assimilating both radar and surface observations with a 4DVAR cost function—are conducted to examine the impact of the surface data assimilation. Independent surface and wind profiler observations are used for verification. The result shows that the analysis and forecast are improved when surface observations are assimilated in addition to radar observations. It is also shown that the additional surface data can help improve the analysis and forecast at low levels. Surface and low-level features of the squall line—including the surface warm inflow, cold pool, gust front, and low-level wind—are much closer to the observations after assimilating the surface data in VDRAS.

  14. The life cycle of thunderstorm gust fronts as viewed with Doppler radar and rawinsonde data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakimoto, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the time-dependent analysis of the thunderstorm gust front with the use of Project NIMROD data. RHI cross sections of reflectivity and Doppler velocity are constructed to determine the entire vertical structure. The life cycle of the gust front is divided into four stages: (1) the formative stage; (2) the early mature stage; (3) the late mature stage; and (4) the dissipation stage. A new finding is a horizontal roll detected in the reflectivity pattern resulting from airflow that is deflected upward by the ground, while carrying some of the smaller precipitation ahead of the main echo core of the squall line. This feature is called a 'precipitation roll'. As determined from rawinsonde data, the cold air behind the gust front accounts for the observed surface pressure rise. Calculations confirm that the collision of two fluids produce a nonhydrostatic pressure at the leading edge of the outflow. The equation governing the propagation speed of a density current accurately predicts the movement of the gust front.

  15. Impacts of 4D-VAR Assimilation of Airborne Doppler Radar Observations on Numerical Simulations of the Genesis of Typhoon Nuri (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Z.; Li, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model and its four-dimensional variational data assimilation system are employed to examine the impact of airborne Doppler radar observations on predicting the genesis of Typhoon Nuri (2008). The ELDORA airborne radar data, collected during the Office of Naval Research-sponsored Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 field experiment, are used for data assimilation experiments. Two assimilation methods are evaluated and compared, namely, the direct assimilation of radar-measured radial velocity and the assimilation of three-dimensional wind analysis derived from the radar radial velocity. Results show that direct assimilation of radar radial velocity leads to better intensity forecasts, as it enhances the development of convective systems and improves the inner core structure of Nuri, whereas assimilation of the radar-retrieved wind analysis is more beneficial for tracking forecasts, as it results in improved environmental flows. The assimilation of both the radar-retrieved wind and the radial velocity can lead to better forecasts in both intensity and tracking, if the radial velocity observations are assimilated first and the retrieved winds are then assimilated in the same data assimilation window. In addition, experiments with and without radar data assimilation lead to developing and nondeveloping disturbances for Nuri's genesis in the numerical simulations. The improved initial conditions and forecasts from the data assimilation imply that the enhanced midlevel vortex and moisture conditions are favorable for the development of deep convection in the center of the pouch and eventually contribute to Nuri's genesis. The improved simulations of the convection and associated environmental conditions produce enhanced upper-level warming in the core region and lead to the drop in sea-level pressure.

  16. Noncontact accurate measurement of cardiopulmonary activity using a compact quadrature Doppler radar sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Zhangyan; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Lin, Fujiang

    2014-03-01

    The designed sensor enables accurate reconstruction of chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities, and the algorithm enables estimation of respiration, heartbeat rate, and some indicators of heart rate variability (HRV). In particular, quadrature receiver and arctangent demodulation with calibration are introduced for high linearity representation of chest displacement; 24-bit ADCs with oversampling are adopted for radar baseband acquisition to achieve a high signal resolution; continuous-wavelet filter and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based algorithm are applied for cardio/pulmonary signal recovery and separation so that accurate beat-to-beat interval can be acquired in time domain for HRV analysis. In addition, the wireless sensor is realized and integrated on a printed circuit board compactly. The developed sensor system is successfully tested on both simulated target and human subjects. In simulated target experiments, the baseband signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 73.27 dB, high enough for heartbeat detection. The demodulated signal has 0.35% mean squared error, indicating high demodulation linearity. In human subject experiments, the relative error of extracted beat-to-beat intervals ranges from 2.53% to 4.83% compared with electrocardiography (ECG) R-R peak intervals. The sensor provides an accurate analysis for heart rate with the accuracy of 100% for p = 2% and higher than 97% for p = 1%.

  17. ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) Investigations of the Eyewall of Hurricane Bonnie CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Halverson, J.; Simpson, J.; Tian, L.; Bui, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A persistent, mesoscale region of intense eyewall convection contained within Hurricane Bonnie on 23 August 1998 is examined from multiple observations synthesized from the NASA ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft. The intense convection occurred late in the day as Bonnie was attaining its minimum central pressure and during a stage when the inner core featured a markedly asymmetric structure. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the internal structure of a convective burst and its relationship to the warm core using a synthesis of high-resolution satellite, aircraft radar, and in situ data. An exceptionally vigorous eyewall tower penetrating to nearly 18 km is described. A second intense eyewall tower, adjacent to the eye, is shown to be associated with a mesoscale subsiding current of air that extends horizontally nearly 20 km into the eye interior. The subsidence occupies a substantial depth within the eye and appears to be a much larger scale feature than the convectively-induced, symmetric overturning which commonly occurs on the upper-level flanks of convective towers in other tropical environments.

  18. Coastal heavy rainband formed along Sumatera Island, Indonesia, observed with X-band Doppler radars during HARIMAU2011 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shuichi; Jun-Ichi, Hamada; Hattori, Miki; Kamimera, Hideyuki; Wu, Peiming; Arbain, Ardhi A.; Lestari, Sopia; Syamsudin, Fadli; Yamanaka, Manabu D.

    2013-04-01

    , Indonesia, during 01-31 December 2011 in collaboration with CINDY and DYNAMO to study the CHeR formed along the southwestern coastline of Sumatera Island by using X-band Doppler and dual polarimetric (DP) radars, intensive soundings at two stations, disdrometers, and surface observation network. Two MJOs (MJO-2 and -3) were identified which passed over Sumatera Island during the campaign period. We divided the period into four phases: MJO-2 active (phase-I), MJO inactive (phase-II), MJO-3 active (phase-III), and MJO inactive (phase IV). CHeRs organized by a lot of mesoscale convections were observed throughout the period, however, those convections developed mainly over the coastal sea, coastal land, and both coastal sea and land, during phase-I, -II, and -III, respectively. Diurnal cycle of convections was not clear during the phase-I and -II. Whereas, that during the phase-III was clearly observed and a lot of convections were identified which migrated from the coastal land to sea during the night. Radar observations showed CHeRs were formed by both convections, a) generated originally over the coastal land in the evening and developed in the night after migrated into the sea, b) generated over the coastal sea in the night and developed independently. Environmental conditions including MJO activity and local circulations were also examined in terms of CHeR formation process.

  19. Classification and modeling of human activities using empirical mode decomposition with S-band and millimeter-wave micro-Doppler radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Dustin P.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to identify human movements can be an important tool in many different applications such as surveillance, military combat situations, search and rescue operations, and patient monitoring in hospitals. This information can provide soldiers, security personnel, and search and rescue workers with critical knowledge that can be used to potentially save lives and/or avoid a dangerous situation. Most research involving human activity recognition is focused on using the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) as a method of analyzing the micro-Doppler signatures. Because of the time-frequency resolution limitations of the STFT and because Fourier transform-based methods are not well-suited for use with non-stationary and nonlinear signals, we have chosen a different approach. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) has been shown to be a valuable time-frequency method for processing non-stationary and nonlinear data such as micro-Doppler signatures and EMD readily provides a feature vector that can be utilized for classification. For classification, the method of a Support Vector Machine (SVMs) was chosen. SVMs have been widely used as a method of pattern recognition due to their ability to generalize well and also because of their moderately simple implementation. In this paper, we discuss the ability of these methods to accurately identify human movements based on their micro-Doppler signatures obtained from S-band and millimeter-wave radar systems. Comparisons will also be made based on experimental results from each of these radar systems. Furthermore, we will present simulations of micro-Doppler movements for stationary subjects that will enable us to compare our experimental Doppler data to what we would expect from an "ideal" movement.

  20. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  1. Development of a Mass Sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM)-Based DNA Biosensor Using a 50 MHz Electronic Oscillator Circuit

    PubMed Central

    García-Martinez, Gonzalo; Bustabad, Enrique Alonso; Perrot, Hubert; Gabrielli, Claude; Bucur, Bogdan; Lazerges, Mathieu; Rose, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, Jose; Compère, Chantal; Vives, Antonio Arnau

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm2 in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected. PMID:22164037

  2. Development of a mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based DNA biosensor using a 50 MHz electronic oscillator circuit.

    PubMed

    García-Martinez, Gonzalo; Bustabad, Enrique Alonso; Perrot, Hubert; Gabrielli, Claude; Bucur, Bogdan; Lazerges, Mathieu; Rose, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, Jose; Compère, Chantal; Vives, Antonio Arnau

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm(2) in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected.

  3. Measurement of the ultrasonic properties of human coronary arteries in vitro with a 50-MHz acoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Machado, J C; Foster, F S; Gotlieb, A I

    2002-08-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation coefficient, wave propagation speed and integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) of human coronary arteries were measured in vitro over the -6 dB frequency bandwidth (36 to 67 MHz) of a focused ultrasound transducer (50 MHz, focal distance 5.7 mm, f/number 1.7). Corrections were made for diffraction effects. Normal and diseased coronary artery sub-samples (N = 38) were obtained from 10 individuals at autopsy. The measured mean +/- SD of the wave speed (average over the entire vessel wall thickness) was 1581.04 +/- 53.88 m/s. At 50 MHz, the average attenuation coefficient was 4.99 +/- 1.33 dB/mm with a frequency dependence term of 1.55 +/- 0.18 determined over the 36- to 67-MHz frequency range. The IBC values were: 17.42 +/- 13.02 (sr.m)-1 for thickened intima, 11.35 +/- 6.54 (sr.m)-1 for fibrotic intima, 39.93 +/- 50.95 (sr.m)-1 for plaque, 4.26 +/- 2.34 (sr.m)-1 for foam cells, 5.12 +/- 5.85 (sr.m)-1 for media and 21.26 +/- 31.77 (sr.m)-1 for adventitia layers. The IBC results indicate the possibility for ultrasound characterization of human coronary artery wall tissue layer, including the situations of diseased arteries with the presence of thickened intima, fibrotic intima and plaque. The mean IBC normalized with respect to the mean IBC of the media layer seems promising for use as a parameter to differentiate a plaque or a thickened intima from a fibrotic intima.

  4. A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

  5. Five years use of Pulse Doppler RADAR-utechnology in debris-flows monitoring - experience at three test sites so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschuch, Richard; Brauner, Michael; Hu, Kaiheng; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Automatic monitoring of alpine mass movement is a major challenge in dealing with natural hazards. The presented research project shows a new approach in measurment and alarming technology for water level changes an debris flow by using a high-frequency Pulse Doppler RADAR. The detection system was implemented on 3 places (2 in Tirol/Austria within the monitoring systems of the IAN/BOKU; 1 in Dongchuan/China within the monitoring systems of the IMHE/Chinese Academy of Science) in order to prove the applicability of the RADAR in monitoring torrential activities (e.g. debris-flows, mudflows, flash floods, etc.). The main objective is to illustrate the principles and the potential of an innovative RADAR system and its versatility as an automatic detection system for fast (> 1 km/h - 300 km/h) alpine mass movements of any kind. The high frequency RADAR device was already successfully tested for snow avalanches in Sedrun/Switzerland (Lussi et al., 2012), in Ischgl/Austria (Kogelnig et al., 2012). The experience and the data of the five year showed the enormous potential of the presented RADAR technology in use as an independent warning and monitoring system in the field of natural hazard. We have been able to measure water level changes, surface velocities and several debris flows and can compare this data with the other installed systems.

  6. Ionospheric response to magnetar flare: signature of SGR J1550-5418 on coherent ionospheric Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrous, Ayman

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents observational evidence of frequent ionospheric perturbations caused by the magnetar flare of the source SGR J1550-5418, which took place on 22 January 2009. These ionospheric perturbations are observed in the relative change of the total electron content (ΔTEC/Δt) measurements from the coherent ionospheric Doppler radar (CIDR). The CIDR system makes high-precision measurements of the total electron content (TEC) change along ray-paths from ground receivers to low Earth-orbiting (LEO) beacon spacecraft. These measurements can be integrated along the orbital track of the beacon satellite to construct the relative spatial, not temporal, TEC profiles that are useful for determining the large-scale plasma distribution. The observed spatial TEC changes reveal many interesting features of the magnetar signatures in the ionosphere. The onset phase of the magnetar flare was during the CIDR's nighttime satellite passage. The nighttime small-scale perturbations detected by CIDR, with ΔTEC/Δt ≥ 0.05 TECU s-1, over the eastern Mediterranean on 22 January 2009 were synchronized with the onset phase of the magnetar flare and consistent with the emission of hundreds of bursts detected from the source. The maximum daytime large-scale perturbation measured by CIDR over northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean was detected after ˜ 6 h from the main phase of the magnetar flare, with ΔTEC/Δt ≤ 0.10 TECU s-1. These ionospheric perturbations resembled an unusual poleward traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) caused by the extraterrestrial source. The TID's estimated virtual velocity is 385.8 m s-1, with ΔTEC/Δt ≤ 0.10 TECU s-1.

  7. Radar studies of long-wavelength waves associated with mid-latitude sporadic E layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggin, D.; Swartz, W. E.; Providakes, J.; Farley, D. T.

    1986-07-01

    The Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), a 50-MHz Doppler radar system, was operated during May and August/September 1983 on the island of St. Croix (17.7 deg N, 64.8 deg W) to study the plasma instabilities associated with nighttime sporadic E layers. Two events, on May 7 and August 22, show evidence of large-amplitude waves, with apparent horizontal wavelengths of 10-12 km and periods of 2-6 min. These apparent wavelengths are upper limits for the true wavelengths. The CUPRI beam was directed over Arecibo, PR, and on May 7, concurrent electron density profiles within the CUPRI scattering volume were measured by the Arecibo Observatory's 430-MHz radar. During the stronger event of August 22, radar echoes were received from several altitudes up to 130 km. Large mean Doppler velocities (at times exceeding 250 m/s) were observed during this event, and the power spectra closely resemble those obtained at the magnetic equator during type 1 conditions. It is believed (1) that the midlatitude large-scale waves are generated by the same gradient drift instability mechanism responsible for equatorial large-scale waves, and (2) that the type 1 3-m waves can be generated at midlatitudes with drift velocities well below the sound speed because of the very sharp plasma density gradients associated with metallic ion sporadic E layers.

  8. The Doppler Effect--A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect as it applies to different situations, such as a stationary source of sound with the observer moving, a stationary observer, and the sound source and observer both moving. Police radar, satellite surveillance radar, radar astronomy, and the Doppler navigator, are discussed as applications of Doppler shift. (JR)

  9. Non-contact diagnostic system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome based on amplitude and phase analysis of thoracic and abdominal Doppler radars.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi

    2016-05-01

    Full-night polysomnography (PSG) has been recognized as the gold standard test for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, PSG examinees are physically restrained for the full night by many contact sensors and obtrusive connecting cables, inducing mental stress. We developed a non-contact SAHS diagnostic system that can detect apneic events without inducing stress in monitored individuals. Two Doppler radars were installed beneath the mattress to measure the vibrations of the chest and abdomen, respectively. Our system determines apnea and hypopnea events when the radar output amplitude decreases by <20 and 70 %, respectively, of the amplitude of a normal breath (without SAHS events). Additionally, we proposed a technique that detects paradoxical movements by focusing on phase differences between thoracic and abdominal movements, and were able to identify three types of sleep apnea: obstructive, central, and mixed. Respiratory disturbance indexes obtained showed a higher correlation (r = 94 %) with PSG than with pulse oximetry (r = 89 %). When predicting the severity of SAHS with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >15/h or >30/h using PSG as a reference, the radar system achieved a sensitivity of 96 and 90 %, and a specificity of 100 and 79 % with an AHI of >15/h and >30/h, respectively. The proposed radar system can be used as an alternative to the current airflow sensor, and to chest and abdomen belts for apnea-hypopnea evaluation.

  10. A Technique to Measure Energy Partitioning and Absolute Gas Pressures of Strombolian Explosions Using Doppler Radar at Erebus Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerst, A.; Hort, M.; Kyle, P. R.; Voege, M.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005/06 we deployed three 24GHz (K-Band) continuous wave Doppler radar instruments at the crater rim of Erebus volcano in Antarctica. At the time there was a ~40 m wide, ~1000°C hot convecting phonolite lava lake, which was the source of ~0-6 Strombolian gas bubble explosions per day. We measured the velocities of ~50 explosions using a sample rate of 1-15 Hz. Data were downloaded in real-time through a wireless network. The measurements provide new insights into the still largely unknown mechanism of Strombolian eruptions, and help improve existing eruption models. We present a technique for a quasi in-situ measurement of the absolute pressure inside an eruption gas bubble. Pressures were derived using a simple eruption model and measured high resolution bubble surface velocities during explosions. Additionally, this technique allows us to present a comprehensive energy budget of a volcanic explosion as a time series of all important energy terms (i.e. potential, kinetic, dissipative, infrasonic, surface, seismic and thermal energy output). The absolute gas pressure inside rising expanding gas bubbles rapidly drops from ~3-10 atm (at the time when the lake starts to bulge) to ~1 atm before the bubble bursts, which usually occurs at radii of ~15-20m. These pressures are significantly lower than previously assumed for such explosions. The according internal energy of the gas agrees well with the observed total energy output. The results show that large explosions released about 109 to 1010 J each (equivalent to about 200-2000 kg of TNT), at a peak discharge rate frequently exceeding 109 W (the power output of a typical nuclear power plant). This dynamic output is mainly controlled by the kinetic and potential energy of the exploding magma shell, while other energy types were found to be much smaller (with the exception of thermal energy). Remarkably, most explosions at Erebus show two distinct surface acceleration peaks separated by ~0.3 seconds. This suggests

  11. 50 MHz-10 GHz low-power resistive feedback current-reuse mixer with inductive peaking for cognitive radio receiver.

    PubMed

    Vitee, Nandini; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Chong, Wei-Keat; Tan, Gim-Heng; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    A low-power wideband mixer is designed and implemented in 0.13 µm standard CMOS technology based on resistive feedback current-reuse (RFCR) configuration for the application of cognitive radio receiver. The proposed RFCR architecture incorporates an inductive peaking technique to compensate for gain roll-off at high frequency while enhancing the bandwidth. A complementary current-reuse technique is used between transconductance and IF stages to boost the conversion gain without additional power consumption by reusing the DC bias current of the LO stage. This downconversion double-balanced mixer exhibits a high and flat conversion gain (CG) of 14.9 ± 1.4 dB and a noise figure (NF) better than 12.8 dB. The maximum input 1-dB compression point (P1dB) and maximum input third-order intercept point (IIP3) are -13.6 dBm and -4.5 dBm, respectively, over the desired frequency ranging from 50 MHz to 10 GHz. The proposed circuit operates down to a supply headroom of 1 V with a low-power consumption of 3.5 mW.

  12. Real-Time Ionospheric Plasma Density Estimates in the Polar Cap using Simultaneous Dual Frequency Doppler Measurements at the SuperDARN McMurdo Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaleta, J.; Bristow, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    SuperDARN radars estimate plasma drift velocities from the Doppler shift observed on signals scattered from field-aligned density irregularities. The radars operate in the range of 8 MHz to 20 MHz and have ray paths covering a wide range of elevation angles, in order to maximize the range over which the scattering conditions are satisfied. Upward-propagating electromagnetic signals in this frequency range can be significantly refracted by the ionospheric plasma. The propagation paths of the refracted signals are bent earthward and at some point along this refracted path propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and scatter on the field-aligned density irregularities. The refraction results from gradients of the index of refraction in the ionospheric plasma. The index inside the ionosphere is lower than its free-space value, which depresses the measured line of sight velocity relative to the actual velocity of the plasma. One way to account for the depression of the measured velocity is to estimate the index of refraction in the scattering region by making multiple velocities measurements at different operating frequencies. Together with the appropriate plasma dispersion relations, multiple frequency measurements can be used to construct relations for the index of refraction, plasma density and the line of sight velocity correction factor as functions of frequency weighted measured velocity differences. Recent studies have used frequency-switching events spanning many days during traditional SuperDARN radar operation to build a statistical estimate for index of refraction, which is insensitive to the real-time spatial dynamics of the ionosphere. This statistical approach has motivated the development of a new mode of radar operation that provides simultaneous dual frequency measurements in order to resolve the temporal and spatial dynamics of the index of refraction calculations. Newly-developed multi-channel capabilities available in the SuperDARN radar

  13. Observations of frontal zone structures with a VHF Doppler radar and radiosondes, part 1.2A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.; Rottger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The SOUSY-VHF-Radar is a pulsed coherent radar operating at 53.5 MHz and located near Bad Lauterbert, West Germany. Since 1977, the facility, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Aeronomie, has been used to make a series of frontal passage observations in the spring and fall. Experiments in winter have been difficult because part of the transmitting and receiving array is usually covered by snow during that part of the year. Wavelengths around 6 m are known to be sensitive to the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere (GREEN and GAGE, 1980; RASTOGI and ROTTGER, 1982). Thus, it has been possible to use radars operating at frequencies near 500 MHz to locate the tropopause. Comparisons between radar data and radiosonde data have shown that there is a large gradient in the radar reflectivity at the height where the radiosonde tropopause occurs. An experiment carried out by ROTTGER (1979) on March 15 to 16, 1977, showed that the radar's sensitivity to the vertical temperature structure could also be used to locate the position of fronts. The SOUSY-VHF-Radar consists of a transmitting array, also used for receiving in some configurations, that can be scanned in the off-vertical direction but not at sufficiently low elevation angles to study the horizontal extent of structures.

  14. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Gary J.

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever five minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.

  15. Real-time parallel implementation of Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain on a massively parallel machine based on multi-core DSP and Serial RapidIO interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klilou, Abdessamad; Belkouch, Said; Elleaume, Philippe; Le Gall, Philippe; Bourzeix, François; Hassani, Moha M'Rabet

    2014-12-01

    Pulse-Doppler radars require high-computing power. A massively parallel machine has been developed in this paper to implement a Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain in real-time fashion. The proposed machine consists of two C6678 digital signal processors (DSPs), each with eight DSP cores, interconnected with Serial RapidIO (SRIO) bus. In this study, each individual core is considered as the basic processing element; hence, the proposed parallel machine contains 16 processing elements. A straightforward model has been adopted to distribute the Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain. This model provides low latency, but communication inefficiency limits system performance. This paper proposes several optimizations that greatly reduce the inter-processor communication in a straightforward model and improves the parallel efficiency of the system. A use case of the Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain has been used to illustrate and validate the concept of the proposed mapping model. Experimental results show that the parallel efficiency of the proposed parallel machine is about 90%.

  16. Inter-relation between D-region electron densities from 3-MHz Doppler radar observations, riometer absorption, and the empirical model IMAZ at 69N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Werner; Gausa, Michael; Latteck, Ralph; Honary, Farideh; Friedrich, Martin

    Electron densities of the lower ionosphere are estimated using the Saura MF Doppler radar data since summer 2003. The radar is located near Andenes, Norway (69.3N, 16.0E) and operates at 3.17 MHz. The experiment utilizes partial reflections of ordinary and extraordinary component waves from scatterers in the altitude range 50-90 km to estimate electron number densities from differential absorption (DAE) and differential phase (DPE) measurements. Height profiles of electron density are obtained between about 55 km and 90 km with a height resolution of 1 km. The diurnal and seasonal variability of electron densities as well as the response of D-region electron densities to solar activity storms, solar proton events, and geomagnetic disturbances have been estimated. The imaging riometer AIRIS near Andenes monitors excessive radio wave absorption due to precipitating energetic particles. The vertical beam of the Saura MF radar coincides with the volume observed with the vertical AIRIS beam. The data from both systems allow the verification of the lower part of the neural network-based ionospheric model for the Auroral zone IMAZ-2. The model provides electron density profiles between 60 and 140 km for a given riometer absorption, time, and ionospheric state. It is based on electron density profiles from EISCAT UHF/VHF radars for altitudes above about 85 km and high-latitude rocket measurements, but the data below 70 km is almost exclusively due to sounding rockets. Comparisons of the IMAZ model with measured electron density profiles are discussed for different levels of solar activity and various particle precipitation events.

  17. Radar observations of ionospheric irregularities at Syowa Station, Antarctica: a brief overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, T.

    1996-12-01

    We briefly overview the radar observations that have been made for 30 years at Syowa Station, Antarctica for studying small-scale electron-density irregularities in the southern high-latitude E- and F-region ionosphere. Some observational results (i.e., long-term variations of radio aurora, Doppler spectra with narrow spectral widths and low Doppler velocities, and simultaneous observations of radar and optical auroras) from VHF radars capable of detecting 1.3- to 3-m scale irregularities are presented. A new 50-MHz radar system equipped with phased-antenna arrays began operation in February 1995 to observe two-dimensional behaviours of E-region irregularities. An HF radar experiment also began in February 1995 to explore decameter-scale E- and F-region irregularities in the auroral zone and polar cap. These two radars will contribute to a better understanding of the ionospheric irregularities and ionospheric physics at southern high latitudes. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the UK Particle-Physics and Astronomy Research Council. The assistance of the director and staff of the EISCAT Scientific Association, the staff of the Norsk Polarinstitutt and the director and staff of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics is gratefully acknowledged. In addition the authors would like to thank Professor Evgeny Tereshchenko of the Polar Geophysical Institute in Mumansk, Russia and Dr Tuomo Nygrén of the University of Oulu, Finland for provision of data from EISCAT special program time during the November 1995 campaign. Topical Editor D. Alcaydé thanks E. J. Fremouw and another referee for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: I. K. Walker-->

  18. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  19. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in the polar mesosphere measured by a 3-MHz-Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latteck, R.; Singer, W.; Hocking, W. K.

    2005-08-01

    Turbulence produces changes in the spectral width of a backscattered radar signal which can be used to deduce turbulent energy dissipation rates at the region of the scatter. Since the radar signal spectrum is also influenced by the background wind field causing broadening effects of the spectrum, a system with a relative small beam width as well as corresponding methods to correct for the non-turbulent broadening of the spectrum are necessary for the estimation of reliable energy dissipation rates. The new narrow beam MF radar at Saura on Andøya island in northern Norway has got a Mills-Cross antenna with a minimum beam width of θ = 6.6° (Half-Power-Full-Width, one way) and a modular transceiver system which provides high flexibility in beam pointing as well as beam forming. An correction method for non-turbulent spectral broadening effects has been implemented for the estimation of turbulence intensities from the width of the observed signal spectra. The method requires the precise knowledge of the antenna radiation pattern and real-time measurements of the wind field. The critical steps of the estimation of the turbulent part of the signal spectrum are discussed. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates based on the spectral width method are obtained with the Saura MF radar since September 2003. The radar results are compared with corresponding data from rocket measurements at Andenes under summer and winter conditions, as well as with the results from the Kühlungsborn Mechanistic Circulation Model (KMCM). The mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates basing on these radar measurements are about 5 mW/kg at 60 km altitude and about 20 mW/kg at 80 km, in reasonable agreement with mean turbulence intensities obtained from previous rocket soundings at Andenes.

  20. MAARSY - the new MST radar on Andøya: first results of spaced antenna and Doppler measurements of atmospheric winds in the troposphere and mesosphere using a partial array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stober, G.; Latteck, R.; Rapp, M.; Singer, W.; Zecha, M.

    2012-09-01

    MST radars have been used to study the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere over decades. These radars have proven to be a valuable tool to investigate atmospheric dynamics. MAARSY, the new MST radar at the island of Andøya uses a phased array antenna and is able to perform spaced antenna and Doppler measurements at the same time with high temporal and spatial resolution. Here we present first wind observations using the initial expansion stage during summer 2010. The tropospheric spaced antenna and Doppler beam swinging experiments are compared to radiosonde measurements, which were launched at the nearby Andøya Rocket Range (ARR). The mesospheric wind observations are evaluated versus common volume meteor radar wind measurements. The beam steering capabilities of MAARSY are demonstrated by performing systematic scans of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) using 25 and 91 beam directions. These wind observations permit to evaluate the new radar against independent measurements from radiosondes and meteor radar measurements to demonstrate its capabilities to provide reliable wind data from the troposphere up to the mesosphere.

  1. Dual-Polarised Doppler X-band Radar Observations of Mixed Phased Clouds from the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment-Dust (ICE-D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, R. R., III; Blyth, A. M.; Bennett, L.; Dufton, D.; Cui, Z.; Huang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present dual-polarised Doppler X-band radar observations of convective, altocumulus and altostratus clouds relatively close to the Sahara desert in order to examine the impact of dust on the formation of ice and precipitation. These initial results come the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust (UK ICE-D). UK ICE-D was an aircraft and ground-based project based in Cape Verde off the coast of Senegal, Africa during August 2015. The overall goal of this experiment was to determine how desert dust affects primary nucleation of ice particles in convective and layer clouds as well as the subsequent development of precipitation and glaciation of the clouds. This was accomplished by making focused observations when dust was present in high concentrations and when almost no dust was present. Here we focus on examining the differences in hydrometeor types derived from the dual-polarised X-band radar observations observed in the high and low dust loadings with specific emphasis on the role of supercooled rain drops in these two situations.

  2. The Stratiform Region of an MCS on 19 June in TELEX 2004 Observed With Polarimetric and Doppler Radars, Electric Field Soundings, and a Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramig, N.; Macgorman, D.; Rust, D.; Schuur, T.; Bruning, E.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, W.; Hamlin, T.; Straka, J.; Payne, C.; Apostolakopoulos, I.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Biermann, N.; Carey, L.

    2005-12-01

    Polarimetric and Doppler radar data, balloon-borne soundings of the electric field, and three-dimensional lightning mapping array data were acquired from a mesoscale convective system (MCS) on 19 June 2004 during the Thunderstorm Electrification and Lightning Experiment (TELEX). A total of 10 partial and complete vertical soundings through the storm were obtained from the flights of four instrumented balloons: two launched in the convective region, one in the transition zone, and one in the stratiform region. Each balloon recorded ascent and descent soundings and the transition zone balloon recorded an additional two partial soundings due to a downdraft. At times, multiple soundings were in progress simultaneously. This study focuses on the stratiform region of the MCS, which was sampled by the last two soundings of balloon three and both soundings of balloon four. A comparison of the electrical structure of the stratiform region of this MCS with that of previously published conceptual models suggests that, during at least part of the MCS's lifetime, its electrical structure was Type A, which is more complex than Type B. The main difference between these classifications is the number of charge regions in the cloud. A one-dimensional analysis with Gauss's law indicates six vertically stacked charge layers that alternated polarity within the stratiform region during balloon four's ascent. The vector electric field pattern verified the 1-D Gauss analysis and showed the electric field structure to be primarily horizontally stratified. The maximum magnitude of the electric field was approximately 105 kV/m. The second stratiform sounding sampled by balloon three began fifty minutes after the first stratiform sounding. It showed a very different electric field profile, consistent with neither Type A nor Type B electrical structure, perhaps because the sounding was far from the front of the MCS. There were only three charge layers as opposed to the four charge layers

  3. Doppler wind profile experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The data collection phase of a Doppler wind measurement experiment supported by high-resolution Jimsphere/FPS-16 wind data and Windsonde data was carried out at the Kennedy Space Center in February, March and early April of 1985. The Doppler wind measurements were made using a hybrid doppler profiler put in place by the Johnson Space Center and a SOUSY profiler operated by Radian Corporation. Both systems operated at 50 Mhz. Although the doppler profiler systems were located 10 km apart to enable concurrent operation of the systems for data comparison, little concurrent data were obtained due to set-up delays with the SOUSY system, and system problems with the WPL system during the last month of the test. During the test period, special serial Jimsphere soundings were taken at two-hour intervals on six days in March and April in addition to balloon soundings taken in support of the Shuttle launch operations. In addition, there is temperature, moisture and wind information available from the daily morning Radiosonde sounding taken at the Kennedy site. The balloon release point was at the same location as the SOUSY profiler. Vertical resolution of the SOUSY profiler was 150 M to approximately 20 km. The vertical resolution of the WPL profiler was 290 M to 10 km and 870 M to 17 km. Winds determined form the Jimsphere balloon have a vertical resolution of 30 M.

  4. Ka-band propagation studies using the ACTS propagation terminal and the CSU-CHILL multiparameter, Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, J.; Turk, J.; Bringi, V. N.

    1995-01-01

    An increase in the demand for satellite communications has led to an overcrowding of the current spectrums being used - mainly at C and Ku bands. To alleviate this overcrowding, new technology is being developed to open up the Ka-band for communications use. One of the first experimental communications satellites using this technology is NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). In Sept. 1993, ACTS was deployed into a geostationary orbit near 100 deg W longitude. The ACTS system employs two Ka-band beacons for propagation experiments, one at 20.185 GHz and another at 27.505 GHz. Attenuation due to rain and tropospheric scintillations will adversely affect new technologies proposed for this spectrum. Therefore, before being used commercially, propagation effects at Ka-band must be studied. Colorado State University is one of eight sites across the United States and Canada conducting propagations studies; each site is equipped with the ACTS propagation terminal (APT). With each site located in a different climatic zone, the main objective of the propagation experiment is to obtain monthly and yearly attenuation statistics. Each site also has secondary objectives that are site dependent. At CSU, the CSU-CHILL radar facility is being used to obtain polarimetric radar data along the ACTS propagation path. During the expected two to four year period of the project, it is hoped to study several significant weather events. The S-band radar will be used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates and to initialize propagation models that have been developed, to help classify propagation events measured by the APT. Preliminary attenuation estimates for two attenuation events will be shown here - a bright band case that occurred on 13 May 1994 and a convective case that occurred on 20 Jun. 1994. The computations used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates from S-band radar data are detailed. Results from the two events are shown.

  5. Tropospheric gravity waves observed by three closely-spaced ST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.; Eriddle, A. C. AFGARELLO, R.ly stable thro; Eriddle, A. C. AFGARELLO, R.ly stable thro

    1985-01-01

    During a 6 week period in 1982, 3 ST (Stratosphere-Troposphere) radars measured horizontal and vertical wavelengths of small scale tropospheric gravity waves. These 50 MHz, vertically-directed radars were located in a trianglar network with approximately 5 km spacing on the southern coast of France at the mouth of the Rhone River during the ALPEX (Alpine Experiment) program.

  6. Maximum-likelihood spectral estimation and adaptive filtering techniques with application to airborne Doppler weather radar. Thesis Technical Report No. 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Jonathan Y.

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the signal processing problems associated with the detection of hazardous windshears using airborne Doppler radar when weak weather returns are in the presence of strong clutter returns. In light of the frequent inadequacy of spectral-processing oriented clutter suppression methods, we model a clutter signal as multiple sinusoids plus Gaussian noise, and propose adaptive filtering approaches that better capture the temporal characteristics of the signal process. This idea leads to two research topics in signal processing: (1) signal modeling and parameter estimation, and (2) adaptive filtering in this particular signal environment. A high-resolution, low SNR threshold maximum likelihood (ML) frequency estimation and signal modeling algorithm is devised and proves capable of delineating both the spectral and temporal nature of the clutter return. Furthermore, the Least Mean Square (LMS) -based adaptive filter's performance for the proposed signal model is investigated, and promising simulation results have testified to its potential for clutter rejection leading to more accurate estimation of windspeed thus obtaining a better assessment of the windshear hazard.

  7. Diurnal and seasonal Variability of D-Region Electron Densities obtained with a 3-MHz Doppler Radar at 69°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Friedrich, M.

    A narrow beam Doppler radar at 3 17 MHz has been installed close to the And o ya Rocket Range as part of the ALOMAR observatory at Andenes Norway 69 3 r N 16 0 r E in summer 2002 to improve the ground based capabilities for measurements of small scale features and electron number densities in the mesosphere Electron number densities can be measured between about 55 km and 90 km with a time resolution of 9 minutes and a height resolution of 1 km The partial reflection experiment utilizes partial reflection of ordinary and extraordinary component waves from scatterers in the altitude range 50-95 km to estimate electron number densities from differential absorption DAE and differential phase DPE measurements The electron number density profiles derived with DAE and DPE measurements are in remarkable good agreement We discuss the diurnal and seasonal variability of electron densities obtained at Andenes since July 2004 the response of D-region electron densities to geomagnetic disturbances and solar proton events The results are compared with data from previous rocket-borne radio wave propagation measurements at Andenes and with the recent IRI model

  8. A 50 MHz-1 GHz high linearity CATV amplifier with a 0.15 μm InGaAs PHEMT process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Xu; Zhigong, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Jing, Huang

    2011-07-01

    A 50 MHz-1 GHz low noise and high linearity amplifier monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) for cable TV is presented. A shunt AC voltage negative feedback combined with source current negative feedback is adopted to extend the bandwidth and linearity. A novel DC bias feedback is introduced to stabilize the operation point, which improved the linearity further. The circuit was fabricated with a 0.15 μm InGaAs PHEMT (pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor) process. The test was carried out in 75 Ω systems from 50 MHz to 1 GHz. The measurement results showed that it gave a small signal gain of 16.5 dB with little gain ripples of less than ± 1 dB. An excellent noise figure of 1.7-2.9 dB is obtained in the designed band. The IIP3 is 16 dBm, which shows very good linearity. The CSO and CTB are high up to 68 dBc and 77 dBc, respectively. The chip area is 0.56 mm2 and the power dissipation is 110 mA with a 5 V supply. It is ideally suited to cable TV systems.

  9. Weather Radar Technology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    uelocitV WMs ) data processing systems such as NEXRAD to have a reliable technique for removing ambiguities due to velocity aliasing. Performance of many...intended for automated implementation on radar systems such as the NEXt generation weather RADar ( NEXRAD ) system. Several research areas were addressed...with Doppler radar will soon be realized with the deployment of the NEXRAD radar systems. Some of these large scale storms can have devastating wind

  10. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  11. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics Simulated using a Meso-Scale Model Coupled with a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme through Comparison with Observation Data by Ship-Borne Doppler and Space-Borne W-Band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, T.; Nakajima, T.; Khain, A. P.; Saito, K.; Takemura, T.; Okamoto, H.; Nishizawa, T.; Tao, W.-K.

    2012-01-01

    Equivalent radar reflectivity factors (Ze) measured by W-band radars are directly compared with the corresponding values calculated from a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic meso-scale model coupled with a spectral-bin-microphysical (SBM) scheme for cloud. Three case studies are the objects of this research: one targets a part of ship-borne observation using 95 GHz Doppler radar over the Pacific Ocean near Japan in May 2001; other two are aimed at two short segments of space-borne observation by the cloud profiling radar on CloudSat in November 2006. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations reproduce general features of vertical structures of Ze and Doppler velocity. A main problem in the reproducibility is an overestimation of Ze in ice cloud layers. A frequency analysis shows a strong correlation between ice water contents (IWC) and Ze in the simulation; this characteristic is similar to those shown in prior on-site studies. From comparing with the empirical correlations by the prior studies, the simulated Ze is overestimated than the corresponding values in the studies at the same IWC. Whereas the comparison of Doppler velocities suggests that large-size snowflakes are necessary for producing large velocities under the freezing level and hence rules out the possibility that an overestimation of snow size causes the overestimation of Ze. Based on the results of several sensitivity tests, we conclude that the source of the overestimation is a bias in the microphysical calculation of Ze or an overestimation of IWC. To identify the source of the problems needs further validation research with other follow-up observations.

  12. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  13. Heavy rains over Chennai and surrounding areas as captured by Doppler weather radar during Northeast Monsoon 2015: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaljit, Ray; Kannan, B. A. M.; Stella, S.; Sen, Bikram; Sharma, Pradip; Thampi, S. B.

    2016-05-01

    During the Northeast monsoon season, India receives about 11% of its annual rainfall. Many districts in South Peninsula receive 30-60% of their annual rainfall. Coastal Tamil Nadu receives 60% of its annual rainfall and interior districts about 40-50 %. During the month of November, 2015, three synoptic scale weather systems affected Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry causing extensive rainfall activity over the region. Extremely heavy rains occurred over districts of Chennai, Thiruvallur and Kancheepuram, due to which these 3 districts were fully inundated. 122 people in Tamil Nadu were reported to have died due to the flooding, while over 70,000 people had been rescued. State government reported flood damage of the order of around Rs 8481 Crores. The rainfall received in Chennai district during 1.11.2015 to 5.12.2015 was 1416.8 mm against the normal of 408.4 mm. The extremely heavy rains were found to be associated with strong wind surges at lower tropospheric levels, which brought in lot of moisture flux over Chennai and adjoining area. The subtropical westerly trough at mid-tropospheric levels extended much southwards than its normal latitude, producing favorable environment for sustained rising motions ahead of approaching trough over coastal Tamil Nadu. Generated strong upward velocities in the clouds lifted the cloud tops to very high levels forming deep convective clouds. These clouds provided very heavy rainfall of the order of 150-200 mm/hour. In this paper we have used radar data to examine and substantiate the cloud burst that led to these torrential rains over Chennai and adjoining areas during the Northeast Monsoon period, 2015.

  14. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  15. Prediction and uncertainty of Hurricane Sandy (2012) explored through a real-time cloud-permitting ensemble analysis and forecast system assimilating airborne Doppler radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Erin B.; Zhang, Fuqing

    2014-03-01

    the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) real-time convection-permitting hurricane analysis and forecasting system (WRF-EnKF) that assimilates airborne Doppler radar observations, the sensitivity and uncertainty of forecasts initialized several days prior to landfall of Hurricane Sandy (2012) are assessed. The performance of the track and intensity forecasts of both the deterministic and ensemble forecasts by the PSU WRF-EnKF system show significant skill and are comparable to or better than forecasts produced by operational dynamical models, even at lead times of 4-5 days prior to landfall. Many of the ensemble members correctly capture the interaction of Sandy with an approaching midlatitude trough, which precedes Sandy's forecasted landfall in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. However, the ensemble reveals considerable forecast uncertainties in the prediction of Sandy. For example, in the ensemble forecast initialized at 0000 UTC 26 October 2012, 10 of the 60 members do not predict a United States landfall. Using ensemble composite and sensitivity analyses, the essential dynamics and initial condition uncertainties that lead to forecast divergence among the members in tracks and precipitation are examined. It is observed that uncertainties in the environmental steering flow are the most impactful factor on the divergence of Sandy's track forecasts, and its subsequent interaction with the approaching midlatitude trough. Though the midlatitude system does not strongly influence the final position of Sandy, differences in the timing and location of its interactions with Sandy lead to considerable differences in rainfall forecasts, especially with respect to heavy precipitation over land.

  16. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  17. Fast-gated single-photon detection module with 200 ps transitions running up to 50 MHz with 30 ps resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, G.; Dalla Mora, A.; Tosi, A.; Della Frera, A.; Zappa, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a compact instrument able to quickly time-gate a silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) to be used in advanced gated Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) setups, like time-resolved optical spectroscopy, optical mammography, optical molecular imaging. The detection module can be used to boost the photon counting dynamic range, thanks to the fast transitions between the OFF and the ON state of the detector. The module embeds into a single box (11 cm x 15 cm x 24 cm) all components needed to operate a SPAD detector in fast time-gated mode and to output a standard NIM timing signal. The module includes: i) an ultra-fast pulse generator, based on MMIC components, to enable and disable the detector in less than 200 ps for very short and well-defined time slots, ranging from less than 1 ns up to 10 ns with 10 ps steps, at a repetition rate up to 50 MHz; ii) the silicon SPAD itself together with optical assembly to focus photons from an optical fiber onto the active area; iii) a passive quenching/active reset electronics, needed for optimal detector operation; iv) a low time-jitter comparator, to detect avalanche ignitions with less than 30 ps (FWHM) jitter and to generate a standard NIM output; v) a service board containing power supply, microcontroller, and USB link, to remotely set and control all instrument parameters.

  18. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  19. Delay-Doppler Radar Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-30

    pisq , r-8, sb2dsq, sigbsq, sigesq, sigmab, I igrna-;e , s igmar, ,s igmb2, s igr sq , top isq , v w, xi * * xisq, xii, xi2, -fwhme, fwhmb, rO, pix...header(99), FWHME), (header(i0i), FWHMB) v data ;.i /3.141!59265/, pix /0.25/ *A- 4-ni /5/ tto t 11nt * in’ry2 m~dm t/ 2 c. t 2.6* pisq on -- ,c = 2...arr’ca Ii ,j*wi It rr.;(. ,j r = amag i ,j*cwf i It I F (type .eq. 1) THEN.;* I= cxp(-topisq*sigrsq*xisq) k= pisq *(sigcsq - sigbsq)*xisq v= twopi*xi

  20. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  1. Comparison of surface currents measured by HF Doppler radar in the western Florida Straits during November 1983 to January 1984 and Florida current transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Frisch, Shelby A.; Larsen, Jimmy C.

    1986-07-01

    An evaluation of surface currents measured by HF radar during November 29, 1983, to January 31, 1984, with radar sites at Jupiter and Stuart on the Florida east coast is carried out in comparison with currents and transports measured by moorings and submarine cable. While an earlier analysis of currents measured in summer 1983 with radars located at Palm Beach and Jupiter (Schott et al., 1985) found significant northward shear in the northward radar currents about 20 km offshore leading to concerns about a possible bias in the radar currents, this effect was not observed in the second application farther north. It is possible that the shear in the summer 1983 field might have been real and related to the topography in the southern part of the 1983 radar field where no intercomparison current data had been available. Concerning the usefulness of radar currents as Florida Current transport indicators, which was the prime intention of their application in the context of the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies, this second study finds much more encouraging results than the one based on the observations of summer 1983. While the first study was inconclusive because only small transport fluctuations occurred during the summer 1983 observation period, this second study finds significant correlation. Florida Current transport fluctuations had a total range of 15×106m3/s during the second observation period, and correlation with downstream radar currents, averaged zonally across the center of the radar field, was 0.85. Coherence was significant for periods longer than 5 days. Highest correlation with transport was found for radar currents farthest out, to the right of the axis of the stream.

  2. EXTRACTING A RADAR REFLECTION FROM A CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT USING 3-D INTERPRETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 3-D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey at 50 MHz center frequency was conducted at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, to define the topography of the base of a shallow aquifer. The site for the survey was Chemical Disposal Pit #2 where there are many man-made features that generate ...

  3. Design of a Doppler reflectometer for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. D. Nam, Y. U.; Seo, Seong-Heon; Kim, Y. S.

    2014-11-15

    A Doppler reflectometer has been designed to measure the poloidal propagation velocity on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak. It has the operating frequency range of V-band (50-75 GHz) and the monostatic antenna configuration with extraordinary mode (X-mode). The single sideband modulation with an intermediate frequency of 50 MHz is used for the heterodyne measurement with the 200 MHz in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) phase detector. The corrugated conical horn antenna is used to approximate the Gaussian beam propagation and it is installed together with the oversized rectangular waveguides in the vacuum vessel. The first commissioning test of the Doppler reflectometer system on the KSTAR tokamak is planned in the 2014 KSTAR experimental campaign.

  4. Mathematical Models for Doppler Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William M.

    1987-01-01

    Error analysis increases precision of navigation. Report presents improved mathematical models of analysis of Doppler measurements and measurement errors of spacecraft navigation. To take advantage of potential navigational accuracy of Doppler measurements, precise equations relate measured cycle count to position and velocity. Drifts and random variations in transmitter and receiver oscillator frequencies taken into account. Mathematical models also adapted to aircraft navigation, radar, sonar, lidar, and interferometry.

  5. Helicopter discrimination apparatus for the murine radar

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Jr., John G.; Gray, Roger M.

    1977-01-01

    A helicopter discrimination apparatus for a radar utilizing doppler filtering to discriminate between a missile and ground clutter. The short duration of the doppler filter pulses which are emitted by helicopter rotor blades are processed to prevent false alarms, thus allowing the radar-protected helicopter to operate in formation with other helicopters while maintaining protection against infra-red-seeking missiles.

  6. VHF radar and rocket observations of equatorial spread F on Kwajalein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Kelley, M. C.; Swartz, W. E.; Farley, D. T.

    1994-08-01

    VHF radar data from the Summer 1990 Equatorial Spread F campaign on Kwajalein are presented. The Cornell 50 MHz portable radar interferometer (CUPRI) operated concurrently with the Altair UHF incoherent scatter radar throughout July and August and supported two sounding rocket flights on July 30 and August 2. This experiment provided the first opportunity to simultaneously diagnose equatorial spread F using the three prime experimental techniques: VHF/UHF coherent scatter, incoherent scatter, and in situ probe measurements of electric field and density fluctuations. The intensity of the coherent echoes observed was consistent with typical Jicamarca spread F observations, but chains of periodic, large-scale plasma upwellings were observed more often and for much longer durations on Kwajalein than have been seen over Peru. CUPRI also measured Doppler frequencies in one upwelling corresponding to 1200-m/s plasma drift velocities. This measurement agrees with recent observations of supersonic drift rates at the magnetic equator by spacecraft. Near the most active localized plasma upwellings, interferometer data reveal that the zonal drift rate of plasma irregularities can vary sharply in space, as one would expect for two-dimensional incompressible flow. We introduce a semiempirical model of the three-dimensional spectrum of F region irregularities that is consistent with the one-dimensional spectra of density fluctuations observed by sounding rockets and with the axial ratio of irregularities determined recently. Normalized to data from one of the rocket flights on Kwajalein, the model predicts the 3-m scattering cross-section measured by CUPRI to within a few decibels.

  7. The mechanisms of the evolution of a Mei-Yu frontal rain band revealed from multiple Doppler/Polarimetric radar observation in the torrential rain event on June 11, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. C.; Liou, Y.; Ke, C.

    2013-12-01

    On June 11 , 2012, a Mei-Yu front was approaching northern Taiwan, a line echo with wave pattern appeared when this east-west oriented rain band was about 100 km north to the northern tip of Taiwan island. Meanwhile the strong low level southwest wind was detected to the west coast of the island. The leading edge was moving southeastward in a speed of 22km/hr. Within 3 hours this rain band evolved into a bow shape before it cast the landfall. Once it reached the north coast, the system was slowing down to a speed of 14km/hr. After the most intense rainfall near 22LST, the system gradually weaken and became stationary. This system brought over 500mm rainfall to northern Taiwan within 8 hours. The numerical weather predictions were not able to forecast the three stages movement and the extreme rainfall. The purpose of this article is to utilize the Doppler radar network data near northern Taiwan to study the dynamical reasons for the evolution and movement of this torrential rain event. Through a variational multiple Doppler wind synthesis algorithm by Liou et al.2012, the three dimensional winds at different time stages are retrieved. The wind fields will be further applied to the calculation of the perturbation pressure and temperature fields. The changes of the vertical motion and the new cell propagation will be studied in detail The interactions between the low level jet, the Mei-Yu front and the high terrain will also be discussed. A C-band polarimetric radar had observed the whole life cycle of this system, it will provide bounty information to study the micro-physical features associated with the evolution of this intense convective system.

  8. Analyzing NEXRAD doppler radar images to assess nightly dispersal patterns and population trends in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Horn, Jason W; Kunz, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    Operators of early weather-surveillance radars often observed echoes on their displays that did not behave like weather pattern, including expanding ring-like shapes they called angels. These echoes were caused by high-flying insects, migrating birds, and large colonies of bats emerging from roosts to feed. Modern weather-surveillance radar stations in the United States (NEXt-generation RADar or NEXRAD) provide detailed images that clearly show evening bat emergences from large colonies. These images can be used to investigate the flight behavior of groups of bats and population trends in large colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in south-central Texas which are clearly imaged by local NEXRAD radar stations. In this study, we used radar reflectivity data from the New Braunfels, Texas NEXRAD station to examine relative colony size, direction of movement, speed of dispersion, and altitude gradients of bats from these colonies following evening emergence. Base reflectivity clear-air-mode Level-II images were geo-referenced and compiled in a GIS along with locations of colonies and features on the landscape. Temporal sequences of images were filtered for the activity of bats, and from this, the relative size of bat colonies, and the speed and heading of bat emergences were calculated. Our results indicate cyclical changes in colony size from year to year and that initial headings taken by bats during emergence flights are highly directional. We found that NEXRAD data can be an effective tool for monitoring the nightly behavior and seasonal changes in these large colonies. Understanding the distribution of a large regional bat population on a landscape scale has important implications for agricultural pest management and conservation efforts.

  9. A Cross-Track Cloud-Scanning Dual-Frequency Doppler (C2D2) Radar for the Proposed ACE Mission and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory; Tanelli, Simone; Chamberlain, Neil; Durden, Stephen; Fung, Andy; Sanchez-Barbetty, Mauricio; Thrivikraman, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    The National Resource Council’s Earth Science Decadal Survey” (NRCDS) has identified the Aerosol/Climate/Ecosystems (ACE) Mission as a priority mission for NASA Earth science. The NRC recommended the inclusion of "a cross-track scanning cloud radar with channels at 94 GHz and possibly 34 GHz for measurement of cloud droplet size, glaciation height, and cloud height". Several radar concepts have been proposed that meet some of the requirements of the proposed ACE mission but none have provided scanning capability at both 34 and 94 GHz due to the challenge of constructing scanning antennas at 94 GHz. In this paper, we will describe a radar design that leverages new developments in microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and micro-machining to enable an electronically-scanned radar with both Ka-band (35 GHz) and W-band (94-GHz) channels. This system uses a dual-frequency linear active electronically-steered array (AESA) combined with a parabolic cylindrical reflector. This configuration provides a large aperture (3m x 5m) with electronic-steering but is much simpler than a two-dimension AESA of similar size. Still, the W-band frequency requires element spacing of approximately 2.5 mm, presenting significant challenges for signal routing and incorporation of MMICs. By combining (Gallium Nitride) GaN MMIC technology with micro-machined radiators and interconnects and silicon-germanium (SiGe) beamforming MMICs, we are able to meet all the performance and packaging requirements of the linear array feed and enable simultaneous scanning of Ka-band and W-band radars over swath of up to 100 km.

  10. Validation of multiple-Doppler analysis of convective clouds using the ARM multi-frequency radar network during MC3E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, K. W.; Collis, S. M.; Giangrande, S. E.; Kollias, P.

    2012-12-01

    Convective processes play an important role in Earth's energy balance by redistributing heat and moisture throughout the atmosphere. Vertical air motions associated with these processes are inherently linked to the life cycle of these convective systems and are therefore directly tied to their energetic impacts. Despite this importance, the spatial and temporal scales of these vertical air motions are poorly understood and not accurately represented in convective parameterization schemes found in numerical weather prediction models. A radar data assimilation tool based on a 3-dimensional variational technique has been developed to study these vertical air motions within convective clouds. However, in order to trust the output of this tool, its sensitivities and accuracies need to be properly characterized. Scanning precipitation radars located at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are used in the assimilation process to retrieve vertical air motions for selected convective cases during the recent Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Using a statistical approach, the veracity of these retrievals is evaluated by comparing them with observations from the UHF ARM Zenith-pointing Radar (UAZR) network located at SGP.

  11. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-03-06

    The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate.

  12. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts were focused on: (1) acquisition of radar data at Arecibo; (2) examination of raw data; (3) reduction of the unmodulated data to background-free, calibrated spectra; (4) integration and coherent analyses of the phase-coded data; and (5) calculation of Doppler shifts and preliminary values for echo limb-to-limb bandwidths, radar cross sections, and circular polarization ratios. Asteroids observed to data have radar properties distinct from those of the rocky terrestrial planets and those of the icy Galilean satellites.

  13. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  14. Modern radar: Theory, operation and maintenance /2nd edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safford, E. L., Jr.

    1981-02-01

    A compendium on radar systems and theory is presented. The development of the magnetron and the klystron is reviewed along with the methods used to solve the original radar problems. The early display devices are surveyed with a view to their ongoing evolution. The pulse, Doppler, CW, and pulse-Doppler radar systems are detailed. Target reflectivity, pulse calculations, Doppler clutter, signal processing, and bandwidth are discussed. The uses and basic components are examined of the radar systems utilized in military, intruder detection, avionics, aerospace, police, satellite, and guided missile applications. A coverage of radar frequency components, tracking systems, aircraft signatures, and receivers is provided.

  15. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  16. Dual-Polarised Doppler X-band Radar Observations of Mixed Phased Clouds from the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment-Dust (ICE-D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Ryan; Blyth, Alan; Bennett, Lindsay; Dufton, David; Cui, Zhiqiang; McQuaid, Jim; Price, Hannah; Murray, Benjamin; Huang, Yahui

    2016-04-01

    Here we present dual-polarised X-band radar and in situ observations of convective, altocumulus and altostratus clouds relatively close to the Sahara desert in order to examine the impact of dust on the formation of ice and precipitation. These initial results come the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust (UK ICE-D). UK ICE-D was an aircraft and ground-based project based in Cape Verde off the coast of Senegal, Africa during August 2015. The overall goal of this experiment was to determine how desert dust affects primary nucleation of ice particles in convective and layer clouds as well as the subsequent development of precipitation and glaciation of the clouds. This was accomplished by making focused observations when dust was present in high concentrations and when almost no dust was present. Here we focus on examining the differences in hydrometeor types derived from the dual-polarised X-band radar observations observed in the high and low dust loadings with specific emphasis on the role of supercooled rain drops in these two situations.

  17. The development of a non-contact screening system for rapid medical inspection at a quarantine depot using a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, microwave radar and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Suzuki, S; Ujikawa, K; Usui, T; Gotoh, S; Sugamata, M; Abe, S

    2009-01-01

    In order to conduct fast screening of passengers with infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or pandemic influenza at a quarantine depot, we developed a non-contact screening system with self-produced program to conduct a human screening within five seconds, via a linear discriminant function from non-contact derived variables, i.e. palmer pulse derived from a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz microwave radar, and facial temperature measured by thermography. The system evaluation was conducted on seven healthy male subjects (23 +/- 1 years). In order to achieve a pseudo-infection condition, the subjects maintained an ergometer exercise load (100 W, 10 minutes). Before (normal condition) and after (pseudo-infection condition) exercise, a significant linear discriminant function (p < 0.001) was determined to distinguish pseudo-infection condition from normal condition (Mahalanobis D-square = 20.3, classification error rate <5%). The proposed system appears promising for future application in fast screening of infection at a quarantine depot.

  18. Development of a non-contact screening system for rapid medical inspection at a quarantine depot using a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, microwave radar and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Suzuki, S; Ujikawa, K; Usui, T; Gotoh, S; Sugamata, M; Badarch, Z; Abe, S

    2009-01-01

    In order to conduct fast screening of passengers with infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or pandemic influenza at a quarantine depot, we developed a non-contact screening system with a self-produced program to conduct a human screening within five seconds, via a linear discriminant function from non-contact derived variables, i.e. palmer pulse derived from a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz microwave radar, and facial temperature measured by a thermography. The system evaluation was conducted on seven healthy male subjects (23+1 years). In order to achieve a pseudo-infection condition, the subjects maintained an ergo-meter exercise load (100 W, 10 minutes). Before (normal condition) and after (pseudo-infection condition) exercise, a significant linear discriminant function (p50.001) was determined to distinguish the pseudo-infection condition from the normal condition (Mahalanobis D-square 1/4 20.3, classification error rate55%). The proposed system appears promising for future application in fast screening of infection at a quarantine depot.

  19. Doppler echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are successful in presenting a basic book on clinical quantitative Doppler echocardiography. It is not intended to be a comprehensive text, but it does cover clinical applications in a succinct fashion. Only the more common diseases in the adult are considered. The subjects are presented logically and are easy to comprehend. The illustrations are good, and the book is paperbound. The basic principles of Doppler echocardiography are presented briefly. The book ends with chapters on left ventricular function (stroke volume and cardiac output), congenital heart disease, and color Doppler echo-cardiography. There are numerous references and a good glossary and index.

  20. Navigator alignment using radar scan

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis

    2016-04-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of and correction of heading error of platform. Knowledge of at least one of a maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth pertaining to a plurality of radar echoes can be utilized to facilitate correction of the heading error. Heading error can occur as a result of component drift. In an ideal situation, a boresight direction of an antenna or the front of an aircraft will have associated therewith at least one of a maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth. As the boresight direction of the antenna strays from a direction of travel at least one of the maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth will shift away, either left or right, from the ideal situation.

  1. A combined sea clutter and noise model appropriate to the operation of high-frequency pulsed Doppler radar in regions constrained by external noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Eric W.; Walsh, John

    2008-08-01

    In recent years, bistatic pulsed high-frequency ground wave radar models of the ocean clutter have been developed. Several new features, distinct from earlier monostatic developments, appear as products of those analyses. One question that needs to be addressed is, "What characteristics of the theoretical clutter models are likely to be visible in experimental data collected from the ocean surface?" A major consideration in answering this question is the development of an appropriate noise model. Such a model along with an analogous clutter model is derived. This allows a simulation of time series data for both clutter and noise which may be treated using standard Fourier transform techniques to provide a periodogram for the typical combined noise/clutter spectrum of scattering from the ocean surface. The analysis proceeds on the assumption of an externally noise-limited system, with the noise being characterized as a white Gaussian zero-mean process. The aliasing due to noise undersampling is seen to be an integral part of the model. Statistical stationarity is assumed throughout. Both infinite and finite pulse trains are considered.

  2. Laser doppler and radar interferometer for contactless measurements on unaccessible tie-rods on monumental buildings: Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioffré, M.; Cavalagli, N.; Pepi, C.; Trequattrini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-contact measurements can be effectively used in civil engineering to assess the variation of structural performance with time. In the last decades this approach has received considerable interests from researchers working in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Indeed, non-contact measurements are very attractive because it is possible to perform non intrusive and non destructive investigations even being at a significant distance from the targets. Within this context, contactless measurements of the tie-rod vibrations in the Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi (Italy) are presented in this paper. In particular, laser vibrometer and radar interferometer measurements are used to estimate natural frequencies and mode shapes. This information is crucial to obtain the tensile axial force in the tie-rods, which can be used as an indicator of structural integrity or possible failure. Furthermore, a novel approach is proposed where drones (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can be successfully used to improve the effectiveness and the accuracy of the experimental activities.

  3. Lunar topography - Global determination by radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.; Zisk, S. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Previous methods used for two-dimensional radar mapping of the moon are contrasted with new techniques that add altitude information to the radar map. Delay-Doppler stereoscopy and delay-Doppler interferometry are shown to provide surface-height variations with higher accuracy and better global fidelity than has been possible previously. Sample results are presented for altitude contours on the moon as obtained with the Haystack and Westford radar systems of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. An appendix describes the mathematical principles of delay-Doppler interferometry in determining the position of an arbitrary reflecting region of the lunar surface from measurements of the time delay, Doppler shift, and fringe phase of radar echoes from that region.

  4. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  5. Solar Radar Astronomy with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    2003-04-01

    A new approach to the study of the Sun's corona and its dynamical processes is possible with radar investigations in the frequency range of about 10-50 MHz. The range of electron densities of the solar corona is such that radio waves at these frequencies can provide diagnostic radar echoes of large scale phenomena such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We expect that the frequency shift imposed on the echo signal by an earthward-moving CME will provide a direct measurement of the velocity, thereby providing a good estimate of the arrival time at Earth. It is known that CMEs are responsible for the largest geomagnetic storms at Earth, which are capable of causing power grid blackouts, satellite electronic upsets, and degradation of radio communications circuits. Thus, having accurate forecasts of potential CME-initiated geomagnetic storms is of practical space weather interest. New high power transmitting arrays are becoming available, along with proposed modifications to existing research facilities, that will allow the use of radio waves to study the solar corona by the radar echo technique. Of particular interest for such solar radar investigations is the bistatic configuration with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). The LOFAR facility will have an effective receiving area of about 1 square km at solar radar frequencies. Such large effective area will provide the receiving antenna gain needed for detailed investigations of solar coronal dynamics. Conservative estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio for solar radar echoes as a function of the integration time required to achieve a specified detection level (e.g., ~ 5 dB) indicate that time resolutions of 10s of seconds can be achieved. Thus, we are able to resolve variations in the solar radar cross section on time scales which will provide new information on the plasma dynamical processes associated with the solar corona, such as CMEs. It is the combination of high transmitted power and large effective receiving

  6. Analysis of Doppler measurements of people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Robert; Bender, Robert

    2006-05-01

    With the changing nature of international security it is of interest to the military to use remote sensors to detect and classify people as potential threats. We chose a millimeter wave (MMW) radar as our sensor to collect data on single and small groups of people that were either walking or running to determine how easily they could be detected. This work was done to support the concept of using Ka-band radar to detect people from an airborne platform. Fully-polarimetric Ka-Band radar data was collected of people walking and running at various orientations with respect to the radar. Micro-Doppler analysis reveals Doppler oscillations with time that are characteristic of people at all orientations measured.

  7. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  8. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  9. Correction of Doppler Rada Data for Aircraft Motion Using Surface Measurements and Recursive Least-Squares Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S.; Haddad, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Observations of Doppler velocity of hydrometeors form airborne Doppler weather radars normally contains a component due to the aircraft motion. Accurate hydrometeor velocity measurements thus require correction by subtracting this velocity from the observed velocity.

  10. Radar Based Case Study of a Northeast Colorado Winter Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Doppler analysis performed at 2327 UTC 19 Januar;, to describe a particular snow band in greater detail. Appendix C lists the radar characteristics...Doppler radar analyses showed well organized mesoscale snow bands oriented west-southwest to east-northeast, parallel to the 800-400 mb thermal wind...deployed during WISP-91. Radar data and their analyses, important elements in observation of storm structure and snow bands , is the subject of

  11. Millimeter radar improves target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2011-06-01

    Recently developed millimeter wave radar has advantages for target identification over conventional microwave radar which typically use lower frequencies. We describe the pertinent features involved in the construction of the new millimeter wave radar, the pseudo-optical cavity source and the quasi-optical duplexer. The long wavelength relative to light allows the radar beam to penetrate through most weather because the wavelength is larger than the particle size for dust, drizzle rain, fog. Further the mm wave beam passes through an atmospheric transmission window that provides a dip in attenuation. The higher frequency than conventional radar provides higher Doppler frequencies, for example, than X-band radar. We show by simulation that small characteristic vibrations and slow turns of an aircraft become visible so that the Doppler signature improves identification. The higher frequency also reduces beam width, which increases transmit and receive antenna gains. For the same power the transmit beam extends to farther range and the increase in receive antenna gain increases signal to noise ratio for improved detection and identification. The narrower beam can also reduce clutter and reject other noise more readily. We show by simulation that the radar can be used at lower elevations over the sea than conventional radar.

  12. Radar volcano monitoring system in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arason, Þórður; Yeo, Richard F.; Sigurðsson, Geirfinnur S.; Pálmason, Bolli; von Löwis, Sibylle; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór

    2013-04-01

    Weather radars are valuable instruments in monitoring explosive volcanic eruptions. Temporal variations in the eruption strength can be monitored as well as variations in plume and ash dispersal. Strength of the reflected radar signal of a volcanic plume is related to water content and droplet sizes as well as type, shape, amount and the grain size distribution of ash. The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) owns and operates three radars and one more is planned for this radar volcano monitoring system. A fixed position 250 kW C-band weather radar was installed in 1991 in SW-Iceland close to Keflavík International Airport, and upgraded to a doppler radar in 2010. In cooperation with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), IMO has recently invested in two mobile X-band radars and one fixed position C-band radar. The fixed position 250 kW doppler C-band weather radar was installed in April 2012 at Fljótsdalsheiði, E-Iceland, and in June 2012 IMO received a mobile 65 kW dual-polarization doppler X-band radar. Early in 2013 IMO will acquire another mobile radar of the same type. Explosive volcanic eruptions in Iceland during the past 22 years were monitored by the Keflavík radar: Hekla 1991, Gjálp 1996, Grímsvötn 1998, Hekla 2000, Grímsvötn 2004, Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. Additionally, the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption was mointored by a mobile X-band radar on loan from the Italian Civil Protection Authorities. Detailed technical information is presented on the four radars with examples of the information acquired during previous eruptions. This expanded network of radars is expected to give valuable information on future volcanic eruptions in Iceland.

  13. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, B; Hromadka, T V; Perez, R

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for "ground-truthing" of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference.

  14. Weather Radar Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    and Doppler weather radar data from the National Center for Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National .Severe Storms Laboratory, are being...Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National Severe Storms Laboratory, are being analyzed to develop low-altitude wind-shear detection algorithms...pictures, and dusted for fingerprints. The wind sensors, rain gauge, and antenna were destroyed but the DCP, solar panel, and other site components

  15. Weather Radar Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-31

    National Center for Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National Severe Storms Laboratory are being analyzed to develop low-altitude wind shear...public through low-altitude wind shear aviation weather products the National Technical Information Service, NEXR I turbulence., Springfield, VA 22161. 19...were analyzed preliminarily to determine wind shear characteristics in the Memphis area. Doppler weather radar data from the National Center for

  16. Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 20 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. The usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site as well as, more recently, the Pathfinder landing site. In general, radar data have not been available to the Mars exploration community at large. A project funded initially by the Mars Exploration Directorate Science Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and later funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program has reprocessed to a common format a decade's worth of raw GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data in aid of landing site characterization for the Mars Program. These data will soon be submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The radar data used were obtained between 1988 and 1995 by the GSSR, and comprise some 63 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Of these, 15 have yet to be recovered from old 9-track tapes, and some of the data may be permanently lost.

  17. MER vistas: ground-truth for Earth-based radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, Albert F.; Larsen, Kristopher W.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Slade, Martin A.

    2004-01-01

    Earth-based delay-Doppler radar observations of Mars with four receiving stations were carried out during the Mars oppositions of 2001 and 2003 in support of Mars Exploration Rover landing site selection. This interferometric planetary radar technique has demonstrated radar mapping of Mars with a 5 km spatial resolution.

  18. Radar clutter classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehwien, Wolfgang

    1989-11-01

    The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density. Separable clutter classes are most likely to arise from the analysis of the Doppler spectrum. Specifically, a feature set based on the complex reflection coefficients of the lattice prediction error filter is proposed. The classifier is tested using data recorded from L-band air traffic control radars. The Doppler spectra of these data are examined; the properties of the feature set computed using these data are studied in terms of both the marginal and multivariate statistics. Several strategies involving different numbers of features, class assignments, and data set pretesting according to Doppler frequency and signal to noise ratio were evaluated before settling on a workable algorithm. Final results are presented in terms of experimental misclassification rates and simulated and classified plane position indicator displays.

  19. Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  20. EJSM Radar instruments: Natural radio noise from Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Hess, Sébastien; Zarka, Philippe; Blankenship, Donald; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bougeret, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    Radar instruments are part of the core payload of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) spacecraft: NASA- led JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and ESA-led JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter). At this point of the project, several frequency bands are foreseen for radar studies between 5MHz and 50MHz. While the high frequencies (40 to 50 MHz) are clean bands since natural jovian radio emissions show a high frequency cutoff at about 40 MHz, lower frequencies are right in the middle of the intense decametric (DAM) radio emissions. We present a review of spectral intensity, variability and sources of these radio emissions. As the radio emission are beamed, it is possible to model the visibility of the radio emissions, as seen from the vicinity of Europa or Ganymede. We have investigated Io-related radio emissions as well as radio emissions related to the auroral oval. One result from these simulations is that some portion of the orbit of Europa is clean from Non-Io DAM emissions above 22 MHz. We also review the radiation belts synchrotron emission characteristics. This study clearly shows that a deep understanding of the natural radio emissions at Jupiter is necessary to prepare the future EJSM radar instrumentation.

  1. An 11-CM Full-Matrix Polarimetric Radar for Meteorological Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-26

    Geophysics Directorate operates a unique 11-cm (S- band ) coherent polarimetric radar . The radar can transmit signals of alternating orthogonal...of Switchable Circulator Network 8 iv Preface This report describes the 11-cm (S- band ) Doppler radar operated by the Ground Based Remote Sensing...wavelength (S- band ) Doppler radar operated by the Geophysics Directorate in Sudbury, Mass., 1 has been used for several years for investigations of the

  2. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle. [(pulse radar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are discussed of a study to define a radar and antenna system which best suits the space shuttle rendezvous requirements. Topics considered include antenna characteristics and antenna size tradeoffs, fundamental sources of measurement errors inherent in the target itself, backscattering crosssection models of the target and three basic candidate radar types. Antennas up to 1.5 meters in diameter are within specified installation constraints, however, a 1 meter diameter paraboloid and a folding, four slot backfeed on a two gimbal mount implemented for a spiral acquisition scan is recommended. The candidate radar types discussed are: (1) noncoherent pulse radar (2) coherent pulse radar and (3) pulse Doppler radar with linear FM ranging. The radar type recommended is a pulse Doppler with linear FM ranging. Block diagrams of each radar system are shown.

  3. Prospects for Geostationary Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Durden, Stephen L.; Im, Eastwood; Rhamat-Samii, Yahya

    2009-01-01

    A novel mission concept, namely NEXRAD in Space (NIS), was developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a geostationary orbit. This mission concept requires a space deployable 35-m diameter reflector that operates at 35-GHz with a surface figure accuracy requirement of 0.21 mm RMS. This reflector is well beyond the current state-of-the-art. To implement this mission concept, several potential technologies associated with large, lightweight, spaceborne reflectors have been investigated by this study. These spaceborne reflector technologies include mesh reflector technology, inflatable membrane reflector technology and Shape Memory Polymer reflector technology.

  4. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

  5. Clutter attenuation using the Doppler effect in standoff electromagnetic quantum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In the context of traditional radar systems, the Doppler effect is crucial to detect and track moving targets in the presence of clutter. In the quantum radar context, however, most theoretical performance analyses to date have assumed static targets. In this paper we consider the Doppler effect at the single photon level. In particular, we describe how the Doppler effect produced by clutter and moving targets modifies the quantum distinguishability and the quantum radar error detection probability equations. Furthermore, we show that Doppler-based delayline cancelers can reduce the effects of clutter in the context of quantum radar, but only in the low-brightness regime. Thus, quantum radar may prove to be an important technology if the electronic battlefield requires stealthy tracking and detection of moving targets in the presence of clutter.

  6. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  7. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.; Raptis, A.C.

    1981-11-13

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  8. Note on Cumulant Expansions in Rummler Processing of Radar Returns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    General formulas for wake mean velocity and velocity spread in terms of the radar measured pulse pair correlation coefficient are developed and illustrated for several Doppler spectra, including two that are asymmetric. (Author)

  9. A satellite-based radar wind sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Weizhuang

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the application of Doppler radar systems for global wind measurement. A model of the satellite-based radar wind sounder (RAWS) is discussed, and many critical problems in the designing process, such as the antenna scan pattern, tracking the Doppler shift caused by satellite motion, and backscattering of radar signals from different types of clouds, are discussed along with their computer simulations. In addition, algorithms for measuring mean frequency of radar echoes, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimator, the covariance estimator, and the estimators based on autoregressive models, are discussed. Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to compare the performance of these algorithms. Anti-alias methods are discussed for the FFT and the autoregressive methods. Several algorithms for reducing radar ambiguity were studied, such as random phase coding methods and staggered pulse repitition frequncy (PRF) methods. Computer simulations showed that these methods are not applicable to the RAWS because of the broad spectral widths of the radar echoes from clouds. A waveform modulation method using the concept of spread spectrum and correlation detection was developed to solve the radar ambiguity. Radar ambiguity functions were used to analyze the effective signal-to-noise ratios for the waveform modulation method. The results showed that, with suitable bandwidth product and modulation of the waveform, this method can achieve the desired maximum range and maximum frequency of the radar system.

  10. Doppler estimation accuracy of linear FM waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, F. E.

    The single-pulse Doppler estimation accuracy of an unweighted linear FM waveform is analyzed in detail. Simple formulas are derived that predict that one-sigma Doppler estimation error for realistic radar applications. The effects of multiple target interference and nonlinearlities in the radar measurements are considered. In addition, a practical method to estimate Doppler frequency is presented. This technique uses the phase data after pulse compression, and it limits the effect of multiple target interference. In contrast, the available literature is based on the Cramer-Rao bound for Doppler accuracy, which ignores the effects of nonlinearities, multiple target interference and the question of practical implementation. A simple formula is derived that predicts the region of validity for the Cramer-Rao bound. This formula provides a criterion for minimum signal-to-noise ratio in terms of time-bandwidth product. Finally, an important concept that is demonstrated in this paper is that: the bulk of the Doppler information in a linear FM pulse is encoded in the range sidelobes after pulse compression.

  11. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  12. Attitude steering for space shuttle based synthetic aperture radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    A technique is presented to steer the antenna beam to the zero-Doppler line for a spacecraft platform which operates in a non-zero roll attitude. The purposes of employing this attitude steering technique are reduction of the Doppler centroid error caused by the variation in target elevation; reduction of the Doppler centroid bound; and reduction of the Doppler drift. It is shown that a fixed attitude sequence can be easily accommodated in the radar command sequence to achieve nearly zero-Doppler steering. Implementation of this technique improves the image quality as well as simplifies the processor design.

  13. Transesophageal color Doppler evaluation of obstructive lesions using the new "Quasar" technology.

    PubMed

    Fan, P; Nanda, N C; Gatewood, R P; Cape, E G; Yoganathan, A P

    1995-01-01

    Due to the unavoidable problem of aliasing, color flow signals from high blood flow velocities cannot be measured directly by conventional color Doppler. A new technology termed Quantitative Un-Aliased Speed Algorithm Recognition (Quasar) has been developed to overcome this limitation. Employing this technology, we used transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography to investigate whether the velocities detected by the Quasar would correlate with those obtained by continuous-wave Doppler both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, a 5.0 MHz transesophageal transducer of a Kontron Sigma 44 color Doppler flow system was used. Fourteen different peak velocities calculated and recorded by color Doppler-guided continuous-wave Doppler were randomly selected. In the clinical study, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was performed using the same transducer 18 adults (13 aortic valve stenosis, 2 aortic and 2 mitral stenosis, 2 hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and 1 mitral valve stenosis). Following each continuous-wave Doppler measurement, the Quasar was activated, and a small Quasar marker was placed in the brightest area of the color flow jet to obtain the maximum mean velocity readout. The maximum mean velocities measured by Quasar closely correlated with maximum peak velocities obtained by color flow guided continuous-wave Doppler in both in vitro (0.53 to 1.65 m/s, r = 0.99) and in vivo studies (1.50 to 6.01 m/s, r = 0.97). We conclude that the new Quasar technology can accurately measure high blood flow velocities during transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography. This technique has the potential of obviating the need for continuous-wave Doppler.

  14. Dealiasing Doppler velocites using edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Scott P.

    This study presents a new algorithm to dealias folded Doppler velocities in S, C, and X-Band radars using a new boundary detection technique on the raw velocity field as a whole, rather than the traditional gate by gate methodology used in more popular and widespread algorithms. Several different types of precipitation events are used to compare and contrast the final output of the new boundary based algorithm. The results are then compared to the NEXRAD dealiasing algorithm as defined by Eilts and Smith (1989) and an objective manual unfolding by radar manipulation software called SoloII.

  15. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  16. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.

    1993-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C is the next radar in the series of spaceborne radar experiments, which began with Seasat and continued with SIR-A and SIR-B. The SIR-C instrument has been designed to obtain simultaneous multifrequency and simultaneous multipolarization radar images from a low earth orbit. It is a multiparameter imaging radar that will be flown during at least two different seasons. The instrument operates in the squint alignment mode, the extended aperture mode, the scansar mode, and the interferometry mode. The instrument uses engineering techniques such as beam nulling for echo tracking, pulse repetition frequency hopping for Doppler centroid tracking, generating the frequency step chirp for radar parameter flexibility, block floating-point quantizing for data rate compression, and elevation beamwidth broadening for increasing the swath illumination.

  17. Extracting and analyzing micro-Doppler from ladar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Ladar and other 3D imaging modalities have the capability of creating 3D micro-Doppler to analyze the micro-motions of human subjects. An additional capability to the recognition of micro-motion is the recognition of the moving part, such as the hand or arm. Combined with measured RCS values of the body, ladar imaging can be used to ground-truth the more sensitive radar micro-Doppler measurements and associate the moving part of the subject with the measured Doppler and RCS from the radar system. The 3D ladar signatures can also be used to classify activities and actions on their own, achieving an 86% accuracy using a micro-Doppler based classification strategy.

  18. Asteroid 4179 Toutatis: 1996 Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Hudson, R. S.; Rosema, K. D.; Giorgini, J. D.; Winkler, R.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Slade, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    We report initial results of daily delay/Doppler observations of Toutatis with the Goldstone 8510-MHz (3.5-cm) radar during November 25 - December 3, 1996. Using the physical model of Toutatis derived form 1992 radar observations (Hudson and Ostro 1995, Science 270, 84-86) to analyze the new data, we obtain refined estimates of the asteroid's orbit, spin state, and surface properties.

  19. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater

  20. Doppler Feature Based Classification of Wind Profiler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Swati; Chandrasekhar Sarma, T. V.; Lourde. R, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Wind Profilers (WP) are coherent pulsed Doppler radars in UHF and VHF bands. They are used for vertical profiling of wind velocity and direction. This information is very useful for weather modeling, study of climatic patterns and weather prediction. Observations at different height and different wind velocities are possible by changing the operating parameters of WP. A set of Doppler power spectra is the standard form of WP data. Wind velocity, direction and wind velocity turbulence at different heights can be derived from it. Modern wind profilers operate for long duration and generate approximately 4 megabytes of data per hour. The radar data stream contains Doppler power spectra from different radar configurations with echoes from different atmospheric targets. In order to facilitate systematic study, this data needs to be segregated according the type of target. A reliable automated target classification technique is required to do this job. Classical techniques of radar target identification use pattern matching and minimization of mean squared error, Euclidean distance etc. These techniques are not effective for the classification of WP echoes, as these targets do not have well-defined signature in Doppler power spectra. This paper presents an effective target classification technique based on range-Doppler features.

  1. A model for gravity-wave spectra observed by Doppler sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    A model for Mesosphere - Stratosphere - Troposphere (MST) radar spectra is developed following the formalism presented by Pinkel (1981). Expressions for the one-dimensional spectra of radial velocity versus frequency and versus radial wave number are presented. Their dependence on the parameters of the gravity-wave spectrum and on the experimental parameters, radar zenith angle and averaging time are described and the conditions for critical tests of the gravity-wave hypothesis are discussed. The model spectra is compared with spectra observed in the Arctic summer mesosphere by the Poker Flat radar. This model applies to any monostatic Doppler sounding system, including MST radar, Doppler lidar and Doppler sonar in the atmosphere, and Doppler sonar in the ocean.

  2. Radar Tomography of Moving Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    resolution limitations of CW, SAR and ISAR radar and the theory on tomographic processing. The following sections briefly review the activities...this form of logic to the case of SAR imaging. Here the cross range resolution is given by: )2/sin(4 θ λδ Δ =cr (which is approximately equivalent to...the image. The multilook technique was used to compare the range-Doppler results to the final narrowband tomographic technique. The multilook

  3. Compression of polyphase codes with Doppler shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, W. D.

    It is shown that pulse compression with sufficient Doppler tolerance may be achieved with polyphase codes derived from linear frequency modulation (LFM) and nonlinear frequency modulation (NLFM). Low sidelobes in range and Doppler are required especially for the radar search function. These may be achieved by an LFM derived phase coder together with Hamming weighting or by applying a PNL polyphase code derived from NLFM. For a discrete and known Doppler frequency with an expanded and mismatched reference vector a sidelobe reduction is possible. The compression is then achieved without a loss in resolution. A set up for the expanded reference gives zero sidelobes only in an interval around the signal peak or a least square minimization for all range elements. This version may be useful for target tracking.

  4. Low-cost mm-wave Doppler/FMCW transceivers for ground surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, H. J.; Lindop, R. W.; Majstorovic, D.

    2005-12-01

    A 35 GHz Doppler CW/FMCW transceiver (Equivalent Radiated Power ERP=30dBm) has been assembled and its operation described. Both instantaneous beat signals (relating to range in FMCW mode) and Doppler signals (relating to targets moving at ~1.5 ms -1) exhibit audio frequencies. Consequently, the radar processing is provided by laptop PC using its inbuilt video-audio media system with appropriate MathWorks software. The implications of radar-on-chip developments are addressed.

  5. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  6. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-26

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation.

  7. Sub-Cloud Layer Motions from Radar Data Using Correlation Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    correlate reflectivity data from scan to scan, one of which utilizes Doppler velocities, are applied to data of two intense thunderstorms . From these...TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 4 II. OKLAHOMA THUNDERSTORM OF APRIL 10, 1979 -5 A DOPPLER CASE Ill. COLORADO THUNDERSTORM OF JUNIE 22, 1976 -8 A NON...OKLAHOMA THUNDERSTORM OF APRIL 10, 1919 - A DOPPLER CASE Between 1700 and 1800 CST the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) 10 cm Doppler radar

  8. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  9. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  10. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  11. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  12. Weather radar research at the USA's storm laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doviak, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Radar research that is directed toward improving storm forecasts and hazard warnings and studying lightning is discussed. The two moderately sensitive Doppler weather radars in central Oklahoma, with their wide dynamic range, have demonstrated the feasibility of mapping wind fields in all weather conditions from the clear skies of quiescent air and disturbed prestorm air near the earth's surface to the optically opaque interior of severe and sometimes tornadic thunderstorms. Observations and analyses of Doppler weather radar data demonstrate that improved warning of severe storm phenomena and improved short-term forecast of storms may be available when Doppler techniques are well integrated into the national network of weather radars. When used in combination with other sensors, it provides an opportunity to learn more about the complex interrelations between the wind, water, and electricity in storms.

  13. Radar images of asteroid 1989 PB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Chandler, J. F.; Hine, A. A.; Rosema, K. D.; Shapiro, I. I.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1990-06-01

    Radar observations of the near-earth asteroid 1989 PB, made shortly after its optical discovery, yield a sequence of delay-Doppler images that reveal it to consist of two distinct lobes that appear to be in contact. It seems likely that the two lobes once were separate and that they collided to produce the current 'contact-binary' configuration.

  14. The Radar Image Generation (RIG) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Anthony J.

    1993-01-01

    RIG is a modeling system which creates synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse SAR images from 3-D faceted data bases. RIG is based on a physical optics model and includes the effects of multiple reflections. Both conducting and dielectric surfaces can be modeled; each surface is labeled with a material code which is an index into a data base of electromagnetic properties. The inputs to the program include the radar processing parameters, the target orientation, the sensor velocity, and (for inverse SAR) the target angle rates. The current version of RIG can be run on any workstation, however, it is not a real-time model. We are considering several approaches to enable the program to generate realtime radar imagery. In addition to its image generation function, RIG can also generate radar cross-section (RCS) plots as well as range and doppler radar return profiles.

  15. Terrestrial Radar Observations of Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, was launched on June 10, 2003, and is scheduled to land on the floor of Gusev Crater in January 2004. The close opposition of Mars in the summer of 2003 provided a final opportunity to observe the Gusev Crater landing site using Earth-based radar telescopes prior to the Rover's arrival. Similar observations of the Terra Meridiani site in 2001 demonstrated the capabilities of delay-Doppler radar interferometry in mapping the radar properties of planetary surfaces. The 2003 observation suite includes data from four nights in which the observation's sub-radar track was within five degrees of latitude of the planned landing site. High resolution, approximately five kilometers per pixel, radar imaging of the landing site indicates a site that will be of low risk to the rover and provides testable predictions of the local surface roughness that the rover will encounter.

  16. Observations of mesosphere summer echoes with calibrated VHF radars at latitudes between 54°N and 69°N in summer 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latteck, R.; Singer, W.; Kirkwood, S.; Jönsson, L. O.; Eriksson, Håkan

    2005-08-01

    Mesosphere Summer Echoes (MSE) have been observed with 50-MHz VHF radars at middle (MSE) and polar latitudes (PMSE) for more than 20 years. The occurrence and seasonal variation of these radar echoes as well as their dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity are mostly studied basing on relative signal strength measurements (signal-to-noise ratios). The latitudinal dependence of the appearance and intensity of mesospheric summer echoes is still an open question as the widely used relative signal strength observations are determined by the atmospheric properties as well as by the individual radar characteristics. The use of absolutely calibrated echo powers allows a system in-depended comparison of mesospheric summer echoes observed at different sites by different systems. We present two different radar calibration methods. One applies a noise source to calibrate the receive path of the radar only, a second uses the radar signal itself to calibrate the complete transmitting and receiving path of the radar system. Both techniques and the same calibration hardware have been applied to the ALWIN VHF radar at Andenes/Norway (69°N), the ESRAD radar at Kiruna/Sweden (68deg;N) and OSWIN radar at Kühlungsborn/Germany (54°N). The sensitivity of the different radar systems and the seasonal and diurnal variation of the occurrence of mesospheric summer echoes at different locations are discussed on the basis of radar backscatter cross-sections.

  17. High-Power Radar Sounders for the Investigation of Jupiter Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Ostro, S.; Rodriquez, E.; Blankenship, D.; Kurth, W.; Kirchner, D.

    2005-01-01

    The high power and high data rate capability made available by a Prometheus class spacecraft could significantly enhance our ability to probe the subsurface of the planets/moons and asteroid/comets. The main technology development driver for our radar is the proposed Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (or JIMO) mission due to its harsh radiation environment. We plan to develop a dual-band radar at 5 and 50 MHz in response to the two major science requirements identified by the JIMO Science Definition Team: studying the near subsurface (less than 2 km) at high resolution and detection of the ice/ocean interface for Europa (depth up to 30 km). The 50-MHz band is necessary to provide high spatial resolution (footprint and depth) as required by the JIMO mission science requirements as currently defined. Our preliminary assessment indicates that the 50-MHz system is not required to be as high-power as the 5-MHz system since it will be more limited by the surface clutter than the Jupiter or galactic background noise. The low frequency band (e.g. 5 MHz), which is the focus of this effort, would be necessary to mitigate the performance risks posed by the unknown subsurface structure both in terms of unknown attenuation due to volumetric scattering and also the detection of the interface through the attenuative transition region at the ice/ocean interface. Additionally, the 5-MHz band is less affected by the surface roughness that can cause loss of coherence and clutter noise. However, since the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) of the 5-MHz radar band is reduced due to Jupiter noise when operating in the Jupiter side of the moon, it is necessary to increase the radiated power. Our challenge is to design a high-power HF radar that can hnction in Jupiter's high radiation environment, yet be able to fit into spacecraft resource constraints such as mass and thermal limits. Our effort to develop the JIMO radar sounder will rely on our team's experience with planetary radar sounder design

  18. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  19. A range-rate extraction unit for determining Doppler effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Active ranging technique devised for VHF or S-band radar systems divides target Doppler frequency by counter-generated number that is proportional to transmitting frequency, thus producing target velocity data in terms of speed and distance relative to target transponder.

  20. Detection of Fast Moving and Accelerating Targets Compensating Range and Doppler Migration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Radon -Fourier transform has been introduced to realize long- term coherent integration of the moving targets with range migration [8, 9]. Radon ...2010) Long-time coherent integration for radar target detection base on Radon -Fourier transform, in Proceedings of the IEEE Radar Conference, pp...432–436. 9. Xu, J., Yu, J., Peng, Y. & Xia, X. (2011) Radon -Fourier transform for radar target detection, I: Generalized Doppler filter bank, IEEE

  1. Adaptive Radar Data Quality Control and Ensemble-Based Assimilation for Analyzing and Forecasting High-Impact Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Forecasting High-Impact Weather 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N000141010778 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) QinXu 5d. PROJECT...Doppler wind information from WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) but also take full advantage of rapid and flexible agile-beam scans...from the phased array radar (PAR) at NWRT. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Weather Radar, Data Ouality Control, Assimilation. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a

  2. Christian Doppler and the Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toman, Kurt

    1984-04-01

    A summary is given of Doppler's life and career. He was born 180 years ago on November 29, 1803, in Salzburg, Austria. He died on March 17, 1853 in Venice. The effect bearing his name was first announced in a presentation before the Royal Bohemian Society of the Sciences in Prague on May 25, 1842. Doppler considered his work a generalization of the aberration theorem as discovered by Bradley. With it came the inference that the perception of physical phenomena can change with the state of motion of the observer. Acceptance of the principle was not without controversy. In 1852, the mathematician Petzval claimed that no useful scientific deductions can be made from Doppler's elementary equations. In 1860, Ernst Mach resolved the misunderstanding that clouded this controversy. The Doppler effect is alive and well. Its role in radio science and related disciplines is enumerated.

  3. Moving target detection for frequency agility radar by sparse reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Quan, Yinghui; Li, YaChao; Wu, Yaojun; Ran, Lei; Xing, Mengdao; Liu, Mengqi

    2016-09-01

    Frequency agility radar, with randomly varied carrier frequency from pulse to pulse, exhibits superior performance compared to the conventional fixed carrier frequency pulse-Doppler radar against the electromagnetic interference. A novel moving target detection (MTD) method is proposed for the estimation of the target's velocity of frequency agility radar based on pulses within a coherent processing interval by using sparse reconstruction. Hardware implementation of orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is executed on Xilinx Virtex-7 Field Programmable Gata Array (FPGA) to perform sparse optimization. Finally, a series of experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of proposed MTD method for frequency agility radar systems.

  4. Moving target detection for frequency agility radar by sparse reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yinghui; Li, YaChao; Wu, Yaojun; Ran, Lei; Xing, Mengdao; Liu, Mengqi

    2016-09-01

    Frequency agility radar, with randomly varied carrier frequency from pulse to pulse, exhibits superior performance compared to the conventional fixed carrier frequency pulse-Doppler radar against the electromagnetic interference. A novel moving target detection (MTD) method is proposed for the estimation of the target's velocity of frequency agility radar based on pulses within a coherent processing interval by using sparse reconstruction. Hardware implementation of orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is executed on Xilinx Virtex-7 Field Programmable Gata Array (FPGA) to perform sparse optimization. Finally, a series of experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of proposed MTD method for frequency agility radar systems.

  5. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The dual polarization CW radar system which permits simultaneous reception in the same rotational sense of circular polarization as transmitted (i.e., the "SC" sense) and in the opposite ("OC") sense, was used to observe five previously unobserved asteroids: 2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, and 471 Papagena. Echoes from Pallas and Flora were easily detected in the OC sense on each of several nights. Weighted mean echo power spectra also show marginally significant responses in the SC sense. An approximately 4.5 standard deviation signal was obtained for Aethra. The Doppler shift of the peak is about 10 Hz higher than that predicted from the a priori trial ephemeris. Calculations are performed to determine whether this frequency offset can be reconciled dynamically with optical positions reported for Aethra.

  6. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-07-01

    Radar investigations were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  7. RADAR WARNING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADAR TRACKING, *AIRCRAFT DEFENSE SYSTEMS, RADAR EQUIPMENT, AIR TO AIR, SEARCH RADAR, GUIDED MISSILES, HIGH SPEED BOMBING, EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AIRCRAFT, TIME, CHINA.

  8. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  9. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  10. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Precision Navigation of Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Petway, Larry; Hines, Glenn; Lockhard, George; Barnes, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-based coherent Doppler lidar, utilizing an FMCW technique, has been developed and its capabilities demonstrated through two successful helicopter flight test campaigns. This Doppler lidar is expected to play a critical role in future planetary exploration missions because of its ability in providing the necessary data for soft landing on the planetary bodies and for landing missions requiring precision navigation to the designated location on the ground. Compared with radars, the Doppler lidar can provide significantly higher precision velocity and altitude data at a much higher rate without concerns for measurement ambiguity or target clutter. Future work calls for testing the Doppler lidar onboard a rocket-powered free-flyer platform operating in a closed-loop with the vehicle s guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) unit.

  11. Radar Studies in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaprio, Irwin I.

    1998-01-01

    We aid in study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on: (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size , shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics. We are engaged in radar observations of asteroids and comets, both as systematically planned targets and as "targets of opportunity." In the course of the program, we have prepared ephemerides for about 80 asteroids and three comets, and the radar observations have been made or attempted at the Arecibo Observatory, in most cases successfully, and in some cases on more than one apparition. The results of these observations have included echo spectra for the targets and, in some cases, delay - Doppler images and measurements of the total round-trip delay to the targets. Perhaps the most dramatic of these results are the images obtained for asteroids (4179) Toutatis and 1989PB (Castalia), which were revealed to be double-lobed objects by the radar images. Besides these direct results, the radar observations have furnished information on the sizes and shapes of the targets through analysis of the Doppler width of the echoes as a function of time, and on the surface properties (such as composition, bulk density, and roughness) through analysis of the reflectivity and of the polarization state of the echoes. We have also refined the orbits of the observed asteroids as a result of the Doppler (and in some cases delay) measurements from the radar observations. Although the orbits of main-belt asteroids accessible to ground-based radar are quite well known from the available optical data, some near-Earth objects have been seen by radar very soon after their optical discovery (for example, 199OMF, just eight days after discovery). In such

  12. Preliminary comparisons of VHF radar maps of F-region irregularities with scintillations in the equatorial region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Aarons, J.; Mcclure, J. P.; Lahoz, C.; Bushby, A.; Woodman, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Multiantenna 50 MHz radar backscatter maps of echo power from night-time F-region equatiorial irregularities obtained at Jicamarca, Peru were compared with simultaneous VHF scintillation observations from Huancayo at 137 and 254 MHz during the period 20 November to 12 December 1975. Saturation of VHF scintillations in excess of 20 dB was observed at both these frequencies during times when radar maps showed large intense plume structures rising into the topside ionosphere. On nights when only thin layers of bottomside irregularities were observed, moderate to weak scintillations were recorded at VHF. Preliminary values of east-west horizontal irregularity drift velocities were obtained and compared with scintillation rate observations. Using the 1.5-deg and 4.5-deg longitudinal separation between the Jicamarca radar and ionospheric observation points of the two satellites from Huancayo, information was derived regarding large-scale east-west structure during the development phase of the irregularities.

  13. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  14. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Radar by Computer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    spatial-resolution map (0.25 nmi x 2.80 ) is employed to select the appropriate threshold values for the ground clutter; a doppler weighting that...seconds with approximately 16 mi’ x 3-Doppler-bin resolution. The second filter integrates over 5 seconds and covers within 20 miles of radar and within 3...also includes receiver matching loss , beamshape loss , and the signal processing loss. D, can be written as D,=D, (n) MLL,= -f- (3.2) where x

  16. A Digital Bistatic Radar Instrument for High-Latitude Ionospheric E-region Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyghebaert, D. R.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.; St-Maurice, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    A new 50 MHz ionospheric E-region radar is currently being developed and will be operational for the summer of 2016. The radar group in the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies (ISAS) at the University of Saskatchewan is designing and building the radar which will be located near the university in Saskatoon, SK, Canada and will have a field of view over Wollaston Lake in northern Saskatchewan. This novel radar will simultaneously obtain high spatial and temporal resolution through the use of a bistatic setup and pulse modulation techniques. The bistatic setup allows the radar to transmit and receive continuously, while pulse modulation techniques allow for enhanced spatial resolution, only constrained by the radio bandwidth licensing available. A ten antenna array will be used on both the transmitter and receiver sides, with each antenna having an independent radio path. This enables complete digital control of the transmitted 1 kW signal at each antenna, allowing for digital beam steering and multimode broadcasting. On the receiver side the raw digitized signal will be recorded from each antenna, allowing for complete digital post-processing to be performed on the data. From the measurements provided using these modern digital radar capabilities, further insights into the physics of E-region phenomena, such as Alfvén waves propagating from the magnetosphere above and ionospheric irregularities, may be investigated.

  17. Incoherent scatter radar and in situ and chemical release measurements of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeki, Erhan; Pfaff, Robert; Larsen, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Two sounding rockets collecting DC and AC electric field and plasma density measurements were launched into the equatorial ionosphere during an active E-region sunset event being monitored by ALTAIR and IRIS (UHF and VHF) radar systems. TMA and lithium vapor releases by the rockets climbing to 180 and 330 km apogees also enabled the measurements of E- and lower F-region neutral winds during this pre-reversal enhancement period followed by spread-F activity. E-region turbulence during sunset and F-region turbulence and plasma drifts that developed subsequently were monitored by ALTAIR and IRIS (a 50 MHz two-element fixed-beam radar interferometer) systems using a combination of coherent and incoherent scatter modes. Winds, drifts, and turbulence measurements of the post sunset ionosphere conducted during this equatorial vortex experiment (EVEX) and their implications for post-sunset spread-F development will be presented and discussed.

  18. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  19. Optimization of radar pulse compression processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Samuel M.; Kim, Woonkyung M.; Lee, Myung-Su

    1997-06-01

    We propose an optimal radar pulse compression technique and evaluate its performance in the presence of Doppler shift. The traditional pulse compression using Barker code increases the signal strength by transmitting a Barker coded long pulse. The received signal is then processed by an appropriate correlation processing. This Barker code radar pulse compression enhances the detection sensitivity while maintaining the range resolution of a single chip of the Barker coded long pulse. But unfortunately, the technique suffers from the addition of range sidelobes which sometimes will mask weak targets in the vicinity of larger targets. Our proposed optimal algorithm completely eliminates the sidelobes at the cost of additional processing.

  20. Noise sources in laser radar systems.

    PubMed

    Letalick, D; Renhorn, I; Steinvall, O; Shapiro, J H

    1989-07-01

    To understand the fundamental limit of performance with a given laser radar system, the phase noise of a testbed laser radar has been investigated. Apart from the phase noise in the transmitter laser and the local oscillator laser, additional phase noise was introduced by vibrations caused by fans in power supplies and cooling systems. The stability of the mechanical structure of the platform was also found to be of great importance. Furthermore, a model for the signal variations from diffuse targets has been developed. This model takes into account the stray light, the speckle decorrelation, and Doppler shift due to moving targets.

  1. Browsing a wealth of millimeter-wavelength doppler spectra data

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson,K.; Luke,E.; Kollias, P.; Remillard, J.; Widener, K.; Jensen, M.

    2010-03-15

    The ARM Climate Research Facility has collected an extensive archive of vertically pointing millimeter wavelength Doppler radar spectra at both 35 and 95 GHz. These data are a rich potential source of detailed microphysical and dynamical cloud and precipitation information. The recording of spectra, which is ongoing, began at the Southern Great Plains site in September of 2003, at the North Slope of Alaska site in April 2004, and at Tropical Western Pacific sites in 2006. Spectra are also being collected during ARM Mobile Facility deployments. The data’s temporal resolution is as high as two seconds, at height intervals of 45 to 90 m. However, the sheer volume of available data can be somewhat daunting to access and search for specific features of interest. Here we present a user interface for spectra browsing, which allows the user to view time-height images of radar moments, select a time or height of interest, and then “drill down” through images of spectrograms to individual Doppler spectra or time- and height-sequences of spectra. Also available are images summarizing spectral characteristics, such as number of spectral peaks, spectral shape information (skewness and kurtosis), moment uncertainty estimates, and hydrometeor vs. clutter identification as produced by the ARM MicroARSCL (Microphysical Active Remote Sensing of Clouds) value-added product. In addition to the access and visualization tools, we are developing a Doppler spectra simulator capable of generating Doppler spectra from liquid, mixed-phase, and solid cloud constituents and precipitation. The Doppler spectra simulator can be used as an interface between explicit microphysics models and Doppler spectra observations from the ARM radars. The plan is to ultimately make the spectra simulator available from within the spectra browser, allowing a user to associate observed spectra with the microphysical conditions capable of producing them.

  2. Phase correlator reduces mm-wave radar cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R., Sr.; Hobbs, P.; Locatelli, J.

    1986-03-01

    A technique involving the IC storage of magnetron phase for reference has been developed to make possible the use of the low-cost efficient magnetron in obtaining phase coherent signals for pulse Doppler radar. In the new external coherence method, the recorded random midpulse-region phase is compared with the frequency of the echo allowing Doppler information, free of phase noise, to be extracted. The gated magnetron was tested at Ka-band in a 35-GHz radar, and good agreement with the CP-4 5.5 GHz radar was shown. With good accuracy down to 10 cm/s, the present system, especially in the mm-wave region, has important applications to meteorological and military radar.

  3. Applications of high-frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, J. M.; Thomason, J. F.

    1998-07-01

    Efforts to extend radar range by an order of magnitude with use of the ionosphere as a virtual mirror started after the end of World War II. A number of HF radar programs were pursued, with long-range nuclear burst and missile launch detection demonstrated by 1956. Successful east coast radar aircraft detect and track tests extending across the Atlantic were conducted by 1961. The major obstacles to success, the large target-to-clutter ratio and low signal-to-noise ratio, were overcome with matched filter Doppler processing. To search the areas that a 2000 nautical mile (3700 km) radar can reach, very complex and high dynamic range processing is required. The spectacular advances in digital processing technology have made truly wide-area surveillance possible. Use of the surface attached wave over the oceans can enable HF radar to obtain modest extension of range beyond the horizon. The decameter wavelengths used by both skywave and surface wave radars require large physical antenna apertures, but they have unique capabilities for air and surface targets, many of which are of resonant scattering dimensions. Resonant scattering from the ocean permits sea state and direction estimation. Military and commercial applications of HF radar are in their infancy.

  4. Recent Radar Speckle Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Michael W.; Benner, Lance; Brozovic, Marina; Nolan, Michael C.; Springmann, Alessondra; Taylor, Patrick A.

    2014-11-01

    Radar speckle tracking is an observational technique to constrain the spin state of a target object. When illuminated by a monochromatic radar beam, the target scatters light into regions of constructive and destructive interference - a speckle pattern. This pattern moves as the target rotates, with a speed and direction determined by the object’s rotation rate and spin vector. By tracking the motion of a radar speckle pattern between two or more receiving stations, we can constrain the spin state of the target.First applied to measure the spin state of Mercury, since 2008 radar speckle tracking has become one of the standard techniques for radar observations of near-Earth asteroids. We transmit with either of the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars, receive with elements of the Very Long Baseline Array or of the Very Large Array, and measure the time lags between the speckle pattern as seen by each station. Starting with the first asteroid observed with speckle observations, 2008 EV5, this technique has allowed us to resolve ambiguities in asteroids’ spin states that delay-Doppler radar imaging and lightcurve observations did not.Recent radar speckle targets have included the near-Earth asteroids 1998 ML14, 2005 WK4, and 2014 HQ124. ML14 was observed with radar shortly after its discovery in 1998, but the earlier radar observations did not yield a unique pole direction constraint. HQ124 is a contact-binary object and was one of the best radar targets of 2014.

  5. Measurements of vertical velocity over flat terrain by ST radar and other related uses of the radar data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The need to study vertical velocity measurements from an ST radar located on the plains, far from the mountains is pointed out, as all presently available clear-air radars are located in or near mountains. The construction and operation of a VHF Doppler (ST) radar in the midwestern part of the United States to make meteorological measurements is also discussed. While primary interest is in measuring the synoptic-scale vertical velocities in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, it should be stressed, however, that the radar data set generated during the radar experiment would have many other valuable uses of interest to us and others some of whom are listed below. The required radar parameters, approximate costs, and recommended mode of operation are also detailed.

  6. Barker code pulse compression with a large Doppler tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Zhu, Zhaoda

    1991-03-01

    This paper discusses the application of least square approximate inverse filtering techniques to radar range sidelobe suppression. The method is illustrated by application to the design of a compensated noncoherent sidelobe suppression filter (SSF). The compensated noncoherent SSF of the 13-element Barker code has been found. The -40 kHz to 40 kHz Doppler tolerance of the filter is obtained under the conditions that the subpulse duration is equal to 0.7 microsec and the peak sidelobe level is less than -30 dB. Theoretical computations and experimental results indicate that the SSF implemented has much wider Doppler tolerance than the Rihaczek-Golden (1971) SSF.

  7. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  8. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  9. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-09-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  10. CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Protat, Alain; Bouniol, Dominique; O'Connor, E. J.; Baltink, Henk K.; Verlinde, J.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2011-03-01

    The calibration of the CloudSat spaceborne cloud radar has been thoroughly assessed using very accurate internal link budgets before launch, comparisons with predicted ocean surface backscatter at 94 GHz, direct comparisons with airborne cloud radars, and statistical comparisons with ground-based cloud radars at different locations of the world. It is believed that the calibration of CloudSat is accurate to within 0.5 to 1 dB. In the present paper it is shown that an approach similar to that used for the statistical comparisons with ground-based radars can now be adopted the other way around to calibrate other ground-based or airborne radars against CloudSat and / or detect anomalies in long time series of ground-based radar measurements, provided that the calibration of CloudSat is followed up closely (which is the case). The power of using CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator is demonstrated using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement cloud radar data taken at Barrow, Alaska, the cloud radar data from the Cabauw site, The Netherlands, and airborne Doppler cloud radar measurements taken along the CloudSat track in the Arctic by the RASTA (Radar SysTem Airborne) cloud radar installed in the French ATR-42 aircraft for the first time. It is found that the Barrow radar data in 2008 are calibrated too high by 9.8 dB, while the Cabauw radar data in 2008 are calibrated too low by 8.0 dB. The calibration of the RASTA airborne cloud radar using direct comparisons with CloudSat agrees well with the expected gains and losses due to the change in configuration which required verification of the RASTA calibration.

  11. The first operation and results of the Chung-Li VHF radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, J. K.; Kuo, F. S.; Chu, Y. S.; Fu, I. J.; Rottger, J.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Chung-Li Very High Frequency (VHF) radar is used in the dual-mode operations, applying Doppler beam-swinging as well as the spaced-antenna-drift method. The design of the VHF radar is examined. Results of performance tests are discussed.

  12. On the potential use of radar-derived information in operational numerical weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Estimates of requirements likely to be levied on a new observing system for mesoscale meteonology are given. Potential observing systems for mesoscale numerical weather prediction are discussed. Thermodynamic profiler radiometers, infrared radiometer atmospheric sounders, Doppler radar wind profilers and surveillance radar, and moisture profilers are among the instruments described.

  13. Scanning Radar Investigations to Characterize Cloud and Precipitation Processes for ASR

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, Chandrasekar

    2016-12-17

    The project conducted investigations in the following areas related to scanning radar retrievals: a) Development for Cloud drizzle separation studies for the ENA site based on Doppler Spectra b) Advanced radar retrieval for the SGP site c) Characterizing falling snow using multifrequency dual-polarization measurements d) BAECC field experiment. More details about these investigations can be found within each subtopic within the report.

  14. Waveform Design and Scheduling in Space-Time Adaptive Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    scintillate in the PRI’s, the radar return from the p-th scatterer in the q-th clutter patch is given by pqs⌦ a(✓q,q)⌦ v( fcq ) where pq is its random...complex reflectivity, and fcq is the Doppler shift observed from the q-th clutter patch. It is implicitly assumed that the scatterers in a particular...identical to one another. The Doppler fcq is given by, fcq := 2foẋTr (xr xq) c||xr xq|| . (15) Since the clutter patch is stationary, the Doppler is

  15. Experimental 0.22 THz Stepped Frequency Radar System for ISAR Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Mei Yan; Zhang, Cun Lin; Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yue Jin

    2014-09-01

    High resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging is demonstrated by using a 0.22 THz stepped-frequency (SF) imaging radar system. The synthesis bandwidth of the terahertz (THz) SF radar is 12 GHz, which are beneficial for high resolution imaging. The resolution of ISAR image can reach centimeter-scale with the use of Range-Doppler algorithm (RDA). Results indicate that high resolution ISAR imaging is realized by using 0.22THz SF radar coupled with turntable scanning, which can provide foundations for further research on high-resolution radar image in the THz band.

  16. Comparison of Beijing MST radar and radiosonde horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yufang; Lü, Daren

    2017-01-01

    To determine the performance and data accuracy of the 50 MHz Beijing Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar, comparisons of radar measured horizontal winds in the height range 3-25 km with radiosonde observations were made during 2012. A total of 427 profiles and 15 210 data pairs were compared. There was very good agreement between the two types of measurement. Standard deviations of difference (mean difference) for wind direction, wind speed, zonal wind and meridional wind were 24.86° (0.77°), 3.37 (-0.44), 3.33 (-0.32) and 3.58 (-0.25) m s-1, respectively. The annual standard deviations of differences for wind speed were within 2.5-3 m s-1 at all heights apart from 10-15 km, the area of strong winds, where the values were 3-4 m s-1. The relatively larger differences were mainly due to wind field variations in height regions with larger wind speeds, stronger wind shear and the quasi-zero wind layer. A lower MST radar SNR and a lower percentage of data pairs compared will also result in larger inconsistencies. Importantly, this study found that differences between the MST radar and radiosonde observations did not simply increase when balloon drift resulted in an increase in the real-time distance between the two instruments, but also depended on spatiotemporal structures and their respective positions in the contemporary synoptic systems. In this sense, the MST radar was shown to be a unique observation facility for atmospheric dynamics studies, as well as an operational meteorological observation system with a high temporal and vertical resolution.

  17. The Goldstone Solar System Radar: 1988-2003 Earth-based Mars Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Larsen, K. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m DSN antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay- Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 10 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars.

  18. Pulse subtraction Doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahue, Veronique; Mari, Jean Martial; Eckersley, Robert J.; Caro, Colin G.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances have demonstrated the feasibility of molecular imaging using targeted microbubbles and ultrasound. One technical challenge is to selectively detect attached bubbles from those freely flowing bubbles and surrounding tissue. Pulse Inversion Doppler is an imaging technique enabling the selective detection of both static and moving ultrasound contrast agents: linear scatterers generate a single band Doppler spectrum, while non-linear scatterers generate a double band spectrum, one being uniquely correlated with the presence of contrast agents and non-linear tissue signals. We demonstrate that similar spectrums, and thus the same discrimination, can be obtained through a Doppler implementation of Pulse Subtraction. This is achieved by reconstructing a virtual echo using the echo generated from a short pulse transmission. Moreover by subtracting from this virtual echo the one generated from a longer pulse transmission, it is possible to fully suppress the echo from linear scatterers, while for non-linear scatterers, a signal will remain, allowing classical agent detection. Simulations of a single moving microbubble and a moving linear scatterer subject to these pulses show that when the virtual echo and the long pulse echo are used to perform pulsed Doppler, the power Doppler spectrum allows separation of linear and non-linear moving scattering. Similar results are obtained on experimental data acquired on a flow containing either microbubble contrast agents or linear blood mimicking fluid. This new Doppler method constitutes an alternative to Pulse Inversion Doppler and preliminary results suggest that similar dual band spectrums could be obtained by the combination of any non-linear detection technique with Doppler demodulation.

  19. Radars in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of active microwave devices operating from space (typically, radar, scatterometers, interferometers, and altimeters) are discussed. General radar parameters and basic radar principles are explained. Applications of these parameters and principles are also explained. Trends in space radar technology, and where space radars and active microwave sensors in orbit are going are discussed.

  20. The Cyclone meteor radar system for routine wind measurements in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lysenko, I. A.; Mikhailiek, P. P.; Petrov, B. I.

    1987-01-01

    A new meteor wind radar system called Cyclone was devised to extend and update the meteor radar network and for unattended operation. The Cyclone meteor radar system obtains information from four directions simultaneously. To automate data processing a special digital device was developed. An algorithm used to determine the Doppler shifts was adopted, which makes it possible to eliminate selectivity with respect to slow velocity meteor drifts. The operation of the Cyclone system is described.

  1. The Who, What, Where and When of Radar Targeting: Key Note Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    imaging radar seeker • Aim point selection • Pulsed Doppler, polarisation diverse, pulse compression • Monopulse angular discrimination • LPI ...The Who, What, Where and When of Radar Targeting. Key Note speech/presentation, MATRIX 2005 workshop NATO SHAPE School, Oberammergau, Germany...review including: • The problems of ATR using mmW radar and some of the techniques traditionally applied. This establishes the state-of-the-art. This

  2. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  3. Considerations for a Radar System to Detect an Ocean Underneath the Icy Shell of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Gogineni, Prasad; Green, James; Cooper, John; Fung, Shing; Taylor, William; Benson, Robert; Reinisch, Bodo; Song, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The detection of an ocean underneath Europa is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. An orbiting surface penetrating radar has the potential of providing that measurement thus yielding information regarding the possibility of life support on Europa. Radars in the MHz range have successfully monitored the kilometer-deep ice shelves of Greenland and Antarctica, including the detection of Lake Vostok (and others) below an ice sheet thickness of about 4 km. The performance of a radar system orbiting Europa will be subject to several potential complications and unknowns. Besides ionospheric dispersion and the actual depth of the ocean, which is estimated between 2 and 30 km, major unknowns affecting radar performance are the temperature profile, the amount of salt and other impurities within the ice crust as well as the surface roughness. These impurities can in part be produced at the highly irradiated surface by magnetospheric interactions and transported downward into the ice crust by geologic processes. The ionospheric interference must also be modeled from effects of these interactions on production of the thin neutral atmosphere and subsequent ionization of the neutrals. We investigated these uncertainties through radar simulations using different surface and ice characteristics over a frequency range from 10 to 50 MHz. The talk will present results from these simulations discussing potential limitations.

  4. Radar Sounder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    over the shorter time period (resulting in a multilook SAR ) with the result that spatial resolution, the usual r~ason for using SAR techniques, degrades...Field - - - ALT 21. Sea Surface Topography - - - SAR , ALT 22. Ocean Waves (sea, swell, surf) V. Good Some V. Good SAR , ALT * with additional lower freq...OLS - Operational Line-scan System radiometer (4-6 GHz?) ALT - Altimeter •* good at low microwave SAR - Synthetic Aperture frequencies Radar + over

  5. Use of radars to monitor stream discharge by noncontact methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.; Hayes, K.; Teague, C.; Barrick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional measurements of river flows are costly, time-consuming, and frequently dangerous. This report evaluates the use of a continuous wave microwave radar, a monostatic UHF Doppler radar, a pulsed Doppler microwave radar, and a ground-penetrating radar to measure river flows continuously over long periods and without touching the water with any instruments. The experiments duplicate the flow records from conventional stream gauging stations on the San Joaquin River in California and the Cowlitz River in Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to directly measure the parameters necessary to compute flow: surface velocity (converted to mean velocity) and cross-sectional area, thereby avoiding the uncertainty, complexity, and cost of maintaining rating curves. River channel cross sections were measured by ground-penetrating radar suspended above the river. River surface water velocity was obtained by Bragg scattering of microwave and UHF Doppler radars, and the surface velocity data were converted to mean velocity on the basis of detailed velocity profiles measured by current meters and hydroacoustic instruments. Experiments using these radars to acquire a continuous record of flow were conducted for 4 weeks on the San Joaquin River and for 16 weeks on the Cowlitz River. At the San Joaquin River the radar noncontact measurements produced discharges more than 20% higher than the other independent measurements in the early part of the experiment. After the first 3 days, the noncontact radar discharge measurements were within 5% of the rating values. On the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, correlation coefficients between the USGS stream gauging station rating curve discharge and discharge computed from three different Doppler radar systems and GPR data over the 16 week experiment were 0.883, 0.969, and 0.992. Noncontact radar results were within a few percent of discharge values obtained by gauging station, current meter, and hydroacoustic methods. Time

  6. Signal Processing System for the CASA Integrated Project I Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.; Junyent, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the waveform design space and signal processing system for dual-polarization Doppler weather radar operating at X band. The performance of the waveforms is presented with ground clutter suppression capability and mitigation of range velocity ambiguity. The operational waveform is designed based on operational requirements and system/hardware requirements. A dual Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) waveform was developed and implemented for the first generation X-band radars deployed by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the waveforms based on simulations and data collected by the first-generation CASA radars during operations.

  7. Use of radars to monitor stream discharge by noncontact methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. E.; Cheng, R. T.; Haeni, F. P.; Melcher, N.; Spicer, K. R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.; Hayes, K.; Teague, C.; Barrick, D.

    2006-07-01

    Conventional measurements of river flows are costly, time-consuming, and frequently dangerous. This report evaluates the use of a continuous wave microwave radar, a monostatic UHF Doppler radar, a pulsed Doppler microwave radar, and a ground-penetrating radar to measure river flows continuously over long periods and without touching the water with any instruments. The experiments duplicate the flow records from conventional stream gauging stations on the San Joaquin River in California and the Cowlitz River in Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to directly measure the parameters necessary to compute flow: surface velocity (converted to mean velocity) and cross-sectional area, thereby avoiding the uncertainty, complexity, and cost of maintaining rating curves. River channel cross sections were measured by ground-penetrating radar suspended above the river. River surface water velocity was obtained by Bragg scattering of microwave and UHF Doppler radars, and the surface velocity data were converted to mean velocity on the basis of detailed velocity profiles measured by current meters and hydroacoustic instruments. Experiments using these radars to acquire a continuous record of flow were conducted for 4 weeks on the San Joaquin River and for 16 weeks on the Cowlitz River. At the San Joaquin River the radar noncontact measurements produced discharges more than 20% higher than the other independent measurements in the early part of the experiment. After the first 3 days, the noncontact radar discharge measurements were within 5% of the rating values. On the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, correlation coefficients between the USGS stream gauging station rating curve discharge and discharge computed from three different Doppler radar systems and GPR data over the 16 week experiment were 0.883, 0.969, and 0.992. Noncontact radar results were within a few percent of discharge values obtained by gauging station, current meter, and hydroacoustic methods. Time

  8. New distributed radar technology based on UAV or UGV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-05-01

    Regular micro and nano radars cannot provide reliable tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets in urban and mountain areas because of reflection and re-reflections from buildings and terrain. They become visible and vulnerable to guided missiles if positioned on a tower or blimp. Doppler radar cannot distinguish moving cars and small low altitude aerial targets in an urban area. A new concept of pocket size distributed radar technology based on the application of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles), UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) is proposed for tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets at short and medium distances for protection of stadium, camp, military facility in urban or mountain areas.

  9. Pulsed Compression for Aerosol Ranging with Coherent Pulse-Doppler Lidar Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    as well as conventional Doppler radar hard-target applications. Accord- ing to Menzies and Hardesty , the accuracy of Doppler lidar velocity...density expressed in Equation (80). As Hardesty and Menzies explain, if a lidar of a single carrier frequency f illuminates a volume of dense, randomly...ham, WA: SPIE, 1988. 14. Hardesty , Michael R. Measurement of Range-Resolved Water Vapor Concentra- tion by Coherent C0 2 Differential Absorption Lidar

  10. Mesospheric wind measurements using a medium-frequency imaging Doppler interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. W.; scatterers.

    1986-01-01

    Wind results from a medium-frequency radar operated as an imaging Doppler interferometer are presented. Ten independent antennas, together with mesospheric wind motions, were used to Doppler-sort and then echo-locate individual scattering points. The three-dimensional location and radial velocity of each discrete scattering point was determined. Mean winds were then determined by a least squares fit to the radial velocities of the ensemble of scatterers.

  11. Stentor long range ground surveillance radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, P.

    The Stentor radar is designed to detect, recognize, and locate moving targets such as infantry, ground vehicles, helicopters, low-flying aircraft, and boats. It can be transported without difficulty and operated by unskilled personnel. Stentor's longer range gives both an earlier warning time and a reinforced detection capability at shorter distances, even on very small targets. It is a pulsed radar that eliminates fixed echoes by coherent reception and Doppler filtering. The antenna unit incorporates all the parts necessary for the transmission, reception, and processing of the radar signal. It comprises six distinct subassemblies: a conventional antenna, an antenna-bearing mechanism, a transmitter-receiver unit, a signal-processing unit, a power supply module, and a tripod for mounting the antenna unit.

  12. First radar measurements of ionospheric electric fields at sub-second temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Raymond A.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Barnes, Robin; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; Baker, Joseph; Talaat, Elsayed R.

    2008-02-01

    A new multipulse sounding technique currently being used at the Wallops Island and Goose Bay SuperDARN radars has produced significant improvements in the temporal resolution of Doppler velocity measurements from which plasma velocities and electric fields are determined. The new technique allows Doppler velocities to be determined from every 200 ms multipulse sequence transmitted by the radar (equivalent to a 5 Hz measurement rate). To our knowledge, this is the highest Doppler measurement rate that has ever been attained with ionospheric radars. Tests of the new technique with the Wallops radar and Ottawa magnetometer revealed bursts of subauroral electric and magnetic field pulsations with periods of 13-20 s during a substorm expansion phase. These results indicate that SuperDARN measurements can be used to study highly dynamic processes in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, including storm and substorm electrodynamics, short-period pulsations and short-term variability in Joule heating.

  13. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Horndt, Volker; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd; Naething, Richard M.

    2014-09-01

    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  14. A radar image of Venus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Rumsey, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    Radar scans of Venus have yielded a brightness map of a large portion of the surface. The bright area in the south (alpha) and the twin such areas in the north (beta and delta) were first discovered by spectral analysis of radar echos. When range-gating is also applied, their shapes are revealed, and they are seen to be roundish and about 1000 km across. Although radar brightness can be the result of either intrinsic reflectivity or surface roughness, polarization studies show these features to be rough (to the scale of the wavelength, 12.5 cm). Dark, circular areas can also be seen, many with bright central spots. The dark areas are probably smooth. The blurring of the equatorial strip is an artifact of the range-Doppler geometry; all resolution disappears at the equator. Another artifact of the method is the 'ghost', in the south, of the images of beta and delta. Such ghosts appear only at the eastern and western extremes of the map.

  15. W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, KB; Johnson, K

    2005-01-05

    The W-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud Radar (WACR) systems are zenith pointing Doppler radars that probe the extent and composition of clouds at 95.04 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar reports estimates for the first three spectra moments for each range gate up to 15 km. The 0th moment is reflectivity, the 1st moment is radial velocity, and the 2nd moment is spectral width. Also available are the raw spectra files. Unlike the millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR), the WACR does not use pulse coding and operates in only copolarization and cross-polarization modes.

  16. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  17. Doppler ion program description

    SciTech Connect

    Henline, P.

    1980-12-01

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities.

  18. Ground penetrating radar study of the Cheko Lake area, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, M.; Baradello, L.; Forte, E.; Gasperini, L.; Bonatti, E.; Longo, Giuseppe

    2000-04-01

    We performed an integrated acoustic and GPR study of the Cheko Lake area (101 degrees E, 62 degrees N) during summer 1999. The GPR study aimed at imaging lake bottom and shallow sedimentary layers to plan coring of sediments coeval with the catastrophic 1908 explosion. The water of the Cheko Lake strongly attenuates radar waves. Therefore, the central and northern sectors of the lake (30 m average depth) were surveyed by means of acoustic techniques only. Integrated acoustic and GPR techniques were used in the shallow southern sector. More than 5 km of radar profiles were obtained in the lake, using 50 MHz and 100 MHz antennas. 150 meters of 200 MHz multi-fold profiles were obtained across the only accessible sectors on land. The GPR profiles processed to date successfully image discontinuities at depths greater than 700 cm. Comparison with acoustic results shows that GPR provides high resolution images of the depth range of interest (0 - 500 cm) which complement the information obtained from sub-bottom profilers and can be calibrated by the gravity cores. A deep (700 cm) flat sub-horizontal reflector, shallow (0 - 200 cm) dipping layers, sigmoidal structures and local chaotic lenses are the primary features imaged by GPR in the lake.

  19. Radar detection of moving objects around corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sume, A.; Gustafsson, M.; Jänis, A.; Nilsson, S.; Rahm, J.; Örbom, A.

    2009-05-01

    Detection of moving objects around corners, with no direct line-of-sight to the objects, is demonstrated in experiments using a coherent test-range radar. A setting was built up on the test-range ground consisting of two perpendicular wall sections forming a corner, with an opposite wall, intended to mimic a street scenario on a reduced scale. Two different wall materials were used, viz. light concrete and metallic walls. The latter choice served as reference, with elimination of transmission through the walls, e.g. facilitating comparison with theoretical calculations. Standard radar reflectors were used as one kind of target objects, in horizontal, circular movement, produced by a turntable. A human formed a second target, both walking and at standstill with micro-Doppler movements of body parts. The radar signal was produced by frequency stepping of a gated CW (Continuous Wave) waveform over a bandwidth of 2 or 4 GHz, between 8.5 and 12.5 GHz. Standard Doppler signal processing has been applied, consisting of a double FFT. The first of these produced "range profiles", on which the second FFT was applied for specific range gates, which resulted in Doppler frequency spectra, used for the detection. The reference reflectors as well as the human could be detected in this scenario. The target detections were achieved both in the wave component having undergone specular reflection in the opposite wall (strongest) as well as the diffracted component around the corner. Time-frequency analysis using Short Time Fourier Transform technique brought out micro-Doppler components in the signature of a walking human. These experiments have been complemented with theoretical field calculations and separate reflection measurements of common building materials.

  20. Earth-based Radar Observations of Mercury: Imaging Results with the Upgraded Arecibo Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, J.

    With the completion of the Arecibo upgrade in 1998 came the opportunity to do Mercury radar imaging of unprecedented quality. Among the early results with the upgraded S-band radar was the delay-Doppler imaging of the north polar ice features at 1.5-km resolution (Harmon et al., 2001). These images provided accurate mapping of the putative ice deposits within shaded crater floors as well as a precise determination of the pole position. They also produced the surprising discovery of ice features in small craters and at relatively low latitudes, which places important constraints on thermal models. We are also planning imaging observations of the south pole as it returns to view in 2004 and subsequent years. Besides polar studies, an important component of the Arecibo program is full-disk radar imaging around the entire planet, with a special emphasis on the hemisphere left unimaged by Mariner 10. For this purpose we are conducting a program of delay-Doppler observations using the long-code method (Harmon, 2002), which produces cleaner images than conventional delay-Doppler. Most striking are the depolarized images, which are found to be dominated by bright features associated with fresh crater ejecta. These images show some spectacular rayed craters in the Tycho class, as well as numerous bright, rayless features from smaller impacts. Also visible are some diffuse albedo features with no obvious impact association. Some of these high-albedo patches are found in smooth plains regions such as Tolstoy basin and Tir Planitia, which is the reverse of the mare-highland contrast seen in radar images of the Moon. In addition to the imaging results, we will briefly review the major findings from the pre-upgrade radar altimetry measurements.

  1. Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan OConnor

    2015-03-27

    This doppler lidar system provides co-polar and cross polar attenuated backscatter coefficients,signal strength, and doppler velocities in the cloud and in the boundary level, including uncertainties for all parameters. Using the doppler beam swinging DBS technique, and Vertical Azimuthal Display (VAD) this system also provides vertical profiles of horizontal winds.

  2. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  3. Effects of range bin shape and Doppler filter response in a digital SAR data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    In calibrating the backscatter coefficient obtained with an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system to determine absolute values of radar cross-section and reflectivity it is common practice to use a target of known radar cross-section placed within the scene. A corner reflector acts as a point target, but the return from it may not be centered in the resolution cell. It is important, for accurate calibration, to perform straddling corrections based on the range bin and Doppler filter response curves.

  4. Inversion to estimate ocean wave directional spectrum from high-frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisaki, Yukiharu

    2015-04-01

    An high-frequency (HF) radar observes ocean surface currents and waves by radiating HF radio waves to the sea surface and analyzing the backscattered signals. Ocean wave spectrum is estimated from the first- and the second-order scattering of Doppler spectra by the inversion. The estimation of ocean surface currents is robust, because the surface currents can be derived from the peak Doppler frequency of the first-order scattering in the Doppler spectrum. The method to estimate ocean wave spectra is complicated and the second-order scattering in the Doppler spectrum is fragile, which is affected by the noise in the Doppler spectrum. A new method to estimate ocean wave spectra from HF radar is developed. This method is the extension of Hisaki (1996, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2014). The new method can be applied to both the single radar and dual radar array case, while the previous methods can be applied only the single radar case (Hisaki, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2014) or dual radar case (Hisaki, 1996). Ocean wave spectra are estimated in the regular grid cells, while wave spectra are estimated on the polar grids points with the origin of the radar position in the previous method for single radar case. The governing equations for wave estimation are the integral equations which relate the wave spectrum to the Doppler spectrum, and the energy balance equation under the assumption of stationarity. The regularization constraints in the horizontal space and the wave frequency-direction space are also used for the estimation. The unknowns, which are spectral values, surface wind speeds and directions, are estimated by seeking the minimum of the objective function, which is defined as the sum of weighted squares of the equations. The signal to noise ratio in the Doppler spectrum for wave estimation must be high. We selected the Doppler spectra using the SOM (Self organization map ) analysis method. The method will be demonstrated by comparing with in-situ observed data, in which only

  5. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  6. Long duration meteor echoes characterized by Doppler spectrum bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdillon, A.; Haldoupis, C.; Hanuise, C.; Le Roux, Y.; Menard, J.

    2005-03-01

    We report on a new category of long lasting meteor echoes observed occasionally with HF and VHF radars. These meteoric returns, which have lifetimes from many seconds to a few minutes, are characterized by a distinct Doppler spectral signature showing a pronounced Doppler bifurcation which includes narrow bands of discrete Doppler velocities, often of opposite polarity. The large signal to noise ratios and the narrowness of the spectra imply that coherent or Bragg scattering is not of relevance here, therefore these echoes do not associate with the long living meteor-induced backscatter (MIB) from the lower E region. A reasonable interpretation needs to explain both the Doppler spectrum bifurcation and the long echo duration. As such, we propose the idea of a structured vertical wind shear in the lower E region which traps different fragments of a meteor trail plasma in the same way that sporadic E layers form. These trail parts inside the shear-related wind profile may act as relatively long-lasting meteoric reflectors moving with different Doppler velocities, also of opposite polarity.

  7. Determining asteroid spin states using radar speckles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Michael W.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Brisken, Walter; Ostro, Steven J.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Nolan, Michael C.

    2010-10-01

    Knowing the shapes and spin states of near-Earth asteroids is essential to understanding their dynamical evolution because of the Yarkovsky and YORP effects. Delay-Doppler radar imaging is the most powerful ground-based technique for imaging near-Earth asteroids and can obtain spatial resolution of <10 m, but frequently produces ambiguous pole direction solutions. A radar echo from an asteroid consists of a pattern of speckles caused by the interference of reflections from different parts of the surface. It is possible to determine an asteroid's pole direction by tracking the motion of the radar speckle pattern. Speckle tracking can potentially measure the poles of at least several radar targets each year, rapidly increasing the available sample of NEA pole directions. We observed the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the Arecibo planetary radar and the Very Long Baseline Array in December 2008. By tracking the speckles moving from the Pie Town to Los Alamos VLBA stations, we have shown that EV5 rotates retrograde. This is the first speckle detection of a near-Earth asteroid.

  8. Rendezvous radar for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith; Parks, Howard

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RRS was to be used to locate, and then provide vectoring information to, target satellites (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum-fuel-consumption approach and rendezvous. The RRS design is that of an X-Band, all solid-state, monopulse tracking, frequency hopping, pulse-Doppler radar system. The development of the radar was terminated when the OMV prime contract to TRW was terminated by NASA. At the time of the termination, the development was in the circuit design stage. The system design was virtually completed, the PDR had been held. The RRS design was based on Motorola's experiences, both in the design and production of radar systems for the US Army and in the design and production of hi-rel communications systems for NASA space programs. Experience in these fields was combined with the latest digital signal processor and micro-processor technology to design a light-weight, low-power, spaceborne radar. The antenna and antenna positioner (gimbals) technology developed for the RRS is now being used in the satellite-to-satellite communication link design for Motorola's Iridium telecommunications system.

  9. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 14: URSI/SCOSTEP Workshop on Technical Aspects of MST Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A. (Editor); Edwards, B. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various topics relative to middle atmosphere research were discussed. meteorological and aeronomical requirements for mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar networks, general circulation of the middle atmosphere, the interpretation of radar returns from clear air, spaced antenna and Doppler techniques for velocity measurement, and techniques for the study of gravity waves and turbulence are among the topics discussed.

  10. A wing pod-based millimeter wavelength airborne cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Ellis, S.; Tsai, P.; Loew, E.; Lee, W. C.; Emmett, J.; Dixon, M.; Burghart, C.; Rauenbuehler, S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wavelength radar. Its frequency of operation is 94 GHz (3 mm wavelength). The radar has been designed to fly on the NCAR Gulfstream V HIAPER aircraft; however, it could be deployed on other similarly equipped aircraft. The pod-based configuration occupies minimum cabin space and maximizes scan coverage. The radar system is capable of collecting observations in a staring mode between zenith and nadir or in a scanning mode. Standard pulse-pair estimates of moments and raw time series of backscattered signals are recorded. The radar system design and characteristics, as well as techniques for calibrating reflectivity and correcting Doppler velocity for aircraft attitude and motion are described. The radar can alternatively be deployed in a ground-based configuration, housed in the 20 ft shipping container it shares with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The radar was tested both on the ground and in flight. Preliminary measurements of Doppler and polarization measurements were collected and examples are presented.

  11. A wing pod-based millimeter wavelength airborne cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Ellis, S.; Tsai, P.; Loew, E.; Lee, W.-C.; Emmett, J.; Dixon, M.; Burghart, C.; Rauenbuehler, S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter (mm) wavelength radar. Its frequency of operation is 94 GHz (3 mm wavelength). The radar has been designed to fly on the NCAR Gulfstream V HIAPER aircraft; however, it could be deployed on other similarly equipped aircraft. The pod-based configuration occupies minimum cabin space and maximizes scan coverage. The radar system is capable of collecting observations in a staring mode between zenith and nadir or in a scanning mode. Standard pulse-pair estimates of moments and raw time series of backscattered signals are recorded. The radar system design and characteristics as well as techniques for calibrating reflectivity and correcting Doppler velocity for aircraft attitude and motion are described. The radar can alternatively be deployed in a ground-based configuration, housed in the 20 ft shipping container it shares with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The radar was tested both on the ground and in flight. Preliminary measurements of Doppler and polarization measurements were collected and examples are presented.

  12. Doppler effect in optical velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevichius, Bronius S.

    1996-02-01

    The current state of the optical metrology based on the Doppler effect has been reviewed. Some historical and scientific information is given, in addition the contemporary optical methods of the velocity measurement using the Doppler effect are analyzed. The Doppler effect applications in astrophysics, plasma physics, investigations of gas and liquid flows, acoustics, mechanics of the deforming solid body and of the rotational motion are considered. The description is presented for the following techniques of the velocity measurement: laser Doppler anemometry, laser Doppler vibrometry, laser gyroscopy.

  13. Radar Scan Strategies for the Patrick Air Force Base Weather Surveillance Radar, Model-74C, Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David

    2008-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is replacing the Weather Surveillance Radar, Model 74C (WSR-74C) at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), with a Doppler, dual polarization radar, the Radtec 43/250. A new scan strategy is needed for the Radtec 43/250, to provide high vertical resolution data over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) launch pads, while taking advantage of the new radar's advanced capabilities for detecting severe weather phenomena associated with convection within the 45 WS area of responsibility. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed several scan strategies customized for the operational needs of the 45 WS. The AMU also developed a plan for evaluating the scan strategies in the period prior to operational acceptance, currently scheduled for November 2008.

  14. A laser Doppler system for the remote sensing of boundary layer winds in clear air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, T. R.; Krause, M. C.; Craven, C. E.; Morrison, L. K.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Cliff, W. C.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The system discussed uses a laser Doppler radar in combination with a velocity azimuth display mode of scanning to determine the three-dimensional wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer. An attractive feature of this CW monostatic system is that the ambient aerosol provides a 'sufficient' scattering target to permit operation under clear air conditions. Spatial resolution is achieved by focusing.

  15. 95-GHz millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHarg, J. C.; Abouzahra, Mohamed D.; Lucey, R. F.

    1996-12-01

    Recent advances in MMW solid-state technology, combined with state-of-the-art quasi-optical feed elements, have made possible upgrades to an instrumentation radar in the W-band. Mixer diodes capable of cryogenic operation have led to a reduction in the receiver noise figure, and a Gunn-effect diode amplifier has boosted transmit power. Application of Gaussian beam optics has provided a reduction in transmit and receive losses, while increasing transmit/receive isolation and power handling capability. In all, an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude is ought, yielding the capability to provide metric tracking and range-Doppler imaging on a variety of important targets.

  16. Polarization Diversity Addition to the 10 Centimeter Doppler Weather Radar.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Rt. 117, Bolton, Mass. 01740 Robert Dalton Polarizer Mechanical Design ; Atlantic Microwave Corp. Thomas P. Walsh, PE Mechanical Analysis of Antenna ...deficiency. Since all variations employ a The noise power level presented to antenna hybrid coupler in their design , the isolation terminals of an ideal...microwave switch. Low Sidelobe Earth Station Antenna for the 4/6 GHa Band," GTE International Systems 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Corp. Report. The authors

  17. Comparing Goldstone Solar System Radar Earth-based Observations of Mars with Orbital Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Larsen, K. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has collected a self-consistent set of delay-Doppler near-nadir radar echo data from Mars since 1988. Prior to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global topography for Mars, these radar data provided local elevation information, along with radar scattering information with global coverage. Two kinds of GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data exist: low 5 km x 150 km resolution and, more recently, high (5 to 10 km) spatial resolution. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. Interpretation of these parameters, while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. In this presentation we want to demonstrate how to compare GSSR delay-Doppler data to other Mars datasets, including some idiosyncracies of the radar data. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. Development of High Altitude UAV Weather Radars for Hurricane Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Li-Hua

    2005-01-01

    A proposed effort within NASA called (ASHE) over the past few years was aimed at studying the genesis of tropical disturbances off the east coast of Africa. This effort was focused on using an instrumented Global Hawk UAV with high altitude (%Ok ft) and long duration (30 h) capability. While the Global Hawk availability remains uncertain, development of two relevant instruments, a Doppler radar (URAD - UAV Radar) and a backscatter lidar (CPL-UAV - Cloud Physics Lidar), are in progress. The radar to be discussed here is based on two previous high-altitude, autonomously operating radars on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) at X-band (9.6 GHz), and the Cloud Radar System (CRS) at W- band (94 GHz). The nadir-pointing EDOP and CRS radars profile vertical reflectivity structure and vertical Doppler winds in precipitation and clouds, respectively. EDOP has flown in all of the CAMEX flight series to study hurricanes over storms such as Hurricanes Bonnie, Humberto, Georges, Erin, and TS Chantal. These radars were developed at Goddard over the last decade and have been used for satellite algorithm development and validation (TRMM and Cloudsat), and for hurricane and convective storm research. We describe here the development of URAD that will measure wind and reflectivity in hurricanes and other weather systems from a top down, high-altitude view. URAD for the Global Hawk consists of two subsystems both of which are at X-band (9.3-9.6 GHz) and Doppler: a nadir fixed-beam Doppler radar for vertical motion and precipitation measurement, and a Conical scanning radar for horizontal winds in cloud and at the surface, and precipitation structure. These radars are being designed with size, weight, and power consumption suitable for the Global Hawk and other UAV's. The nadir radar uses a magnetron transmitter and the scanning radar uses a TWT transmitter. With conical scanning of the radar at a 35" incidence angle over an ocean surface in the absence of

  19. Radar Cross Section (RCS) Certification for Static and Dynamic RCS Measurement Facilities. Volume 2: DOD RCS Demonstration Program Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Electronics Engineers ISAR inverse synthetic aperature radar ISO International Standards Organization J/S jammer-skin Mil Spec military...for Doppler signatures, down-range profiles, inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images, as well as whole-body RCS data. ADAMS is also used to...DOCUMENT 804-01 VOLUME II (REVISED AUGUST 2001) Signature Measurement Standards Group RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) CERTIFICATION

  20. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  1. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    -based facilities by this transformed planetary radar astronomy, as well as the upgrading of the Arecibo and Goldstone radars. A technical essay appended to this book provides an overview of planetary radar techniques, especially range-Doppler mapping.

  2. Satellite Observations For Calibration of Ground Radar Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, M.; Morris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Calibration differences between weather service ground radars is one source of error that can lead to bias in quantitative precipitation estimates. In the U.S., calibration differences among Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars are know to vary by up to several decibels in reflectivity. Such differences have been shown to cause significant radar-to-radar observation differences, and can lead to significant error in precipitation estimates. The calibration of 21 WSR-88D radars in the southeast U.S. was assessed using methods developed for NASA's Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Validation Network (VN) prototype. The VN performs geometric matching of Precipitation Radar (PR) data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite to ground radars. The VN geometric matching method averages PR reflectivity (both raw and attenuation corrected) and rain rate, and ground radar (GR) reflectivity at the geometric intersection of the PR rays with the individual GR elevation sweeps. The algorithm thus averages the minimum PR and GR sample volumes needed to ''matchup'' the spatially coincident PR and ground radar data types. This geometric matching method has been demonstrated to out-perform gridding techniques by providing better estimates of GR-to-PR bias. TRMM PR data were used as the calibration reference because analyses of the PR performance estimated the instrument calibration to be stable and accurate to within less than 1dBZ (3-sigma). The calibration accuracy of the 21 WSR-88D radars was assessed for the period of record from August 2006 to July 2011. For purposes of calibration assessments, the data were restricted to PR-GR match-up volumes >750m above the bright band in stratiform rain areas where PR radar attenuation is not at issue. Based on space and ground radar matchups, most WSR-88D radars were found to have a mean PR-GR bias of less than 1 dBZ. Several adjacent WSR-88D sites near or along the Gulf Coast between Louisiana and

  3. An ionization duct explanation of some plasma line observations with a 46.8-MHz radar and with a 430-MHz radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldrew, D. B.

    1985-07-01

    Recently published HF-enhanced plasma line observations using a 46.8-MHz radar show that the upshifted decay line is absent. The upshifted spectrum considered of a single 'growing line' within a few hertz of 51.9 MHz (46.8 MHz plus the heating wave frequency of 5.1 MHz). The downshifted line was obscured by interference. The authors explain their observations by considering Langmuir wave propagation in the electron density depression generated by the ponderomotive force of the heating wave near reflection. Another approach, considered here, is to consider Langmuir wave propagation in magnetic field-aligned ionization ducts which are generated by the HF heating wave. This latter approach appears to yield a more satisfactory explanation of the observations. Using the duct model, it is predicted that for a radar frequency near 50 MHz the downshifted decay line will have a higher intensity and occur at a lower altitude than the upshifed decay line. Some published observations showing an 'early rise' time for the plasma line using a 430-MHz radar can also be explained using the duct model.

  4. Laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A.

    1988-01-01

    The material in this NASA TM is to appear as a chapter on Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in the AGARDograph entitled, A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers. The application of LDA (specifically, the dual-beam, burst-counter approach) to compressible flows is discussed. Subjects treated include signal processing, particle light scattering and tracking, data reduction and sampling bias, and three-dimensional measurements.

  5. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.; Blatter, Cedric; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases. PMID:24704352

  6. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  7. Radar echo from a flat conducting plate, near and far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Over certain types of terrain, a radar fuze (or altimeter), by virtue of the horizontal component of its velocity, is likely to pass over various flat objects of limited size. The echo from such objects could have a duration less than that of one Doppler cycle, where the Doppler frequency is due to the vertical component of the velocity. If the terrain is principally made up of such objects, their echoes are in most cases entirely uncorrelated with each other. Hence, the total echo after mixing at the radar with the delayed transmitted wave would have a noise-like spectrum not at all confined to the Doppler-frequency band where the desired echo signal is expected. This would seriously degrade the performance of a radar that utilizes correlation. This work shows that the echo from a square flat plate will be of duration greater than the time it takes to pass over the plate if the height h above it satisfies h a squared lambda where a is the plate-edge dimension and lambda is the radar wavelength. The results presented here can be used to determine the spatial region wherein the echo exists, and the magnitude and phase of the echo from such a plate.

  8. Radar echo from a flat conducting plate - near and far

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Over certain types of terrain, a radar fuze (or altimeter), by virtue of the horizontal component of its velocity, is likely to pass over various flat objects of limited size. The echo from such objects could have a duration less than that of one Doppler cycle, where the Doppler frequency is due to the vertical component of the velocity. If the terrain is principally made up of such objects, their echoes are in most cases entirely uncorrelated with each other. Hence, the total echo after mixing at the radar with the delayed transmitted wave would have a noise-like spectrum not at all confined to the Doppler-frequency band where the desired echo signal is expected. This would seriously degrade the performance of a radar that utilizes correlation. This work shows that the echo from a square flat plate will be of duration greater than the time it takes to pass over the plate if the height h above it satisfies h > a/sup 2//lambda where a is the plate-edge dimension and lambda is the radar wavelength. The results presented here can be used to determine the spatial region wherein the echo exists, and the magnitude and phase of the echo from such a plate. I infer from these results that the case where the signal has a noise-like spectrum is not impossible but it is unlikely for the applications with which I am familiar.

  9. Micro-Doppler Signal Time-Frequency Algorithm Based on STFRFT

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Cunsuo; Han, Yan; Hou, Huiling; Liu, Shengheng; Zhang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a time-frequency algorithm based on short-time fractional order Fourier transformation (STFRFT) for identification of a complicated movement targets. This algorithm, consisting of a STFRFT order-changing and quick selection method, is effective in reducing the computation load. A multi-order STFRFT time-frequency algorithm is also developed that makes use of the time-frequency feature of each micro-Doppler component signal. This algorithm improves the estimation accuracy of time-frequency curve fitting through multi-order matching. Finally, experiment data were used to demonstrate STFRFT’s performance in micro-Doppler time-frequency analysis. The results validated the higher estimate accuracy of the proposed algorithm. It may be applied to an LFM (Linear frequency modulated) pulse radar, SAR (Synthetic aperture radar), or ISAR (Inverse synthetic aperture radar), for improving the probability of target recognition. PMID:27669265

  10. Numerical RCS and micro-Doppler investigations of a consumer UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Arne; Aulenbacher, Uwe; Renker, Matthias; Böniger, Urs; Oechslin, Roland; Murk, Axel; Wellig, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This contribution gives an overview of recent investigations regarding the detection of a consumer market unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The steadily increasing number of such drones gives rise to the threat of UAVs interfering civil air traffic. Technologies for monitoring UAVs which are flying in restricted air space, i. e. close to airports or even over airports, are desperately needed. One promising way for tracking drones is to employ radar systems. For the detection and classification of UAVs, the knowledge about their radar cross section (RCS) and micro-Doppler signature is of particular importance. We have carried out numerical and experimental studies of the RCS and the micro-Doppler of an example commercial drone in order to study its detectability with radar systems.

  11. Micro-Doppler Signal Time-Frequency Algorithm Based on STFRFT.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cunsuo; Han, Yan; Hou, Huiling; Liu, Shengheng; Zhang, Nan

    2016-09-24

    This paper proposes a time-frequency algorithm based on short-time fractional order Fourier transformation (STFRFT) for identification of a complicated movement targets. This algorithm, consisting of a STFRFT order-changing and quick selection method, is effective in reducing the computation load. A multi-order STFRFT time-frequency algorithm is also developed that makes use of the time-frequency feature of each micro-Doppler component signal. This algorithm improves the estimation accuracy of time-frequency curve fitting through multi-order matching. Finally, experiment data were used to demonstrate STFRFT's performance in micro-Doppler time-frequency analysis. The results validated the higher estimate accuracy of the proposed algorithm. It may be applied to an LFM (Linear frequency modulated) pulse radar, SAR (Synthetic aperture radar), or ISAR (Inverse synthetic aperture radar), for improving the probability of target recognition.

  12. Doppler Spectra and Estimated Windspeed of a Violent Tornado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrni, Dusan; Burgess, Donald W.; Hennington, Larry

    1985-10-01

    Presented in this Paper are Doppler spectra of a very large tornado that occurred on 22 May 1981 near Binger, Oklahoma. Tracking of the tornado was accomplished with the help of a novel `polar spectra display.' Bimodal tornado spectral signatures (TSS) were observed in about 40 scans. Direct measurements of maximum velocities from spectral skirts yielded a maximum tangential speed of 80 m s1 (90 m s1 relative to ground). A diameter of 1 km at 200 m above ground was deduced from a simplified model. Radial centrifuging of radar targets was estimated to be about 20 m s1. With simple assumptions for radar target sizes and summation of forces, a beamwidth average convergence value of about 2.5 × 102 s1 was calculated for the tornado boundary layer.Tornado damage to trees and structures was subjectively rated on the Fujita damage scale. The windspeed range associated with the damage scale agreed well with the Doppler-estimated maximum windspeed when the tornado was large (1 km diameter). However, as the tornado diameter decreased, the Doppler-derived windspeed considerably underestimated that associated with the damage scale.

  13. Potential use of weather radar to study movements of wintering waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, Lori A.; Diehl, Robert H.; Wilson, Barry C.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Jeske, Clinton W.

    2011-01-01

    To protect and restore wintering waterfowl habitat, managers require knowledge of routine wintering waterfowl movements and habitat use. During preliminary screening of Doppler weather radar data we observed biological movements consistent with routine foraging flights of wintering waterfowl known to occur near Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Louisiana. During the winters of 2004–2005 and 2005–2006, we conducted field surveys to identify the source of the radar echoes emanating from Lacassine NWR. We compared field data to weather radar reflectivity data. Spatial and temporal patterns consistent with foraging flight movements appeared in weather radar data on all dates of field surveys. Dabbling ducks were the dominant taxa flying within the radar beam during the foraging flight period. Using linear regression, we found a positive log-linear relationship between average radar reflectivity (Z) and number of birds detected over the study area (P r2 = 0.62, n = 40). Ground observations and the statistically significant relationship between radar data and field data confirm that Doppler weather radar recorded the foraging flights of dabbling ducks. Weather radars may be effective tools for wintering waterfowl management because they provide broad-scale views of both diurnal and nocturnal movements. In addition, an extensive data archive enables the study of wintering waterfowl response to habitat loss, agricultural practices, wetland restoration, and other research questions that require multiple years of data.

  14. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation. PMID:26111643

  15. Radar Polarimetry: Theory, Analysis, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbert, John Clark

    delta is present. Algorithms are presented for estimating delta and K_{DP} from range profiles of Psi_ {CO}. Also discussed are procedures for the estimation and interpretation of other radar measurables such as reflectivity, Z_{HH}, differential reflectivity, Z_{DR }, the magnitude of the copolar correlation coefficient, rho_{HV}(0), and Doppler spectrum width, sigma _{v}. The techniques are again illustrated with data collected by POLDIRAD.

  16. River discharge measurements by using helicopter-mounted radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, N.B.; Costa, J.E.; Haeni, F.P.; Cheng, R.T.; Thurman, E.M.; Buursink, M.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.J.; Keller, W.C.; Hayes, K.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey and the University of Washington collaborated on a series of initial experiments on the Lewis, Toutle, and Cowlitz Rivers during September 2000 and a detailed experiment on the Cowlitz River during May 2001 to determine the feasibility of using helicopter-mounted radar to measure river discharge. Surface velocities were measured using a pulsed Doppler radar, and river depth was measured using ground-penetrating radar. Surface velocities were converted to mean velocities, and horizontal registration of both velocity and depth measurements enabled the calculation of river discharge. The magnitude of the uncertainty in velocity and depth indicate that the method error is in the range of 5 percent. The results of this experiment indicate that helicopter-mounted radar can make the rapid, accurate discharge measurements that are needed in remote locations and during regional floods.

  17. Gesture recognition for smart home applications using portable radar sensors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qian; Li, Yiran; Li, Changzhi; Pal, Ranadip

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consider the design of a human gesture recognition system based on pattern recognition of signatures from a portable smart radar sensor. Powered by AAA batteries, the smart radar sensor operates in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. We analyzed the feature space using principle components and application-specific time and frequency domain features extracted from radar signals for two different sets of gestures. We illustrate that a nearest neighbor based classifier can achieve greater than 95% accuracy for multi class classification using 10 fold cross validation when features are extracted based on magnitude differences and Doppler shifts as compared to features extracted through orthogonal transformations. The reported results illustrate the potential of intelligent radars integrated with a pattern recognition system for high accuracy smart home and health monitoring purposes.

  18. VLBI Radar of the 2012 DA14 Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaeva, M. B.; Dugin, N. A.; Antipenko, A. A.; Bezrukov, D. A.; Bezrukov, V. V.; Voytyuk, V. V.; Dement'ev, A. F.; Jekabsons, N.; Klapers, M.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Nabatov, A. S.; Nesteruk, V. N.; Putillo, D.; Reznichenko, A. M.; Salerno, E.; Snegirev, S. D.; Tikhomirov, Yu. V.; Khutornoy, R. V.; Skirmante, K.; Shmeld, I.; Chagunin, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    An experiment on VLBI radar of the 2012 DA14 asteroid was carried out on February 15-16, 2011 at the time of its closest approach to the Earth. The research teams of Kharkov (Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Evpatoria (National Space Facilities Control and Test Center), Nizhny Novgorod (Radiophysical Research Institute), Bologna (Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF)), and Ventspils (Ventspils International Radioastronomy Center) took part in the experiment. The asteroid was irradiated by the RT-70 planetary radar (Evpatoria) at a frequency of 5 GHz. The reflected signal was received using two 32-m radio telescopes in Medicina (Italy) and Irbene (Latvia) in radiointerferometric mode. The Doppler frequency shifts in bi-static radar mode and interference frequency in VLBI mode were measured. Accuracy of the VLBI radar method for determining the radial and angular velocities of the asteroid were estimated.

  19. A system model and inversion for synthetic aperture radar imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1992-01-01

    A system model and its corresponding inversion for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging are presented. The system model incorporates the spherical nature of a radar's radiation pattern at far field. The inverse method based on this model performs a spatial Fourier transform (Doppler processing) on the recorded signals with respect to the available coordinates of a translational radar (SAR) or target (inverse SAR). It is shown that the transformed data provide samples of the spatial Fourier transform of the target's reflectivity function. The inverse method can be modified to incorporate deviations of the radar's motion from its prescribed straight line path. The effects of finite aperture on resolution, reconstruction, and sampling constraints for the imaging problem are discussed.

  20. Basic gait analysis based on continuous wave radar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun

    2012-09-01

    A gait analysis method based on continuous wave (CW) radar is proposed in this paper. Time-frequency analysis is used to analyze the radar micro-Doppler echo from walking humans, and the relationships between the time-frequency spectrogram and human biological gait are discussed. The methods for extracting the gait parameters from the spectrogram are studied in depth and experiments on more than twenty subjects have been performed to acquire the radar gait data. The gait parameters are calculated and compared. The gait difference between men and women are presented based on the experimental data and extracted features. Gait analysis based on CW radar will provide a new method for clinical diagnosis and therapy.