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Sample records for 50-mhz doppler radar

  1. Implementation and evaluation of the new wind algorithm in NASA's 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Manobianco, John T.; Schumann, Robin S.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Applied Meteorology Unit's implementation and evaluation of the wind algorithm developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on the data analysis processor (DAP) of NASA's 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler (DRWP). The report also includes a summary of the 50 MHz DRWP characteristics and performance and a proposed concept of operations for the DRWP.

  2. Distribution of mean Doppler shift, spectral width, and skewness of coherent 50-MHz auroral radar backscatter

    SciTech Connect

    Watermann, J.; McNamara, A.G. ); Sofko, G.J.; Koehler, J.A. )

    1989-06-01

    Some 7,700 radio aurora spectra obtained from a six link 50-MHz CW radar network set up on the Canadian prairies were analyzed with respect to the distributions of mean Doppler shift, spectral width and skewness. A comparison with recently published SABRE results obtained at 153 MHz shows substantial differences in the distributions which are probably due to different experimental and geophysical conditions. The spectra are mostly broad with mean Doppler shifts close to zero (type II spectra). The typical groupings of type I and type III spectra are clearly identified. All types appear to be in general much more symmetric than those recorded with SABRE, and the skewness is only weakly dependent on the sign of the mean Doppler shift. Its distribution peaks near zero and shows a weak positive correlation with the type II Doppler shifts while the mostly positive type I Doppler shifts are slightly negatively correlated with the skewness.

  3. Quality Control of Wind Data from 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacek, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Upper-level wind profiles obtained from a 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) instrument at Kennedy Space Center are incorporated in space launch vehicle design and day-of-launch operations to assess wind effects on the vehicle during ascent. Automated and manual quality control (QC) techniques are implemented to remove spurious data in the upper-level wind profiles caused from atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts over the 2010-2012 period of record (POR). By adding the new quality controlled profiles with older profiles from 1997-2009, a robust database will be constructed of upper-level wind characteristics. Statistical analysis will determine the maximum, minimum, and 95th percentile of the wind components from the DRWP profiles over recent POR and compare against the older database. Additionally, this study identifies specific QC flags triggered during the QC process to understand how much data is retained and removed from the profiles.

  4. Quality Control of Wind Data from 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacek, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Upper-level wind profiles obtained from a 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) instrument at Kennedy Space Center are incorporated in space launch vehicle design and day-of-launch operations to assess wind effects on the vehicle during ascent. Automated and manual quality control (QC) techniques are implemented to remove spurious data in the upper-level wind profiles caused from atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts over the 2010-2012 period of record (POR). By adding the new quality controlled profiles with older profiles from 1997-2009, a robust database will be constructed of upper-level wind characteristics. Statistical analysis will determine the maximum, minimum, and 95th percentile of the wind components from the DRWP profiles over recent POR and compare against the older database. Additionally, this study identifies specific QC flags triggered during the QC process to understand how much data is retained and removed from the profiles.

  5. Results of the NASA Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Operational Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre', Robert E., Jr.; Decker, Ryan K.; Leahy, Frank B.; Huddleston, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the new Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT). The goal of the OAT was to verify the data quality of the new DRWP against the performance of the previous DRWP in order to use wind data derived by the new DRWP for space launch vehicle operations support at the Eastern Range. The previous DRWP was used as a situational awareness asset for mission operations to identify rapid changes in the wind environment that weather balloons cannot depict. The Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch assessed data from the new DRWP collected during Jan-Feb 2015 against a specified set of test criteria. Data examination verified that the DRWP provides complete profiles every five minutes from 1.8-19.5 km in vertical increments of 150 m. Analysis of 49 concurrent DRWP and balloon profiles presented root mean square wind component differences around 2.0 m/s. Evaluation of the DRWP's coherence between five-minute wind pairs found the effective vertical resolution to be Nyquist-limited at 300 m for both wind components. In addition, the sensitivity to rejecting data that do not have adequate signal was quantified. This paper documents the data, quality control procedures, methodology, and results of each analysis.

  6. KSC 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT) Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents analysis results of the Kennedy Space Center updated 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT). This test was designed to demonstrate that the new DRWP operates in a similar manner to the previous DRWP for use as a situational awareness asset for mission operations at the Eastern Range to identify rapid changes in the wind environment that weather balloons cannot depict. Data examination and two analyses showed that the updated DRWP meets the specifications in the OAT test plan and performs at least as well as the previous DRWP. Data examination verified that the DRWP provides complete profiles every five minutes from 1.8-19.5 km in vertical increments of 150 m. Analysis of 5,426 wind component reports from 49 concurrent DRWP and balloon profiles presented root mean square (RMS) wind component differences around 2.0 m/s. The DRWP's effective vertical resolution (EVR) was found to be 300 m for both the westerly and southerly wind component, which the best EVR possible given the DRWP's vertical sampling interval. A third analysis quantified the sensitivity to rejecting data that do not have adequate signal by assessing the number of first-guess propagations at each altitude. This report documents the data, quality control procedures, methodology, and results of each analysis. It also shows that analysis of the updated DRWP produced results that were at least as good as the previous DRWP with proper rationale. The report recommends acceptance of the updated DRWP for situational awareness usage as per the OAT's intent.

  7. Application of 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler to launch operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Robin S.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Smith, Steve A.; Wilfong, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case study where a significant wind shift, not detected by jimspheres, was detected by the 50 MHz DRWP (Doppler Radar Wind Profiler) and evaluated to be acceptable prior to the launch of a Shuttle. This case study illustrates the importance of frequent upper air wind measurements for detecting significant rapidly changing features as well as for providing confidence that the features really exist and are not due to instrumentation error. Had the release of the jimsphere been timed such that it would have detected the entire wind shift, there would not have been sufficient time to release another jimsphere to confirm the existence of the feature prior to the scheduled launch. We found that using a temporal median filter on the one minute spectral estimates coupled with a constraining window about a first guess velocity effectively removes nearly all spurious signals from the velocity profile generated by NASA's 50 MHz DRWP while boosting the temporal resolution to as high as one profile every 3 minutes. The higher temporal resolution of the 50 MHz DRWP using the signal processing algorithm described in this paper ensures the detection of rapidly changing features as well as provides the confidence that the features are genuine. Further benefit is gained when the profiles generated by the DRWP are examined in relation to the profiles measured by jimspheres and/or rawinsondes. The redundancy offered by using two independent measurements can dispel or confirm any suspicion regarding instrumentation error or malfunction and wind profiles can be examined in light of their respective instruments' strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Results of the Updated NASA Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Operational Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre', Robert E., Jr.; Deker, Ryan K.; Leahy, Frank B.; Huddleston, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We present here the methodology and results of the Operational Acceptance Test (OAT) performed on the new Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP). On day-of-launch (DOL), space launch vehicle operators have used data from the DRWP to invalidate winds in prelaunch loads and trajectory assessments due to the DRWP's capability to quickly identify changes in the wind profile within a rapidly-changing wind environment. The previous DRWP has been replaced with a completely new system, which needs to undergo certification testing before being accepted for use in range operations. The new DRWP replaces the previous three-beam system made of coaxial cables and a copper wire ground plane with a four-beam system that uses Yagi antennae with enhanced beam steering capability. In addition, the new system contains updated user interface software while maintaining the same general capability as the previous system. The new DRWP continues to use the Median Filter First Guess (MFFG) algorithm to generate a wind profile from Doppler spectra at each range gate. DeTect (2015) contains further details on the upgrade. The OAT is a short-term test designed so that end users can utilize the new DRWP in a similar manner to the previous DRWP during mission operations at the Eastern Range in the midst of a long-term certification process. This paper describes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch's (MSFC NE's) analyses to verify the quality and accuracy of the DRWP's meteorological data output as compared to the previous DRWP. Ultimately, each launch vehicle program has the responsibility to certify the system for their own use.

  9. The 50-MHz meteor radar observation at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Igarashi, K.; Fujii, R.

    1985-01-01

    The 50-MHz Doppler radar installed at Syowa Station (69 deg 00'S, 39 deg 35'E), Antarctica, in 1982 can detect continuously a meteor echo if an operator assigns the meteor mode operation to the radar. The radar has two narrow antenna beams (4 deg in the horizontal plane), one toward geomagnetic south and the other toward approximately geographic south, with a crossing angle of about 33 deg. The minicomputer annexed to the radar controls the transmission and reception of a 50-MHz wave. If the receiver detects a meteor echo, the flag signal is sent to the computer. Then the computer begins to determine the echo range with a time resolution of 1 micro s and to sample every 200 microns/s for 1 s the Doppler signal and echo intensity at the particular range (R). The line-of-sight velocity (V sub D) of the echo trail is calculated from the output from the Doppler signal detection circuit having an offset frequency by using the so-called zero-crossing method. The echo amplitude decay time calculated by a least-mean square method is used to obtain the ambipolar diffusion coefficient (D) and then to calculate the echo height (H). About 120 day observations were made during 1982-1983. Some early results are presented. magnetic tapes together with V sub D, D, H and R for later analysis in Japan. About 120 day observation were made during 1982-1983. Some early results are presented.

  10. A New 50-MHz VHF Digital Bistatic Radar for E-region Space Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, G. C.; Huyghebaert, D. R.; St-Maurice, J. P.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new fully digital bistatic 50-MHz VHF radar is currently being developed by the radar group in the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies (ISAS) at the University of Saskatchewan. This paper presents the scientific motivation for the new radar. Traditionally bistatic radars have had excellent time resolution, but were significantly lacking in range resolution. With the now available accurate timing abilities and advanced pulse modulation techniques, bistatic radar configurations with both excellent temporal and spatial resolution are able to map or 'image' the E-region. The E-region portion of the ionosphere being the base of the magnetosphere has both global (ionosphere-magnetosphere system) and local phenomena of interest. The currents in the magnetosphere close in the E-region. Field-aligned currents (FACs) and Alfven waves are phenomena with origins in the magnetosphere which present their 'signatures' in the E-region. For example, Alfven waves (produced by the Alfven wave resonator) have different time scales, from less than a Hertz to periods of tens of minutes --- and the high temporal and spatial resolution of this new digital E-region radar will be able to detect them all. The E-region is also a dynamic plasma medium with the two-steam and gradient drift instabilities present and the improved measurement abilities will give fresh physical insight.

  11. A Comparison of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System High Resolution Flight Element to the Kennedy Space Center 50 MHz Doppler Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Leahy, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Wind profile measurement and the simulation of aerodynamic loads on a launch vehicle play an important role in determining launch capability and post launch assessment of the vehicle's performance. To date, all United States range certified wind profile measurement systems have been based on balloon tracking. Since the 1960's, the standard used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Air Force at the Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) for detailed wind profile measurements has been the radar tracked, aerodynamically stabilized Jimsphere balloon system. Currently, the Air Force is nearing certification and operational implementation of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) at CCAS and Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB). AMPS uses the Global Positioning System for tracking the Jimsphere balloon. It is anticipated that the AMPS/Jimsphere, named the High Resolution Flight Element (HRFE), will have equivalent, or better resolution than the radar tracked Jimsphere, especially when the balloon is far downrange, at a low elevation angle. By the 1980's, the development of Doppler Wind Profilers (DWP) had become sufficiently advanced to justify an experimental measurement program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In 1989 a 50 MHz DWP was installed at KSC. In principal, the 50 MHz DWP has the capability to track the evolution of wind profile dynamics within 5 minutes of a launch. Because of fundamental differences in the measurement technique, there is a significant time and space differential between 50 MHz DWP and HRFE wind profiles. This paper describes a study to quantify these differences from a sample of 50 MHz DWP/HRFE pairs obtained during the AMPS certification test program.

  12. A New 50 MHz Phased-Array Radar on Pohnpei: A Fresh Perspective on Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    A new, phased-array antenna-steering capability has recently been added to an existing 50-MHz radar on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, in the central Pacific region. This radar, which we refer to as PAR-50, is capable of scanning in the vertical east-west plane, ±60° about the zenith. The alignment in the magnetic east-west direction allows detection of radar backscatter from small-scale irregularities that develop in the equatorial ionosphere, including those associated with equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). The coverage, about ±800 km in zonal distance, at an altitude of 500 km, is essentially identical to that provided by ALTAIR, a fully-steerable incoherent-scatter radar, which has been used in a number of studies of EPBs. Unlike ALTAIR, which has only been operated for several hours on a handful of selected nights, the PAR-50 has already been operated continuously, while performing repeated scans, since April 2014. In this presentation, we describe the PAR-50, then, compare it to ALTAIR and the Equatorial Atmospheric Radar (EAR); the latter is the only other phased-array system in use for equatorial studies. We then assess what we have learned about EPBs from backscatter radar measurements, and discuss how the PAR-50 can provide a fresh perspective to our understanding. Clearly, the ability to sort out the space-time ambiguities in EPB development from sequences of spatial maps of EPBs is crucial to our understanding of how EPBs develop.

  13. Doppler radar results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) a summary of radar flight data collected; (2) a video of combined aft cockpit, nose camera, and radar hazard displays; (3) a comparison of airborne radar F-factor measurements with in situ and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) F-factors for some sample events; and (4) a summary of wind shear detection performance.

  14. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  15. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  16. Atmospheric probing by Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lhermitte, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    A survey is presented of the application of Doppler techniques to the study of atmospheric phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the requirement of adequate digital processing means for the Doppler signal and the Doppler data which are acquired at a very high rate. The need is discussed of a two or three Doppler method as an ultimate approach to the problem of observing the three-dimensional field of particle motion inside convective storms.

  17. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  18. Analysis of Doppler radar windshear data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F.; Mckinney, P.; Ozmen, F.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to process Lincoln Laboratory Doppler radar data obtained during FLOWS testing at Huntsville, Alabama, in the summer of 1986, to characterize windshear events. The processing includes plotting velocity and F-factor profiles, histogram analysis to summarize statistics, and correlation analysis to demonstrate any correlation between different data fields.

  19. The Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop, November 1979.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, R. E.; Harris, F. I.; Hildebrand, P. H.; Kropfli, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Moninger, W.; Strauch, R. G.; Doviak, R. J.; Johnson, K. W.; Nelson, S. P.; Ray, P. S.; Gilet, M.

    1980-10-01

    The findings of the Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop are summarized by a series of six papers. Part I of this series briefly reviews the history of multiple Doppler experimentation, fundamental concepts of Doppler signal theory, and organization and objectives of the Workshop. Invited presentations by dynamicists and cloud physicists are also summarized.Experimental design and procedures (Part II) are shown to be of critical importance. Well-defined and limited experimental objectives are necessary in view of technological limitations. Specified radar scanning procedures that balance temporal and spatial resolution considerations are discussed in detail. Improved siting for suppression of ground clutter as well as scanning procedures to minimize errors at echo boundaries are discussed. The need for accelerated research using numerically simulated proxy data sets is emphasized.New technology to eliminate various sampling limitations is cited as an eventual solution to many current problems in Part III. Ground clutter contamination may be curtailed by means of full spectral processing, digital filters in real time, and/or variable pulse repetition frequency. Range and velocity ambiguities also may be minimized by various pulsing options as well as random phase transmission. Sidelobe contamination can be reduced through improvements in radomes, illumination patterns, and antenna feed types. Radar volume-scan time can be sharply reduced by means of wideband transmission, phased array antennas, multiple beam antennas, and frequency agility.Part IV deals with synthesis of data from several radars in the context of scientific requirements in cumulus clouds, widespread precipitation, and severe convective storms. The important temporal and spatial scales are examined together with the accuracy required for vertical air motion in each phenomenon. Factors that introduce errors in the vertical velocity field are identified and synthesis techniques are discussed separately for

  20. A Bistatic Multiple-Doppler Radar Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, Joshua; Heckman, Stanley; Boccippio, Dennis

    1993-12-01

    A multiple-Doppler radar network can be constructed using only one, traditional, transmitting pencil-beam radar and one or more passive, low-gain, nontransmitting receivers at remote sites. Radiation scattered from the pencil beam of the transmitting radar as it penetrates weather targets can be detected at the receive-only sites as well as at the active transmitter. The Doppler shifts of the radiation received at all the sites can be used to construct two- and three-dimensional wind fields in a manner similar to that used with traditional Doppler radar networks.There are unique scientific advantages to a bistatic multiple-Doppler network: 1) all radial velocity measurements from individual resolution volumes are collected simultaneously since there is only one source of radiation; 2) the intensity of the obliquely scattered radiation can be compared to Rayleigh scattering predictions and used for hail detection; 3) rapid scanning of localized weather phenomena can be aided by elimination of the need to scan with multiple radars.This type of multiple-Doppler radar network also has significant economic advantages. Passive sites contain no high-voltage transmitting equipment or large rotating antennas. They require no operators and much less maintenance. We estimate initial investment costs, and subsequent operational and maintenance costs are less than one-thirtieth that of conventional radars.There are shortcomings particular to these types of networks: 1) passive, low-gain, receiving sites are more sensitive to contamination from transmitter sidelobes and to secondary scattering from weather echoes; 2) low-gain receiving sites are less sensitive to weak weather echoes; 3) Cartesian (u, v, w) wind fields derived from bistatic network data exhibit about twice the expected error as those constructed from data from traditional monostatic networks containing equal numbers of radars. Multiple scattering and sidelobe contamination levels are acceptable in most situations

  1. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation.

  2. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation. PMID:22254704

  3. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Jordan, Jay D.; Kim, Theodore J.

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  4. Numerical treatment of Doppler radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonullu, B.

    1982-12-01

    Doppler radar signal processing algorithms are discussed. The analysis of a moving target identification filter system leads to a fast Fourier transform implementation with a matrix of order eight. The analytic computation of the plot center, the estimation of radial velocity, the logarithmic laws and the multiplication using a PROM table are discussed. Applications of filters with distributed zeroes and of residium arithmetic are examined.

  5. Acoustic micro-Doppler radar for human gait imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaonian; Pouliquen, Philippe O; Waxman, Allen; Andreou, Andreas G

    2007-03-01

    A portable acoustic micro-Doppler radar system for the acquisition of human gait signatures in indoor and outdoor environments is reported. Signals from an accelerometer attached to the leg support the identification of the components in the measured micro-Doppler signature. The acoustic micro-Doppler system described in this paper is simpler and offers advantages over the widely used electromagnetic wave micro-Doppler radars.

  6. Doppler radar detection of vortex hazard indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespor, Jerald D.; Hudson, B.; Stegall, R. L.; Freedman, Jerome E.

    1994-01-01

    Wake vortex experiments were conducted at White Sands Missile Range, NM using the AN/MPS-39 Multiple Object Tracking Radar (MOTR). The purpose of these experiments was twofold. The first objective was to verify that radar returns from wake vortex are observed for some time after the passage of an aircraft. The second objective was to verify that other vortex hazard indicators such as ambient wind speed and direction could also be detected. The present study addresses the Doppler characteristics of wake vortex and clear air returns based upon measurements employing MOTR, a very sensitive C-Band phased array radar. In this regard, the experiment was conducted so that the spectral characteristics could be determined on a dwell to-dwell basis. Results are presented from measurements of the backscattered power (equivalent structure constant), radial velocity and spectral width when the aircraft flies transverse and axial to the radar beam. The statistics of the backscattered power and spectral width for each case are given. In addition, the scan strategy, experimental test procedure and radar parameters are presented.

  7. Eliminating Doppler Effects in Synthetic-Aperture Radar Optical Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantindes, N. J.; Bicknell, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Pair of photodetectors generates correction signals. Instrument detects Doppler shifts in radar and corrects processing parameters so ambiguities caused by shifts not manifested as double or overlapping images.

  8. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  9. Respiratory effort energy estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Yavari, Ehsan; Young, Jared; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Stickley, Cris

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory effort can be harvested to power wearable biosensors and mobile electronic devices. The very first step toward designing a harvester is to estimate available energy and power. This paper describes an estimation of the available power and energy due to the movements of the torso during breathing, using Doppler radar by detecting breathing rate, torso displacement, torso movement velocity and acceleration along the sagittal movement of the torso. The accuracy of the detected variables is verified by two reference methods. The experimental result obtained from a healthy female human subject shows that the available power from circumferential movement can be higher than the power from the sagittal movement. PMID:23365993

  10. The new Adelaide medium frequency Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, I. M.; Vandepeer, B. G. W.; Dillon, S.; Fuller, B.

    1993-08-01

    The Buckland Park Aerial Array (35 deg S, 138 deg E) is situated about 40 km north of Adelaide on a flat coastal plain. It was designed by Basil Briggs and Graham Elford, and constructed between 1965 and 1968. The first results were published in the late 1960's. Some aspects of the history of the array are described in Briggs (1993). A new MF Doppler Radar utilizing the array has been developed. This paper describes some of the technical details of this new facility.

  11. Respiratory effort energy estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Yavari, Ehsan; Young, Jared; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Stickley, Cris

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory effort can be harvested to power wearable biosensors and mobile electronic devices. The very first step toward designing a harvester is to estimate available energy and power. This paper describes an estimation of the available power and energy due to the movements of the torso during breathing, using Doppler radar by detecting breathing rate, torso displacement, torso movement velocity and acceleration along the sagittal movement of the torso. The accuracy of the detected variables is verified by two reference methods. The experimental result obtained from a healthy female human subject shows that the available power from circumferential movement can be higher than the power from the sagittal movement.

  12. 50 MHz continuous wave interferometer observations of the unstable mid-latitude E-region ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldoupis, C.; Bourdillon, A.; Kamburelis, A.; Hussey, G. C.; Koehler, J. A.

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we describe the conversion of SESCAT (Sporadic-E SCATter experiment), a bistatic 50 MHz continuous wave (CW) Doppler radar located on the island of Crete, Greece, to a single (east-west) baseline interferometer. The first results show that SESCAT, which provides high quality Doppler spectra and excellent temporal resolution, has its measurement capabilities enhanced significantly when operated as an interferometer, as it can also study short-term dynamics of localized scattering regions within mid-latitude sporadic E-layers. The interferometric observations reveal that the aspect sensitive area viewed by the radar often contains a few zonally located backscatter regions, presumably blobs or patches of unstable metallic ion plasma, which drift across the radar field-of-view with the neutral wind. On average, these active regions of backscatter have mean zonal scales ranging from a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers and drift with westward speeds from ~ 20 m/s to 100 m/s, and occasionally up to 150 m/s. The cross-spectral analysis shows that mid-latitude type 1 echoes occur much more frequently than has been previously assumed and they originate in single and rather localized areas of elevated electric fields. On the other hand, typical bursts of type 2 echoes are often found to result from two adjacent regions in azimuth undergoing the same bulk motion westwards but producing scatter of opposite Doppler polarity, a fact that contradicts the notion of isotropic turbulence to which type 2 echoes are attributed. Finally, quasi-periodic (QP) echoes are observed simply to be due to sequential unstable plasma patches or blobs which traverse across the radar field-of-view, sometimes in a wave-like fashion.

  13. Ambiguity Of Doppler Centroid In Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Paper discusses performances of two algorithms for resolution of ambiguity in estimated Doppler centroid frequency of echoes in synthetic-aperture radar. One based on range-cross-correlation technique, other based on multiple-pulse-repetition-frequency technique.

  14. Monitoring and Analysis of Respiratory Patterns Using Microwave Doppler Radar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Siong; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Steinfort, Christopher Louis; Caelli, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Noncontact detection characteristic of Doppler radar provides an unobtrusive means of respiration detection and monitoring. This avoids additional preparations, such as physical sensor attachment or special clothing, which can be useful for certain healthcare applications. Furthermore, robustness of Doppler radar against environmental factors, such as light, ambient temperature, interference from other signals occupying the same bandwidth, fading effects, reduce environmental constraints and strengthens the possibility of employing Doppler radar in long-term respiration detection, and monitoring applications such as sleep studies. This paper presents an evaluation in the of use of microwave Doppler radar for capturing different dynamics of breathing patterns in addition to the respiration rate. Although finding the respiration rate is essential, identifying abnormal breathing patterns in real-time could be used to gain further insights into respiratory disorders and refine diagnostic procedures. Several known breathing disorders were professionally role played and captured in a real-time laboratory environment using a noncontact Doppler radar to evaluate the feasibility of this noncontact form of measurement in capturing breathing patterns under different conditions associated with certain breathing disorders. In addition to that, inhalation and exhalation flow patterns under different breathing scenarios were investigated to further support the feasibility of Doppler radar to accurately estimate the tidal volume. The results obtained for both experiments were compared with the gold standard measurement schemes, such as respiration belt and spirometry readings, yielding significant correlations with the Doppler radar-based information. In summary, Doppler radar is highlighted as an alternative approach not only for determining respiration rates, but also for identifying breathing patterns and tidal volumes as a preferred nonwearable alternative to the conventional

  15. Monitoring and Analysis of Respiratory Patterns Using Microwave Doppler Radar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Siong; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Steinfort, Christopher Louis; Caelli, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Noncontact detection characteristic of Doppler radar provides an unobtrusive means of respiration detection and monitoring. This avoids additional preparations, such as physical sensor attachment or special clothing, which can be useful for certain healthcare applications. Furthermore, robustness of Doppler radar against environmental factors, such as light, ambient temperature, interference from other signals occupying the same bandwidth, fading effects, reduce environmental constraints and strengthens the possibility of employing Doppler radar in long-term respiration detection, and monitoring applications such as sleep studies. This paper presents an evaluation in the of use of microwave Doppler radar for capturing different dynamics of breathing patterns in addition to the respiration rate. Although finding the respiration rate is essential, identifying abnormal breathing patterns in real-time could be used to gain further insights into respiratory disorders and refine diagnostic procedures. Several known breathing disorders were professionally role played and captured in a real-time laboratory environment using a noncontact Doppler radar to evaluate the feasibility of this noncontact form of measurement in capturing breathing patterns under different conditions associated with certain breathing disorders. In addition to that, inhalation and exhalation flow patterns under different breathing scenarios were investigated to further support the feasibility of Doppler radar to accurately estimate the tidal volume. The results obtained for both experiments were compared with the gold standard measurement schemes, such as respiration belt and spirometry readings, yielding significant correlations with the Doppler radar-based information. In summary, Doppler radar is highlighted as an alternative approach not only for determining respiration rates, but also for identifying breathing patterns and tidal volumes as a preferred nonwearable alternative to the conventional

  16. Monitoring and Analysis of Respiratory Patterns Using Microwave Doppler Radar

    PubMed Central

    Pathirana, Pubudu N.; Steinfort, Christopher Louis; Caelli, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Noncontact detection characteristic of Doppler radar provides an unobtrusive means of respiration detection and monitoring. This avoids additional preparations, such as physical sensor attachment or special clothing, which can be useful for certain healthcare applications. Furthermore, robustness of Doppler radar against environmental factors, such as light, ambient temperature, interference from other signals occupying the same bandwidth, fading effects, reduce environmental constraints and strengthens the possibility of employing Doppler radar in long-term respiration detection, and monitoring applications such as sleep studies. This paper presents an evaluation in the of use of microwave Doppler radar for capturing different dynamics of breathing patterns in addition to the respiration rate. Although finding the respiration rate is essential, identifying abnormal breathing patterns in real-time could be used to gain further insights into respiratory disorders and refine diagnostic procedures. Several known breathing disorders were professionally role played and captured in a real-time laboratory environment using a noncontact Doppler radar to evaluate the feasibility of this noncontact form of measurement in capturing breathing patterns under different conditions associated with certain breathing disorders. In addition to that, inhalation and exhalation flow patterns under different breathing scenarios were investigated to further support the feasibility of Doppler radar to accurately estimate the tidal volume. The results obtained for both experiments were compared with the gold standard measurement schemes, such as respiration belt and spirometry readings, yielding significant correlations with the Doppler radar-based information. In summary, Doppler radar is highlighted as an alternative approach not only for determining respiration rates, but also for identifying breathing patterns and tidal volumes as a preferred nonwearable alternative to the conventional

  17. A 50 MHz System for GMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udaya Shankar, N.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Amiri, S.; Somashekar, R.; Girish, B. S.; Laus, W.; Nayak, A.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a 50~MHz system being developed for GMRT to provide imaging capability in the frequency range 30-90~MHz. Due to its larger collecting area and higher antenna efficiency, the low-frequency GMRT system will be several times more sensitive than the present 74~MHz VLA system and is likely to remain a competitive instrument in this frequency band. In the first phase of this project, receiver systems consisting of V-dipole feeds and front-ends have been installed on four of the thirty GMRT antennas. Test observations were carried out on a number of bright 3CR sources. The initial results are encouraging. This paper will also describe results of simultaneous observations carried out using the existing GMRT correlator, the new GMRT software correlator and a system employing digitization and direct recording of signals at two antenna bases.

  18. Micro-Doppler processing for ultra-wideband radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme E.; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe an operational pulse Doppler radar imaging system for indoor target localization and classification, and show how a target's micro-Doppler signature (μDS) can be processed when ultra-wideband (UWB) waveforms are employed. Unlike narrowband radars where time-frequency signal representations can be applied to reveal the target time-Doppler frequency signatures, the UWB system permits joint range-time-frequency representation (JRTFR). JRTFR outputs the data in a 3D domain representing range, frequency, and time, allowing both the μDS and high range resolution (HRR) signatures to be observed. We delineate the relationship between the μDS and the HRR signature, showing how they would form a complimentary joint feature for classification. We use real-data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the UWB pulse-Doppler radar, combined with nonstationary signal analyses, in gaining valuable insights into human positioning and motions.

  19. Spaceborne Doppler Precipitation Radar: System Configurations and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the global distribution of the vertical velocity of precipitation is important in in the study of energy transportation in the atmosphere, the climate and weather. Such knowledge can only be directly acquired with the use of spaceborne Doppler precipitation radars. Although the high relative speed of the radar with respect to the rainfall particles introduces significant broadening in the Doppler spectrum, recent studies have shown that the average vertical velocity can be measured to acceptable accuracy levels by appropriate selection of radar parameters. Furthermore, methods to correct for specific errors arising from NUBF effects and pointing uncertainties have recently been developed. In this paper we will present the results of the trade studies on the performances of a spaceborne Doppler radar with different system parameters configurations.

  20. Monitoring variations of biological impedances using microwave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Thansandote, A; Stuchly, S S; Smith, A M

    1983-08-01

    A microwave Doppler radar for continuously monitoring time-varying biological impedances is described. The radar compares the phase of the signal scattered from a region of biological tissue with that of the transmitted signal. The phase changes of the scattered signal are an indication of the net impedance changes within the test region due to various physiological processes, for example, the displacements of blood vessels during the cardiac cycle. A Doppler radar, equipped with a matched antenna, was tested with a simulation model and its detection characteristic was found to be a sinusoidal function of the antenna-object spacing. Tests with healthy human subjects were also performed at 3 GHz and 10.5 GHz. It was found that the 3 GHz Doppler radar has significantly greater penetration in tissues but is less sensitive to changes of the biological impedance than the 10.5 GHz system.

  1. Performance assessment techniques for Doppler radar physiological sensors.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for assessing the performance of continuous wave Doppler radar systems for physiological sensing. The technique includes an artificial target for testing physiological sensing radar systems with motion analogous to human heart movement and software algorithms leveraging the capabilities of this target to simply test radar system performance. The mechanical target provides simple to complex patterns of motion that are stable and repeatable. Details of radar system performance can be assessed and the effects of configuration changes that might not appear with a human target can be observed when using this mechanical target.

  2. Feasibility assessment of Doppler radar long-term physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the feasibility of applying doppler radar technique for a long-term health monitoring. Doppler radar was used to detect and eliminate periods of significant motion. This technique was verified using a human study on 17 subjects, and it was determined that for 15 out of 17 subjects there was no significant motion for over 85% of the measurement interval in supine positions. Majority of subjects exhibited significantly less motion in supine position, which is promising for sleep monitoring, and monitoring of hospitalized patients. PMID:22254615

  3. Feasibility assessment of Doppler radar long-term physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the feasibility of applying doppler radar technique for a long-term health monitoring. Doppler radar was used to detect and eliminate periods of significant motion. This technique was verified using a human study on 17 subjects, and it was determined that for 15 out of 17 subjects there was no significant motion for over 85% of the measurement interval in supine positions. Majority of subjects exhibited significantly less motion in supine position, which is promising for sleep monitoring, and monitoring of hospitalized patients.

  4. System-on-chip based Doppler radar occupancy sensor.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Ehsan; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    System-on-Chip (SoC) based Doppler radar occupancy sensor is developed through non contact detection of respiratory signals. The radio was developed using off the shelf low power RF CC2530 SoC chip by Texas Instruments. In order to save power, the transmitter sends signal intermittently at 2.405 GHz. Reflected pulses are demodulated, and the baseband signals are processed to recover periodic motion. The system was tested both with mechanical target and a human subject. In both cases Doppler radar detected periodic motion closely matched the actual motion, and it has been shown that an SoC based system can be used for subject detection.

  5. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector.

  6. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector. PMID:25376033

  7. Imaging, Doppler, and spectroscopic radars from 95 to 700 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Ken B.

    2016-05-01

    Imaging, Doppler, and spectroscopic radars from 95 to 700 GHz, all using the frequency-modulated continuous-wave technique, are in various stages of development for both defense and science applications at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For standoff security screening, a 340 GHz imaging radar now achieves an 8.3 Hz frame, and it has been tested using power-efficient MMIC-based active multiplier sources into its front end. That system evolved from a 680 GHz security radar platform, which has also been modified to operate in a Doppler mode for probing the dynamics of blowing sand and sensing small-amplitude target vibrations. Meanwhile, 95 and 183 GHz radars based on similar RF architectures are currently being developed to probe cometary jets in space and, using a differential absorption technique, humidity inside upper-tropospheric clouds.

  8. Measurement of vertical velocity using clear-air Doppler radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.; Green, J. L.; Nastrom, G. D.; Gage, K. S.; Clark, W. L.; Warnock, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    A new clear air Doppler radar was constructed, called the Flatland radar, in very flat terrain near Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. The radar wavelength is 6.02 m. The radar has been measuring vertical velocity every 153 s with a range resolution of 750 m almost continuously since March 2, 1987. The variance of vertical velocity at Flatland is usually quite small, comparable to the variance at radars located near rough terrain during periods of small background wind. The absence of orographic effects over very flat terrain suggests that clear air Doppler radars can be used to study vertical velocities due to other processes, including synoptic scale motions and propagating gravity waves. For example, near rough terrain the shape of frequency spectra changes drastically as the background wind increases. But at Flatland the shape at periods shorter than a few hours changes only slowly, consistent with the changes predicted by Doppler shifting of gravity wave spectra. Thus it appears that the short period fluctuations of vertical velocity at Flatland are alsmost entirely due to the propagating gravity waves.

  9. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  10. Quality Control Algorithms for the Kennedy Space Center 50-Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Winds Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the process used by the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) to quality control (QC) data from the Kennedy Space Center's 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler for use in vehicle wind loads and steering commands. The database has been built to mitigate limitations of using the currently archived databases from weather balloons. The DRWP database contains wind measurements from approximately 2.7-18.6 km altitude at roughly five minute intervals for the August 1997 to December 2009 period of record, and the extensive QC process was designed to remove spurious data from various forms of atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts. The QC process is largely based on DRWP literature, but two new algorithms have been developed to remove data contaminated by convection and excessive first guess propagations from the Median Filter First Guess Algorithm. In addition to describing the automated and manual QC process in detail, this paper describes the extent of the data retained. Roughly 58% of all possible wind observations exist in the database, with approximately 100 times as many complete profile sets existing relative to the EV44 balloon databases. This increased sample of near-continuous wind profile measurements may help increase launch availability by reducing the uncertainty of wind changes during launch countdown

  11. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of space vehicle loads and trajectories during design requires a large sample of wind profiles at the altitudes where winds affect the vehicle. Traditionally, this altitude region extends from near 8-14 km to address maximum dynamic pressure upon ascent into space, but some applications require knowledge of measured wind profiles at lower altitudes. Such applications include crew capsule pad abort and plume damage analyses. Two Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) systems exist at the United States Air Force (USAF) Eastern Range and at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center. The 50-MHz DRWP provides wind profiles every 3-5 minutes from roughly 2.5-18.5 km, and five 915-MHz DRWPs provide wind profiles every 15 minutes from approximately 0.2-3.0 km. Archived wind profiles from all systems underwent rigorous quality control (QC) processes, and concurrent measurements from the QC'ed 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives were spliced into individual profiles that extend from about 0.2-18.5 km. The archive contains combined profiles from April 2000 to December 2009, and thousands of profiles during each month are available for use by the launch vehicle community. This paper presents the details of the QC and splice methodology, as well as some attributes of the archive.

  12. A bistatic pulse-Doppler intruder-detection radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. C.; Callahan, M. W.

    The U.S. Air Force's Aircraft Security Radar (ASR) is a small pulse-Doppler radar designed to detect intruders on the ground near parked aircraft, with a moving target detection effectiveness that encompasses high speed vehicles and intruders moving at as little as 2 cm/sec. The ASR is comparatively insensitive to weather, and will be affected only by severe wind and rain storms. Five ASRs are typically used around an aircraft, in order to reduce the area of coverage. Attention is given to the ASR's theory of operation, radar parameters, and both intruder and nuisance alarm test results.

  13. Extracting radar micro-Doppler signatures of helicopter rotating rotor blades using K-band radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rachel; Liu, Baokun

    2014-06-01

    Helicopter identification has been an attractive topic. In this paper, we applied radar micro-Doppler signatures to identify helicopter. For identifying the type of a helicopter, besides its shape and size, the number of blades, the length of the blade, and the rotation rate of the rotor are important features, which can be estimated from radar micro-Doppler signatures of the helicopter's rotating rotor blades. In our study, K-band CW/FMCW radars are used for collecting returned signals from helicopters. By analyzing radar micro-Doppler signatures, we can estimate the number of blades, the length of the blade, the angular rotation rate of the rotating blade, and other necessary parameters for identifying the type of a helicopter.

  14. Doppler radar velocity measurements for wound ballistics experiments.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Svender, J

    1994-01-01

    Bullet velocity is a basic parameter in wound ballistics studies. It is usually measured electronically by means of a variety of solid or photoelectric barriers connected to equipment measuring the time elapsing between impulses, enabling the velocity to be calculated. With the advent of Doppler radar velocity measurement of large calibre artillery shells, the use of this equipment for wound ballistics experiments was investigated. Anaesthetized pigs were shot at a range of 9-10 metres and the velocities measured by Doppler radar and photocells were compared. A very good correspondence between the measured entry and exit velocities in low and medium velocity bullets was found, i.e. an average deviation of less than 1% (range 0-2%) between the two types of equipment. In high velocity bullets measurement of entry velocities was just as good, but in both methods measurement of the exit velocity was complicated by the cluttering of signals by fragments of tissue released from the exit wound and the deflection of the bullet, Doppler radar offers important benefits - simple set up, minimal risk of damage of equipment by stray bullets and very good accuracy - and may replace photocells and similar equipment in studies involving low and medium velocity bullets. Measurement of the exit velocity of high velocity bullets is unsatisfactory in both methods, and it is necessary to improve the Doppler radar method in order to measure that as well.

  15. Reducing Spaceborne-Doppler-Radar Rainfall-Velocity Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    A combined frequency-time (CFT) spectral moment estimation technique has been devised for calculating rainfall velocity from measurement data acquired by a nadir-looking spaceborne Doppler weather radar system. Prior spectral moment estimation techniques used for this purpose are based partly on the assumption that the radar resolution volume is uniformly filled with rainfall. The assumption is unrealistic in general but introduces negligible error in application to airborne radar systems. However, for spaceborne systems, the combination of this assumption and inhomogeneities in rainfall [denoted non-uniform beam filling (NUBF)] can result in velocity measurement errors of several meters per second. The present CFT spectral moment estimation technique includes coherent processing of a series of Doppler spectra generated in a standard manner from data over measurement volumes that are partially overlapping in the along-track direction. Performance simulation of this technique using high-resolution data from an airborne rain-mapping radar shows that a spaceborne Ku-band Doppler radar operating at signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 dB can achieve root-mean-square accuracy between 0.5 and 0.6 m/s in vertical-velocity estimates.

  16. Ballistics and ash plumes discriminated by Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Sébastien; Donnadieu, Franck

    2011-11-01

    Small scale eruptive ash plumes at Arenal volcano (Costa Rica) were recorded using a ground-based Doppler radar (VOLDORAD). The time-velocity distribution of the mass load (i.e., Doppler radargrams) exhibits two contrasted dynamics recorded simultaneously, evidenced by distinctive velocities, life spans, and transit speeds through the radar beam. Synthetic Doppler radargrams computed with a simple ballistic model indicate that the short-lived signal is consistent with the instantaneous projection of ballistics blocks accompanying the ash plume emission. The mass of centimeter- to decimeter-sized ballistics is confidently estimated at 0.5-7 tons, whereas the ash plume mass is loosely constrained at 5.8 × 102 tons, assuming a particle diameter of 2 mm close to the vent. These quantitative estimates of the mass proportion either falling on the slopes of the volcano or ejected into the atmosphere could help in the modeling and monitoring of tephra dispersal.

  17. Doppler radar echoes of lightning and precipitation at vertical incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zrnic, D. S.; Rust, W. D.; Taylor, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Digital time series data at 16 heights within two storms were collected at vertical incidence with a 10-cm Doppler radar. On several occasions during data collection, lightning echoes were observed as increased reflectivity on an oscilloscope display. Simultaneously, lightning signals from nearby electric field change antennas were recorded on an analog recorder together with the radar echoes. Reflectivity, mean velocity, and Doppler spectra were examined by means of time series analysis for times during and after lightning discharges. Spectra from locations where lightning occurred show peaks, due to the motion of the lightning channel at the air speed. These peaks are considerably narrower than the ones due to precipitation. Besides indicating the vertical air velocity that can then be used to estimate hydrometeor-size distribution, the lightning spectra provide a convenient means to estimate the radar cross section of the channel. Subsequent to one discharge, we deduce that a rapid change in the orientation of hydrometeors occurred within the resolution volume.

  18. Doppler radar sensing of fish physiological motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Noah

    The monitoring vital of signs for fish is critical for advancing the study of trophic and energetic strategies, distributions and behavior, environmental impact, and aquaculture approaches. Presented here is a new approach for monitoring fish metabolic state without the trauma and stress associated with capture, surgical ECG, or other implanted sensing systems. Original research contributions include analysis for radar operation under water, development of radar systems for aquatic operation, and application of these systems to non invasively sense the heart and gill motion of fish. Tilapia and Sturgeon were studied to test the efficacy across varied fish body shapes and sizes, ranging from 0.1 to 1.3m in snout to tail length. Monitoring experiments were conducted with eleven tilapia and three sturgeons to assess activity level participated in these experiments, the results from which include activity level monitoring (tilapia: still or fidgeting 94% of time observed), ventilation rate (tilapia: 42 bpm, sturgeon: 145 bpm), and heart rate (tilapia: 41 bpm, sturgeon: 35 bpm). Bland-Altman analysis of radar and ECG measured heart rate indicate agreement between the two measurement techniques and the suitability of radar as an alternative to ECG. The initial steps for developing a system for practical application is also presented including designs for radar system miniaturization and discussion on further characterization steps with less constrained environments.

  19. Description and availability of airborne Doppler radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrah, S. D.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schaffner, P. R.; Baxa, E. G.

    1993-01-01

    An airborne, forward-looking, pulse, Doppler radar has been developed in conjunction with the joint FAA/NASA Wind Shear Program. This radar represents a first in an emerging technology. The radar was developed to assess the applicability of an airborne radar to detect low altitude hazardous wind shears for civil aviation applications. Such a radar must be capable of looking down into the ground clutter environment and extracting wind estimates from relatively low reflectivity weather targets. These weather targets often have reflectivities several orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding ground clutter. The NASA radar design incorporates numerous technological and engineering achievements in order to accomplish this task. The basic R/T unit evolved from a standard Collins 708 weather radar, which supports specific pulse widths of 1-7 microns and Pulse Repetition Frequencies (PRF) of less than 1-10 kHz. It was modified to allow for the output of the first IF signal, which fed a NASA developed receiver/detector subsystem. The NASA receiver incorporated a distributed, high-speed digital attenuator, producing a range bin to range bin automatic gain control system with 65 dB of dynamic range. Using group speed information supplied by the aircraft's navigation system, the radar signal is frequency demodulated back to base band (zero Doppler relative to stationary ground). The In-phase & Quadrature-phase (I/Q) components of the measured voltage signal are then digitized by a 12-bit A-D converter (producing an additional 36 dB of dynamic range). The raw I/Q signal for each range bin is then recorded (along with the current radar & aircraft state parameters) by a high-speed Kodak tape recorder.

  20. New technology in wound ballistics: the Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Svender, J; Sørensen, O H

    1996-03-01

    The feasibility of using Doppler radar to obtain more accurate measurements of velocity and yaw angle of bullets was investigated. Anesthetized pigs were shot at a range of 9-10 meters, and velocity measurements were obtained using Doppler radar and photocells. The data from the two types of equipment was compared. Excellent correspondence was found between the measurements of entry velocities of low, medium, and high velocity bullets, i.e., an average deviation of less than 1% (range 0-2%). Measurements of exit velocities of low and medium velocity bullets corresponded just as well, but measurements of exit velocities of high velocity bullets was complicated in both methods by signal cluttering caused by fragments of tissue released from the exit wound and by the deflection of the bullet. A Doppler radar was used to follow the movements of the bullet, to determine the velocity, and, if possible, to determine when the bullet stabilizes and the exact yaw angles continuously. We were able to design a system in which even small caliber bullets could be followed for 15-20 meters. It was possible to detect yaw even with these small calibers, and the radar was not disturbed by additional equipment. Using Doppler radar to measure velocity offers important benefits--simple set up, minimal risk of damage to equipment by stray bullets, and very good accuracy. The results of measuring yaw angles of bullets are promising, as far as determining the point of stability is concerned, but further work is necessary to be able to measure the angle of yaw exactly.

  1. Coupling Between Doppler Radar Signatures and Tornado Damage Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carey, Lawrence; Carcione, Brian; Smith, Matthew; Schultz, Elise V.; Schultz, Christopher; Lafontaine, Frank

    2011-01-01

    On April 27, 2011, the southeastern United States was raked with several episodes of severe weather. Numerous tornadoes caused extensive damage, and tragically, the deaths of over 300 people. In Alabama alone, there were 61 confirmed tornados, 4 of them produced EF5 damage, and several were on the ground an hour or more with continuous damage tracks exceeding 80km. The use of Doppler radars covering the region provided reflectivity and velocity signatures that allowed forecasters to monitors the severe storms from beginning to end issuing hundreds of severe weather warnings throughout the day. Meteorologists from the the NWS performed extensive surveys to assess the intensity, duration, and ground track of tornadoes reported during the event. Survey activities included site visits to the affected locations, analysis of radar and satellite data, aerial surveys, and interviews with eyewitnesses. Satellite data from NASA's MODIS and ASTER instruments played a helpful role in determining the location of tornado damage paths and in the assessment. High resolution multispectral and temporal composites helped forecasters corroborate their damage assessments, determine starting and ending points for tornado touchdowns, and helped to provide forecasters with a better big-picture view of the damage region. The imagery also helped to separate damage from the April 27th tornados from severe weather that occurred earlier that month. In a post analysis of the outbreak, tornado damage path signatures observed in the NASA satellite data have been correlated to "debris ball" signatures in the NWS Doppler radars and a special ARMOR dual-polarization radar operated by the University of Alabama Huntsville during the event. The Doppler radar data indicates a circular enhanced reflectivity signal and rotational couplet in the radial velocity likely associated with the tornado that is spatially correlated with the damage tracks in the observed satellite data. An algorithm to detect and

  2. Target motion detecting impulse Doppler radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehle, Robert E.; Hudson, David F.

    1992-03-01

    Radiant energy intermittently emitted from a transmitter is reflected as echo pulses from a moving target being interrogated to produce Doppler signals by counting of photons of the echo pulses during time domain intervals between emission from the transmitter. Such counting of photons is limited to the time domain intervals by operational control of a laser pump through which a reference beam is generated at an energy level activating detectors irradiated by such beam to count the photons absorbed therein after capture of the photons by a receiving antenna.

  3. Target motion detecting impulse Doppler radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehle, Robert E.; Hudson, David F.

    1993-06-01

    Radiant energy intermittently emitted from a transmitter is reflected as echo pulses from a moving target being interrogated to produce Doppler signals by counting of photons of the echo pulses during time domain intervals between emission from the transmitter. Such counting of photons is limited to the time domain intervals by operational control of a laser pump through which a reference beam is generated at an energy level activating detectors irradiated by such beam to count the photons absorbed therein after capture or the photons by a receiving antenna.

  4. System-on-chip based Doppler radar occupancy sensor.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Ehsan; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    System-on-Chip (SoC) based Doppler radar occupancy sensor is developed through non contact detection of respiratory signals. The radio was developed using off the shelf low power RF CC2530 SoC chip by Texas Instruments. In order to save power, the transmitter sends signal intermittently at 2.405 GHz. Reflected pulses are demodulated, and the baseband signals are processed to recover periodic motion. The system was tested both with mechanical target and a human subject. In both cases Doppler radar detected periodic motion closely matched the actual motion, and it has been shown that an SoC based system can be used for subject detection. PMID:22254705

  5. Novel Doppler laser radar for diagnostics in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Madhavan; Slotwinski, Anthony

    2004-10-01

    We describe the development of a novel Doppler laser radar (DOLAR) for remote measurement of flow velocity (0-10 m/s) and film thickness of liquid metal walls, currently being studied for their superior heat handling and self-healing characteristics. Small fluctuations in flow velocity({approx}mm/s) and flow thickness ({approx}50 {mu}m) that may arise during plasma discharges can also be measured. The DOLAR is also designed for non intrusive mapping of features of plasma-facing solid surfaces with very high precision ({approx}50 {mu}m). It can also measure the motion of structural components of a fusion reactor during plasma discharges and during plasma disruptions. The device utilizes frequency modulation laser radar principles for precision range measurements. Compensation of Doppler frequency shift is used to measure flow velocity. The DOLAR probe head is designed with acousto-optic and piezoelectric devices for operation in the harsh fusion environment.

  6. A preliminary investigation of bird classification by Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the application of Doppler radar to the classification of birds is reported. The desirability for improvements in bird classification stems primarily from the hazards they present to jet aircraft in flight and in the vicinity of airports. A secondary need exists in the study of bird migration. The wing body and tail motion of a bird in flight reflect signals which, when analyzed properly present a signature of wing beat pattern which is unique for each bird species. Although the results of this investigation did not validate the feasibility of classifying bird species, they do indicate that a more thorough investigation is warranted. Certain gross characteristics such as wing beat rates, multiple bird patterns, and bird maneuverability, were indicated clearly in the results. Large birds with slow wing beat rates appear to be the most optimum subject for further study with the X-band Doppler radar used in this investigation.

  7. Doppler radar sensor positioning in a fall detection system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Ho, K C; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Falling is a common health problem for more than a third of the United States population over 65. We are currently developing a Doppler radar based fall detection system that already has showed promising results. In this paper, we study the sensor positioning in the environment with respect to the subject. We investigate three sensor positions, floor, wall and ceiling of the room, in two experimental configurations. Within each system configuration, subjects performed falls towards or across the radar sensors. We collected 90 falls and 341 non falls for the first configuration and 126 falls and 817 non falls for the second one. Radar signature classification was performed using a SVM classifier. Fall detection performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for each sensor deployment. We found that a fall is more likely to be detected if the subject is falling toward or away from the sensor and a ceiling Doppler radar is more reliable for fall detection than a wall mounted one.

  8. Doppler radar sensor positioning in a fall detection system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Ho, K C; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Falling is a common health problem for more than a third of the United States population over 65. We are currently developing a Doppler radar based fall detection system that already has showed promising results. In this paper, we study the sensor positioning in the environment with respect to the subject. We investigate three sensor positions, floor, wall and ceiling of the room, in two experimental configurations. Within each system configuration, subjects performed falls towards or across the radar sensors. We collected 90 falls and 341 non falls for the first configuration and 126 falls and 817 non falls for the second one. Radar signature classification was performed using a SVM classifier. Fall detection performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for each sensor deployment. We found that a fall is more likely to be detected if the subject is falling toward or away from the sensor and a ceiling Doppler radar is more reliable for fall detection than a wall mounted one. PMID:23365879

  9. Doppler effects on velocity spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, wind data from mesophere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars have been used to study the spectra of gravity waves in the atmosphere (Scheffler and Liu, 1985; VanZandt et al., 1985). Since MST radar measures the line-of-sight Doppler velocities, it senses the components of the wave-associated velocities along its beam directions. These components are related through the polarization relations which depend on the frequency and wave number of the wave. Therfore, the radar-observed velocity spectrum will be different from the original gravity-wave spectrum. Their relationship depends on the frequency and wave number of the wave as well as the propagation geometry. This relation can be used to interpret the observed data. It can also be used to test the assumption of gravity-wave spectrum (Scheffler and Liu, 1985). In deriving this relation, the background atmosphere has been assumed to be motionless. Obviously, the Doppler shift due to the background wind will change the shape of the gravity-wave power spectrum as well as its relation with the radar-observed spectrum. Here, researcher's investigate these changes.

  10. Data acquisition system for Doppler radar vital-sign monitor.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander M; Lubecke, Victor M

    2007-01-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) units increase the dynamic range of a system to compensate for the limited dynamic range of analog to digital converters. This problem is compounded in wireless systems in which large changes in signal strength are effects of a changing environment. These issues are evident in the direct-conversion Doppler radar vital-sign monitor. Utilizing microwave radar signals reflecting off a human subject, a two-channel quadrature receiver can detect periodic movement resulting from cardio-pulmonary activity. The quadrature signal is analyzed using an arctangent demodulation that extracts vital phase information. A data acquisition (DAQ) system is proposed to deal with issues inherent in arctangent demodulation of a quadrature radar signal.

  11. A dual frequency 10 cm Doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, K. M.; Armstrong, G. M.; Bishop, A. W.; Banis, K. J.

    A summary is given of the design concepts underlying a new 10-cm band dual frequency Doppler weather radar under development at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Primary emphasis in the design is placed on the system performance in a clutter environment, and the technique used to extend the radar's unambiguous range and velocity span is an important, but secondary, consideration. The design includes the use of fault tolerance and/or fault location methods at critical locations in the system and automated calibration techniques for quasi-continuous monitoring of system performance. The approach followed for minimizing range and velocity ambiguities used in this radar is a uniform pulse train version of the Doviak et al. (1978) dual sampling (batch) technique.

  12. Doppler capable FMCW cloud detection radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, Salih; Ćelik, Mert; Yilmaz, Ali Özgur; Koç, Sencer

    2015-10-01

    This study which was conducted as a Master's thesis, is a radar system working at X band. In this system, a 0.8 Watts continuous electromagnetic wave which is modulated with a frequency ramp of 30 MHz bandwidth is generated and radiated through transmit antenna. The scattered signal from the hydrometeors is multiplied with the transmitted one and the beat signal is obtained. By this deramping process the range information of the target is converted into frequency domain. Data is processed in Matlab after passing through analog to digital converters. The range and velocity information is obtained with signal processing algorithms in fast and slow time. Some special techniques such as clipping, windowing, coherent data integration, and slow time signal processing are performed to the captured beat signal. Verification of the system is performed by buildings and cars whose range and velocities are known. The range of cloud and the speed of wind are estimated by processing the return signal in fast and slow time.

  13. Separation of Doppler radar-based respiratory signatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Siong; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Evans, Robin J; Steinfort, Christopher L

    2016-08-01

    Respiration detection using microwave Doppler radar has attracted significant interest primarily due to its unobtrusive form of measurement. With less preparation in comparison with attaching physical sensors on the body or wearing special clothing, Doppler radar for respiration detection and monitoring is particularly useful for long-term monitoring applications such as sleep studies (i.e. sleep apnoea, SIDS). However, motion artefacts and interference from multiple sources limit the widespread use and the scope of potential applications of this technique. Utilising the recent advances in independent component analysis (ICA) and multiple antenna configuration schemes, this work investigates the feasibility of decomposing respiratory signatures into each subject from the Doppler-based measurements. Experimental results demonstrated that FastICA is capable of separating two distinct respiratory signatures from two subjects adjacent to each other even in the presence of apnoea. In each test scenario, the separated respiratory patterns correlate closely to the reference respiration strap readings. The effectiveness of FastICA in dealing with the mixed Doppler radar respiration signals confirms its applicability in healthcare applications, especially in long-term home-based monitoring as it usually involves at least two people in the same environment (i.e. two people sleeping next to each other). Further, the use of FastICA to separate involuntary movements such as the arm swing from the respiratory signatures of a single subject was explored in a multiple antenna environment. The separated respiratory signal indeed demonstrated a high correlation with the measurements made by a respiratory strap used currently in clinical settings. PMID:26358241

  14. Separation of Doppler radar-based respiratory signatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Siong; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Evans, Robin J; Steinfort, Christopher L

    2016-08-01

    Respiration detection using microwave Doppler radar has attracted significant interest primarily due to its unobtrusive form of measurement. With less preparation in comparison with attaching physical sensors on the body or wearing special clothing, Doppler radar for respiration detection and monitoring is particularly useful for long-term monitoring applications such as sleep studies (i.e. sleep apnoea, SIDS). However, motion artefacts and interference from multiple sources limit the widespread use and the scope of potential applications of this technique. Utilising the recent advances in independent component analysis (ICA) and multiple antenna configuration schemes, this work investigates the feasibility of decomposing respiratory signatures into each subject from the Doppler-based measurements. Experimental results demonstrated that FastICA is capable of separating two distinct respiratory signatures from two subjects adjacent to each other even in the presence of apnoea. In each test scenario, the separated respiratory patterns correlate closely to the reference respiration strap readings. The effectiveness of FastICA in dealing with the mixed Doppler radar respiration signals confirms its applicability in healthcare applications, especially in long-term home-based monitoring as it usually involves at least two people in the same environment (i.e. two people sleeping next to each other). Further, the use of FastICA to separate involuntary movements such as the arm swing from the respiratory signatures of a single subject was explored in a multiple antenna environment. The separated respiratory signal indeed demonstrated a high correlation with the measurements made by a respiratory strap used currently in clinical settings.

  15. Quality-Controlled Wind Data from the Kennedy Space Center 915 Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has installed a five-instrument 915-Megahertz (MHz) Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) system that records atmospheric wind profile properties. The purpose of these profilers is to fill data gaps between the top of the KSC wind tower network and the lowest measurement altitude of the KSC 50-MHz DRWP. The 915-MHz DRWP system has the capability to generate three-dimensional wind data outputs from approximately 150 meters (m) to 6,000 m at roughly 15-minute (min) intervals. NASA s long-term objective is to combine the 915-MHz and 50-MHz DRWP systems to create complete vertical wind profiles up to 18,300 m to be used in trajectory and loads analyses of space vehicles and by forecasters on day-of-launch (DOL). This analysis utilizes automated and manual quality control (QC) processes to remove erroneous and unrealistic wind data returned by the 915-MHz DRWP system. The percentage of data affected by each individual QC check in the period of record (POR) (i.e., January to April 2006) was computed, demonstrating the variability in the amount of data affected by the QC processes. The number of complete wind profiles available at given altitude thresholds for each profiler in the POR was calculated and outputted graphically, followed by an assessment of the number of complete wind profiles available for any profiler in the POR. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the QC process on a day of a known weather event.

  16. Developments in target micro-Doppler signatures analysis: radar imaging, ultrasound and through-the-wall radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Carmine; Balleri, Alessio; Woodbridge, Karl; Soraghan, John J.

    2013-12-01

    Target motions, other than the main bulk translation of the target, induce Doppler modulations around the main Doppler shift that form what is commonly called a target micro-Doppler signature. Radar micro-Doppler signatures are generally both target and action specific and hence can be used to classify and recognise targets as well as to identify possible threats. In recent years, research into the use of micro-Doppler signatures for target classification to address many defence and security challenges has been of increasing interest. In this article, we present a review of the work published in the last 10 years on emerging applications of radar target analysis using micro-Doppler signatures. Specifically we review micro-Doppler target signatures in bistatic SAR and ISAR, through-the-wall radar and ultrasound radar. This article has been compiled to provide radar practitioners with a unique reference source covering the latest developments in micro-Doppler analysis, extraction and mitigation techniques. The article shows that this research area is highly active and fast moving and demonstrates that micro-Doppler techniques can provide important solutions to many radar target classification challenges.

  17. Validation of a radar doppler spectra simulator using measurements from the ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect

    Remillard, J.; Luke, E.; Kollias, P.

    2010-03-15

    The use of forward models as an alternative approach to compare models with observations contains advantages and challenges. Radar Doppler spectra simulators are not new; their application in high- resolution models with bin microphysics schemes could help to compare model output with the Doppler spectra recorded from the vertically pointing cloud radars at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites. The input parameters to a Doppler spectra simulator are both microphysical (e.g., particle size, shape, phase, and number concentration) and dynamical (e.g., resolved wind components and sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy). Libraries for spherical and non-spherical particles are then used to compute the backscattering cross-section and fall velocities, while the turbulence is parameterized as a Gaussian function with a prescribed width. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is used to determine the amount of noise added throughout the spectrum, and the spectral smoothing due to spectral averages is included to reproduce the averaging realized by cloud radars on successive returns. Thus, realistic Doppler spectra are obtained, and several parameters that relate to the morphological characteristics of the synthetically generated spectra are computed. Here, the results are compared to the new ARM microARSCL data products in an attempt to validate the simulator. Drizzling data obtained at the SGP site by the MMCR and the AMF site at Azores using the WACR are used to ensure the liquid part and the turbulence representation part of the simulator are properly accounted in the forward model.

  18. Delay/Doppler Radar Altimetry for Outer Planet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. R.; Raney, R. K.

    2001-01-01

    New concepts, which improve the design and performance of spaceborne radar altimeters for remote sensing of the Earth, can be applied to the mapping of extraterrestrial bodies. An inherent advantage of a radar altimeter is that it is capable of application where the atmosphere of the body being observed is opaque to micron-scale wavelengths. Furthermore, radar altimeters are typically pulse-limited, so the measurement area is determined by the intersection of the transmitted pulse with the surface. This limits the sensitivity of the altitude measurement to the spacecraft attitude knowledge. The recently developed and demonstrated delay/Doppler concept combines these advantages with a reduction in the size of the altimeter through more efficient use of the backscattered power and improvement in the along-track spatial resolution. The delay/Doppler altimeter was originally proposed because of its many advantages in Earth altimetry (open water, sea ice, continental ice sheets, etc.), but the basic concept has wide application, including subsurface sounding as well as altimetry. This sounding application is being considered for the search for subsurface water on Mars and Europa. Altimetry is also a primary data set for geophysical studies (e.g., measurements of planetary tides, rotation state/libration) which provide fundamental constraints on origins and evolution, as well as geological processes (e.g., volcanic, tectonic) that affect topography. This instrument orbiting Europa or Triton can provide key measurements for the understanding of crustal tidal effects, which have implications for geologic processes that may contribute to resurfacing. A delay/Doppler altimeter can distinguish between diffuses and specular reflecting surfaces and therefore between solid and liquid surfaces which can be useful in determining the presence of methane ponds on Titan. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Using microwave Doppler radar in automated manufacturing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory C.

    Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, manufacturers worldwide have used automation to improve productivity, gain market share, and meet growing or changing consumer demand for manufactured products. To stimulate further industrial productivity, manufacturers need more advanced automation technologies: "smart" part handling systems, automated assembly machines, CNC machine tools, and industrial robots that use new sensor technologies, advanced control systems, and intelligent decision-making algorithms to "see," "hear," "feel," and "think" at the levels needed to handle complex manufacturing tasks without human intervention. The investigator's dissertation offers three methods that could help make "smart" CNC machine tools and industrial robots possible: (1) A method for detecting acoustic emission using a microwave Doppler radar detector, (2) A method for detecting tool wear on a CNC lathe using a Doppler radar detector, and (3) An online non-contact method for detecting industrial robot position errors using a microwave Doppler radar motion detector. The dissertation studies indicate that microwave Doppler radar could be quite useful in automated manufacturing applications. In particular, the methods developed may help solve two difficult problems that hinder further progress in automating manufacturing processes: (1) Automating metal-cutting operations on CNC machine tools by providing a reliable non-contact method for detecting tool wear, and (2) Fully automating robotic manufacturing tasks by providing a reliable low-cost non-contact method for detecting on-line position errors. In addition, the studies offer a general non-contact method for detecting acoustic emission that may be useful in many other manufacturing and non-manufacturing areas, as well (e.g., monitoring and nondestructively testing structures, materials, manufacturing processes, and devices). By advancing the state of the art in manufacturing automation, the studies may help

  20. DC information preservation for cardiopulmonary monitor utilizing CW Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander M; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor M

    2008-01-01

    Direct conversion RF receivers introduce large DC offsets, reducing the dynamic range of the baseband signal. Coupled with the relatively small time varying signals in human vital sign monitoring using CW Doppler radar, extraction of cardio-pulmonary information becomes difficult. Previous DC offset compensation techniques utilizing AC coupling have proven detrimental to the performance of the system and the integrity of the low-frequency cardiopulmonary signals. A proposed system utilizing digitally controlled voltage feedback and center finding preserves the important DC information for optimal extraction of phase information in the quadrature system.

  1. Severe thunderstorm internal structure from dual-Doppler radar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleman, J. R.; Lin, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Dual-Doppler radar data were analyzed for three different times during the life cycle of a severe thunderstorm. The thunderstorm developed a double vortex inside as a tornado was generated beneath the cloud. The organized kinematic and precipitation internal structure of the thunderstorm support a theoretical double-vortex thunderstorm model that was developed earlier. The horizontal perturbation and relative winds, vertical winds, horizontal divergence and vorticity are compared for the three different times of measurement. The measurements and theoretical model provide new explanations of the severe thunderstorm and the relationship of associated tornadoes.

  2. Non-contact displacement estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaomeng; Singh, Aditya; Yavari, Ehsan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Non-contact Doppler radar has been used extensively for detection of physiological motion. Most of the results published to date have been focused on estimation of the physiological rates, such as respiratory rate and heart rate, with CW and modulated waveforms in various settings. Accurate assessment of chest displacement may take this type of monitoring to the new level, by enabling the estimation of associated cardiopulmonary volumes, and possibly pulse pressure. To obtain absolute chest displacement with highest precision, full nonlinear phase demodulation of the quadrature radar outputs must be performed. The accuracy of this type of demodulation is limited by the drifting received RF power, varying dc offset, and channel quadrature imbalance. In this paper we demonstrate that if relatively large motion is used to calibrate the system, smaller motion displacement may be acquired with the accuracy on the order of 30 µm. PMID:23366212

  3. Algorithms for airborne Doppler radar wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillberg, Jeff; Pockrandt, Mitch; Symosek, Peter; Benser, Earl T.

    1992-01-01

    Honeywell has developed algorithms for the detection of wind shear/microburst using airborne Doppler radar. The Honeywell algorithms use three dimensional pattern recognition techniques and the selection of an associated scanning pattern forward of the aircraft. This 'volumetric scan' approach acquires reflectivity, velocity, and spectral width from a three dimensional volume as opposed to the conventional use of a two dimensional azimuthal slice of data at a fixed elevation. The algorithm approach is based on detection and classification of velocity patterns which are indicative of microburst phenomenon while minimizing the false alarms due to ground clutter return. Simulation studies of microburst phenomenon and x-band radar interaction with the microburst have been performed and results of that study are presented. Algorithm performance indetection of both 'wet' and 'dry' microbursts is presented.

  4. Non-contact displacement estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaomeng; Singh, Aditya; Yavari, Ehsan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Non-contact Doppler radar has been used extensively for detection of physiological motion. Most of the results published to date have been focused on estimation of the physiological rates, such as respiratory rate and heart rate, with CW and modulated waveforms in various settings. Accurate assessment of chest displacement may take this type of monitoring to the new level, by enabling the estimation of associated cardiopulmonary volumes, and possibly pulse pressure. To obtain absolute chest displacement with highest precision, full nonlinear phase demodulation of the quadrature radar outputs must be performed. The accuracy of this type of demodulation is limited by the drifting received RF power, varying dc offset, and channel quadrature imbalance. In this paper we demonstrate that if relatively large motion is used to calibrate the system, smaller motion displacement may be acquired with the accuracy on the order of 30 µm.

  5. Doppler frequency in interplanetary radar and general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvittie, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The change of frequency of an interplanetary radar signal sent from the earth to another planet or to a space probe is worked out according to general relativity. The Schwarzschild spacetime is employed and its null geodesics control the motion of the signals. Exact Doppler frequency formulas are derived for one-way and two-way radar in terms of an arbitrary Schwarzschild radial coordinate. A reduction to the special relativity case is used to interpret the formulas in terms of the relative radial velocity of emitter and target. The general relativity corrections are worked out approximately for each of three possible Schwarzschild radial coordinates, and a numerical example is given. The amount of the correction is different according as one or the other of the Schwarzschild coordinates is identified with the radius vector deduced from classical celestial mechanics. The identification problem is discussed.

  6. Smoke-Column Observations from Two Forest Fires Using Doppler Lidar and Doppler Radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, R. M.; Olivier, L. D.; Holloway, E. T.; Kropfli, R. A.; Bartram, B. W.; Cupp, R. E.; Post, M. J.

    1992-11-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of active remote-sensing systems in observing forest fire plume behavior, we studied two fires, one using a 3.2-cm-wavelength Doppler radar, and one more extensively, using Doppler lidar. Both instruments observed the kinematics of the convection column, including the presence of two different types of rotation in the columns, and monitored the behavior of the smoke plume.The first fire, a forest fire that burned out of control, was observed by the Doppler radar during late-morning and afternoon hours. Strong horizontal ambient winds produced a bent-over convection column, which the radar observed to have strong horizontal flow at its edges and weaker flow along the centerline of the plume. This velocity pattern implies that the column consisted of a pair of counterrotating horizontal vortices (rolls), with rising motion along the centerline and sinking along the edges. The radar tracked the smoke plume for over 30 km. It also provided circular depolarization ratio measurements, which gave information that the scattering particles were mostly flat or needle shaped as viewed by the radar, perhaps pine needles or possibly flat ash platelets being viewed edge on.The second fire, observed over a 5-h period by Doppler lidar, was a prescribed forest fire ignited in the afternoon. During the first hour of the fire the lidar observed many kinematic quantities of the convection column, including flow convergence and anticyclonic whole-column, rotation of the nearly vertical column, with a vorticity of approximately 102 s1 and an estimated peak vertical velocity w of 1 5 m s1. After the first hour ambient meteorological conditions changed, the whole-column rotation ceased, and the convection column and smoke plume bent over toward the lidar in stronger horizontal flow. At two times during this later stage, w was estimated to be 24 and 10 m s1. Lidar observations show that the smoke plume of this second fire initially went straight up in the

  7. A 10 cm dual frequency Doppler weather radar. Part 1: The radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, A. W.; Armstrong, G. M.

    1982-10-01

    Design concepts and test results are summarized for a Doppler weather radar system suitable for precipitation measurements over a wide span of radial velocities and slant ranges, even in the presence of ground clutter. The radar transmits two uniform pulse trains at 2.710 and 2.760 GHz. Uniformly spaced pulses permit ground clutter cancellation of up to 50 dB to be achieved with a three-pole elliptic filter. Pulse spacing at one frequency is consistent with long-range coverage in reflectivity, while spacing of the second is consistent with a wide unambiguous velocity measurement span.

  8. Turbulence as observed by concurrent measurements made at NSSL using weather radar, Doppler radar, Doppler lidar and aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jean T.

    1987-01-01

    As air traffic increases and aircraft capability increases in range and operating altitude, the exposure to weather hazards increases. Turbulence and wind shears are two of the most important of these hazards that must be taken into account if safe flight operations are to be accomplished. Beginning in the early 1960's, Project Rough Rider began thunderstorm investigations. Past and present efforts at the National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) to measure these flight safety hazards and to describe the use of Doppler radar to detect and qualify these hazards are summarized. In particular, the evolution of the Doppler-measured radial velocity spectrum width and its applicability to the problem of safe flight is presented.

  9. Rapid and stable measurement of respiratory rate from Doppler radar signals using time domain autocorrelation model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact measurement of respiratory rate using Doppler radar will play a vital role in future clinical practice. Doppler radar remotely monitors the tiny chest wall movements induced by respiration activity. The most competitive advantage of this technique is to allow users fully unconstrained with no biological electrode attachments. However, the Doppler radar, unlike other contact-type sensors, is easily affected by the random body movements. In this paper, we proposed a time domain autocorrelation model to process the radar signals for rapid and stable estimation of the respiratory rate. We tested the autocorrelation model on 8 subjects in laboratory, and compared the respiratory rates detected by noncontact radar with reference contact-type respiratory effort belt. Autocorrelation model showed the effects of reducing the random body movement noise added to Doppler radar's respiration signals. Moreover, the respiratory rate can be rapidly calculated from the first main peak in the autocorrelation waveform within 10 s.

  10. Rapid and stable measurement of respiratory rate from Doppler radar signals using time domain autocorrelation model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact measurement of respiratory rate using Doppler radar will play a vital role in future clinical practice. Doppler radar remotely monitors the tiny chest wall movements induced by respiration activity. The most competitive advantage of this technique is to allow users fully unconstrained with no biological electrode attachments. However, the Doppler radar, unlike other contact-type sensors, is easily affected by the random body movements. In this paper, we proposed a time domain autocorrelation model to process the radar signals for rapid and stable estimation of the respiratory rate. We tested the autocorrelation model on 8 subjects in laboratory, and compared the respiratory rates detected by noncontact radar with reference contact-type respiratory effort belt. Autocorrelation model showed the effects of reducing the random body movement noise added to Doppler radar's respiration signals. Moreover, the respiratory rate can be rapidly calculated from the first main peak in the autocorrelation waveform within 10 s. PMID:26737655

  11. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flying insects, birds, and bats contribute to radar reflectivity and radial velocity measured by Doppler weather radars. A study was conducted in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas to determine the capability of Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) to monitor migratory flights of corn ea...

  12. Observing volcanic ash plumes and ballistics using Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-01-01

    When volcanoes erupt, they often emit coarse rocks with ballistic trajectories that fall onto the slopes of the volcano, as well as a plume of fine ash that drifts into the atmosphere. It can be challenging to monitor both simultaneously and discriminate between the two to collect quantitative data, but Valade and Donnadieu have done that with a ground-based Doppler radar, which they used to make measurements of smallscale eruptions at Arenal volcano in Costa Rica. They were able to estimate the mass of the ballistic rocks and the mass of ash particles ejected into the atmosphere. Such studies could be useful for understanding and mitigating the hazards associated with volcanic eruptions. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL049415, 2011)

  13. A new parametric approach for wind profiling with Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Foll, GwenaëLle; Larzabal, Pascal; Clergeot, Henri; Petitdidier, Monique

    1997-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach for wind profile extraction with Doppler radar. To perform this, we first focus on the analysis and modeling of VHF or UHF waves backscattered by clear-air turbulence. A physical description of the backscattered wave is given. This description involves a spectral model that includes a parametric profile of the Doppler spectrum. A parametric approach of the wind profile can be easily generated. The sounding volume is divided into slabs whose thickness is consistent with that of the expected homogeneous turbulent layer. The echo spectrum of each slab is supposed Gaussian. Thus, for the range gate, the backscattered spectrum is a priori non-Gaussian, since it is weighted by a nonconstant reflectivity. This represents a more realistic assumption than the classical ones. The realistic temporal model thereby obtained can be used in simulation, which provides a valable tool for testing the extraction algorithm. An original recursive fitting, in terms of maximum likelihood, between the experimentally recorded spectrum and the parametric candidate spectrum is described and implemented as a second-order, steepest-descent algorithm. This optimization problem is solved in a weighted fashion on the entire gate simultaneously. The regularized parametric method, described in this paper, is a way to minimize some of the drawbacks encountered with traditional methods. Simulations reveal good statistical performance compared with traditional methods. The algorithm is then tested on real data. To achieve this, original methods are proposed for noise suppression and clutter removal.

  14. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

  15. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, P.; Luke, E.; Rémillard, J.; Szyrmer, W.

    2011-07-02

    Several aspects of spectral broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloud-scale observations of microphysics and dynamics are essential to guide and evaluate corresponding modeling efforts. Profiling, millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three moments of the recorded cloud radar Doppler spectra, the radar reflectivity, mean Doppler velocity, and spectrum width, are often used to retrieve cloud microphysical and dynamical properties. Such retrievals are subject to errors introduced by the assumptions made in the inversion process. Here, we introduce two additional morphological parameters of the radar Doppler spectrum, the skewness and kurtosis, in an effort to reduce the retrieval uncertainties. A forward model that emulates observed radar Doppler spectra is constructed and used to investigate these relationships. General, analytical relationships that relate the five radar observables to cloud and drizzle microphysical parameters and cloud turbulence are presented. The relationships are valid for cloud-only, cloud mixed with drizzle, and drizzle-only particles in the radar sampling volume and provide a seamless link between observations and cloud microphysics and dynamics. The sensitivity of the five observed parameters to the radar operational parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio and Doppler spectra velocity resolution are presented. The predicted values of the five observed radar parameters agree well with the output of the forward model. The novel use of the skewness of the radar Doppler spectrum as an early qualitative predictor of drizzle onset in clouds is introduced. It is found that skewness is a parameter very sensitive to early drizzle generation. In addition, the significance of the five parameters of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum for constraining drizzle microphysical retrievals is discussed.

  16. Development of a Low-Cost UAV Doppler Radar Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuble, Joseph; Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Gerry

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the design of a low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) doppler radar data system is presented. The topics include: 1) Science and Mission Background; 2) Radar Requirements and Specs; 3) Radar Realization: RF System; 4) Processing of RF Signal; 5) Data System Design Process; 6) Can We Remove the DSP? 7) Determining Approximate Speed Requirements; 8) Radar Realization: Data System; 9) Data System Operation; and 10) Results.

  17. Rain Fallspeeds and Rates Derived from Airborne Nadir-Pointing Doppler Radar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, L.; Geerts, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The use of vertical-incidence Doppler velocity in addition to radar reflectivity may yield information on drop size distribution and therefore result in better rainrate estimates. Doppler velocity can provide useful information on the raindrop size distribution. Doppler velocities from a zenith-pointing radar represent the sum of the mean reflectivity-weighted hydrometeor fallspeed and the vertical air motion. Dual-parameter rain estimation methods using the Doppler velocity, require that the latter can be removed, or is negligible. Atlas et al. (1972) derived relations between Doppler velocity, reflectivity, and rain rate assuming an exponential size distribution for rain. Ulbrich (1994) expanded on this work by deriving the relation between the Doppler velocity and the reflectivity assuming a Gamma size distribution. This distribution provides a more realistic representation of the small rain drops. To get accurate information on raindrop size distributions with the above method, the air motions must be removed from the observed Doppler velocities

  18. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, P.; Luke, E.; Szyrmer, W.; Rémillard, J.

    2011-07-02

    In part I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended to include skewness and kurtosis as additional descriptors of the Doppler spectrum. Here, a short climatology of observed Doppler spectra moments as a function of the radar reflectivity at continental and maritime ARM sites is presented. The evolution of the Doppler spectra moments is consistent with the onset and growth of drizzle particles and can be used to assist modeling studies of drizzle onset and growth. Time-height radar observations are used to exhibit the coherency of the Doppler spectra shape parameters and demonstrate their potential to improve the interpretation and use of radar observations. In addition, a simplified microphysical approach to modeling the vertical evolution of the drizzle particle size distribution in warm stratiform clouds is described and used to analyze the observations. The formation rate of embryonic drizzle droplets due to the autoconversion process is not calculated explicitly; however, accretion and evaporation processes are explicitly modeled. The microphysical model is used as input to a radar Doppler spectrum forward model, and synthetic radar Doppler spectra moments are generated. Three areas of interest are studied in detail: early drizzle growth near the cloud top, growth by accretion of the well-developed drizzle, and drizzle depletion below the cloud base due to evaporation. The modeling results are in good agreement with the continental and maritime observations. This demonstrates that steady state one-dimensional explicit microphysical models coupled with a forward model and comprehensive radar Doppler spectra observations offer a powerful method to explore the vertical evolution of the drizzle particle size distribution.

  19. UWB micro-doppler radar for human gait analysis using joint range-time-frequency representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yazhou; Fathy, Aly E.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, standalone ultra wideband (UWB) micro-Doppler radar sensor that goes beyond simple range or micro-Doppler detection to combined range-time-Doppler frequency analysis. Moreover, it can monitor more than one human object in both line-of-sight (LOS) and through wall scenarios, thus have full human objects tracking capabilities. The unique radar design is based on narrow pulse transceiver, high speed data acquisition module, and wideband antenna array. For advanced radar post-data processing, joint range-time-frequency representation has been performed. Characteristics of human walking activity have been analyzed using the radar sensor by precisely tracking the radar object and acquiring range-time-Doppler information simultaneously. The UWB micro-Doppler radar prototype is capable of detecting Doppler frequency range from -180 Hz to +180 Hz, which allows a maximum target velocity of 9 m/s. The developed radar sensor can also be extended for many other applications, such as respiration and heartbeat detection of trapped survivors under building debris.

  20. Wake Vortex Tracking Using a 35 GHz Pulsed Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neece, Robert T.; Britt, Charles L.; White, Joseph H.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Nguyen, Chi; Hooper, Bill

    2005-01-01

    A 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system has been designed and assembled for wake vortex detection and tracking in low visibility conditions. Aircraft wake vortices continue to be an important factor in determining safe following distances or spacings for aircraft in the terminal area. Currently, under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), aircraft adhere to conservative, fixed following-distance guidelines based primarily on aircraft weight classifications. When ambient conditions are such that vortices will either drift or dissipate, leaving the flight corridor clear, the prescribed spacings are unnecessarily long and result in decreased airport throughput. There is a potential for significant airport efficiency improvement, if a system can be employed to aid regulators and pilots in setting safe and efficient following distances based on airport conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Agency, and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center have promoted and worked to develop systems that would increase airport capacity and provide for safe reductions in aircraft separation. The NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), a wake vortex spacing system that can provide dynamic adjustment of spacings based on real-time airport weather conditions, has demonstrated that Lidar systems can be successfully used to detect and track vortices in clear air conditions. To fill the need for detection capability in low-visibility conditions, a 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system is being investigated for use as a complimentary, low-visibility sensor for wake vortices. The radar sensor provides spatial and temporal information similar to that provided by Lidar, but under weather conditions that a Lidar cannot penetrate. Currently, we are analyzing the radar design based upon the data and experience gained during the wake vortex Lidar deployment with AVOSS at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of this study

  1. Examples of mesoscale structures and short-term wind variations detected by VHF Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first of three wind profilers planned for operation in central and western Pennsylvania began full-time, high-quality operation during July 1985. It is located about 20 km south-southeast of University Park and operates at 50 MHz. Another 50-MHz radar and a 400-MHz radar are to be installed over the next few months, to complete a mesoscale triangle with sides of 120 to 160 km. During the period since early July, a number of weather systems have passed over the wind profiler. Those accompanied by thunderstorms caused data losses either because the Department computer system lost power or because power went out at the profiler site. A backup power supply and an automatic re-start program will be added to the profiler system to minimize such future losses. Data have normally been averaged over a one-hour period, although there have been some investigations of shorter-period averaging. In each case, preliminary examinations reveal that the profiler winds are indicative of meteorological phenomena. The only occasions of bad or missing data are obtained when airplane noise is occasionally experienced and when the returned power is nearly at the noise level, at the upper few gates, where a consensus wind cannot be determined. Jets streams, clouds, and diurnal variations of winds are discussed.

  2. Estimation of physiological sub-millimeter displacement with CW Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Jia Xu; Xiaomeng Gao; Padasdao, Bryson E; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar physiological sensing has been studied for non-contact detection of vital signs including respiratory and heartbeat rates. This paper presents the first micrometer resolution Wi-Fi band Doppler radar for sub-millimeter physiological displacement measurement. A continuous-wave Doppler radar working at 2.4GHz is used for the measurement. It is intended for estimating small displacements on the body surface resulting from physiological activity. A mechanical mover was used as target, and programmed to conduct sinusoidal motions to simulate pulse motions. Measured displacements were compared with a reference system, which indicates a superior performance in accuracy for having absolute errors less than 10μm, and relative errors below 4%. It indicates the feasibility of highly accurate non-contact monitoring of physiological movements using Doppler radar. PMID:26738052

  3. Estimation of physiological sub-millimeter displacement with CW Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Jia Xu; Xiaomeng Gao; Padasdao, Bryson E; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar physiological sensing has been studied for non-contact detection of vital signs including respiratory and heartbeat rates. This paper presents the first micrometer resolution Wi-Fi band Doppler radar for sub-millimeter physiological displacement measurement. A continuous-wave Doppler radar working at 2.4GHz is used for the measurement. It is intended for estimating small displacements on the body surface resulting from physiological activity. A mechanical mover was used as target, and programmed to conduct sinusoidal motions to simulate pulse motions. Measured displacements were compared with a reference system, which indicates a superior performance in accuracy for having absolute errors less than 10μm, and relative errors below 4%. It indicates the feasibility of highly accurate non-contact monitoring of physiological movements using Doppler radar.

  4. Radar Wind Profiler Radial Velocity: A Comparison with Doppler Lidar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Stephen A.; Goodrich, R. Kent

    2002-12-01

    The accuracy of the radial wind velocity measured with a radar wind profiler will depend on turbulent variability and instrumental noise. Radial velocity estimates of a boundary layer wind profiler are compared with those estimated by a Doppler lidar over 2.3 h. The lidar resolution volume was much narrower than the profiler volume, but the samples were well matched in range and time. The wind profiler radial velocity was computed using two common algorithms [profiler online program (POP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research improved moments algorithm (NIMA)]. The squared correlation between radial velocities measured with the two instruments was R2 = 0.99, and the standard deviation of the difference was about r = 0.20-0.23 m s1 for radial velocities of greater than 1 m s1 and r = 0.16-0.35 m s1 for radial velocities of less than 1 m s1. Small radial velocities may be treated differently in radar wind profiler processing because of ground-clutter mitigation strategies. A standard deviation of r = 0.23 m s1 implies an error in horizontal winds from turbulence and noise of less than 1 m s1 for a single cycle through the profiler beam directions and of less than 0.11-0.27 m s1 for a 30-min average measurement, depending on the beam pointing sequence. The accuracy of a wind profiler horizontal wind measurement will also depend on assumptions of spatial and temporal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere, which are not considered in this comparison. The wind profiler radial velocities from the POP and NIMA are in good agreement. However, the analysis does show the need for improvements in wind profiler processing when radial velocity is close to zero.

  5. Spectral analyses of the dual polarization Doppler weather radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Svetlana Monakhova

    2007-12-01

    Echoes in clear air from biological scatterers mixed within the resolution volumes over a large region are presented. These echoes were observed with the polarimetric prototype of the forthcoming WSR-88D weather radar. The study case occurred in the evening of September 7, 2004, at the beginning of the bird migrating season. Novel polarimetric spectral analyses are used for distinguishing signatures of birds and insects in multimodal spectra. These biological scatterers were present at the same time in the radar resolution volumes over a large area. Spectral techniques for (1) data censoring, (2) wind retrieval and (3) estimation of intrinsic values/functions of polarimetric variables for different types of scatterers are presented. The technique for data censoring in the frequency domain allows detection of weak signals. Censoring is performed on the level of spectral densities, allowing exposure of contributions to the spectrum from multiple types of scatterers. The spectral techniques for wind retrieval allow simultaneous estimation of wind from the data that are severely contaminated by migrating birds, and assessment of bird migration parameters. The intrinsic polarimetric signatures associated with the variety of scatterers can be evaluated using presented methodology. Algorithms for echo classification can be built on these. The possibilities of spectral processing using parametric estimation techniques are explored for resolving contributions to the Doppler spectrum from the three types of scatterers: passive wind tracers, actively flying insects and birds. A combination of parametric and non-parametric polarimetric spectral analyses is used to estimate the small bias introduced to the wind velocity by actively flying insects.

  6. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation... OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. G Appendix G to Part 121—Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request... Radar or Inertial Navigation System must submit a request for evaluation of the system to the...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation... OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. G Appendix G to Part 121—Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request... Radar or Inertial Navigation System must submit a request for evaluation of the system to the...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation... OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. G Appendix G to Part 121—Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request... Radar or Inertial Navigation System must submit a request for evaluation of the system to the...

  9. Clutter isolation and cardiac monitoring using harmonic doppler radar with heterodyne receiver and passive RF tags.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lubecke, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A harmonic radar employing the use of harmonic passive RF tags can be successfully used to isolate the human respiration from environmental clutter. This paper describes the successful use of heterodyne receiver architecture with Doppler radar to track the heart-rate of a human being using passive body-worn harmonic tags in presence of a controlled noise generator at distances up to 120 cm. The heterodyne system results have been compared with those of a conventional Doppler radar for cardiopulmonary monitoring that fails to isolate the noise from heart-rate in presence of a noise source.

  10. Non-contact physiological signal detection using continuous wave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dengyu; He, Tan; Hu, Boping; Li, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show non-contact physiological signal monitoring system based on continuous-wave (CW) Doppler radar, which is becoming highly attractive in the field of health care monitoring of elderly people. Two radar signal processing methods were introduced in this paper: one to extract respiration and heart rates of a single person and the other to separate mixed respiration signals. To verify the validity of the methods, physiological signal is obtained from stationary human subjects using a CW Doppler radar unit. The sensor operating at 24 GHz is located 0.5 meter away from the subject. The simulation results show that the respiration and heart rates are clearly extracted, and the mixed respiration signals are successfully separated. Finally, reference respiration and heart rate signals are measured by an ECG monitor and compared with the results tracked by the CW Doppler radar monitoring system. PMID:24211989

  11. Doppler-radar wind-speed measurements in tornadoes: A comparison of real and simulated spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B.; LaDue, J.G.; Stein, H.; Speheger, D. ); Unruh, W.P. )

    1993-01-01

    Bluestein and Unruh have discussed the advantages of using a portable doppler radar to map the wind field in tornadoes. during the spring of 1991 a storm-intercept team from the University of Oklahoma (OU) collected data near five supercell tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas. Details about the 1-W, 3-cm, 5-deg half-power beamwidth, CW/FM-CW Doppler radar we used and the methods of data collection and analysis are found in Bluestein and Unruh and Bluestein et al. Using the portable radar, we approximately doubled in only one year the number of tornado spectra that had been collected over a period of almost 20 years by NSSL's fixed-site Doppler radar. In this paper we will compare observed tornado wind spectra with simulated wind spectra (Zmic and Doviak 1975) in order to learn more about tornado structure.

  12. Doppler-radar wind-speed measurements in tornadoes: A comparison of real and simulated spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B.; LaDue, J.G.; Stein, H.; Speheger, D.; Unruh, W.P.

    1993-03-01

    Bluestein and Unruh have discussed the advantages of using a portable doppler radar to map the wind field in tornadoes. during the spring of 1991 a storm-intercept team from the University of Oklahoma (OU) collected data near five supercell tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas. Details about the 1-W, 3-cm, 5-deg half-power beamwidth, CW/FM-CW Doppler radar we used and the methods of data collection and analysis are found in Bluestein and Unruh and Bluestein et al. Using the portable radar, we approximately doubled in only one year the number of tornado spectra that had been collected over a period of almost 20 years by NSSL`s fixed-site Doppler radar. In this paper we will compare observed tornado wind spectra with simulated wind spectra (Zmic and Doviak 1975) in order to learn more about tornado structure.

  13. Non-contact physiological signal detection using continuous wave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dengyu; He, Tan; Hu, Boping; Li, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show non-contact physiological signal monitoring system based on continuous-wave (CW) Doppler radar, which is becoming highly attractive in the field of health care monitoring of elderly people. Two radar signal processing methods were introduced in this paper: one to extract respiration and heart rates of a single person and the other to separate mixed respiration signals. To verify the validity of the methods, physiological signal is obtained from stationary human subjects using a CW Doppler radar unit. The sensor operating at 24 GHz is located 0.5 meter away from the subject. The simulation results show that the respiration and heart rates are clearly extracted, and the mixed respiration signals are successfully separated. Finally, reference respiration and heart rate signals are measured by an ECG monitor and compared with the results tracked by the CW Doppler radar monitoring system.

  14. A Method for the Automatic Detection of Insect Clutter in Doppler-Radar Returns.

    SciTech Connect

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.

    2006-06-12

    The accurate detection and removal of insect clutter from millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR) returns is of high importance to boundary layer cloud research (e.g., Geerts et al., 2005). When only radar Doppler moments are available, it is difficult to produce a reliable screening of insect clutter from cloud returns because their distributions overlap. Hence, screening of MMCR insect clutter has historically involved a laborious manual process of cross-referencing radar moments against measurements from other collocated instruments, such as lidar. Our study looks beyond traditional radar moments to ask whether analysis of recorded Doppler spectra can serve as the basis for reliable, automatic insect clutter screening. We focus on the MMCR operated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility in Oklahoma. Here, archiving of full Doppler spectra began in September 2003, and during the warmer months, a pronounced insect presence regularly introduces clutter into boundary layer returns.

  15. PATH TO NEXRAD: Doppler Radar Development at the National Severe Storms Laboratory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Rodger A.; Lewis, John M.

    2005-10-01

    In this historical paper, we trace the scientific- and engineering-based steps at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) and in the larger weather radar community that led to the development of NSSL's first 10-cm-wavelength pulsed Doppler radar. This radar was the prototype for the current Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), or Weather Surveillance Radar-1998 Doppler (WSR-88D) network.We track events, both political and scientific, that led to the establishment of NSSL in 1964. The vision of NSSL's first director, Edwin Kessler, is reconstructed through access to historical documents and oral histories. This vision included the development of Doppler radar, where research was to be meshed with the operational needs of the U.S. Weather Bureau and its successor—the National Weather Service.Realization of the vision came through steps that were often fit-ful, where complications arose due to personnel concerns, and where there were always financial concerns. The historical research indicates that 1) the engineering prowess and mentorship of Roger Lhermitte was at the heart of Doppler radar development at NSSL; 2) key decisions by Kessler in the wake of Lhermitte's sudden departure in 1967 proved crucial to the ultimate success of the project; 3) research results indicated that Doppler velocity signatures of mesocyclones are a precursor of damaging thunderstorms and tornadoes; and 4) results from field testing of the Doppler-derived products during the 1977 79 Joint Doppler Operational Project—especially the noticeable increase in the verification of tornado warnings and an associated marked decrease in false alarms—led to the government decision to establish the NEXRAD network.

  16. VHF radar measurements during MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Klostermeyer, J.; Ruster, R.; Schmidt, G.; Rottger, J.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive Doppler radars which operate in the very high frequency (VHF) band, usually near 50 MHz can measure profiles of background winds, tides, atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence at tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric heights. Their ability to observe simultaneously large and small-scale processes makes them unique instruments for studying not only each process separately but also their nonlinear interactions. The mobile VHF radar to be used during the MAP/WINE campaign on Andoya is a modified version of the SOUSY VHF radar being in operation for six years in the Harz Mountains.

  17. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%–18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  18. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment.

  19. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  20. Determining F-factor using ground-based Doppler radar: Validation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, K. L.; Albo, E. D.; Goodrich, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional linear least-squares method applied to Doppler radar data, we test the viability of determining F-factor remotely. The ultimate application of such an algorithm will be supplying real-time F-factor maps, derived from ground-based Doppler radars to air traffic control personnel and pilots. Data from NASA deployments to the MIT/Lincoln Lab TDWR testbed radar in Orlando in 1991 and 1992 along with NASA deployments to the NCAR TDWR testbed radar in Denver are examined. Preliminary analyses show that the two-dimensional method correlates reasonably well with in situ measurements. Several effects, independent of the method used, act to reduce the correlation to less than one. These include time differences between radar and aircraft data, vertical misalignment between the aircraft and the radar beam, different spatial resolution scales between aircraft and radar data, inhomogeneous radar beam filling, noise in radar data that eludes filtering, and phase lag between time and space due to low pass filtering of the aircraft data. In the final assessment, it appears that a shear-based F-factor algorithm is preferable to the currently implemented TDWR algorithms which lack any local shear estimates.

  1. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalesse, H.; Szyrmer, W.; Kneifel, S.; Kollias, P.; Luke, E.

    2015-10-01

    Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediments through a supercooled liquid water (SLW) layer. The observations were collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland during the BAECC (Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate Snowfall Experiment) field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are taken into account by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in-situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  2. 50 MHz dual-mode buck DC—DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhang; Xing, Wang; Wencheng, Yu; Ye, Tan; Yizhong, Yang; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-08-01

    A 50 MHz 1.8/0.9 V dual-mode buck DC—DC converter is proposed in this paper. A dual-mode control for high-frequency DC—DC converter is presented to enhance the conversion efficiency of light-load in this paper. A novel zero-crossing detector is proposed to shut down synchronous rectification transistor NMOS when the inductor crosses zero, which can decrease the power loss caused by reverse current and the trip point is adjusted by regulating IBIAS (BIAS current). A new logic control for pulse-skipping modulation loop is also presented in this paper, which has advantages of simple structure and low power loss. The proposed converter is realized in SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed signal CMOS process. With switching loss, conduction loss and reverse current related loss optimized, an efficiency of 57% is maintained at 10 mA, and a peak efficiency of 71% is measured at nominal operating conditions with a voltage conversion of 1.8 to 0.9 V. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Material and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, CAS (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  3. Very low-phase noise, coherent 94GHz radar for micro-Doppler and vibrometry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Brooker, Graham M.; Beasley, Patrick D. L.

    2014-05-01

    Micro-Doppler and vibrometry measurements require coherent radars with low phase noise. We report the development of a novel, very low phase noise 94 GHz radar, called T-220, which offers superior performance for micro-Doppler and vibrometry studies compared with our previous work. The radar uses a combination of direct digital synthesis (DDS) chirp generation, frequency upconversion and frequency multiplication to yield very low phase noise and rapid, contiguous chirps, necessary for Doppler studies and other coherent processing applications. Dual fan beam antennas are used to achieve negligible transmit-receive leakage, with fine azimuth resolution and modest elevation coverage. The resulting PPI imagery is very high fidelity with little or no evidence of phase noise effects.

  4. Feasibility of heart rate variability measurement from quadrature Doppler radar using arctangent demodulation with DC offset compensation.

    PubMed

    Massagram, Wansuree; Hafner, Noah M; Park, Byung-Kwan; Lubecke, Victor M; Host-Madsen, Anders; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results of the beat-to-beat interval measurement from a quadrature Doppler radar system utilizing arctangent demodulation with DC offset compensation techniques. The comparison in SDNN and in RMSDD of both signals demonstrates the potential of using quadrature Doppler radar for HRV analysis.

  5. Noise considerations for remote detection of life signs with microwave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dung; Yamada, Shuhei; Park, Byung-Kwon; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Host-Madsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and quantifies three main sources of baseband noise affecting physiological signals in a direct conversion microwave Doppler radar for life signs detection. They are thermal noise, residual phase noise, and Flicker noise. In order to increase the SNR of physiological signals at baseband, the noise floor, in which the Flicker noise is the most dominant factor, needs to be minimized. This paper shows that with the consideration of the noise factor in our Doppler radar, Flicker noise canceling techniques may drastically reduce the power requirement for heart rate signal detection by as much as a factor of 100.

  6. Doppler shift radar monitoring of activity of rats in a behavioural test situation.

    PubMed

    Rose, F D; Dell, P A; Love, S

    1985-07-01

    The present study investigates the use of an activity monitoring system based upon Doppler shift radar for monitoring general activity of rats in a standard open field test situation. Significant positive correlations were found between the radar activity counts and the conventional lines crossed measure of activity. On the basis of these correlations it is suggested that this method of activity monitoring might be used in conjunction with other behavioural test situations. Further potential benefits of this activity monitoring system are discussed.

  7. Point reflector model for the simulation of radar target glint and Doppler phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubeck, H.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the mathematics of a radar model for the simulation of glint and Doppler phenomena. Glint is an unwanted phenomenon, which deteriorates radar tracking performance. The term denotes a fluctuation of the target direction, experienced by a radar, tracking a complex target. Doppler shift refers to the frequency change of a radar wave, due to the reflection against a moving target. It can be used by modern so-called coherent radar systems for velocity determination. A three-dimensional space is modeled, containing a rigid body of point scattering reflectors (the target) and a point of measuring (the radar). The target and the radar can move freely and independently in the space. The movement of the target and the radar is described with a number of coordinate systems, which are presented in this report. Some simple simulations are also presented in this report. A simulation tool is available for interested users and the purpose of this report is to announce its existence. The program is written in MATLAB Simulink.

  8. Multi-Antenna Radar Systems for Doppler Rain Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen; Tanelli, Simone; Siqueira, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Use of multiple-antenna radar systems aboard moving high-altitude platforms has been proposed for measuring rainfall. The basic principle of the proposed systems is a variant of that of along-track interferometric synthetic-aperture radar systems used previously to measure ocean waves and currents.

  9. Doppler radar having phase modulation of both transmitted and reflected return signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H. S.; Shores, P. W.; Rozas, P. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A microwave radar signal is generated for transmission through an antenna. Before transmission, the signal is phase modulated by 0 deg or 90 deg amounts during each alternate half-cycles of an intermediate frequency (IF) clock signal. After transmission and return, the signal is again phase modulated the same amounts during each alternate half-cycles. The return phase modulated signal is mixed with a leakage signal component of the microwave signal, leaving an IF Doppler. The IF Doppler signal may then be amplified, removing any requirement that direct current level signals be amplified and also removing the effect of detector noise from the Doppler signal.

  10. 77 FR 37470 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C65a, Airborne Doppler Radar Ground Speed and/or Drift Angle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C65a, Airborne Doppler Radar Ground Speed... Doppler radar ground speed and/or drift angle measuring equipment (for air carrier aircraft). SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's intent to cancel TSO-C65a, Airborne Doppler radar ground speed...

  11. Potential of Higher Moments of the Radar Doppler Spectrum for Studying Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, M. F.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Saito, T.; Harth, C. M.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P.; Arnold, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, P.; Fraser, P. J.; Li, S.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Young, D.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    More observations of ice clouds are required to fill gaps in understanding of microphysical properties and processes. However, in situ observations by aircraft are costly and cannot provide long term observations which are required for a deeper understanding of the processes. Ground based remote sensing observations have the potential to fill this gap, but their observations do not contain sufficient information to unambiguously constrain ice cloud properties which leads to high uncertainties. For vertically pointing cloud radars, usually only reflectivity and mean Doppler velocity are used for retrievals; some studies proposed also the use of Doppler spectrum width.In this study, it is investigated whether additional information can be obtained by exploiting also higher moments of the Doppler spectrum such as skewness and kurtosis together with the slope of the Doppler peak. For this, observations of pure ice clouds from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in Alaska 2008 are analyzed. Using the ISDAC data set, an Optimal Estimation based retrieval is set up based on synthetic and real radar observations. The passive and active microwave radiative transfer model (PAMTRA) is used as a forward model together with the Self-Similar Rayleigh-Gans approximation for estimation of the scattering properties. The state vector of the retrieval consists of the parameters required to simulate the radar Doppler spectrum and describes particle mass, cross section area, particle size distribution, and kinematic conditions such as turbulence and vertical air motion. Using the retrieval, the information content (degrees of freedom for signal) is quantified that higher moments and slopes can contribute to an ice cloud retrieval. The impact of multiple frequencies, radar sensitivity and radar calibration is studied. For example, it is found that a single-frequency measurement using all moments and slopes contains already more information content than a dual

  12. Potential of Higher Moments of the Radar Doppler Spectrum for Studying Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehnert, U.; Maahn, M.

    2015-12-01

    More observations of ice clouds are required to fill gaps in understanding of microphysical properties and processes. However, in situ observations by aircraft are costly and cannot provide long term observations which are required for a deeper understanding of the processes. Ground based remote sensing observations have the potential to fill this gap, but their observations do not contain sufficient information to unambiguously constrain ice cloud properties which leads to high uncertainties. For vertically pointing cloud radars, usually only reflectivity and mean Doppler velocity are used for retrievals; some studies proposed also the use of Doppler spectrum width.In this study, it is investigated whether additional information can be obtained by exploiting also higher moments of the Doppler spectrum such as skewness and kurtosis together with the slope of the Doppler peak. For this, observations of pure ice clouds from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in Alaska 2008 are analyzed. Using the ISDAC data set, an Optimal Estimation based retrieval is set up based on synthetic and real radar observations. The passive and active microwave radiative transfer model (PAMTRA) is used as a forward model together with the Self-Similar Rayleigh-Gans approximation for estimation of the scattering properties. The state vector of the retrieval consists of the parameters required to simulate the radar Doppler spectrum and describes particle mass, cross section area, particle size distribution, and kinematic conditions such as turbulence and vertical air motion. Using the retrieval, the information content (degrees of freedom for signal) is quantified that higher moments and slopes can contribute to an ice cloud retrieval. The impact of multiple frequencies, radar sensitivity and radar calibration is studied. For example, it is found that a single-frequency measurement using all moments and slopes contains already more information content than a dual

  13. Non-contact Doppler radar monitoring of cardiorespiratory motion for Siberian sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Noah; Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first reported use of Doppler radar to remotely sense heart and ventilation rates of fish. The Radar reported 35 to 40 BPM heart rate and 115 to 145 BPM ventilation rates for Siberian Sturgeon, with agreement from a video reference. Conventional fish vital signs measurements require invasive surgery and human handling--these are problematic for large scale monitoring, for measuring deep sea fish, and other situations which preclude human interaction with each individual subject. These results show a useful application of radar to augment existing cardiovascular and ventilatory activity sensing techniques and enable monitoring in a wider range of situations.

  14. Non-contact Doppler radar monitoring of cardiorespiratory motion for Siberian sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Noah; Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first reported use of Doppler radar to remotely sense heart and ventilation rates of fish. The Radar reported 35 to 40 BPM heart rate and 115 to 145 BPM ventilation rates for Siberian Sturgeon, with agreement from a video reference. Conventional fish vital signs measurements require invasive surgery and human handling--these are problematic for large scale monitoring, for measuring deep sea fish, and other situations which preclude human interaction with each individual subject. These results show a useful application of radar to augment existing cardiovascular and ventilatory activity sensing techniques and enable monitoring in a wider range of situations. PMID:23366402

  15. A portable CW/FM-CW Doppler radar for local investigation of severe storms

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, W.P.; Wolf, M.A.; Bluestein, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1987 spring storm season we used a portable 1-W X-band CW Doppler radar to probe a tornado, a funnel cloud, and a wall cloud in Oklahoma and Texas. This same device was used during the spring storm season in 1988 to probe a wall cloud in Texas. The radar was battery powered and highly portable, and thus convenient to deploy from our chase vehicle. The device separated the receding and approaching Doppler velocities in real time and, while the radar was being used, it allowed convenient stereo data recording for later spectral analysis and operator monitoring of the Doppler signals in stereo headphones. This aural monitoring, coupled with the ease with which an operator can be trained to recognize the nature of the signals heard, made the radar very easy to operate reliably and significantly enhanced the quality of the data being recorded. At the end of the 1988 spring season, the radar was modified to include FM-CW ranging and processing. These modifications were based on a unique combination of video recording and FM chirp generation, which incorporated a video camera and recorder as an integral part of the radar. After modification, the radar retains its convenient portability and the operational advantage of being able to listen to the Doppler signals directly. The original mechanical design was unaffected by these additions. During the summer of 1988, this modified device was used at the Langmuir Laboratory at Socorro, New Mexico in an attempt to measure vertical convective flow in a thunderstorm. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Radar stimulator interface protocol, preliminary interface design and Doppler Beam Sharpening implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, C.H.

    1993-06-30

    This is the final report for a subcontract to supply a Doppler Beam Sharpening model to interface with the radar stimulation package running on the Cray supercomputers. The article describes the beam sharpening model, and the way beam sharpening is implemented by the model. Changes from previous work are emphasized in this report.

  17. Detection and discrimination of fauna in the aerosphere using Doppler weather surveillance radar.

    PubMed

    Gauthreaux, Sidney A; Livingston, John W; Belser, Carroll G

    2008-07-01

    Organisms in the aerosphere have been detected by radar since its development in the 1940s. The national network of Doppler weather radars (WSR-88D) in the United States can readily detect birds, bats, and insects aloft. Level-II data from the radar contain information on the reflectivity and radial velocity of targets and on width of the spectrum (SD of radial velocities in a radar pulse volume). Information on reflectivity can be used to quantify density of organisms aloft and radial velocity can be used to discriminate different types of targets based on their air speeds. Spectral width can also provide some useful information when organisms with very different air speeds are aloft. Recent work with dual-polarization radar suggests that it may be useful for discriminating birds from insects in the aerosphere, but more development and biological validation are required.

  18. ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-15

    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has made higher

  19. Fpga based L-band pulse doppler radar design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savci, Kubilay

    As its name implies RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is an electromagnetic sensor used for detection and locating targets from their return signals. Radar systems propagate electromagnetic energy, from the antenna which is in part intercepted by an object. Objects reradiate a portion of energy which is captured by the radar receiver. The received signal is then processed for information extraction. Radar systems are widely used for surveillance, air security, navigation, weather hazard detection, as well as remote sensing applications. In this work, an FPGA based L-band Pulse Doppler radar prototype, which is used for target detection, localization and velocity calculation has been built and a general-purpose Pulse Doppler radar processor has been developed. This radar is a ground based stationary monopulse radar, which transmits a short pulse with a certain pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Return signals from the target are processed and information about their location and velocity is extracted. Discrete components are used for the transmitter and receiver chain. The hardware solution is based on Xilinx Virtex-6 ML605 FPGA board, responsible for the control of the radar system and the digital signal processing of the received signal, which involves Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detection and Pulse Doppler processing. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the Xilinx System Generator for DSP tool. The field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) implementation of the radar system provides the flexibility of changing parameters such as the PRF and pulse length therefore it can be used with different radar configurations as well. A VHDL design has been developed for 1Gbit Ethernet connection to transfer digitized return signal and detection results to PC. An A-Scope software has been developed with C# programming language to display time domain radar signals and detection results on PC. Data are processed both in FPGA chip and on PC. FPGA uses fixed

  20. An automatic fall detection framework using data fusion of Doppler radar and motion sensor network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing work of detecting falls in independent living senior apartments. We have developed a fall detection system with Doppler radar sensor and implemented ceiling radar in real senior apartments. However, the detection accuracy on real world data is affected by false alarms inherent in the real living environment, such as motions from visitors. To solve this issue, this paper proposes an improved framework by fusing the Doppler radar sensor result with a motion sensor network. As a result, performance is significantly improved after the data fusion by discarding the false alarms generated by visitors. The improvement of this new method is tested on one week of continuous data from an actual elderly person who frequently falls while living in her senior home. PMID:25571349

  1. Initialization of a modeled convective storm using Doppler radar-derived fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Ray, Peter S.; Johnson, Kenneth W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is developed to initialize convective storm simulations with Doppler radar-derived fields. Input fields for initialization include velocity, rainwater derived from radar reflectivity, and pressure and temperature fields obtained through thermodynamic retrieval. A procedure has been developed to fill in missing wind data, followed by a variational adjustment to the filled wind field to minimize 'shocks' that would otherwise cause the simulated fields to deteriorate rapidly. A series of experiments using data from a simulated storm establishes the feasibility of the initialization method. Multiple-Doppler radar observations from the 20 May 1977 Del City tornadic storm are used for the initialization experiments. Simulation results are shown and compared to observations taken at a later time. The simulated storm shows good agreement with the subsequent observations, though the simulated storm appears to be evolving faster than observed. Possible reasons for the discrepancies are discussed.

  2. An FPGA-based Doppler Processor for a Spaceborne Precipitation Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Fischman, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Chu, A. J.; Jourdan, M. N.; Tanelli, S.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of precipitation Doppler velocity by spaceborne radar is complicated by the large velocity of the satellite platform. Even if successive pulses are well correlated, the velocity measurement may be biased if the precipitation target does not uniformly fill the radar footprint. It has been previously shown that the bias in such situations can be reduced if full spectral processing is used. The authors present a processor based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology that can be used for spectral processing of data acquired by future spaceborne precipitation radars. The requirements for and design of the Doppler processor are addressed. Simulation and laboratory test results show that the processor can meet real-time constraints while easily fitting in a single FPGA.

  3. An automatic fall detection framework using data fusion of Doppler radar and motion sensor network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing work of detecting falls in independent living senior apartments. We have developed a fall detection system with Doppler radar sensor and implemented ceiling radar in real senior apartments. However, the detection accuracy on real world data is affected by false alarms inherent in the real living environment, such as motions from visitors. To solve this issue, this paper proposes an improved framework by fusing the Doppler radar sensor result with a motion sensor network. As a result, performance is significantly improved after the data fusion by discarding the false alarms generated by visitors. The improvement of this new method is tested on one week of continuous data from an actual elderly person who frequently falls while living in her senior home.

  4. Designing clutter rejection filters with complex coefficients for airborne pulsed Doppler weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamora, Dennis A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground clutter interference is a major problem for airborne pulse Doppler radar operating at low altitudes in a look-down mode. With Doppler zero set at the aircraft ground speed, ground clutter rejection filtering is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter with real valued coefficients and a stopband notch centered at zero Doppler. Clutter spectra from the NASA Wind Shear Flight Experiments of l991-1992 show that the dominant clutter mode can be located away from zero Doppler, particularly at short ranges dominated by sidelobe returns. Use of digital notch filters with complex valued coefficients so that the stopband notch can be located at any Doppler frequency is investigated. Several clutter mode tracking algorithms are considered to estimate the Doppler frequency location of the dominant clutter mode. From the examination of night data, when a dominant clutter mode away from zero Doppler is present, complex filtering is able to significantly increase clutter rejection over use of a notch filter centered at zero Doppler.

  5. Chung-Li, Taiwan dual mode (Doppler and spaced antenna) VHF radar: Preliminary specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnahan, J. W.; Chao, J.; Rottger, J.

    1983-01-01

    A major unresolved question in the field of atmospheric research using VHF radar techniques is the relative merit of the two most widely used systems. These systems are the Doppler method and the spaced antenna method. It has been suggested that one radar of each type be operated side by side for a direct comparison of the two techniques. This duplication of effort is not cost effective. The major components of both systems are identical, and one radar could be operated in both modes by proper design of a suitable antenna system and by proper data analysis. The Chung-Li radar will be able to switch between modes on a time scale of seconds and is the first VHF radar to be able to directly compare the Doppler data with spaced antenna data. The system will have performance comparable with the present SOUSY spaced antenna system and will provide mesospheric data in addition to stratospheric and tropospheric data. The major specifications of the Chung-Li radar are given.

  6. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalesse, Heike; Szyrmer, Wanda; Kneifel, Stefan; Kollias, Pavlos; Luke, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW) layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  7. Velocity profiles inside volcanic clouds from three-dimensional scanning microwave dual-polarization Doppler radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, Mario

    2016-07-01

    In this work, velocity profiles within a volcanic tephra cloud obtained by dual-polarization Doppler radar acquisitions with three-dimensional (3-D) mechanical scanning capability are analyzed. A method for segmenting the radar volumes into three velocity regimes: vertical updraft, vertical fallout, and horizontal wind advection within a volcanic tephra cloud using dual-polarization Doppler radar moments is proposed. The horizontal and vertical velocity components within the regimes are retrieved using a novel procedure that makes assumptions concerning the characteristics of the winds inside these regimes. The vertical velocities retrieved are combined with 1-D simulations to derive additional parameters including particle fallout, mass flux, and particle sizes. The explosive event occurred on 23 November 2013 at the Mount Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy), is considered a demonstrative case in which to analyze the radar Doppler signal inside the tephra column. The X-band radar (3 cm wavelength) in the Catania, Italy, airport observed the 3-D scenes of the Etna tephra cloud ~32 km from the volcano vent every 10 min. From the radar-derived vertical velocity profiles of updraft, particle fallout, and horizontal transportation, an exit velocity of 150 m/s, mass flux rate of 1.37 • 107 kg/s, particle fallout velocity of 18 m/s, and diameters of precipitating tephra particles equal to 0.8 cm are estimated on average. These numbers are shown to be consistent with theoretical 1-D simulations of plume dynamics and local reports at the ground, respectively. A thickness of 3 ± 0.36 km for the downwind ash cloud is also inferred by differentiating the radar-derived cloud top and the height of transition between the convective and buoyancy regions, the latter being inferred by the estimated vertical updraft velocity profile. The unique nature of the case study as well as the novelty of the segmentation and retrieval methods presented potentially give new insights into the

  8. Vector Winds from a Single-Transmitter Bistatic Dual-Doppler Radar Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, Joshua

    1994-06-01

    A bistatic dual-Doppler weather radar network consisting of only one transmitter and a nontransmitting, nonscanning, low-cost bistatic receiver was deployed in the Boulder, Colorado, area during 1993.The Boulder network took data in a variety of weather situations, including low-reflectivity stratiform snowfall, several convective cells, and a hailstorm. Dual-Doppler vector wind fields were retrieved and compared to those from a traditional, two-transmitter dual-Doppler network. The favorable results from these comparisons indicate that the bistatic dual-Doppler technique is viable and practical.Bistatic multiple-Doppler networks have significant scientific and economic advantages accruing from the use of only single sources of illumination. Individual spatial volumes are viewed simultaneously from multiple look angles, minimizing storm evolution-induced errors. The passive receivers in a bistatic network do not require expensive transmitters, moving antenna hardware, or operators. Thus, they require only a small pereentage of the investment needed to field traditional transmitting radars.Bistatic systems can be deployed affordably to provide three-dimensional fields of full-vector winds, including directly measured vertical precipitation particle velocities for numerous applications in meteorological research, aviation, forecasting, media, and education.

  9. An Efficient Adaptive Angle-Doppler Compensation Approach for Non-Sidelooking Airborne Radar STAP

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mingwei; Yu, Jia; Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of non-sidelooking airborne radar clutter dispersion on space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is considered, and an efficient adaptive angle-Doppler compensation (EAADC) approach is proposed to improve the clutter suppression performance. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the reduced-dimension sparse reconstruction (RDSR) technique is introduced into the angle-Doppler spectrum estimation to extract the required parameters for compensating the clutter spectral center misalignment. Simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are presented. PMID:26053755

  10. Two-dimensional SLIM with application to pulse Doppler MIMO radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbarian-Jahromi, Mohammad; Kahaei, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) sparse signal model is developed for pulse Doppler MIMO radars. Using this model, we develop the 2D sparse learning via iterative minimization (2D SLIM) algorithm. Simulation results show that the 2D SLIM compared to the 1D SLIM drastically reduces the computational burden while both of them have the same performance. Also, for estimation of range-angle-Doppler parameters, the 2D SLIM outperforms the matched filter (MF), smoothed L0-norm (SL0), iterative adaptive approach (IAA), and spectral projected gradient for l 1-norm minimization (SPGL1) algorithms.

  11. An Efficient Adaptive Angle-Doppler Compensation Approach for Non-Sidelooking Airborne Radar STAP.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mingwei; Yu, Jia; Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin

    2015-06-04

    In this study, the effects of non-sidelooking airborne radar clutter dispersion on space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is considered, and an efficient adaptive angle-Doppler compensation (EAADC) approach is proposed to improve the clutter suppression performance. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the reduced-dimension sparse reconstruction (RDSR) technique is introduced into the angle-Doppler spectrum estimation to extract the required parameters for compensating the clutter spectral center misalignment. Simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are presented.

  12. An Efficient Adaptive Angle-Doppler Compensation Approach for Non-Sidelooking Airborne Radar STAP.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mingwei; Yu, Jia; Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of non-sidelooking airborne radar clutter dispersion on space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is considered, and an efficient adaptive angle-Doppler compensation (EAADC) approach is proposed to improve the clutter suppression performance. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the reduced-dimension sparse reconstruction (RDSR) technique is introduced into the angle-Doppler spectrum estimation to extract the required parameters for compensating the clutter spectral center misalignment. Simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are presented. PMID:26053755

  13. Some applications of the characteristics non-uniform Doppler to radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, John E.; Breaux, Nancy A.; Hansen, Jeremiah J.

    2016-05-01

    Since the inception of coherent waveforms, it has been realized that the effect of non-uniform motion of a non-point like object can induce structure in the return spectrum of the waveform that can be exploited. The non-uniform Doppler spectrum has useful information that can be found in the spreading of the Doppler spectrum for the motion models: acceleration, jerk, quadric, and exponential slowdown as examples well as a characteristic of periodic motion. We illustrate this with examples relevant to automotive radar, tracking meteors with ambient sources, characterizing moving sources and other relevant examples.

  14. Doppler radar radial winds in HIRLAM. Part I: observation modelling and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, H.; Salonen, K.; Lindskog, M.; Huuskonen, A.; Niemelä, S.; Eresmaa, R.

    2009-03-01

    An observation operator for Doppler radar radial wind measurements is developed further in this article, based on the earlier work and considerations of the measurement characteristic. The elementary observation operator treats radar observations as point measurements at pre-processed observation heights. Here, modelling of the radar pulse volume broadening in vertical and the radar pulse path bending due to refraction is included to improve the realism of the observation modelling. The operator is implemented into the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) limited area numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. A data set of circa 133000 radial wind measurements is passively monitored against the HIRLAM six-hourly background values in a 1-month experiment. No data assimilation experiments are performed at this stage. A new finding is that the improved modelling reduces the mean observation minus background (OmB) vector wind difference at ranges below 55 km, and the standard deviation of the radial wind OmB difference at ranges over 25 km. In conclusion, a more accurate and still computationally feasible observation operator is developed. The companion paper (Part II) considers optimal super-observation processing of Doppler radar radial winds for HIRLAM, with general applicability in NWP.

  15. Spaceborne Doppler Radar Measurements of Rainfall: Correction of Errors Induced by Pointing Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Kobayashi, Satoru; Mascelloni, Roberto; Facheris, Luca

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a sea surface radar echo spectral analysis technique to correct for the rainfall velocity error caused by radar-pointing uncertainty is presented. The correction procedure is quite straightforward when the radar is observing a homogeneous rainfall field. When nonuniform beam filling (NUBF) occurs and attenuating frequencies are used, however, additional steps are necessary in order to correctly estimate the antenna-pointing direction. This new technique relies on the application of the combined frequency-time (CFT) algorithm to correct for uneven attenuation effects on the observed sea surface Doppler spectrum. The performance of this correction technique was evaluated by a Monte Carlo simulation of the Doppler precipitation radar backscatter from high-resolution 3D rain fields (either generated by a cloud resolving numerical model or retrieved from airborne radar measurements). The results show that the antenna-pointing-induced error can, indeed, be reduced by the proposed technique in order to achieve 1 m s(exp -1) accuracy on rainfall vertical velocity estimates.

  16. Activity monitoring and motion classification of the lizard Chamaeleo jacksonii using multiple Doppler radars.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lee, Scott S K; Butler, Marguerite; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple, non-contact and efficient tool for monitoring the natural activity of a small lizard (Chamaeleo jacksonii) to yield valuable information about their metabolic activity and energy expenditure. It allows monitoring in a non-confined laboratory environment and uses multiple Doppler radars operating at 10.525 GHz. We developed a classification algorithm that can differentiate between fidgeting and locomotion by processing the quadrature baseband signals from the radars. The results have been verified by visual inspection and indicate that the tool could also be used for automated monitoring of the activities of reptiles and other small animals. PMID:23366934

  17. A data efficient method for characterization of chameleon tongue motion using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor; Butler, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    A new technique is described for study of the study of high velocity animal movements using a continuous wave Doppler radar operating at 24 GHz. The movement studied was tongue projection kinematics during prey capture by the lizard Chamaeleo Jacksonii. The measurements were verified with a high speed video reference, recorded at 1000 frames per second. The limitations and advantages of both the methodologies are compared and tongue speeds of 3:65 m/s were observed. These results show a useful application of radar to augment visual sensing of biological motion and enable the use of monitoring in a wider range of situations. PMID:23365957

  18. The use of a two channel Doppler radar sensor for the characterization of heart motion phases.

    PubMed

    Muehlsteff, J; Thijs, J A J; Pinter, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates a two-channel Doppler radar sensor that can provide information on the direction of movement. The radar sensor has the advantage of non-invasive, contactless measurements, compared to ultrasound. From theoretical considerations and a working model, we deduce a criterion for extracting points of no movement in a heart cycle. We propose to use this criterion to characterize the heart motion phases, beyond looking at signal morphology only. In contrast to the ECG, this technique provides easy and comfortable access to information about the mechanical activity of the heart.

  19. Activity monitoring and motion classification of the lizard Chamaeleo jacksonii using multiple Doppler radars.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lee, Scott S K; Butler, Marguerite; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple, non-contact and efficient tool for monitoring the natural activity of a small lizard (Chamaeleo jacksonii) to yield valuable information about their metabolic activity and energy expenditure. It allows monitoring in a non-confined laboratory environment and uses multiple Doppler radars operating at 10.525 GHz. We developed a classification algorithm that can differentiate between fidgeting and locomotion by processing the quadrature baseband signals from the radars. The results have been verified by visual inspection and indicate that the tool could also be used for automated monitoring of the activities of reptiles and other small animals.

  20. A data efficient method for characterization of chameleon tongue motion using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor; Butler, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    A new technique is described for study of the study of high velocity animal movements using a continuous wave Doppler radar operating at 24 GHz. The movement studied was tongue projection kinematics during prey capture by the lizard Chamaeleo Jacksonii. The measurements were verified with a high speed video reference, recorded at 1000 frames per second. The limitations and advantages of both the methodologies are compared and tongue speeds of 3:65 m/s were observed. These results show a useful application of radar to augment visual sensing of biological motion and enable the use of monitoring in a wider range of situations.

  1. Three-Centimeter Doppler Radar Observations of Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices in Clear Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki L. H.; Myers, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a high risk, high pay-off experiment with the objective of detecting, for the first time, the presence of aircraft wake vortices in clear air using X-band Doppler radar. Field experiments were conducted in January 1995 at the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) to demonstrate the capability of the 9.33 GHz (I=3 cm) radar, which was assembled using an existing nine-meter parabolic antenna reflector at VVTT and the receiver/transmitter from the NASA Airborne Windshear Radar-Program. A C-130-aircraft, equipped with wingtip smoke generators, created visually marked wake vortices, which were recorded by video cameras. A C-band radar also observed the wake vortices during detection attempts with the X-band radar. Rawinsonde data was used to calculate vertical soundings of wake vortex decay time, cross aircraft bearing wind speed, and water vapor mixing ratio for aircraft passes over the radar measurement range. This experiment was a pathfinder in predicting, in real time, the location and persistence of C-130 vortices, and in setting the flight path of the aircraft to optimize X-band radar measurement of the wake vortex core in real time. This experiment was conducted in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS).

  2. Doppler radar device as a useful tool to quantify the liveliness of the experimental animal.

    PubMed

    Kropveld, D; Chamuleau, R A

    1993-07-01

    The Doppler radar device which is described here is shown to be a reliable and accurate device to quantify the liveliness of an experimental rat. During recording the animal did not seem to be disturbed in any way by the device. It could stay in its normal cage, move freely, walk around and eat and drink ad libitum. Measurement did not require extra light, sound or other stimuli. Interpretation of the data was easy. The computer which samples the Doppler radar output signal generates activity curves which were easily interpreted for different ranges of vitality, varying between high liveliness and apnoea or cardiac arrest. The apparatus is low priced, and simple to build and use.

  3. Software-defined radar and waveforms for studying micro-Doppler signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baokun; Chen, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of software defined radar (SDR) to analyze the micro-Doppler signatures. The first SDR we use is based on the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) and GNU Radio, and another SDR which has several operation modes is based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Typically, the USRP-based SDR is not optimized for radar applications due to its narrow bandwidth and time-varying additional delay caused by USRP components and operating system. The FPGA-based SDR is more suitable for applications where high-resolution range information is required. Our studies indicate that both of the SDR systems are capable of producing the micro-Doppler signatures. System design challenges and measurement results will be discussed in detail.

  4. Radar micro-Doppler based human activity classification for indoor and outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenaldin, Matthew; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of our experimental investigation into how different environments impact the classification of human motion using radar micro-Doppler (MD) signatures. The environments studied include free space, through-thewall, leaf tree foliage, and needle tree foliage. Results on presented on classification of the following three motions: crawling, walking, and jogging. The classification task was designed how to best separate these movements. The human motion data were acquired using a monostatic coherent Doppler radar operating in the C-band at 6.5 GHz from a total of six human subjects. The received signals were analyzed in the time-frequency domain using the Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT) which was used for feature extraction. Classification was performed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) using a Radial Basis Function (RBF). Classification accuracies in the range 80-90% were achieved to separate the three movements mentioned.

  5. The structure of the convective atmospheric boundary layer as revealed by lidar and Doppler radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eilts, M. D.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Doviak, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the structure of the convective atmospheric boundary layer based on the analyses of data from the instrumented NSSL-KTVY tower, airborne Doppler lidar, and ground-based Doppler radars are presented. The vertically averaged wind over the boundary layer was found to be insensitive to baroclinicity, supporting the hypothesis of Arya and Wyngaard (1975). The computed momentum flux profiles were affected by baroclinicity. Horizontal wind spectra from lidar, radar, and tower data compared well with each other both in shape and magnitude. A consistent peak found near 4 km in all the computed spectra might have been caused by horizontally symmetric cells with horizontal wavelength 4 times the boundary-layer height as shown in Kuettner (1971) for the case of weak wind shear.

  6. The Use of Speckle for Determining the Response Characteristics of Doppler Imaging Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, David G.

    1985-11-01

    The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) aboard Seasat in 1978 demonstrated a unique sensitivity to oceanic and geologic features imaged over a 100-kilometer swath with 25-meter resolution. The ability of the remote sensor to resolve the fine details of large environmental systems has resulted in the orbiting of a similar system, the shuttle imaging radar (SIR-B), aboard the space shuttle Challenger during October 1984. Coherent speckle noise observed for these Doppler imaging-radar systems is caused by random correlations of the illuminating radar chirp with the surface reflectance down range. Radar speckle is similar to optical speckle in that respect, but it is also influenced by along-track sampling statistics. The Ray-leigh statistics of coherent scattering and the Poisson statistics of radar pulse detection are employed to model the speckle observed in spatially random data samples. Speckle degradation of a radar scene may obstruct interpretations of scene detail, but it can also be useful in determining the spatial response of the remote sensor and scene correlator. Randomly speckled scenes that are otherwise featureless provide a white-noise input to the Doppler imaging process. Several such scenes have been processed with fast Fourier trans-form (FFT) methods to estimate the point-spread function and its Fourier-domain equivalent, the wavenumber response function. These measurements of spatial resolution are used to compare the Seasat SAR and the Challenger SIR-B remote sensors. In addition, two ground-scene correlators are compared in terms of the point-spread estimate of spatial resolution for common input data from the SIR-B sensor.

  7. Doppler Radar Profiler for Launch Winds at the Kennedy Space Center (Phase 1a)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the, NASA Technical Fellow for Flight Mechanics at Langley Research Center (LaRC), to develop a database from multiple Doppler radar wind profiler (DRWP) sources and develop data processing algorithms to construct high temporal resolution DRWP wind profiles for day-of-launch (DOL) vehicle assessment. This document contains the outcome of Phase 1a of the assessment including Findings, Observations, NESC Recommendations, and Lessons Learned.

  8. An on-board processor for a spaceborne Doppler precipitation radar : requirements and preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Fischman, M. A.; Tanelli, S.; Johnson, R. A.; Chu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Use of Doppler velocity measurement in spaceborne precipitation radar is highly desirable, since it can allow more accurate retrieval of atmospheric latent heating, which depends on both cloud and rain microphysical processes and on dynamical processes, namely, vertical updrafts and downdrafts. However, if the rain within the antenna beam is very non-uniform, biases can result with conventional pulse-pair processing, and more sophisticated processing is required. The solution is a time-frequency approach, which uses the full Doppler spectrum at each point in time. Since precipitation radars normally operate continuously and collect large amounts of data, real-time, on-board processing of data is needed to reduce the data rate. The objective of this work is to develop an on-board data processor for spaceborne Doppler precipitation radar, using field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. This paper describes the simulations and analysis that have been completed during the first year of the project. This includes both analytical calculations and bit-true simulations that allow the effects of finite word length to be explored. Tradeoffs have also been considered between speed and space within the chosen FPGA part. The results of these analyses have been used to develop a complete set of requirements for the processor. Initial design work has begun, based on these requirements. The design is being implemented in Verilog, and a description of this early design effort is also be given.

  9. Extended Kalman Doppler tracking and model determination for multi-sensor short-range radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermaier, Thomas J.; Siart, Uwe; Eibert, Thomas F.; Bonerz, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A tracking solution for collision avoidance in industrial machine tools based on short-range millimeter-wave radar Doppler observations is presented. At the core of the tracking algorithm there is an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that provides dynamic estimation and localization in real-time. The underlying sensor platform consists of several homodyne continuous wave (CW) radar modules. Based on In-phase-Quadrature (IQ) processing and down-conversion, they provide only Doppler shift information about the observed target. Localization with Doppler shift estimates is a nonlinear problem that needs to be linearized before the linear KF can be applied. The accuracy of state estimation depends highly on the introduced linearization errors, the initialization and the models that represent the true physics as well as the stochastic properties. The important issue of filter consistency is addressed and an initialization procedure based on data fitting and maximum likelihood estimation is suggested. Models for both, measurement and process noise are developed. Tracking results from typical three-dimensional courses of movement at short distances in front of a multi-sensor radar platform are presented.

  10. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  11. Instantaneous altitude estimation of maneuvering target in over-the-horizon radar exploiting multipath Doppler signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yimin D.; Zhang, Jun Jason; Amin, Moeness G.; Himed, Braham

    2013-12-01

    Over-the-horizon radar systems are capable of localizing targets in range and azimuth but are unable to achieve reliable altitude estimation. Past work has shown that the time-varying Doppler signatures of micro-multipath signals provide rich information for reliable estimation of altitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new technique for the estimation of instantaneous altitude of maneuvering targets by exploiting the estimated multicomponent Doppler signatures. A key contribution of this paper is to apply effective non-stationary signal analysis techniques for estimating the time-varying Doppler signature of each individual multipath. This enables reliable target altitude estimation in an extended Kalman filter setup. The maximum a-posteriori criterion is used for the estimation of initial target states.

  12. Doppler radar detection of exceptional mass-migration of aphids into Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, M.; Leskinen, Matti; Helenius, Juha

    Our objective was to detect mass migrations of insects of economic significance by insect traps and a Doppler weather radar. Migrants were sampled by suction traps, tow nets and light traps in the Helsinki region. We used radar to observe the migrating insects, and trajectories to backtrack mass migrations of aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) in spring 1988. The aphid migrations were clearly observed in trap catches and by radar. The first migration, mainly involving Euceraphis betulae, occurred on 18 May and was tracked back to northern Poland. The second migration, mainly of Rhopalosiphum padi (a serious pest of small-grain cereals), occurred 3 days later and was tracked back to a large area covering Latvia and western Russia south of St Petersburg. The third migration included both E. betulae and R. padi, and took place on 30 May. It originated from Estonia. Neither trap nor radar data provide exact quantitative information on migrations. Trapping efficiency depends strongly on wind speed and insect size. Radar echo intensity is very strongly related to the sizes of insects in the large volume of air measured, and the sizes are not known accurately. Weather data, especially temperature, can be used in predicting the development of aphids, and air-parcel trajectories in estimating the source areas of migrants. These methods for forecasting aphid migrations, combined with radar observations, are useful for warning purposes and to intensify insect trapping. This would contribute to more efficient agricultural pest management.

  13. Doppler radar detection of exceptional mass-migration of aphids into Finland.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, M; Leskinen, M; Helenius, J

    2000-11-01

    Our objective was to detect mass migrations of insects of economic significance by insect traps and a Doppler weather radar. Migrants were sampled by suction traps, tow nets and light traps in the Helsinki region. We used radar to observe the migrating insects, and trajectories to backtrack mass migrations of aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) in spring 1988. The aphid migrations were clearly observed in trap catches and by radar. The first migration, mainly involving Euceraphis betulae, occurred on 18 May and was tracked back to northern Poland. The second migration, mainly of Rhopalosiphum padi (a serious pest of small-grain cereals), occurred 3 days later and was tracked back to a large area covering Latvia and western Russia south of St Petersburg. The third migration included both E. betulae and R. padi, and took place on 30 May. It originated from Estonia. Neither trap nor radar data provide exact quantitative information on migrations. Trapping efficiency depends strongly on wind speed and insect size. Radar echo intensity is very strongly related to the sizes of insects in the large volume of air measured, and the sizes are not known accurately. Weather data, especially temperature, can be used in predicting the development of aphids, and air-parcel trajectories in estimating the source areas of migrants. These methods for forecasting aphid migrations, combined with radar observations, are useful for warning purposes and to intensify insect trapping. This would contribute to more efficient agricultural pest management.

  14. Applications of the NCAR Electra Doppler radar for the study of physical parameters of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Craig; Frush, Charles; Hildebrand, Peter

    An airborne Doppler X-band radar to be mounted in the tail of a Lockheed Electra (ELDORA) is presented. The ELDORA is designed with a primary emphasis on the study of storm and mesoscale weather phenomena. However, the radar will also be very useful for the study of cloud physical parameters. Because the aircraft can be positioned close to the area of interest, reasonably fine scale data can be taken in a very short length of time. Since these types of measurements are not available, there is much to be learned even with the moderately course resolution of the ELDORA. The use of a larger, vertically pointing antenna will further enhance the ability of the ELDORA to measure these properties. Once this effort is completed, the information obtained will greatly enhance the cloud physics community's ability to determine what specific properties of airborne radar are necessary to measure their phenomena of interest.

  15. Fallspeeds and Vertical Air Motions in Stratiform Rain Derived from ER-2 Doppler Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Tian, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) conducted several intensive field validation campaigns for improved understanding of Tropical precipitation systems. Two of the campaigns (TEFLUN in Florida and Texas, and LBA in Brazil) utilized: the NASA ER-2 high-altitude (20 km) remote sensing aircraft instrumented with the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the University of North Dakota Citation microphysics aircraft, and the NCAR S-POL polarization radar. This paper focuses on EDOP-derived fallspeeds and vertical velocities in the rain regions of two stratiform cases (5 September 1998 along the east coast of Florida, and 17 February 1999 in Amazonia in Brazil). These cases were sampled in situ microphysically by the Citation and reported elsewhere in this meeting; the main emphasis of this paper will be on the airborne radar measurements and inferences from them.

  16. A study of the convective boundary-layer dynamics using single Doppler radar measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M.; Gal-Chen, T. )

    1993-11-01

    The kinematic and dynamical properties of the convective planetary boundary layer (CBL) with shear are studied using single Doppler radar measurements. The data were collected using single K-band (0.87 cm) Doppler radar operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Wave Propagation Laboratory. An analysis technique has been developed and tested that is an extension of the velocity azimuth display (VAD). The technique and its associated error analysis are described in detail. Profiles of the mean wind, vertical velocity, associated momentum fluxes, and variances are estimated. In agreement with the classical picture of the CBL, the profile of the vertical velocity variance achieves a relative maximum magnitude in the lower part of the mixed layer. Large magnitudes of vertical flux of horizontal momentum are found at the top of the mixed layer, while countergradient momentum fluxes are found in part of the CBL. The second moment of the Doppler spectrum is utilized, so that the momentum transport by eddies smaller than radar resolution volume is included. In most cases and contrary to most large eddy simulations studies, the effects of the subresolution momentum fluxes on the mixed layer are not negligible. The longitudinal power spectrum on the horizontal velocity near the surface has also been calculated using the Fourier transform techniques. Traditional k[sup [minus]5/3] spectra at the inertial subrange are obtained from which, using standard techniques, the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate has been estimated. To test the validity of the single Doppler analysis techniques, the derived turbulence statistics are compared with the results from other measurements. 33 refs., 30 figs, 3 tabs.

  17. Assessment of Human Respiration Patterns via Noncontact Sensing Using Doppler Multi-Radar System

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique. PMID:25785310

  18. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-03-16

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  19. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique. PMID:25785310

  20. Determination of U, V, and W from single station Doppler radar radial velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Warnock, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The ST/MST (stratosphere troposphere/mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) clear air Doppler radar, or wind profiler, is an important tool in observational meteorology because of its capability to remote observe dynamic parameters of the atmosphere. There are difficulties in transforming the observed radial velocities into meteorological wind components. How this problem has been treated in the past is reviewed, and some of the analysis is recast to a form more suited to the high diagnostic abilities of a number of fixed beam configurations with reference to a linear wind field. The results, in conjunction with other works which treats problems such as the effects of finite sample volumes in the presence of nonhomogeneous atmospheric reflectivity, have implications important to the design of both individual MST/ST radars and MST/ST radar networks. The key parameters to uncoupling terms in the scaling equations are w sub x and w sub y. Whenever the stratiform condition, which states that these two parameters are negligible, is satisfied, a five beam ST radar may determine unbiased values of u, v, and w for sample volumes directly above the radar. The divergence and partial deformation of the flow may also be determined. Three beam systems can determine w and w sub z, but are unable to obtain u and v wind components uncontaminated by vertical sheer terms, even when the stratiform condition is satisfied.

  1. New Approaches For Asteroid Spin State and Shape Modeling From Delay-Doppler Radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, Chedy; Lamee, Mehdi; Mosiane, Olorato; Vassallo, Corinne; Busch, Michael W.; Greenberg, Adam; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Duong, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Delay-Doppler radar imaging is a powerful technique to characterize the trajectories, shapes, and spin states of near-Earth asteroids; and has yielded detailed models of dozens of objects. Reconstructing objects' shapes and spins from delay-Doppler data is a computationally intensive inversion problem. Since the 1990s, delay-Doppler data has been analyzed using the SHAPE software. SHAPE performs sequential single-parameter fitting, and requires considerable computer runtime and human intervention (Hudson 1993, Magri et al. 2007). Recently, multiple-parameter fitting algorithms have been shown to more efficiently invert delay-Doppler datasets (Greenberg & Margot 2015) – decreasing runtime while improving accuracy. However, extensive human oversight of the shape modeling process is still required. We have explored two new techniques to better automate delay-Doppler shape modeling: Bayesian optimization and a machine-learning neural network.One of the most time-intensive steps of the shape modeling process is to perform a grid search to constrain the target's spin state. We have implemented a Bayesian optimization routine that uses SHAPE to autonomously search the space of spin-state parameters. To test the efficacy of this technique, we compared it to results with human-guided SHAPE for asteroids 1992 UY4, 2000 RS11, and 2008 EV5. Bayesian optimization yielded similar spin state constraints within a factor of 3 less computer runtime.The shape modeling process could be further accelerated using a deep neural network to replace iterative fitting. We have implemented a neural network with a variational autoencoder (VAE), using a subset of known asteroid shapes and a large set of synthetic radar images as inputs to train the network. Conditioning the VAE in this manner allows the user to give the network a set of radar images and get a 3D shape model as an output. Additional development will be required to train a network to reliably render shapes from delay-Doppler

  2. Clutter filter design considerations for Airborne Doppler radar detection of windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of clutter rejection when processing down-looking Doppler radar returns from a low altitude airborne platform is a paramount problem. With radar as a remote sensor for detecting and predicting windshear in the vicinity of an urban airport, dynamic range requirements can exceed 50 dB because of high clutter to signal ratios. This presentation describes signal processing considerations in the presence of distributed and/or discrete clutter interference. Previous analyses have considered conventional range cell processing of radar returns from a rigidly mounted radar platform using either the Fourier or the pulse-pair method to estimate average windspeed and windspeed variation within a cell. Clutter rejection has been based largely upon analyzing a particular environment in the vicinity of the radar and employing a variety of techniques to reduce interference effects including notch filtering, Fourier domain line editing, and use of clutter maps. For the airborne environment the clutter characteristics may be somewhat different. Conventional clutter rejection methods may have to be changed and new methods will probably be required to provide useful signal to noise ratios. Various considerations are described. A major thrust has been to evaluate the effect of clutter rejection filtering upon the ability to derive useful information from the post-filter radar data. This analysis software is briefly described. Finally, some ideas for future analysis are considered including the use of adaptive filtering for clutter rejection and the estimation of windspeed spatial gradient directly from radar returns as a means of reducing the effects of clutter on the determination of a windshear hazard.

  3. Through Wall Radar Classification of Human Micro-Doppler Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Matthew; Ash, Matthew; Chen, Qingchao; Chetty, Kevin

    2016-08-31

    The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor. The radar was deployed at a standoff distance, of approximately 0.5 m, outside a residential building and used to detect multiple people walking within a room. Through the application of digital filtering, it was shown that significant suppression of the primary wall reflection is possible, significantly enhancing the target signal to clutter ratio. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) signal processing techniques were then applied to the micro-Doppler signatures from different individuals. Features from the SVD information have been used to classify whether the person was carrying an item or walking free handed. Excellent performance of the classifier was achieved in this challenging scenario with accuracies up to 94%, suggesting that future through wall radar sensors may have the ability to reliably recognize many different types of activities in TTW scenarios using these techniques.

  4. Through Wall Radar Classification of Human Micro-Doppler Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Matthew; Ash, Matthew; Chen, Qingchao; Chetty, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor. The radar was deployed at a standoff distance, of approximately 0.5 m, outside a residential building and used to detect multiple people walking within a room. Through the application of digital filtering, it was shown that significant suppression of the primary wall reflection is possible, significantly enhancing the target signal to clutter ratio. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) signal processing techniques were then applied to the micro-Doppler signatures from different individuals. Features from the SVD information have been used to classify whether the person was carrying an item or walking free handed. Excellent performance of the classifier was achieved in this challenging scenario with accuracies up to 94%, suggesting that future through wall radar sensors may have the ability to reliably recognize many different types of activities in TTW scenarios using these techniques. PMID:27589760

  5. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  6. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database. PMID:22254706

  7. Hurricane Bonnie Landfalling Observed from ER-2 Doppler Radar on 26 August 1998 During CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Halverson, J.; Tian, L.; Geerts, B.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft collected remote sensing and in situ data sets from Hurricane Bonnie (23, 24, and 26 August 1998) during the Convection And Moisture Experimental-3 (CAMEX-3). Bonnie was an exceptional case where NASA and NOAA had five aircraft sampling both upper levels and lower altitudes. The ER-2 was instrumented with the ER-2 Doppler XBand radar (EDOP) and several radiometers ranging from visible to lower frequency microwaves. EDOP is a fixed dual-beam radar (nadir and forward-looking beams) which allows computation of both vertical and alongtrack horizontal winds. The hurricane secondary circulation is typically difficult to measure at upper levels due to aircraft altitude limitations and sensitivity of the lower altitude airborne radars. EDOP is in principle, well suited to measure these components of the wind. When ER-2 flies across the approximate center of the hurricane circulation, the along-track winds derived from EDOP, are approximately equal to the hurricane radial flow comprising the secondary circulation. Assuming that the hydrometeor fallspeeds can be approximated, the radial and vertical wind components of the secondary circulation can be measured. Since the hydrometeor motions can be estimated with more confidence in the higher altitude ice regions (i.e., graupel and mixed phase are complicated at lower altitudes), the derived radial and vertical winds have higher accuracy at upper levels. On the other hand, the reflectivities are extremely low at higher altitudes, resulting in fewer Doppler velocity estimates.

  8. Through Wall Radar Classification of Human Micro-Doppler Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Matthew; Ash, Matthew; Chen, Qingchao; Chetty, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor. The radar was deployed at a standoff distance, of approximately 0.5 m, outside a residential building and used to detect multiple people walking within a room. Through the application of digital filtering, it was shown that significant suppression of the primary wall reflection is possible, significantly enhancing the target signal to clutter ratio. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) signal processing techniques were then applied to the micro-Doppler signatures from different individuals. Features from the SVD information have been used to classify whether the person was carrying an item or walking free handed. Excellent performance of the classifier was achieved in this challenging scenario with accuracies up to 94%, suggesting that future through wall radar sensors may have the ability to reliably recognize many different types of activities in TTW scenarios using these techniques. PMID:27589760

  9. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database.

  10. Kinematic features of a bow echo in southern China observed with doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xindong; Zhang, Renhe; Wang, Hongyan

    2013-11-01

    A bow echo is a type of mesoscale convective phenomenon that often induces extreme weather and appears with strong reflectivity on radar images. A strong bow echo that developed from a supercell was observed over Foshan City in southern China on 17 April 2011. The intense gusty winds and showers caused huge losses of property and severely affected human lives. This paper presents an analysis of this strong meso- β-scale convective system based on Doppler radar observations. The isolated bow echo exhibited a horizontal scale of about 80 km in terms of reflectivity above 40 dB Z, and a life span of 8 hours. The system originated from the merging of a couple of weakly organized cells in a shear line, and developed into an arch shape as it moved through the shear zone. Sufficient surface moisture supply ensured the convective instability and development of the bow echo. The low-altitude winds retrieved from single Doppler radar observations showed an obvious rear-inflow jet along the notch area. Different from the conventional definition, no bookend anticyclone was observed throughout the life cycle. Very strong slantwise updrafts and downdrafts were recognizable from the retrieved winds, even though the spatial scale of the bow echo was small. Strong winds and induced damage on the surface are considered to have been caused by the mid-level rear-inflow jet and intense convective downdrafts.

  11. Exploiting Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra of Mixed-Phase Clouds during ACCEPT Field Experiment to Identify Microphysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalesse, H.; Myagkov, A.; Seifert, P.; Buehl, J.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra offer much information about cloud processes. By analyzing millimeter radar Doppler spectra from cloud-top to -base in mixed-phase clouds in which super-cooled liquid-layers are present we try to tell the microphysical evolution story of particles that are present by disentangling the contributions of the solid and liquid particles to the total radar returns. Instead of considering vertical profiles, dynamical effects are taken into account by following the particle population evolution along slanted paths which are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud. The goal is to identify regions in which different microphysical processes such as new particle formation (nucleation), water vapor deposition, aggregation, riming, or sublimation occurr. Cloud radar measurements are supplemented by Doppler lidar and Raman lidar observations as well as observations with MWR, wind profiler, and radio sondes. The presence of super-cooled liquid layers is identified by positive liquid water paths in MWR measurements, the vertical location of liquid layers (in non-raining systems and below lidar extinction) is derived from regions of high-backscatter and low depolarization in Raman lidar observations. In collocated cloud radar measurements, we try to identify cloud phase in the cloud radar Doppler spectrum via location of the Doppler peak(s), the existence of multi-modalities or the spectral skewness. Additionally, within the super-cooled liquid layers, the radar-identified liquid droplets are used as air motion tracer to correct the radar Doppler spectrum for vertical air motion w. These radar-derived estimates of w are validated by independent estimates of w from collocated Doppler lidar measurements. A 35 GHz vertically pointing cloud Doppler radar (METEK MIRA-35) in linear depolarization (LDR) mode is used. Data is from the deployment of the Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) during the Analysis of the Composition of

  12. Joint angle and Doppler frequency estimation of coherent targets in monostatic MIMO radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Renzheng; Zhang, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    This paper discusses the problem of joint direction of arrival (DOA) and Doppler frequency estimation of coherent targets in a monostatic multiple-input multiple-output radar. In the proposed algorithm, we perform a reduced dimension (RD) transformation on the received signal first and then use forward spatial smoothing (FSS) technique to decorrelate the coherence and obtain joint estimation of DOA and Doppler frequency by exploiting the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm. The joint estimated parameters of the proposed RD-FSS-ESPRIT are automatically paired. Compared with the conventional FSS-ESPRIT algorithm, our RD-FSS-ESPRIT algorithm has much lower complexity and better estimation performance of both DOA and frequency. The variance of the estimation error and the Cramer-Rao Bound of the DOA and frequency estimation are derived. Simulation results show the effectiveness and improvement of our algorithm.

  13. Polarimetric and Multi-Doppler Radar Observations of Electrified and Unelectrified Wildfire Smoke Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Dolan, Brenda; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Lindsey, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrocumulus clouds above three Colorado wildfires (Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon; all occurred during summer 2012) electrified and produced small intracloud discharges whenever the smoke plumes grew to high altitudes (over 10 km above mean sea level, or MSL). This occurred during periods of rapid wildfire growth, as indicated by the shortwave infrared channel on a geostationary satellite, as well as by incident reports. In the Hewlett Gulch case, the fire growth led to increased updrafts within the plume, as inferred by multiple- Doppler radar syntheses, which led to the vertical development and subsequent electrification - a life cycle as short as 30 minutes. The lightning, detected by a threedimensional lightning mapping network, was favored in high-altitude regions (10 km MSL) containing modest reflectivities (25 dBZ and lower), 0 dB differential reflectivity, and reduced correlation coefficient (0.6-0.7). This indicated the likely presence of ice particles (crystals and aggregates, possibly rimed) mixed with ash. Though neither multiple-Doppler nor polarimetric observations were available during the electrification of the High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes, their NEXRAD observations showed reflectivity structures consistent with Hewlett Gulch. In addition, polarimetric and multiple-Doppler scanning of unelectrified High Park plumes indicated only irregularly shaped ash, and not ice, was present (i.e., reflectivities < 25 dBZ, differential reflectivity > 5 dB, correlation < 0.4), and there was no broaching of the 10 km altitude. Based on these results, the electrification likely was caused by ice-based processes that did not involve significant amounts of graupel. The results demonstrate the scientific value of multiple-Doppler and polarimetric radar observations of wildfire smoke plumes - including the ability to distinguish between regions of pure hydrometeors, regions of pure ash, and mixtures of both - and also suggest a possible new application

  14. Using convolutional neural networks for human activity classification on micro-Doppler radar spectrograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Tyler S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the findings of using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to classify human activity from micro-Doppler features. An emphasis on activities involving potential security threats such as holding a gun are explored. An automotive 24 GHz radar on chip was used to collect the data and a CNN (normally applied to image classification) was trained on the resulting spectrograms. The CNN achieves an error rate of 1.65 % on classifying running vs. walking, 17.3 % error on armed walking vs. unarmed walking, and 22 % on classifying six different actions.

  15. A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

    2010-10-01

    Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for

  16. Non-contact cardiopulmonary monitoring algorithm for a 24 GHz Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Birsan, Nicusor; Munteanu, Doru-Petru

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the particularities of using a Doppler radar in the 24 GHz band for non-contact cardiopulmonary monitoring. To separate heart beat from respiration we looked for a pattern in time-frequency domain instead of trying to extract directly the distance from phase observation in the baseband signal. By selecting the proper components from the Gabor transform prior expansion we obtained good accuracy for heart beat and respiration rates. Also, with minor correction in frequency, the algorithm leads to usable heartbeat waveform, opening new doors for further information extraction. PMID:23366613

  17. Further applications of Doppler radar for non-contact respiratory assessment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Siong; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Caelli, Terry; Li, Saiyi

    2013-01-01

    This paper further investigates the use of Doppler radar for detecting and identifying certain human respiratory characteristics from observed frequency and phase modulations. Specifically, we show how breathing frequencies can be determined from the demodulated signal leading to identifying abnormalities of breathing patterns using signal derivatives, optimal filtering and standard statistical measures. Specifically, we report results on a robust method for distinguishing cessation of the normal breathing cycle. The proposed approach can have potential application in the management of sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS) and sleep apnea. PMID:24110567

  18. Doppler radar retrievals from lava fountaining paroxysms generating tephra plumes at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin, Freret-Lorgeril; Franck, Donnadieu; Mauro, Coltelli; Simona, Scollo; Patrick, Fréville; Claude, Hervier; Michele, Prestifilippo

    2016-04-01

    Etna volcano is one of the most active European volcanoes. Between January 2011 and December 2013, a new crater called the New South East Crater (NSEC) was built during 46 eruptive episodes characterized by lava fountaining generating tephra plumes that reached up to 10 km (a.s.l). A 23 cm-wavelength Doppler radar (VOLDORAD 2B), located about 3 km from NSEC at the Montagnola station and integrated into the INGV-OE instrumental network, has been continuously monitoring the explosive activity of Mt. Etna's summit craters since 2009. We have studied these paroxysms by analyzing the radar echoes and Doppler signals coming from adjacent volumes of the fixed beam probing the lava fountains close to the eruptive crater, in combination with thermal and visible imagery. The range gating (150 m-deep probed volumes along-beam) allows us to discriminate the active summit craters and to roughly estimate the lava fountain width. The backscattered power, which is related to the erupted tephra mass load in the beam, and Doppler velocities help to mark the transition from Strombolian activity to lava fountaining, providing onset and end times of the fountain. Both radar parameters directly provide a proxy for the mass eruption rate, which is found to follow the time variations of tephra plume height. Oscillations of the echo power during lava fountaining indicate a pulsatile behavior likely originating in the magmatic conduit or deeper reservoir. Ejection velocities retrieved from positive along-beam velocities measured near the emission source, are found to range from 140 to almost 350 m/s during the climax. Maximum along-beam Doppler velocity components from fallouts allow us to infer maximum particle sizes (pluri-decimetric) in agreement with field observations. The mode of power spectral distribution could further be used to constrain the mean diameter of proximal fallout. A reliable quantification of the source mass loading parameters requires more stringent constraints on the

  19. Experimental demonstration of noncontact pulse wave velocity monitoring using multiple Doppler radar sensors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Li, Changzhi; Lie, Donald Y C

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two Doppler radars are used to monitor the pulse movements at the heart and the calf in order to measure the pulse wave velocity (PWV) wirelessly. Both simulation and experiment have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed noncontact PWV monitoring. A three-stage calibration procedure, including DC offset calibration, circuit delay calibration and antenna radiation pattern calibration, has been developed for reliable long-term PWV monitoring. The measurement results have been verified by wired contact measurement with pulse transducers.

  20. Further applications of Doppler radar for non-contact respiratory assessment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Siong; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Caelli, Terry; Li, Saiyi

    2013-01-01

    This paper further investigates the use of Doppler radar for detecting and identifying certain human respiratory characteristics from observed frequency and phase modulations. Specifically, we show how breathing frequencies can be determined from the demodulated signal leading to identifying abnormalities of breathing patterns using signal derivatives, optimal filtering and standard statistical measures. Specifically, we report results on a robust method for distinguishing cessation of the normal breathing cycle. The proposed approach can have potential application in the management of sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS) and sleep apnea.

  1. Non-contact cardiopulmonary monitoring algorithm for a 24 GHz Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Birsan, Nicusor; Munteanu, Doru-Petru

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the particularities of using a Doppler radar in the 24 GHz band for non-contact cardiopulmonary monitoring. To separate heart beat from respiration we looked for a pattern in time-frequency domain instead of trying to extract directly the distance from phase observation in the baseband signal. By selecting the proper components from the Gabor transform prior expansion we obtained good accuracy for heart beat and respiration rates. Also, with minor correction in frequency, the algorithm leads to usable heartbeat waveform, opening new doors for further information extraction.

  2. Application of empirical mode decomposition in removing fidgeting interference in doppler radar life signs monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Mostafanezhad, Isar; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor; Mandic, Danilo P

    2009-01-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition has been shown effective in the analysis of non-stationary and non-linear signals. As an application in wireless life signs monitoring in this paper we use this method in conditioning the signals obtained from the Doppler device. Random physical movements, fidgeting, of the human subject during a measurement can fall on the same frequency of the heart or respiration rate and interfere with the measurement. It will be shown how Empirical Mode Decomposition can break the radar signal down into its components and help separate and remove the fidgeting interference.

  3. Wind from Indian Doppler Weather Radars: a data assimilation view point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Devajyoti; Mallick, Swapan; Jyothi, K. A.; George, John P.; Kumar, D. Preveen

    2016-05-01

    Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) can provide tropospheric wind observations with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The Volume Velocity Processing (VVP) technique is one of the processing methods which can provide vertical profiles of mean horizontal winds. The DWR observed VVP winds gives a continuous observation of the wind field at various atmospheric levels. The quality of the VVP winds is studied against the short-range forecast of the NCUM model (model background). The biases of the observation are calculated against model background. This study focuses on the quality of VVP winds and seasonal variation of bias of the observed wind. This results shows that the VVP winds provides reasonably accurate estimates of the vertical wind structure in the troposphere over radar locations which can be effectively used in the numerical weather prediction system.

  4. The Coplane Analysis Technique for Three-Dimensional Wind Retrieval Using the HIWRAP Airborne Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didlake, Anthony C., Jr.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Guimond, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The coplane analysis technique for mapping the three-dimensional wind field of precipitating systems is applied to the NASA High Altitude Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP). HIWRAP is a dual-frequency Doppler radar system with two downward pointing and conically scanning beams. The coplane technique interpolates radar measurements to a natural coordinate frame, directly solves for two wind components, and integrates the mass continuity equation to retrieve the unobserved third wind component. This technique is tested using a model simulation of a hurricane and compared to a global optimization retrieval. The coplane method produced lower errors for the cross-track and vertical wind components, while the global optimization method produced lower errors for the along-track wind component. Cross-track and vertical wind errors were dependent upon the accuracy of the estimated boundary condition winds near the surface and at nadir, which were derived by making certain assumptions about the vertical velocity field. The coplane technique was then applied successfully to HIWRAP observations of Hurricane Ingrid (2013). Unlike the global optimization method, the coplane analysis allows for a transparent connection between the radar observations and specific analysis results. With this ability, small-scale features can be analyzed more adequately and erroneous radar measurements can be identified more easily.

  5. NASA ER-2 Doppler radar reflectivity calibration for the CAMEX project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caylor, I. J.; Heymsfield, G. M.; Bidwell, S. W.; Ameen, S.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) was flown aboard the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft in September and October 1993 for the Convection and Moisture Experiment. During these flights, the first reliable reflectivity observations were performed with the EDOP instrument. This report details the procedure used to convert real-time engineering data into calibrated radar reflectivity. Application of the calibration results produces good agreement between the EDOP nadir pointing reflectivity and ground truth provided by a National Weather Service WSR-88D radar. The rms deviation between WSR-88D and EDOP is 6.9 dB, while measurements of the ocean surface backscatter coefficient are less than 3 dB from reported scatterometer coefficients. After an initial 30-minute period required for the instrument to reach thermal equilibrium, the radar is stable to better than 0.25 dB during flight. The range performance of EDOP shows excellent agreement with aircraft altimeter and meteorological sounding data.

  6. Near-source Doppler radar monitoring of tephra plumes at Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnadieu, F.; Freville, P.; Hervier, C.; Coltelli, M.; Scollo, S.; Prestifilippo, M.; Valade, S.; Rivet, S.; Cacault, P.

    2016-02-01

    Over the last twenty years Mount Etna has produced more than one hundred explosive events ranging from light ash emissions to violent sub-plinian eruptions. Significant hazards arise from tephra plumes which directly threaten air traffic, and generate fallout affecting surrounding towns and infrastructures. We describe the first radar system, named VOLDORAD 2B, fully integrated into a volcano instrumental network dedicated to the continuous near-source monitoring of tephra emissions from Etna's summit craters. This 23.5 cm wavelength pulsed Doppler radar is operated in collaboration between the Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand (OPGC) and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo (INGV-OE) since 2009. Probed volumes inside the fixed, northward-pointing conical beam total about 1.5 km in length, covering the summit craters which produced all recent tephra plumes. The backscattered power, related to the amount of particles crossing the beam, and particle along-beam velocities are recorded every 0.23 s, providing a proxy for the tephra mass eruption rate. Radar raw data are transmitted in real-time to the volcano monitoring center of INGV-OE in Catania and are used to automatically release alerts at onset and end of eruptive events. Processed radar parameters are also made available from the VOLDORAD database online.

  7. The 3 December 2015 paroxysm of Voragine crater at Etna: insights from Doppler radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnadieu, Franck; Freret-Lorgeril, Valentin; Gouhier, Mathieu; Coltelli, Mauro; Scollo, Simona; Fréville, Patrick; Hervier, Claude; Prestifilippo, Michele

    2016-04-01

    After a progressive intensification of Strombolian activity inside the Voragine crater in the evening of December 2 2015, Mount Etna produced a short but violent paroxysm in the night of 3 December 2015, the most intense of the last two decades at Voragine. Lava fountains, observed with the network of thermal and visible cameras of INGV-OE, reached well over 1 km in height with some jets of incandescent material reaching 3 km. A tephra column several kilometers high was produced and pyroclastic material was dispersed by winds in altitude to the NE, causing ash fallouts to affect many towns in Sicily and Reggio Calabria. A 23 cm-wavelength Doppler radar (VOLDORAD 2B), located about 3 km from NSEC at the Montagnola station and integrated into the INGV-OE instrumental network, has been continuously monitoring the explosive activity of Mt. Etna's summit craters since 2009. The radar beam probes 13 successive volumes 150 m deep aligned northward above the summit craters, providing two sets of parameters (echo power and velocity) at a rate of 0.2 s. We analyze the paroxysmal event of Voragine using the radar echoes and Doppler signals coming from volumes inside the lava fountain feeding the tephra column in combination with thermal and visible imagery and satellite data. The radar range gating allowed us to immediately discriminate the central craters as the source of the tephra emission and to estimate the lava fountain width between 300 and 450 m. The backscattered power, which is related to the erupted tephra mass load in the beam, and Doppler velocities help to mark the transition from Strombolian activity to lava fountaining, providing onset and end times of the fountain. The tephra flux into the radar beam started to increase after 02:00 UTC with a strong increase at 02:20 UTC marking the transition to continuous lava fountaining. The climax was reached between ca. 02:35 and 03:15 UTC with maintained high echo power and ejection velocities of 190 m/s in average

  8. Doppler radar signatures of developing thunderstorms and their potential to indicate the onset of cloud-to-ground lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hondl, Kurt D.; Eilts, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The capability of Doppler weather radars to short-term forecast the initiation of thunderstorms and the onset of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is examined. Doppler weather radar data from 28 thunderstorms were analyzed from August 1990 in the central Florida environment. These radar echoes were associated with CG lightning strike locations from the National Lightning Detection Network and two lightning detection systems operated by the U.S. Air Force in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center. From a time history of these radar echoes it was found that a 10-dBZ echo, first detected near the freezing level, may be the first definitive echo of a future thunderstorm. This thunderstorm initiation signature is often accompanied by low-altitude convergence and divergence at the top of the radar echo. The observed lead times between this thunderstorm initiation signature and the first detected CG lightning strike ranged from 5 to 45 min with a median lead time of 15 min. All lightning-producing radar echoes were detected using the thunderstorm initiation signature; however, some echoes exceeded the 10-dBZ threshold and did not produce andy CG lightning. The charecteristics of the WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar systems are evaluated for their capability to detect the thunderstorm initiation signature in central Florida with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

  9. Doppler radar signatures of developing thunderstorms and their potential to indicate the onset of cloud-to-ground lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Hondl, K.D.; Eilts, M.D.

    1994-08-01

    The capability of Doppler weather radars to short-term forecast the initiation of thunderstorms and the onset of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is examined. Doppler weather radar data from 28 thunderstorms were analyzed from August 1990 in the central Florida environment. These radar echoes were associated with CG lightning strike locations from the National Lightning Detection Network and two lightning detection systems operated by the U.S. Air Force in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center. From a time history of these radar echoes it was found that a 10-dBZ echo, first detected near the freezing level, may be the first definitive echo of a future thunderstorm. This thunderstorm initiation signature is often accompanied by low-altitude convergence and divergence at the top of the radar echo. The observed lead times between this thunderstorm initiation signature and the first detected CG lightning strike ranged from 5 to 45 min with a median lead time of 15 min. All lightning-producing radar echoes were detected using the thunderstorm initiation signature; however, some echoes exceeded the 10-dBZ threshold and did not produce andy CG lightning. The charecteristics of the WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar systems are evaluated for their capability to detect the thunderstorm initiation signature in central Florida with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

  10. Towards Realtime Assimilation of Doppler Radar Observations for Cloud-Resolving Hurricane Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Gamache, J. F.; Marks, F. D.

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the feasibility and impacts of on-demand, real-time assimilation of Doppler radar observations straight from the planes with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to initialize a cloud-resolving hurricane prediction model. The NOAA P3 aircrafts have being flying into tropical cyclones to gather radar observations since 1994. These observations are significant in investigating and anglicizing hurricane's intensity, eye-wall structure and intensity changes, but the radar data has never been ingested into hurricane prediction models in real-time. Likely reasons are (1) insufficient model resolution due to inadequate computing resources for ingesting convective-scale details observed by the radar, (2) inadequacy of existing data assimilation method for operational models, and (3) lack of sufficient bandwidth in transmitting huge volume radar data to the ground in realtime. This work is built on our recent case studies of predicting the rapid formation and intensification of past hurricanes in assimilating both ground-base and/or airborne radial velocity into a cloud-resolving mesoscale model with EnKF. Under the auspices of NOAA Hurricane Forecasting Improvement Project (HFIP), we have access to the NSF-sponsored high-performance computing facility TACC at University of Texas at Austin that makes realtime cloud-resolving hurricane data assimilation and forecasting possible. We alleviate the requirement of large volume data transfer from the aircraft through developing a radar radial velocity data quality and thinning procedure (namely to produce superobervations or SOs) to significantly reduce the data size before being transferred. We have first conducted near realtime testing of the cloud-resolving data assimilation and forecasting with Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model using 40.5, 13.5, 4.5 and 1.5 km grid spacings and movable nested grids for Hurricanes Dolly and Fay (2008). As of today, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility, data

  11. Analysis and improved design considerations for airborne pulse Doppler radar signal processing in the detection of hazardous windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonggil

    1990-01-01

    High resolution windspeed profile measurements are needed to provide reliable detection of hazardous low altitude windshear with an airborne pulse Doppler radar. The system phase noise in a Doppler weather radar may degrade the spectrum moment estimation quality and the clutter cancellation capability which are important in windshear detection. Also the bias due to weather return Doppler spectrum skewness may cause large errors in pulse pair spectral parameter estimates. These effects are analyzed for the improvement of an airborne Doppler weather radar signal processing design. A method is presented for the direct measurement of windspeed gradient using low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) radar. This spatial gradient is essential in obtaining the windshear hazard index. As an alternative, the modified Prony method is suggested as a spectrum mode estimator for both the clutter and weather signal. Estimation of Doppler spectrum modes may provide the desired windshear hazard information without the need of any preliminary processing requirement such as clutter filtering. The results obtained by processing a NASA simulation model output support consideration of mode identification as one component of a windshear detection algorithm.

  12. Non-contact multi-radar smart probing of body orientation based on micro-Doppler signatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiran; Pal, Ranadip; Li, Changzhi

    2014-01-01

    Micro-Doppler signatures carry useful information about body movements and have been widely applied to different applications such as human activity recognition and gait analysis. In this paper, micro-Doppler signatures are used to identify body orientation. Four AC-coupled continuous-wave (CW) smart radar sensors were used to form a multiple-radar network to carry out the experiments in this paper. 162 tests were performed in total. The experiment results showed a 100% accuracy in recognizing eight body orientations, i.e., facing north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west, and northwest. PMID:25570030

  13. Non-contact multi-radar smart probing of body orientation based on micro-Doppler signatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiran; Pal, Ranadip; Li, Changzhi

    2014-01-01

    Micro-Doppler signatures carry useful information about body movements and have been widely applied to different applications such as human activity recognition and gait analysis. In this paper, micro-Doppler signatures are used to identify body orientation. Four AC-coupled continuous-wave (CW) smart radar sensors were used to form a multiple-radar network to carry out the experiments in this paper. 162 tests were performed in total. The experiment results showed a 100% accuracy in recognizing eight body orientations, i.e., facing north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west, and northwest.

  14. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Doppler anomalies due to volcanic eruption induced phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; Minet, Christian

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of the EU funded "MEDSUV" supersite project, we use multiple SAR data to investigate Doppler anomalies in the SAR signal occurring during volcanic eruptions. In Synthetic Aperture Radar, variations in the Electro Magnetic Waves travel time results in a change in the Doppler frequency that adds up to the one that is naturally generated by the relative motion between the platform and the ground targets. Within the SAR system, frequencies modulations control the image focusing along the two fundamental SAR directions, the azimuth (i.e. the platform motion direction) and the range (i. e. the sensor looking direction). During the synthetic aperture process (the so called image focusing) a target on the surface is seen along different paths. In standard focusing processing it is assumed both that ground targets are stationary and that between the sensor and the target the medium is the vacuum or a totally homogeneous medium. Therefore, if there is a significant path delay variation along the paths to a specific target this can result either in image defocusing or in pixel misregistration or both. It has been shown that SAR Doppler history anomalies can occur over volcanic areas. The goal of this study is to highlight Doppler history anomalies occurring during the SAR image formation over active volcanoes on a number of test cases. To do so, we apply a sub-aperture cross correlation algorithm on Single Look Complex data. Practically, we measure any pixel misregistration between two sub-looks of the same SAR acquisition. If a pixel shift occurs, it means that the expected radar wave path has been lengthened (or shortened) during the time when ground surface scatterers were illuminated by the sensor radiation either by a ground feature velocity (e. g. water flows, vehicles) or it is refracted by a strong medium discontinuity in the air (volcanic ash plume?). If a Doppler history anomaly is detected by the sub-aperture cross correlation, we try to explore

  15. Observations of tornadoes and wall clouds with a portable FM-CW Doppler radar: 1989--1990 results

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B. . School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on our progress using a portable, 1 W,FM (frequency modulated)-CW (continuous wave) Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to make measurements of the wind field in tornadoes and wall clouds along with simultaneous visual documentation. Results using a CW version of the radar in 1987--1988 are given in Bluestein and Unruh (1989). 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2–5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  17. Real-time Transmission and Distribution of NOAA Tail Doppler Radar Data and Other Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carswell, J.; Chang, P.; Robinson, D.; Gamache, J.; Hill, J.

    2011-12-01

    The NOAA WP-3D and G-IV aircraft have conducted and continue to conduct numerous research and operational measurement missions. However, typically only a fraction of the data collected aboard each flight is transmitted to the ground in near real-time utilizing low bandwidth satellite data links. The advancements in aircraft satellite phones have increased available bandwidth and reliability to a point where these systems can be utilized for near real-time data flow in support of decision making. A robust and flexible data delivery system has been developed by Remote Sensing Solutions with support from NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS), Aircraft Operations Center (AOC) and Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP). X-band Doppler/reflectivity measurements of tropical storms and cyclones collected from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft have been the most recent focus. Doppler measurements from volume backscatter precipitation profiles can provide critical observations of the horizontal winds as the precipitation advects with these winds. The data delivery system captures these profiles and send the radial Doppler profile observations to National Weather Service in near real-time over satellite communication data link. The design of this transmission system included features to enhance the reliability and robustness of the data flow from the P-3 aircraft to the end user. Routine real-time transmission, using this system, of the full resolution Tail Doppler Radar profile data to the ground and distribution to the NOAA's Hurricane Research Division for analysis and processing in support of initializing the operational HWRF model is planned. The end objective is to provide these Doppler profiles in a routine fashion to NWS and others in the forecasting community for operational utilization in support of hurricane forecasting and warning. Other data sources that are being collected and transmitted to the ground with this system for

  18. Large doppler shift in radar detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    Radar detection of cosmic ray air showers has been discussed for 60 years, but never clearly observed. The topic was reexamined by Gorham in 2001 and some serious simulations were done by Takai, who also initiated the Mariachi project utilizing commercial television transmissions as a signal source. The air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays are expected to generate a plasma with plasma frequency in the high VHF region. One factor limiting the received signal strength is the short ion recombination time in air at low altitude. However, a major factor which has not been the center of attention so far is the possible large Doppler shifts for non-specular reflection, and the soft transition between specular and diffuse for small objects and short time scales. We discuss recent work on receivers, and simulations of the Doppler shift. These simulations assume a very short ion recombination time in the lower atmosphere, and use an extremely simple mathematical model. A central feature of our simulations is large Doppler shift from non-moving material.

  19. NEXRAD-In-Space: A Geostationary Orbiting Doppler Radar for Hurricane Monitoring and Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Under NASA's Earth Science Technology Program, a novel mission concept has been developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a geostationary orbit: "NEXRAD in Space" (NIS). By operating in the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), NIS would enable rapid-update sampling (less than or equal to 1 hour cadence) of three dimenional fields of 35 GHz (Ka-band) radar reflectivity factor (Z) and line-of-sight Doppler velocity (VD) profiles, at mesoscale horizontal resolutions (approx. 10 km) over a circular Earth region of approximately 5300 km in diameter (equivalent to much of an oceanic basin, such as the Atlantic). NIS GEO-radar concept was chosen as one of only four potential post-2020 missions for the Weather Focus area in the 2007-2016 NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Plan. The results of the first project aiming at developing the NIS concept highlighted the enormous potential of such mission, and the technological challenges presented by it. In essence, it is because of its rapid-cadence capability that NIS science planning is focusing on hurricane monitoring and prediction. Hurricanes, or generically tropical cyclones (TCs), have always been among the most devastating natural phenomena. This has been painfully reiterated in recent years with a number of powerful TCs landfalling in North America and elsewhere. In April 2007, the first NIS Science Workshop was convened at the University of Miami to galvanize the scientific community's interest in NIS's measurement capabilities for improved TC monitoring and prediction. The general consensus of the workshop was that a GEO Doppler radar would provide a major breakthrough in regards to the observation of TCs, and, when combined with cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents brief summaries of the instrument concept, the current technology status, the anticipated impacts on hurricane monitoring and model prediction, and the future science

  20. Profiling snow-precipitating clouds with Doppler multi-wavelength radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollias, Pavlos; Battaglia, Alessandro; Kneifel, Stefan; Loenhert, Ulrich; Tanelli, Simone; Szyrmer, Wanda

    2010-05-01

    Precipitation is an essential climate variable. Knowledge of precipitation and its underlying processes are required in a number of research and application disciplines directly related to the global energy and water cycle. At high latitudes precipitation typically occurs in the form of snow. All current active and passive remote sensing techniques are known to perform poorly when estimating snow-rate and even worse when trying to predict microphysical properties (e.g. snow size distribution, snow habit, coexistence of super cooled liquid water). In this paper we investigate the potential of multi-wavelength Doppler radars in overcoming this problem. Subsets of frequencies are selected from the following set: 13.8, 35.0, 94.0, 150, 220 GHz. The first three values are associated with already deployed radar systems, the last two refer to new research avenues. The notional study is based on thermodynamic and bulk-microphysical profiles extracted from cloud resolving model simulations and on a database of scattering properties for non-spherical ice crystals. This framework allows the evaluation of the combined effect of spectral differential attenuation and differential reflectivity to be investigated. Dual-wavelength systems generally improve the capabilities in sizing the snowflakes while the use of very high frequency is particularly effective for the detection of mixed phased clouds. This work has relevance for the evaluation of ground-based and space-borne millimetre wave radar performances currently under study.

  1. Response of a two-dimensional dual-Doppler radar wind synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Given, Terence; Ray, Peter S.

    1994-01-01

    The wind field resulting from a two-dimensional dual-Doppler synthesis algorithms is spectrally modified from the true wind field. The effects of spatial filtering on wind fields from the processes of interpolation, the averaging of pulses, and the effect of the finite radar pulse dimension were assessed. The effect resulting from the use of different interpolation techniques was also evaluated. Of those techniques tested, the best are the Cressman distance-weighted averaging and linear distance-weighted averaging, with the closest neighbor and uniform weighting having more undesirable characteristics. The optimum influence radius is defined as the influence radius at which the ratio of the rms difference between the Fourier and least-squares responses (a measure of the aliasing) and the variance of the filtered wind field is minimized. This seeks to minimize the effect of energy aliased into scales other than the input wavelength. For the Cressman interpolation technique, the optimum influence radius is between 1.85 and 2.25 times the maximum data spacing. The range of acceptable influence radii includes consideration of the filtering by the radar of the data as it is collected, as well as the resolution of the final dataset. The optimum influence radius is dependent upon the largest data separation in the analysis domain. The absolute optimum influence radius is not significantly affected by inclusion of the radar-beam filtering effects.

  2. Estimation of cirrus cloud particle fallspeeds from vertically pointing Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Brad W.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment 2 (FIRE 2) was conducted in Coffeyville, Kansas in late 1991 to study the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. A variety of active and passive remote sensors were employed, including an 8-mm-wavelength cloud-sensing Doppler radar developed at the Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL). The radar, having excellent sensitivity to cloud particles (-30 dBZ at 10 km), good spatial resolution (37 m), and velocity precision (.05 ms -1), is an excellent tool for observing cirrus clouds. Having this radar directed toward the zenith for long periods of time during FIRE 2 permitted the reflectivity-weighted particle fallspeed to be related to reflectivity which allowed a separation of ice particle fallspeeds from vertical air motions. Additionally, such relationships proved useful in other multi-sensor techniques for determining vertical profiles of ice particle characteristic size and ice water content in cirrus clouds. The analysis method and the results of applying it to cirrus cloud reflectivity and velocity data collected during FIRE 2 are discussed.

  3. Polarimetric and Multi-Doppler Radar Observations of Sprite-producing Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, TImothy J.; Lyons, Walter A.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Dolan, Brenda; Cummer, Steven A.; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William

    2014-01-01

    Sprites are caused by luminous electrical breakdown of the upper atmosphere, and frequently occur over large mesoscale precipitation systems. Two sprite-producing storms (on 8 and 25 June) were observed in Colorado during the summer of 2012. Unlike most past studies of sprites, these storms were observed by a polarimetric radar - the CSU-CHILL facility - which provided both PPI and RHI scans of the cases. Also available were multiple-Doppler syntheses from CSU-CHILL, local NEXRAD radars, and the CSU-Pawnee radar; as well as data from the Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), high speed cameras, and other lightning-detection instrumentation. This unique dataset provided an unprecedented look at the detailed kinematic and microphysical structures of the thunderstorms as they produced sprites, including electrical alignment signatures in the immediate location of the charge layers neutralized by sprite-parent positive cloud-to-ground lightning strokes. One of the sprite-producing cases (25 June) featured an anomalous charge structure and may serve as a model for how sprites can be produced over convection rather than the more typical stratiform regions. Also to be presented will be evidence for advection of charge into a common stratiform precipitation region (on 8 June), which was then tapped by lightning originating from multiple different convective cores to produce sprites. Depending on the outcome of the 2013 convective season, polarimetric data from additional storms that produce sprites and other transient luminous events (TLEs) may be presented.

  4. On the measurement of wind speeds in tornadoes with a portable CW/FM-CW Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B. . School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Both the formation mechanism and structure of tornadoes are not yet well understood. The Doppler radar is probably the best remote-sensing instrument at present for determining the wind field in tornadoes. Although much has been learned about the non-supercell tornado from relatively close range using Doppler radars at fixed sites, close-range measurements in supercell tornadoes are relatively few. Doppler radar can increase significantly the number of high-resolution, sub-cloud base measurements of both the tornado vortex and its parent vortex in supercells, with simultaneous visual documentation. The design details and operation of the CW/FM-CW Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and used by storm-intercept teams at the Univ. of Oklahoma are described elsewhere. The radar transmits 1 W at 3 cm, and can be switched back and forth between CW and FM-CW modes. In the FM-CW mode the sweep repetition frequency is 15.575 kHz and the sweep width 1.9 MHz; the corresponding maximum unambiguous range and velocity, and range resolution are 5 km, {plus minus} 115 m s{sup {minus}1}, and 78 m respectively. The bistatic antennas, which have half-power beamwidths of 5{degree}, are easily pointed wit the aid of a boresighted VCR. FM-CW Data are recorded on the VCR, while voice documentation is recorded on the audio tape; video is recorded on another VCR. The radar and antennas are easily mounted on a tripod, and can be set up by three people in a minute or two. The purpose of this paper is to describe the signal processing techniques used to determine the Doppler spectrum in the FM-CW mode and a method of its interpretation in real time, and to present data gathered in a tornadic storm in 1990. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and Equipment Installation; Training Program; Equipment... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR... OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. G Appendix G to Part 121—Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS):...

  6. Doppler Radar and Lightning Network Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Goodman, Steven J.; Cammarata, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Data from a single Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak, including three tornadoes that reached F3 intensity, within Tropical Storm Beryl s remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 13 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 h. spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 h. Several other tornadic cells also exhibited great longevity, with cell lifetimes longer than ever previously documented in a landfalling tropical cyclone (TC) tornado event. This event is easily the most intense TC tornado outbreak yet documented with WSR-88Ds. Time-height analyses of the three strongest tornadic supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and to show how these storms appear at different ranges from a WSR-88D. In addition, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data are examined in Beryl s remnants. Although the tornadic cells were responsible for most of Beryl's CG lightning, their flash rates were only weak to moderate, and in all the tornadic storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. A few of the single-tornado storms produced no detectable CG lightning at all. There is evidence that CG lightning rates decreased during the tornadoes, compared to 30-min periods before the tornadoes. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final CG lightning flashes. Contrary to the findings for flash rates, both peak currents and positive flash percentages were larger in Beryl's nontornadic storms than in the tornadic ones.

  7. Inner Core Structure of Hurricane Alicia from Airborne Doppler Radar Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Frank D., Jr.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Airborne Doppler radar measurements are used to determine the horizontal winds, vertical air motions, radar reflectivity and hydrometer fallspeeds over much of the inner-core region (within 40 km of the eye) of Hurricane Alicia (1983). The reconstructed flow field is more complete and detailed than any obtained previously. The data show both the primary (azimuthal) and secondary (radial-height) circulations. The primary circulation was characterized by an outward sloping maximum of tangential wind. The secondary circulation was characterized by a deep layer of radial inflow in the lower troposphere and a layer of intense outflow above 10 km altitude. The rising branch of the secondary circulation was located in the eyewall and sloped radially outward. Discrete convective-scale bubbles of more intense upward motion were superimposed on this mean rising current, and convective-scale downdrafts were located throughout and below the core of maximum precipitation in the eyewall.Precipitation particles in the eyewall rainshaft circulated 18-20 km downwind as they fell, consistent with the typical upwind slope with increasing altitude of eyewall precipitation cores Outside the eyewall, the precipitation was predominantly stratiform. A radar bright band was evident at the melting level. Above the melting level, ice particles were advected into the stratiform region from the upper levels of the eyewall and drifted downward through a mesoscale region of ascent. Hypothetical precipitation particle trajectories showed that as these particles fell slowly through the mesoscale updraft toward the melting level, they were carried azimuthally as many as 1 1/2 times around the storm. During this spiraling descent, the particles evidently grew vigorously. The amount of water condensed by the ambient mesoscale ascent exceeded that transported into the stratiform region by the eyewall outflow by a factor of 3. As the particles fell into the lower troposphere, they entered a mesoscale

  8. Effects of volume averaging on the line spectra of vertical velocity from multiple-Doppler radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Chen, T.; Wyngaard, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of the ratio of the true one-dimensional spectrum of vertical velocity and that measured with multiple-Doppler radar beams are presented. It was assumed that the effects of pulse volume averaging and objective analysis routines is replacement of a point measurement with a volume integral. A u and v estimate was assumed to be feasible when orthogonal radars are not available. Also, the target fluid was configured as having an infinite vertical dimension, zero vertical velocity at the top and bottom, and having homogeneous and isotropic turbulence with a Kolmogorov energy spectrum. The ratio obtained indicated that equal resolutions among radars yields a monotonically decreasing, wavenumber-dependent response function. A gain of 0.95 was demonstrated in an experimental situation with 40 levels. Possible errors introduced when using unequal resolution radars were discussed. Finally, it was found that, for some flows, the extent of attenuation depends on the number of vertical levels resolvable by the radars.

  9. The Provence ST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crochet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Since the Alpex Campaign, when 3 Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar operated in Camarque as a cooperative effort of the Aeronomy Laboratory of NOAA, CO, and LSEET from Toulon, a 50 MHz Very High Frequency (VHF) ST radar was developed, improved, and tested. The operating characteristics, main objectives, preliminary results, and future experiment costs of the VHF ST radar are discussed.

  10. Long-Term Mean Vertical Motion over the Tropical Pacific: Wind-Profiling Doppler Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, K. S.; McAfee, J. R.; Carter, D. A.; Ecklund, W. L.; Riddle, A. C.; Reid, G. C.; Balsley, B. B.

    1991-12-01

    Measurement from Christmas Island (2^circN, 157^circW) of long-term mean vertical motions in the tropical atmosphere using very-high-frequency wind-profiling Doppler radar show that there is a transition from downward motion in the free troposphere to upward motion in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The observations in the free troposphere are consistent with a balance between adiabatic and diabatic heating and cooling rates in a clear atmosphere. Comparison of the results at Christmas Island during El Nino and non-El Nino conditions with earlier results obtained for stratiform rain conditions over Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, show that cirrus clouds in the vicinity of the tropopause likely play an important role in determining the sense and magnitude of vertical motions in this region. These results have implications for the exchange of mass between the troposphere and stratosphere over the tropics.

  11. Long-Term Mean Vertical Motion over the Tropical Pacific: Wind-Profiling Doppler Radar Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gage, K S; McAfee, J R; Carter, D A; Ecklund, W L; Riddle, A C; Reid, G C; Balsley, B B

    1991-12-20

    Measurement from Christmas Island (2 degrees N, 157 degrees W) of long-term mean vertical motions in the tropical atmosphere using very-high-frequency wind-profiling Doppler radar show that there is a transition from downward motion in the free troposphere to upward motion in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The observations in the free troposphere are consistent with a balance between adiabatic and diabatic heating and cooling rates in a clear atmosphere. Comparison of the results at Christmas Island during El Niño and non-El Niño conditions with earlier results obtained for stratiform rain conditions over Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, show that cirrus clouds in the vicinity of the tropopause likely play an important role in determining the sense and magnitude of vertical motions in this region. These results have implications for the exchange of mass between the troposphere and stratosphere over the tropics.

  12. Shift Register Clock Rate Effects on Coincidence Collection 50MHz versus 4MHz Comparison Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Bourret, Steven C.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-11-03

    The following report identifies and quantifies the timing differences between the older slower Shift Register Coincidence/Multiplicity modules and today’s modern higher speed devices. Modern high speed Shift Register Coincidence/Multiplicity instruments employ high speed internal clocks that run at frequencies more than ten times the older units, typically 50MHz. These higher speed clocks allow for a finer time resolution when recording input pulses.

  13. Assimilation of Doppler Weather Radar Data in WRF Model for Simulation of Tropical Cyclone Aila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Kuldeep; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

    2014-08-01

    For the accurate and effective forecasting of a cyclone, it is critical to have accurate initial structure of the cyclone in numerical models. In this study, Kolkata Doppler weather radar (DWR) data were assimilated for the numerical simulation of a land-falling Tropical Cyclone Aila (2009) in the Bay of Bengal. To study the impact of radar data on very short-range forecasting of a cyclone's path, intensity and precipitation, both reflectivity and radial velocity were assimilated into the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model through the ARPS data assimilation system (ADAS) and cloud analysis procedure. Numerical experiment results indicated that radar data assimilation significantly improved the simulated structure of Cyclone Aila. Strong influences on hydrometeor structures of the initial vortex and precipitation pattern were observed when radar reflectivity data was assimilated, but a relatively small impact was observed on the wind fields at all height levels. The assimilation of radar wind data significantly improved the prediction of divergence/convergence conditions over the cyclone's inner-core area, as well as its wind field in the low-to-middle troposphere (600-900 hPa), but relatively less impact was observed on analyzed moisture field. Maximum surface wind speed produced from DWR-Vr and DWR-ZVr data assimilation experiments were very close to real-time values. The impact of radar data, after final analysis, on minimum sea level pressure was relatively less because the ADAS system does not adjust for pressure due to the lack of pressure observations, and from not using a 3DVAR balance condition that includes pressure. The greatest impact of radar data on forecasting was realized when both reflectivity and wind data (DWR-ZVr and DWR-ZVr00 experiment) were assimilated. It is concluded that after final analysis, the center of the cyclone was relocated very close to the observed position, and simulated cyclone maintained its intensity for a longer

  14. Doppler RAdar Observations of Convection from the NASA/TOGA C-band Radar During TRMM-LBA in Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickenbach, T. M.; Amitai, Eyal; Atkinson, Lester; Boccippio, Dennis; Bowie, Robert; Cifelli, Robert; Dunnemann, Neil; Frostram, Gregg; Gears, Nathan; Gerlach, John

    1999-01-01

    The Tropcial RAinfall Measuring Mission-Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (TRMM-LBA) was conducted near Ji Parana, Rondonia, Brazil during the 1999 Amazonian wet season (Jan-Feb). TRMM-LBA provided detailed observations of precipitating systems from surface and aircraft instrumentation which may be compared to measurements from the TRMM satellite. The surface-based platforms included two scanning Doppler radars (the NASA TOGA C-band radar and the NCAR SPOL S-band dual polarization radar) which collected continuous dual-Doppler measurements of precipitating convection.This paper focuses on data from the TOGA radar to provide a preliminary overview of general properties of convective organization observed during TRMM-LBA. These include squall line evolution and morphology, diurnal variation of precipitation, and the vertical intensity of convection. Mesoscale squall lines were most commonly observed in the afternoon, with associated regions of stratiform precipitation persisting into the evening. Nocturnal widespread stratiform rain often formed before sunrise, with no apparent source region of deep convection and very weak radar bright band. Reflectivity values in deep convective cells typically decreased rapidly above the melting level, reminiscent of tropical oceanic convection, and consistent with the relative scarcity of lightning (with respect to other tropical continental regions). Vertically developed electrified convection, though infrequent, did occur regularly.

  15. Microphysical properties of the November 26 cirrus cloud retrieved by Doppler radar/IR radiometer technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Kropfli, Robert A.; Orr, Brad W.; Snider, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    Gaining information about cirrus cloud microphysics requires development of remote sensing techniques. In an earlier paper. Matrosov et al. (1992) proposed a method to estimate ice water path (IWP) (i.e., vertically integrated ice mass content IMC) and characteristic particle size averaged through the cloud from combined groundbased measurements of radar reflectivities and IR brightness temperatures of the downwelling thermal radiation in the transparency region of 10-12 mu m. For some applications, the vertically averaged characteristic particle sizes and IWP could be the appropriate information to use. However, vertical profiles of cloud microphysical parameters can provide a better understanding of cloud structure and development. Here we describe a further development of the previous method by Matrosov et al. (1992) for retrieving vertical profiles of cirrus particle sizes and IMC rather than their vertically averaged values. In addition to measurements of radar reflectivities, the measurements of Doppler velocities are used in the new method. This provides us with two vertical profiles of measurements to infer two vertical profiles of unknowns, i.e., particle characteristic sizes and IMC. Simultaneous measurements of the IR brightness temperatures are still needed to resolve an ambiguity in particle size-fall velocity relationships.

  16. Doppler Radar and Lightning Network Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis; Goodman, Steven; Cammarata, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Data from a single WSR-88D Doppler radar and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine in detail the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak within Tropical Storm Beryl's remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 13 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 hours, spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 hours. Several other tornadic cells also exhibited great longevity, with cell lifetimes greater than ever previously documented in a landfalling tropical cyclone tornado event, and comparable to those found in major midlatitude tornadic supercell outbreaks. Time-height analyses of the three strongest tornadic supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and to show how these storms appear at different ranges from a WSR-88D radar. In addition, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data are examined for the outbreak, the most intense tropical cyclone tornado event studied thus far. Although the tornadic cells were responsible for most of Beryl's CG lightning, flash rates were only weak to moderate, even in the most intense supercells, and in all the tornadic storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. A few of the single-tornado storms produced no detectable CG lightning at all. In the stronger cells, there is some evidence that CG lightning rates decreased during tornadogenesis, as has been documented before in some midlatitude tornadic storms. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final CG lightning flashes. Surprisingly, both peak currents and positive flash percentages were larger in Beryl s nontornadic storms than in the tornadic

  17. Analysis of the heavy rainfall from Typhoon Plum using Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, W.; Qu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Using reanalysis and observational data and Doppler radar data, the structure and characteristics of the synoptic and mesoscale meteorological background are analyzed for a heavy rainfall over Xiaoshipeng town of Yingkou City in Liaoning province, China. The results show that: (1) several synoptic scale patterns formed the background for the heavy rainfall: the Pacific subtropical high extended to the West; a strong tropical storm named "Plum" moved to the northwest after it had landed; Northwest jet transported a lot of the water vapor to Liaoning; the weak cold air of Baikal Lake moved to south along the ridge before the northwest flow impact to Liaoning. (2) the factors conducive to strong convective precipitation: the existence of a deep wet layer, a narrow CAPE zone and a relative weak vertical wind sheer. (3) there is nonstop generation of new mesoscale convective cells during the heavy rainfall. There exists a maximum wind zone of 24m/s in the lower layer and a strong radar echo with 35dBz above 5km. And the variation of the low level southwest jet is in step with the variation of rainfall amount. The cyclonic convergence of the warm wet air in the mid-low level is a factor triggering and strengthening convection. The nonstop generation of mesoscale convective cells and the water vapor transport from the low level southwest jet are pushing the rainfall radar echo to above 40dBz and lasting for more than 5 hours and are considered the direct cause of this heavy rainfall.

  18. Wind Retrieval Algorithms for the IWRAP and HIWRAP Airborne Doppler Radars with Applications to Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimond, Stephen Richard; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Frasier, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Algorithms for the retrieval of atmospheric winds in precipitating systems from downward-pointing, conically-scanning airborne Doppler radars are presented. The focus in the paper is on two radars: the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler(IWRAP) and the High-altitude IWRAP (HIWRAP). The IWRAP is a dual-frequency (Cand Ku band), multi-beam (incidence angles of 30 50) system that flies on the NOAAWP-3D aircraft at altitudes of 2-4 km. The HIWRAP is a dual-frequency (Ku and Kaband), dual-beam (incidence angles of 30 and 40) system that flies on the NASA Global Hawk aircraft at altitudes of 18-20 km. Retrievals of the three Cartesian wind components over the entire radar sampling volume are described, which can be determined using either a traditional least squares or variational solution procedure. The random errors in the retrievals are evaluated using both an error propagation analysis and a numerical simulation of a hurricane. These analyses show that the vertical and along-track wind errors have strong across-track dependence with values of 0.25 m s-1 at nadir to 2.0 m s-1 and 1.0 m s-1 at the swath edges, respectively. The across-track wind errors also have across-track structure and are on average, 3.0 3.5 m s-1 or 10 of the hurricane wind speed. For typical rotated figure four flight patterns through hurricanes, the zonal and meridional wind speed errors are 2 3 m s-1.Examples of measured data retrievals from IWRAP during an eyewall replacement cycle in Hurricane Isabel (2003) and from HIWRAP during the development of Tropical Storm Matthew (2010) are shown.

  19. Range-Doppler processing of Saturn's Icy Satellites using the Cassini RADAR Scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Ostro, S.; West, R.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2007-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR has obtained disk-integrated 2.2-cm reflectivity measurements for a number of Saturn's major icy satellites (Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Iapetus, Hyperion, Phoebe, and Mimas) [1, 2]. In these observations, the RADAR instrument operates in scatterometer mode, where the low receiver bandwidth of 117 kHz helps to minimize thermal noise. Transmitting a narrow bandwidth pulsed tone further reduces the noise variance [3]. In spite of these precautions to minimize noise, the instrument is often operating at distances as high as 400,000 km, and the signal-to-noise ratio is so low that it is impossible to detect the signal within the individual echoes (which are recorded in time as real 8-bit voltage samples); thus, the echo powers are accumulated in the frequency domain to produce a measurable signal [1, 3]. Yet, in a few observations, the SNR is estimated to be high enough for range compression and a pulsed chirp signal is thus transmitted, allowing us to divide the coarse disk reflectivities into fine annular rings. If the signal is strong enough, we attempt to further discriminate the echo into cells by separating the return into Doppler bins. To date, there are six observations that support higher resolution processing: Rhea (Orbit 18 and 22), Enceladus (Orbit 3), Dione (Orbit 16), Hyperion (Orbit 15), and Iapetus (Orbit B). Here, we present the preliminary results of this processing, obtaining finer resolution radar returns of these bodies than ever before, with the exception of the forthcoming Iapetus SAR imaging flyby, expected to achieve 2-12 km surface resolution [2, 4]. [1] Ostro et al. 2006, Icarus 183, 479-490. [2] Ostro et al. 2007, this conference. [3] West et al. 2007, IEEE TGARS, in preparation. [4] West et al. 2007, this conference.

  20. Normalized vertical ice mass flux profiles from vertically pointing 8-mm-wavelength Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Brad W.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    During the FIRE 2 (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) project, NOAA's Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) operated its 8-mm wavelength Doppler radar extensively in the vertically pointing mode. This allowed for the calculation of a number of important cirrus cloud parameters, including cloud boundary statistics, cloud particle characteristic sizes and concentrations, and ice mass content (imc). The flux of imc, or, alternatively, ice mass flux (imf), is also an important parameter of a cirrus cloud system. Ice mass flux is important in the vertical redistribution of water substance and thus, in part, determines the cloud evolution. It is important for the development of cloud parameterizations to be able to define the essential physical characteristics of large populations of clouds in the simplest possible way. One method would be to normalize profiles of observed cloud properties, such as those mentioned above, in ways similar to those used in the convective boundary layer. The height then scales from 0.0 at cloud base to 1.0 at cloud top, and the measured cloud parameter scales by its maximum value so that all normalized profiles have 1.0 as their maximum value. The goal is that there will be a 'universal' shape to profiles of the normalized data. This idea was applied to estimates of imf calculated from data obtained by the WPL cloud radar during FIRE II. Other quantities such as median particle diameter, concentration, and ice mass content can also be estimated with this radar, and we expect to also examine normalized profiles of these quantities in time for the 1993 FIRE II meeting.

  1. Ground clutter measurements using the NASA airborne doppler radar: Description of clutter at the Denver and Philadelphia airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrah, Steven D.; Delnore, Victor E.; Goodrich, Michael S.; Vonhagel, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Detection of hazardous wind shears from an airborne platform, using commercial sized radar hardware, has been debated and researched for several years. The primary concern has been the requirement for 'look-down' capability in a Doppler radar during the approach and landing phases of flight. During 'look-down' operation, the received signal (weather signature) will be corrupted by ground clutter returns. Ground clutter at and around urban airports can have large values of Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) producing clutter returns which could saturate the radar's receiver, thus disabling the radar entirely, or at least from its intended function. The purpose of this research was to investigate the NRCS levels in an airport environment (scene), and to characterize the NRCS distribution across a variety of radar parameters. These results are also compared to results of a similar study using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the same scenes. This was necessary in order to quantify and characterize the differences and similarities between results derived from the real-aperature system flown on the NASA 737 aircraft and parametric studies which have previously been performed using the NASA airborne radar simulation program.

  2. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.

    SciTech Connect

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

    2007-08-06

    The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent

  3. Pulse pressure monitoring through non-contact cardiac motion detection using 2.45 GHz microwave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The use of a Continuous Wave (CW) quadrature Doppler radar is proposed here for continuous non-invasive Pulse Pressure monitoring. A correspondence between the variation in systemic pulse and variation in the displacement of the chest due to heart is demonstrated, establishing feasibility for the approach. Arctangent demodulation technique was used to process baseband data from radar measurements on two test subjects, in order to determine the absolute cardiac motion. An Omron digital Blood pressure cuff was used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures from which the pulse pressure was calculated. Correlation between pulse pressure and cardiac motion was observed through changes induced due to different postures of the body.

  4. The Federal Aviation Administration/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (FAA/MIT) Lincoln Laboratory Doppler weather radar program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, James E.

    1988-01-01

    The program focuses on providing real-time information on hazardous aviation weather to end users such as air traffic control and pilots. Existing systems will soon be replaced by a Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), which will be concerned with detecting such hazards as heavy rain and hail, turbulence, low-altitude wind shear, and mesocyclones and tornadoes. Other systems in process are the Central Weather Processor (CWP), and the terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR). Weather measurements near Memphis are central to ongoing work, especially in the area of microbursts and wind shear.

  5. Performance of mean-frequency estimators for Doppler radar and lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frehlich, R. G.; Yadlowsky, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of mean-frequency estimators for Doppler radar and lidar measurements of winds is presented in terms of two basic parameters: Phi, the ratio of the average signal energy per estimate to the spectral noise level; and Omega, which is proportional to the number of independent samples per estimate. For fixed Phi and Omega, the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) (theoretical best performance) for unbiased estimators of mean frequency (normalized by the spectral width of the signal), signal power, and spectral width are essentially independent of the number of data samples M. For large Phi, the estimators of mean frequency are unbiased and the performance is independent of M. The spectral domain estimators and covariance based estimators are bounded by the approximate period of M. The spectral domain estimators and covariance based estimators are bounded by the approximate periodogram CRB. The standard deviation of the maximum-likelihood estimator approaches the exact CRB, which can be more than a factor of 2 better than the performance of the spectral domain estimators or covariance-based estimators for typical Omega. For small Phi, the estimators are biased due to the effects of the uncorrelated noise (white noise), which results in uniformly distributed 'bad' estimates. The fraction of bad estimates is a function of Phi and M with weak dependence on the parameter Omega. Simple empirical models describe the standard deviation of the good estimates and the fraction of bad estimates. For Doppler lidar and for large Phi, better performance is obtained by using many low-energy pulses instead of one pulse with the same total energy. For small Phi, the converse is true.

  6. Shape of Asteroid 433 Eros from Inversion of Goldstone Radar Doppler Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, David L.; Hudson, R. Scott; Ostro, Steven J.; Rosema, Keith D.

    1998-01-01

    We use new analysis techniques to constrain the shape of 433 Eros with Goldstone radar data obtained during the asteroid's close approach in 1975. A previous analysis of these data (Ostro, Rosema, and Jurgens, 1990,Icarus84,334-351) used estimates of the echo's spectral edge frequencies as a function of asteroid rotation phase to constrain the convex envelope of Eros' pole-on silhouette. Our approach makes use of the echo's full Doppler-frequency distribution (effectively ∼15 times more echo data points) and is thus capable of constraining shape characteristics, such as concavities, within this convex envelope. The radar echoes are weak and north-south ambiguous, which limits the accuracy of our models. We present two different approaches, perturbations to an ellipsoid and successive approximations, that help to quantify the model uncertainties and identify features that are likely to be real. Both approaches yield models that are tapered along their lengths, with one or more prominent concavities on one side but not the other. We do not have sufficient information to determine the exact nature of the concavities, and in particular, whether they are craters, troughs, or bends in Eros' overall shape. The pole-on silhouette of the successive approximation model is shaped like a kidney bean, which resembles a nearly pole-on optical image derived from speckle interferometry (Drummond and Hege, 1989, inAsteroids II(R. P. Binzell, T. Gehrels, and M. S. Matthews, Eds.), pp. 171-191, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson); however, we cannot exclude shapes, such as the perturbation model, with more than one large concavity. Variations in the pyroxene/olivine ratio over Eros' surface have been inferred from visual and infrared observations (Murchie and Pieters, 1996,J. Geophys. Res.101,2201-2214). Correlating these variations with our shape information, we find that the side with concavities is relatively px-rich compared with the more rounded opposing side.

  7. Lightning forecasting studies using LDAR, LLP, field mill, surface mesonet, and Doppler radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Gregory S.; Hoffert, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to develop rules, algorithms, display software, and training materials that can be used by the operational forecasters who issue weather advisories for daily ground operations and launches by NASA and the United States Air Force to improve real-time forecasts of lightning. Doppler radar, Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR), Lightning Location and Protection (LLP), field mill (Launch Pad Lightning Warning System -- LPLWS), wind tower (surface mesonet) and additional data sets have been utilized in 10 case studies of thunderstorms in the vicinity of KSC during the summers of 1994 and 1995. These case studies reveal many intriguing aspects of cloud-to-ground, cloud-to-cloud, in-cloud, and cloud-to-air lightning discharges in relation to radar thunderstorm structure and evolution. They also enable the formulation of some preliminary working rules of potential use in the forecasting of initial and final ground strike threat. In addition, LDAR and LLP data sets from 1993 have been used to quantify the lightning threat relative to the center and edges of LDAR discharge patterns. Software has been written to overlay and display the various data sets as color imagery. However, human intervention is required to configure the data sets for proper intercomparison. Future efforts will involve additional software development to automate the data set intercomparisons, to display multiple overlay combinations in a windows format, and to allow for animation of the imagery. The software package will then be used as a tool to examine more fully the current cases and to explore additional cases in a timely manner. This will enable the formulation of more general and reliable forecasting guidelines and rules.

  8. Hurricane Georges' Landfall in the Dominican Republic: Detailed Airborne Doppler Radar Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geerts, B.; Heymsfield, G. M.; Tian, L.; Halverson, J. B.; Guillory, A.; Mejia, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    Current understanding of landfalling tropical cyclones is limited, especially with regard to convective scale processes. On 22 September 1998 Hurricane Georges made landfall on the island of Hispaniola, leaving behind a trail of death and devastation, largely the result of excessive rainfall, not sea level surge or wind. Detailed airborne measurements were taken as part of the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). Of Particular interest are the ER-2 nadir X-band Doppler radar (EDOP) data, which provide a first-time high-resolution view of the precipitation and airflow changes as a hurricane interacts with mountainous terrain. The circulation of hurricane Georges underwent an obvious transition during landfall, evident in the rapid increase in minimum sea-level pressure, the subsidence of the eyewall anvil, and a decrease in average ice concentrations in the eyewall. The eye, as seen in satellite imagery, disappeared, but contrary to current understanding, this was not due to eyewall contraction but rather to convective eruption within the eye. The main convective event within the eye, with upper-level updraft magnitudes near 20 m/s and 89 GHz brightness temperatures below 100 K, occurred when the eye moved over the Cordillera Central, the island's main mountain chain. The location, intensity and evolution of this convection indicate that it was coupled to the surface orography. It is likely that surface rain rates increased during landfall, because of effective droplet collection, both in the convection and in the more widespread stratiform rainfall areas over the island. Evidence for this is the increase in radar reflectivity below the bright band of 1-2 dB/km down to ground-level. Such increase was absent offshore. Such low-level rain enhancement, which cannot be detected in satellite images of upwelling infrared or microwave radiation, must be due to the ascent of boundary-layer air over the topography.

  9. Simulation of Tornado over Brahmanbaria on 22 March 2013 using Doppler Weather Radar and WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. K.; Chowdhury, M.; Das, S.

    2013-12-01

    A tornado accompanied with thunderstorm, rainfall and hailstorm affected Brahmanbaria of Bangladesh in the afternoon of 22 March 2013. The tornadic storms are studied based on field survey, ground and radar observations. Low level moisture influx by southerly flow from the Bay of Bengal coupled with upper level westerly jet stream causing intense instability and shear in the wind fields triggered a series of storms for the day. The exact time and locations of the storms are investigated by using the Agartala and Cox's Bazar Doppler Weather Radar (DWR). Subsequently, the storms are simulated by using the WRF-ARW model at 1 km horizontal resolution based on 6 hourly analyses and boundary conditions of NCEP-FNL. Among the typical characteristics of the storms, the CAPE, surface wind speed, flow patterns, T-Φ gram, rainfall, sea level pressure, vorticity and vertical velocity are studied. Results show that while there are differences of 2-3 hours between the observed and simulated time of the storms, the distances between observed and simulated locations of the storms are several tens of kilometers. The maximum CAPE was generally above 2400 J kg-1 in the case. The maximum intensity of surface wind speed simulated by the model was only 38 m sec-1. This seems to be underestimated. The highest vertical velocity (updraft) simulated by the model was 250 m sec-1 around 800-950 hPa. The updraft reached up to 150 hPa. It seems that the funnel vortex reached the ground, and might have passed some places a few meters above the surface. According to the Fujita Pearson scale, this tornado can be classified as F-2 with estimated wind speed of 50-70 ms-1. Keywords: Tornado, DWR, NCEP-FNL, T-Φ gram, CAPE.

  10. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method. PMID:26805835

  11. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-20

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  12. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method. PMID:26805835

  13. Spectrum Modal Analysis for the Detection of Low-Altitude Windshear with Airborne Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, Matthew W.

    1992-01-01

    A major obstacle in the estimation of windspeed patterns associated with low-altitude windshear with an airborne pulsed Doppler radar system is the presence of strong levels of ground clutter which can strongly bias a windspeed estimate. Typical solutions attempt to remove the clutter energy from the return through clutter rejection filtering. Proposed is a method whereby both the weather and clutter modes present in a return spectrum can be identified to yield an unbiased estimate of the weather mode without the need for clutter rejection filtering. An attempt will be made to show that modeling through a second order extended Prony approach is sufficient for the identification of the weather mode. A pattern recognition approach to windspeed estimation from the identified modes is derived and applied to both simulated and actual flight data. Comparisons between windspeed estimates derived from modal analysis and the pulse-pair estimator are included as well as associated hazard factors. Also included is a computationally attractive method for estimating windspeeds directly from the coefficients of a second-order autoregressive model. Extensions and recommendations for further study are included.

  14. Doppler Radar Measurements of Turbulence in Marine Stratiform Cloud during ASTEX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A. S.; Lenschow, D. H.; Fairall, C. W.; Schubert, W. H.; Gibson, J. S.

    1995-08-01

    A cloud-sensing Doppler radar is used with a vertically pointing antenna to measure the vertical air motion in clouds during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment. The droplet fall velocity contamination was made negligible by using only measurements during the time the reflectivity was below 17 dBZ. During one day of measurements, the daytime character of the vertical velocity variance is different than that of the nighttime case. In the upper part of the cloud, the variance had a distinct maximum for both day and night; however, the nighttime maximum was about twice as large as the daytime case. Lower down in the cloud, there was a second maximum, with the daytime variance larger than the nighttime case. The skewness of the vertical velocity was negative near cloud top in both the day and night cases, changing to positive skewness in the lower part of the cloud. This behavior near cloud top indicates that the upper part of the cloud is behaving like an upside-down convective boundary layer, with the downdrafts smaller in area and more intense than the updrafts. In the lower part of the cloud, the behavior of the motion is more like a conventional convective boundary layer, with the updrafts smaller and more intense than the downdrafts. The upside-down convective forcing in the upper part of the cloud is due to radiative cooling, with the daytime forcing less because of shortwave warming.

  15. Acoustic and Doppler radar detection of buried land mines using high-pressure water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier, Robert; Herrick, Thomas J.; Mitchell, O. Robert; Summers, David A.; Saylor, Daniel R.

    1999-08-01

    The goal of the waterjet-based mine location and identification project is to find a way to use waterjets to locate and differentiate buried objects. When a buried object is struck with a high-pressure waterjets, the impact will cause characteristic vibrations in the object depending on the object's shape and composition. These vibrations will be transferred to the ground and then to the water stream that is hitting the object. Some of these vibrations will also be transferred to the air via the narrow channel the waterjet cuts in the ground. Currently the ground vibrations are detected with Doppler radar and video camera sensing, while the air vibrations are detected with a directional microphone. Data is collected via a Labview based data acquisition system. This data is then manipulated in Labview to produce the associated power spectrums. These power spectra are fed through various signal processing and recognition routines to determine the probability of there being an object present under the current test location and what that object is likely to be. Our current test area consists of a large X-Y positioning system placed over approximately a five-foot circular test area. The positioning system moves both the waterjet and the sensor package to the test location specified by the Labview control software. Currently we are able to locate buried land mine models at a distance of approximately three inches with a high degree of accuracy.

  16. Assimilation of Wind Profiles from Multiple Doppler Radar Wind Profilers for Space Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Walker, John R.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Leach, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric wind data are required by space launch vehicles in order to assess flight vehicle loads and performance on day-of-launch. Space launch ranges at NASA's Kennedy Space Center co-located with the United States Air Force's (USAF) Eastern Range (ER) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and USAF's Western Range (WR) at Vandenberg Air Force Base have extensive networks of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation to measure atmospheric winds. Each instrument's technique to measure winds has advantages and disadvantages in regards to use within vehicle trajectory analyses. Balloons measure wind at all altitudes necessary for vehicle assessments, but two primary disadvantages exist when applying balloon output. First, balloons require approximately one hour to reach required altitudes. Second, balloons are steered by atmospheric winds down range of the launch site that could significantly differ from those winds along the vehicle ascent trajectory. These issues are mitigated by use of vertically pointing Doppler Radar Wind Profilers (DRWPs). However, multiple DRWP instruments are required to provide wind data over altitude ranges necessary for vehicle trajectory assessments. The various DRWP systems have different operating configurations resulting in different temporal and spatial sampling intervals. Therefore, software was developed to combine data from both DRWP-generated profiles into a single profile for use in vehicle trajectory analyses. This paper will present details of the splicing software algorithms and will provide sample output.

  17. A comparison of three retrieval methods with single Doppler radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shenghui; Wei, Ming; Gao, Li; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Qingfeng; Yang, Kun

    2011-11-01

    In single Doppler radar wind retrieval technique there are three methods proposed in recently years, which is VAP, VPP and SVVP method. Three methods were employed to retrieve wind field with the purpose to find out which one is more suitable in practice according their accuracy by using synthetic data and real data. When tests applied with uniform data, the orders of magnitude for relative error of radial velocity is 10-13 for SVVP, much lower than that of VAP and VPP which both are 10-4. Furthermore, the results under condition of wind direction unchanged and wind velocity varied linearity with altitude are 10-8, 10-3, 10-3 for SVVP, VPP and VAP, respectively. In real wind field of typhoon "Pearl", the authenticity of surrounding wind and wind shear retrieved by SVVP and VPP is better than VAP, the deviation of simulation would be increased at some points missing data. Relative errors of radial velocity achieved by VAP, VPP and SVVP are 7.02, 5.78 and 3.1 respectively. It indicated that SVVP method's performance is better than that of other two and suitable in practical applications.

  18. Simulation of Nor'westers using Doppler weather radar wind observations in a mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Someshwar; Abhilash, S.; Das Gupta, Munmun

    2006-12-01

    Severe thunderstorms form over the Eastern and Northeastern parts of India, i.e., Gangetic West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa, Assam and parts of Bihar during the pre-monsoon months (April-May). These storms are known as "Nor'wester" as they move from Northwest to Southeast. In this study we have made numerical simulations of 10 thunderstorms that formed over the West Bengal region during April-May of 2005 and 2006. Numerical simulations have been carried out using MM5 mesoscale model (at 10 km resolution) using conventional and non-conventional observations from Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) and satellites. Composite characteristics of the Nor'wester have been made based upon the simulations. Results indicate that the Nor'westers occur generally when the CAPE increases above 1500 J Kg -1. They have updraft speeds up to 3-4 m s -1, while the downdrafts have magnitudes of about 0.4 - 0.5 m s -1. The updrafts can extend up to 8-9 km altitudes. The total amount of hydrometeors simulated inside the Nor'westers is up to 600-800 mg kg -1. Large amount of ice and snow exist at upper levels, while liquid water is present in the lower levels. The magnitudes of the ice, snow and liquid water depend on the stage of their life cycle.

  19. Observations of the Wind Field in Tornadoes, Funnel Clouds, and Wall Clouds with a Portable Doppler Radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Unruh, W. P.

    1989-12-01

    A severe-storm intercept field program was held in Oklahoma and nearby parts of Texas during the 1987-38 spring seasons. The purpose of the experiment was to use, for the first time, a low-power, portable, continuous-wave (CW), 3-cm Doppler radar to obtain wind spectra in tornadoes from a distance of less than 10 km.We discuss measurements of spectra we recorded in a tornado, a funnel cloud, and two wall clouds. Photographic documentation is also given to aid in the interpretation of our data. Wind speeds as high as 60 m s1 were measured in the tornado. It was found that deploying the portable Doppler radar from a storm-intercept vehicle may increase substantially the number of measurements of wind speeds in tornadoes.The radar has recently been modified so that it has frequency modulation (FM) capability, and hence can obtain wind spectra within range bins. A plan is presented for using the radar to find the source of vorticity in tornadoes.

  20. Doppler Radar and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis; Cammarata, Michael; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Data from a single WSR-88D Doppler radar and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak within Tropical Storm Beryl's remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 12 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 hours, spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 hours. Time-height analyses of the three strongest supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and evolution. These Beryl mini-supercells were comparable in radar-observed intensity but much more persistent than other tropical cyclone-spawned tornadic cells documented thus far with Doppler radars. Cloud-to-ground lightning data are also examined for all the tornadic cells in this severe swarm-type tornado outbreak. These data show many of the characteristics of previously reported heavy-precipitation supercells. Lightning rates were weak to moderate, even in the more intense supercells, and in all the storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. No lightning at all was detected in some of the single-tornado storms. In the stronger cells, there is some evidence that lightning rates can decrease during tornadogenesis, as has been documented before in some midlatitude tornadic storms. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. These findings suggest possible benefits from implementation of observing systems capable of monitoring intracloud as well as cloud-to-ground lightning activity.

  1. High-Frequency (>50 MHz) Medical Ultrasound Linear Arrays Fabricated From Micromachined Bulk PZT Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhou, Qifa; Djuth, Frank T.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of a high-frequency (65-MHz) ultrasound transducer linear array. The array was built from bulk PZT which was etched using an optimized chlorine-based plasma dry-etching process. The median etch rate of 8 μm/h yielded a good profile (wall) angle (>83°) and a reasonable processing time for etch depths up to 40 μm (which corresponds to a 50-MHz transducer). A backing layer with an acoustic impedance of 6 MRayl and a front-end polymer matching layer yielded a transducer bandwidth of 40%. The major parameters of the transducer have been characterized. The two-way insertion loss and crosstalk between adjacent channels at the center frequency are 26.5 and −25 dB, respectively. PMID:24626041

  2. The design and development of signal-processing algorithms for an airborne x-band Doppler weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Shaun R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved measurements of precipitation will aid our understanding of the role of latent heating on global circulations. Spaceborne meteorological sensors such as the planned precipitation radar and microwave radiometers on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) provide for the first time a comprehensive means of making these global measurements. Pre-TRMM activities include development of precipitation algorithms using existing satellite data, computer simulations, and measurements from limited aircraft campaigns. Since the TRMM radar will be the first spaceborne precipitation radar, there is limited experience with such measurements, and only recently have airborne radars become available that can attempt to address the issue of the limitations of a spaceborne radar. There are many questions regarding how much attenuation occurs in various cloud types and the effect of cloud vertical motions on the estimation of precipitation rates. The EDOP program being developed by NASA GSFC will provide data useful for testing both rain-retrieval algorithms and the importance of vertical motions on the rain measurements. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and development of real-time embedded parallel algorithms used by EDOP to extract reflectivity and Doppler products (velocity, spectrum width, and signal-to-noise ratio) as the first step in the aforementioned goals.

  3. The pulse-pair algorithm as a robust estimator of turbulent weather spectral parameters using airborne pulse Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.; Lee, Jonggil

    1991-01-01

    The pulse pair method for spectrum parameter estimation is commonly used in pulse Doppler weather radar signal processing since it is economical to implement and can be shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator. With the use of airborne weather radar for windshear detection, the turbulent weather and strong ground clutter return spectrum differs from that assumed in its derivation, so the performance robustness of the pulse pair technique must be understood. Here, the effect of radar system pulse to pulse phase jitter and signal spectrum skew on the pulse pair algorithm performance is discussed. Phase jitter effect may be significant when the weather return signal to clutter ratio is very low and clutter rejection filtering is attempted. The analysis can be used to develop design specifications for airborne radar system phase stability. It is also shown that the weather return spectrum skew can cause a significant bias in the pulse pair mean windspeed estimates, and that the poly pulse pair algorithm can reduce this bias. It is suggested that use of a spectrum mode estimator may be more appropriate in characterizing the windspeed within a radar range resolution cell for detection of hazardous windspeed gradients.

  4. Statistical Analysis of the Recent Unrest at Volcán de Colima, Mexico, Monitored With a Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharff, L.; Hort, M. K.; Varley, N. R.; Röh, F.; Schultz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcán de Colima was equipped with a Doppler radar monitoring station in 2007 (March to July) and from March 2014 to 11 July 2015, when a pyroclastic flow partly destroyed the instrument. The Doppler radar measures the velocity of ejecta (>0.5 mm) and the reflected energy (a proxy for their cumulative size) within the eruption cloud. These data constrain the dynamics of the eruption cloud between 100-200m above the vent, where the field of view is located. We measure the precise timing of surface activity when tephra is included, while pure gas emissions (white steam clouds and fumaroles) are transparent to the radar. In 2007 a new dome grew slowly within the crater, accompanied by almost daily tephra emissions. This continued until 2011, when a larger explosion signalled the end of the effusion. After 18 months of quiescence, a new eruptive episode commenced in January 2013 and continues to date (Aug. 2015). Analysis of the temporal trends of ejecta velocities reveals that tephra emissions are pulsed. This matches observations, where the ash concentration commonly varies between discrete pulses. The statistical analysis of times between pulses best fits a log-logistic distribution. A log-logistic distribution indicates the interplay of two competing processes: for example short duration pressure release within a few seconds through a shallow fracture network vs. long term (tens of seconds) gas supply from deeper regions. Or it could be the competition of processes affecting the magma viscosity: rapid degassing acting to increase it, whilst a temperature increase from latent heat or shear heat generation acts to decrease the viscosity. The repose-times (in 2007) also follow a log-logistic distribution with different parameters. A single set of parameters fitting both the repose- and inter-pulse-times has not been found. In the recent data set (2014-2015) the number of events remarkably increased from 29 per month (June 2014) up to 23 per day in February 2015. The

  5. Characteristics of Deep Tropical and Subtropical Convection from Nadir-Viewing High-Altitude Airborne Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Li, Lihua; Guimond, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents observations of deep convection characteristics in the tropics and subtropics that have been classified into four categories: tropical cyclone, oceanic, land, and sea breeze. Vertical velocities in the convection were derived from Doppler radar measurements collected during several NASA field experiments from the nadir-viewing high-altitude ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP). Emphasis is placed on the vertical structure of the convection from the surface to cloud top (sometimes reaching 18-km altitude). This unique look at convection is not possible from other approaches such as ground-based or lower-altitude airborne scanning radars. The vertical motions from the radar measurements are derived using new relationships between radar reflectivity and hydrometeor fall speed. Various convective properties, such as the peak updraft and downdraft velocities and their corresponding altitude, heights of reflectivity levels, and widths of reflectivity cores, are estimated. The most significant findings are the following: 1) strong updrafts that mostly exceed 15 m/s, with a few exceeding 30 m/s, are found in all the deep convection cases, whether over land or ocean; 2) peak updrafts were almost always above the 10-km level and, in the case of tropical cyclones, were closer to the 12-km level; and 3) land-based and sea-breeze convection had higher reflectivities and wider convective cores than oceanic and tropical cyclone convection. In addition, the high-resolution EDOP data were used to examine the connection between reflectivity and vertical velocity, for which only weak linear relationships were found. The results are discussed in terms of dynamical and microphysical implications for numerical models and future remote sensors.

  6. Doppler-radar observation of the evolution of downdrafts in convective clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motallebi, N.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the 20 July 1977 thunderstorm complex which formed and evolve over the South Park region in Central Colorado is presented. The storm was extensively analyzed using multiple Doppler radar and surface mesonet data, developed within an environment having very weak wind shear. The storm owed its intensification to the strength of the downdraft, which was nearly coincident with the region where the cloud had grown. The noteworthy features of this storm were its motion to the right of the cloud-level winds, its multicellular nature and discrete propagation, its north-south orientation, and its relatively large storm size and high reflectivity factor (55 dBZ). This scenario accounts for the observed mesoscale and cloud-scale event. A line of convergence was generated at the interface between the easterly upslope winds and westerly winds. During stage II, the convergence line subsequently propagated down the slopes of the Mosquito Range, and was the main forcing mechanism for the development of updraft on the west flank of the storm. The formation of downdraft on the eastern side of updraft blacked surface inflow, and created a detectable gust front. As the original downdraft intensified, the accumulation of evaporatively-chilled air caused the intensification of the mesohigh, which likely destroyed the earlier convergence line and created a stronger convergence line to the east, which forced up-lifting of the moist, westerly inflow and caused the formation of updraft to the east. An organized downdraft circulation, apparently maintained by precipitation drag and evaporational cooling, was responsible in sustaining a well-defined gust front. The storm attained its highest intensity as a consequence of merging with a neighboring cloud. The interaction of downdrafts or gust fronts from two intense cells appeared to be the primary mechanism of this merging process as suggested by Simpson et al. (1980). The merging process coincided with more rain than

  7. Whirl Wind Detection and Identification in Indonesia Utilizing Single Polarization Doppler Weather Radar Volumetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Abdullah; Hidayati, Sabitul

    2016-06-01

    Whirl wind occurrence frequency in Indonesia tends increasing in the last five years. Geospatial data from National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB) recorded 72 cases with the impact of the two victims died, ten injured, 485 people were evacuated, and 1285 buildings were destroyed at period of January-June 2015. Based on the impact, early warning through remote sensing by using single polarization Doppler weather radar is need to be efforted. Whirl wind detection is done by identifying the characteristic pattern of the rotating convective cloud system by hook echo, analyzing the exsistance of vortex and rotation, and the strength of turbulence. The results show horizontal wind profile with a rotational pattern at CAPPI (V) and HWIND (V) by the altitude of 0.5 km, strong turbulence through product CAPPI (W) 0.5 km ranged of 1.75-2.05 ms-1, the vertical wind profile by product VVP (V) with a maximum value updraft reaches more than 20 knots at a 100-200 meters height, strong horizontal wind shear through HSHEAR (V) and CAPPI (HSHEAR) altitude of 0.5 km with a range of 6.23 to 10.12 ms-1/km. SWI and SSA show that the cloud base height is very low ranged from 200-600 meters with a maximum reflectivity reached 61.5 dBZ by top cloud height reached 14 km, while the product CAPPI (Z) 0.5 km and CMAX (Z) is very difficult to identify patterns hook echo. The results of remote sensing are very representative with the physical properties of whirl wind even whirl wind in a smaller scale.

  8. Assimilation of Wind Profiles from Multiple Doppler Radar Wind Profilers for Space Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Brenton, James C.; Walker, James C.; Leach, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Space launch vehicles utilize atmospheric winds in design of the vehicle and during day-of-launch (DOL) operations to assess affects of wind loading on the vehicle and to optimize vehicle performance during ascent. The launch ranges at NASA's Kennedy Space Center co-located with the United States Air Force's (USAF) Eastern Range (ER) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and USAF's Western Range (WR) at Vandenberg Air Force Base have extensive networks of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation to measure atmospheric winds. Each instrument's technique to measure winds has advantages and disadvantages in regards to use for vehicle engineering assessments. Balloons measure wind at all altitudes necessary for vehicle assessments, but two primary disadvantages exist when applying balloon output on DOL. First, balloons need approximately one hour to reach required altitude. For vehicle assessments this occurs at 60 kft (18.3 km). Second, balloons are steered by atmospheric winds down range of the launch site that could significantly differ from those winds along the vehicle ascent trajectory. Figure 1 illustrates the spatial separation of balloon measurements from the surface up to approximately 55 kft (16.8 km) during the Space Shuttle launch on 10 December 2006. The balloon issues are mitigated by use of vertically pointing Doppler Radar Wind Profilers (DRWPs). However, multiple DRWP instruments are required to provide wind data up to 60 kft (18.3 km) for vehicle trajectory assessments. The various DRWP systems have different operating configurations resulting in different temporal and spatial sampling intervals. Therefore, software was developed to combine data from both DRWP-generated profiles into a single profile for use in vehicle trajectory analyses. Details on how data from various wind measurement systems are combined and sample output will be presented in the following sections.

  9. Application of the Doppler weather radar in real-time quality control of hourly gauge precipitation in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lingzhi; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lin; Yang, Jinhong; Zou, Fengling

    2016-05-01

    The current real-time operational quality control method for hourly rain gauge records at meteorological stations of China is primarily based on a comparison with historical extreme records, and the spatial and temporal consistencies of rain records. However, this method might make erroneous judgments for heavy precipitation because of its remarkable inhomogeneous features. In this study, we develop a Radar Supported Operational Real-time Quality Control (RS_ORQC) method to improve hourly gauge precipitation records in eastern China by using Doppler weather radar data and national automatic rain-gauge network in JJA (i.e., June, July and August) between 2010 and 2011. According to the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative probability density function (CDF), we establish the statistic relationships between NSN precipitation records under 7 radar coverage and radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). The other NSN records under 5 radar coverage are used for the verification. The results show that the correct rate of this radar-supported new method in judging gauge precipitation is close to 99.95% when the hourly rainfall rate is below 10 mm h- 1 and is 96.21% when the rainfall intensity is above 10 mm h- 1. Moreover, the improved quality control method is also applied to evaluate the quality of provincial station network (PSN) precipitation records over eastern China. The correct rate of PSN precipitation records is 99.92% when the hourly rainfall rate is below 10 mm h- 1, and it is 93.33% when the hourly rainfall rate is above 10 mm h- 1. Case studies also exhibit that the radar-supported method can make correct judgments for extreme heavy rainfall.

  10. Quantification of Shear-Relative Asymmetries in Eyewall Slope Using Airborne Doppler Radar Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, A.; Rogers, R.; Hart, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, it has become apparent that typical methods for analyzing tropical cyclones (TCs), such as track and intensity, are insufficient for evaluating TC structural evolution and numerical model forecasts of that evolution. Many studies have analyzed different metrics related to TC inner-core structure in an attempt to better understand the processes that drive changes in core structure. One important metric related to vertical TC structure is the slope of the eyewall. Hazelton and Hart (2013) discussed azimuthal mean eyewall slope based on radar reflectivity data, and its relationship with TC intensity and core structure. That study also noted significant azimuthal variation in slopes, but did not significantly explore reasons for this variation. Accordingly, in this study, we attempt to quantify the role of vertical wind shear in causing azimuthal variance of slope, using research quality Doppler radar composites from the NOAA Hurricane Research Division (HRD). We analyze the slope of the 20 dBZ surface as in Hazelton and Hart (2013), and also look at azimuthal variation in other measures of eyewall slope, such as the slope of the radius of maximum winds (RMW), which has been analyzed in an azimuthal mean sense by Stern and Nolan (2009), and an angular momentum surface. The shear-relative slopes are quantified by separating the radar data into four quadrants relative to the vertical shear vector: Downshear Left (DSL), Upshear Left (USL), Upshear Right (USR), and Downshear Right (DSR). This follows the method employed in shear-relative analyses of other aspects of TC core structure, such as Rogers et al. (2013) and Reasor et al. (2013). The data suitable for use in this study consist of 36 flights into 15 different TCs (14 Atlantic, 1 Eastern Pacific) between 1997 and 2010. Preliminary results show apparent shear-induced asymmetries in eyewall slope. The slope of the RMW shows an asymmetry due to the tilt of the vortex approximately along the shear vector, with

  11. NASA experimental airborne doppler radar and real time processor for wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Philip H.; Richards, Mark A.; Jones, William R.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: experimental radar system capabilities; an experimental radar system block diagram; wind shear radar signal and data processor (WRSDP); WRSDP hardware architecture; WRSDP system design goals; DSP software development tools; OS-9 software development tools; WRSDP digital signal processing; WRSDP display operational modes; WRSDP division of functions; structure of WRSDP signal and data processing algorithms; and the wind shear radar flight experiment.

  12. Imaging melanin cancer growth in-vivo using raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) at 50 MHz and 100 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Murad; Schwarz, Mathias; Soliman, Dominik; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    We used raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) at 50 MHz, and at 100 MHz, to monitor tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis, which is a central hallmark of cancer, in-vivo. In this study we compared the performance, and the effect of the 50 MHz, and the 100 MHz frequencies on the quality of the final image. The system is based on a reflection-mode implementation of RSOM. The detectors used are custom made, ultrawideband, and spherically focused. The use of such detectors enables light coupling from the same side as the detector, thus reflection-mode. Light is in turn coupled using a fiber bundle, and the detector is raster scanned in the xy-plane. Subsequently, to retrieve small features, the raw data are reconstructed using a multi-bandwidth, beamforming reconstruction algorithm. Comparison of the system performance at the different frequencies shows as expected a higher resolution in case of the 100 MHz detector compared to the 50 MHz. On the other hand the 50 MHz has a better SNR, can detect features from deeper layers, and has higher angular acceptance. Based on these characteristics the 50 MHz detector was mostly used. After comparing the performance we monitored the growth of B16F10 cells, melanin tumor, over the course of 9 days. We see correspondence between the optoacoustic measurements and the cryoslice validations. Additionally, in areas close to the tumor we see sprouting of new vessels, starting at day 4-5, which corresponds to tumor angiogenesis.

  13. Mars Delay-Doppler Radar Observations With GSSR: Global Analysis for Landing Site Selection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.; Rojas, F.

    1997-01-01

    Earth-based radar data remain an important part of the information set used to select and certify spacecraft landing sites on Mars. Constraints on robotic landings on Mars include: terrain elevation, radar reflectivity. regional and local slopes, rock distribution and coverage, and surface roughness, all of which are addressed by radar data. Indeed, the usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander I site, and more recently, the Mars Pathfinder landing site.

  14. The application of the ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP microprocessor in a digital Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, S. H.; Morrison, R. E.

    1991-08-01

    A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployable and can be remotely controlled. The system is immune to ground clutter and is used for wind speed detection and direction determination. Nearly real time digital signal processing is performed by an Analog Devices ADSP-21020, a 40-bit floating point Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessor. This paper provides an overview of the design of the system including the radio frequency (RF) to digital interface. The various DSP detection algorithms are discussed and compared to system performance and sensitivity. Finally, DSP performance is compared to the performance of an earlier system using Analog Device's ADSP-2100.

  15. Pulse pressure monitoring through non-contact cardiac motion detection using 2.45 GHz microwave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The use of a Continuous Wave (CW) quadrature Doppler radar is proposed here for continuous non-invasive Pulse Pressure monitoring. A correspondence between the variation in systemic pulse and variation in the displacement of the chest due to heart is demonstrated, establishing feasibility for the approach. Arctangent demodulation technique was used to process baseband data from radar measurements on two test subjects, in order to determine the absolute cardiac motion. An Omron digital Blood pressure cuff was used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures from which the pulse pressure was calculated. Correlation between pulse pressure and cardiac motion was observed through changes induced due to different postures of the body. PMID:22255299

  16. An improved version of the extended velocity-azimuth display analysis of single-Doppler radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejka, Thomas; Srivastava, Ramesh C.

    1991-08-01

    Extended velocity-azimuth display (EVAD) analysis is useful for obtaining vertical profiles of horizontal divergence, vertical air velocity, vertical hydrometer velocity, and hydrometeor terminal fall speed in widespread precipitation. The technique uses a volume of velocity data collected with a single Doppler radar. Several improvements to the previously reported EVAD technique are discussed. They include the weighting of Fourier series coefficients to reflect their estimated error, a correction for heteroscedasticity (the systematic variation of residuals) in the regression analysis, and the weighting of data from different elevation angles to compensate for the finite thickness of the layers in which each analysis is performed. Vertical air velocity is obtained through a variational procedure. Procedures for dealiasing the velocity data and for rejecting outliers from the dataset are summarized. Recommendations for collecting radar data for use in EVAD analysis are made.

  17. Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.E.; Robinson, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Signal processing for airborne doppler radar detection of hazardous wind shear as applied to NASA 1991 radar flight experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Radar data collected during the 1991 NASA flight tests have been selectively analyzed to support research directed at developing both improved as well as new algorithms for detecting hazardous low-altitude windshear. Analysis of aircraft attitude data from several flights indicated that platform stability bandwidths were small compared to the data rate bandwidths which should support an assumption that radar returns can be treated as short time stationary. Various approaches at detection of weather returns in the presence of ground clutter are being investigated. Non-coventional clutter rejection through spectrum mode tracking and classification algorithms is a subject of continuing research. Based upon autoregressive modeling of the radar return time sequence, this approach may offer an alternative to overcome errors in conventional pulse-pair estimates. Adaptive filtering is being evaluated as a means of rejecting clutter with emphasis on low signal-to-clutter ratio situations, particularly in the presence of discrete clutter interference. An analysis of out-of-range clutter returns is included to illustrate effects of ground clutter interference due to range aliasing for aircraft on final approach. Data are presented to indicate how aircraft groundspeed might be corrected from the radar data as well as point to an observed problem of groundspeed estimate bias variation with radar antenna scan angle. A description of how recorded clutter return data are mixed with simulated weather returns is included. This enables the researcher to run controlled experiments to test signal processing algorithms. In the summary research efforts involving improved modelling of radar ground clutter returns and a Bayesian approach at hazard factor estimation are mentioned.

  19. Interface and post-processing requirements to insert an acousto-optic range-Doppler processor into an advanced radar digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrett, Rodney A.; Dean, R.; McCarthy, Daniel F.; Viveiros, Edward A.; Caraway, Willie

    1995-06-01

    The interfacing and post-processing requirements for the development and insertion of an acousto-optic (AO), range-Doppler processor will be described. This system has been configured to operate as an integral part of the signal processing chain of an advanced spread- spectrum radar developed by the US Army Missile Command (MICOM). This MICOM radar transmits a continuous repeated, biphase-coded waveform and processes a block of received data to detect and track targets i range and Doppler in the presence of severe ground clutter. Multiple code rates are processed to extend the range window through application of residue number techniques. Range and Doppler processing are achieved in the AO processor using an additive triple-product processor architecture that coherently detects the range-Doppler information on a high-speed, custom 3D CCD detector array developed by the Army Research Laboratory. We present the interfaces to the radar and the post-processing of the data produced by the AO range-Doppler processor into the format required by the MICOM signal processor. The interfaces comprise the extraction of digital in-phase and quadrature data, the condition of this data for the AO range-Doppler processor, and the insertion of the post- processed optical data into the radar signal processor. Timing and latency issues are critical to real-time operation (creating range-Doppler images at approximately 1600 Hz frames rates) within the MICOM radar. The post-processing section cover optical processor architecture/post-processing tradeoffs, focusing on requirements, algorithms, and hardware implementation.

  20. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Eyster, R S; Wolf, W W

    2014-07-01

    Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (CEW) populations infesting one crop production area may rapidly migrate and infest distant crop production areas. Although entomological radars have detected corn earworm moth migrations, the spatial extent of the radar coverage has been limited to a small horizontal view above crop production areas. The Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) continuously monitors the radar-transmitted energy reflected by, and radial speed of, biota as well as by precipitation over areas that may encompass crop production areas. We analyzed data from the WSR-88D radar (S-band) at Brownsville, Texas, and related these data to aerial concentrations of CEW estimated by a scanning entomological radar (X-band) and wind velocity measurements from rawinsonde and pilot balloon ascents. The WSR-88D radar reflectivity was positively correlated (r2=0.21) with the aerial concentration of corn earworm-size insects measured by a scanning X-band radar. WSR-88D radar constant altitude plan position indicator estimates of wind velocity were positively correlated with wind speed (r2=0.56) and wind direction (r2=0.63) measured by pilot balloons and rawinsondes. The results reveal that WSR-88D radar measurements of insect concentration and displacement speed and direction can be used to estimate the migratory flux of corn earworms and other nocturnal insects, information that could benefit areawide pest management programs. In turn, identification of the effects of spatiotemporal patterns of migratory flights of corn earworm-size insects on WSR-88D radar measurements may lead to the development of algorithms that increase the accuracy of WSR-88D radar measurements of reflectivity and wind velocity for operational meteorology.

  1. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Eyster, R S; Wolf, W W

    2014-07-01

    Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (CEW) populations infesting one crop production area may rapidly migrate and infest distant crop production areas. Although entomological radars have detected corn earworm moth migrations, the spatial extent of the radar coverage has been limited to a small horizontal view above crop production areas. The Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) continuously monitors the radar-transmitted energy reflected by, and radial speed of, biota as well as by precipitation over areas that may encompass crop production areas. We analyzed data from the WSR-88D radar (S-band) at Brownsville, Texas, and related these data to aerial concentrations of CEW estimated by a scanning entomological radar (X-band) and wind velocity measurements from rawinsonde and pilot balloon ascents. The WSR-88D radar reflectivity was positively correlated (r2=0.21) with the aerial concentration of corn earworm-size insects measured by a scanning X-band radar. WSR-88D radar constant altitude plan position indicator estimates of wind velocity were positively correlated with wind speed (r2=0.56) and wind direction (r2=0.63) measured by pilot balloons and rawinsondes. The results reveal that WSR-88D radar measurements of insect concentration and displacement speed and direction can be used to estimate the migratory flux of corn earworms and other nocturnal insects, information that could benefit areawide pest management programs. In turn, identification of the effects of spatiotemporal patterns of migratory flights of corn earworm-size insects on WSR-88D radar measurements may lead to the development of algorithms that increase the accuracy of WSR-88D radar measurements of reflectivity and wind velocity for operational meteorology. PMID:23748420

  2. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Eyster, R. S.; Wolf, W. W.

    2014-07-01

    Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (CEW) populations infesting one crop production area may rapidly migrate and infest distant crop production areas. Although entomological radars have detected corn earworm moth migrations, the spatial extent of the radar coverage has been limited to a small horizontal view above crop production areas. The Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) continuously monitors the radar-transmitted energy reflected by, and radial speed of, biota as well as by precipitation over areas that may encompass crop production areas. We analyzed data from the WSR-88D radar (S-band) at Brownsville, Texas, and related these data to aerial concentrations of CEW estimated by a scanning entomological radar (X-band) and wind velocity measurements from rawinsonde and pilot balloon ascents. The WSR-88D radar reflectivity was positively correlated ( r 2 = 0.21) with the aerial concentration of corn earworm-size insects measured by a scanning X-band radar. WSR-88D radar constant altitude plan position indicator estimates of wind velocity were positively correlated with wind speed ( r 2 = 0.56) and wind direction ( r 2 = 0.63) measured by pilot balloons and rawinsondes. The results reveal that WSR-88D radar measurements of insect concentration and displacement speed and direction can be used to estimate the migratory flux of corn earworms and other nocturnal insects, information that could benefit areawide pest management programs. In turn, identification of the effects of spatiotemporal patterns of migratory flights of corn earworm-size insects on WSR-88D radar measurements may lead to the development of algorithms that increase the accuracy of WSR-88D radar measurements of reflectivity and wind velocity for operational meteorology.

  3. Automatic detection of low altitude wind shear due to gust fronts in the terminal Doppler weather radar operational demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingle-Wilson, Diana

    1990-01-01

    A gust front is the leading edge of the cold air outflow from a thunderstorm. Wind shears and turbulence along the gust front may produce potentially hazardous conditions for an aircraft on takeoff or landing such that runway operations are significantly impacted. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has therefore determined that the detection of gust fronts in the terminal environment be an integral part of the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system. Detection of these shears by the Gust Front Algorithm permits the generation of warnings that can be issued to pilots on approach and departure. In addition to the detection capability, the algorithm provides an estimate of the wind speed and direction following the gust front (termed wind shift) and the forecasted location of the gust front up to 20 minutes before it impacts terminal operations. This has shown utility as a runway management tool, alerting runway supervisors to approaching wind shifts and the possible need to change runway configurations. The formation and characteristics of gust fronts and their signatures in Doppler radar data are discussed. A brief description of the algorithm and its products for use by Air Traffic Control (ATC), along with an assessment of the algorithm's performance during the 1988 Operational Test and Evaluation, is presented.

  4. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermes, Laurie G.; Witt, Arthur; Smith, Steven D.; Klingle-Wilson, Diana; Morris, Dale; Stumpf, Gregory J.; Eilts, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system was primarily designed to address the operational needs of pilots in the avoidance of low-altitude wind shears upon takeoff and landing at airports. One of the primary methods of wind-shear detection for the TDWR system is the gust-front detection algorithm. The algorithm is designed to detect gust fronts that produce a wind-shear hazard and/or sustained wind shifts. It serves the hazard warning function by providing an estimate of the wind-speed gain for aircraft penetrating the gust front. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms together serve a planning function by providing forecasted gust-front locations and estimates of the horizontal wind vector behind the front, respectively. This information is used by air traffic managers to determine arrival and departure runway configurations and aircraft movements to minimize the impact of wind shifts on airport capacity. This paper describes the gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms to be fielded in the initial TDWR systems. Results of a quantitative performance evaluation using Doppler radar data collected during TDWR operational demonstrations at the Denver, Kansas City, and Orlando airports are presented. The algorithms were found to be operationally useful by the FAA airport controllers and supervisors.

  5. Synthesizing radar maps of polar regions with a Doppler-only method.

    PubMed

    Roulston, M S; Muhleman, D O

    1997-06-10

    A method for producing a radar-reflectivity map of the polar regions of the Moon or a planet from polar orbit with only the frequency shift of the reflected signals is described and simulated. A Radon transform of the reflectivity is obtained during multiple passes over the pole. Inversion of this Radon transform enables a map of radar reflectivity to be synthesized.

  6. Focusing vibrating targets in frequency-modulation continuous-wave-synthetic aperture radar with Doppler keystone transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuxin; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Jinping; Lei, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Vibrating targets generally induce sinusoidal micro-Doppler modulation in high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR). They could cause defocused and ghost results by conventional imaging algorithms. This paper proposes a method on vibrating target imaging in frequency-modulation continuous-wave (FMCW) SAR systems. The continuous motion of sensor platform during pulse time is considered in the signal model. Based on Bessel series expansion of the signal in the azimuth direction, the influence of platform motion on the azimuth frequency is eliminated after dechirp and deskew. In addition, the range walk is compensated in the two-dimensional frequency domain by Doppler keystone transform. Next, using range cell migration correction, the azimuth quadratic phase compensation and the range curvature correction are made in range-Doppler domain for the focus of paired echoes. The residual video phase of paired echoes is eliminated, and vibration parameters are estimated to compensate in the sinusoidal modulation phase. Then the deghosted image of vibrating targets can be obtained. The proposed method is applicable to multiple targets with various vibrating states due to no need of a priori knowledge of targets. Finally, simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the method in FMCW-SAR imaging of vibrating targets.

  7. A numerical simulation of Hurricane Bret on 22-23 August 1999 initialized with airborne Doppler radar and dropsonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuissier, Olivier; Rogers, Robert F.; Roux, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study concerns the simulation of Hurricane Bret on 22-23 August 1999 with the MésoNH nonhydrostatic, two-way interactive, quadruple-nested grid mesoscale model. A 30 h integration, from 0000 UTC 22 August to 0600UTC 23 August, covers the period of maximum intensity over the Gulf of Mexico and landfall over Texas. Special attention is paid to the initial conditions from which the model is integrated. A balanced vortex, derived from airborne Doppler radar data, is used to replace the ill-defined cyclone in the large-scale analysis. In addition, the analysed humidity field over the Gulf of Mexico is modified in accordance with specific dropsonde observations. A comparison between the simulated storm track and intensity for three different numerical experiments shows that the inclusion of the radar-derived vortex and high spatial resolution are necessary to obtain a realistic simulation. After an initial period of adjustment, the simulation with the inserted radar-derived vortex and high resolution produces a storm only 10 hPa weaker than the observation after 24 h, compared to the control run that is nearly 50 hPa weaker at the same time. The characteristics of this simulated storm at its mature stage are then presented, with particular emphasis on the processes that modulate the intensity of the inner core region.

  8. Effects of Analog-to-Digital Converter Nonlinearities on Radar Range-Doppler Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

    2014-07-01

    Radar operation, particularly Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes, are very sensitive to anomalous effects of system nonlinearities. These throw off harmonic spurs that are sometimes detected as false alarms. One significant source of nonlinear behavior is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). One measure of its undesired nonlinearity is its Integral Nonlinearity (INL) specification. We examine in this report the relationship of INL to GMTI performance.

  9. 77 FR 53962 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C65a, Airborne Doppler Radar Ground Speed and/or Drift Angle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... of TSO-C65a as published in 77 FR 37470, June 21, 2012, produced no comments. Conclusion TSO-C65a is... Speed and/or Drift Angle Measuring Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Doppler Radar Ground Speed and/or Drift Angle Measuring Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)....

  10. Breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and cloud-top entrainment as revealed by K-band Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martner, Brooks E.; Ralph, F. Martin

    1993-01-01

    Radars have occasionally detected breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves under clear-air conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the free troposphere. However, very few direct measurements of such waves within clouds have previously been reported and those have not clearly documented wave breaking. In this article, we present some of the most detailed and striking radar observations to date of breaking KH waves within clouds and at cloud top and discuss their relevance to the issue of cloud-top entrainment, which is believed to be important in convective and stratiform clouds. Aircraft observations reported by Stith suggest that vortex-like circulations near cloud top are an entrainment mechanism in cumuliform clouds. Laboratory and modeling studies have examined possibility that KH instability may be responsible for mixing at cloud top, but direct observations have not yet been presented. Preliminary analyses shown here may help fill this gap. The data presented in this paper were obtained during two field projects in 1991 that included observations from the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory's K-band Doppler radar (wavelength = 8.7 mm) and special rawinsonde ascents. The sensitivity (-30 dBZ at 10 km range), fine spatial resolution (375-m pulse length and 0.5 degrees beamwidth), velocity measurement precision (5-10 cm s-1), scanning capability, and relative immunity to ground clutter make it sensitive to non-precipitating and weakly precipitating clouds, and make it an excellent instrument to study gravity waves in clouds. In particular, the narrow beam width and short pulse length create scattering volumes that are cylinders 37.5 m long and 45 m (90 m) in diameter at 5 km (10 km) range. These characteristics allow the radar to resolve the detailed structure in breaking KH waves such as have been seen in photographic cloud images.

  11. Explosion mechanisms at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica: An interpretation from integration of seismic and Doppler radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, S.; Donnadieu, F.; Lesage, P.; Mora, M. M.; Harris, A.; Alvarado, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    We execute an integrated analysis of broadband seismic and Doppler radar data to gain insights into the subsurface mechanisms that drive repetitive, mildly explosive activity of Arenal volcano (Costa Rica). We find large variability of both seismic and radar waveforms, and nonsystematic relationships between the two. Seismic recordings display long-lasting tremor sequences and numerous explosion quakes. Radar measurements show that tephra emissions are poorly correlated, in both time and energy, to the seismic activity. Tephra emissions were found in association with explosion quakes but also during episodes of tremor and seismic quiescence. Moreover, the exit velocity, mass loading, and kinetic energy of the emissions show no clear relationship with the coeval seismic amplitude and frequency content. We propose a conceptual source model whereby degasing is controlled by opening and closing of fractures that crosscut a rigid cap atop the conduit. When the fracture's strength is overcome by the gas pressure building up below, it suddenly opens and high-velocity gas escapes, producing high-frequency elastic waves typical of explosion quakes. Gas release also occurs in relation to periodic opening and closure of the fractures to produce repetitive pressure pulses, this being the source of tremor. In both cases, varying quantities of fragmented material may be carried by the gas, which can be detected by the radar if their concentration is high enough. Moreover, the highly variable, constantly changing state of lava cap (e.g., thickness, fracture network and gas permeability) results in nonrepeatable source conditions and explains the complex relationship between tephra emissions and associated seismic signals.

  12. Stratus cloud liquid water and turbulence profiles using a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability, and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the ETL cloud sensing Doppler radar and three channel microwave radiometer were deployed on the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a CO{sub 2} Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model which related the three parameters of the model to the first 3 Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, the authors are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  13. Case study of the March 24, 1976 Elton, Louisiana tornado using satellite infrared imagery, Doppler sounder, rawinsonde, and radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Smith, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The Elton, Louisiana tornado on March 24, 1976 has been studied using GOES digital infrared data for the growth and collapse of the cloud top, the temperature-height relationship and air mass instability from rawinsonde data, gravity waves from Doppler sounder records, and radar summaries from storm activity during the three-hour time period immediately preceding the touchdown of the tornado. In this case, the overshooting turret collapsed 30 minutes before the tornado touchdown as the eastward moving cloud reached Elton, Louisiana. Results show that the gravity waves were excited by the enhanced convection of the storm penetrating through the tropopause in the 2.5 hour time period before the tornado touched down.

  14. Parametric study of antennas for long range Doppler radar heart rate detection.

    PubMed

    Baboli, Mehran; Singh, Aditya; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    This research presents results obtained from long range measurements of physiological motion pertaining to human cardiac and respiration activity. A pulse pressure sensor was used as reference to verify the results from radar signals. A motion detection and grading algorithm was used to detect the presence of heart rate. In addition to showing that human heart rate and respiration can be measured at distances of 21 and 69 meters respectively, the effect of antenna size, radiation pattern and gain on the range of the radar has also been studied.

  15. Parametric study of antennas for long range Doppler radar heart rate detection.

    PubMed

    Baboli, Mehran; Singh, Aditya; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    This research presents results obtained from long range measurements of physiological motion pertaining to human cardiac and respiration activity. A pulse pressure sensor was used as reference to verify the results from radar signals. A motion detection and grading algorithm was used to detect the presence of heart rate. In addition to showing that human heart rate and respiration can be measured at distances of 21 and 69 meters respectively, the effect of antenna size, radiation pattern and gain on the range of the radar has also been studied. PMID:23366747

  16. Adaptive clutter rejection filters for airborne Doppler weather radar applied to the detection of low altitude windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.

    1989-01-01

    An optimum adaptive clutter rejection filter for use with airborne Doppler weather radar is presented. The radar system is being designed to operate at low-altitudes for the detection of windshear in an airport terminal area where ground clutter returns may mask the weather return. The coefficients of the adaptive clutter rejection filter are obtained using a complex form of a square root normalized recursive least squares lattice estimation algorithm which models the clutter return data as an autoregressive process. The normalized lattice structure implementation of the adaptive modeling process for determining the filter coefficients assures that the resulting coefficients will yield a stable filter and offers possible fixed point implementation. A 10th order FIR clutter rejection filter indexed by geographical location is designed through autoregressive modeling of simulated clutter data. Filtered data, containing simulated dry microburst and clutter return, are analyzed using pulse-pair estimation techniques. To measure the ability of the clutter rejection filters to remove the clutter, results are compared to pulse-pair estimates of windspeed within a simulated dry microburst without clutter. In the filter evaluation process, post-filtered pulse-pair width estimates and power levels are also used to measure the effectiveness of the filters. The results support the use of an adaptive clutter rejection filter for reducing the clutter induced bias in pulse-pair estimates of windspeed.

  17. A three-month comparison of hourly winds and temperatures from co-located 50-MHz and 915-MHz RASS profilers

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Holdridge, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has operated a 915-MHz and a 50-MHz radar wind profiler (boundary layer profiler (BLP) and tropospheric profiler (TP), respectively], each coupled with a Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) since April 1994 at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) central facility in north central Oklahoma. The dual system is designed to provide continuous wind profiles from near the surface to 12 km or more and virtual temperature profiles from near the surface to 6 km. Because the BLP has a larger antenna than many other 915-MHz systems, the wind profiles sampled by the two systems overlap between 1.5 km and 5.5 km. The two systems are adjacent, so the wind profilers sample almost identical air masses in their overlap region during the averaging period. Nevertheless, the two RASS systems can be compared, and methods can be devised to estimate the temperature profile in the inaccessible region. Data used in all comparisons and calculations discussed below are consensus-averaged values supplied by the profiler software. Although the spectra and moments from the data are available, they were not accessed for this analysis.

  18. A handheld device for simultaneous detection of electrical and mechanical cardio-vascular activities with synchronized ECG and CW-Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Muehlsteff, J; Thijs, J; Pinter, R; Morren, G; Muesch, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a handheld miniaturized sensor embodiment that allows simultaneous measurement of the electrical and related mechanical cardio-vascular activity. Mechanical motion is detected with a continuous wave Doppler radar sensor and interpreted with a synchronously detected ECG. The patient's posture and activity is measured using accelerometers. Challenges of the current technical approach are the positioning of the sensors, the influence of posture and the correct interpretation of the signals. The Doppler signals are compared with phonocardiography measurements, with a focus on the challenges of this technique. There is still research in an improved modeling of the sensor setup and signal interpretation required.

  19. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    commands, provided the program applies the procedures that this report describes to new DRWP data on DOL. Decker et al. (2015) details how SLS is proposing to use DRWP data and splicing techniques on DOL. Although automation could enhance the current DOL 50-MHz DRWP QC process and could streamline any future DOL 915-MHz DRWP QC and splicing process, the DOL community would still require manual intervention to ensure that the vehicle only uses valid profiles. If a program desires to use high spatial resolution profiles, then the algorithm could randomly add high-frequency components to the DRWP profiles. The spliced DRWP database provides lots of flexibility in how one performs DOL simulations, and the algorithms that this report provides will assist the aerospace and atmospheric communities that are interested in utilizing the DRWP.

  20. Bistatic auroral radar system and three-receiver-ionospheric-motions velocities: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, J.W.; Hall, G.E.; Moorcroft, D.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Observations of the NW-SE component of F region convection obtained with a scintillation drift experiment have been compared with power and Doppler velocity measurements of auroral E region coherent backscatter at 50 MHz made with the Bistatic Auroral Radar System (BARS), which is able to observe only at large magnetic aspect angles. It was found that E region backscatter was observed only when the NW-SE component of the F region drift was in the SE direction. This and other observations are shown to be consistent with a recently proposed explanation for these large aspect angle VHF backscatter observations, based on refraction through auroral ionization structures in the E region. In most cases the vector velocity derived from BARS observations had a magnitude substantially below that inferred from the scintillation measurements. Observations during one period were noticeably different from the others, with unusually small Doppler velocities.

  1. The mobile Sousy-Doppler radar: Technical design and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Schmidt, G.; Ruster, R.

    1983-01-01

    A mobile VHF Doppler system was developed. The electronic part is installed in a 20 ft container and tested using a special log periodic aerial to illuminate the 300 m dish. The system was extended by designing a mobile phased antenna array with finally 576 Yagi elements. The grouping of the single Yagis, the system of transmission lines, the phase shifters, the power splitters and the T/R switch are described. Results from the first two campaigns and a survey of future programs demonstrating the flexibility of this mobile system are summarized.

  2. Respiratory monitoring using a Doppler radar with passive harmonic tags to reduce interference from environmental clutter.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lubecke, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A harmonic tag was designed and fabricated to show the feasibility of sensing cardiopulmonary related Doppler shift in the received second harmonic signal. A fundamental frequency of 2.45 GHz was transmitted at a target and a quadrature homodyne receiver used to sense the received signal from a tag on the target. The setup was used to successfully isolate periodic motion from a tag on a programmable mechanical target and to sense respiratory motion of a human subject, even when the targets were in close proximity to other moving objects.

  3. Evaluation of Single-Doppler Radar Wind Retrievals in Flat and Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, Rob K.; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Xu, Qin; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Qing; Shaw, William J.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2014-08-01

    The accuracy of winds derived from NEXRAD level II data is assessed by comparison with independent observations from 915 MHz radar wind profilers. The evaluation is carried out at two locations with very different terrain characteristics. One site is located in an area of complex terrain within the State Line Wind Energy Center in northeast Oregon. The other site is located in an area of flat terrain on the east-central Florida coast. The National Severe Storm Laboratory’s 2DVar algorithm is used to retrieve wind fields from the KPDT (Pendleton OR) and KMLB (Melbourne FL) NEXRAD radars. Comparisons between the 2DVar retrievals and the radar profilers were conducted over a period of about 6 months and at multiple height levels at each of the profiler sites. Wind speed correlations at most observation height levels fell in the range from 0.7 to 0.8, indicating that the retrieved winds followed temporal fluctuations in the profiler-observed winds reasonably well. The retrieved winds, however, consistently exhibited slow biases in the range of1 to 2 ms-1. Wind speed difference distributions were broad with standard deviations in the range from 3 to 4 ms-1. Results from the Florida site showed little change in the wind speed correlations and difference standard deviations with altitude between about 300 and 1400 m AGL. Over this same height range, results from the Oregon site showed a monotonic increase in the wind speed correlation and a monotonic decrease in the wind speed difference standard deviation with increasing altitude. The poorest overall agreement occurred at the lowest observable level (~300 m AGL) at the Oregon site, where the effects of the complex terrain were greatest.

  4. Nowcasting cloud-to-ground lightning over Nanjing area using S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Yang, Bo; Meng, Xin; Zhou, Bihua

    2016-09-01

    The method of using S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar-derived parameters to nowcast the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning of summer (June-August) in Nanjing was examined. The radar data, CG lightning location data and upper-air sounding data during the summer of 2014 were examined for the selected cells. Five reflectivity thresholds (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 dBZ) at three isothermal levels (- 10 °C, - 15 °C, - 20 °C) were analyzed, and 40 dBZ reflectivity at - 10 °C isothermal level was found to be a good predictor. In addition, hydrometeor identification (HID) based on the dual-polarization parameters was also used to analyze the hydrometeor types in the life cycle of cells, and it was indicated that the presence of graupel and ice crystals at - 10 °C isothermal level was a clear lightning initiation signature. In order to further improve the efficiency and accuracy of nowcasting, the combinations of reflectivity thresholds and HID at certain levels were examined. The compared results showed that the combination of 40 dBZ reflectivity and the identification of graupel at - 10 °C isothermal level was the optimal predictor, with the probability of detection (POD) of 87%, false alarm rate (FAR) of 2%, critical success index (CSI) of 85%, and mean lead time of 13.3 min. The conclusions prove that the proposed optimal predictor is operationally useful and efficient of lightning nowcasting over Nanjing area.

  5. Doppler sodar and radar wind-profiler observations of gravity-wave activity associated with a gravity current

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, F.M.; Venkateswaran, S.V. ); Mazaudier, C. ); Crochet, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Observations from two Doppler sodars and a radar wind profiler have been used in conjunction with data from a rawinsonde station and a mesoscale surface observation network to conduct a case study of a gravity current entering into an environment containing a nocturnal inversion and an elevated neutral layer. On the basis of synoptic and mesoscale analyses, it is concluded that the gravity current might have originated either as a scale-contracted cold front or as a gust front resulting from thunderstorm outflows observed very near the leading edge of a cold front. Despite this ambiguity, the detailed vertical structure of the gravity current itself is well resolved from the data. Moreover, the vertical velocity measurements provided by the sodars and the radar wind profiler at high time resolution have given unique information about the height structure of gravity waves excited by the gravity current. Although only wave periods, and not phase speeds or wavelengths, are directly measured, it is possible to make reasonable inferences about wave excitation mechanisms and about the influence and control of ambient stratification on wave-field characteristics. Both Kelvin-Helmholtz waves generated in the regions of high wind shear found in association with the gravity current and lee-type waves forced by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to opposing prefrontal flow are identified. It is also found that the propagation speed of the gravity current and the relative depths of the prefrontal inversion and the postfrontal cold air were not favorable for the formation of either internal bores or solitary waves at the time of day at which the gravity current was being observed. 42 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Studies of Florida Thunderstorms Using LDAR, LLP, and Single Doppler Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Gregory S.; Hoffert, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes results from research conducted on thunderstorms in the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Florida, between 1993 and 1998. The focus of the research was to identify procedures that would assist weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) in real-time detection and forecasting of the lightning threat to launches and daily ground operations at KSC/CCAS sites. The research was divided into three topics: (1) studies aimed at improving the forecasting of the initial cloud-ground (CG) lightning threat, (2) studies aimed at improving the forecasting of the end-of-storm termination of the CG lightning threat, and (3) studies of the location of CG strikes relative to the thunderstorm radar echo and to lightning discharges aloft. Only the first two topics are covered in this preprint.

  7. Retrieval of Raindrop Size Distribution, Vertical Air Velocity and Water Vapor Attenuation Using Dual-Wavelength Doppler Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; Srivastava, C.

    2005-01-01

    Two techniques for retrieving the slope and intercept parameters of an assumed exponential raindrop size distribution (RSD), vertical air velocity, and attenuation by precipitation and water vapor in light stratiform rain using observations by airborne, nadir looking dual-wavelength (X-band, 3.2 cm and W-band, 3.2 mm) radars are presented. In both techniques, the slope parameter of the RSD and the vertical air velocity are retrieved using only the mean Doppler velocities at the two wavelengths. In the first method, the intercept of the RSD is estimated from the observed reflectivity at the longer wavelength assuming no attenuation at that wavelength. The attenuation of the shorter wavelength radiation by precipitation and water vapor are retrieved using the observed reflectivity at the shorter wavelength. In the second technique, it is assumed that the longer wavelength suffers attenuation only in the melting band. Then, assuming a distribution of water vapor, the melting band attenuation at both wavelengths and the rain attenuation at the shorter wavelength are retrieved. Results of the retrievals are discussed and several physically meaningful results are presented.

  8. The use of Doppler shift radar to monitor physiological and drug induced activity patterns in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marsden, C A; King, B

    1979-05-01

    Doppler shift radar was used to monitor circadian activity patterns in the rat and to study the behavioural effects of p-chloroamphetamine and d-amphetamine. Activity was classified in two ways:-(a) slow (non-locomotory) and high (locomotory) speed movements. (b) the number of starts of activity, within either the slow or high speed zones of activity during a pre-set time. p-Choloramphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced a biphasic activity response; an initial increase in continuous non-locomotory activity followed by a longer lasting increase in exploratory locomotion containing regular starts of activity. d-Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) produced an increase in both non-locomotory and locomotory movements but a marked reduction in starts of activity (i.e. continuous non-exploratory activity). The combination of information on the amount and pattern (starts) of activity allows a more detailed analysis of the effects of drugs on activity to be made than with existing automated methods.

  9. Airborne derivation of microburst alerts from ground-based Terminal Doppler Weather Radar information: A flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA windshear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne windshear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a windshear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. Microburst information was extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the windshear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which atmospheric 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne reactive windshear detection system. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurements would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the practicality of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  10. Extraction of convective cloud parameters from Doppler Weather Radar MAX(Z) product using Image Processing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, M. S.; Puli, Anil; Anuradha, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work continuous extraction of convective cloud optical information and reflectivity (MAX(Z) in dBZ) using online retrieval technique for time series data production from Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) located at Indian Meteorological Department, Chennai has been developed in MATLAB. Reflectivity measurements for different locations within the DWR range of 250 Km radii of circular disc area can be retrieved using this technique. It gives both time series reflectivity of point location and also Range Time Intensity (RTI) maps of reflectivity for the corresponding location. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed for the cloud reflectivity is user friendly; it also provides the convective cloud optical information such as cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical depth (COD). This technique is also applicable for retrieving other DWR products such as Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ), Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ)-Close Range, Volume Velocity Processing (V, in knots), Plan Position Indicator (V, in m/s), Surface Rainfall Intensity (SRI, mm/hr), Precipitation Accumulation (PAC) 24 hrs at 0300UTC. Keywords: Reflectivity, cloud top height, cloud base, cloud optical depth

  11. Absolute backscatter coefficient estimates of tissue-mimicking phantoms in the 5–50 MHz frequency range

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Matthew M.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Deaner, Meagan E.; Varghese, Tomy

    2011-01-01

    Absolute backscatter coefficients in tissue-mimicking phantoms were experimentally determined in the 5–50 MHz frequency range using a broadband technique. A focused broadband transducer from a commercial research system, the VisualSonics Vevo 770, was used with two tissue-mimicking phantoms. The phantoms differed regarding the thin layers covering their surfaces to prevent desiccation and regarding glass bead concentrations and diameter distributions. Ultrasound scanning of these phantoms was performed through the thin layer. To avoid signal saturation, the power spectra obtained from the backscattered radio frequency signals were calibrated by using the signal from a liquid planar reflector, a water-brominated hydrocarbon interface with acoustic impedance close to that of water. Experimental values of absolute backscatter coefficients were compared with those predicted by the Faran scattering model over the frequency range 5–50 MHz. The mean percent difference and standard deviation was 54% ± 45% for the phantom with a mean glass bead diameter of 5.40 μm and was 47% ± 28% for the phantom with 5.16 μm mean diameter beads. PMID:21877789

  12. Assimilating surface observations in a four-dimensional variational Doppler radar data assimilation system to improve the analysis and forecast of a squall line case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingchao; Zhao, Kun; Sun, Juanzhen; Zhou, Bowen; Lee, Wen-Chau

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines how assimilating surface observations can improve the analysis and forecast ability of a fourdimensional Variational Doppler Radar Analysis System (VDRAS). Observed surface temperature and winds are assimilated together with radar radial velocity and reflectivity into a convection-permitting model using the VDRAS four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system. A squall-line case observed during a field campaign is selected to investigate the performance of the technique. A single observation experiment shows that assimilating surface observations can influence the analyzed fields in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The surface-based cold pool, divergence and gust front of the squall line are all strengthened through the assimilation of the single surface observation. Three experiments—assimilating radar data only, assimilating radar data with surface data blended in a mesoscale background, and assimilating both radar and surface observations with a 4DVAR cost function—are conducted to examine the impact of the surface data assimilation. Independent surface and wind profiler observations are used for verification. The result shows that the analysis and forecast are improved when surface observations are assimilated in addition to radar observations. It is also shown that the additional surface data can help improve the analysis and forecast at low levels. Surface and low-level features of the squall line—including the surface warm inflow, cold pool, gust front, and low-level wind—are much closer to the observations after assimilating the surface data in VDRAS.

  13. Comparison of wind velocity in thunderstorms determined from measurements by a ground-based Doppler radar and an F-106B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Lee, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the NASA Storm Hazards Program, the wind velocity in several thunderstorms was measured by an F-106B instrumented airplane and a ground-based Doppler radar. The results of five airplane penetrations of two storms in 1980 and six penetrations of one storm in 1981 are given. Comparisons were made between the radial wind velocity components measured by the radar and the airplane. The correlation coefficients for the 1980 data and part of the 1981 data were 0.88 and 0.78, respectively. It is suggested that larger values for these coefficients may be obtained by improving the experimental technique and in particular by slaving the radar to track the airplane during such tests.

  14. The life cycle of thunderstorm gust fronts as viewed with Doppler radar and rawinsonde data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakimoto, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the time-dependent analysis of the thunderstorm gust front with the use of Project NIMROD data. RHI cross sections of reflectivity and Doppler velocity are constructed to determine the entire vertical structure. The life cycle of the gust front is divided into four stages: (1) the formative stage; (2) the early mature stage; (3) the late mature stage; and (4) the dissipation stage. A new finding is a horizontal roll detected in the reflectivity pattern resulting from airflow that is deflected upward by the ground, while carrying some of the smaller precipitation ahead of the main echo core of the squall line. This feature is called a 'precipitation roll'. As determined from rawinsonde data, the cold air behind the gust front accounts for the observed surface pressure rise. Calculations confirm that the collision of two fluids produce a nonhydrostatic pressure at the leading edge of the outflow. The equation governing the propagation speed of a density current accurately predicts the movement of the gust front.

  15. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  16. Shape of Asteroid 433 Eros from Inversion of Goldstone Radar Doppler Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Hudson, R. S.; Ostro, S. J.; Rosema, K. D.

    1996-09-01

    Taking advantage of new analysis techniques (Hudson, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195, 1993), we invert Goldstone radar data obtained during Eros' close approach in 1975 (Jurgens and Goldstein, Icarus 28, 1, 1976) to constrain the asteroid's shape. Our non-axisymmetric shape models are forced to be in principal-axis rotation and are thus suitable for realistic studies of orbital dynamics close to the asteroid. Two different modeling approaches yield distinct shapes. Both models have one or more prominent concavities on one side but not the other. The pole-on silhouette of Model 2 (see figure) is shaped like a kidney bean, which resembles a nearly pole-on optical image derived from speckle interferometry (Drummond and Hege, Asteroids II, 171, 1989); however, the uncertainties probably are large enough that we cannot exclude shapes with more than one large concavity (Model 1). Silhouettes of Models 1 and 2 as seen from above the south pole. The vertical extent of each bounding box is 40 km. Variations in the pyroxene/olivine ratio over Eros' surface have been inferred from visual and infrared observations (Murchie and Pieters, JGR 101, 2201, 1996). Correlating these variations with our shape information, we find that the side with concavities is relatively px-rich compared with the more rounded opposing side. \\centering http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/433_Eros/preprint.html

  17. Noncontact accurate measurement of cardiopulmonary activity using a compact quadrature Doppler radar sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Zhangyan; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Lin, Fujiang

    2014-03-01

    The designed sensor enables accurate reconstruction of chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities, and the algorithm enables estimation of respiration, heartbeat rate, and some indicators of heart rate variability (HRV). In particular, quadrature receiver and arctangent demodulation with calibration are introduced for high linearity representation of chest displacement; 24-bit ADCs with oversampling are adopted for radar baseband acquisition to achieve a high signal resolution; continuous-wavelet filter and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based algorithm are applied for cardio/pulmonary signal recovery and separation so that accurate beat-to-beat interval can be acquired in time domain for HRV analysis. In addition, the wireless sensor is realized and integrated on a printed circuit board compactly. The developed sensor system is successfully tested on both simulated target and human subjects. In simulated target experiments, the baseband signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 73.27 dB, high enough for heartbeat detection. The demodulated signal has 0.35% mean squared error, indicating high demodulation linearity. In human subject experiments, the relative error of extracted beat-to-beat intervals ranges from 2.53% to 4.83% compared with electrocardiography (ECG) R-R peak intervals. The sensor provides an accurate analysis for heart rate with the accuracy of 100% for p = 2% and higher than 97% for p = 1%. PMID:24235293

  18. ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) Investigations of the Eyewall of Hurricane Bonnie CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Halverson, J.; Simpson, J.; Tian, L.; Bui, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A persistent, mesoscale region of intense eyewall convection contained within Hurricane Bonnie on 23 August 1998 is examined from multiple observations synthesized from the NASA ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft. The intense convection occurred late in the day as Bonnie was attaining its minimum central pressure and during a stage when the inner core featured a markedly asymmetric structure. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the internal structure of a convective burst and its relationship to the warm core using a synthesis of high-resolution satellite, aircraft radar, and in situ data. An exceptionally vigorous eyewall tower penetrating to nearly 18 km is described. A second intense eyewall tower, adjacent to the eye, is shown to be associated with a mesoscale subsiding current of air that extends horizontally nearly 20 km into the eye interior. The subsidence occupies a substantial depth within the eye and appears to be a much larger scale feature than the convectively-induced, symmetric overturning which commonly occurs on the upper-level flanks of convective towers in other tropical environments.

  19. Noncontact accurate measurement of cardiopulmonary activity using a compact quadrature Doppler radar sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Zhangyan; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Lin, Fujiang

    2014-03-01

    The designed sensor enables accurate reconstruction of chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities, and the algorithm enables estimation of respiration, heartbeat rate, and some indicators of heart rate variability (HRV). In particular, quadrature receiver and arctangent demodulation with calibration are introduced for high linearity representation of chest displacement; 24-bit ADCs with oversampling are adopted for radar baseband acquisition to achieve a high signal resolution; continuous-wavelet filter and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based algorithm are applied for cardio/pulmonary signal recovery and separation so that accurate beat-to-beat interval can be acquired in time domain for HRV analysis. In addition, the wireless sensor is realized and integrated on a printed circuit board compactly. The developed sensor system is successfully tested on both simulated target and human subjects. In simulated target experiments, the baseband signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 73.27 dB, high enough for heartbeat detection. The demodulated signal has 0.35% mean squared error, indicating high demodulation linearity. In human subject experiments, the relative error of extracted beat-to-beat intervals ranges from 2.53% to 4.83% compared with electrocardiography (ECG) R-R peak intervals. The sensor provides an accurate analysis for heart rate with the accuracy of 100% for p = 2% and higher than 97% for p = 1%.

  20. Impacts of 4D-VAR Assimilation of Airborne Doppler Radar Observations on Numerical Simulations of the Genesis of Typhoon Nuri (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Z.; Li, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model and its four-dimensional variational data assimilation system are employed to examine the impact of airborne Doppler radar observations on predicting the genesis of Typhoon Nuri (2008). The ELDORA airborne radar data, collected during the Office of Naval Research-sponsored Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 field experiment, are used for data assimilation experiments. Two assimilation methods are evaluated and compared, namely, the direct assimilation of radar-measured radial velocity and the assimilation of three-dimensional wind analysis derived from the radar radial velocity. Results show that direct assimilation of radar radial velocity leads to better intensity forecasts, as it enhances the development of convective systems and improves the inner core structure of Nuri, whereas assimilation of the radar-retrieved wind analysis is more beneficial for tracking forecasts, as it results in improved environmental flows. The assimilation of both the radar-retrieved wind and the radial velocity can lead to better forecasts in both intensity and tracking, if the radial velocity observations are assimilated first and the retrieved winds are then assimilated in the same data assimilation window. In addition, experiments with and without radar data assimilation lead to developing and nondeveloping disturbances for Nuri's genesis in the numerical simulations. The improved initial conditions and forecasts from the data assimilation imply that the enhanced midlevel vortex and moisture conditions are favorable for the development of deep convection in the center of the pouch and eventually contribute to Nuri's genesis. The improved simulations of the convection and associated environmental conditions produce enhanced upper-level warming in the core region and lead to the drop in sea-level pressure.

  1. Coastal heavy rainband formed along Sumatera Island, Indonesia, observed with X-band Doppler radars during HARIMAU2011 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shuichi; Jun-Ichi, Hamada; Hattori, Miki; Kamimera, Hideyuki; Wu, Peiming; Arbain, Ardhi A.; Lestari, Sopia; Syamsudin, Fadli; Yamanaka, Manabu D.

    2013-04-01

    , Indonesia, during 01-31 December 2011 in collaboration with CINDY and DYNAMO to study the CHeR formed along the southwestern coastline of Sumatera Island by using X-band Doppler and dual polarimetric (DP) radars, intensive soundings at two stations, disdrometers, and surface observation network. Two MJOs (MJO-2 and -3) were identified which passed over Sumatera Island during the campaign period. We divided the period into four phases: MJO-2 active (phase-I), MJO inactive (phase-II), MJO-3 active (phase-III), and MJO inactive (phase IV). CHeRs organized by a lot of mesoscale convections were observed throughout the period, however, those convections developed mainly over the coastal sea, coastal land, and both coastal sea and land, during phase-I, -II, and -III, respectively. Diurnal cycle of convections was not clear during the phase-I and -II. Whereas, that during the phase-III was clearly observed and a lot of convections were identified which migrated from the coastal land to sea during the night. Radar observations showed CHeRs were formed by both convections, a) generated originally over the coastal land in the evening and developed in the night after migrated into the sea, b) generated over the coastal sea in the night and developed independently. Environmental conditions including MJO activity and local circulations were also examined in terms of CHeR formation process.

  2. Use of Doppler radar to assess ice cloud particle fall velocity-size relations for remote sensing and climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2000-09-01

    Knowledge of ice crystal terminal velocities, both for individual crystals and for size distributions, is important for an adequate representation of ice particle sedimentation in climate models. While the terminal velocities (υt) of individual crystals of simple shapes have been measured, theoretical relations of the form υt = ADB (where D is the maximum particle dimension), obtained using expressions for the aerodynamic drag force, are often more useful because they can be applied to a wide range of particle sizes and heights and temperatures in the atmosphere. For high tropospheric ice clouds the coefficient A has been found to vary over 1 order of magnitude; the exponent B is generally within the range 0.7-1.4. Aerodynamic drag force calculations show that A and B are related. A and B can also be used to characterize terminal-velocity-particle characteristic size relations for size distributions. In this study we use collocated, vertically pointing measurements of ice cloud radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity, and IR brightness temperatures to estimate the vertical profiles of cloud particle characteristic size, cloud ice water content, and vertically averaged value of the coefficient A, emphasizing cirrus clouds. We analyze variations in terminal-velocity-size relations for individual particles and corresponding variations for ensembles of particles: for example, in relations between the reflectivity-weighted terminal velocity and the median volume size and between the mass-weighted terminal velocity and the median volume size. The retrievals indicate that A ranges from ˜250 to almost 4000 (cgs units), similar to the range found from the theoretical calculations. The coefficient A tends to decrease as a characteristic particle size (e.g., median size) increases. As a simplification for climate modeling efforts, we present an empirical relation between median size and A, although there is a fair amount of variability about this relation. Using the Doppler

  3. Development of a Mass Sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM)-Based DNA Biosensor Using a 50 MHz Electronic Oscillator Circuit

    PubMed Central

    García-Martinez, Gonzalo; Bustabad, Enrique Alonso; Perrot, Hubert; Gabrielli, Claude; Bucur, Bogdan; Lazerges, Mathieu; Rose, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, Jose; Compère, Chantal; Vives, Antonio Arnau

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm2 in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected. PMID:22164037

  4. Development of a mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based DNA biosensor using a 50 MHz electronic oscillator circuit.

    PubMed

    García-Martinez, Gonzalo; Bustabad, Enrique Alonso; Perrot, Hubert; Gabrielli, Claude; Bucur, Bogdan; Lazerges, Mathieu; Rose, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, Jose; Compère, Chantal; Vives, Antonio Arnau

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm(2) in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected. PMID:22164037

  5. Five years use of Pulse Doppler RADAR-utechnology in debris-flows monitoring - experience at three test sites so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschuch, Richard; Brauner, Michael; Hu, Kaiheng; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Automatic monitoring of alpine mass movement is a major challenge in dealing with natural hazards. The presented research project shows a new approach in measurment and alarming technology for water level changes an debris flow by using a high-frequency Pulse Doppler RADAR. The detection system was implemented on 3 places (2 in Tirol/Austria within the monitoring systems of the IAN/BOKU; 1 in Dongchuan/China within the monitoring systems of the IMHE/Chinese Academy of Science) in order to prove the applicability of the RADAR in monitoring torrential activities (e.g. debris-flows, mudflows, flash floods, etc.). The main objective is to illustrate the principles and the potential of an innovative RADAR system and its versatility as an automatic detection system for fast (> 1 km/h - 300 km/h) alpine mass movements of any kind. The high frequency RADAR device was already successfully tested for snow avalanches in Sedrun/Switzerland (Lussi et al., 2012), in Ischgl/Austria (Kogelnig et al., 2012). The experience and the data of the five year showed the enormous potential of the presented RADAR technology in use as an independent warning and monitoring system in the field of natural hazard. We have been able to measure water level changes, surface velocities and several debris flows and can compare this data with the other installed systems.

  6. A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

  7. Performance of convection-permitting hurricane initialization and prediction during 2008-2010 with ensemble data assimilation of inner-core airborne Doppler radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuqing; Weng, Yonghui; Gamache, John F.; Marks, Frank D.

    2011-08-01

    This study examines a hurricane prediction system that uses an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to assimilate high-resolution airborne radar observations for convection-permitting hurricane initialization and forecasting. This system demonstrated very promising performance, especially on hurricane intensity forecasts, through experiments over all 61 applicable NOAA P-3 airborne Doppler missions during the 2008-2010 Atlantic hurricane seasons. The mean absolute intensity forecast errors initialized with the EnKF-analysis of the airborne Doppler observations at the 24- to 120-h lead forecast times were 20-40% lower than the National Hurricane Center's official forecasts issued at similar times. This prototype system was first implemented in real-time for Hurricane Ike (2008). It represents the first time that airborne Doppler radar observations were successfully assimilated in real-time into a hurricane prediction model. It also represents the first time that the convection-permitting ensemble analyses and forecasts for hurricanes were performed in real-time. Also unprecedented was the on-demand usage of more than 23,000 computer cluster processors simultaneously in real-time.

  8. Global Database of GSSR Mars Delay-Doppler Radar Obsevations: Analysis for Landing Site Characterization and Rover Trafficability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.; Rojas, F.

    2000-01-01

    Earth-based radar data remain an important part of the information set used to select and certify spacecraft landing sites on Mars. Constraints on robotic landings on Mars include: terrain elevation, radar reflectivity, regional and local slopes, rock distribution and coverage, and surface roughness, all of which are addressed by radar data. Indeed, the usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander, and more recently, the Mars Pathfinder landing.

  9. Global Database of GSSR Mars Delay-Doppler Radar Observations: Analysis for Landing Site Characterization and Rover Trafficability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.

    1999-01-01

    Earth-based radar data remain an important part of the information set used to select and certify spacecraft landing sites on Mars. Constraints on robotic landings on Mars include: terrain elevation, radar reflectivity, regional and local slopes, rock distribution and coverage, and surface roughness, all of which are addressed by radar data. Indeed, the usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site, and more recently, the Mars Pathfinder landing site.

  10. The Doppler Effect--A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect as it applies to different situations, such as a stationary source of sound with the observer moving, a stationary observer, and the sound source and observer both moving. Police radar, satellite surveillance radar, radar astronomy, and the Doppler navigator, are discussed as applications of Doppler shift. (JR)

  11. Non-contact diagnostic system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome based on amplitude and phase analysis of thoracic and abdominal Doppler radars.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi

    2016-05-01

    Full-night polysomnography (PSG) has been recognized as the gold standard test for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, PSG examinees are physically restrained for the full night by many contact sensors and obtrusive connecting cables, inducing mental stress. We developed a non-contact SAHS diagnostic system that can detect apneic events without inducing stress in monitored individuals. Two Doppler radars were installed beneath the mattress to measure the vibrations of the chest and abdomen, respectively. Our system determines apnea and hypopnea events when the radar output amplitude decreases by <20 and 70 %, respectively, of the amplitude of a normal breath (without SAHS events). Additionally, we proposed a technique that detects paradoxical movements by focusing on phase differences between thoracic and abdominal movements, and were able to identify three types of sleep apnea: obstructive, central, and mixed. Respiratory disturbance indexes obtained showed a higher correlation (r = 94 %) with PSG than with pulse oximetry (r = 89 %). When predicting the severity of SAHS with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >15/h or >30/h using PSG as a reference, the radar system achieved a sensitivity of 96 and 90 %, and a specificity of 100 and 79 % with an AHI of >15/h and >30/h, respectively. The proposed radar system can be used as an alternative to the current airflow sensor, and to chest and abdomen belts for apnea-hypopnea evaluation. PMID:26307200

  12. Non-contact diagnostic system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome based on amplitude and phase analysis of thoracic and abdominal Doppler radars.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi

    2016-05-01

    Full-night polysomnography (PSG) has been recognized as the gold standard test for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, PSG examinees are physically restrained for the full night by many contact sensors and obtrusive connecting cables, inducing mental stress. We developed a non-contact SAHS diagnostic system that can detect apneic events without inducing stress in monitored individuals. Two Doppler radars were installed beneath the mattress to measure the vibrations of the chest and abdomen, respectively. Our system determines apnea and hypopnea events when the radar output amplitude decreases by <20 and 70 %, respectively, of the amplitude of a normal breath (without SAHS events). Additionally, we proposed a technique that detects paradoxical movements by focusing on phase differences between thoracic and abdominal movements, and were able to identify three types of sleep apnea: obstructive, central, and mixed. Respiratory disturbance indexes obtained showed a higher correlation (r = 94 %) with PSG than with pulse oximetry (r = 89 %). When predicting the severity of SAHS with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >15/h or >30/h using PSG as a reference, the radar system achieved a sensitivity of 96 and 90 %, and a specificity of 100 and 79 % with an AHI of >15/h and >30/h, respectively. The proposed radar system can be used as an alternative to the current airflow sensor, and to chest and abdomen belts for apnea-hypopnea evaluation.

  13. Linking conduit and surface activity at Arenal volcano using broadband seismometers and Doppler radar: do we need a new conduit model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, S.; Donnadieu, F. R.; Lesage, P.; Mora Fernandez, M.; Harris, A. J.; Alvarado, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    We carried out a cross-correlation of broadband seismic data and ground-based Doppler radar data obtained at Arenal (Costa Rica) in February 2005. Our aim was to gain insight into the subsurface source processes (i.e., fragmentation mechanisms operating in the shallow conduit system) and the subsequent pyroclastic emissions (i.e., plume mass loading and ascent dynamics) that characterize the transitory, mildly explosive activity at Arenal. Study of the radar and seismic waveforms revealed a non-systematic relationship between them, both exhibiting a large variety of behaviors and features, but no clear patterns could be distinguished. Pyroclastic emissions recorded by the radar also did not have a unique seismic signature: 44% of radar signals were found in association with explosion-type seismic events, 43% during episodes of tremor, and 13% during aseismic intervals. Over longer time-scales, radar event amplitudes showed no correlation with the seismic energy release rate (RSEM), nor with RSAM, nor with repose time intervals. Energy proxies obtained from coeval radar (plume energy) and seismic (explosion energy) data show significant scattering, indicating that the ratio of the seismic/radar energy was highly variable. Plume mass-loading and exit velocity thus seems only weakly correlated to the seismic energy generated by the explosion, suggesting that the seismic energy might not be a good indicator of the intensity of explosions at Arenal. The occurrence of radar echoes in different range gates indicates that several vents were active, which is consistent with the clarinet-model for tremor generation at Arenal (Lesage et al., 2006), in which fractures in the plug act as valves that control degassing, with multiple conduits explaining the occurrence of different sets of harmonic frequencies in seismic data. Fragmentation is best explained by pressure build-up below a plug obstructing the conduit. This, when a resistance threshold is overcome, fails and yields

  14. 50 MHz-10 GHz low-power resistive feedback current-reuse mixer with inductive peaking for cognitive radio receiver.

    PubMed

    Vitee, Nandini; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Chong, Wei-Keat; Tan, Gim-Heng; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    A low-power wideband mixer is designed and implemented in 0.13 µm standard CMOS technology based on resistive feedback current-reuse (RFCR) configuration for the application of cognitive radio receiver. The proposed RFCR architecture incorporates an inductive peaking technique to compensate for gain roll-off at high frequency while enhancing the bandwidth. A complementary current-reuse technique is used between transconductance and IF stages to boost the conversion gain without additional power consumption by reusing the DC bias current of the LO stage. This downconversion double-balanced mixer exhibits a high and flat conversion gain (CG) of 14.9 ± 1.4 dB and a noise figure (NF) better than 12.8 dB. The maximum input 1-dB compression point (P1dB) and maximum input third-order intercept point (IIP3) are -13.6 dBm and -4.5 dBm, respectively, over the desired frequency ranging from 50 MHz to 10 GHz. The proposed circuit operates down to a supply headroom of 1 V with a low-power consumption of 3.5 mW.

  15. 50 MHz-10 GHz low-power resistive feedback current-reuse mixer with inductive peaking for cognitive radio receiver.

    PubMed

    Vitee, Nandini; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Chong, Wei-Keat; Tan, Gim-Heng; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    A low-power wideband mixer is designed and implemented in 0.13 µm standard CMOS technology based on resistive feedback current-reuse (RFCR) configuration for the application of cognitive radio receiver. The proposed RFCR architecture incorporates an inductive peaking technique to compensate for gain roll-off at high frequency while enhancing the bandwidth. A complementary current-reuse technique is used between transconductance and IF stages to boost the conversion gain without additional power consumption by reusing the DC bias current of the LO stage. This downconversion double-balanced mixer exhibits a high and flat conversion gain (CG) of 14.9 ± 1.4 dB and a noise figure (NF) better than 12.8 dB. The maximum input 1-dB compression point (P1dB) and maximum input third-order intercept point (IIP3) are -13.6 dBm and -4.5 dBm, respectively, over the desired frequency ranging from 50 MHz to 10 GHz. The proposed circuit operates down to a supply headroom of 1 V with a low-power consumption of 3.5 mW. PMID:25133252

  16. A one year comparison of 482 MHz radar wind profiler, RS92-SGP Radiosonde and 1.5 μm Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Päschke, E.; Leinweber, R.; Lehmann, V.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of a one-year quasi-operational testing of the 1.5 μm StreamLine Doppler lidar developed by Halo Photonics from 2 October 2012 to 2 October 2013. The system was configured to continuously perform a velocity-azimuth display (VAD) scan pattern using 24 azimuthal directions with a constant beam elevation angle of 75°. Radial wind estimates were selected using a rather conservative signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based threshold of -18.2 dB (0.015). A 30 min average wind vector was calculated based on the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous wind field through a singular-value decomposed Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse of the overdetermined linear system. A strategy for a quality control of the retrieved wind vector components is outlined which is used to ensure consistency between the retrieved winds and the assumptions inherent to the employed wind vector retrieval. Finally, the lidar measurements are compared with operational data from a collocated 482 MHz radar wind profiler running in a four-beam Doppler beam swinging (DBS) mode and winds from operational radiosonde measurements. The intercomparisons show that the Doppler lidar is a reliable system for operational wind measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL).

  17. Observations of frontal zone structures with a VHF Doppler radar and radiosondes, part 1.2A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.; Rottger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The SOUSY-VHF-Radar is a pulsed coherent radar operating at 53.5 MHz and located near Bad Lauterbert, West Germany. Since 1977, the facility, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Aeronomie, has been used to make a series of frontal passage observations in the spring and fall. Experiments in winter have been difficult because part of the transmitting and receiving array is usually covered by snow during that part of the year. Wavelengths around 6 m are known to be sensitive to the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere (GREEN and GAGE, 1980; RASTOGI and ROTTGER, 1982). Thus, it has been possible to use radars operating at frequencies near 500 MHz to locate the tropopause. Comparisons between radar data and radiosonde data have shown that there is a large gradient in the radar reflectivity at the height where the radiosonde tropopause occurs. An experiment carried out by ROTTGER (1979) on March 15 to 16, 1977, showed that the radar's sensitivity to the vertical temperature structure could also be used to locate the position of fronts. The SOUSY-VHF-Radar consists of a transmitting array, also used for receiving in some configurations, that can be scanned in the off-vertical direction but not at sufficiently low elevation angles to study the horizontal extent of structures.

  18. Test Administrator's Handbook and Student Instructions for Job-Task Performance Tests for Doppler Radar, AN/APN-147 and its Computer AN/ASN-35, and Associated Test Equipment and Hand Tools. Report for June-December 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matrix Research Co., Alexandria, VA.

    The handbook covers a comprehensive series of Job-Task Performance Tests for the Doppler Radar (AN/APN) and its Associated Computer (AN/ASN-35). The test series has been developed to measure job performance of the electronic technician. These tests encompass all phases of day-to-day preventative and corrective maintenance that technicians are…

  19. Assimilating best track minimum sea level pressure data together with doppler radar data using an ensemble Kalman filter for Hurricane Ike (2008) at a cloud-resolving resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Dong, Jili

    2013-06-01

    Extending an earlier study, the best track minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) data are assimilated for landfalling Hurricane Ike (2008) using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), in addition to data from two coastal ground-based Doppler radars, at a 4-km grid spacing. Treated as a sea level pressure observation, the MSLP assimilation by the EnKF enhances the hurricane warm core structure and results in a stronger and deeper analyzed vortex than that in the GFS (Global Forecast System) analysis; it also improves the subsequent 18-h hurricane intensity and track forecasts. With a 2-h total assimilation window length, the assimilation of MSLP data interpolated to 10-min intervals results in more balanced analyses with smaller subsequent forecast error growth and better intensity and track forecasts than when the data are assimilated every 60 minutes. Radar data are always assimilated at 10-min intervals. For both intensity and track forecasts, assimilating MSLP only outperforms assimilating radar reflectivity ( Z) only. For intensity forecast, assimilating MSLP at 10-min intervals outperforms radar radial wind ( V r) data (assimilated at 10-min intervals), but assimilating MSLP at 60-min intervals fails to beat V r data. For track forecast, MSLP assimilation has a slightly (noticeably) larger positive impact than V r( Z) data. When V r or Z is combined with MSLP, both intensity and track forecasts are improved more than the assimilation of individual observation type. When the total assimilation window length is reduced to 1 h or less, the assimilation of MSLP alone even at 10-min intervals produces poorer 18-h intensity forecasts than assimilating V r only, indicating that many assimilation cycles are needed to establish balanced analyses when MSLP data alone are assimilated; this is due to the very limited pieces of information that MSLP data provide.

  20. Investigation of the vertical structure of clouds over the Western Ghats, India using X-band and Ka-band Doppler radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subrata Kumar

    Investigation of the vertical structure of clouds over the Western Ghats, India using X-band and Ka-band Doppler radar observations Subrata Kumar Das*, S. M. Deshpande, K. Chakravarty and M. C. R. Kalapureddy Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India ABSTRACT The Western Ghats (WGs) located parallel to the west coast of India receives a huge amount of rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) in which topography plays a huge role in it. To understand the dynamics and microphysics of monsoon precipitating clouds over the WGs, a High Altitude Cloud Physics Laboratory (HACPL) has been setup at Mahabaleshwar (17.92 oN, 73.6 oE, ~1.4 km AMSL) in 2012. As part of this laboratory, a mobile X-band (9.5 GHz) and Ka-band (35.29 GHz) dual-polarization Doppler weather radar system is installed at Mandhardev (18.04 oN, 73.87 oE, ~1.3 km AMSL, at 26 km radial distance from the HACPL). The X-band radar shows the dominant cloud movement is from the western side of the WGs to the eastern side, crossing the HACPL and the radar site. The cloud occurrence statistics show a sudden reduction within a distance of ~30 km on the eastern side of WGs indicates the possibility of a rain shadow area. Further, we investigate the vertical structure of cloud over the HACPL, and identified four cloud modes viz., shallow cumulus mode, congestus mode, deep convective mode, and overshooting convection mode. The frequency distribution of cloud-cell base height (CBH) and cloud-cell top height (CTH) shows most of the clouds with base below 2.5 km and tops usually not exceeding 9 km. This indicates the dominance of warm-rain process in the WGs region. The positive relationships between surface rainfall rates and CTH and 0oC isotherm level have observed. Details will be presented in the upcoming symposium.

  1. Monitoring tissue inflammation and responses to drug treatments in early stages of mice bone fracture using 50 MHz ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chu; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Lin, Shih-Ping; Shung, K Kirk; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture induces moderate inflammatory responses that are regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) for initiating tissue repair and bone formation. Only a handful of non-invasive techniques focus on monitoring acute inflammation of injured bone currently exists. In the current study, we monitored in vivo inflammation levels during the initial 2 weeks of the inflammatory stage after mouse bone fracture utilizing 50 MHz ultrasound. The acquired ultrasonic images were correlated well with histological examinations. After the bone fracture in the tibia, dynamic changes in the soft tissue at the medial-posterior compartment near the fracture site were monitored by ultrasound on the days of 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. The corresponding echogenicity increased on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day, and subsequently declined to basal levels after the 14th day. An increase of cell death was identified by the positive staining of deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and was consistent with ultrasound measurements. The increases of both COX-2 and Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1, 5-LO-relative receptor), which are regulators for tissue inflammation, in the immunohistochemistry staining revealed their involvement in bone fracture injury. Monitoring the inflammatory response to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treatments was investigated by treating injured mice with a daily oral intake of aspirin (Asp), indomethacin (IND), and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236). The Asp treatment significantly reduced fracture-increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity, p<0.05) in ultrasound images as well as inhibited cell death, and expression of COX-2 and BLT1. In contrast, treatment with IND or SC-236 did not reduce the hyperechogenicity, as confirmed by cell death (TUNEL) and expression levels of COX-2 or BLT1. Taken together, the current study reports the feasibility of a non-invasive ultrasound method capable of monitoring post

  2. Monitoring tissue inflammation and responses to drug treatments in early stages of mice bone fracture using 50 MHz ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chu; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Lin, Shih-Ping; Shung, K Kirk; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture induces moderate inflammatory responses that are regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) for initiating tissue repair and bone formation. Only a handful of non-invasive techniques focus on monitoring acute inflammation of injured bone currently exists. In the current study, we monitored in vivo inflammation levels during the initial 2 weeks of the inflammatory stage after mouse bone fracture utilizing 50 MHz ultrasound. The acquired ultrasonic images were correlated well with histological examinations. After the bone fracture in the tibia, dynamic changes in the soft tissue at the medial-posterior compartment near the fracture site were monitored by ultrasound on the days of 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. The corresponding echogenicity increased on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day, and subsequently declined to basal levels after the 14th day. An increase of cell death was identified by the positive staining of deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and was consistent with ultrasound measurements. The increases of both COX-2 and Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1, 5-LO-relative receptor), which are regulators for tissue inflammation, in the immunohistochemistry staining revealed their involvement in bone fracture injury. Monitoring the inflammatory response to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treatments was investigated by treating injured mice with a daily oral intake of aspirin (Asp), indomethacin (IND), and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236). The Asp treatment significantly reduced fracture-increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity, p<0.05) in ultrasound images as well as inhibited cell death, and expression of COX-2 and BLT1. In contrast, treatment with IND or SC-236 did not reduce the hyperechogenicity, as confirmed by cell death (TUNEL) and expression levels of COX-2 or BLT1. Taken together, the current study reports the feasibility of a non-invasive ultrasound method capable of monitoring post

  3. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever fivemore » minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.« less

  4. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Gary J.

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever five minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.

  5. Turbulent upwelling of mid-latitude ionosphere. 1. Observational results by the MU radar

    SciTech Connect

    Fukao, Shoichiro; Shirakawa, Tatsuya; Takami, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Kato, Susumu ); Kelley, M.C. )

    1991-03-01

    In this paper, the authors present the detailed results of a series of experiments designed to study the coherent backscatter of 50-MHz radar waves from the mid-latitude F region. Data were obtained with the active phased-array MU radar in Japan and include some auxiliary E region coherent echoes as well.The strongest echoes correspond to irregularities at least 20 dB stronger than thermal backscatter at the same frequency from typical F region densities at the same range. Simultaneous observations with ionosondes show that these echoes occur during strong mid-latitude spread F. As defined by ionosondes, the latter phenomenon is certainly much more widespread than the turbulent upwelling events described here, but they believe that in some sense these correspond to the most violent mid-latitude spread F. The strongest echoes occur in large patches which display away Doppler shifts corresponding to irregularity motion upward and northward from the radar. At the edges of these patches there is often a brief period of toward Doppler before the echoing region ceases. On rare occasions comparable patches of strong away and toward Doppler are detected, although in such cases the Doppler width of the toward echoes is much narrower than that of the away echoes. The multiple beam capability at MU allowed us to track the patches in the zonal direction on two days. The patches moved east to west in both cases at velocities of 125 m/s and 185 m/s, respectively. There is a distinct tendency for the bottom contour of the scattering region to be modulated at the same period as the patch occurence frequency as well as at higher frequencies. This higher-frequency component may correspond to substructures in the large patches and to the E region coherent scatter patches which were detected simultaneously in several multiple beam experiments.

  6. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  7. Joint Doppler frequency, 2D-DOD and 2D-DOA estimation for bistatic MIMO radar in spatial coloured noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingyun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Xu, Zongze; Zeng, Xianwei; Yao, Fuqiang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of four-dimensional angle and Doppler frequency estimation for L-shaped bistatic multiple input multiple output radar in spatial coloured noise. A novel method of joint estimation of Doppler frequency, two-dimensional direction of departure and two-dimensional direction of arrival based on the propagator method is discussed. Utilising the cross-correlation matrix which is formed by the adjacent outputs of matched filter in the time domain, the special matrix is constructed to eliminate the influence of spatial coloured noise. The proposed algorithm provides lower computational complexity and has very close parameter estimation to the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques algorithm and DOA-matrix algorithm in high signal-to-noise ratio and Cramér-Rao bound is given. Furthermore, multidimensional parameters can be automatically paired by this algorithm to avoid the performance degradation resulting from wrong pairing. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Dual-Polarised Doppler X-band Radar Observations of Mixed Phased Clouds from the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment-Dust (ICE-D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, R. R., III; Blyth, A. M.; Bennett, L.; Dufton, D.; Cui, Z.; Huang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present dual-polarised Doppler X-band radar observations of convective, altocumulus and altostratus clouds relatively close to the Sahara desert in order to examine the impact of dust on the formation of ice and precipitation. These initial results come the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust (UK ICE-D). UK ICE-D was an aircraft and ground-based project based in Cape Verde off the coast of Senegal, Africa during August 2015. The overall goal of this experiment was to determine how desert dust affects primary nucleation of ice particles in convective and layer clouds as well as the subsequent development of precipitation and glaciation of the clouds. This was accomplished by making focused observations when dust was present in high concentrations and when almost no dust was present. Here we focus on examining the differences in hydrometeor types derived from the dual-polarised X-band radar observations observed in the high and low dust loadings with specific emphasis on the role of supercooled rain drops in these two situations.

  9. Impact of assimilating airborne Doppler radar velocity data using the ARPS 3DVAR on the analysis and prediction of Hurricane Ike (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ningzhu; Xue, Ming; Zhao, Kun; Min, Jinzhong

    2012-09-01

    The ARPS 3DVAR data assimilation system is enhanced and used for the first time to assimilate airborne Doppler radar wind observations. It is applied to Hurricane Ike (2008), where radar observations taken along four flight legs through the hurricane vortex 14 to 18 h before it made landfall are assimilated. An optimal horizontal de-correlation scale for the background error is determined through sensitivity experiments. A comparison is made between assimilating retrieved winds and assimilating radial velocity data directly. The effect of the number of assimilation cycles, each analyzing data from one flight leg, is also examined. The assimilation of retrieved wind data and of radial velocity data produces similar results. However, direct assimilation of radial velocity data is recommended for both theoretical and practical reasons. In both cases, velocity data assimilation improves the analyzed hurricane structure and intensity as well as leads to better prediction of the intensity. Improvement to the track forecasting is also found. The assimilation of radial velocity observations from all four flight legs through intermittent assimilation cycles produces the best analyses and forecasts. The first analysis in the first cycle tends to produce the largest analysis increment. It is through the mutual adjustments among model variables during the forecast periods that a balanced vortex with lowered central pressure is established. The wind speeds extracted from the assimilated model state agree very well with independent surface wind measurements by the stepped-frequency microwave radiometer onboard the aircraft, and with independent flight-level wind speeds detected by the NOAA P-3 aircraft in-flight measurements. Twenty-four hour accumulated precipitation is noticeably improved over the case without radar data assimilation.

  10. Ka-band propagation studies using the ACTS propagation terminal and the CSU-CHILL multiparameter, Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, J.; Turk, J.; Bringi, V. N.

    1995-01-01

    An increase in the demand for satellite communications has led to an overcrowding of the current spectrums being used - mainly at C and Ku bands. To alleviate this overcrowding, new technology is being developed to open up the Ka-band for communications use. One of the first experimental communications satellites using this technology is NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). In Sept. 1993, ACTS was deployed into a geostationary orbit near 100 deg W longitude. The ACTS system employs two Ka-band beacons for propagation experiments, one at 20.185 GHz and another at 27.505 GHz. Attenuation due to rain and tropospheric scintillations will adversely affect new technologies proposed for this spectrum. Therefore, before being used commercially, propagation effects at Ka-band must be studied. Colorado State University is one of eight sites across the United States and Canada conducting propagations studies; each site is equipped with the ACTS propagation terminal (APT). With each site located in a different climatic zone, the main objective of the propagation experiment is to obtain monthly and yearly attenuation statistics. Each site also has secondary objectives that are site dependent. At CSU, the CSU-CHILL radar facility is being used to obtain polarimetric radar data along the ACTS propagation path. During the expected two to four year period of the project, it is hoped to study several significant weather events. The S-band radar will be used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates and to initialize propagation models that have been developed, to help classify propagation events measured by the APT. Preliminary attenuation estimates for two attenuation events will be shown here - a bright band case that occurred on 13 May 1994 and a convective case that occurred on 20 Jun. 1994. The computations used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates from S-band radar data are detailed. Results from the two events are shown.

  11. Assessment of different raindrop size measuring techniques: Inter-comparison of Doppler radar, impact and optical disdrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Thumree; Das, Saurabh; Maitra, Animesh

    2015-06-01

    The performances of three instruments namely, Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer, laser precipitation monitor and micro rain radar, are assessed in terms of their ability to measure rain related parameters and to better understand the dependency of measured parameters on the working principles of the instruments. Twenty one rain events of year 2013 pertaining to South-West monsoon are considered for this study. The raindrop size distributions measured by the three instruments show good agreement only for medium sized (1-3 mm) raindrops and for medium rain rates (up to 30 mm/h). However, the mutual agreements are not very good in case of large (> 5 mm) and very small raindrops (< 0.5 mm) as well as for very high rain rates (> 30 mm/h) and very high radar reflectivity factor (> 40 dB). The radar reflectivity-rain rate relation is also studied using linear regression method which shows distinct differences for these instruments, indicating the high sensitivity of Z-R relation on the instrumental measuring principle.

  12. Wide-capture-range, high-precision wavelength stabilization within ±50 MHz for flexible-grid wavelength division multiplexing by photomixing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Jun; Kuboki, Takeshi; Kato, Kazutoshi

    2016-08-01

    The lasers for the flexible-grid wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system are required to have high precision of wavelength stability. Previously, we proposed the wavelength-controlling system of the distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with the photomixing technique and a microwave filter to precisely measure the optical frequency error from the target value. To enlarge the wavelength-capture range, we improve the system to detect the wavelength error with two different microwave filters in parallel. Experimental results show that the wavelength-capture range is extended up to 4 GHz while the wavelength error is still kept within ±50 MHz.

  13. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

  14. Next Generation High Power Dual-Frequency Transmitter For Space Borne and/or Air Borne Doppler Radar Precipitation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasicek, Stephanie; Wintucky, Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Data analysis was performed using a Tektronix RSA 3303A Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer with the objective of demonstrating that an approach using Ka-band Differential Frequency Precipitation Radar (DFPR) works when operating a single Boeing Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) Model 999H to amplify two pulses. This approach is being studied to replace a current model using two separate TWTs at two separate frequencies. Applicability of MATLAB, Tektronix, and Agilent software was explored to investigate and refine pulse analysis techniques. Vector Signal Analysis software used with an Agilent Performance Spectrum Analyzer observed modulated signals at Ka-band in the time domain and is being further investigated to enable more detailed quantitative comparisons. MATLAB Signal Processing Toolbox is being explored as a possible analysis tool. A staggered pulse method of study was determined to be more advantageous than a simultaneous pulse study in that full peak power at each frequency can be viewed and intermodulation products can be avoided.

  15. Coordinated Observations of Ion-Neutral Dynamics from a Ground-based Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) and an Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Kosch, M.; Nicolls, M. J.; Conde, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between the plasma and neutral components of the upper atmosphere result in a diverse set of phenomena that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Investigating these interactions requires essentially simultaneous measurements of (spatially resolved) ion and neutral parameters at a time resolution comparable to the time-scales of the underlying driving forces. Two instruments that are ideally suited to such investigations are the Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) and the Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR). The SDI is capable of resolving small-scale neutral horizontal flow structures and temperature fields across a wide field-of-view, with a temporal resolution of around 4 minutes. The AMISR allows for 'volumetric' ionospheric imaging by sampling along multiple range resolved beams simultaneously, with integration times at least comparable to the SDI. Here we present initial results from a campaign of coordinated observations between an AMISR and SDI located at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. This study focuses on the observed signatures of ion-neutral coupling at E and F-region altitudes, in particular the directly measured local ion-neutral velocity difference (required for calculating frictional heating rates) and estimates of the ion-neutral collision frequency from measurements taken along the local geomagnetic field-aligned direction. These observations are placed in the context of the large-scale neutral and ion flows.

  16. Maximum-likelihood spectral estimation and adaptive filtering techniques with application to airborne Doppler weather radar. Thesis Technical Report No. 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Jonathan Y.

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the signal processing problems associated with the detection of hazardous windshears using airborne Doppler radar when weak weather returns are in the presence of strong clutter returns. In light of the frequent inadequacy of spectral-processing oriented clutter suppression methods, we model a clutter signal as multiple sinusoids plus Gaussian noise, and propose adaptive filtering approaches that better capture the temporal characteristics of the signal process. This idea leads to two research topics in signal processing: (1) signal modeling and parameter estimation, and (2) adaptive filtering in this particular signal environment. A high-resolution, low SNR threshold maximum likelihood (ML) frequency estimation and signal modeling algorithm is devised and proves capable of delineating both the spectral and temporal nature of the clutter return. Furthermore, the Least Mean Square (LMS) -based adaptive filter's performance for the proposed signal model is investigated, and promising simulation results have testified to its potential for clutter rejection leading to more accurate estimation of windspeed thus obtaining a better assessment of the windshear hazard.

  17. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  18. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics Simulated using a Meso-Scale Model Coupled with a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme through Comparison with Observation Data by Ship-Borne Doppler and Space-Borne W-Band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, T.; Nakajima, T.; Khain, A. P.; Saito, K.; Takemura, T.; Okamoto, H.; Nishizawa, T.; Tao, W.-K.

    2012-01-01

    Equivalent radar reflectivity factors (Ze) measured by W-band radars are directly compared with the corresponding values calculated from a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic meso-scale model coupled with a spectral-bin-microphysical (SBM) scheme for cloud. Three case studies are the objects of this research: one targets a part of ship-borne observation using 95 GHz Doppler radar over the Pacific Ocean near Japan in May 2001; other two are aimed at two short segments of space-borne observation by the cloud profiling radar on CloudSat in November 2006. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations reproduce general features of vertical structures of Ze and Doppler velocity. A main problem in the reproducibility is an overestimation of Ze in ice cloud layers. A frequency analysis shows a strong correlation between ice water contents (IWC) and Ze in the simulation; this characteristic is similar to those shown in prior on-site studies. From comparing with the empirical correlations by the prior studies, the simulated Ze is overestimated than the corresponding values in the studies at the same IWC. Whereas the comparison of Doppler velocities suggests that large-size snowflakes are necessary for producing large velocities under the freezing level and hence rules out the possibility that an overestimation of snow size causes the overestimation of Ze. Based on the results of several sensitivity tests, we conclude that the source of the overestimation is a bias in the microphysical calculation of Ze or an overestimation of IWC. To identify the source of the problems needs further validation research with other follow-up observations.

  19. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific aims, theoretical principles, techniques and instrumentation, and future potential of radar observations of solar-system objects are discussed in a general overview. Topics examined include the history of radar technology, echo detectability, the Arecibo and Goldstone radar observatories, echo time delay and Doppler shift, radar waveforms, albedo and polarization ratio, measurement of dynamical properties, and the dispersion of echo power. Consideration is given to angular scattering laws; the radar signatures of the moon and inner planets, Mars, and asteroids; topographic relief; delay-Doppler radar maps and their physical interpretation; and radar observations of the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter, comets, and the rings of Saturn. Diagrams, drawings, photographs, and sample maps and images are provided.

  20. Heavy rains over Chennai and surrounding areas as captured by Doppler weather radar during Northeast Monsoon 2015: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaljit, Ray; Kannan, B. A. M.; Stella, S.; Sen, Bikram; Sharma, Pradip; Thampi, S. B.

    2016-05-01

    During the Northeast monsoon season, India receives about 11% of its annual rainfall. Many districts in South Peninsula receive 30-60% of their annual rainfall. Coastal Tamil Nadu receives 60% of its annual rainfall and interior districts about 40-50 %. During the month of November, 2015, three synoptic scale weather systems affected Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry causing extensive rainfall activity over the region. Extremely heavy rains occurred over districts of Chennai, Thiruvallur and Kancheepuram, due to which these 3 districts were fully inundated. 122 people in Tamil Nadu were reported to have died due to the flooding, while over 70,000 people had been rescued. State government reported flood damage of the order of around Rs 8481 Crores. The rainfall received in Chennai district during 1.11.2015 to 5.12.2015 was 1416.8 mm against the normal of 408.4 mm. The extremely heavy rains were found to be associated with strong wind surges at lower tropospheric levels, which brought in lot of moisture flux over Chennai and adjoining area. The subtropical westerly trough at mid-tropospheric levels extended much southwards than its normal latitude, producing favorable environment for sustained rising motions ahead of approaching trough over coastal Tamil Nadu. Generated strong upward velocities in the clouds lifted the cloud tops to very high levels forming deep convective clouds. These clouds provided very heavy rainfall of the order of 150-200 mm/hour. In this paper we have used radar data to examine and substantiate the cloud burst that led to these torrential rains over Chennai and adjoining areas during the Northeast Monsoon period, 2015.

  1. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  2. Prediction and uncertainty of Hurricane Sandy (2012) explored through a real-time cloud-permitting ensemble analysis and forecast system assimilating airborne Doppler radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Erin B.; Zhang, Fuqing

    2014-03-01

    the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) real-time convection-permitting hurricane analysis and forecasting system (WRF-EnKF) that assimilates airborne Doppler radar observations, the sensitivity and uncertainty of forecasts initialized several days prior to landfall of Hurricane Sandy (2012) are assessed. The performance of the track and intensity forecasts of both the deterministic and ensemble forecasts by the PSU WRF-EnKF system show significant skill and are comparable to or better than forecasts produced by operational dynamical models, even at lead times of 4-5 days prior to landfall. Many of the ensemble members correctly capture the interaction of Sandy with an approaching midlatitude trough, which precedes Sandy's forecasted landfall in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. However, the ensemble reveals considerable forecast uncertainties in the prediction of Sandy. For example, in the ensemble forecast initialized at 0000 UTC 26 October 2012, 10 of the 60 members do not predict a United States landfall. Using ensemble composite and sensitivity analyses, the essential dynamics and initial condition uncertainties that lead to forecast divergence among the members in tracks and precipitation are examined. It is observed that uncertainties in the environmental steering flow are the most impactful factor on the divergence of Sandy's track forecasts, and its subsequent interaction with the approaching midlatitude trough. Though the midlatitude system does not strongly influence the final position of Sandy, differences in the timing and location of its interactions with Sandy lead to considerable differences in rainfall forecasts, especially with respect to heavy precipitation over land.

  3. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  4. The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

  5. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  6. Progress in existing and planned MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    Radar systems are described which use two different wind measuring techniques: the partial-reflection drift technique and the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) or Doppler beam-swing radar technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  7. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  8. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  9. Chaotic system for self-synchronizing Doppler measurement.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Thomas L

    2005-03-01

    In a radar system, it is necessary to measure both range and velocity of a target. The movement of the target causes a Doppler shift of the radar signal, and the size of the Doppler shift is used to measure the velocity of the target. In this work, a chaotic drive-response system is simulated that detects a Doppler shift in a chaotic signal. The response system can detect Doppler shifts in more than one signal at a time.

  10. EXTRACTING A RADAR REFLECTION FROM A CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT USING 3-D INTERPRETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 3-D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey at 50 MHz center frequency was conducted at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, to define the topography of the base of a shallow aquifer. The site for the survey was Chemical Disposal Pit #2 where there are many man-made features that generate ...

  11. Helicopter discrimination apparatus for the murine radar

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Jr., John G.; Gray, Roger M.

    1977-01-01

    A helicopter discrimination apparatus for a radar utilizing doppler filtering to discriminate between a missile and ground clutter. The short duration of the doppler filter pulses which are emitted by helicopter rotor blades are processed to prevent false alarms, thus allowing the radar-protected helicopter to operate in formation with other helicopters while maintaining protection against infra-red-seeking missiles.

  12. VHF radar and rocket observations of equatorial spread F on Kwajalein

    SciTech Connect

    Hysell, D.L.; Kelley, M.C.; Swartz, W.E.; Farley, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    VHF radar data from the Summer 1990 Equatorial Spread F campaign on Kwajalein are presented. The Cornell 50 MHz portable radar interferometer (CUPRI) operated concurrently with the Altair UHF incoherent scatter radar throughout July and August and supported two sounding rocket flights on July 30 and August 2. This experiment provided the first opportunity to simultaneously diagnose equatorial spread F using the three prime experimental techniques: VHF/UHF coherent scatter, incoherent scatter, and in situ probe measurements of electric field and density fluctuations. The intensity of the coherent echoes observed was consistent with typical Jicamarca spread F observations, but chains of periodic, large-scale plasma upwellings were observed more often and for much longer durations on Kwajalein than have been seen over Peru. CUPRI also measured Doppler frequencies in one upwelling corresponding to 1200-m/s plasma drift velocities. This measurement agrees with recent observations of supersonic drift rates at the magnetic equator by spacecraft. Near the most active localized plasma upwellings, interferometer data reveal that the zonal drift rate of plasma irregularities can vary sharply in space, as one would expect for two-dimensional incompressible flow. The authors introduce a semiempirical model of the three-dimensional spectrum of F region irregularities that is consistent with the one-dimensional spectra of density fluctuations observed by sounding rockets and with the axial ratio of irregularities determined recently. Normalized to data from one of the rocket flights on Kwajalein, the model predicts the 3-m scattering cross-section measured by CUPRI to within a few decibels. 55 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Design of a Doppler reflectometer for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. D. Nam, Y. U.; Seo, Seong-Heon; Kim, Y. S.

    2014-11-15

    A Doppler reflectometer has been designed to measure the poloidal propagation velocity on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak. It has the operating frequency range of V-band (50-75 GHz) and the monostatic antenna configuration with extraordinary mode (X-mode). The single sideband modulation with an intermediate frequency of 50 MHz is used for the heterodyne measurement with the 200 MHz in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) phase detector. The corrugated conical horn antenna is used to approximate the Gaussian beam propagation and it is installed together with the oversized rectangular waveguides in the vacuum vessel. The first commissioning test of the Doppler reflectometer system on the KSTAR tokamak is planned in the 2014 KSTAR experimental campaign.

  14. Design of a Doppler reflectometer for KSTARa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. D.; Nam, Y. U.; Seo, Seong-Heon; Kim, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    A Doppler reflectometer has been designed to measure the poloidal propagation velocity on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak. It has the operating frequency range of V-band (50-75 GHz) and the monostatic antenna configuration with extraordinary mode (X-mode). The single sideband modulation with an intermediate frequency of 50 MHz is used for the heterodyne measurement with the 200 MHz in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) phase detector. The corrugated conical horn antenna is used to approximate the Gaussian beam propagation and it is installed together with the oversized rectangular waveguides in the vacuum vessel. The first commissioning test of the Doppler reflectometer system on the KSTAR tokamak is planned in the 2014 KSTAR experimental campaign.

  15. Mathematical Models for Doppler Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William M.

    1987-01-01

    Error analysis increases precision of navigation. Report presents improved mathematical models of analysis of Doppler measurements and measurement errors of spacecraft navigation. To take advantage of potential navigational accuracy of Doppler measurements, precise equations relate measured cycle count to position and velocity. Drifts and random variations in transmitter and receiver oscillator frequencies taken into account. Mathematical models also adapted to aircraft navigation, radar, sonar, lidar, and interferometry.

  16. Assimilation of coastal Doppler radar data with the ARPS 3DVAR and cloud analysis for the prediction of Hurricane Ike (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Xue, Ming

    2009-06-01

    The impact of radar data on the analysis and prediction of the structure, intensity, and track of landfalling Hurricane Ike (2008), at a cloud-resolving resolution, is examined. Radial velocity (Vr) and reflectivity (Z) data from coastal radars are assimilated over a 6-h period before Ike landfall, using the ARPS 3DVAR and cloud analysis package through 30-min assimilation cycles. Eighteen-hour predictions were made. All 4 experiments that assimilate radar data produce better structure, intensity and precipitation forecasts than that from operational GFS analysis. The improvement to the track forecast lasts for the entire 18 hours while that to intensity prediction lasts about 12 hours. The Vr data help improve the track forecast more while reflectivity data help improve intensity forecast most. Best results are obtained when both Z and Vr data are assimilated.

  17. Human polarimetric micro-doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David; Silvious, Jerry

    2011-06-01

    Modern radars can pick up target motions other than just the principle target Doppler; they pick out the small micro-Doppler variations as well. These can be used to visually identify both the target type as well as the target activity. We model and measure some of the micro-Doppler motions that are amenable to polarimetric measurement. Understanding the capabilities and limitations of radar systems that utilize micro-Doppler to measure human characteristics is important for improving the effectiveness of these systems at securing areas. In security applications one would like to observe humans unobtrusively and without privacy issues, which make radar an effective approach. In this paper we focus on the characteristics of radar systems designed for the estimation of human motion for the determination of whether someone is loaded. Radar can be used to measure the direction, distance, and radial velocity of a walking person as a function of time. Detailed radar processing can reveal more characteristics of the walking human. The parts of the human body do not move with constant radial velocity; the small micro-Doppler signatures are timevarying and therefore analysis techniques can be used to obtain more characteristics. Looking for modulations of the radar return from arms, legs, and even body sway are being assessed by researchers. We analyze these techniques and focus on the improved performance that fully polarimetric radar techniques can add. We perform simulations and fully polarimetric measurements of the varying micro-Doppler signatures of humans as a function of elevation angle and azimuthal angle in order to try to optimize this type of system for the detection of arm motion, especially for the determination of whether someone is carrying something in their arms. The arm is often bent at the elbow, providing a surface similar to a dihedral. This is distinct from the more planar surfaces of the body and allows us to separate the signals from the arm (and

  18. A Cross-Track Cloud-Scanning Dual-Frequency Doppler (C2D2) Radar for the Proposed ACE Mission and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory; Tanelli, Simone; Chamberlain, Neil; Durden, Stephen; Fung, Andy; Sanchez-Barbetty, Mauricio; Thrivikraman, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    The National Resource Council’s Earth Science Decadal Survey” (NRCDS) has identified the Aerosol/Climate/Ecosystems (ACE) Mission as a priority mission for NASA Earth science. The NRC recommended the inclusion of "a cross-track scanning cloud radar with channels at 94 GHz and possibly 34 GHz for measurement of cloud droplet size, glaciation height, and cloud height". Several radar concepts have been proposed that meet some of the requirements of the proposed ACE mission but none have provided scanning capability at both 34 and 94 GHz due to the challenge of constructing scanning antennas at 94 GHz. In this paper, we will describe a radar design that leverages new developments in microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and micro-machining to enable an electronically-scanned radar with both Ka-band (35 GHz) and W-band (94-GHz) channels. This system uses a dual-frequency linear active electronically-steered array (AESA) combined with a parabolic cylindrical reflector. This configuration provides a large aperture (3m x 5m) with electronic-steering but is much simpler than a two-dimension AESA of similar size. Still, the W-band frequency requires element spacing of approximately 2.5 mm, presenting significant challenges for signal routing and incorporation of MMICs. By combining (Gallium Nitride) GaN MMIC technology with micro-machined radiators and interconnects and silicon-germanium (SiGe) beamforming MMICs, we are able to meet all the performance and packaging requirements of the linear array feed and enable simultaneous scanning of Ka-band and W-band radars over swath of up to 100 km.

  19. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-03-06

    The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate.

  20. Radar Microwave Link (RML) electromagnetic compatibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. G.

    1980-03-01

    Two different microwave relay transmitter and receiver combinations operating in the frequency ranges of 7.125 to 8.4 GHz and 14.4 to 15.25 GHz were tested. Measurements to determine interference characteristics included: receiver off channel rejection; receiver intermodulation; transmitter spectrums; transmitter intermodulation; and second harmonics. Results indicate that adjacent frequency spacing should be at least 20 MHz and 50 MHz for radar microwave link-4 and TerraCom equipment, respectively. Additional measurements are rec-om-mended on new equipment in the 14.4 to 15.25 GHz range for valid criteria for the handbook in preparation.

  1. JAWS multiple Doppler derived winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Kimberly L.

    1987-01-01

    An elementary working knowledge is given of the advantages and limitations of the multiple Doppler radar analyses that have recently become available from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project. What Doppler radar is and what it does is addressed and the way Doppler radars were used in the JAWS project to gather wind shear data is described. The working definition of wind shear used is winds that affect aircraft flight over a span of 15 to 45 seconds and turbulence is defined as air motion that cause abrupt aircraft motions. The JAWS data current available contain no turbulence data. The concept of multiple Doppler analysis and the geometry of how it works are described, followed by an explanation of how data gathered in radar space are interpolated to a common Cartesian coordinate system and the limitations involved. A discussion is also presented of the analysis grid and how it was constructed. What the user actually gets is discussed, followed by a discussion of the expected errors in the three orthogonal wind components. Finally, a discussion is presented of why JAWS data are significant.

  2. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  3. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  4. Dual-Polarised Doppler X-band Radar Observations of Mixed Phased Clouds from the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment-Dust (ICE-D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Ryan; Blyth, Alan; Bennett, Lindsay; Dufton, David; Cui, Zhiqiang; McQuaid, Jim; Price, Hannah; Murray, Benjamin; Huang, Yahui

    2016-04-01

    Here we present dual-polarised X-band radar and in situ observations of convective, altocumulus and altostratus clouds relatively close to the Sahara desert in order to examine the impact of dust on the formation of ice and precipitation. These initial results come the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust (UK ICE-D). UK ICE-D was an aircraft and ground-based project based in Cape Verde off the coast of Senegal, Africa during August 2015. The overall goal of this experiment was to determine how desert dust affects primary nucleation of ice particles in convective and layer clouds as well as the subsequent development of precipitation and glaciation of the clouds. This was accomplished by making focused observations when dust was present in high concentrations and when almost no dust was present. Here we focus on examining the differences in hydrometeor types derived from the dual-polarised X-band radar observations observed in the high and low dust loadings with specific emphasis on the role of supercooled rain drops in these two situations.

  5. The development of a non-contact screening system for rapid medical inspection at a quarantine depot using a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, microwave radar and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Suzuki, S; Ujikawa, K; Usui, T; Gotoh, S; Sugamata, M; Abe, S

    2009-01-01

    In order to conduct fast screening of passengers with infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or pandemic influenza at a quarantine depot, we developed a non-contact screening system with self-produced program to conduct a human screening within five seconds, via a linear discriminant function from non-contact derived variables, i.e. palmer pulse derived from a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz microwave radar, and facial temperature measured by thermography. The system evaluation was conducted on seven healthy male subjects (23 +/- 1 years). In order to achieve a pseudo-infection condition, the subjects maintained an ergometer exercise load (100 W, 10 minutes). Before (normal condition) and after (pseudo-infection condition) exercise, a significant linear discriminant function (p < 0.001) was determined to distinguish pseudo-infection condition from normal condition (Mahalanobis D-square = 20.3, classification error rate <5%). The proposed system appears promising for future application in fast screening of infection at a quarantine depot. PMID:19484686

  6. Development of a non-contact screening system for rapid medical inspection at a quarantine depot using a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, microwave radar and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Suzuki, S; Ujikawa, K; Usui, T; Gotoh, S; Sugamata, M; Badarch, Z; Abe, S

    2009-01-01

    In order to conduct fast screening of passengers with infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or pandemic influenza at a quarantine depot, we developed a non-contact screening system with a self-produced program to conduct a human screening within five seconds, via a linear discriminant function from non-contact derived variables, i.e. palmer pulse derived from a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz microwave radar, and facial temperature measured by a thermography. The system evaluation was conducted on seven healthy male subjects (23+1 years). In order to achieve a pseudo-infection condition, the subjects maintained an ergo-meter exercise load (100 W, 10 minutes). Before (normal condition) and after (pseudo-infection condition) exercise, a significant linear discriminant function (p50.001) was determined to distinguish the pseudo-infection condition from the normal condition (Mahalanobis D-square 1/4 20.3, classification error rate55%). The proposed system appears promising for future application in fast screening of infection at a quarantine depot. PMID:19440915

  7. The development of a non-contact screening system for rapid medical inspection at a quarantine depot using a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, microwave radar and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Suzuki, S; Ujikawa, K; Usui, T; Gotoh, S; Sugamata, M; Abe, S

    2009-01-01

    In order to conduct fast screening of passengers with infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or pandemic influenza at a quarantine depot, we developed a non-contact screening system with self-produced program to conduct a human screening within five seconds, via a linear discriminant function from non-contact derived variables, i.e. palmer pulse derived from a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz microwave radar, and facial temperature measured by thermography. The system evaluation was conducted on seven healthy male subjects (23 +/- 1 years). In order to achieve a pseudo-infection condition, the subjects maintained an ergometer exercise load (100 W, 10 minutes). Before (normal condition) and after (pseudo-infection condition) exercise, a significant linear discriminant function (p < 0.001) was determined to distinguish pseudo-infection condition from normal condition (Mahalanobis D-square = 20.3, classification error rate <5%). The proposed system appears promising for future application in fast screening of infection at a quarantine depot.

  8. Navigator alignment using radar scan

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis

    2016-04-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of and correction of heading error of platform. Knowledge of at least one of a maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth pertaining to a plurality of radar echoes can be utilized to facilitate correction of the heading error. Heading error can occur as a result of component drift. In an ideal situation, a boresight direction of an antenna or the front of an aircraft will have associated therewith at least one of a maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth. As the boresight direction of the antenna strays from a direction of travel at least one of the maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth will shift away, either left or right, from the ideal situation.

  9. Radar research on thunderstorms and lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Doviak, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of Doppler radar to detection of storm hazards are reviewed. Normal radar sweeps reveal data on reflectivity fields of rain drops, ionized lightning paths, and irregularities in humidity and temperature. Doppler radar permits identification of the targets' speed toward or away from the transmitter through interpretation of the shifts in the microwave frequency. Wind velocity fields can be characterized in three dimensions by the use of two radar units, with a Nyquist limit on the highest wind speeds that may be recorded. Comparisons with models numerically derived from Doppler radar data show substantial agreement in storm formation predictions based on information gathered before the storm. Examples are provided of tornado observations with expanded Nyquist limits, gust fronts, turbulence, lightning and storm structures. Obtaining vertical velocities from reflectivity spectra is discussed.

  10. Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

    1986-01-01

    The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

  11. Status of the Jicamarca radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, T.

    1984-12-01

    The capabilities of the large 50-MHz radar at Jicamarca for mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere MST observations were discussed in some detail. Hence this description will be quite brief and will concentrate on recent improvements in the facility. The radar is located about 20 km from Lima, Peru. It is well shielded by surrounding mountains, and most of the ground clutter is restricted to ranges of 15 km or less. The antenna consists of 18,432 half-wave dipoles (9216 crossed pairs) covering an area of 290 m by 290 m and divided up into 64 independent modules which can be individually phased and/or used as separate antennas in any way desired. The whole array can be steered about 3 degrees from the on-axis position (the limit is the beam width of the individual modules, which cannot be steered), and any polarization can be arranged. Even with this limited steerability it is straightforward to determine vector wind velocities by pointing segments of the antenna in different directions. The radar can also be used as in interferometer.

  12. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  13. Doppler echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are successful in presenting a basic book on clinical quantitative Doppler echocardiography. It is not intended to be a comprehensive text, but it does cover clinical applications in a succinct fashion. Only the more common diseases in the adult are considered. The subjects are presented logically and are easy to comprehend. The illustrations are good, and the book is paperbound. The basic principles of Doppler echocardiography are presented briefly. The book ends with chapters on left ventricular function (stroke volume and cardiac output), congenital heart disease, and color Doppler echo-cardiography. There are numerous references and a good glossary and index.

  14. Radar volcano monitoring system in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arason, Þórður; Yeo, Richard F.; Sigurðsson, Geirfinnur S.; Pálmason, Bolli; von Löwis, Sibylle; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór

    2013-04-01

    Weather radars are valuable instruments in monitoring explosive volcanic eruptions. Temporal variations in the eruption strength can be monitored as well as variations in plume and ash dispersal. Strength of the reflected radar signal of a volcanic plume is related to water content and droplet sizes as well as type, shape, amount and the grain size distribution of ash. The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) owns and operates three radars and one more is planned for this radar volcano monitoring system. A fixed position 250 kW C-band weather radar was installed in 1991 in SW-Iceland close to Keflavík International Airport, and upgraded to a doppler radar in 2010. In cooperation with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), IMO has recently invested in two mobile X-band radars and one fixed position C-band radar. The fixed position 250 kW doppler C-band weather radar was installed in April 2012 at Fljótsdalsheiði, E-Iceland, and in June 2012 IMO received a mobile 65 kW dual-polarization doppler X-band radar. Early in 2013 IMO will acquire another mobile radar of the same type. Explosive volcanic eruptions in Iceland during the past 22 years were monitored by the Keflavík radar: Hekla 1991, Gjálp 1996, Grímsvötn 1998, Hekla 2000, Grímsvötn 2004, Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. Additionally, the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption was mointored by a mobile X-band radar on loan from the Italian Civil Protection Authorities. Detailed technical information is presented on the four radars with examples of the information acquired during previous eruptions. This expanded network of radars is expected to give valuable information on future volcanic eruptions in Iceland.

  15. The Adelaide VHF radar: Capabilities and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, B. H.; Candy, B.; Elford, W. G.; Hocking, W. K.; May, P. T.; Vincent, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The VHF radar at Buckland Park, South Australia commenced operation in January, 1984. The radar is located adjacent to the 2-MHz ionospheric radar. The routine method for measuring horizontal wind velocity is the space antenna technique (SA) while the Doppler technique is used to measure vertical velocities. It is possible to swing the transmitting beam in the east-west plane, allowing Doppler measurements of the EW wind component.

  16. Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 20 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. The usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site as well as, more recently, the Pathfinder landing site. In general, radar data have not been available to the Mars exploration community at large. A project funded initially by the Mars Exploration Directorate Science Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and later funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program has reprocessed to a common format a decade's worth of raw GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data in aid of landing site characterization for the Mars Program. These data will soon be submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The radar data used were obtained between 1988 and 1995 by the GSSR, and comprise some 63 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Of these, 15 have yet to be recovered from old 9-track tapes, and some of the data may be permanently lost.

  17. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, B.; Hromadka, T.V.; Perez, R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for “ground-truthing” of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference. PMID:26649276

  18. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, B; Hromadka, T V; Perez, R

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for "ground-truthing" of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference. PMID:26649276

  19. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, B; Hromadka, T V; Perez, R

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for "ground-truthing" of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference.

  20. Lunar radar mapping: Correlation between radar reflectivity and stratigraphy in north-western mare imbrium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Eggleton, R.E.; Thompson, T.W.

    1970-01-01

    DELAY-DOPPLER radar maps of the Moon obtained with the 430 MHz (70 cm wavelength) radar of the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico (Thompson, unpublished) are at present being studied to correlate geological information with the radar reflexion characteristics of the lunar surface. Preliminary evaluation of the radar data for the Sinus Iridum quadrangle (32??-48?? N; 14??-38?? W) has revealed that the lowest values of radar reflectivity are closely correlated with the mare materials of lowest albedo mapped by Schaber1 as of most recent volcanic origin. These radar data were obtained with a surface resolution of 50 to 100 km2 on January 24 and April 17, 1967. A detailed account of the delay-doppler radar mapping technique can be found in unpublished reports by Thompson. ?? 1970 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Radar Observations of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    2003-05-01

    During the past 25 years, radar investigations have provided otherwise unavailable information about the physical and dynamical properties of more than 200 asteroids. Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency provide two-dimensional images with spatial resolution as fine as a decameter. Sequences of delay-Doppler images can be used to produce geologically detailed three-dimensional models, to define the rotation state precisely, to constrain the internal density distribution, and to estimate the trajectory of the object's center of mass. Radar wavelengths (4 to 13 cm) and the observer's control of transmitted and received polarizations make the observations sensitive to near-surface bulk density and macroscopic structure. Since delay-Doppler positional measurements are orthogonal to optical angle measurements and typically have much finer fractional precision, they are powerful for refining orbits and prediction ephemerides. Radar astrometry can add decades or centuries to the interval over which an asteroid's close Earth approaches can accurately be predicted and can significantly refine collision probability estimates based on optical astrometry alone. In the highly unlikely case that a small body is on course for an Earth collision in this century, radar reconnaissance would almost immediately distinguish between an impact trajectory and a near miss and would dramatically reduce the difficulty and cost of any effort to prevent the collision. The sizes and rotation periods of radar-detected asteroids span more than four orders of magnitude. These observations have revealed both stony and metallic objects, elongated and nonconvex shapes as well as nearly featureless spheroids, small-scale morphology ranging from smoother than the lunar regolith to rougher than the rockiest terrain on Mars, craters and diverse linear structures, non-principal-axis spin states, contact binaries, and binary systems.

  2. Correction of Doppler Rada Data for Aircraft Motion Using Surface Measurements and Recursive Least-Squares Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S.; Haddad, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Observations of Doppler velocity of hydrometeors form airborne Doppler weather radars normally contains a component due to the aircraft motion. Accurate hydrometeor velocity measurements thus require correction by subtracting this velocity from the observed velocity.

  3. MER vistas: ground-truth for Earth-based radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, Albert F.; Larsen, Kristopher W.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Slade, Martin A.

    2004-01-01

    Earth-based delay-Doppler radar observations of Mars with four receiving stations were carried out during the Mars oppositions of 2001 and 2003 in support of Mars Exploration Rover landing site selection. This interferometric planetary radar technique has demonstrated radar mapping of Mars with a 5 km spatial resolution.

  4. Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  5. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described.

  6. Characteristics of Sunset radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Located in a narrow canyon 15 km west of Boulder, Colorado, the Sunset pulsed Doppler radar was the first radar designed and constructed specifically as a VHF ST radar. The antenna system is a phased array of coaxial-colinear dopoles with computer-controlled phase shifters for each line of dipoles. It operates at a frequency of 40.475 MHz and a wavelength of 7.41M. Peak transmitter power is 100 kW. Aperture efficiency is 0.58 and resistive loss is 0.30 for its 3600 sq m area. The practical steering rate is 1 record/minute/position to any arbitrary antenna beam position. The first clear-air turbulence echoes and wind velocity measurements were obtained in 1974. Significant accomplishments are listed.

  7. Ocean wave parameters and spectrum estimated from single and dual high-frequency radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisaki, Yukiharu

    2016-09-01

    The high-frequency (HF) radar inversion algorithm for spectrum estimation (HIAS) can estimate ocean wave directional spectra from both dual and single radar. Wave data from a dual radar and two single radars are compared with in situ observations. The agreement of the wave parameters estimated from the dual radar with those from in situ observations is the best of the three. In contrast, the agreement of the wave parameters estimated from the single radar in which no Doppler spectra are observed in the cell closest to the in situ observation point is the worst among the three. Wave data from the dual radar and the two single radars are compared. The comparison of the wave heights estimated from the single and dual radars shows that the area sampled by the Doppler spectra for the single radar is more critical than the number of Doppler spectra in terms of agreement with the dual-radar-estimated wave heights. In contrast, the comparison of the wave periods demonstrates that the number of Doppler spectra observed by the single radar is more critical for agreement of the wave periods than the area of the Doppler spectra. There is a bias directed to the radar position in the single radar estimated wave direction.

  8. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S.

    2004-05-01

    Radar investigations have provided otherwise unavailable information about the physical and dynamical properties of about 230 asteroids. Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (line-of-sight velocity) provide two-dimensional images with spatial resolution as fine as a decameter. Sequences of delay-Doppler images can be used to produce geologically detailed three-dimensional models, to define the rotation state precisely, to constrain the internal density distribution, and to estimate the trajectory of the object's center of mass. Radar wavelengths (4 to 13 cm) and the observer's control of transmitted and received polarizations make the observations sensitive to near-surface bulk density and macroscopic structure. Since delay-Doppler measurements are orthogonal to optical angle measurements and typically have much finer fractional precision, they are powerful for refining orbits and prediction ephemerides. Such astrometric measurements can add decades or centuries to the interval over which an asteroid's close Earth approaches can accurately be predicted and can significantly refine collision probability estimates based on optical astrometry alone. In the highly unlikely case that a small body is on course for an Earth collision in this century, radar reconnaissance would almost immediately distinguish between an impact trajectory and a near miss and would dramatically reduce the difficulty and cost of any effort to prevent the collision. The sizes and rotation periods of radar-detected asteroids span more than four orders of magnitude. The observations have revealed both stony and metallic objects, elongated and nonconvex shapes as well as nearly featureless spheroids, small-scale morphology ranging from smoother than the lunar regolith to rougher than the rockiest terrain on Mars, craters and diverse linear structures, non-principal-axis spin states, contact binaries, and binary systems.

  9. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle. [(pulse radar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are discussed of a study to define a radar and antenna system which best suits the space shuttle rendezvous requirements. Topics considered include antenna characteristics and antenna size tradeoffs, fundamental sources of measurement errors inherent in the target itself, backscattering crosssection models of the target and three basic candidate radar types. Antennas up to 1.5 meters in diameter are within specified installation constraints, however, a 1 meter diameter paraboloid and a folding, four slot backfeed on a two gimbal mount implemented for a spiral acquisition scan is recommended. The candidate radar types discussed are: (1) noncoherent pulse radar (2) coherent pulse radar and (3) pulse Doppler radar with linear FM ranging. The radar type recommended is a pulse Doppler with linear FM ranging. Block diagrams of each radar system are shown.

  10. Prospects for Geostationary Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Durden, Stephen L.; Im, Eastwood; Rhamat-Samii, Yahya

    2009-01-01

    A novel mission concept, namely NEXRAD in Space (NIS), was developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a geostationary orbit. This mission concept requires a space deployable 35-m diameter reflector that operates at 35-GHz with a surface figure accuracy requirement of 0.21 mm RMS. This reflector is well beyond the current state-of-the-art. To implement this mission concept, several potential technologies associated with large, lightweight, spaceborne reflectors have been investigated by this study. These spaceborne reflector technologies include mesh reflector technology, inflatable membrane reflector technology and Shape Memory Polymer reflector technology.

  11. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

  12. Peak velocity overestimation and linear-array spectral Doppler.

    PubMed

    Eicke, B M; Kremkau, F W; Hinson, H; Tegeler, C H

    1995-04-01

    Ultrasound instruments are used to evaluate blood flow velocities in the human body. Most clinical instruments perform velocity calculations based on the Doppler principle and measure the frequency shift of a reflected ultrasound beam. Doppler-only instruments use single-frequency, single-crystal transducers. Linear- and annular-array multiple-crystal transducers are used for duplex scanning (simultaneous B-mode image and Doppler). Clinical interpretation relies primarily on determination of peak velocities or frequency shifts as identified by the Doppler spectrum. Understanding of the validity of these measurements is important for instruments in clinical use. The present study examined the accuracy with which several ultrasound instruments could estimate velocities based on the identification of the peak of the Doppler spectrum, across a range of different angles of insonation, on a Doppler string phantom. The string was running in a water tank at constant speeds of 50, 100, and 150 cm/sec and also in a sine wave pattern at 100- or 150-cm/sec amplitude. Angles of insonation were 30, 45, 60, and 70 degrees. The single-frequency, single-crystal transducers (PC Dop 842, 2-MHz pulsed-wave, 4-MHz continuous-wave) provided acceptably accurate velocity estimates at all tested velocities independent of the angle of insonation. All duplex Doppler instruments with linear-array transducers (Philips P700, 5.0-MHz; Hewlett-Packard Sonos 1000, 7.5-MHz; ATL Ultramark 9 HDI, 7.5-MHz) exhibited a consistent overestimation of the true flow velocity due to increasing intrinsic spectral broadening with increasing angle of insonation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Analysis of Doppler lidar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, J.

    1985-01-01

    Dual Doppler lidar analyses of data taken by pulsed lidars demonstrated feasibility of deriving wind fields from coordinated lidar scans. Limited case histories of thunderstorm outflows were obtained. Co-located comparison between Marshall Space Flight Center lidar and NCAR 5.5 cm radar demonstrated desirability of lidar in cases of marginal radar reflectivity in clear air and low-elevation scans. Analysis continued on backscattered intensity and velocity measurements made from April 1983 to February 1984. A slant path method was used to calculate vertical profiles of volumetric backscatter and adsorption in the lower troposphere. High-quality VAD scans were identified as candidates for investigating feasibility of calculating horizontal motion fields using single Doppler lidar. Activities during FY-85 also included participation in Fall 1984 airborne Doppler lidar flight experiments. Preliminary data review was begun using McIdas system. Analysis of backscatter and absorpiton profiles continues. Focus is on understanding spatial and temporal variations, as well as frequency distribution, of backscatter at several tropospheric levels. Results from this study provide input to evaluation of clean/dirty airmass hypothesis of aerosol distribution. Assistance is being given to preparation of a comprehensive, global backscatter measurement plan. Analysis of data from Fall 1984 flight experiments is just beginning. Work has begun on preprocessing data to minimize errors due to electro-optic modulator malfunction during flights.

  14. The design and evaluation of a 5.8 ghz laptop-based radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Kevin Chi-Ming

    This project involves design and analysis of a 5.8 GHz laptop-based radar system. The radar system measures Doppler, ranging and forming Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images utilizing Matlab software provided from MIT Open Courseware and performs data acquisition and signal processing. The main purpose of this work is to bring new perspective to the existing radar project by increasing the ISM band frequency from 2.4 GHz to 5.8 GHz and to carry out a series of experiments on the implementation of the radar kit. Demonstrating the radar at higher operating frequency is capable of providing accurate data results in Doppler, ranging and SAR images.

  15. Radar reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-07-01

    This TOP describes a method for measuring the radar reflectivity characteristics of aircraft. It uses a rotating platform and various radar systems to obtain calibrated radar Automatic Gain Control values for each degree of aspect angle for the aircraft. The purpose of this test is to provide comparable values of radar reflectivity for Army aircraft at various radar frequencies and parameter for fixed positions and aspect angles on the aircraft. Data collected on each specific aircraft can be used to evaluate radar reflectivity characteristics of aircraft skin material, paint, and structural changes such as flat versus curved surfaces.

  16. A satellite-based radar wind sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Weizhuang

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the application of Doppler radar systems for global wind measurement. A model of the satellite-based radar wind sounder (RAWS) is discussed, and many critical problems in the designing process, such as the antenna scan pattern, tracking the Doppler shift caused by satellite motion, and backscattering of radar signals from different types of clouds, are discussed along with their computer simulations. In addition, algorithms for measuring mean frequency of radar echoes, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimator, the covariance estimator, and the estimators based on autoregressive models, are discussed. Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to compare the performance of these algorithms. Anti-alias methods are discussed for the FFT and the autoregressive methods. Several algorithms for reducing radar ambiguity were studied, such as random phase coding methods and staggered pulse repitition frequncy (PRF) methods. Computer simulations showed that these methods are not applicable to the RAWS because of the broad spectral widths of the radar echoes from clouds. A waveform modulation method using the concept of spread spectrum and correlation detection was developed to solve the radar ambiguity. Radar ambiguity functions were used to analyze the effective signal-to-noise ratios for the waveform modulation method. The results showed that, with suitable bandwidth product and modulation of the waveform, this method can achieve the desired maximum range and maximum frequency of the radar system.

  17. Clutter attenuation using the Doppler effect in standoff electromagnetic quantum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In the context of traditional radar systems, the Doppler effect is crucial to detect and track moving targets in the presence of clutter. In the quantum radar context, however, most theoretical performance analyses to date have assumed static targets. In this paper we consider the Doppler effect at the single photon level. In particular, we describe how the Doppler effect produced by clutter and moving targets modifies the quantum distinguishability and the quantum radar error detection probability equations. Furthermore, we show that Doppler-based delayline cancelers can reduce the effects of clutter in the context of quantum radar, but only in the low-brightness regime. Thus, quantum radar may prove to be an important technology if the electronic battlefield requires stealthy tracking and detection of moving targets in the presence of clutter.

  18. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  19. Multiple frequency atmospheric radar techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stitt, Gary Richard

    The use of multiple frequency coding to improve the vertical resolution of pulsed-Doppler very high frequency atmospheric radars, especially with regards to the two-frequency techniques known as frequency domain interferometry (FDI), is presented. This technique consists of transmitting alternate pulses on two distinct carrier frequencies. The two resulting time series are used to evaluate the normalized cross-correlation function, whose magnitude and phase are related to the thickness and position of a scattering layer. These same time series are also used to evaluate cross-spectra, which yield magnitude and phase values for each Doppler frequency component of the return signal.

  20. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.; Raptis, A.C.

    1981-11-13

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  1. High-resolution Doppler model of the human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan L.; Greneker, Eugene F., III; Marshall, William S.

    2002-07-01

    A high resolution Doppler model of the walking human was developed for analyzing the continuous wave (CW) radar gait signature. Data for twenty subjects were collected simultaneously using an infrared motion capture system along with a two channel 10.525 GHz CW radar. The motion capture system recorded three-dimensional coordinates of infrared markers placed on the body. These body marker coordinates were used as inputs to create the theoretical Doppler output using a model constructed in MATLAB. The outputs of the model are the simulated Doppler signals due to each of the major limbs and the thorax. An estimated radar cross section for each part of the body was assigned using the Lund & Browder chart of estimated body surface area. The resultant Doppler model was then compared with the actual recorded Doppler gait signature in the frequency domain using the spectrogram. Comparison of the two sets of data has revealed several identifiable biomechanical features in the radar gait signature due to leg and body motion. The result of the research shows that a wealth of information can be unlocked from the radar gait signature, which may be useful in security and biometric applications.

  2. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  3. Transesophageal color Doppler evaluation of obstructive lesions using the new "Quasar" technology.

    PubMed

    Fan, P; Nanda, N C; Gatewood, R P; Cape, E G; Yoganathan, A P

    1995-01-01

    Due to the unavoidable problem of aliasing, color flow signals from high blood flow velocities cannot be measured directly by conventional color Doppler. A new technology termed Quantitative Un-Aliased Speed Algorithm Recognition (Quasar) has been developed to overcome this limitation. Employing this technology, we used transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography to investigate whether the velocities detected by the Quasar would correlate with those obtained by continuous-wave Doppler both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, a 5.0 MHz transesophageal transducer of a Kontron Sigma 44 color Doppler flow system was used. Fourteen different peak velocities calculated and recorded by color Doppler-guided continuous-wave Doppler were randomly selected. In the clinical study, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was performed using the same transducer 18 adults (13 aortic valve stenosis, 2 aortic and 2 mitral stenosis, 2 hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and 1 mitral valve stenosis). Following each continuous-wave Doppler measurement, the Quasar was activated, and a small Quasar marker was placed in the brightest area of the color flow jet to obtain the maximum mean velocity readout. The maximum mean velocities measured by Quasar closely correlated with maximum peak velocities obtained by color flow guided continuous-wave Doppler in both in vitro (0.53 to 1.65 m/s, r = 0.99) and in vivo studies (1.50 to 6.01 m/s, r = 0.97). We conclude that the new Quasar technology can accurately measure high blood flow velocities during transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography. This technique has the potential of obviating the need for continuous-wave Doppler.

  4. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater

  5. Distribution and size of elements of Saturn's rings as inferred from 12-cm radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A 64m radar antenna was used to observe Saturn's rings at 12.6 cm wavelength, with reduced Doppler spread. The results show a positive radar return corresponding to about a 60 percent return from an isotropic scatterer with the projected area of the rings, allowing for the Cassini division. A radar spectrogram of the rings is shown with power density plotted against Doppler frequency shift.

  6. CIE 1991 International Conference on Radar (CICR-91), Beijing, China, Oct. 22-24, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nengjing; Zhou, Siyong

    The present volume on radar discusses a modern perspective on radar signal processing, a historical survey on airborne early warning, array pattern and target parameter estimation for distributed array radar, and a review of surface surveillance radars. Attention is given to new concepts of spaceborne surveillance radar, UHF Doppler wind-profiling radar and performance analyses, a low-angle tracking method for tactical monopulse radars, and a laser radar for the detection of cables and other hazardous obstacles. Topics addressed include real-time multifunction radar simulation, new estimators of probability tails for radar application, an advanced low-altitude search radar, and beam spacing optimization for a surveillance phased array radar. Also discussed are broadband aspects of a triple-patch antenna as an array element, an effective way to analyze broadband radomes, selective devices on magnetostatic surface waves, and the orthogonality algorithm in adaptive arrays.

  7. Weather Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram

    2004-10-01

    Weather radar is an indispensable component for remote sensing of the atmosphere, and the data and products derived from weather radar are routinely used in climate and weather-related studies to examine trends, structure, and evolution. The need for weather remote sensing is driven by the necessity to understand and explain a specific atmospheric science phenomenon. The importance of remote sensing is especially evident in high-profile observational programs, such as the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar) network, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), and ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement). A suite of ground-based and airborne radar instruments is maintained and deployed for observing wind, clouds, and precipitation. Weather radar observation has become an integral component of weather forecasting and hydrology and climate studies. The inclusion of weather radar observations in numerical weather modeling has enhanced severe storm forecasting, aviation weather, hurricane intensity and movement, and the global water cycle.

  8. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  9. A radar study of the interaction between lightning and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, D.N.; Ulbrich, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    A radar study was made of the interaction between lightning and precipitation with the 430 MHz Doppler radar at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. On one occasion, the spectral power at Doppler velocities near that corresponding to the updraft increased substantially within a fraction of a second after a discharge was detected in the beam. Calculations were made to simulate the effect of an electric field change on mean Doppler velocity for a distribution of droplets in a thunderstorm. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  11. A model for gravity-wave spectra observed by Doppler sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    A model for Mesosphere - Stratosphere - Troposphere (MST) radar spectra is developed following the formalism presented by Pinkel (1981). Expressions for the one-dimensional spectra of radial velocity versus frequency and versus radial wave number are presented. Their dependence on the parameters of the gravity-wave spectrum and on the experimental parameters, radar zenith angle and averaging time are described and the conditions for critical tests of the gravity-wave hypothesis are discussed. The model spectra is compared with spectra observed in the Arctic summer mesosphere by the Poker Flat radar. This model applies to any monostatic Doppler sounding system, including MST radar, Doppler lidar and Doppler sonar in the atmosphere, and Doppler sonar in the ocean.

  12. Radar Observations of Recent Mars Landing Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity will arrive at their respective landing sites of Gusev Crater and Terra Meridiani in January 2004. During the 2001 and 2003 Mars Oppositions both landing sites were targeted for a series of radar observations using the telescopes of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC). This paper will present results of terrestrial delay- Doppler radar observations of the landing sites, predictions for the surface properties that will be encountered, and, after successful landings, correlation between the predicted and observed surface properties. The in-situ observations made by both missions serve as ground truth for the validation of the high resolution radar mapping results.

  13. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  14. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  15. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  16. Compression of polyphase codes with Doppler shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, W. D.

    It is shown that pulse compression with sufficient Doppler tolerance may be achieved with polyphase codes derived from linear frequency modulation (LFM) and nonlinear frequency modulation (NLFM). Low sidelobes in range and Doppler are required especially for the radar search function. These may be achieved by an LFM derived phase coder together with Hamming weighting or by applying a PNL polyphase code derived from NLFM. For a discrete and known Doppler frequency with an expanded and mismatched reference vector a sidelobe reduction is possible. The compression is then achieved without a loss in resolution. A set up for the expanded reference gives zero sidelobes only in an interval around the signal peak or a least square minimization for all range elements. This version may be useful for target tracking.

  17. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  18. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  19. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  20. Acoustic radar sounding of the lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallister, L. G.

    1972-01-01

    Acoustic radar sounding techniques were used to measure the wind velocity and direction in the first 300 m of the atmosphere. Angle-of-arrival and Doppler techniques were developed to obtain two independent measurements of the wind field. These techniques and preliminary experimental results are described briefly.

  1. ARMAR: An airborne rain-mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Im, E.; Li, F. K.; Ricketts, W.; Tanner, A.; Wilson, W.

    1994-01-01

    A new airborne rain-mapping radar (ARMAR) has been developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for operation on the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft. The radar operates at 13.8 GHz, the frequency to be used by the radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). ARMAR simulates the TRMM radar geometry by looking downward and scanning its antenna in the cross-track direction. This basic compatibility between ARMAR and TRMM allows ARMAR to provide information useful for the TRMM radar design, for rain retrieval algorithm development, and for postlaunch calibration. ARMAR has additional capabilities, including multiple polarization, Doppler velocity measurement, and a radiometer channel for brightness temperature measurement. The system has been tested in both ground-based and airborne configurations. This paper describes the design of the system and shows results of field tests.

  2. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  3. High-Power Radar Sounders for the Investigation of Jupiter Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Ostro, S.; Rodriquez, E.; Blankenship, D.; Kurth, W.; Kirchner, D.

    2005-01-01

    The high power and high data rate capability made available by a Prometheus class spacecraft could significantly enhance our ability to probe the subsurface of the planets/moons and asteroid/comets. The main technology development driver for our radar is the proposed Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (or JIMO) mission due to its harsh radiation environment. We plan to develop a dual-band radar at 5 and 50 MHz in response to the two major science requirements identified by the JIMO Science Definition Team: studying the near subsurface (less than 2 km) at high resolution and detection of the ice/ocean interface for Europa (depth up to 30 km). The 50-MHz band is necessary to provide high spatial resolution (footprint and depth) as required by the JIMO mission science requirements as currently defined. Our preliminary assessment indicates that the 50-MHz system is not required to be as high-power as the 5-MHz system since it will be more limited by the surface clutter than the Jupiter or galactic background noise. The low frequency band (e.g. 5 MHz), which is the focus of this effort, would be necessary to mitigate the performance risks posed by the unknown subsurface structure both in terms of unknown attenuation due to volumetric scattering and also the detection of the interface through the attenuative transition region at the ice/ocean interface. Additionally, the 5-MHz band is less affected by the surface roughness that can cause loss of coherence and clutter noise. However, since the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) of the 5-MHz radar band is reduced due to Jupiter noise when operating in the Jupiter side of the moon, it is necessary to increase the radiated power. Our challenge is to design a high-power HF radar that can hnction in Jupiter's high radiation environment, yet be able to fit into spacecraft resource constraints such as mass and thermal limits. Our effort to develop the JIMO radar sounder will rely on our team's experience with planetary radar sounder design

  4. A polarization diversity radar data processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, J. I.; Armstrong, G. M.

    1983-04-01

    A real time data processor has been designed for use with the AFGL 10-cm Doppler weather radar which is to be operated with alternating transmission of horizontally and vertically polarized signals. In this mode of operation the reception of backscattered signals of polarizations identical to those of the transmitted signals allows the computation of the differential reflectivity between the two polarizations in addition to the absolute reflectivity and the Doppler mean velocity and variance. The switching of transmitted polarization introduces difficulties in the estimation of the autocovariance of the received signals, from which the Doppler velocity parameters are derived. The processor design and the allowed modes of radar operation circumvent these difficulties. This report describes the processing algorithms theoretically and presents details of the implementation of these algorithms in hardware.

  5. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-26

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation.

  6. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation.

  7. Radar history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putley, Ernest

    2008-07-01

    The invention of radar, as mentioned in Chris Lavers' article on warship stealth technology (March pp21-25), continues to be a subject of discussion. Here in Malvern we have just unveiled a blue plaque to commemorate the physicist Albert Percival Rowe, who arrived in 1942 as the head of the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE), which was the Air Ministry research facility responsible for the first British radar systems.

  8. A range-rate extraction unit for determining Doppler effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Active ranging technique devised for VHF or S-band radar systems divides target Doppler frequency by counter-generated number that is proportional to transmitting frequency, thus producing target velocity data in terms of speed and distance relative to target transponder.

  9. Radar reconnaissance of near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, Steven J.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Radar is a uniquely powerful source of information about near-Earth asteroid (NEA) physical properties and orbits. Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (radial velocity) constitute two-dimensional images that can provide spatial resolution finer than a decameter. The best radar images reveal geologic details, including craters and blocks. Radar wavelengths (13 cm at Arecibo, 3.5 cm at Goldstone) are sensitive to the bulk density (a joint function of mineralogy and porosity) and the degree of decimeter-scale structural complexity of the uppermost meter or so of the surface. Radar can determine the masses of binary NEAs via Kepler's third law and of solitary NEAs via measurement of the Yarkovsky acceleration. With adequate orientational coverage, a sequence of images can be used to construct a three-dimensional model, to define the rotation state, to determine the distribution of radar surface properties, and to constrain the internal density distribution. As of mid 2006, radar has detected echoes from 193 NEAs, of which 107 are designated Potentially Hazardous Asteroids. Radar has revealed both stony and metallic objects, principal-axis and non-principal-axis rotators, smooth and extremely rough surfaces, objects that appear to be monolithic fragments and objects likely to be nearly strengthless gravitational aggregates, spheroids and highly elongated shapes, contact-binary shapes, and binary systems. Radar can add centuries to the interval over which close Earth approaches can accurately be predicted, significantly refining collision probability estimates compared to those based on optical astrometry alone. If a small body is on course for a collision with Earth in this century, delay-Doppler radar echoes could almost immediately let us recognize this by distinguishing between an impact trajectory and a near miss, and would dramatically reduce the difficulty and cost of any effort to prevent the collision.

  10. Moving target detection for frequency agility radar by sparse reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yinghui; Li, YaChao; Wu, Yaojun; Ran, Lei; Xing, Mengdao; Liu, Mengqi

    2016-09-01

    Frequency agility radar, with randomly varied carrier frequency from pulse to pulse, exhibits superior performance compared to the conventional fixed carrier frequency pulse-Doppler radar against the electromagnetic interference. A novel moving target detection (MTD) method is proposed for the estimation of the target's velocity of frequency agility radar based on pulses within a coherent processing interval by using sparse reconstruction. Hardware implementation of orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is executed on Xilinx Virtex-7 Field Programmable Gata Array (FPGA) to perform sparse optimization. Finally, a series of experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of proposed MTD method for frequency agility radar systems.

  11. Christian Doppler and the Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toman, Kurt

    1984-04-01

    A summary is given of Doppler's life and career. He was born 180 years ago on November 29, 1803, in Salzburg, Austria. He died on March 17, 1853 in Venice. The effect bearing his name was first announced in a presentation before the Royal Bohemian Society of the Sciences in Prague on May 25, 1842. Doppler considered his work a generalization of the aberration theorem as discovered by Bradley. With it came the inference that the perception of physical phenomena can change with the state of motion of the observer. Acceptance of the principle was not without controversy. In 1852, the mathematician Petzval claimed that no useful scientific deductions can be made from Doppler's elementary equations. In 1860, Ernst Mach resolved the misunderstanding that clouded this controversy. The Doppler effect is alive and well. Its role in radio science and related disciplines is enumerated.

  12. Radar Studies in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaprio, Irwin I.

    1998-01-01

    We aid in study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on: (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size , shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics. We are engaged in radar observations of asteroids and comets, both as systematically planned targets and as "targets of opportunity." In the course of the program, we have prepared ephemerides for about 80 asteroids and three comets, and the radar observations have been made or attempted at the Arecibo Observatory, in most cases successfully, and in some cases on more than one apparition. The results of these observations have included echo spectra for the targets and, in some cases, delay - Doppler images and measurements of the total round-trip delay to the targets. Perhaps the most dramatic of these results are the images obtained for asteroids (4179) Toutatis and 1989PB (Castalia), which were revealed to be double-lobed objects by the radar images. Besides these direct results, the radar observations have furnished information on the sizes and shapes of the targets through analysis of the Doppler width of the echoes as a function of time, and on the surface properties (such as composition, bulk density, and roughness) through analysis of the reflectivity and of the polarization state of the echoes. We have also refined the orbits of the observed asteroids as a result of the Doppler (and in some cases delay) measurements from the radar observations. Although the orbits of main-belt asteroids accessible to ground-based radar are quite well known from the available optical data, some near-Earth objects have been seen by radar very soon after their optical discovery (for example, 199OMF, just eight days after discovery). In such

  13. Dual-polarization radar rainfall estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, Robert; Chandrasekar, V.

    Dual-polarization radar is a critical tool for weather research applications, including rainfall estimation, and is at the verge of being a key instrument for operational meteorologists. This new radar system is being integrated into radar networks around the world, including the planned upgrade of the U.S. National Weather Service Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988 Doppler radars. Dual polarization offers several advantages compared to single-polarization radar systems, including additional information about the size, shape, and orientation of hydrometeors. This information can be used to more accurately retrieve characteristics of the drop size distribution, identify types of hydrometeors, correct for signal loss (attenuation) in heavy precipitation, and more easily identify spurious echo scatterers. In addition to traditional backscatter measurements, differential propagation phase characteristics allow for rainfall estimation that is immune to absolute calibration of the radar system, attenuation effects, as well as partial beam blocking. By combining different radar measurements, rainfall retrieval algorithms have developed that minimize the error characteristics of the different rainfall estimators, while at the same time taking advantage of the data quality enhancements. Although dual-polarization techniques have been applied to S band and C band radar systems for several decades, polarization diversity at higher frequencies including X band are now widely available to the radar community. This chapter provides an overview of dual-polarization rainfall estimation applications that are typically utilized at X, C, and S bands. The concept of distinguishing basic and applied science issues and their impact on rainfall estimation is introduced. Various dual-polarization radar rainfall techniques are discussed, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of various estimators at different frequencies.

  14. Preliminary comparisons of VHF radar maps of F-region irregularities with scintillations in the equatorial region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Aarons, J.; Mcclure, J. P.; Lahoz, C.; Bushby, A.; Woodman, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Multiantenna 50 MHz radar backscatter maps of echo power from night-time F-region equatiorial irregularities obtained at Jicamarca, Peru were compared with simultaneous VHF scintillation observations from Huancayo at 137 and 254 MHz during the period 20 November to 12 December 1975. Saturation of VHF scintillations in excess of 20 dB was observed at both these frequencies during times when radar maps showed large intense plume structures rising into the topside ionosphere. On nights when only thin layers of bottomside irregularities were observed, moderate to weak scintillations were recorded at VHF. Preliminary values of east-west horizontal irregularity drift velocities were obtained and compared with scintillation rate observations. Using the 1.5-deg and 4.5-deg longitudinal separation between the Jicamarca radar and ionospheric observation points of the two satellites from Huancayo, information was derived regarding large-scale east-west structure during the development phase of the irregularities.

  15. Inversion of swell frequency from a 1-year HF radar dataset collected in Brittany (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weili; Forget, Philippe; Guan, Changlong

    2014-10-01

    This article presents long period ocean wave (swell) frequencies inverted from a 13-month dataset of high-frequency (HF) phased array radars and an assessment of these estimates by comparison with WAVEWATCH III model data. The method of swell frequency inversion from high-frequency radar sea echo Doppler spectra is described. Radar data were collected from a two-site HF Wellen Radar (WERA) radar system on the west coast of Brittany (France) operating at 12 MHz. A standard beam-forming processing technique has been used to obtain Doppler spectra of processed radar cells. Swell frequencies are obtained from the frequencies of particular spectral peaks of the second-order continuum in hourly averaged Doppler spectra. The data coverage of effective Doppler spectra considered for swell frequency estimates shows the influence of islands and shallow water effects. Swell estimates from both radar stations are in good agreement. The comparison of radar-derived results to WAVEWATCH III (WW3) estimates shows that radar measurements agree quite well with model results. The bias and standard deviation between two estimates are very small for swells with frequency less than 0.09 Hz (period >11 s), whereas radar estimates are generally lower than model estimates for shorter swells, along with higher standard deviation. Statistical analysis suggests that radar measurement uncertainty explains most of the difference between radar and model estimates. For each swell event, time series of frequency exhibits a quasi-linear frequency increase which is associated with the dispersive property of wave phase velocity. The use of swell frequency estimates from both radars on common radar cells only slightly increases the accuracy of swell frequency measurement.

  16. Laser radar VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 23-25, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Becherer, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Topics presented include lidar wind shear detection for commercial aircraft, centroid tracking of range-Doppler images, an analytic approach to centroid performance analysis, simultaneous active/passive IR vehicle detection, and resolution limits for high-resolution imaging lidar. Also presented are laser velocimetry applications, the application of laser radar to autonomous spacecraft landing, 3D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing, and ground based CW atmospheric Doppler lidar performamce modeling.

  17. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  18. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  19. Incoherent scatter radar and in situ and chemical release measurements of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeki, Erhan; Pfaff, Robert; Larsen, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Two sounding rockets collecting DC and AC electric field and plasma density measurements were launched into the equatorial ionosphere during an active E-region sunset event being monitored by ALTAIR and IRIS (UHF and VHF) radar systems. TMA and lithium vapor releases by the rockets climbing to 180 and 330 km apogees also enabled the measurements of E- and lower F-region neutral winds during this pre-reversal enhancement period followed by spread-F activity. E-region turbulence during sunset and F-region turbulence and plasma drifts that developed subsequently were monitored by ALTAIR and IRIS (a 50 MHz two-element fixed-beam radar interferometer) systems using a combination of coherent and incoherent scatter modes. Winds, drifts, and turbulence measurements of the post sunset ionosphere conducted during this equatorial vortex experiment (EVEX) and their implications for post-sunset spread-F development will be presented and discussed.

  20. Asteroid Shape Reconstruction From Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    I estimate near-Earth asteroid 1992 SK's physical properties from radar delay-Doppler images, Doppler-only echo spectra and optical lightcurves. The images are not very strong, but place up to 20 (40 m by 160 m) pixels on the asteroid. The radar tracks are confined to subradar latitudes between 20 and 40 degrees but have complete rotational phase coverage. The echo spectra and optical lightcurves span approx.80 degrees of sky motion, providing geometric leverage to constrain the pole direction. The optical lightcurves are essential to accurate determination of the asteroid's shape and spin state. The asteroid is approx.1.4 km in maximum extent and mildly asymmetric, with an elongation of approx.1.5 and relatively subdued topography. The radar albedo is about 0.13 and the optical albedo about 0.3. The circular polarization ratio for the object is about 0.34, implying typical cm-scale surface roughness. I estimate the asteroid's period to be 7.3182+/-0.0003 hours and its pole direction as (99deg+/-5deg,-3deg+/-5deg) in ecliptic coordinates. The radar-refined orbital solution accurately predicts planetary close approaches between the years 826 and 2690. I have used my model to predict salient characteristics of radar images and optical lightcurves obtainable during the asteroid's March 2006 approach.

  1. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Precision Navigation of Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Petway, Larry; Hines, Glenn; Lockhard, George; Barnes, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-based coherent Doppler lidar, utilizing an FMCW technique, has been developed and its capabilities demonstrated through two successful helicopter flight test campaigns. This Doppler lidar is expected to play a critical role in future planetary exploration missions because of its ability in providing the necessary data for soft landing on the planetary bodies and for landing missions requiring precision navigation to the designated location on the ground. Compared with radars, the Doppler lidar can provide significantly higher precision velocity and altitude data at a much higher rate without concerns for measurement ambiguity or target clutter. Future work calls for testing the Doppler lidar onboard a rocket-powered free-flyer platform operating in a closed-loop with the vehicle s guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) unit.

  2. Radar Reflectivity of the Martian Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. J.; Slade, M. A.; Muhleman, D. O.

    2000-01-01

    Radar experiments provide a unique method of probing the surfaces and subsurfaces of planetary bodies. Information on surface and subsurface structures and properties can be extracted from radar data. There is a well developed history of radar investigations of the planet Mars, beginning with the first reports of variations of scattering properties as a function of martian longitude in the mid-1960's. Because of the rapid rotation of Mars, the standard technique of delay-doppler mapping cannot be used as effectively as it is on Mercury and Venus, making it a more difficult radar target. Techniques have been developed to overcome this difficulty, including an inversion technique to combine many doppler-only (CW) experiments from different viewing geometries into a map of surface reflectivity, and new random long-code techniques. These techniques still suffer from ambiguities, however. A third technique which does not suffer from these ambiguities is the combination of the powerful Goldstone transmitter with the VLA as the receiving instrument to create a combined radar imaging instrument. We have used this combined radar instrument to image the surface of Mars in 3.5-cm radar reflectivity during the 1988, 1992/93, and 1999 oppositions. During the 1988 experiments, the residual south polar ice cap (RSPIC) was the brightest radar reflector on the planet - intrinsically brighter than even the Tharsis lava flows. This was quite an unexpected result. In contrast, during the 1992/93 experiments, the residual north polar ice cap (RNPIC) was not nearly so bright, and in fact showed no enhancement at all, This was puzzling, given the 1988 results for the RSPIC. We attributed the lack of a radar reflection enhancement to a combination of three effects: the geometry was different; the season was different; and the intrinsic scattering from the residual ice caps was different. The 1999 experiments provided a chance to test the relative importance of these three effects, since

  3. Conceptual design of a geostationary radar for hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Smith, Eric A.; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Huang, John; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Lou, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A novel 35-GHz Doppler radar instrument concept and the associated critical technologies are being developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes and severe storms from a geostationary orbit. This instrument is designed to make quantitative rainfall rate profiling measurements at 13-km horizontal resolution and 300-m vertical resolution, and the radial Doppler velocity at 0.3 m/s precision, of the 3-D hurricane structure once per hour throughout its life cycle.

  4. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  5. Measurements of vertical velocity over flat terrain by ST radar and other related uses of the radar data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The need to study vertical velocity measurements from an ST radar located on the plains, far from the mountains is pointed out, as all presently available clear-air radars are located in or near mountains. The construction and operation of a VHF Doppler (ST) radar in the midwestern part of the United States to make meteorological measurements is also discussed. While primary interest is in measuring the synoptic-scale vertical velocities in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, it should be stressed, however, that the radar data set generated during the radar experiment would have many other valuable uses of interest to us and others some of whom are listed below. The required radar parameters, approximate costs, and recommended mode of operation are also detailed.

  6. Doppler and Zeeman Doppler Imaging of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, Oleg

    In this chapter we discuss the problem of reconstructing two-dimensional stellar surface maps from the variability of intensity and/or polarisation profiles of spectral lines. We start by outlining the main principles of the scalar Doppler imaging problem concerned with recovering maps of chemical spots, temperature or brightness from the intensity spectra. After presenting the physical and mathematical foundations of this remote sensing method, we review its applications to mapping different types of spots in early-type chemically peculiar and late-type active stars, and non-radial pulsations in early-type stars. We also discuss an extension of Doppler imaging to the problem of recovering vector distributions of stellar magnetic fields from spectropolarimetric observations and review applications of this Zeeman Doppler imaging technique in the context of stellar magnetism studies.

  7. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  8. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-09-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  9. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  10. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize effective…

  11. CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Protat, Alain; Bouniol, Dominique; O'Connor, E. J.; Baltink, Henk K.; Verlinde, J.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2011-03-01

    The calibration of the CloudSat spaceborne cloud radar has been thoroughly assessed using very accurate internal link budgets before launch, comparisons with predicted ocean surface backscatter at 94 GHz, direct comparisons with airborne cloud radars, and statistical comparisons with ground-based cloud radars at different locations of the world. It is believed that the calibration of CloudSat is accurate to within 0.5 to 1 dB. In the present paper it is shown that an approach similar to that used for the statistical comparisons with ground-based radars can now be adopted the other way around to calibrate other ground-based or airborne radars against CloudSat and / or detect anomalies in long time series of ground-based radar measurements, provided that the calibration of CloudSat is followed up closely (which is the case). The power of using CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator is demonstrated using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement cloud radar data taken at Barrow, Alaska, the cloud radar data from the Cabauw site, The Netherlands, and airborne Doppler cloud radar measurements taken along the CloudSat track in the Arctic by the RASTA (Radar SysTem Airborne) cloud radar installed in the French ATR-42 aircraft for the first time. It is found that the Barrow radar data in 2008 are calibrated too high by 9.8 dB, while the Cabauw radar data in 2008 are calibrated too low by 8.0 dB. The calibration of the RASTA airborne cloud radar using direct comparisons with CloudSat agrees well with the expected gains and losses due to the change in configuration which required verification of the RASTA calibration.

  12. Browsing a wealth of millimeter-wavelength doppler spectra data

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson,K.; Luke,E.; Kollias, P.; Remillard, J.; Widener, K.; Jensen, M.

    2010-03-15

    The ARM Climate Research Facility has collected an extensive archive of vertically pointing millimeter wavelength Doppler radar spectra at both 35 and 95 GHz. These data are a rich potential source of detailed microphysical and dynamical cloud and precipitation information. The recording of spectra, which is ongoing, began at the Southern Great Plains site in September of 2003, at the North Slope of Alaska site in April 2004, and at Tropical Western Pacific sites in 2006. Spectra are also being collected during ARM Mobile Facility deployments. The data’s temporal resolution is as high as two seconds, at height intervals of 45 to 90 m. However, the sheer volume of available data can be somewhat daunting to access and search for specific features of interest. Here we present a user interface for spectra browsing, which allows the user to view time-height images of radar moments, select a time or height of interest, and then “drill down” through images of spectrograms to individual Doppler spectra or time- and height-sequences of spectra. Also available are images summarizing spectral characteristics, such as number of spectral peaks, spectral shape information (skewness and kurtosis), moment uncertainty estimates, and hydrometeor vs. clutter identification as produced by the ARM MicroARSCL (Microphysical Active Remote Sensing of Clouds) value-added product. In addition to the access and visualization tools, we are developing a Doppler spectra simulator capable of generating Doppler spectra from liquid, mixed-phase, and solid cloud constituents and precipitation. The Doppler spectra simulator can be used as an interface between explicit microphysics models and Doppler spectra observations from the ARM radars. The plan is to ultimately make the spectra simulator available from within the spectra browser, allowing a user to associate observed spectra with the microphysical conditions capable of producing them.

  13. The first operation and results of the Chung-Li VHF radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, J. K.; Kuo, F. S.; Chu, Y. S.; Fu, I. J.; Rottger, J.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Chung-Li Very High Frequency (VHF) radar is used in the dual-mode operations, applying Doppler beam-swinging as well as the spaced-antenna-drift method. The design of the VHF radar is examined. Results of performance tests are discussed.

  14. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  15. The Goldstone Solar System Radar: 1988-2003 Earth-based Mars Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Larsen, K. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m DSN antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay- Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 10 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars.

  16. Experimental 0.22 THz Stepped Frequency Radar System for ISAR Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Mei Yan; Zhang, Cun Lin; Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yue Jin

    2014-09-01

    High resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging is demonstrated by using a 0.22 THz stepped-frequency (SF) imaging radar system. The synthesis bandwidth of the terahertz (THz) SF radar is 12 GHz, which are beneficial for high resolution imaging. The resolution of ISAR image can reach centimeter-scale with the use of Range-Doppler algorithm (RDA). Results indicate that high resolution ISAR imaging is realized by using 0.22THz SF radar coupled with turntable scanning, which can provide foundations for further research on high-resolution radar image in the THz band.

  17. Radar for Monitoring Hurricanes from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen; Huang, John; Lou, Michael; Smith, Eric; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A document describes a scanning Doppler radar system to be placed in a geostationary orbit for monitoring the three-dimensional structures of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms in general. The system would operate at a frequency of 35 GHz. It would include a large deployable spherical antenna reflector, instead of conventional paraboloidal reflectors, that would allow the reflector to remain stationary while moving the antenna feed(s), and thus, create a set of scanning antenna beams without degradation of performance. The radar would have separate transmitting and receiving antenna feeds moving in spiral scans over an angular excursion of 4 from the boresight axis to providing one radar image per hour of a circular surface area of 5,300-km diameter. The system would utilize a real-time pulse-compression technique to obtain 300-m vertical resolution without sacrificing detection sensitivity and without need for a high-peakpower transmitter. An onboard data-processing subsystem would generate three-dimensional rainfall reflectivity and Doppler observations with 13-km horizontal resolution and line-of-sight Doppler velocity at a precision of 0.3 m/s.

  18. Use of radars to monitor stream discharge by noncontact methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.; Hayes, K.; Teague, C.; Barrick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional measurements of river flows are costly, time-consuming, and frequently dangerous. This report evaluates the use of a continuous wave microwave radar, a monostatic UHF Doppler radar, a pulsed Doppler microwave radar, and a ground-penetrating radar to measure river flows continuously over long periods and without touching the water with any instruments. The experiments duplicate the flow records from conventional stream gauging stations on the San Joaquin River in California and the Cowlitz River in Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to directly measure the parameters necessary to compute flow: surface velocity (converted to mean velocity) and cross-sectional area, thereby avoiding the uncertainty, complexity, and cost of maintaining rating curves. River channel cross sections were measured by ground-penetrating radar suspended above the river. River surface water velocity was obtained by Bragg scattering of microwave and UHF Doppler radars, and the surface velocity data were converted to mean velocity on the basis of detailed velocity profiles measured by current meters and hydroacoustic instruments. Experiments using these radars to acquire a continuous record of flow were conducted for 4 weeks on the San Joaquin River and for 16 weeks on the Cowlitz River. At the San Joaquin River the radar noncontact measurements produced discharges more than 20% higher than the other independent measurements in the early part of the experiment. After the first 3 days, the noncontact radar discharge measurements were within 5% of the rating values. On the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, correlation coefficients between the USGS stream gauging station rating curve discharge and discharge computed from three different Doppler radar systems and GPR data over the 16 week experiment were 0.883, 0.969, and 0.992. Noncontact radar results were within a few percent of discharge values obtained by gauging station, current meter, and hydroacoustic methods. Time

  19. New distributed radar technology based on UAV or UGV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-05-01

    Regular micro and nano radars cannot provide reliable tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets in urban and mountain areas because of reflection and re-reflections from buildings and terrain. They become visible and vulnerable to guided missiles if positioned on a tower or blimp. Doppler radar cannot distinguish moving cars and small low altitude aerial targets in an urban area. A new concept of pocket size distributed radar technology based on the application of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles), UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) is proposed for tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets at short and medium distances for protection of stadium, camp, military facility in urban or mountain areas.

  20. Signal Processing System for the CASA Integrated Project I Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.; Junyent, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the waveform design space and signal processing system for dual-polarization Doppler weather radar operating at X band. The performance of the waveforms is presented with ground clutter suppression capability and mitigation of range velocity ambiguity. The operational waveform is designed based on operational requirements and system/hardware requirements. A dual Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) waveform was developed and implemented for the first generation X-band radars deployed by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the waveforms based on simulations and data collected by the first-generation CASA radars during operations.

  1. High-resolution (30 m) lunar radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zisk, Stanley H.

    1988-01-01

    New high-resolution radar images of the lunar surface are being produced using the Haystack Observatory range-Doppler radar system. The goals are to: investigate the decameter-scale properties of the lunar surface, as an aid in the understanding of the geophysical history of the moon; and to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of planetary radar backscattering, to aid in the interpretation of the coarser-resolution images which were and will be obtained from planetary probe missions and other earth-based observations.

  2. SMAP RADAR Processing and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Kwoun, O.; Chaubell, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission uses L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Model sensitivities translate the soil moisture accuracy to a radar backscatter accuracy of 1 dB at 3 km resolution and a brightness temperature accuracy of 1.3 K at 40 km resolution. This presentation will describe the level 1 radar processing and calibration challenges and the choices made so far for the algorithms and software implementation. To obtain the desired high spatial resolution the level 1 radar ground processor employs synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging techniques. Part of the challenge of the SMAP data processing comes from doing SAR imaging on a conically scanned system with rapidly varying squint angles. The radar echo energy will be divided into range/Doppler bins using time domain processing algorithms that can easily follow the varying squint angle. For SMAP, projected range resolution is about 250 meters, while azimuth resolution varies from 400 meters to 1.2 km. Radiometric calibration of the SMAP radar means measuring, characterizing, and where necessary correcting the gain and noise contributions from every part of the system from the antenna radiation pattern all the way to the ground processing algorithms. The SMAP antenna pattern will be computed using an accurate antenna model, and then validated post-launch using homogeneous external targets such as the Amazon rain forest to look for uncorrected gain variation. Noise subtraction is applied after image processing using measurements from a noise only channel. Variations of the internal electronics are tracked by a loopback measurement which will capture most of the time and temperature variations of the transmit power and receiver gain. Long-term variations of system performance due to component aging will be tracked and corrected using stable external reference

  3. Stentor long range ground surveillance radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, P.

    The Stentor radar is designed to detect, recognize, and locate moving targets such as infantry, ground vehicles, helicopters, low-flying aircraft, and boats. It can be transported without difficulty and operated by unskilled personnel. Stentor's longer range gives both an earlier warning time and a reinforced detection capability at shorter distances, even on very small targets. It is a pulsed radar that eliminates fixed echoes by coherent reception and Doppler filtering. The antenna unit incorporates all the parts necessary for the transmission, reception, and processing of the radar signal. It comprises six distinct subassemblies: a conventional antenna, an antenna-bearing mechanism, a transmitter-receiver unit, a signal-processing unit, a power supply module, and a tripod for mounting the antenna unit.

  4. A radar image of Venus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Rumsey, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    Radar scans of Venus have yielded a brightness map of a large portion of the surface. The bright area in the south (alpha) and the twin such areas in the north (beta and delta) were first discovered by spectral analysis of radar echos. When range-gating is also applied, their shapes are revealed, and they are seen to be roundish and about 1000 km across. Although radar brightness can be the result of either intrinsic reflectivity or surface roughness, polarization studies show these features to be rough (to the scale of the wavelength, 12.5 cm). Dark, circular areas can also be seen, many with bright central spots. The dark areas are probably smooth. The blurring of the equatorial strip is an artifact of the range-Doppler geometry; all resolution disappears at the equator. Another artifact of the method is the 'ghost', in the south, of the images of beta and delta. Such ghosts appear only at the eastern and western extremes of the map.

  5. A Doppler centroid estimation algorithm for SAR systems optimized for the quasi-homogeneous source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1989-01-01

    Radar signal processing applications frequently require an estimate of the Doppler centroid of a received signal. The Doppler centroid estimate is required for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing. It is also required for some applications involving target motion estimation and antenna pointing direction estimation. In some cases, the Doppler centroid can be accurately estimated based on available information regarding the terrain topography, the relative motion between the sensor and the terrain, and the antenna pointing direction. Often, the accuracy of the Doppler centroid estimate can be improved by analyzing the characteristics of the received SAR signal. This kind of signal processing is also referred to as clutterlock processing. A Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) algorithm is described which contains a linear estimator optimized for the type of terrain surface that can be modeled by a quasi-homogeneous source (QHS). Information on the following topics is presented: (1) an introduction to the theory of Doppler centroid estimation; (2) analysis of the performance characteristics of previously reported DCE algorithms; (3) comparison of these analysis results with experimental results; (4) a description and performance analysis of a Doppler centroid estimator which is optimized for a QHS; and (5) comparison of the performance of the optimal QHS Doppler centroid estimator with that of previously reported methods.

  6. Approaches for Improved Doppler Estimation in Lidar Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Sreevatsan; Calhoun, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    Laser radar (Lidar) has been used extensively for remote sensing of wind patterns, turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer and other important atmospheric transport phenomenon. As in most narrowband radar application, radial velocity of remote objects is encoded in the Doppler shift of the backscattered signal relative to the transmitted signal. In contrast to many applications, however, the backscattered signal in atmospheric Lidar sensing arises from a multitude of moving particles in a spatial cell under examination rather than from a few prominent "target" scattering features. This complicates the process of extracting a single Doppler value and corresponding radial velocity figure to associate with the cell. This paper summarizes the prevalent methods for Doppler estimation in atmospheric Lidar applications and proposes a computationally efficient scheme for improving Doppler estimation by exploiting the local structure of spectral density estimates near spectral peaks.

  7. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Horndt, Volker; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd; Naething, Richard M.

    2014-09-01

    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  8. First radar measurements of ionospheric electric fields at sub-second temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Raymond A.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Barnes, Robin; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; Baker, Joseph; Talaat, Elsayed R.

    2008-02-01

    A new multipulse sounding technique currently being used at the Wallops Island and Goose Bay SuperDARN radars has produced significant improvements in the temporal resolution of Doppler velocity measurements from which plasma velocities and electric fields are determined. The new technique allows Doppler velocities to be determined from every 200 ms multipulse sequence transmitted by the radar (equivalent to a 5 Hz measurement rate). To our knowledge, this is the highest Doppler measurement rate that has ever been attained with ionospheric radars. Tests of the new technique with the Wallops radar and Ottawa magnetometer revealed bursts of subauroral electric and magnetic field pulsations with periods of 13-20 s during a substorm expansion phase. These results indicate that SuperDARN measurements can be used to study highly dynamic processes in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, including storm and substorm electrodynamics, short-period pulsations and short-term variability in Joule heating.

  9. Cosmology with Doppler lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, David J.; Andrianomena, Sambatra; Clarkson, Chris; Bolejko, Krzysztof; Maartens, Roy

    2014-09-01

    Doppler lensing is the apparent change in object size and magnitude due to peculiar velocities. Objects falling into an overdensity appear larger on its near side, and smaller on its far side, than typical objects at the same redshifts. This effect dominates over the usual gravitational lensing magnification at low redshift. Doppler lensing is a promising new probe of cosmology, and we explore in detail how to utilize the effect with forthcoming surveys. We present cosmological simulations of the Doppler and gravitational lensing effects based on the Millennium simulation. We show that Doppler lensing can be detected around stacked voids or unvirialized overdensities. New power spectra and correlation functions are proposed which are designed to be sensitive to Doppler lensing. We consider the impact of gravitational lensing and intrinsic size correlations on these quantities. We compute the correlation functions and forecast the errors for realistic forthcoming surveys, providing predictions for constraints on cosmological parameters. Finally, we demonstrate how we can make 3D potential maps of large volumes of the Universe using Doppler lensing.

  10. W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, KB; Johnson, K

    2005-01-05

    The W-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud Radar (WACR) systems are zenith pointing Doppler radars that probe the extent and composition of clouds at 95.04 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar reports estimates for the first three spectra moments for each range gate up to 15 km. The 0th moment is reflectivity, the 1st moment is radial velocity, and the 2nd moment is spectral width. Also available are the raw spectra files. Unlike the millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR), the WACR does not use pulse coding and operates in only copolarization and cross-polarization modes.

  11. Mesospheric wind measurements using a medium-frequency imaging Doppler interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. W.; scatterers.

    1986-01-01

    Wind results from a medium-frequency radar operated as an imaging Doppler interferometer are presented. Ten independent antennas, together with mesospheric wind motions, were used to Doppler-sort and then echo-locate individual scattering points. The three-dimensional location and radial velocity of each discrete scattering point was determined. Mean winds were then determined by a least squares fit to the radial velocities of the ensemble of scatterers.

  12. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  13. Radar detection of moving objects around corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sume, A.; Gustafsson, M.; Jänis, A.; Nilsson, S.; Rahm, J.; Örbom, A.

    2009-05-01

    Detection of moving objects around corners, with no direct line-of-sight to the objects, is demonstrated in experiments using a coherent test-range radar. A setting was built up on the test-range ground consisting of two perpendicular wall sections forming a corner, with an opposite wall, intended to mimic a street scenario on a reduced scale. Two different wall materials were used, viz. light concrete and metallic walls. The latter choice served as reference, with elimination of transmission through the walls, e.g. facilitating comparison with theoretical calculations. Standard radar reflectors were used as one kind of target objects, in horizontal, circular movement, produced by a turntable. A human formed a second target, both walking and at standstill with micro-Doppler movements of body parts. The radar signal was produced by frequency stepping of a gated CW (Continuous Wave) waveform over a bandwidth of 2 or 4 GHz, between 8.5 and 12.5 GHz. Standard Doppler signal processing has been applied, consisting of a double FFT. The first of these produced "range profiles", on which the second FFT was applied for specific range gates, which resulted in Doppler frequency spectra, used for the detection. The reference reflectors as well as the human could be detected in this scenario. The target detections were achieved both in the wave component having undergone specular reflection in the opposite wall (strongest) as well as the diffracted component around the corner. Time-frequency analysis using Short Time Fourier Transform technique brought out micro-Doppler components in the signature of a walking human. These experiments have been complemented with theoretical field calculations and separate reflection measurements of common building materials.

  14. Advances in Doppler recognition for ground moving target indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealey, Paul G.; Jahangir, Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) radar provides a day/night, all-weather, wide-area surveillance capability to detect moving vehicles and personnel. Current GMTI radar sensors are limited to only detecting and tracking targets. The exploitation of GMTI data would be greatly enhanced by a capability to recognize accurately the detections as significant classes of target. Doppler classification exploits the differential internal motion of targets, e.g. due to the tracks, limbs and rotors. Recently, the QinetiQ Bayesian Doppler classifier has been extended to include a helicopter class in addition to wheeled, tracked and personnel classes. This paper presents the performance for these four classes using a traditional low-resolution GMTI surveillance waveform with an experimental radar system. We have determined the utility of an "unknown output decision" for enhancing the accuracy of the declared target classes. A confidence method has been derived, using a threshold of the difference in certainties, to assign uncertain classifications into an "unknown class". The trade-off between fraction of targets declared and accuracy of the classifier has been measured. To determine the operating envelope of a Doppler classification algorithm requires a detailed understanding of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) performance of the algorithm. In this study the SNR dependence of the QinetiQ classifier has been determined.

  15. Compressed Sensing in On-Grid MIMO Radar.

    PubMed

    Minner, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of targets is a significant problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Recent advances of Compressive Sensing offer a means of efficiently accomplishing this task. The sparsity constraints needed to apply the techniques of Compressive Sensing to problems in radar systems have led to discretizations of the target scene in various domains, such as azimuth, time delay, and Doppler. Building upon recent work, we investigate the feasibility of on-grid Compressive Sensing-based MIMO radar via a threefold azimuth-delay-Doppler discretization for target detection and parameter estimation. We utilize a colocated random sensor array and transmit distinct linear chirps to a small scene with few, slowly moving targets. Relying upon standard far-field and narrowband assumptions, we analyze the efficacy of various recovery algorithms in determining the parameters of the scene through numerical simulations, with particular focus on the ℓ 1-squared Nonnegative Regularization method. PMID:27280124

  16. Compressed Sensing in On-Grid MIMO Radar.

    PubMed

    Minner, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of targets is a significant problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Recent advances of Compressive Sensing offer a means of efficiently accomplishing this task. The sparsity constraints needed to apply the techniques of Compressive Sensing to problems in radar systems have led to discretizations of the target scene in various domains, such as azimuth, time delay, and Doppler. Building upon recent work, we investigate the feasibility of on-grid Compressive Sensing-based MIMO radar via a threefold azimuth-delay-Doppler discretization for target detection and parameter estimation. We utilize a colocated random sensor array and transmit distinct linear chirps to a small scene with few, slowly moving targets. Relying upon standard far-field and narrowband assumptions, we analyze the efficacy of various recovery algorithms in determining the parameters of the scene through numerical simulations, with particular focus on the ℓ 1-squared Nonnegative Regularization method.

  17. Development of HF radar inversion algorithm for spectrum estimation (HIAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisaki, Yukiharu

    2015-03-01

    A method for estimating ocean wave directional spectra using an HF (high-frequency) ocean radar was developed. This method represents the development of work conducted in previous studies. In the present method, ocean wave directional spectra are estimated on polar coordinates whose center is the radar position, while spectra are estimated on regular grids. This method can be applied to both single and multiple radar cases. The area for wave estimation is more flexible than that of the previous method. As the signal to noise (SN) ratios of Doppler spectra are critical for wave estimation, we develop a method to exclude low SN ratio Doppler spectra. The validity of the method is demonstrated by comparing results with in situ observed wave data that it would be impossible to estimate by the methods of other groups.

  18. Compressed Sensing in On-Grid MIMO Radar

    PubMed Central

    Minner, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of targets is a significant problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Recent advances of Compressive Sensing offer a means of efficiently accomplishing this task. The sparsity constraints needed to apply the techniques of Compressive Sensing to problems in radar systems have led to discretizations of the target scene in various domains, such as azimuth, time delay, and Doppler. Building upon recent work, we investigate the feasibility of on-grid Compressive Sensing-based MIMO radar via a threefold azimuth-delay-Doppler discretization for target detection and parameter estimation. We utilize a colocated random sensor array and transmit distinct linear chirps to a small scene with few, slowly moving targets. Relying upon standard far-field and narrowband assumptions, we analyze the efficacy of various recovery algorithms in determining the parameters of the scene through numerical simulations, with particular focus on the ℓ1-squared Nonnegative Regularization method. PMID:27280124

  19. Automatic human micro-Doppler signature separation by Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Jin, Tian; Qiu, Lei; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-12-01

    The micro-Doppler signature is one of the most prominent information for target classification and identification. As Hough transform (HT) is an efficient tool for detecting weak straight target traces in the image, an HT based algorithm is proposed for micro-Doppler signature separation of multiple persons. Few seconds data is processed at one time to ensure human motion traces approximate to straight lines in the radar slow time-range image. Taking HT to the slow time-range image, each human's motion trace can be recovered through recursively searching the peaks in HT space. Applying time-frequency transform to the range cells around each recovered line, the human micro-Doppler signature can be achieved and separated. Experimental results are given to illustrate the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Analysis of MSFC ground-based Doppler lidar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data collected during the participation of the MSFC 10.6 micron pulsed Doppler lidar system (DLS) in the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) experiment is concluded. Observations from more than one Doppler lidar are combined to derive the three-dimensional Cartesian wind field. A comparison of radial velocity estimates at low elevations made by the MSFC lidar and the NCAR 5.5 cm Doppler radar revealed a substantial r.m.s. difference of 3 mls, and a mean difference of lmls. Detailed measurements of the horizontal wind fields and tropospheric backscattering were acquired at MSFC. These data are useful for defining future flight experiments, instrument design, and satellite DLS development.