Science.gov

Sample records for 50-year committed effective

  1. The Josephson Effect: 50 Years of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The Josephson effect, the 50th anniversary of which will be celebrated in 2012, remains one of the most spectacular manifestations of quantum mechanics in all of experimental science. It was first predicted in 1962 and then experimentally verified in 1963. At its most fundamental level the Josephson effect is nothing more than the electronic…

  2. 50 years of screening in the Nordic countries: quantifying the effects on cervical cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarella, S; Franceschi, S; Engholm, G; Lönnberg, S; Khan, S; Bray, F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nordic countries' data offer a unique possibility to evaluate the long-term benefit of cervical cancer screening in a context of increasing risk of human papillomavirus infection. Methods: Ad hoc-refined age-period-cohort models were applied to the last 50-year incidence data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to project expected cervical cancer cases in a no-screening scenario. Results: In the absence of screening, projected incidence rates for 2006–2010 in Nordic countries would have been between 3 and 5 times higher than observed rates. Over 60 000 cases or between 41 and 49% of the expected cases of cervical cancer may have been prevented by the introduction of screening in the late 1960 s and early 1970 s. Conclusions: Our study suggests that screening programmes might have prevented a HPV-driven epidemic of cervical cancer in Nordic countries. According to extrapolations from cohort effects, cervical cancer incidence rates in the Nordic countries would have been otherwise comparable to the highest incidence rates currently detected in low-income countries. PMID:24992581

  3. Effects of Growth Hormone Administration on Muscle Strength in Men over 50 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, A. B. W.; Micmacher, E.; Biesek, S.; Assumpção, R.; Redorat, R.; Veloso, U.; Vaisman, M.; Farinatti, P. T. V.; Conceição, F.

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) use has been speculated to improve physical capacity in subjects without GH deficiency (GHD) through stimulation of collagen synthesis in the tendon and skeletal muscle, which leads to better exercise training and increased muscle strength. In this context, the use of GH in healthy elderly should be an option for increasing muscle strength. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of GH therapy on muscle strength in healthy men over 50 years old. Fourteen healthy men aged 50–70 years were evaluated at baseline for body composition and muscle strength (evaluated by leg press and bench press exercises, which focus primarily on quadriceps—lower body part and pectoralis major—upper body part—muscles, resp.). Subjects were randomised into 2 groups: GH therapy (7 subjects) and placebo (7 subjects) and reevaluated after 6 months of therapy. Thirteen subjects completed the study (6 subjects in the placebo group and 7 subjects in the GH group). Subjects of both groups were not different at baseline. After 6 months of therapy, muscle strength in the bench press responsive muscles did not increase in both groups and showed a statistically significant increase in the leg press responsive muscles in the GH group. Our study demonstrated an increase in muscle strength in the lower body part after GH therapy in healthy men. This finding must be considered and tested in frail older populations, whose physical incapacity is primarily caused by proximal muscle weakness. The trial was registered with NCT01853566. PMID:24382963

  4. Effects of thinning intensities on transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Pinus koraeinsis stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kim, T.; Cho, S.; Ryu, D.; Moon, M.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of thinning intensities on stand transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Korean pine forests for three years. Forest thinning, which remove some fraction of trees from stand, alters the microclimatic conditions such as radiation distribution within canopy, vapor pressure deficit, and amount of available soil water. These changes influence on the tree water use, and related tree growth. Thinning was conducted on March, 2012 with two intensities (Control, Light-thinning, and Heavy-thinning). Transpiration was estimated from sap flux density, which was measured with Granier-type thermal dissipation sensors. Tree diameter growth was measured with dendrometer, and converted to tree productivity using allometric equations developed specifically in our study sites.The climatic conditions showed remarkable differences among three years. In 2012, total precipitation was highest but spring was dry. 2013 was normal year with frequent rain events. In contrast, 2014 was hot and extremely dry. Stand transpiration was initially decreased ca. 20% and 42% on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. In second year, it gradually recovered in both thinning intensities, and was 19% and 37% lower on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. However, the recovery trends were different between two thinning intensities. Transpiration of heavy-thinning stand was recovered slowly than that of light thinning stand. In 2014, heavy-thinning stand transpired ca. 5% more than control plot in early growing season, but severe drought had negative effects that caused reduction of stand transpiration in thinned stand on late growing season. The tree-level productivity was increased initially ca. 24% and 28% on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. During the following growing seasons, this thinning-induced enhancement of productivity was diminished in light-thinning stand (21% in 2013 and 20% in 2014), but was

  5. Effects of thinning intensities on transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Pinus koraeinsis stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juhan; Kim, Taekyu; Moon, Minkyu; Cho, Sungsik; Ryu, Daun; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of thinning intensities on stand transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Korean pine forests for two years. Forest thinning, which removes some fraction of trees from stand, is widely conducted for reducing competition between remaining trees, improving tree productivity, reducing the risk of natural fire, and thus maintaining healthy forest. Forest thinning alters the microclimatic conditions such as radiation distribution within canopy, vapor pressure deficit, and amount of available soil water. These changes influence on the tree water use, and related productivity. Thinning was conducted on March, 2012 with two intensities (Control, Light-thinning (20%), and Heavy-thinning (40% of tree density)). Transpiration was estimated from sap flux density, which was measured with Granier-type thermal dissipation sensors. Tree diameter growth was measured with dendrometer, and converted to tree productivity using allometric equations developed specifically in our study sites. The climatic conditions showed little differences between two years. During the first growing season after thinning, stand transpiration was ca. 20% and 42% lower on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively, even though sap flux density were higher in thinned stand. The difference in stand transpiration among treatments showed seasonal trends, so it was larger on summer when soil moisture was abundant due to monsoon, but was diminished on spring and autumn when soil moisture was limited. Tree-level productivity increased ca. 8% and 21% on light-thinning and heavy thinning stand, respectively. However, stand net primary production was ca. 20% lower on light-thinning stand, and ca. 31% on heavy-thinning stand. As a result, water use efficiency increased only in heavy-thinning stand. During the second growing season after thinning, stand transpiration was ca. 19% lower on light-thinning stand, and ca. 37% lower on heavy-thinning stand. The reduction

  6. Moderating effects of professional commitment on hospital nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ching-I; Lotus Shyu, Yea-Ing; Chang, Hao-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the moderating effects of professional commitment on relationships among burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Two-hundred fifty-three nurses working in a single medical center in northern Taiwan were sampled and approached, and 238 questionnaires were used. All participants were female and aged <50 years. Moreover, 30.3% of the sample was married. Professional commitment moderated the influence of burnout on job satisfaction, but not the influence of job satisfaction on turnover intention. First, burnout (in terms of reduced personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion) predicted job satisfaction for high-commitment nurses, but not for low-commitment nurses. Second, job satisfaction predicted turnover intention for both high-commitment and low-commitment nurses. PMID:17292133

  7. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    original 4 Mm3. Having a reduced access to water resources, most of the farms during the 90's moved to more efficient water uses (drip irrigation) to save crops from leaf burns or switched to less-water-demanding, but less profitable crops. As a consequence, less competitive areas in the production-distribution chain suffered aquifer' salinisation and were progressively abandoned. As far as drinking water supply, the area is facing water scarcity during the summer period; desalination plants are planned. In one of the plain the water utility pumps out salinised groundwater that is then desalinized with an obvious increase in energy consumption. Although water management needs have grown during the last 50 years and several studies outlined the importance of planning this resource, conflicts among stakeholders and political issues make such problems of difficult solution. Today large dam building seems to be quite unreliable both because of the construction time and the financial issues related. At the same time feasible projects, driven also by innovative and more profitable agricultural development, call for wastewater reuse and artificial aquifer recharge starting at least from pilot tests in priority areas.

  8. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  9. Lucid dreaming incidence: A quality effects meta-analysis of 50years of research.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David T; Roe, Chris A; Smith, Graham; Clegg, Helen

    2016-07-01

    We report a quality effects meta-analysis on studies from the period 1966-2016 measuring either (a) lucid dreaming prevalence (one or more lucid dreams in a lifetime); (b) frequent lucid dreaming (one or more lucid dreams in a month) or both. A quality effects meta-analysis allows for the minimisation of the influence of study methodological quality on overall model estimates. Following sensitivity analysis, a heterogeneous lucid dreaming prevalence data set of 34 studies yielded a mean estimate of 55%, 95% C. I. [49%, 62%] for which moderator analysis showed no systematic bias for suspected sources of variability. A heterogeneous lucid dreaming frequency data set of 25 studies yielded a mean estimate of 23%, 95% C. I. [20%, 25%], moderator analysis revealed no suspected sources of variability. These findings are consistent with earlier estimates of lucid dreaming prevalence and frequent lucid dreaming in the population but are based on more robust evidence. PMID:27337287

  10. ISME Celebrates 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

  11. Detecting and Attributing the Effects of Climate Change on the Distributions of Snake Species Over the Past 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the distributions of snakes have changed in association with climate change over the past years. We detected the distribution changes of snakes over the past 50 years and determined whether the changes could be attributed to recent climate change in China. Long-term records of the distribution of nine snake species in China, grey relationship analysis, fuzzy sets classification techniques, the consistency index, and attributed methods were used. Over the past 50 years, the distributions of snake species have changed in multiple directions, primarily shifting northwards, and most of the changes were related to the thermal index. Driven by climatic factors over the past 50 years, the distribution boundary and distribution centers of some species changed with the fluctuations. The observed and predicted changes in distribution were highly consistent for some snake species. The changes in the northern limits of distributions of nearly half of the species, as well as the southern and eastern limits, and the distribution centers of some snake species can be attributed to climate change.

  12. 50 Years: Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narlesky, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…

  13. Commitment Profiles: The Configural Effect of the Forms and Foci of Commitment on Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoumbris, Petros; Xenikou, Athena

    2010-01-01

    This study is based upon the conceptual linking of the multidimensional and multi-focal nature of work-related commitment. The main aims of our study were to create, through K-means cluster analysis, commitment profiles based on the three components of organizational and occupational commitment, and to examine their joint effect on key work…

  14. 50 years of JETP Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly traces the 50-year history of the journal Pis'ma v Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (JETP Letters), whose first issue was published on 1 April 1965. The journal is intended for a wide circle of physicists-readers as a fast publication channel for short communications on new results from research of the highest significance and highest priority in all areas of experimental and theoretical physics. Today, the journal celebrates numerous important contributions to the development of physics both in Russia and worldwide. Over a historically short period, JETP Letters developed into a highly authoritative and influential source for physicists engaged in a wide range of fields. Due to the wise and well-timed editorial policy, the journal continues to retain its leadership position, despite the difficulties the entire science periodical literature - and indeed the whole of science - is currently experiencing in Russia.

  15. Discovering Astronomy 50 Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Z.

    2008-09-01

    Three years after graduating in astronomy from Bucharest University, I was finally recruited by the Bucharest Observatory to participate in the International Geophysical Year. I joined the Observatory as the third fellow of the Solar Department. There, I became an expert in satellite affairs thanks to a TV broadcast shot. I was in charge of adjusting the newly received solar instruments and contributed to the international campaign, including the solar patrol. Since it was absolutely impossible for me to start a thesis at that time, I moved to France and started a new career in the Solar Department of Paris-Meudon Observatory. My experience at the Bucharest Observatory was fundamental to the rest of my work over the following 50 years. My cooperation with the Bucharest Observatory increased after 1992 and still continues today.

  16. 50 years of fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Fusion energy research began in the early 1950s as scientists worked to harness the awesome power of the atom for peaceful purposes. There was early optimism for a quick solution for fusion energy as there had been for fission. However, this was soon tempered by reality as the difficulty of producing and confining fusion fuel at temperatures of 100 million °C in the laboratory was appreciated. Fusion research has followed two main paths—inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion. Over the past 50 years, there has been remarkable progress with both approaches, and now each has a solid technical foundation that has led to the construction of major facilities that are aimed at demonstrating fusion energy producing plasmas.

  17. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  18. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  19. 50 years of radiation research: medicine.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Theodore L

    2002-10-01

    The advances brought about by research in radiation medicine over the past 50 years are presented. The era began with the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the establishment of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission to understand what damage was caused by exposure of a large population to radiation. A better understanding of the effects of whole-body exposure led to the development of whole-body radiation treatment techniques and to bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of leukemias. The field of diagnostic imaging was revolutionized by a series of inventions that included angiography, mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and ultrasound imaging. The field of nuclear medicine came of age through new man-made radionuclides and the invention of scanning and imaging techniques including positron emission tomography. Radiotherapy, a minor sideline of radiology, developed into radiation oncology, an extremely important component of modern cancer therapy. The advances in clinical radiotherapy were made possible by discoveries and inventions in physics and engineering and by insights and discoveries in radiobiology. The result of the last 50 years of progress is a very powerful set of clinical tools. PMID:12236808

  20. Climatic change effects on hydro-metereological variables in the Alps: a case study on the upper Arve catchment at Chamonix (France) over the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, Alessandra; Condom, Thomas; Bacchi, Baldassare; Zin, Isabella; Six, Delphine; Gottardi, Frederic; Rabatel, Antoine; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological changes in partially glaciated catchments are expected under future climate scenarios, with consequences for water availability and management at catchment and regional scales. In order to correctly predict the magnitude of such changes and envisage adaptation and/or mitigation measures against water related hazards, a good understanding of the water cycle dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales is needed. The Upper Arve catchment in Chamonix (202 square kilometers), situated in the French Northern Alps, between the two massifs of Mont Blanc and Aiguilles Rouges, is a perfect case study for evaluating the sensitivity of the alpine water cycle to climate change. It is highly glaciated (32% of the total area in 2012) with three important glaciers: Glacier du Tour, Glacier d'Argentiere and Glacier de la Mer de Glace. Its elevation ranges from 1025 up to 4295 m a.s.l. and the exposure of the ice cover is generally north and east oriented. Long term time-series exist of (i) glacier mass balance, (ii) meteorological (in-situ and reanalyses) and (iii) hydrological data. The objectives of the presented study were: 1 - To characterize the inter-annual regimes of the different climatological and hydrological variables: precipitation, temperature and discharge; 2 - To estimate trends on the previous variables, at different temporal scales (annual and monthly) for different altitudes, and compare them to usually observed values in alpine regions; 3 - To infer from the previous statistical analyses and from a cross-analysis between the different considered variables the catchment's hydrological evolution during the last 50 years. Results showed precipitation, temperature and discharge regimes typical of high mountainous partially glaciated catchments. In the long term period, this catchment is characterized by an evident retreat of glacier. Long term trends over the past five decades show no significant change in the annual amount of precipitation. At the

  1. Comparison of 50-year and 70-year internal-dose-conversion factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The 50-year inhalation and ingestion dose commitments associated with an acute intake (of a radionuclide) of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq (1 ..mu..Ci) in one day were compared with the corresponding dose commitments calculated for a 70-year integration period resulting from a chronic intake of the same amount at a rate of 101 Bq/d (0.00274 ..mu..Ci/d) for one year. These values, known as dose conversion factors, estimate the dose accumulated during a given period of time following a unit of intake of a radionuclide. It was demonstrated that the acute intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq in one day and the chronic intake of 101 Bq/d for one year (a total intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq) result in essentially the same dose commitment for a relatively long integration period. Therefore, the comparison of 50-year acute dose conversion factors and 70-year chronic dose conversion factors is essentially only a measure of the additional dose accumulated in the 50 to 70 year period. It was found that for radionuclides with atomic mass less than 200 the percent difference in the 70-year and 50-year dose conversion factors was essentially zero in most cases. Differences of approximately 5 to 50% were obtained for dose conversion factors for most alpha emitters with atomic masses of greater than 200. Comparisons were made on the basis of both organ dose equivalent and effective dose equivalent. The implications and significance of these results are discussed.

  2. [Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Ruyter, K W

    1997-12-10

    50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students. PMID:9456583

  3. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently, 14 AGU members who joined the Union in 1937 received their recognition pins for 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the 50- year AGU members, who are listed below by the year that they joined:1937 A.B. Bryan, Leonard B. Corwin, Tate Dalrymple, Richard H. Fleming, Harry L. Frauenthal, Konrad B. Krauskopf, J. Stuart Meyers, Brian O'Brien, Joseph F. Poland, Edward J. Rutter, Noel H. Stearn, John P. Tully, Victor Vacquier, G.H. Westby, and Harvey O. Westby.

  4. Ned Greenberg: 50 Years and Counting | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Can you imagine working for the same company for 50 years? Nathaniel “Ned” Greenberg has accomplished just that, having recently received his 50-year service award from NIH, and he has no immediate plans for retirement. “I don’t look upon my job as a chore, it’s more of an avocation than a vocation,” said Greenberg, a chemist in the Biological Testing Branch (BTB), under Branch Chief Melinda Hollingshead, DVM, Ph.D. “I am lucky that I found something that I enjoy doing.”

  5. Effect of arm position and foot placement on the five times sit-to-stand test completion times of female adults older than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shamay S.M.; Kwong, Patrick W.H.; Chau, Michael S.P.; Luk, Isaac C.Y.; Wan, Sam S.; Fong, Shirley S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The five times-sit-to stand test (FTSTS) is a clinical test which is commonly used to assessed the functional muscle strength of the lower limbs of older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different arm positions and foot placements on the FTSTS completion times of older female adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy female subjects, aged 63.1±5.3 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The times required to complete the FTSTS with 3 different arm positions (hands on thighs, arms crossed over chest, and an augmented arm position with the arms extended forward) and 2 foot placements (neutral and posterior) were recorded. The interaction effect and main effect of arm positions and foot placements were examined using a 3 (arm position) × 2 (foot placement) two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). [Results] There was no interaction effect among the 3 arm positions in the 2 foot placements. A significant main effect was identified for foot placement, but not arm position. Posterior foot placement led to a shorter FTSTS time compared to that of normal foot placement. [Conclusion] With the same arm position, FTSTS completion times with posterior foot placement tended to be shorter. Therefore, the standard foot placement should be used for FTSTS administration. PMID:26180314

  6. The Business Schools: 50 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a critique of the development of university business schools over the last 50 years and provide a perspective on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal Education + Training. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is critical and reflexive, reviewing the historical growth of…

  7. Paediatric infectious diseases: the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Starr, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Many advances and challenges have occurred in the field of paediatric infectious diseases during the past 50 years. It is impossible to cover all of these in a short review, but a few highlights and lowlights will be covered. These include virtual disappearance of some infectious diseases, emergence of new ones, infections in the immunocompromised, antimicrobial resistance, development of new and improved antimicrobials, improved diagnostic tests and the Human Microbiome Project. PMID:25557805

  8. 50 years of snow stratigraphy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, C.; Pohjola, V.; Jonasson, C.; Challagan, T. V.

    2012-04-01

    With start in autumn 1961 the Abisko Scientific Research Station (ASRS) located in the Swedish sub Arctic has performed snow stratigraphy observations, resulting in a unique 50 year long time series of data. The data set contains grain size, snow layer hardness, grain compactness and snow layer dryness, observed every second week during the winter season. In general snow and snow cover are important factors for the global radiation budget, and the earth's climate. On a more local scale the layered snowpack creates a relatively mild microclimate for Arctic plants and animals, and it also determines the water content of the snowpack (snow water equivalent) important for e.g. hydrological applications. Analysis of the snow stratigraphy data, divided into three consecutive time periods, show that there has been a change in the last time period. The variable most affected is the snow layer hardness, which shows an increase in hardness of the snowpack. The number of observations with a very hard snow layer/ice at ground level increased three-fold between the first two time periods and the last time period. The thickness of the bottom layer in the snowpack is also highly affected. There has been a 60% increase in layers thinner than 10 cm in the last time period, resulting in a mean reduction in the thickness of the bottom layer from 14 cm to 11 cm. Hence the living conditions for plants and animals at the ground surface have been highly changed. The changes in the snowpack are correlated to an increased mean winter air temperature. Thus, continued increasing, or temperatures within the same ranges as in the last time period, is likely to create harder snow condition in the future. These changes are likely to affect animals that live under the snow such as lemmings and voles or animals that graze sub-Arctic vegetation in winter (e.g. reindeer that would potentially require increased supplementary feeding that incurs financial costs to Sami reindeer herders). Any decrease

  9. The Kerr Metric: 50 Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teukolsky, Saul

    2015-04-01

    I will describe the events leading up to the discovery of the Kerr metric in 1963 and the enormous impact the discovery has had in the subsequent 50 years. The talk will emphasize the ``miraculous'' nature of the solution, both as a simple analytic formula describing the most general rotating black hole, and as having unexpected mathematical properties that make many calculations tractable. Supported in part by NSF Grants PHY-1306125 and No. AST-1333129 at Cornell University, and by a grant from the Sherman Fairchild Foundation.

  10. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure. PMID:23511708

  11. Commitment Elements Reframed (Antecedents & Consequences) for Organizational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra L.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify theories of commitment in the workplace to develop a framework that helps the field create higher levels of commitment, productivity, and satisfaction. The paper is organized into five main sections: the method, commitment in the workplace, mapping workplace commitment, and the implications for HRD and…

  12. Child protection: a 50-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Skellern, Catherine Yvette

    2015-01-01

    It has been 50 years since Kempe et al. published 'The Battered Child Syndrome', describing harm from inflicted injury mechanisms derived from parents and care givers. Since then, there has emerged a rapidly expanding literature on paediatric forensic medicine and child protection, which has offered new insights into injury mechanisms, informed us of the sequelae of abuse and neglect, aided diagnosis and guided clinical practice in the treatment and management of children who become involved in the child protection system. Through the scrutiny of government inquiries and at times uncomfortable media exposure, there have been improvements in child protection and forensic practices resulting in recognition of need for specialised forensic training, improved funding, development of resources and development of professional standards that support accountable, objective, safe and robust practice. From the perspective of an Australian child protection paediatrician, this paper chronicles some of the most significant and at times controversial research in the last 50 years in child protection that have played a key role in shaping our current understanding of child abuse and neglect. PMID:25534472

  13. Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.12 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Norris Gray waves to the audience. Gray was part of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. Also attending the ceremony were other members of the original Bumper 8 team. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

  14. Looking back 50 years in hospital administration.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ross; Sibbald, Shannon L

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare policy and hospital administration are dynamic and growing fields, oriented toward shaping the future. In an effort to understand where these fields have come from, as well as some of the re-occuring challenges faced, we conducted a retrospective analysis. Our research identified progress and major accomplishments, as well as issues that continue to challenge the field in five key areas: (1) the evolution of nursing, (2) funding and legislation, (3) hospital design, construction and technology, (4) patient care and infection control and (5) leadership. To explore these areas, a thematic content review was conducted on the 12 inaugural issues of Hospital Administration in Canada, a hospital administration periodical from 1962. All written content was reviewed, coded and categorized into major themes that represented the major hospital administration topics of 50 years ago. In this article, five prominent themes are explored and further illustrated using key stories and milestones from 1962. PMID:23107901

  15. Performance and retention of professional employees who work in teams: the effects of commitment and support.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of support and commitment on job performance and turnover intentions of professionals working in a team environment. As hypothesized, the results indicated that job performance was influenced positively by both professional and team commitment as well as by perceived organizational and team support. Intention to quit the organization went down as organizational support and commitment went up, and intention to leave the profession similarly was related to team support and commitment Interestingly, professional commitment had a deleterious effect on intention to quit the organization, whereas organizational support had a positive effect on professional commitment. PMID:10181487

  16. The Effects of Group Racial Composition on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Career Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.; Finley, Ashley; Iverson, Roderick D.; Price, James L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the racial composition of teachers and students in 405 schools found black teachers less affected by being in the minority in their schools. In contexts where others are of the same race, white teachers experience greater coworker support, less role conflict, more autonomy, and adequate resources. Commitment to teaching career is not…

  17. 50 years of Global Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Butler, R.; Berger, J.; Davis, P.; Derr, J.; Gee, L.; Hutt, C. R.; Leith, W. S.; Park, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Seismological recordings have been made on Earth for hundreds of years in some form or another, however, global monitoring of earthquakes only began in the 1890's when John Milne created 40 seismic observatories to measure the waves from these events. Shortly after the International Geophysical Year (IGY), a concerted effort was made to establish and maintain a more modern standardized seismic network on the global scale. In the early 1960's, the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) was established through funding from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and was installed and maintained by the USGS's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (then a part of the US Coast and Geodetic Survey). This network of identical seismic instruments consisted of 120 stations in 60 countries. Although the network was motivated by nuclear test monitoring, the WWSSN facilitated numerous advances in observational seismology. From the IGY to the present, the network has been upgraded (High-Gain Long-Period Seismograph Network, Seismic Research Observatories, Digital WWSSN, Global Telemetered Seismograph Network, etc.) and expanded (International Deployment of Accelerometers, US National Seismic Network, China Digital Seismograph Network, Joint Seismic Project, etc.), bringing the modern day Global Seismographic Network (GSN) to a current state of approximately 150 stations. The GSN consists of state-of-the-art very broadband seismic transducers, continuous power and communications, and ancillary sensors including geodetic, geomagnetic, microbarographic, meteorological and other related instrumentation. Beyond the GSN, the system of global network observatories includes contributions from other international partners (e.g., GEOSCOPE, GEOFON, MEDNET, F-Net, CTBTO), forming an even larger backbone of permanent seismological observatories as a part of the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks. 50 years of seismic network operations have provided

  18. Proportional mortality of 50 years and above

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Uemura, K.

    1957-01-01

    In 1954 the United Nations Committee of Experts on International Definition and Measurement of Standards and Levels of Living suggested that for the measurement of levels of living quantifiable or potentially quantifiable components should be considered separately. An attempt is made in the present paper to evolve a single, comprehensive numerical indicator to quantify the component “health, including demographic conditions”. The use of an objective statistical technique as a guide in the selection of such an indicator is suggested. From the application of this technique, it is concluded that the percentage of deaths at the ages 50 years and over to total deaths (proportional mortality) affords a fairly suitable yardstick by which broad inter-country comparisons may be made. This indicator has the advantages of simplicity of calculation, comprehensiveness, availability of data, possibility of international comparability despite the varying quality of basic statistical information, sensitivity for the purpose of inter-country comparisons, and validity for studying levels and trends. PMID:13500159

  19. A Meta-Analysis: Exploring the Effects of Gender on Organisational Commitment of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgiç, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of organisational commitment (OC) are of great importance to organisations. Considering the effect of teacher commitment on student success and the increasing teacher turnover rates in the world, studies focusing on the organisational commitment of teachers gained more importance. However there is still a significant gap about the…

  20. The Effect of Gender on Organizational Commitment of Teachers: A Meta Analytic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ayhan; Sarier, Yilmaz; Uysal, Sengul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gender on the organizational commitment of teachers. In this respect, the levels of organizational commitment were also investigated with organizational commitment. Fifteen master and doctorate theses done between 2005-2009 were analyzed using meta analysis. At the end of the research study,…

  1. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Quantum Phases: 50 Years of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect and 25 Years of the Berry Phase Special issue on Quantum Phases: 50 Years of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect and 25 Years of the Berry Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidman, Lev; Dennis, Mark; Popescu, Sandu

    2010-01-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of quantum phases and highlighting the impact of the discovery of the Aharonov--Bohm effect and of the Berry phase across physics. Researchers working in the area are invited to submit papers of original research to this issue. Editorial policy The Editorial Board has invited Lev Vaidman, Mark Dennis and Sandu Popescu to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. The criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure and high standards of the journal. Papers should be original and should contain substantial new results. All contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure of the journal. Papers should report original and significant research that has not already been published. Guidelines for preparation of contributions The DEADLINE for contributed papers will be 1 February 2010. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in September 2010. Advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should be submitted electronically, if possible, by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue— Quantum Phases'. Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue— Quantum Phases'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any

  2. Ochratoxin A: 50 Years of Research

    PubMed Central

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Malir, Jan; Toman, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Since ochratoxin A (OTA) was discovered, it has been ubiquitous as a natural contaminant of moldy food and feed. The multiple toxic effects of OTA are a real threat for human beings and animal health. For example, OTA can cause porcine nephropathy but can also damage poultries. Humans exposed to OTA can develop (notably by inhalation in the development of acute renal failure within 24 h) a range of chronic disorders such as upper urothelial carcinoma. OTA plays the main role in the pathogenesis of some renal diseases including Balkan endemic nephropathy, kidney tumors occurring in certain endemic regions of the Balkan Peninsula, and chronic interstitial nephropathy occurring in Northern African countries and likely in other parts of the world. OTA leads to DNA adduct formation, which is known for its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The present article discusses how renal carcinogenicity and nephrotoxicity cause both oxidative stress and direct genotoxicity. Careful analyses of the data show that OTA carcinogenic effects are due to combined direct and indirect mechanisms (e.g., genotoxicity, oxidative stress, epigenetic factors). Altogether this provides strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity can also occur in humans. PMID:27384585

  3. Ochratoxin A: 50 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Malir, Jan; Toman, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Since ochratoxin A (OTA) was discovered, it has been ubiquitous as a natural contaminant of moldy food and feed. The multiple toxic effects of OTA are a real threat for human beings and animal health. For example, OTA can cause porcine nephropathy but can also damage poultries. Humans exposed to OTA can develop (notably by inhalation in the development of acute renal failure within 24 h) a range of chronic disorders such as upper urothelial carcinoma. OTA plays the main role in the pathogenesis of some renal diseases including Balkan endemic nephropathy, kidney tumors occurring in certain endemic regions of the Balkan Peninsula, and chronic interstitial nephropathy occurring in Northern African countries and likely in other parts of the world. OTA leads to DNA adduct formation, which is known for its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The present article discusses how renal carcinogenicity and nephrotoxicity cause both oxidative stress and direct genotoxicity. Careful analyses of the data show that OTA carcinogenic effects are due to combined direct and indirect mechanisms (e.g., genotoxicity, oxidative stress, epigenetic factors). Altogether this provides strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity can also occur in humans. PMID:27384585

  4. Strengthening organizational commitment. Understanding the concept as a basis for creating effective workforce retention strategies.

    PubMed

    Manion, Jo

    2004-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing any health care leader today is that of building commitment among followers. The last decade, with its tumultuous changes in our organizations, left many employees emotionally detached from their workplace. Mistrust, increasing cynicism, escalating financial pressures, and continuing challenges adversely impact our workforce's organizational commitment. The author explores the concept of commitment, which can serve as a basis for developing practical effective retention strategies. PMID:15192998

  5. Internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment: moderating effects of work status.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiju; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-08-01

    Associations among internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment were examined, particularly with regard to the moderating effects of work status on the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation or organizational commitment, in a cross-sectional design with structural equation modeling. Two studies (Ns = 119 and 251) were conducted among full- and part-time service employees at Taipei Sports Centers. Internal marketing was associated with organizational commitment and customer orientation. Customer orientation was associated with organizational commitment and partially mediated the relation between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Furthermore, work status significantly moderated the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation but not between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Implications and directions for future research were discussed. PMID:24340810

  6. The effects of union membership on multiple work commitments among female public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G J; Johnson, W R

    1995-03-01

    The effects of union membership on union, organizational, and dual commitment among 245 clerical employees at a midwestern state university represented by a Local of the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) were investigated. Based on the similarity hypothesis of the social identity theory, it was hypothesized that union membership would be positively related to union and dual commitment and negatively related to organizational commitment. The results of the regression analyses supported the similarity hypothesis, and union membership explained a significant amount of variance in union and dual commitment but not in organizational commitment. These findings are discussed in the context of applying social psychological approaches to understand attitudes toward unionization; industrial conflict; and union, organizational, and dual commitment. PMID:7760293

  7. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. PMID:25528270

  8. Commitment of Cultural Minorities in Organizations: Effects of Leadership and Pressure to Conform.

    PubMed

    Rupert, Joyce; Jehn, Karen A; van Engen, Marloes L; de Reuver, Renée S M

    2010-03-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the commitment of cultural minorities and majorities in organizations. We examined how contextual factors, such as pressure to conform and leadership styles, affect the commitment of minority and majority members. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A field study was conducted on 107 employees in a large multinational corporation. FINDINGS: We hypothesize and found that cultural minorities felt more committed to the organization than majority members, thereby challenging the existing theoretical view that cultural minorities will feel less committed. We also found that organizational pressure to conform and effective leadership increased the commitment of minorities. IMPLICATIONS: Our findings indicate that organizational leaders and researchers should not only focus on increasing and maintaining the commitment of minority members, but should also consider how majority members react to cultural socialization and integration processes. The commitment of minority members can be further enhanced by effective leadership. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: In this study, we challenge the existing theoretical view based on similarity attraction theory and relational demography theory, that cultural minorities would feel less committed to the organization. Past research has mainly focused on minority groups, thereby ignoring the reaction of the majority to socialization processes. In this study, we show that cultural minorities can be more committed than majority members in organizations. Therefore, the perceptions of cultural majority members of socialization processes should also be considered in research on cultural diversity and acculturation. PMID:20174444

  9. The Effects of Organizational Training on Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Cagri; Culha, Osman

    2010-01-01

    This empirical study investigated the impact of organizational training on employee commitment focusing on employees' emotional and affective responses towards their organization. Organizational training is conceptualized within a multidimensional framework consisting of motivation for training, access to training, benefits from training and…

  10. Teachers' Organizational Commitment: Examining the Mediating Effects of Distributed Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, Geert; Tuytens, Melissa; Hulpia, Hester

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relation between principals' leadership and teachers' organizational commitment, mediated by distributed leadership. Data were collected from 1,495 teachers in 46 secondary schools. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of principals' leadership on teachers' organizational commitment is…

  11. Exploring the Effects of Empowerment, Innovation, Professionalism, Conflict, and Participation on Teacher Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Stephanie Layne

    2012-01-01

    Improved understanding of teacher retention depends on systematic research on working conditions, teachers' perceptions of their work environments, and the effect of condition-of-work variables on organizational commitment. The examination of organizational commitment in K-12 teachers is a construct with implications for long-term…

  12. [Molecular bases of cellular senescence: Hayflick phenomenon 50 years later].

    PubMed

    Sosińska, Patrycja; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Książek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Normal human somatic cells have strictly limited proliferative capacity and reach a state of senescence when it becomes exhausted. It is believed that senescence is a response to extensive and irreparable DNA injury, localized in telomeric and/or non-telomeric regions of the genome. Main cause of this damage is oxidative stress, increasing due to deteriorated function of mitochondria. Senescent cells accumulate in tissues during aging, which is causatively linked with the development of various pathologies in elderly individuals, including cancer. This paper, prepared exactly 50 years after Leonard Hayflick's discovery of the relationship between cellular senescence and organismal aging is aimed at presenting the current knowledge about molecular determinants of senescence, with particular emphasis paid to the role of oxidative stress, effectors of senescence at the level of cell cycle, markers of this phenomenon, and the effect of senescent cells on the development of certain age-related diseases. PMID:27117098

  13. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  14. The effects of mortality salience on escalation of commitment.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chih-Long; Lin, Chun-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Based on propositions derived from terror management theory (TMT), the current study proposes that people who are reminded of their mortality exhibit a higher degree of self-justification behavior to maintain their self-esteem. For this reason, they could be expected to stick with their previous decisions and invest an increasing amount of resources in those decisions, despite the fact that negative feedback has clearly indicated that they might be on a course toward failure (i.e., "escalation of commitment"). Our experiment showed that people who were reminded of their mortality were more likely to escalate their level of commitment by maintaining their current course of action. Two imaginary scenarios were tested. One of the scenarios involved deciding whether to send additional troops into the battlefield when previous attempts had failed; the other involved deciding whether to continue developing an anti-radar fighter plane when the enemy had already developed a device to detect it. The results supported our hypothesis that mortality salience increases the tendency to escalate one's level of commitment. PMID:22046990

  15. 50 years of hurdles and hope in anxiolytic drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, Guy; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent group of psychiatric diseases, and have high personal and societal costs. The search for novel pharmacological treatments for these conditions is driven by the growing medical need to improve on the effectiveness and the side effect profile of existing drugs. A huge volume of data has been generated by anxiolytic drug discovery studies, which has led to the progression of numerous new molecules into clinical trials. However, the clinical outcome of these efforts has been disappointing, as promising results with novel agents in rodent studies have very rarely translated into effectiveness in humans. Here, we analyse the major trends from preclinical studies over the past 50 years conducted in the search for new drugs beyond those that target the prototypical anxiety-associated GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)–benzodiazepine system, which have focused most intensively on the serotonin, neuropeptide, glutamate and endocannabinoid systems. We highlight various key issues that may have hampered progress in the field, and offer recommendations for how anxiolytic drug discovery can be more effective in the future. PMID:23989795

  16. Marshall Space Flight Center: 50 Years, 50 Seconds

    NASA Video Gallery

    Talk about time flying! Take a look at this super-fast review of highlights from the past 50 years at the Marshall Center. This year, Marshall is celebrating its 50th anniversary, highlighting its ...

  17. Aflatoxin: A 50-Year Odyssey of Mechanistic and Translational Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery 50 years ago, the aflatoxins have become recognized as ubiquitous contaminants of the human food supply throughout the economically developing world. The adverse toxicological consequences of these compounds in populations are quite varied because of a wide range of exposures leading to acute effects, including rapid death, and chronic outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, emerging studies describe a variety of general adverse health effects associated with aflatoxin, such as impaired growth in children. Aflatoxin exposures have also been demonstrated to multiplicatively increase the risk of liver cancer in people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) illustrating the deleterious impact that even low toxin levels in the diet can pose for human health. The public health impact of aflatoxin exposure is pervasive. Aflatoxin biomarkers of internal and biologically effective doses have been integral to the establishment of the etiologic role of this toxin in human disease through better estimates of exposure, expanded knowledge of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and as tools for implementing and evaluating preventive interventions. PMID:20881231

  18. 50 years of computer simulation of the human thermoregulatory system.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Daniel W; Mark, Andrew E; Abella, Jayvee R; Netscher, George M; Wissler, Eugene H; Diller, Kenneth R

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an updated and augmented version of the Wissler human thermoregulation model that has been developed continuously over the past 50 years. The existing Fortran code is translated into C with extensive embedded commentary. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in Python to facilitate convenient user designation of input and output variables and formatting of data presentation. Use of the code with the GUI is described and demonstrated. New physiological elements were added to the model to represent the hands and feet, including the unique vascular structures adapted for heat transfer associated with glabrous skin. The heat transfer function and efficacy of glabrous skin is unique within the entire body based on the capacity for a very high rate of blood perfusion and the novel capability for dynamic regulation of blood flow. The model was applied to quantify the absolute and relative contributions of glabrous skin flow to thermoregulation for varying levels of blood perfusion. The model also was used to demonstrate how the unique features of glabrous skin blood flow may be recruited to implement thermal therapeutic procedures. We have developed proprietary methods to manipulate the control of glabrous skin blood flow in conjunction with therapeutic devices and simulated the effect of these methods with the model. PMID:23445051

  19. Approved Antiviral Drugs over the Past 50 Years.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik; Li, Guangdi

    2016-07-01

    Since the first antiviral drug, idoxuridine, was approved in 1963, 90 antiviral drugs categorized into 13 functional groups have been formally approved for the treatment of the following 9 human infectious diseases: (i) HIV infections (protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, entry inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (ii) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections (lamivudine, interferons, nucleoside analogues, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (iii) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (ribavirin, interferons, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, and NS5B polymerase inhibitors), (iv) herpesvirus infections (5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, entry inhibitors, nucleoside analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and acyclic guanosine analogues), (v) influenza virus infections (ribavirin, matrix 2 protein inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, and neuraminidase inhibitors), (vi) human cytomegalovirus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and oligonucleotides), (vii) varicella-zoster virus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, nucleoside analogues, 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, and antibodies), (viii) respiratory syncytial virus infections (ribavirin and antibodies), and (ix) external anogenital warts caused by human papillomavirus infections (imiquimod, sinecatechins, and podofilox). Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive overview of antiviral drugs approved over the past 50 years, shedding light on the development of effective antiviral treatments against current and emerging infectious diseases worldwide. PMID:27281742

  20. 50 years of space science (Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2013-04-01

    The launch of Sputnik-1 triggered my fascination for space at the age of 20. The past 50 years have allowed me to study the Sun with sounding rockets and satellites, revealing the complexity of our star, contributing to the understanding of its physics, and offering surprising manifestations of its behavior and of its effects on Earth. Building instruments for space astronomy, managing teams of space scientists and engineers, led me to become the science director of the European space agency between 1983 and 2001 where I formulated and managed the Horizon 2000 program, which led Europe to occupy the front row of world space science. The Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture offers me an opportunity, to describe the most spectacular achievements of this long-term plan and to outline some basic principles for reaching success, including the essential role of international cooperation with shared partnership. The Lecture also identifies key problems and controversial issues that space astronomy and exploration will face in the 21st century.

  1. Tritium in Australian precipitation: A 50 year record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda; Hollins, Suzanne E.; Chisari, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 50 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies, and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, a component of the water molecule (HTO), is the only true age tracer for waters. The elevated level of tritium in the environment as a result of last century’s atmospheric thermonuclear testing delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems over a 100 year timeframe. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum of 160 Tritium Units (TU) in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear weapons testing. From 1963 to present we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, and this can be attributed to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Spikes in the tritium level are superimposed over this general trend; the first around 1969, with levels ranging from 39.4 to 84.4 TU was due to French atmospheric weapon testing, and again in 1990, levels peaked between 6.6 and 12.9 TU, which is attributed to tritium leaking from underground tests in the French Pacific. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have declined globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia are stabilising to around 2-3 TU increasing with latitude across the continent, suggesting that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. The spatial distribution of tritium is presented and found to be dominated by the annual stratosphere-troposphere exchange in combination with latitude and continental effects. A precipitation amount effect is also observed for inland sites.

  2. My 50 years of research in particle physics.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

  3. My 50 years of research in particle physics

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

  4. Committed Tc17 cells are phenotypically and functionally resistant to the effects of IL-27.

    PubMed

    El-Behi, Mohamed; Dai, Hong; Magalhaes, Joao G; Hwang, Daniel; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Ciric, Bogoljub

    2014-10-01

    IL-17-secreting CD8(+) T cells (Tc17 cells) have been implicated in immunity to infections, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Thus far, studies on Tc17 cells have primarily investigated their development from naïve precursors, while the biology of committed Tc17 cells has been less characterized, in particular during the effector phase of immune responses. IL-27 is an important regulator of inflammation through the induction of regulatory Tr1 cells, as well as a suppressor of Th17-cell development. IL-27 suppresses the development of Tc17 cells, but its effects on committed Tc17 cells are unknown. Here we demonstrate that even though IL-27 completely inhibited the development of C57BL/6 mouse Tc17 cells, it had little effect on previously committed Tc17 cells. Although committed Tc17 cells were capable of responding to IL-27, it had no effect on expression of RORγt and RORα, or production of various cytokines. Committed Tc17 cells did not express granzyme B and lacked cytotoxicity in vitro, features that remained unaltered by IL-27 treatment. Nonetheless, they efficiently induced diabetes, irrespective of treatment with IL-27 prior to transfer into RIP-mOVA mice. These findings suggest that use of IL-27 to modulate autoimmune diseases might have limited therapeutic efficacy if autoaggressive Tc17 cells have already developed. PMID:25070084

  5. The Moderating Effect of Leader-member Exchange on the Job Insecurity-Organizational Commitment Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sanman; Zuo, Bin

    Job insecurity has become an important issue for society and organizations in the last decades due to uncertain economic conditions, global competition, and the advancement of information technology. As job insecurity have detrimental consequences for employees and organizations, it is vital to identify variables that could buffer against the negative effects of job insecurity. In this study, we examined the moderating effect of Leader-member exchange on the relation between job insecurity and organizational commitment. Data collected from 314 employees indicated that the negative relationship between qualitative insecurity and affective commitment was alleviated as Leader-member exchange increased. Furthermore, the positive relation between quantitative insecurity and continuance commitment decreased as Leader-member exchange increased.

  6. Effects of job rotation and role stress among nurses on job satisfaction and organizational commitment

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wen-Hsien; Chang, Ching Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling; Liang, Rong-Da

    2009-01-01

    Background The motivation for this study was to investigate how role stress among nurses could affect their job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and whether the job rotation system might encourage nurses to understand, relate to and share the vision of the organization, consequently increasing their job satisfaction and stimulating them to willingly remain in their jobs and commit themselves to the organization. Despite the fact that there have been plenty of studies on job satisfaction, none was specifically addressed to integrate the relational model of job rotation, role stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among nurses. Methods With top managerial hospital administration's consent, questionnaires were only distributed to those nurses who had had job rotation experience. 650 copies of the questionnaire in two large and influential hospitals in southern Taiwan were distributed, among which 532 valid copies were retrieved with a response rate of 81.8%. Finally, the SPSS 11.0 and LISREL 8.54 (Linear Structural Relationship Model) statistical software packages were used for data analysis and processing. Results According to the nurses' views, the findings are as follows: (1) job rotation among nurses could have an effect on their job satisfaction; (2) job rotation could have an effect on organizational commitment; (3) job satisfaction could have a positive effect on organizational commitment; (4) role stress among nurses could have a negative effect on their job satisfaction; and (5) role stress could have a negative effect on their organizational commitment. Conclusion As a practical and excellent strategy for manpower utilization, a hospital could promote the benefits of job rotation to both individuals and the hospital while implementing job rotation periodically and fairly. And when a medical organization attempts to enhance nurses' commitment to the organization, the findings suggest that reduction of role ambiguity in role stress

  7. Commitment Strength, Alcohol Dependence and HealthCall Participation: Effects on Drinking Reduction in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Stohl, Malka; Ellis, James; Amrhein, Paul; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of three factors in drinking outcome after brief intervention among heavily drinking HIV patients were investigated: strength of commitment to change drinking, alcohol dependence, and treatment type: brief Motivational Interview (MI) only, or MI plus HealthCall, a technological extension of brief intervention. METHODS HIV primary care patients (N=139) who drank ≥4 drinks at least once in the 30 days before study entry participated in MI-only or MI+HealthCall in a randomized trial to reduce drinking. Patients were 95.0% minority; 23.0% female; 46.8% alcohol dependent; mean age 46.3. Outcome at end of treatment (60 days) was drinks per drinking day (Timeline Follow-Back). Commitment strength (CS) was rated from MI session recordings. RESULTS Overall, stronger CS predicted end-of-treatment drinking (p<.001). After finding an interaction of treatment, CS and alcohol dependence (p=.01), we examined treatment × CS interactions in alcohol dependent and non-dependent patients. In alcohol dependent patients, the treatment × commitment strength interaction was significant (p=.006); patients with low commitment strength had better outcomes in MI+HealthCall than in MI-only (lower mean drinks per drinking day; 3.5 and 4.6 drinks, respectively). In non-dependent patients, neither treatment nor CS predicted outcome. CONCLUSIONS Among alcohol dependent HIV patients, HealthCall was most beneficial in drinking reduction when MI ended with low commitment strength. HealthCall may not merely extend MI effects, but add effects of its own that compensate for low commitment strength. Thus, HealthCall may also be effective when paired with briefer interventions requiring less skill, training and supervision than MI. Replication is warranted. PMID:24332577

  8. An opportune life: 50 years in human cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article is one person's view of human cytogenetics over the past 50 years. The flowering of human cytogenetics led the way to the establishment of clinical genetics as one of the most important developments in medicine in the twentieth century. The article is written from the viewpoint of a scientist who never tired of analyzing the images of dividing cells on the light microscope and interpreting the wealth of information contained in them. PMID:25184528

  9. The Effects of Servant Leadership on Teachers' Organizational Commitment in Primary Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerit, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teachers' school commitment. The research data were collected from 563 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were measured with a servent organizational leadership assessment scale, and the teachers'…

  10. The Effect of Learning Organization Culture on the Relationship between Interpersonal Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hong Min; Kolb, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to assess the effect of learning organization culture on the linkage between interpersonal trust and organizational commitment. The study sample was obtained from employees of two major Korean conglomerates. Online questionnaires were completed by 321 respondents. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used…

  11. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Commitment: Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Shueh-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: After reviewing previous research, this study found that few school or educational studies have simultaneously explored both internal marketing and organizational commitment, and of those that have, only direct effects were examined. This study clarifies the relationship between school organization's internal marketing and teachers'…

  12. The Effect of Behavioral Commitment and Ability Discrepancy on Attitudinal Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DasGupta, Bikram; Liang, Ann

    1988-01-01

    Manipulated behavioral commitment and negative task discrepancy to observe effects on attitudinal persistence on feminist issues and perceived threat of trivia test score. Results indicated that non-active feminists (N=20) perceived greater threat from discrepant test score than did active feminists (N=20) and showed greater agreement to feminist…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent A Appendix A to Part 197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Pt. 197, App....

  14. Why Virginity Pledges Succeed or Fail: The Moderating Effect of Religious Commitment Versus Religious Participation

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, virginity pledges have proliferated in the US, despite mixed results regarding their effectiveness. Few studies have examined possible mechanisms that may shed light on why pledges work for some individuals but not others. Using a sample of emerging-adults aged 18–24 years old (n = 1,380),we examine the influence of religiosity on pledge signing and adherence, specifically whether the effectiveness of pledges is moderated by religiosity. Findings show that while religious participation is positively associated with signing a pledge, there is amoderating effect of religious commitment. That is, when religious commitment is high, adherence to the pledge is greater. However, for pledge signers with low religious commitment, there are unintended negative consequences with regard to increased participation in risky sexual behaviors, whether compared to other people who signed the pledge who are equally committed to their religion or to individuals who have never taken such a pledge. Implications for research and policy are discussed. PMID:25018616

  15. Canadian medical education: 50 years of innovation and leadership.

    PubMed

    Dauphinee, W D

    1993-05-01

    Over the past 50 years, many Canadian medical educators have pursued ideas and visions, as individuals in the 1950s and 1960s and later in partnership with various national bodies. Relations between universities and national medical organizations have been productive in dealing with issues of postgraduate education and clinical assessment, in particular. From 1970 to 1990, strong education offices and formally trained educators led to many successes in the areas of research in cognition, continuing medical education and clinical assessment. Canadian medical education has now achieved international recognition for its work in all aspects of the continuum of the physician's education through vision, initiative and cooperation. PMID:8477386

  16. Flavor Physics and Nagoya --- The Past 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanda, A. I.

    In this talk, I briefly review how Nagoya physics has contributed tothe development of flavor physics over the past 50 years. It began with the introduction of Sakata model back in 1956, and recently it contributed to the discovery of CP violation in 2000. Along the way Kobayashi and Maskawa completed the standard model by introducing the KM ansatz for CP violation. We shall also describe two discoveries by Nagoya emulsion group made before 1990: (1) the first evidence for the charm quark; (2) discovery of the D(0) and D(+) mesons.

  17. The Mediation of Performance in the Relationship of Organizational Commitment to University Faculty's Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Lizhen; Zhang, Deshan

    2014-01-01

    To provide more insights into inconsistent findings on the relationship of organizational commitment to effectiveness, this study conducted a questionnaire survey among 188 academics in Beijing. Analysis of survey responses suggested that organizational commitment presented significant relationships to performance and effectiveness. These…

  18. Toward the second 50 years of Water Resources Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first issue in 1965, 49 volumes and 464 issues of Water Resources Research (WRR) have been published, including more than 13,800 contributions that received more than 380,000 citations. WRR has always maintained a forward-looking vision, providing an interdisciplinary platform to nurture the initiation and development of numerous sub-disciplines and research themes in hydrology, water resources, and earth sciences and over the last 50 years. This vision, supported in no small measure by a dedicated community of researchers who submitted their best research to WRR, have helped the journal maintain its international leadership in this field. As we enter the second 50 years of WRR, new trends in scientific publishing, open access publication and web-based discussion forums, pose challenges (and opportunities) for sustaining WRR's leadership role. In this presentation, we will present the vision of the present editorial board for the future of WRR, and discuss several steps we are undertaking to adapt the journal to modern trends in communicating scientific research. This includes the introduction of new article types, such as the forthcoming "Debates on Water Resources", targeted special sections, and efforts to improve the timeliness of the review process. We humbly stand on the shoulders of the thirty-four dedicated previous editors of WRR, and remain open to receiving suggestions from the AGU hydrologic community.

  19. [50 years of hepatology - from therapeutic nihilism to targeted therapies].

    PubMed

    Manns, Michael P

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 50 years significant progress has been made in the whole field of hepatology. Part of this is translation of basic research (biochemistry, immunology, virology, molecular biology and others) into clinical hepatology. This enabled us to understand more about the pathogenesis of liver diseases and led to the discovery of the five major hepatotropic viruses, the identification of hepatocellular autoantigens, and to the development of specific therapies for chronic hepatitis B, C and D. In addition, the molecular basis of most genetic liver diseases has been identified. Significant progress was made in the development of medical therapies for various liver diseases with different underlying etiologies. Surgery significantly contributed to the progress in the management of liver diseases; examples are laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the development of liver transplantation. A multimodal therapeutic algorithm has been established for the therapy of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC); with Sorafenib "targeted therapy" has entered the area of HCC. The progress made over the last 50 years not only led to an aetiological differentiation of acute and chronic liver diseases but also to specific therapies based on the identification and understanding of the underlying etiology. PMID:23585265

  20. Neighbourhood effects on educational attainment of adolescents, buffered by personality and educational commitment.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Research has repeatedly shown that neighbourhood disadvantage negatively influences individual educational outcomes. However, the great variation in outcomes indicates substantial unobserved heterogeneity. Looking at the rates of obtaining a basic educational qualification, the hypothesis is that individual traits of adolescents can buffer neighbourhood effects. First, adolescents with a more resilient personality may be better able to cope with neighbourhood adversity. And second, educational commitments might buffer adolescents from negative neighbourhood influences. These hypotheses are tested employing survival analysis, using six wave panel data, containing information on ten years of adolescents' lives. The results show that resilients experience no negative influence of neighbourhood disadvantage, while both undercontrollers and overcontrollers do. And, the stronger adolescents' educational commitments, the less they experience the negative effect of neighbourhood adversity. In sum, neighbourhood effects are found, but not for everybody. PMID:25592923

  1. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. PMID:23067337

  2. Technology - The path to the next 50 years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. P.; Sadin, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The paper stresses the importance of committing time and resources to space technology based on the premise that an accurate appraisal of the impact of technology and other influences on the present state of aviation will facilitate the planning of space technology. The paper presents the technological advances in aviation since 1903 by dividing the era of aviation into four distinct segments and, by analogy, distinct phases are also seen in the evolution of space flight. One factor seen as limiting advances in space is cost. Processes in space must now be shown to be affordable; a demonstration of technological feasibility is no longer sufficient. For this reason, technology must focus on ensuring the affordability and utility of space processes. A commitment to making space affordable will yield the tools necessary to embark on future space ventures.

  3. Food transitions in last 50 years and related environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, P.; Reusser, D. E.; Kropp, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Food production is an important driver for global change processes such as land use change and green-house-gas emissions. We analyzed a global, long term data set on food consumption per country to identify typical patterns of diets for the last 50 years. From changes in these patterns, we derived food transitions on a global scale. Subsequently we assessed the environmental consequences from green-house-gas (GHG) emission and anthropogenic inputs. More specifically, we applied Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to identify the dietary patterns based on supply of 12 food groups from FAOSTAT dataset for a period 1961-2007. Using the data on energy output/input ratio for crop production and agricultural emission, we estimated fossil energy and GHG emission associated with the diets. We found 16 typical consumption patterns consisting of high, moderate, low and lowest calorie supply with varied food compositions. The high calorie diets are associated with a higher supply of cereals, animal-products, vegetable-oils and sugar-sweeteners featuring a total supply greater than 2800 kcal/cap/day. During the last 50 years, we observed food transitions from lower calories diets to higher calories diets. On the one hand, food transition towards affluent diet, sometime with shortcuts, occurred in developing countries. On the other hand, developed countries increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Some of the developing countries are also stagnated in the low consumption level during the last 50 years. The high calorie diets also embed higher fossil energy (1800-3500 kcal/cap/day) and are associated with higher GHG emissions (3.7-6.1 kg CO2 eq/cap/day). However, their non-CO2 GHG emission intensities per kilo calorie of food are relatively low. Changes in dietary patterns are a part of the global change processes. Identification of past transitions is way to predict possible future transitions. This in turn supports policy processes and negotiations in the fields of climate

  4. The Effect of Tertiary Teachers' Goal Orientations for Teaching on Their Commitment: The Mediating Role of Teacher Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jiying; Yin, Hongbiao; Wang, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effect of tertiary teachers' goal orientations for teaching on their commitment, with a particular focus on the mediating role of teacher engagement. The results of a survey of 597 Chinese tertiary teachers indicated that teacher commitment was positively predicted by ability approach, mastery and relational goals, but was…

  5. Effects of Self-Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, and Perceptions of Future Work Environment on Preservice Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesnut, Steven R.; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of self-efficacy, expectations of future work environment, and emotional intelligence on preservice teacher commitment to the teaching profession on a sample of 209 preservice teachers. The purpose of the study was to add to the existing knowledge surrounding preservice teacher commitment and promote…

  6. The triple helix: 50 years later, the outcome

    PubMed Central

    Duca, Maria; Vekhoff, Pierre; Oussedik, Kahina; Halby, Ludovic; Arimondo, Paola B.

    2008-01-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides constitute an interesting DNA sequence-specific tool that can be used to target cleaving or cross-linking agents, transcription factors or nucleases to a chosen site on the DNA. They are not only used as biotechnological tools but also to induce modifications on DNA with the aim to control gene expression, such as by site-directed mutagenesis or DNA recombination. Here, we report the state of art of the triplex-based anti-gene strategy 50 years after the discovery of such a structure, and we show the importance of the actual applications and the main challenges that we still have ahead of us. PMID:18676453

  7. Plague reappearance in Algeria after 50 years, 2003.

    PubMed

    Bertherat, Eric; Bekhoucha, Souad; Chougrani, Saada; Razik, Fathia; Duchemin, Jean B; Houti, Leila; Deharib, Larbi; Fayolle, Corinne; Makrerougrass, Banaouda; Dali-Yahia, Radia; Bellal, Ramdan; Belhabri, Leila; Chaieb, Amina; Tikhomirov, Evgueni; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2007-10-01

    An outbreak of plague occurred in the region of Oran, Algeria, from June to July 2003. Algeria had not reported this disease for >50 years. Eighteen bubonic cases were identified, and Yersinia pestis was isolated from 6 patients. Except for the index case-patient, all patients recovered. Targeted chemoprophylaxis, sanitation, and vector control played a crucial role in controlling the outbreak. Epidemiologic and biomolecular findings strongly suggested the existence of a local animal reservoir during this period, but its origin (resurgence or re-importation) could not be determined. This sudden and unexpected reemergence of plague, close to an important commercial seaport, is a textbook illustration of a public health event of international importance. It also demonstrates that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the currently indexed natural foci. PMID:18257987

  8. Plague Reappearance in Algeria after 50 Years, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Bekhoucha, Souad; Chougrani, Saada; Razik, Fathia; Duchemin, Jean B.; Houti, Leila; Deharib, Larbi; Fayolle, Corinne; Makrerougrass, Banaouda; Dali-Yahia, Radia; Bellal, Ramdan; Belhabri, Leila; Chaieb, Amina; Tikhomirov, Evgueni; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    An outbreak of plague occurred in the region of Oran, Algeria, from June to July 2003. Algeria had not reported this disease for >50 years. Eighteen bubonic cases were identified, and Yersinia pestis was isolated from 6 patients. Except for the index case-patient, all patients recovered. Targeted chemoprophylaxis, sanitation, and vector control played a crucial role in controlling the outbreak. Epidemiologic and biomolecular findings strongly suggested the existence of a local animal reservoir during this period, but its origin (resurgence or re-importation) could not be determined. This sudden and unexpected reemergence of plague, close to an important commercial seaport, is a textbook illustration of a public health event of international importance. It also demonstrates that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the currently indexed natural foci. PMID:18257987

  9. 50 years of CP violation — What have we learned?

    SciTech Connect

    McKellar, Bruce H. J.

    2015-04-24

    Early after the discovery of CP violation, the explanation of how the Standard Model of particle physics could allow CP violation was quickly given, but it took many years for the original observation to be unequivocally explained on that basis. It was also proposed that this observation opened up the possibility that we could now explain the fact that the universe is made of matter. Remarkably, 50 years later we have no evidence in particle physics that there is any CP violation except that of the Kobayashi Maskawa mechanism of the standard model. Yet we fail completely to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe through that mechanism. After reviewing the main points in the history I describe the present experimental attempts to find CP violation beyond the standard model, and explain the theoretical attempts to explain the matter in the Universe.

  10. Work–family climate, organizational commitment, and turnover: Multilevel contagion effects of leaders ⋆

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work–family climate (operationalized in terms of three work–family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using multilevel modeling, we found significant associations between work–family climate, and both organizational commitment and turnover intent, both within and between hotels. Findings underscored the importance of managerial support for employee work–family balance, the relevance of senior managers’ own work–family circumstances in relation to employees’ work outcomes, and the existence of possible contagion effects of leaders in relation to work–family climate. PMID:19412351

  11. The comparative effectiveness of persuasion, commitment and leader block strategies in motivating sorting.

    PubMed

    Mickaël, Dupré

    2014-04-01

    Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants. PMID:24507457

  12. Has adult sleep duration declined over the last 50+ years?

    PubMed

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Goff, Eric E; Reynolds, Alexandria M; Kripke, Daniel F; Irwin, Michael R; Bootzin, Richard R; Khan, Nidha; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2016-08-01

    The common assumption that population sleep duration has declined in the past few decades has not been supported by recent reviews, which have been limited to self-reported data. The aim of this review was to assess whether there has been a reduction in objectively recorded sleep duration over the last 50+ years. The literature was searched for studies published from 1960 to 2013, which assessed objective sleep duration (total sleep time (TST)) in healthy normal-sleeping adults. The search found 168 studies that met inclusion criteria, with 257 data points representing 6052 individuals ages 18-88 y. Data were assessed by comparing the regression lines of age vs. TST in studies conducted between 1960 and 1989 vs. 1990-2013. Weighted regression analyses assessed the association of year of study with age-adjusted TST across all data points. Regression analyses also assessed the association of year of study with TST separately for 10-y age categories (e.g., ages 18-27 y), and separately for polysomnographic and actigraphic data, and for studies involving a fixed sleep schedule and participants' customary sleep schedules. Analyses revealed no significant association of sleep duration with study year. The results are consistent with recent reviews of subjective data, which have challenged the notion of a modern epidemic of insufficient sleep. PMID:26478985

  13. A Dynamic Earth: 50 Years of Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the surface of the Earth began more than a half century ago with the earliest space missions. The global geopolitical environment at the beginning of the space age fueled advances in rocketry and human exploration, but also advances in remote sensing. At the same time that space-based Earth Observations were developing, global investments in infrastructure that were initiated after World War II accelerated large projects such as the construction of highways, the expansion of cities and suburbs, the damming of rivers, and the growth of big agriculture. These developments have transformed the Earth s surface at unprecedented rates. Today, we have a remarkable library of 50 years of observations of the Earth taken by satellite-based sensors and astronauts, and these images and observations provide insight into the workings of the Earth as a system. In addition, these observations record the footprints of human activities around the world, and illustrate how our activities contribute to the changing face of the Earth. Starting with the iconic "Blue Marble" image of the whole Earth taken by Apollo astronauts, we will review a timeline of observations of our planet as viewed from space.

  14. Conformational selection or induced fit? 50 years of debate resolved

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Exactly 50 years ago, biochemists raised the question of the mechanism of the conformational change that mediates “allosteric” interactions between regulatory sites and biologically active sites in regulatory/receptor proteins. Do the different conformations involved already exist spontaneously in the absence of the regulatory ligands (Monod-Wyman-Changeux), such that the complementary protein conformation would be selected to mediate signal transduction, or do particular ligands induce the receptor to adopt the conformation best suited to them (Koshland-Nemethy-Filmer—induced fit)? This is not just a central question for biophysics, it also has enormous importance for drug design. Recent advances in techniques have allowed detailed experimental and theoretical comparisons with the formal models of both scenarios. Also, it has been shown that mutated receptors can adopt constitutively active confirmations in the absence of ligand. There have also been demonstrations that the atomic resolution structures of the same protein are essentially the same whether ligand is bound or not. These and other advances in past decades have produced a situation where the vast majority of the data using different categories of regulatory proteins (including regulatory enzymes, ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and nuclear receptors) support the conformational selection scheme of signal transduction. PMID:21941598

  15. The effects of a personal phone call prompt on blood donor commitment.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J R; Barone, R C; Jason, L A; Rose, T

    1985-07-01

    There is a need to investigate procedures that can motivate individuals to attend blood drives. Low rates of attendance are partly due to the failure of many to fulfill their pledges to donate blood. This study examined the use of personal phone calls to prompt college-age blood donors to fulfill their commitments. The results indicated that a remainder call was effective in prompting pledged donors to attend a college drive. The phone call prompt might have been effective because of the social pressure which the recruiter exerted on the donors. Implications of these findings for blood donor recruitment efforts as well as the field of community psychology are discussed. PMID:10272405

  16. 50 years of mass balance observations at Vernagtferner, Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Ludwig; Mayer, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The determination and monitoring of the seasonal and annual glacier mass balances of Vernagtferner, Austria, started in 1964 by the Commission of Glaciology, Bavarian Academy of Sciences. Detailed and continuous climate- and runoff measurements complement this mass balance series since 1974. Vernagtferner attracted the attention of scientists since the beginning of the 17th century due to its rapid advances and the resulting glacier lake outburst floods in the Ötztal valley. This is one reason for the first photogrammetric survey in 1889, which was followed by frequent topographic surveys, adding up to more than ten digital elevation models of the glacier until today. By including the known maximum glacier extent at the end of the Little Ice Age in 1845, the geodetic glacier volume balances cover a time span of almost 170 years. The 50 years of glacier mass balance and 40 years of water balance in the drainage basin are therefore embedded in a considerably longer period of glacier evolution, allowing an interpretation within an extended frame of climatology and ice dynamics. The direct mass balance observations cover not only the period of alpine-wide strong glacier mass loss since the beginning of the 1990s. The data also contain the last period of glacier advances between 1970 and 1990. The combination of the observed surface mass exchange and the determined periodic volumetric changes allows a detailed analysis of the dynamic reaction of the glacier over the period of half a century. The accompanying meteorological observations are the basis for relating these reactions to the climatic changes during this period. Vernagtferner is therefore one of the few glaciers in the world, where a very detailed glacier-climate reaction was observed for many decades and can be realistically reconstructed back to the end of the Little Ice Age.

  17. Backwards and Forwards: 50 years of the Education Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    by representatives from a number of equally prestigious universities. In one, the large physics lecture rooms were taken over by philosophy students, as smaller physics groups traipsed across to distant biology rooms. It was this kind of situation, plus the reduction in the level of technician support, that made demonstrations harder to organize. In the lively discussion that followed Professor Brown's talk there was strong support for his proposal that universities - with the help of the IoP and the Royal Society, say - should set up a national `demonstration bank' that could be tapped to provide portable, well-tried, well-resourced and well-rehearsed demonstrations. Envy was expressed for the bank of experiments and demonstrations available at school level, especially as presented by the Advancing Physics CD-ROM. Universities could also learn from the course designs exemplified by Advancing Physics and the York Salters Horners projects: a set of self-contained, coherent topics with clear end-points and built-in mathematics, with key concepts well-illustrated by relevant experiments. The final session was given by Ken Dobson, who had the onerous but luckily uncheckable task of talking about Physics education: the next 50 years! (organizer's emphasis). In less than 15 minutes he expressed his complete incompetence at carrying out such a task, but in spite of that went on to compare the current state of progress (leading to an unfortunate state of dystopia) with what he thought should happen (leading to a much happier state of utopia). The key differences were the current over-centralization, mechanistic and top-down direction of education based on a system-centred command-psychology, as compared with an organic, self-directed, learner-centred education. He called the first dystopian model the Rucsac Model : everything you needed for life had to be packed by the time you left school, and should serve you all your days. By contrast, he called the utopian future a

  18. Role conflict and satisfaction in the work-family context: Age differences in the moderating effect of role commitment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hiu Ching; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene H

    2015-03-01

    This study examined age differences in the buffering effects of role commitment on the associations between role conflicts and satisfaction from the within-domain and cross-domain perspectives. Eighty-five working mothers participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that work conflicts were negatively associated with job satisfaction of younger employees but not older employees. Commitment to both work and family buffered against the negative association between family conflicts and family satisfaction for older employees but not younger employees. These findings highlight the importance of role commitment for working mothers across adulthood to cope with the demands in the work-family interface. PMID:26263527

  19. Geochemical Diversity of the Mantle: 50 Years of Acronyms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    50 years ago, Gast, Tilton and Hedge demonstrated that the oceanic mantle is isotopically heterogeneous. 28 years ago, Zindler and Hart formalized the concept of geochemical mantle components, with an attendant, to some, odious, acronym soup. Work on a marriage of mantle geochemistry and dynamics continues unabated. We know unequivocally that the mantle is chemically heterogeneous; we do not know the scale lengths of these heterogeneities. We know unequivocally that these heterogeneities have persisted for eons (Gy); we do not know where they were formed or where they are stored. Through the kind auspices of the Plume Model, we plausibly have access to the whole mantle. The most accessible and well understood mantle reservoir is the upper depleted MORB mantle (DMM). Classically, this mantle was depleted by extraction of oceanic and continental crust from a "chondritic" bulk silicate Earth. In this post-Boyet and Carlson world, the complementary enriched reservoir may instead be hidden in the deepest mantle. In this case, DMM will become an endangered acronym. Hofmann and White (1982) argued that radiogenic Pb mantle (HIMU) is re-cycled ocean crust, and this is a comfortably viable model. It does require some ad hoc chemical manipulations during subduction. Given 2 Gy of aggregate mantle strains, the mafic component in HIMU may be of small length scale (< 50 m), possibly subsumed into the dominant peridotitic lithology. This mantle species is globally widespread. Enriched mantles (EM1 and EM2) almost certainly reflect recycling of enriched continental material. This was splendidly verified by Jackson et al (2007), with 87Sr/86Sr in Samoan EM2 lavas up to 0.721. The lithology and length scale of EM1 and EM2 is unconstrained. EM1 is globally present; EM2 is confined to the SW Pacific hotspots. FOZO is a work in progress; many would like to see it become extinct! The trace element signatures of HIMU and FOZO mantles have been constrained using melting models; in both

  20. The distributions of Chinese yak breeds in response to climate change over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    The effects of prior climate change on yak breed distributions are uncertain. Here, we measured changes in the distributions of 12 yak breeds over the past 50 years in China and examined whether the changes could be attributed to climate change. Long-term records of yak breed distribution, grey relational analysis, fuzzy sets classification techniques and attribution methods were used. Over the past 50 years, the distributions of several yak breeds have changed in multiple directions, mainly shifting northward or westward, and most of these changes are related to the thermal index. Driven by climate change over the past years, the suitable range and the distribution centers of certain yak breeds have changed with fluctuation and have mainly shifted northward, eastward or southward. The consistency of observed versus predicted changes in distribution boundaries or distribution centers is higher for certain yak breeds. Changes in the eastern distribution boundary of two yak breeds over the past 50 years can be attributed to climate change. PMID:26470629

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of...

  6. Fuzzy Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juels, Ari

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce fuzzy commitment, one of the earliest and simplest constructions geared toward cryptography over noisy data. The chapter also explores applications of fuzzy commitment to two problems in data security: (1) secure management of biometrics, with a focus on iriscodes, and (2) use of knowledge-based authentication (i.e., personal questions) for password recovery.

  7. Effects of Core Self-Evaluations on the Job Burnout of Nurses: The Mediator of Organizational Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangen; Lu, Jiamei; Liu, Xianmin; Zhang, Pengcheng; Chen, Wuying

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of Core self-evaluations on job burnout of nurses, and especially to test and verify the mediator role of organizational commitment between the two variables. Method Random cluster sampling was used to pick up participants sample, which consisted of 445 nurses of a hospital in Shanghai. Core self-evaluations questionnaire, job burnout scale and organizational commitment scale were administrated to the study participants. Results There are significant relationships between Core self-evaluations and dimensions of job burnout and organizational commitment. There is a significant mediation effect of organizational commitment between Core self-evaluations and job burnout. Conclusions To enhance nurses’ Core self-evaluations can reduce the incidence of job burnout. PMID:24755670

  8. Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes and Organizational Commitment: The Effects of Perceived Supervisor Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmak-Otluoglu, K. Ovgu

    2012-01-01

    Despite the traditional sentiment that protean and boundaryless career attitudes indicate a decline in organizational commitment, little empirical evidence is available. The present study examined the relation of protean and boundaryless career attitudes to organizational commitment and whether the perceived supervisor support moderated these…

  9. The Effects of Cognitive Style and Media Richness on Commitment to Telework and Virtual Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael; Kahnweiler, William; Bommer, William

    2003-01-01

    Sternberg's Thinking Style Inventory and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire were completed by 261 of 552 teleworkers in virtual teams. Cognitive styles and types of media (rich/lean) were associated with commitment to telework and to the team. Results have implications for staff development and the design of telework. (Contains 74…

  10. Organizational Commitment of Principals: The Effects of Job Autonomy, Empowerment, and Distributive Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dude, David Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Organizational commitment has been a topic of extensive interest in the organizational behavior literature since the 1950's. It has been associated with workforce stability, decreased absenteeism, organizational citizenship behaviors, and decreased turnover. This study focuses on the relationships between organizational commitment and…

  11. Human Resource Management and a Culture of Respect: Effects on Employees' Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koys, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-eight employees were asked about management motivation for 37 activities and the degree to which they are committed to their organizations. Subjects' organizational commitment is positively related to the perception that these activities are motivated by a desire to (1) show respect for the individual and (2) attract/retain employees.…

  12. Effects That Previous Employment Experiences Had on Organizational Commitment of an Hourly Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartocci, Charles August

    2012-01-01

    A committed workforce is critical to the success of any organization. While there was a great deal of debate on how to best describe commitment, one model that attracted a significant following is the Three Component Model (TCM) developed by Meyer and Allen (1988). While it may be argued that the model is a mixed model combining attitudinal and…

  13. Managing by commitments.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N

    2003-06-01

    What makes a great manager great? Despite differences in their personal attributes, successful managers all excel in the making, honoring, and remaking of commitments. Managerial commitments take many forms, from capital investments to personnel decisions to public statements, but each exerts both immediate and enduring influence on a company. A leader's commitments shape a business's identity, define its strengths and weaknesses, establish its opportunities and limitations, and set its direction. Executives can all too easily forget that commitments are extraordinarily powerful. Caught up in the present, managers often take actions that, while beneficial in the near term, impose lasting constraints on their operations and organizations. When market or competitive conditions change, they can find themselves unable to respond effectively. Managers who understand the nature and power of their commitments can wield them more effectively throughout a company's life cycle. Entrepreneurs can avoid taking actions that imprint a new venture with a dysfunctional character. Managers in established enterprises can buttress past commitments that retain their currency and learn to recognize when commitments have become roadblocks to needed changes. The manager can then replace those roadblocks with new, rejuvenating commitments. That doesn't mean you should try to anticipate all the long-run consequences of every commitment--and it certainly doesn't mean you should shy away from making commitments. But it does mean that before making important decisions about, say, operating processes or partnerships, you should always ask yourself: Is this a process or relationship that we can live with in the future? Am I locking us into a course that we'll come to regret? PMID:12800719

  14. The Effects of Values, Work Centrality, and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence from Turkish SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucanok, Basak; Karabati, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are voluntary contributions of employees not explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and are ultimately critical for sustaining organizational effectiveness (Organ, 1988). The current study aims to investigate the effects of values, work centrality, and organizational commitment on…

  15. Simple Cognitive and Behavioural Changes Resulting from Improved Physical Fitness in Persons over 50 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of exercise on simple cognitive performance and on psychological well-being in persons over 50 years of age. It also assesses the relationship between a set of subject variables and dropout from fitness programs. Results suggest that the beneficial effects of exercise may extend to cognitive and personality processes.…

  16. 50 years of immunization in India: progress and future.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, V M; Kumar, P

    2013-01-01

    Immunization is one of the most cost effective public health interventions and largely responsible for reduction of under5 mortality rate. However, vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) are still responsible for over 5 lakh deaths annually in India. This underlines the need of further improvement. Today, India is a leading producer and exporter of vaccines, still the country is home to one-third of the worlds unimmunized children. There are a number of reasons why India lags behind its many less developed neighbors in vaccination rates. They include huge population with relatively high growth rate, geographical diversity and some hard to reach populations, lack of awareness regarding vaccination, inadequate delivery of health services, inadequate supervision and monitoring, lack of micro-planning and general lack of inter-sectoral coordination, and weak VPD surveillance system. In this article, we discuss some of the remedial measures to remove obstacles and improve immunization status of the country. Heightened political and bureaucratic will, increasing demand for vaccination by using effective Information, education and communication (IEC), creating more delivery points for routine immunization, proper monitoring of the program, and changing overall objective of the program from merely targeting coverage to more meaningful monitoring of the VPD reduction and demand creation referred as the output of entire vaccination program. Successful AFP surveillance network should serve as platform for an efficient integrated disease surveillance system. AEFI and postmarketing surveillance systems should be urgently upgraded, and there is need of strengthening the regulatory capacity of the country. Restructuring of EPI with induction of some new vaccines, clear-cut guidelines on the policy of introduction of newer vaccines, and establishing a separate, independent department of public health are few other areas that need urgent attention. PMID:23396784

  17. Relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment: Mediating effect of psychological empowerment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, Muhammad; Ayyub, Samia; Bashir, Muhammad Khawar

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment of employees with mediating role of psychological empowerment in the textile sector Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected using tools from 250 employees. The transformational leadership questionnaire, MLQ-Multifactor leadership Questionnaire [1] was used to verify the perception of the employees towards transformational leadership style in two dimensions i.e. idealized influence and inspirational motivation. The organizational commitment questionnaire designed by [2] was used to verify the affective organizational commitment. Further, psychological empowerment questionnaire was developed by [3] which was used to examine the state of psychological empowerment of textile sector employees. Pearson Correlation revealed that there exists a positive significant relationship between idealized influence and affective organizational commitment, Inspirational motivation and affective organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. The results from the study put forward that there is a significant relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The mediating variable which one is suitable in the model i.e. psychological empowerment and the model is good fit as the F value is significant.

  18. 50 years of ion channeling in materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantomme, André

    2016-03-01

    In the early days of ion beam analysis, i.e. the early 60s, channeling was discovered and brought to maturity via a combined effort in experimental, computational and theoretical research. It was soon realized that the probability for nuclear interaction (such as nuclear scattering, nuclear reactions, ionization followed by X-ray emission…) would significantly decrease when steering the ion beam along a crystallographic direction of a single crystal. Hence, this effect would be optimally suited to investigate a wide range of materials properties related to their crystal structure, such as defects, elastic strain, the lattice site of impurities, as well as phonon-related properties. In this paper, I will briefly review some of the pioneering work, which led to the discovery and theoretical understanding of ion channeling. Subsequently, a number of applications will be discussed where the strength of the ion beam analysis technique allows deducing information which is often hardly (or not) attainable by other techniques. Throughout the paper, I will reflect on the future of channeling in materials research, and pay special attention to potential pitfalls, challenges and opportunities.

  19. Perceived Effects of Scholarships on STEM Majors' Commitment to Teaching in High Need Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kirchhoff, Allison; Lawrenz, Frances

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the Noyce Program, which provides scholarships for STEM majors in return for teaching in high need schools. The perceptions of 555 scholarship recipients were investigated using hierarchical cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and Rasch analysis to determine how the scholarship influenced their commitments to teaching in high need schools. The analyses indicated that recipients perceived the scholarship in two ways: it influenced their commitment to complete their certification program and to teach in high need schools. Implications for teacher education programs include that recruitment strategies should identify candidates who are committed to teaching in high need schools and programs should provide experiences to encourage this commitment not just to become certified.

  20. Effects of Perceived Discrimination on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Grievances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensher, Ellen A.; Grant-Vallone, Elisa J.; Donaldson, Stewart I.

    2001-01-01

    In a study of 366 ethnically diverse employees, perceived discrimination from supervisors, coworkers, or the organization affected organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and citizenship behavior. Perceived discrimination was not related to the number of grievances filed. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)

  1. Localized committed differentiation of neural stem cells based on the topographical regulation effects of TiO2 nanostructured ceramics.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiaoning; Wang, Shu; Guo, Weibo; Ji, Shaozheng; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Deshuai; Zhang, Xiaodi; Zhou, Jin; Tang, Wei; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Hong

    2016-07-21

    In this study, a porous-flat TiO2 micropattern was fabricated with flat and nanoporous TiO2 ceramics for investigating the effect of topography on neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. This finding demonstrates that localized committed differentiation could be achieved in one system by integrating materials with different topographies. PMID:27346410

  2. Combined Effects of the Three Commitment Components on Focal and Discretionary Behaviors: A Test of Meyer and Herscovitch's Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellatly, Ian R.; Meyer, John P.; Luchak, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test theoretical propositions advanced by Meyer and Herscovitch (2001) concerning the interactive effects of affective, normative, and continuance commitment on focal (staying intentions) and discretionary (citizenship) behavior. Study measures were gathered from a sample of 545 hospital employees. Several a priori…

  3. Escalation of Commitment to an Ineffective Course of Action: The Effect of Feedback Having Negative Implications for Self-Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockner, Joel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines entrapment, the process by which organizational decision makers escalate commitment to an ineffective course of action to justify allocation of previous resources. Two laboratory experiments exploring individuals' perceptions of entrapment and its effect on their self identity are described. Also discusses practical theoretical…

  4. Variations in the Conditions for Teachers' Professional Learning and Development: Sustaining Commitment and Effectiveness over a Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher; Gu, Qing

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws upon data from a longitudinal, multi-site, mixed methods project which found that commitment and resilience are fundamental to teachers' effectiveness, and that variations in professional, personal and workplace conditions in different professional life phases affect these. It found also that teachers do not necessarily learn…

  5. An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Family Commitment in Education on Student Achievement in Seventh Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Wildman, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Examination of data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) to find effects of family commitment in education on student achievement in seventh-grade science found that around 22% of the variance in student science achievement could be explained by the selected significant LSAY variables. (Author/MKR)

  6. Mentoring and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Estimating the Mediating Effects of Organization-Based Self-Esteem and Affective Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Rajashi; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Haynes, Ray K.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how perceptions of reciprocal support in mentoring influence mentors' and proteges' intent to extend work-related help to coworkers in organizations. Our findings shed light on the role that organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) and affective organizational commitment (AOC) play as mediators in transmitting the effect of…

  7. Exploring the Effects of Social Networking on Students' Perceptions of Social Connectedness, Adjustment, Academic Engagement, and Institutional Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.; Trujillo, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a tool being explored by many institutions as a means of connecting to and communicating with students. This study explores whether or not students' use of social networking services (SNSs) has significant effects on social connectedness, college adjustment, academic engagement, and institutional commitment. Students' use of…

  8. Can Civility Norms Boost Positive Effects of Management Commitment to Safety?

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Childress, Niambi M; Walsh, Benjamin M; Bauerle, Timothy J

    2016-07-01

    We proposed that civility norms would strengthen relationships between management commitment to safety and workers' safety motivation, safety behaviors, and injuries. Survey data were obtained from working adults in hazardous jobs-those for which physical labor is required and/or a realistic possibility of physical injury is present (N = 290). Results showed that management commitment positively related to workers' safety motivation, safety participation, and safety compliance, and negatively related to minor injuries. Furthermore, management commitment to safety displayed a stronger positive relationship with safety motivation and safety participation, and a stronger negative relationship with minor worker injuries when civility norms were high (versus low). The results confirm existing known relationships between management commitment to safety and worker safety motivation and behavior; furthermore, civility norms facilitate the relationships between management commitment to safety and various outcomes important to worker safety. In order to promote an optimally safe working environment, managers should demonstrate a commitment to worker safety and promote positive norms for interpersonal treatment between workers in their units. PMID:26914702

  9. Effects of internal marketing on nurse job satisfaction and organizational commitment: example of medical centers in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chang, Hsin-Hsin

    2007-12-01

    As nurses typically represent the largest percentage of employees at medical centers, their role in medical care is exceptionally important and becoming more so over time. The quality and functions of nurses impact greatly on medical care quality. The concept of internal marketing, with origins in the field of market research, argues that enterprises should value and respect their employees by treating them as internal customers. Such a marketing concept challenges traditional marketing methods, which focus on serving external customers only. The main objective of internal marketing is to help internal customers (employees) gain greater job satisfaction, which should promote job performance and facilitate the organization accomplishing its ultimate business objectives. A question in the medical service industry is whether internal marketing can similarly increase the job satisfaction of nurses and enhance their commitment to the organization. This study aimed to explore the relational model of nurse perceptions related to internal marketing, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment by choosing nurses from two medical centers in Southern Taiwan as research subjects. Of 450 questionnaire distributed, 300 valid questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 66.7%. After conducting statistical analysis and estimation using structural equation modeling, findings included: (1) job satisfaction has positive effects on organizational commitment; (2) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on job satisfaction; and (3) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on organizational commitment. PMID:18080971

  10. The Swedish monitoring of surface waters: 50 years of adaptive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Jens; Johnson, Richard K; Futter, Martyn N; Wilander, Anders

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, scientific insights from surface water monitoring have supported Swedish evidence-based environmental management. Efforts to understand and control eutrophication in the 1960s led to construction of wastewater treatment plants with phosphorus retention, while acid rain research in the 1970s contributed to international legislation curbing emissions. By the 1990s, long-time series were being used to infer climate effects on surface water chemistry and biology. Monitoring data play a key role in implementing the EU Water Framework Directive and other legislation and have been used to show beneficial effects of agricultural management on Baltic Sea eutrophication. The Swedish experience demonstrates that well-designed and financially supported surface water monitoring can be used to understand and manage a range of stressors and societal concerns. Using scientifically sound adaptive monitoring principles to balance continuity and change has ensured long-time series and the capability to address new questions over time. PMID:25403966

  11. [Estimation of the committed effective dose of radioactive cesium and potassium by the market basket method].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Ikarashi, Atsuko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster after the Great East Japan Earthquake has caused radioactive contamination in food. Using the market basket method, total diet samples in Tokyo, Miyagi prefecture and Fukushima prefecture were analyzed for cesium-134 and -137 (radioactive cesium) and naturally occurring potassium-40 (radioactive potassium) in order to estimate the committed effective doses of these radioactive materials from food. Doses were calculated on the assumption that "not detected" corresponded to zero or to half the limit of detection (values in brackets). The estimated doses of radioactive cesium in Tokyo, Miyagi and Fukushima were 0.0021 (0.0024), 0.017 (0.018) and 0.019 (0.019) mSv/year, respectively. Although the doses in Miyagi and Fukushima were more than 8 times the dose in Tokyo, they were significantly lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) determined by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. The estimated doses of naturally occurring radioactive potassium in these areas were in the range of 0.17-0.20 (0.18-0.20) mSv/year, and there were no significant differences between the areas. PMID:23470869

  12. Effective variations of peer instruction: The effects of peer discussions, committing to an answer, and reaching a consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Charles, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Peer Instruction (PI) is a widely used student-centered pedagogy, but one that is used differently by different instructors. While all PI instructors survey their students with conceptual questions, some do not allow students to discuss with peers. We studied the effect of peer discussion by polling three groups of students (N = 86) twice on the same set of nine conceptual questions. The three groups differed in the tasks assigned between the first and second poll: the first group discussed, the second reflected in silence, and the third was distracted so they could neither reflect nor discuss. Comparing score changes between the first and second poll, we find minimal increases in the distraction condition (3%), sizable increases in the reflection condition (10%), and significantly larger increases in the peer discussion condition (21%). We also examined the effect of committing to an answer before peer discussion and reaching a consensus afterward. We compared a lecture-based control section to three variations of PI that differed in their requirement to commit to an answer or reach consensus (N = 108). We find that all PI groups achieve greater conceptual learning and traditional problem solving than lecture-based instruction. We find one difference between these groups: the absence of consensus building is related to a significant decrease in expert views and beliefs. Our findings can therefore be used to make two recommendations: always use peer discussions and consider asking students to reach a consensus before re-polling.

  13. Social Network Analysis of 50 Years of International Collaboration in the Research of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shesen; Zhang, Ganzhou; Guo, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    The definition of the field of educational technology has evolved over 50 years. New inventions and economic globalization increasingly facilitate people's communication for exchange of ideas and collaboration. This work attempts to describe international research collaboration in educational technology for the past 50 years. This article intends…

  14. Report of the Minnesota Department of Education Survey of School Buildings: 50 Years and Older.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    Findings of a study that determined the physical conditions of Minnesota's public school buildings 50 years and older are presented in this report. Data were obtained from a survey that was distributed to 367 school districts that have 614 buildings 50 years and older. Responses were received from 398 buildings in 242 school districts. Findings…

  15. The psychological impact of a catastrophic earthquake: a retrospective study 50 years after the event.

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, Helen; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas; Galanos, Gerassimos; Psarros, Constantinos; Dikeos, Dimitris; Soldatos, Constantin

    2008-04-01

    Aim of the present study was to retrospectively assess the impact of a catastrophic earthquake in a sample of 121 survivors, 50 years after the event. Mean age +/- SD of the responders was 72.2 +/- 6.1 years. The majority of the victims (78%) acknowledged a strong overall impact of the earthquake on their lives, and almost all of them had intense recollection of the event at its anniversary. The most frequent symptom during the 6 months after the earthquake was persistent remembering or "reliving" of the event; women had considerably more often recurrent dreams of the earthquake and distress than did men. Women and young adults at the time of the earthquake appear to be the most vulnerable groups regarding the psychological effects of the event. PMID:18414131

  16. Long-Term Effects of Brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Patricia; Hayes, Steven C.; Gallop, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A previous report explored the impact of a brief (four session) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) intervention as compared with treatment as usual (TAU) on rehospitalization over 4 months in a sample of 80 inpatients with psychosis. The present study extended the follow-up period to 1 year and used a more sophisticated survival analysis to…

  17. Perceived Effects of Scholarships on STEM Majors' Commitment to Teaching in High Need Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kirchhoff, Allison; Lawrenz, Frances

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the Noyce Program, which provides scholarships for STEM majors in return for teaching in high need schools. The perceptions of 555 scholarship recipients were investigated using hierarchical cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and Rasch analysis to determine how the scholarship influenced their commitments to…

  18. Work-Family Climate, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover: Multilevel Contagion Effects of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work-family climate (operationalized in terms of three work-family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using…

  19. A National Study of Community College Chief Academic Officers' Perceived Commitment to Instructional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Albert B.; Hawthorne, Elizabeth M.

    In spring 1991, a survey was conducted of chief academic officers (CAO's) at two-year colleges to identify the instructional improvement categories and strategies that received the highest levels of support. The study replicated a 1987 survey of CAO's at four-year institutions and asked respondents to rate their commitment to practices in five…

  20. The Effects of Personality, Affectivity, and Work Commitment on Motivation to Improve Work through Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naquin, Sharon S.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2002-01-01

    Naquin and Holton report how the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule were used to measure motivation to improve work through learning of 239 trainees. Positive affect, work commitment, and extraversion were significant antecedents of motivation. Invited reaction by Rodney A. McCloy and Lauress L. Wise raises…

  1. Effects of Teacher Quality Work Life in Secondary Schools on Commitment and Sense of Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore

    1998-01-01

    Explores how teachers' quality of working life contributes to their commitment to work and sense of efficacy in eight schools. Presents a model that ties workplace characteristics to important behaviors, attitudes, and psychological characteristics affecting teaching. Classroom observation and survey data suggest that quality-of-work-life measures…

  2. Effects of Management Communication, Opportunity for Learning, and Work Schedule Flexibility on Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Butts, Marcus M.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    In the current career climate characterized by change and turbulence, employees may demonstrate limited organizational commitment to their employers. Rousseau (1998) suggests that two key ways to elicit loyalty from employees today are to reinforce perceptions of organizational membership and demonstrate organizational care and support for…

  3. Effect of Learning Organization Perception to the Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Private and Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balay, Refik

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of faculty members' learning organization perceptions to the organizational commitment through quantitative method. The study group consists of 172 faculty members working in two universities, which are private (Zirve University) and public (Harran University) ones. The research results show that faculty…

  4. The First Five Years of Teaching. Their Effect on Pupil Control Ideology and Commitment to Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, John T.

    This paper reports some findings of a longitudinal study of a group of teachers during their final year of teacher training in 1972 through their first five years of teaching. The two features focused upon as indices of socialization are pupil control ideology and commitment to teaching. The major characteristics that are analyzed are sex,…

  5. SOURCE AND EXTENT OF ECONOMIC COMMITMENTS TO PUBLIC VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN MINNESOTA AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE NATURE OF TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NELSON, CLIFFORD LEON

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO EXAMINE THE ECONOMIC COMMITMENT TO PUBLIC VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN MINNESOTA HIGH SCHOOLS PRIOR TO THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ACT OF 1963 AND THE EFFECTS OF THIS COMMITMENT IN TERMS OF PROGRAM OFFERINGS AND STUDENTS SERVED. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM 444 OF THE 453 MINNESOTA SCHOOL DISTRICTS. IN ADDITION, SENIORS ENROLLED…

  6. Localized committed differentiation of neural stem cells based on the topographical regulation effects of TiO2 nanostructured ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Xiaoning; Wang, Shu; Guo, Weibo; Ji, Shaozheng; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Deshuai; Zhang, Xiaodi; Zhou, Jin; Tang, Wei; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Hong

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a porous-flat TiO2 micropattern was fabricated with flat and nanoporous TiO2 ceramics for investigating the effect of topography on neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. This finding demonstrates that localized committed differentiation could be achieved in one system by integrating materials with different topographies.In this study, a porous-flat TiO2 micropattern was fabricated with flat and nanoporous TiO2 ceramics for investigating the effect of topography on neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. This finding demonstrates that localized committed differentiation could be achieved in one system by integrating materials with different topographies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01874b

  7. The Effectiveness of Training Acceptance / Commitment and Training Emotion Regulation on High-Risk Behaviors of Students with Dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    Narimani, Mohammad; Abbasi, Moslem; Abolghasemi, Abbas; Ahadi, Batoul

    2013-01-01

    Background Now a days the utilization of Acceptance / Commitment and Emotion Regulation Strategy as a comprehensive treatment plan has been discussed in both the prevention and the control of destructive and risky behaviors. Treatment based on Acceptance/Commitment and Emotion Regulation was effective in both the improvement and the control of high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment, and Emotional Regulation training in high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia. Materials and Methods This research was experimental, with pre-test, post-test and a control group. The statistical universe of this study included all sixth-grade male students in Ardabil city in the academic year of 2012-2013 (A.H.). The subjects of this study involved 800 sixth-grade elementary students in Ardabil province, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling. From among them, 60 students with dyscalculia were selected using random sampling method after the initial diagnosis by structured clinical interview and the Keymath Mathematic test. Twenty pupil were selected for either the experimental or the control group. To collect data, the questionnaires of "Keymath Mathematic test" and High-risk Behavior" were used. Results The results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that "Acceptance / Commitment and Emotion Regulation" treatment trainings were effective in reducing high-risk behaviors, in a manner that they led to a reduction in negative emotions, self-destructive and impulsive behaviors of students with math disorder (dyscalculia). Conclusions It can be concluded that teaching these skills to the students has been influential in enhancing awareness level and change or positive attitude creation in the subjects. Therefore, it is essential to design and implement interventions based on "prevention caused by the peer group, in collaboration with the parents

  8. Commentary on 50 years of research at the NBRL, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Valeri, C R; Giorgio, G R

    2016-02-01

    Research at the NBRL, Boston, MA over the past 50 years assessed the survival and function of RBC and platelets and the function of plasma clotting proteins. Liquid preserved RBC can be stored at 4 °C for only 2 weeks to maintain a 24-hour posttransfusion survival value of 75%, moderately impaired oxygen transport function after transfusion, exert a hemostatic effect, and increase the plasma volume. Liquid preserved platelets can be stored at room temperature with agitation for only 2 days to have acceptable in vivo survival 2 hours following transfusion, normal lifespan, and a hemostatic effect to reduce the bleeding time in thrombocytopenic patients. RBCs frozen with 40% W/V glycerol at -80 °C for at least 10 years, thawed, and deglycerolized in the Haemonetics ACP215 can be stored in Nutricel at 4 °C for 2 weeks with a 24-hour posttransfusion survival of 75%, moderately impaired oxygen transport function after transfusion, exert a hemostatic effect and increase the plasma volume. Leukoreduced single donor platelets treated with 6% DMSO, the supernatant DMSO removed prior to freezing at -80 °C for 2 years, thawed, and diluted with 0.9% NaCl or AB plasma have a bimodal population of platelets: one population has reduced in vivo survival, but increased hemostatic effect and the other has normal in vivo survival. AB plasma can be stored at -80 °C for at least 14 years, thawed, and stored at 4 °C for 24 hours with acceptable in vitro function of clotting proteins. The data reported by the NBRL, Boston, Mass. over the past 50 years and the 15-year experience by the Netherlands military now recommend that FDA, ARC, HHS and DOD should support the use of universal donor frozen group O Rh positive and group O Rh negative RBC, frozen group O platelets and frozen AB plasma from male donors. The frozen blood products will eliminate the severe adverse events of mortality and morbidity associated with the current FDA approved red blood cell products, platelet

  9. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Interpersonal Problemsand Psychological Flexibility in Female High School Students With Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Sayedeh Monireh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is a psychological disorder which has devastative and pernicious effects on interpersonal relationships and one's psychological flexibility. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on interpersonal problems and psychological flexibility in female high school students with social anxiety disorder. With a semi-experimental design, the subjects were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale and clinical interview. The statistical population of the research was high school female students studying in 5 areas of Isfahan. 30 individuals were purposively selected as the sample. The subjects of the research were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was given in 10 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group and the control group did not receive any treatment. Pre-test and post-test scores of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance & the results showed that after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the scores of the subjects in the experimental and control groups. This means that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can influence interpersonal problems and their six dimensions and psychological flexibility as well. PMID:26493425

  10. 50 years of the K-BKZ constitutive relation in polymer rheology and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsoulis, E.

    2014-05-01

    The K-BKZ constitutive model is now 50 years old. The article reviews the connections of the model and its variants with continuum mechanics, presenting an up-to-date recap of research and major findings in the open literature. An historical perspective is given on developments in the last 50 years of the K-BKZ model and its use in rheology and polymer processing.

  11. The interactive effect of job involvement and organizational commitment on job turnover revisited: a note on the mediating role of turnover intention.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, A; Sverke, M

    2000-09-01

    This study extends previous theoretical and empirical research on Blau and Boal's (1987) model of the interactive effect of job involvement and organizational commitment on employee withdrawal. Using longitudinal data from a survey among the nursing staff of a Swedish emergency hospital (N = 535) and register information on actual turnover, the results showed, in contrast to the statement of the original theoretical model, that turnover intention mediates the additive and multiplicative effects of job involvement and organizational commitment on actual turnover. The study suggests that the proposed involvement by commitment interaction is theoretically justified, and underscores the pertinence of investigating intermediate linkages in turnover research. PMID:11041307

  12. Morphological changes of Gumara River channel over 50 years, upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, Mengiste; Nyssen, Jan; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Moges, Michael M.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Enku, Temesgen; Adgo, Enyew

    2015-06-01

    In response to anthropogenic disturbances, alluvial rivers adjust their geometry. The alluvial river channels in the upper Blue Nile basin have been disturbed by human-induced factors since a longtime. This paper examines channel adjustment along a 38-km stretch of the Gumara River which drains towards Lake Tana and then to the Blue Nile. Over a 50 years period, agriculture developed rapidly in the catchment and flooding of the alluvial plain has become more frequent in recent times. The objectives of this study were to document the changes in channel planform and cross-section of the Gumara River and to investigate whether the changes could have contributed to the frequent flooding or vice versa. Two sets of aerial photographs (1957 and 1980) were scanned, and then orthorectified. Recent channel planform information was extracted from SPOT images of 2006 and Google Earth. Channel planform and bed morphology (vertical changes) were determined for these nearly 50 years period. The vertical changes were determined based on aggradation along a permanent structure, historic information on river cross-sections at a hydrological gauging station, and field observations. The results indicate that the lower reach of Gumara near its mouth has undergone major planform changes. A delta with approx. 1.12 km2 of emerged land was created between 1957 and 1980 and an additional 1 km2 of land has been added between 1980 and 2006. The sinuosity of the river changed only slightly: negatively (-1.1% i.e. meandering decreased) for the period from 1957 to 1980 and positively (+3.0%) for the period 1980-2006. Comparison of cross-sections at the hydrological gauging station showed that the deepest point in the river bed aggraded by 2.91 m for the period 1963-2009. The importance of sediment deposition in the stream and on its banks is related to land degradation in the upper catchment, and to artificial rising of Lake Tana level that creates a backwater effect and sediment deposition in

  13. Substantial glacier mass loss in the Tien Shan over the past 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Longuevergne, Laurent; Moholdt, Geir; Duethmann, Doris; Mölg, Thomas; Bolch, Tobias; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Güntner, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Populations in Central Asia are heavily dependent on snow and glacier melt for their water supplies. Changes to the glaciers in the main mountain range in this region, the Tien Shan, have been reported over the past decade. However, reconstructions over longer, multi-decadal timescales and the mechanisms underlying these variations--both required for reliable future projections--are not well constrained. Here we use three ensembles of independent approaches based on satellite gravimetry, laser altimetry, and glaciological modelling to estimate the total glacier mass change in the Tien Shan. Results from the three approaches agree well, and allow us to reconstruct a consistent time series of annual mass changes for the past 50 years at the resolution of individual glaciers. We detect marked spatial and temporal variability in mass changes. We estimate the overall decrease in total glacier area and mass from 1961 to 2012 to be 18 +/- 6% and 27 +/- 15%, respectively. These values correspond to a total area loss of 2,960 +/- 1,030 km2, and an average glacier mass-change rate of -5.4 +/- 2.8 Gt yr-1. We suggest that the decline is driven primarily by summer melt and, possibly, linked to the combined effects of general climatic warming and circulation variability over the north Atlantic and north Pacific.

  14. Influence of climatic conditions on production of Stipa-Bouteloua prairie over a 50-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Smoliak, S.

    1986-03-01

    Range forage yields obtained over a 50-year period at the Research Substation near Manyberries in southeastern Alberta were analyzed in relation to several climatic factors. The basic variables were precipitation, pan evaporation, temperature, hours of sunlight, and wind velocity. The precipitation from April through July was highly correlated with range forage production and this relationship could be utilized to predict the annual forage production by 1 August each year. A slightly better correlation was obtained when range forage production was related to the total of the previous September plus the current April through July precipitation. Pan evaporation totals, mean temperature, and hours of sunlight were negatively correlated with forage production, while wind velocity during the growing season showed a low relationship to forage production. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of May and June mean temperatures with June and July precipitation accounted for 63% of the variation in range forage production. The predicted forage yield would be useful in making management decisions or adjustments, especially during drought periods, while the long-term forage yield data can be utilized in range forage models or in validating their effectiveness.

  15. Air pollution in the last 50 years - From local to global

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Air pollution in the industrialised world has in the last 50 years undergone drastic changes. Until after World War II the most important urban compound was sulphur dioxide combined with soot from the use of fossil fuels in heat and power production. When that problem was partly solved by cleaner fuels, higher stacks and flue gas cleaning in urban areas, the growing traffic gave rise to nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds and in some areas photochemical air pollution, which may be abated by catalytic converters. Lately the interest has centred on small particles and more exotic organic compounds that can be detected with new sophisticated analytical techniques. Simultaneously with the development in compounds, the time and geographical scale of interest have increased. First to transboundary air pollution, which in decades and on continents can degrade ecosystems, later to the depletion of the ozone layer and especially to the increasing greenhouse effect with climate change that will change the conditions for nature and mankind on the entire globe. The possibilities to study these large scale phenomena have been greatly enhanced by the development of electronic computers that can handle large data sets and calculate various scenarios. All these processes take place in the thin layer of gases around the Earth, the atmosphere. Although the abatement is often restricted to a single aspect, they are often connected and should when possible be treated as whole.

  16. Memory for committing a crime: effects of arousal, proximity, and gender.

    PubMed

    Price, Heather L; Lee, Zina; Read, J Don

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the memories of active participants in an emotionally arousing crime. The present study used a mock crime paradigm to explore participant memories for a low, moderate, or highly arousing event. Forty-seven undergraduate participants committed a "theft" of an exam from a professor's office. Two weeks after the theft, participants completed a cognitive interview, recalled objects from the professor's office, and constructed a map of the route to and from the crime room. Arousal improved reports on a map recall task but no other recall indices. Although there was a general superiority of recall of proximal over distal details, arousal only infrequently interacted with proximity. Some support was found for proximity (spatial-temporal distinction) as a useful proxy for centrality. Future work will benefit from an examination of the overlap between definitions of centrality and proximity with more traditional stimuli. PMID:19353933

  17. The effects of religious commitment on the attitudes and behavior of teens regarding premarital childbirth.

    PubMed

    Jeynes, William H

    2003-01-01

    Using the NELS data set from the 1988-1992 period, this study used a longitudinal data set to address whether very religious teens maintained different attitudes and behaviors regarding premarital childbirth than their less religious counterparts. The results of this study support the notion that a high level of religious commitment among adolescents makes it less likely that teens will have permissive attitudes about premarital childbirth and also makes it less likely that they will become never married single parents during their high school years. The variables for "religiosity" were taken from the NELS surveys for 1988 and 1990. The variables measuring attitudes and behaviors regarding premarital childbirth were obtained from the 1992 data set. This procedure helped address any issues regarding the direction of causality. The significance of these results is discussed. PMID:14620733

  18. Effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling styles on situational self-determined motivation: some unexpected results of the commitment procedure.

    PubMed

    Amoura, Camille; Berjot, Sophie; Gillet, Nicolas; Caruana, Sylvain; Finez, Lucie

    2015-02-01

    Distinct and simultaneous effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling styles, usually considered as mutually exclusive, on situational self-determined motivation are tested. In Study 1, economics students (N = 100; 57 men, 43 women; M age = 21.5 yr.) were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions (high vs. low) of autonomy supportive and/or controlling behaviors during a task. Results supported the independence of those constructs. An unexpected effect in regards to Self-determination Theory was found in the Low autonomy - High control condition in which self-determined motivation was observed. The interpretation for this specific condition, an effect due to the attempt to reduce cognitive dissonance triggered by the commitment procedure, was tested. In Study 2, sport students (N = 80, 44 men, 36 women; M age = 19.2 yr.) were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions: No commitment, Commitment plus self-affirmation, and Commitment without self-affirmation. Results supported Study 1's interpretation: motivation was lower when participants were recruited without a commitment procedure or when they were invited to self-affirm than when participants recruited with a commitment procedure. PMID:25539167

  19. Celebrating 50 Years of Reflective Practice: Versions of Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaksen, Scott G.; Treffinger, Donald J.

    2004-01-01

    The original work of Alex Osborn making the creative process more explicit, and the following 50 years of research and development on creative problem solving, have made an important and wide-spread contribution to those interested in the deliberate development of creative talent. This article provided a summary of the many versions of creative…

  20. The "Global" Formulation of Thermodynamics and the First Law: 50 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, Henry Bent published his groundbreaking article in this "Journal" introducing the "global" formulation of thermodynamics. In the following years, the global formulation was elaborated by Bent and by one of the present authors. The global formulation of the first law focuses on conservation of energy and the recognition that…

  1. The School Health Education Study + 50 Years: Scholars' Reflections on Its Impact and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Robert J.; Mayer, Alyssa B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Launched 50 years ago, the School Health Education Study (SHES) examined the health education offerings in 135 public school systems, in 38 states, and over 1100 elementary schools and 350 secondary schools. In its second year, knowledge surveys were administered to students in grades 6, 9 and 12 at many of these schools. Analysis of…

  2. 1958-2008: 50 Years of Youth Fitness Tests in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Zhu, Weimo; Franks, B. Don; Meredith, Marilu D.; Spain, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The AAHPER Youth Fitness Test, the first U.S. national fitness test, was published 50 years ago. The seminal work of Krause and Hirschland influenced the fitness world and continues to do so today. Important youth fitness test initiatives in the last half century are summarized. Key elements leading to continued interest in youth fitness testing…

  3. Keeping on Keeping on: OCR and Complaints of Racial Discrimination 50 Years after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2005-01-01

    This article, written by a former civil rights investigator in the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), contends that ordinary Americans advocating for equal educational opportunity for students of color might enlist OCR more actively and knowingly to help secure racial equality of opportunity 50 years after "Brown." Now a…

  4. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  5. Male and Female Photographic Representation in 50 Years of "Music Educators Journal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Adam J.; Giebelhausen, Robin; Shouldice, Heather N.; Ramsey, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the potential for stereotypes to shape professional expectations, the four researchers in this study investigated photographic representation of adult men and women in implied positions of authority in 50 years (1962-2011) of issues of "Music Educators Journal" ("MEJ"). Data included every photograph (N = 7,288) of…

  6. The Charles F. Prentice Award Lecture 2014: A 50-Year Research Journey: Giants and Great Collaborators.

    PubMed

    Holden, Brien A

    2015-07-01

    This article, an edited version of the 2014 Charles F. Prentice Medal presentation, recounts my 50-year journey in research, from graduation in 1965 to PhD to 2015. The most important lessons I have learned are that great people, "Giants" as I call them, are generous of spirit, creative, insightful, sharing, and caring, and second, that collaboration is really the only way to do what I want to get done. I have been very fortunate to have worked with many outstanding people. As someone said to me at the Prentice Medal presentation, "I don't like you very much but the people you work with are wonderful."My journey started with a PhD investigation into seeing if orthokeratology could control myopia at the City University London in 1966. It then moved to Australia where all aspects of contact lenses were researched to try to make contact lenses safer and more effective by understanding the cornea and anterior eye systems. That journey has now turned to making contact lenses the best they can be to slow the progress of myopia. An extremely high proportion of people who are involved with global eye care initiatives and ambitious projects to develop treatments and interventions for the major vision problems impacting the world are a joy to work with. Evidence-based systems for delivering vision to the more than 600 million people globally that are blind or vision impaired because of uncorrected refractive error have involved amazing people and collaborations. This article pays tribute to the generosity and humanity of my family and the Giants in and outside the field, and many more not so well known, and the people I work with, who have punctuated and greatly enriched this journey and made many of the scientific advances documented here possible. PMID:26002010

  7. Socio-emotional support in French hospitals: Effects on French nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Ruiller, Caroline; Van Der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2016-02-01

    In spite of the differences in human resource management (HRM) practices between the non-profit health care sector and business life, the majority of health care sector research appears to be based on the HRM (for human resources management) blueprint for business life staff policy and practice. This study is aimed to better understand the impact of workplace social support in the context of French hospitals. Concrete, the first objective of this article comprises a thorough conceptualization and operationalization of workplace social support (i.e. both professional and personal social support). Data were collected in a French hospital among a sample of 62 respondents (for the qualitative part of our study), and among a sample of 171 health care professionals (nurses and nurse aids) (for the quantitative part of our study). Our outcomes indicate that, especially, personal support given by one's supervisor is strongly and positively related to nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment. After a discussion about the outcomes, followed by some recommendations for future research, the article concludes with some practical implications for management in hospitals. PMID:26856519

  8. Effects of Homophobic versus Nonhomophobic Victimization on School Commitment and the Moderating Effect of Teacher Attitudes in Brazilian Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mandi M.; Santo, Jonathan B.; Da Cunha, Josafa; Weber, Lidia; Russell, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated homophobic victimization, teacher support, and school commitment in Brazilian schools. Participants were 339 students, ages 11 to 18 years old, in two public schools in Brazil. Data were obtained using the Brazil Preventing School Harassment Survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that both homophobic and…

  9. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  10. Optical Sciences Center/College of Optical Sciences: 50 years of excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyant, James C.

    2014-09-01

    Aden B. Meinel established the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center, now known as the College of Optical Sciences, in 1964 to fulfill a national need for more highly trained engineers and physicists in the optical sciences. Throughout its 50-year history, OSC has grown and evolved in response to industrial demand. It now includes a worldclass faculty and an international student body, and its academic programs offer more than 100 graduate and undergraduate courses, an ABET-accredited undergraduate optical sciences and engineering degree program, and outstanding M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs with extensive distance learning options. Its graduates are in great demand and are employed by national and international governments, businesses and universities. This paper will describe the formation of OSC and its 50 years of excellence.

  11. The use of Zostavax in Spain: the economic case for vaccination of individuals aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Belmonte, Juan Luis; Cisterna, Ramón; Gil de Miguel, Angel; Guilmet, Caroline; Bianic, Florence; Uhart, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    Background Population aging brings up a number of health issues, one of which is an increased incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) and its complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Zostavax vaccine has recently become available to prevent HZ and PHN. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of vaccination against HZ in Spain considering a vaccination of the population aged 50 years and older and comparing this to the current situation where no vaccination is being administered. Methods An existing, validated, and published economic model was adapted to Spain using relevant local input parameters and costs from 2013. Results Vaccinating 30% of the Spanish population aged 50 years and older resulted in €16,577/QALY gained, €2025/HZ case avoided, and €5594/PHN case avoided under the third-party payer perspective. From a societal perspective, the ICERs increased by 6%, due to the higher price of the vaccine. The number needed to vaccinate to prevent one case was 20 for HZ, and 63 for PHN3. Sensitivity analyses showed that the model was most sensitive to the HZ and PHN epidemiological data, the health state utilities values, and vaccine price used. Conclusion Considering an acceptable range of cost-effectiveness of €30,000-€50,000 per QALY gained, vaccination of the 50+ population in Spain against HZ with a new vaccine, Zostavax, is cost-effective and makes good use of the valuable healthcare budget. PMID:26808422

  12. Space optics contributions by the College of Optical Sciences over the past 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James B.; Smith, Peter

    2014-10-01

    We present a review of the contributions by students, staff, faculty and alumni to the Nation's space program over the past 50 years. The balloon polariscope led the way to future space optics missions. The missions Pioneer Venus (large probe solar flux radiometer), Pioneer 10/11 (imaging photopolarimeter) to Jupiter and Saturn, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and next generation large aperture space telescopes are discussed.

  13. Instruction and Curriculum in Veterinary Medical Education: A 50-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of veterinary medicine has expanded greatly over the past 50 years. To keep pace with these changes and produce competent professionals ready to meet evolving societal needs, instruction within veterinary medical curricula has undergone a parallel evolution. The curriculum of 1966 has given way, shifting away from lecture-laboratory model with few visual aids to a program of active learning, significant increases in case- or problem-based activities, and applications of technology, including computers, that were unimaginable 50 years ago. Curricula in veterinary colleges no longer keep all students in lockstep or limit clinical experiences to the fourth year, and instead have moved towards core electives with clinical activities provided from year 1. Provided here are examples of change within veterinary medical education that, in the view of the authors, had positive impacts on the evolution of instruction and curriculum. These improvements in both how and what we teach are now being made at a more rapid pace than at any other time in history and are based on the work of many faculty and administrators over the past 50 years. PMID:26673214

  14. Committee Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Creating the perfect governing body to power talent development and learning is a balancing act between centralized control and enough delegation to lines of business to keep content relevant. In this article, a handful of 2012 Training Top 125 winners describe how their companies effectively govern talent and learning development.

  15. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods: Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010–2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008–2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Results: Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53–2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65–16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30–67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72–114.87) in class III obese. Conclusions: Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public

  16. A Study of the Effects of Educational and Administrative-Organizational Factors on the Students' Work Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaghatdar, Mohammad Javad; Samiee, Fatemeh; Sadeghian, Alireza; Shafaie, Shokouh; Alikhani, Madineh; Hashemi, Bibi Vajiheh

    2012-01-01

    Work commitment in the organizations is a factor which leads to the development of discipline, sense of duty, morality, and improvement of human relationships at work. The existence of ethics in the organization, having commitment to the tasks and playing professional roles and behaviors in the best way and with no external control, cause inner…

  17. A Test of the Interactive Effects of Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement on Various Types of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, John E.; Kohler, Stacey S.

    1990-01-01

    Examined joint direct and interactive influences of organizational commitment and job involvement on employee absence rates in bus drivers (N=192). Results support hypothesis that commitment and involvement interact as related to drivers' personal absences, but not as related to absences resulting from illness, family obligation, or transportation…

  18. Organizational Commitment of Teachers: A Meta-Analysis Study for the Effect of Gender and Marital Status in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çogaltay, Nazim

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes the influence of Turkish teacher's gender and marital status on their perception of organizational commitment. In total, 30 independent research studies conducted across the country are investigated to analyze the relations between gender and organizational commitment, i.e., a sample group of 11,724 participants. In…

  19. Nursing Assistants' Job Commitment: Effect of Nursing Home Organizational Factors and Impact on Resident Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Christine E.; Weinberg, Dana Beth; Leutz, Walter; Dossa, Almas; Pfefferle, Susan G.; Zincavage, Rebekah M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are more committed to nursing home jobs when they perceive their jobs as enhanced (greater autonomy, use of knowledge, teamwork), and (b) whether CNA job commitment affects resident satisfaction. Design and Methods: A qualitative exploration of…

  20. The Mediator Effect of Career Development between Personality Traits and Organizational Commitment: The Example of Sport Communication Technology Talents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Hung-Jen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Tung-Hsing, Lin; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships among career development, personality trait, and organizational commitment and examines whether career development mediates the relationship between personality trait and organizational commitment. The sample was 275 sport communication technology talents in Taiwan. The instrument included the Personality…

  1. The mediating effect of job stress in the relationship between work-related dimensions and career commitment.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine associations between career commitment, job stress, and work-related dimensions of work routinization, role clarity, social support, and promotional opportunity. Design/methodology/approach - In all, 408 employees holding supervisor or above level job positions in Sri Lanka responded to the survey. For the data analysis, structural equation modelling with maximum likelihood estimation was performed. Findings - Job stress fully mediates the relationship between role clarity and career commitment while partially mediates the relationships between work routinization, social support, and the lack of promotional opportunity and career commitment. Originality/value - An investigation into relationships between work-related dimensions and career commitment holds a number of implications in the current business environment where employee commitment may be shifting from the organization to one's career. PMID:27119394

  2. Effect of age-at-release on long term sexual re-offense rates in civilly committed sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Prentky, Robert Alan; Lee, Austin F S

    2007-03-01

    A cohort of 136 rapists and 115 child molesters civilly committed to a prison in Massachusetts and followed for 25 years (see Prentky, Lee, Knight, & Cerce, 1997) was examined for the effect of age at time of release on sexual recidivism. The present study (1) examined the recidivism rates for each of five age-at-release groups, separately for rapists and child molesters, (2) tested the fit of linear and quadratic models for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25-year windows using Cox regression analysis, (3) presented the predicted failure rates for rapists (up to five years post-release) and child molesters (out 21 years post-release), and (4) provided a computational formula for estimating the sexual recidivism rate given an individual's age and number of years post-release. For rapists, a linear model extending 5 years best captured our data (LR=5.62, p<.02). Going out any further than 5 years did not enhance the predictive efficacy of the model. By contrast, a quadratic model extending the full duration of the study (25 years) provided the best fit (LR=6.30, p<.04) for child molesters. Our data supported the general conclusion that risk of sexual recidivism diminishes as a function of increasing age at time of release for rapists. We found marked differences, however, in the re-offense patterns of rapists and child molesters, with the latter group evidencing a distinct quadratic, rather than linear, pattern. Since these findings derive from a population screened for civil commitment by virtue of their presumptive dangerousness, they may not be generalizable to samples of sex offenders drawn from the general prison population. PMID:17334931

  3. The Effect of Dimensions of Transformational, Transactional, and Non-Leadership on the Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Teachers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayadi, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that transformational and transactional leadership is positively related to the effectiveness of the leader, the subordinate's effort, job satisfaction, and the subordinate's organizational commitment. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of transformational, transactional, and non-leadership on job satisfaction and…

  4. Engaging Élitism: The Mediating Effect of Work Engagement on Affective Commitment and Quit Intentions in Two Australian University Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Justine L.; Morris, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Some universities rely on their élitism as one mechanism to attract and retain talented faculty. This paper examines two groups of élite and non-élite universities and the mediating effect that work engagement has on affective commitment and intention to quit. Findings indicate partial support for the mediating effect of work engagement in the…

  5. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Effects on Teachers' Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Primary Schools: The Tanzanian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguni, Samuel; Sleegers, Peter; Denessen, Eddie

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effects of transformational and transactional leadership on teachers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in the context of schools in a specific developing country context, that of Tanzania. It does so by testing a model of such effects using a set of data collected from a…

  6. Association Between Self-efficacy and Participation in Community-Dwelling Manual Wheelchair Users Aged 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Routhier, François; Backman, Catherine L.; Eng, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy with using a wheelchair is an emerging construct in the wheelchair-use literature that may have implications for the participation frequency in social and personal roles of wheelchair users. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and mediated effects of self-efficacy on participation frequency in community-dwelling manual wheelchair users aged 50 years or older. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Participants were community-dwelling wheelchair users (N=124), 50 years of age or older (mean=59.7 years), with at least 6 months of experience with wheelchair use. The Late-Life Disability Instrument, the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale, the Life-Space Assessment, and the Wheelchair Skills Test–Questionnaire Version measured participation frequency, self-efficacy, life-space mobility, and wheelchair skills, respectively. Multiple regression analyses with bootstrapping were used to investigate the direct and mediated effects. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used to guide the analyses. Results Self-efficacy was a statistically significant determinant of participation frequency and accounted for 17.2% of the participation variance after controlling for age, number of comorbidities, and social support. The total mediating effect by life-space mobility, wheelchair skills, and perceived participation limitations was statistically significant (point estimate=0.14; bootstrapped 95% confidence interval=0.04, 0.24); however, the specific indirect effect by the wheelchair skills variable did not contribute to the total effect above and beyond the other 2 mediators. The mediated model accounted for 55.0% of the participation variance. Limitations Causality cannot be established due to the cross-sectional nature of the data, and the self-report nature of our data from a volunteer sample may be influenced by measurement bias or social desirability, or both. Conclusion Self

  7. Formation of the 50-Year Element 94 from Deuteron Bombardment of U{sup 238}

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kennedy, J. W.; Perlman, M. L.; Segre, E.; Wahl, A. C.

    1942-06-01

    It has been shown by bombardment with deuterons of a sample of U{sup 238}, greatly depleted in U{sup 235} and U{sup 234}, that the 50-year 94 activity and 2.0 day 93 activity are formed in approximately the same yield as with the natural mixture of uranium isotopes. The activities are thus shown to arise from the U{sup 238} nucleus, and from considerations of the energy of the compound nucleus (U{sup 238} + d).

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yo-El S

    2013-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

  9. 50 years of helium liquefaction at the MIT Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph L.

    2002-05-01

    The evolution of the helium liquefaction facility of the MIT Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory and the history of its operation over the last 50 years are described. Professor Samuel C. Collins created the liquid-helium facility based on his earlier developments. The chronology of the laboratory helium liquefiers is given with a brief description of each one. The current facility based on the Model 2000 liquefier is described and operating experience is given. The reasons for the very high availability of the liquefaction system are developed.

  10. Heel pain due to psoriatic arthritis in a 50 year old recreational male athlete: case report

    PubMed Central

    Yedon, Dominique Forand; Howitt, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Heel pain is a common presentation in a sports injury practice, with a list of common differentials including achilles tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis. However, seronegative arthritis can also cause enthesopathies that produce heel pain and should be considered in a differential diagnosis list. In this case, a 50 year old recreationally active male presented with non-traumatic insidious heel pain and without history of any skin conditions or any other symptoms of seronegative spondyloarthritis. Clinical suspicion led to laboratory testing and radiographs/bone scan which yielded the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. PMID:22131565

  11. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 4). Post World War II 50 years].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    A short history of the pharmaceutical science and technology, postwar 50 years is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. Japan's postwar rehabilitation, Japanese pharmaceutical industries and newly developed pharmaceutical sciences and technologies. In 1945, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry was reconstructed. Production of penicillin was carried out with the strong support of the U.S. Occupation Forces. New sciences in pharmacy (biochemistry, biopharmacy, pharmacology, microbiology, physical chemistry, etc.) were introduced in this period. 2. Introduction age of foreign new drugs and technology (1951 to 1960s). Japan gained independence in 1951. Japanese pharmaceutical companies imported many new drugs and new pharmaceutical technologies from the U.S.A. and European countries in this period. Then, these companies were reconstruction rapidly. However, consequently Japanese pharmaceutical companies were formed as an imitation industry. 3. Rapid economic growth period for pharmaceutical companies (1956 to 1970s). In this period, many Japanese pharmaceutical companies grew rapidly at an annual rate of 15-20% over a period of 15 years, especially with regard to the production of active vitamin B1 analog drugs and some OTC (public health drugs). Some major companies made large profits, which were used to construct research facilities. 4. Problems for the harmful effects of medicines and its ethical responsibility. In the 1970s, many public toxic and harmful effects of medicines were caused, especially SMON's disease. In this time, many pharmaceutical companies changed to its security got development of ethical drugs. 5. Self development of new drugs and administration of pharmaceutical rules (1970s). During the 1970s, many pharmaceutical laws (GLP, GCP, GMP, GPMSP etc.) were enacted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In 1976, the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law was revised, which set forth standards regarding the efficacy and safety of

  12. Commitment and energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Pallak, M.S.; Cook, D.A.; Sullivan, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the process of becoming committed to energy conservation research, then describe practical issues of field research and several data sets on household energy conservation. Their results show that taking a stand affected behavior in reducing the levels of natural gas and electricity usage, with the effect continuing even after the study ended. Although based on the assumption that homeowners were initially favorable toward energy conservation, the studies suggest that energy-related behavior is malleable and amenable to approaches familiar to psychologists. The study indicates that feedback on energy use during peak seasons could help to avoid power shortages. 16 references, 6 tables.

  13. [Progress in and outcomes of neonatal surgery over the past 50 years].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Tomoaki; Nagata, Kouji; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Esumi, Genshiro

    2014-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Surgeons has performed a nationwide survey of neonatal surgery every 5 years during the 50 years since its foundation. The number of neonatal surgical cases has increased 5-fold during those 50 years, while the mortality rate has decreased from 60% to 15% for the main life-threatening diseases (such as esophageal atresia, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, and gastroschisis). Currently, most neonatal patients who undergo surgery for severe cardiac or chromosomal anomalies survive. Therefore, pediatric surgeons are aware of the need for cosmetic considerations. Endoscopic surgical procedures and incisions using natural skin creases have been developed to achieve good cosmetic results and improve patients' quality of life. On the other hand, severe life-threatening neonatal surgical cases are still seen, such as patients with diaphragmatic hernia accompanied by severe pulmonary hypoplasia, huge sacrococcygeal teratomas, and neonatal intestinal perforation. Fetal intervention or early delivery should be considered to improve survival. Appropriate initial treatment strategies for intestinal perforation in very low birth-weight infants are needed. PMID:25702509

  14. Dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Teresa T.; Feskanich, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the association between predominant dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years. Methods We used data from 74,540 women in the Nurses’ Health Study followed between 1980 and 2010, and 35,451 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed between 1986 and 2012 for this analysis. Health and lifestyle information was assessed every two years. Diet was assessed approximately every four years with a food frequency questionnaire. Two major dietary patterns were previously derived using principal component analysis. The Prudent pattern is characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry, and the Western pattern is characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets, and refined grains. We computed relative risks (RR) for hip fracture by dietary pattern scores using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results During follow-up, there were 1891 hip fractures in women and 596 in men. No association was observed between the Prudent or Western pattern and risk of hip fractures in either men or women. We also did not find an association among lean (BMI<25) or overweight (BMI >=25) individuals or among those with higher or lower levels of physical activity. Conclusion Neither the Prudent nor the Western dietary pattern was associated with risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women or men over 50 years of age. PMID:25731807

  15. Total hip arthroplasty in patients 50 years or less: do we improve activity profiles?

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Margaret; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Steger-May, Karen; Pashos, Gail; Clohisy, John C

    2013-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to use step activity monitoring to quantify activity changes after total hip arthroplasty in patients 50 years or less. Secondly, we investigated whether step activity measurements correlated with the Harris hip and UCLA scores. We prospectively analyzed 37 patients (age ≤ 50) treated with primary THA. Patient activity was recorded with a step activity monitor. Harris hip and UCLA scores were analyzed. Total daily stride counts increased by an average of 30.0%. Increases were noted in the percent of daily time spent at high, moderate and low activity. Increases in daily time spent at high activity moderately correlated with the UCLA activity score but did not correlate with the HHS. Both the UCLA score and the HHS did not correlate with mean daily strides. Following THA, patients ≤ 50 years of age increase their activity by taking more daily strides and improve their activity profile by spending more time at higher activity. Improvements in step activity moderately correlate with improvements in UCLA scores. PMID:23499406

  16. Predicting fire activity in the US over the next 50 years using new IPCC climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is an integral part of the Earth system with both direct and indirect effects on terrestrial ecosystems, the atmosphere, and human societies (Bowman et al. 2009). Climate conditions regulate fire activities through a variety of ways, e.g., influencing the conditions for ignition and fire spread, changing vegetation growth and decay and thus the accumulation of fuels for combustion (Arora and Boer 2005). Our recent study disclosed the burned area (BA) in US is strongly correlated with potential evaporation (PE), a measurement of climatic dryness derived from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) climate data (Morton et al. 2012). The correlation varies spatially and temporally. With regard to fire of peak fire seasons, Northwestern US, Great Plains and Alaska have the strongest BA/PE relationship. Using the recently released the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) Version 3 (van der Werf et al. 2010), we showed increasing BA in the last decade in most of NCA regions. Longer time series of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) (Eidenshink et al. 2007) data showed the increasing trends occurred in all NCA regions from 1984 to 2010. This relationship between BA and PE provides us the basis to predict the future fire activities in the projected climate conditions. In this study, we build spatially explicit predictors using the historic PE/BA relationship. PE from 2011 to 2060 is calculated from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and the historic PE/BA relationship is then used to estimate BA. This study examines the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of the future US fires driven by new climate predictions for the next 50 years. Reference: Arora, V.K., & Boer, G.J. (2005). Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 110 Bowman, D.M.J.S., Balch, J.K., Artaxo, P., Bond, W.J., Carlson, J.M., Cochrane, M.A., D

  17. The Excellence-Commitment-and-Effective-Learning (ExCEL) Group: An Integrated Approach for First-Year College Students' Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Siu-Man Raymond; Grant, Susan; Plenert, Sheri L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents research findings that evaluate the study skills, academic performance, and retention of students who participated in an Excellence-Commitment-and-Effective-Learning (ExCEL) group. Results indicate that the ExCEL groups appear to have enhanced the participants' study skills, GPAs, and social and cultural adjustment during the first year.…

  18. The Mediating Effects of Basic Psychological Needs at Work on the Relationship between the Dimensions of the Learning Organization and Organizational Commitment in Registered Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Bonni Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mediating effects of the Basic Psychological Needs at Work, comprised of competence, autonomy and relatedness, on the relationship between the Dimensions of the Learning Organization and affective and normative organizational commitment in the United States nursing population. The study incorporated…

  19. The Effects of the Working on the Work Framework, an Action Plan for Teachers, on Student Engagement, Teacher Commitment, and Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harless, Laurie Christenberry

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the implementation of the Working on the Work (WOW) framework in an elementary school in Northwest Georgia. The researcher examined the effectiveness of the WOW framework on teacher commitment, teacher training, student engagement, and student achievement. The researcher used quantitative and qualitative research methods to…

  20. Individual differences in commitment to value-based beliefs and the amplification of perceived belief dissimilarity effects.

    PubMed

    Maxwell-Smith, Matthew A; Seligman, Clive; Conway, Paul; Cheung, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The commitment to beliefs (CTB) framework (Maxwell-Smith & Esses, 2012) proposes that there are individual differences in the extent to which people generally follow beliefs that are a reflection of their values. The current research hypothesized that CTB would amplify the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility, such that individuals higher in CTB would display more pronounced reactions to belief-relevant groups, events, or individuals seen as incompatible with their value-based beliefs. We tested our hypothesis in three studies that assessed participants' CTB and their perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility with regard to other religious groups (Study 1), political parties during a national election (Study 2), and their romantic partner (Study 3). CTB amplified the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility on people's biases toward other religious groups, voting intentions and behavior in a national election, and their evaluative and behavioral responses toward their romantic partner. These results collectively suggest that perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility are particularly important cues for individuals with higher levels of CTB as they encounter other people or events that are relevant to their beliefs. PMID:24444458

  1. Doctors commitment and long-term effectiveness for cost containment policies: lesson learned from biosimilar drugs

    PubMed Central

    Menditto, Enrica; Orlando, Valentina; Coretti, Silvia; Putignano, Daria; Fiorentino, Denise; Ruggeri, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Background Agency is a pervasive feature of the health care market, with doctors acting as agents for both patients and the health care system. In a context of scarce resources, doctors are required to take opportunity cost into account when prescribing treatments, while cost containment policies cannot overlook their active role in determining health care resource allocation. This paper addresses this issue, investigating the effects of cost containment measures in the market of biosimilar drugs that represent a viable and cost-saving strategy for the reduction of health care expenditure. The analysis focuses on a particular region in Italy, where several timely policies to incentivize biosimilar prescribing were launched. Methods Drugs were identified by the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Information about biosimilar drugs and their originator biological products was extracted from the IMS Health regional database. Drug consumption was expressed in terms of counting units, while expenditure was evaluated in Euro (€). The market penetration of biosimilars was analyzed by year and quarterly. Results In the Campania region of Italy, the effects of cost containment policies, launched between 2009 and 2013, showed the prescription of biosimilars strongly increasing in 2010 until prescribing levels reached and exceeded the market share of the reference biological products in 2012. After a slight reduction, a plateau was observed at the beginning of 2013. At the same time, the use of the originator products had been decreasing until the first quarter of 2011. However, after a 1-year plateau, this trend was reversed, with a new increase in the consumption of the originators observed. Conclusion Results show that the cost containment policies, applied to cut health expenditure “to cure and not to care”, did not produce the cultural change necessary to make these policies effective in the long run. Therefore, top-down policies for cost

  2. Size of coarse woody debris 5 years after girdling and removal treatments in 50-year-old Loblolly PIne Plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M. Boyd

    2004-01-01

    PP 108 -113 in: Connor, Kristina F., ed. 2004. Proceedings of the 12th biennial southern silvicultural research conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS71. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 594 p. Abstract: In 1996, a study began at Savannah River Site to investigate large-scale replicated forest areas to control coarse woody debris for integrated biodiversity objectives. Research design was a randomized complete block with four treatments replicated in four blocks, resulting in 16 plots. The treatments applied to 50-year-old loblolly pine stands were (1) control, (2) girdling of 25 percent of trees to create catastrophic simulation, (3) annual removal of down woody debris > 10 cm in diameter, and (4) annual removal of both standing and down woody debris > 10 cm in diameter. The study tracks coarse woody debris recruitment and loading, rates of decomposition, and effects on the forest ecosystem.

  3. Patellar tendon or hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in patients aged above 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Tarun; Nagraj, Raghu; Kumar, Malhar N; Chandy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury consists of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring graft. Satisfactory results have been reported so far in the younger age group. Dilemma arises regarding the suitability of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above. This retrospective analyses the outcome of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above. Materials and Methods: 55 patients aged 50 years and above presented to our institution with symptomatic ACL tear and were managed with arthroscopic reconstruction with patellar tendon/hamstring graft. 22 patients underwent ACL reconstruction with bone- patellar tendon-bone graft and the remaining 33 with a hamstring graft. Evaluation of functional outcome was performed using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scoring in the preoperative period, at the end of 1 year and at the final followup. Radiographic evaluation was performed using the Kellgren–Lawrence grading system. Results: The mean preoperative IKDC score was 39.7 ± 3.3. At the end of 1-year following the operation, the mean IKDC score was 73.6 ± 4.9 and at the final followup was 67.8 ± 7.7. The mean preoperative Lysholm score was 40.4 ± 10.3. At the end of 1-year following the intervention, the mean Lysholm score was 89.7 ± 2.1 and at final followup was 85.3 ± 2.5. Overall, 14 out of 42 patients who underwent radiographic assessment showed progression of osteoarthritis changes at the final followup after the intervention. Conclusion: In our study, there was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and Lysholm scores following the intervention. There was a slight deterioration in the scores at the final followup but the overall rate of satisfaction was still high and most of the patients were able to do their routine chores and light exercises suitable for their age group. Around one-third of patients show progression of radiographic changes

  4. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy bibliotherapy for enhancing the psychological health of Japanese college students living abroad.

    PubMed

    Muto, Takashi; Hayes, Steven C; Jeffcoat, Tami

    2011-06-01

    International students often experience significant psychological distress but empirically tested programs are few. Broadly distributed bibliotherapy may provide a cost-effective approach. About half of the Japanese international students in a western university in the United States (N=70) were randomly assigned to a wait-list or to receive a Japanese translation of a broadly focused acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) self-help book. Although recruited without regard to health status, the sample was highly distressed with nearly 80% exceeding clinical cutoffs on one or more measures. After a 2-months period for the first treatment group to read the book and a 2-month follow up, wait-list participants also received the book. Students receiving the book showed significantly better general mental health at post and follow up. Moderately depressed or stressed, and severely anxious students showed improvement compared to those not receiving the book. These patterns were repeated when the wait-list participants finally received the book. Improvements in primary outcomes were related to how much was learned about an ACT model from the book. Follow-up outcomes were statistically mediated by changes in psychological flexibility, but not vice versa and were moderated by level of initial flexibility. Overall, the data suggest that ACT bibliotherapy improved the mental health and psychological flexibility of Japanese international students. PMID:21496516

  5. The Last 50 Years: Mismeasurement and Mismanagement Are Impeding Scientific Research.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    In the last 50 years, there have been many changes to the substance, conduct, and style of research. Many of these changes have proved disastrous to the life of scientists and to science itself. As a consequence, the near-romantic spirit of adventure and exploration that inspired young scientists of my own and earlier generations has become tarnished. Now, many of us feel beleaguered by bureaucrats and by politicians: they affect our lives profoundly, apparently without an understanding of the way discoveries are made or of the nature of science itself. The core purposes of universities, teaching and research, are being eroded by excessive administration. The number and locations of our publications are counted up like beans and the outcomes are used to rank us, one against another; a process of evaluation that has recast the purposes of publication. Applying for grants takes far too much time from a young scientist's life. PMID:26970645

  6. Cardiomyopathy Induced by Pulmonary Sequestration in a 50-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Shaun; Comp, Robert A.; Grace, R. Randal

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old black man presented at the emergency department with midsternal, nonradiating chest pressure and chronic dyspnea on exertion. Four years before the current admission, he had been diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy at another facility. After our complete evaluation, we suspected that his symptoms arose from left-to-left shunting in association with pulmonary sequestration, a congenital malformation. Our preliminary diagnosis of secondary dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed by normalization of the patient's ventricular size and function after lobectomy. To our knowledge, this patient is the oldest on record to present with cardiomyopathy consequent to pulmonary sequestration. His case is highly unusual because of his age and the rapid resolution of his symptoms after lobectomy. We believe that pulmonary sequestration should be included in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25873803

  7. [The 50-year-old women or older: preventive actions to the HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela Angelo de Lima; Praça, Neide de Souza

    2010-06-01

    The present study is a qualitative research which aimed to verify the adoption of preventive measures on the transmission of HIV in 50-year-old women or older, who lived in poor communities and were assisted by the Family Health Program in São Paulo, Brazil. Medical Anthropology has been adopted as a theoretical reference, as well as the Discourse of the Collective Individual for data analysis. Thirteen women were interviewed and three discourses were presented: prevention appreciation, invisibility of HIV/AIDS and the rejection of the use of condom. The analysis showed that the group did not realize the risk of contamination through sexual intercourse due to their trust in the partner's loyalty. The casual use of condoms was taken into consideration just out of curiosity. The preventive actions adopted need more scientific support. The results point out the necessity of planning and implementing interventions which are culturally based and directed to the studied segment. PMID:21500513

  8. A review of 50 years of aerodynamic research with NACA/NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    1994-01-01

    Continuous improvements in flight systems have occurred over the past 50 years due, in part, to continuous improvements in aerodynamic research techniques and capabilities. This paper traces that research from the first-hand perspective of the author who, beginning in 1944, has taken part in the NACA/NASA aerodynamic research effort through studies in low-speed wind tunnels, high-speed subsonic tunnels, transonic tunnels, supersonic tunnels, and hypersonic tunnels. New problems were found as systems advanced from low-speed propeller-driven designs to more sophisticated high-speed jet- and rocket-propelled designs. The paper reviews some of these problems and reflects on some of the solutions that have been developed in the course of various aerodynamic research programs in the past. Some of the factors, both technical and nontechnical, that have influenced the aerodynamic design, research, and development of various flight systems will be mentioned.

  9. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    PubMed

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members. PMID:26673207

  10. The Last 50 Years: Mismeasurement and Mismanagement Are Impeding Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last 50 years, there have been many changes to the substance, conduct, and style of research. Many of these changes have proved disastrous to the life of scientists and to science itself. As a consequence, the near-romantic spirit of adventure and exploration that inspired young scientists of my own and earlier generations has become tarnished. Now, many of us feel beleaguered by bureaucrats and by politicians: they affect our lives profoundly, apparently without an understanding of the way discoveries are made or of the nature of science itself. The core purposes of universities, teaching and research, are being eroded by excessive administration. The number and locations of our publications are counted up like beans and the outcomes are used to rank us, one against another; a process of evaluation that has recast the purposes of publication. Applying for grants takes far too much time from a young scientist's life. PMID:26970645

  11. Microstructure of 50 year old SCK CEN BR1 research reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leenaers, A.; Berghe, S. van den

    2008-07-15

    The BR1 research reactor at SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium) has a graphite core matrix loaded with fuel rods consisting of a natural uranium slug in an aluminum cladding. Fabrication reports show the application of a so-called AlSi bonding layer and an U(Al,Si){sub 3} anti-diffusion layer on the natural uranium fuel slug to limit the interaction between the uranium fuel and aluminum cladding. The BR1 reactor is in operation since 1956 and still contains its original fuel rods. After more than 50 years irradiation at low temperature, the integrity of some of the fuel rods is investigated. The microstructure of the fuel, bonding and anti-diffusion layer and cladding is analysed using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe analysis (EPMA). (author)

  12. A reflection on the first 50 years of Water Resources Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Harihar; Bahr, Jean M.; Blöschl, Günter; Cai, Ximing; Scott Mackay, D.; Michalak, Anna M.; Montanari, Alberto; Sanchez-Villa, Xavier; Sander, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The year 2015 marks the 50th anniversary of Water Resources Research (WRR), which was founded in 1965. More than 15,000 papers have been published in WRR since its inception, and these papers have been cited more than 430,000 times. The history of hydrology and the water sciences are also reflected in WRR, which has served as a premier publication outlet and instigator of scientific growth over the last 50 years. The legacy of WRR provides a strong scientific foundation for the hydrology community to rise to the challenges of sustainable water resources management in a future where dramatic environmental change and increasing human population are expected to stress the world's water resources from local to global scales.

  13. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    ScienceCinema

    Socolow, Robert [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2009-09-01

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  14. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Osaka Bay, southwestern Japan: Faunal changes over the last 50 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsujimoto, Akira; Nomura, Ritsuo; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Yoshikawa, Shusaku

    2006-01-01

    Live benthic foraminiferal assemblages from surface sediment in Osaka Bay collected in 1999 were analyzed to characterize the distribution of the modern foraminiferal assemblages. Foraminiferal assemblages were compared with those of previous studies to document environmental changes in Osaka Bay over the past 50 years. Sixty-one species of foraminifera belonging to 37 genera were recognized from the 1999 surface sediment samples. An agglutinated assemblage containing Trochammina hadai and Eggerella advena is dominant in the inner part of the bay and is related to eutrophication. The foraminiferal assemblage in areas deeper than about 20 m is composed of Eggerella advena, Ammonia beccarii forma A, and Pseudorotalia gaimardii. This assemblage may be influenced by the large clockwise Okinose Circulation Current which extends throughout the western bay. Foraminiferal assemblages in Osaka Bay have changed dramatically during the last 50 years. The Trochammina hadai-Eggerella advena assemblage became established in the inner part of the bay, reflecting eutrophication that progressed from the 1960s through the 1970s. This assemblage became dominant in 1983, and typically dominated the inner part of the bay. From 1983 to 1999, however, the abundance of taxa belonging to this assemblage decreased greatly following implementation of 1973 Osaka City bylaws that restricted wastewater discharge. Changes in benthic assemblages such as the decrease of Ammonia beccarii forma A and increase of Eggerella advena have occurred in response to decreased incidence of red tides, and floral change in the species that cause these tides. The results of this study demonstrate that the abundance and distribution of benthic foraminifers in Osaka Bay are intimately related to environmental changes related to the urbanization of coastal areas. ?? by the Palaeontological Society of Japan.

  15. Noninvasive assessment of cardiomyopathy in normotensive diabetic patients between 20 and 50 years old

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, A.; Sanz, N.; Botvinick, E.H.; Phillips, N.; Heilbron, D.; Byrd, B.F. 3d.; Karam, J.H.; Schiller, N.B. )

    1989-08-01

    To further the understanding of diabetic heart disease, we tested the hypothesis that an asymptomatic group of normotensive diabetic patients between 20 and 50 years old had a restrictive cardiomyopathy independent of clinically significant coronary artery disease. Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were performed to detect and characterize the cardiac abnormalities in this study group comprising 88 patients with rigorously classified diabetes and 65 volunteer control subjects. Diabetic patients were shown to have a mildly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume index: 50.1 +/- 8.2 and 52.1 +/- 14.7 mL/m2 for patients with type I and type II diabetes, respectively, versus 58.9 +/- 11.7 mL/m2 for control subjects. The left ventricular diastolic filling was also impaired in diabetic patients as reflected by a lower atrial emptying index: 0.73 +/- 0.24 and 0.76 +/- 0.3 for type I and type II diabetics, respectively, compared with 1.14 +/- 0.24 for control subjects. Exercise tolerance was normal in subjects with type I diabetes and slightly reduced in subjects with type II diabetes. Only one patient developed regional ischemia on thallium exercise testing. Using a comprehensive, noninvasive approach, we have shown that asymptomatic normotensive patients with type I or type II diabetes who were between 20 and 50 years old had a restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by mildly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume and altered left ventricular compliance independent of critical coronary artery disease.

  16. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, Robert

    2007-04-18

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  17. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the Next 50 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, Robert

    2007-04-18

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  18. Biogeochemical control of marine productivity in the Mediterranean Sea during the last 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Piroddi, Chiara; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of biogeochemical variables derived from a coupled 3-D model of the Mediterranean Sea are evaluated for the last 50 years (1960–2010) against independent data on fisheries catch per unit effort (CPUE) for the same time period. Concordant patterns are found in the time series of all of the biological variables (from the model and from fisheries statistics), with low values at the beginning of the series, a later increase, with maximum levels reached at the end of the 1990s, and a posterior stabilization. Spectral analysis of the annual biological time series reveals coincident low-frequency signals in all of them. The first, more energetic signal peaks around the year 2000, while the second, less energetic signal peaks near 1982. Almost identical low-frequency signals are found in the nutrient loads of the rivers and in the integrated nutrient levels in the surface marine ecosystem. Nitrate concentration shows a maximum level in 1998, with a later stabilization to present-day values, coincident with the first low-frequency signal found in the biological series. Phosphate shows maximum concentrations around 1982 and a posterior sharp decline, in concordance with the second low-frequency signal observed in the biological series. That result seems to indicate that the control of marine productivity (plankton to fish) in the Mediterranean is principally mediated through bottom-up processes that could be traced back to the characteristics of riverine discharges. The high sensitivity of CPUE time series to environmental conditions might be another indicator of the overexploitation of this marine ecosystem. Key Points Biogeochemical evolution of the Mediterranean over the past 50 years River nutrient loads drive primary and secondary productions Strong link between low trophic levels and fisheries PMID:26180286

  19. Long-term variation analysis of a tropical river's annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyam, Mohammed; Othman, Faridah

    2015-07-01

    Studying the long-term changes of streamflow is an important tool for enhancing water resource and river system planning, design, and management. The aim of this work is to identify the long-term variations in annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010 in the Selangor River, which is one of the main tropical rivers in Malaysia. Initially, the data underwent preliminary independence, normality, and homogeneity testing using the Pearson correlation coefficient and Shapiro-Wilk and Pettitt's tests, respectively. The work includes a study and analysis of the changes through nine variables describing the annual streamflow and variations in the yearly duration of high and low streamflows. The analyses were conducted via two time scales: yearly and sub-periodic. The sub-periods were obtained by segmenting the 50 years into seven sub-periods by two techniques, namely the change-point test and direct method. Even though analysis revealed nearly negligible changes in mean annual flow over the study period, the maximum annual flow generally increased while the minimum annual flow significantly decreased with respect to time. It was also observed that the variables describing the dispersion in streamflow continually increased with respect to time. An obvious increase was detected in the yearly duration of danger level of streamflow, a slight increase was noted in the yearly duration of warning and alert levels, and a slight decrease in the yearly duration of low streamflow was found. The perceived changes validate the existence of long-term changes in annual streamflow regime, which increase the probability of floods and droughts occurring in future. In light of the results, attention should be drawn to developing water resource management and flood protection plans in order to avert the harmful effects potentially resulting from the expected changes in annual streamflow regime.

  20. Leadership and satisfaction in change commitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    Managerial transformational leadership skills may directly influence banking counter staff toward change commitment and improve job satisfaction and service quality, or the influence instead may be mediated by change commitment. For a sample comprised of 246 managers from four large Taiwanese banks, the following path relationships were tested: (1) the association of transformational leadership with change commitment, (2) the association of change commitment with job satisfaction, and (3) the direct or indirect (through the mediation of change commitment) effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction. Regression was utilized to gain insight into the effects of transformational leadership and change commitment on job satisfaction. Transformational leadership may foster change by providing psychological support to the banking counter staff, enabling them to use their skills to meet the needs of individual customers in response to complex environments. PMID:21879618

  1. Citizenship behavior at the team level of analysis: the effects of team leadership, team commitment, perceived team support, and team size.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Craig L; Herbik, Pamela A

    2004-06-01

    The authors investigated citizenship behavior at the team level of analysis by examining 71 change management teams, teams that are responsible for implementing organizational change. The authors collected data at an automotive-industry firm in the mid-Atlantic United States using a questionnaire methodology and an examination of company records. Team leader behavior, team commitment, and perceived team support all had large effects on team citizenship behavior, whereas team size had a small-to-negligible effect. PMID:15168430

  2. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management. PMID:23768073

  3. How Do Different Types of Community Commitment Influence Brand Commitment? The Mediation of Brand Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management. PMID:23768073

  4. Molecular Typing of Pathogenic Leptospira Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae Strains Circulating in China during the Past 50 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cuicai; Yang, Huimian; Li, Xiuwen; Cao, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Haijian; Zeng, Linzi; Xu, Jianmin; Xu, Yinghua; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Xiaokui; Zhu, Yongzhang; Jiang, Xiugao

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical infectious diseases worldwide. Icterohaemorrhagiae has been throughout recent history, and still is, the predominant serogroup of this pathogen in China. However, very little in detail is known about the serovars or genotypes of this serogroup. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 120 epidemic strains from five geographically diverse regions in China collected over a 50 year period (1958~2008), and 8 international reference strains characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and MLST analysis. 115, 11 and 2 strains were identified as L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, and L. kirschneri, respectively. 17 different STs were identified including 69 ST1 strains, 18 ST17, 18 ST128, 9 ST143 and 2 ST209. The remaining 12 strains belonged to 12 different STs. eBURST analysis demonstrated that, among the clonal complexes isolated (CCs), CC1 accounted for 73.3% (88/120) strains representing three STs: ST1, ST128 and ST98. ST1 was the most likely ancestral strain of this CC, followed by singleton CC17 (17/120) and CC143 (11/120). Further analysis of adding 116 serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains in the MLST database and studies previously described using global eBURST analysis and MST dendrogram revealed relatively similar ST clustering patterns with five main CCs and 8 singletons among these 244 strains. CC17 was found to be the most prevalent clone of pathogenic Leptospira circulating worldwide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ST1 and ST17 strains were distributed among 4 distinct serovars, indicating a highly complicated relationship between serovars and STs. Conclusions/Significance Our studies demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity in the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains. Distinct from ST17 or ST37 circulating elsewhere, ST1 included in CC1, has over the past 50 years or so, proven to be the most prevalent ST of pathogenic leptospires isolated in China. Moreover, the

  5. Modified Methodology for Projecting Coastal Louisiana Land Changes over the Next 50 Years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartley, Steve B.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal Louisiana landscape is continually undergoing geomorphologic changes (in particular, land loss); however, after the 2005 hurricane season, the changes were intensified because of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The amount of land loss caused by the 2005 hurricane season was 42 percent (562 km2) of the total land loss (1,329 km2) that was projected for the next 50 years in the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA), Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration Study. The purpose of this study is to provide information on potential changes to coastal Louisiana by using a revised LCA study methodology. In the revised methodology, we used classified Landsat TM satellite imagery from 1990, 2001, 2004, and 2006 to calculate the 'background' or ambient land-water change rates but divided the Louisiana coastal area differently on the basis of (1) geographic regions ('subprovinces') and (2) specific homogeneous habitat types. Defining polygons by subprovinces (1, Pontchartrain Basin; 2, Barataria Basin; 3, Vermilion/Terrebonne Basins; and 4, the Chenier Plain area) allows for a specific erosion rate to be applied to that area. Further subdividing the provinces by habitat type allows for specific erosion rates for a particular vegetation type to be applied. Our modified methodology resulted in 24 polygons rather than the 183 that were used in the LCA study; further, actively managed areas and the CWPPRA areas were not masked out and dealt with separately as in the LCA study. This revised methodology assumes that erosion rates for habitat types by subprovince are under the influence of similar environmental conditions (sediment depletion, subsidence, and saltwater intrusion). Background change rate for three time periods (1990-2001, 1990-2004, and 1990-2006) were calculated by taking the difference in water or land among each time period and dividing it by the time interval. This calculation gives an annual change rate for each polygon per time period. Change rates for each time period

  6. Effectiveness of Acceptance-Commitment Therapy on Anxiety and Depression among Patients on Methadone Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Saedy, Mozhgan; Kooshki, Shirin; Jamali Firouzabadi, Mahmoud; Emamipour, Susan; Rezaei Ardani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance dependence disorder is a psychiatric disorders with different factors that influence its nature, severity, outcome, and treatment options. Objectives: This study evaluates the effectiveness of Acceptance-Commitment Therapy (ACT) to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with opioid dependencies who are undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Materials and Methods: The present study was done in Mashhad from 2011-2012. Twenty-eight patients (18-50 yr) with opioid dependency who were on MMT were selected using purposive sampling and were divided equally between case and control groups. The case group received 8 sessions of individual psychotherapy with ACT. The level of depression and anxiety of these patients were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and Beck Anxiety Inventory before the initiation of ACT as a pretest, 2 weeks after the termination of ACT as the posttest, and 3-months after the termination as a follow-up. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS (ver. 20) using χ2, paired t-test, ANOVA, and MANOVA. Results: The pretest-posttest-follow up of anxiety showed no significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.05); however, the case group had lower depression scores in the posttest and follow-up than the control group (P = 0.04). Evaluating the results of the case group revealed that depression significantly decreased in the posttest group when compared to the pretest (P = 0.01) and there were no significant decreases in the follow up compared to the pretest (P = 0.34). Conclusion: Short-term ACT for opioid dependent patients on MMT are not associated with a significant decrease in the level of anxiety; however, it is associated with a significant decrease in the level of depression. Nonetheless, this reduction was not maintained long term. PMID:26251660

  7. Governmental re-evaluation of the committed effective dose received by emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    In April 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) noticed that significant discrepancies were present between the committed effective dose (CED) data for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant provided by TEPCO and that reported by five primary contractors. The MHLW, based on re-evaluation of the data, provided administrative guidance which required TEPCO and the five primary contractors to readjust the CED data for 479 workers (2.5% of 19,346 emergency workers). Of these, data for 450 workers from the primary contractors were readjusted based on the change in assessment methods. Doses were readjusted to higher values for 431 workers and doses were readjusted to lower values for 19 workers, CED data were corrected due to calculation errors for 29 workers from seven contractors, 12 additional workers were found to have received more than 50 mSv but no more than 100 mSv, an increase of 1.7% over the previously established count of 723 workers who had received that dose. Six additional workers were found to have received more than 100 mSv, an increase of 3.6% compared with the previous count of 167 workers. Major issues addressed during re-evaluation included: a) selection of intake scenario for the calculation of the residual activity ratio; b) assumptions about the intake date; c) assessments of exposure to radiation from (132)I and (132)Te; and d) assumptions about (131)I exposure in cases where (131)I was undetectable. Regarding the divergent CED data of 138 workers, the MHLW also confirmed that the CEDs assessed by the primary contractors were valid. To prevent the recurrence of similar incidents, the MHLW issued administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and primary contractors to employ standardized CED assessment methods on July 5. 2013. PMID:25585203

  8. Learning Organization Perceptions in Elementary Education in Terms of Teachers and the Effect of Learning Organization on Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdem, Mustafa; Ucar, Ibrahim Halil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to determine to what degree the learning organization predicted organizational commitment according to primary school teachers' perceptions. Descriptive survey model was used in this study and 429 teachers were chosen among 2387 teachers who worked in primary schools in Van in 2010-2011 education years and were…

  9. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Examination of Reverse Coding Effects in Meyer and Allen's Affective and Continuance Commitment Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magazine, Sherry L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examination of the Affective and Continuance Commitment Scales of J. P. Meyer and N. J. Allen using confirmatory factor analysis for 333 subjects with the LISREL 7 computer program provided strong support across multiple diagnostics for existence of a reverse coding factor defined by the 6 negatively worded scale items. (Author/SLD)

  10. Organizational Citizenship Behavior at Catholic Institutions of Higher Education: Effects of Organizational Commitment, Interpersonal- and System-Level Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Justin Ashby

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory investigation of OCB, trust, and commitment among faculty and staff within Catholic IHEs. Faculty and staff from two Catholic IHEs were the focus of the study. Twenty-five schools were randomly selected from the 50 largest Catholic IHEs by undergraduate enrollment, identified from the 2012…

  11. A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Moitra, Ethan; Yeomans, Peter D.; Geller, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has a small but growing database of support. One hundred and one heterogeneous outpatients reporting moderate to severe levels of anxiety or depression were randomly assigned to traditional cognitive therapy (CT) or to ACT. To maximize external validity, the authors utilized very minimal exclusion criteria.…

  12. Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 30-2015: A 50-Year-Old Man with Cardiogenic Shock.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Thurman M; Baker, Joshua N; Chad, David A; Zilinski, Jodi L; Verzosa, Stacey; Mordes, Daniel A

    2015-09-24

    A 50-year-old man with a history of cardiomyopathy and progressive muscle weakness was admitted with cardiogenic shock. Electroencephalography showed total suppression of cerebral activity; ventilator support was withdrawn, and he died. An autopsy was performed. PMID:26398074

  13. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    PubMed

    Donner, E; Scheckel, K; Sekine, R; Popelka-Filcoff, R S; Bennett, J W; Brunetti, G; Naidu, R; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E

    2015-10-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with (110 m)Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 μg/kg (0.002-3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability. PMID:26021819

  14. Curly tail: a 50-year history of the mouse spina bifida model.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, H W; Copp, A J

    2001-04-01

    This paper reviews 50 years of progress towards understanding the aetiology and pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTD) in the curly tail (ct) mutant mouse. More than 45 papers have been published on various aspects of curly tail with the result that it is now the best understood mouse model of NTD pathogenesis. The failure of closure of the spinal neural tube, which leads to spina bifida in this mouse, has been traced back to a tissue-specific defect of cell proliferation in the tail bud of the E9.5 embryo. This cell proliferation defect results in a growth imbalance in the caudal region that generates ventral curvature of the body axis. Neurulation movements are opposed, leading to delayed neuropore closure and spina bifida, or tail defects. It is interesting to reflect that these advances have been achieved in the absence of information on the nature of the ct gene product, which remains unidentified. In addition to the principal ct gene, which maps to distal Chromosome 4, the curly tail phenotype is influenced by several modifier genes and by environmental factors. NTD in curly tail are resistant to folic acid, as is thought to be the case in 30% of human NTD, whereas they can be prevented by myo-inositol. These and other features of NTD in this system bear striking similarities to the situation in humans, making curly tail a model for understanding a sub-type folic acid-resistant human NTD. PMID:11396850

  15. Dynamo Sensitivity in Solar Analogs with 50 Years of Ca II H & K Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Soon, Willie H.; Baliunas, Sallie L.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2016-05-01

    The Sun has a steady 11-year cycle in magnetic activity most well-known by the rising and falling in the occurrence of dark sunspots on the solar disk in visible bandpasses. The 11-year cycle is also manifest in the variations of emission in the Ca II H & K line cores, due to non-thermal (i.e. magnetic) heating in the lower chromosphere. The large variation in Ca II H & K emission allows for study of the patterns of long-term variability in other stars thanks to synoptic monitoring with the Mount Wilson Observatory HK photometers (1966-2003) and Lowell Observatory Solar-Stellar Spectrograph (1994-present). Overlapping measurements for a set of 27 nearby solar-analog (spectral types G0-G5) stars were used to calibrate the two instruments and construct time series of magnetic activity up to 50 years in length. Precise properties of fundamental importance to the dynamo are available from Hipparcos, the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey, and CHARA interferometry. Using these long time series and measurements of fundamental properties, we do a comparative study of stellar "twins" to explore the sensitivity of the stellar dynamo to small changes to structure, rotation, and composition. We also compare this sample to the Sun and find hints that the regular periodic variability of the solar cycle may be rare among its nearest neighbors in parameter space.

  16. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, B.; Campbell, J. W.; Dozier, J.; Fleming, J. R.; Gille, J. C.; Hartmann, D. L.; Jezek, K.; Kidder, S.; Ramankutty, N.; Thompson, A.; Ustin, S. L.; Yoder, J.; Probst, L.; Mengelt, C.

    2007-12-01

    Observing the Earth from space over the last five decades has fundamentally transformed the way people view our home planet. The image of the "blue marble" is taken for granted now, but it was revolutionary when it was first taken in 1972 by the crew on Apollo 17. Since then, the capability to look at Earth from space has grown increasingly sophisticated and evolved from simple photographs to quantitative measurements of Earth properties such as temperature, atmospheric gases, and exact elevation of land and ocean. Consequently, every new method of imaging the Earth from space has resulted in scientific accomplishments that have enabled new discoveries, transformed the field, refined scientific understanding, opened new avenues of research, or provided important societal benefits by improving the predictability of Earth system processes. This National Research Council (NRC) study highlights selected scientific achievements made possible by the first 50 years of Earth satellite observations by space-faring nations. It follows on a recent report from the NRC entitled "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" (NRC 2007), also referred to as the "decadal study."

  17. Attitudes to and experience of dental care among 50-year-olds in two Swedish counties.

    PubMed

    Unell, L; Söderfeldt, B; Halling, A; Birkhed, D

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes to and experiences of dental care in a population, born 1942. The following items were studied: opinions of general and oral health, attitudes to and experiences of dental care, dental care habits, experiences of latest visit to a dentist, tobacco habits and use of various dental hygiene articles. A cross-sectional mail questionnaire was sent in 1992 to all 50-year-olds in two Swedish counties, Orebro and Ostergotland, totally 8888 persons; the response rate was 71%. Of the population 89%, indicated good health. Satisfaction with dental care was high, 94%. 26% stated attendance to a dentist twice or more per year, and 64% at least once a year. As to expenses, 78% paid less than 1000 SEK the last year. Concerning the latest visit, 38% reported painless treatment, 37% no inconvenience, and 55% good care. The duration of the latest visit included on an average 27 min in travel time, 7 min in waiting time and 27 min in treatment time. Information about oral hygiene was given to 29% and about cost for treatment to 47% of the interviewed. There were 28% daily smokers. Snuff was daily used by 10% of the males. Toothbrushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste seemed to be the standard oral hygiene procedure and was reported by 80% of the respondents. PMID:10431344

  18. Fire and Deforestation Dynamics in South America over the Past 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, M.; Field, R. D.; van der Werf, G.

    2015-12-01

    Fires play an important role in the Earth system and are one of the major sources of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Satellites have been key to understand their spatial and temporal variability in space and time, but the most frequently used satellite datasets start only in 1995. There are still large uncertainties about the frequency and intensity of fires in the pre-satellite time period, especially in regions with active deforestation, which may have changed dramatically in intensity in the past decades influencing fire dynamics. We used two datasets to extend the record of fires and deforestation in the Amazon region back in time: 1) annual forest loss rates starting in 1990 derived from Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD), which is a satellite-based vegetation product that can be used as proxy for forest loss, and 2) horizontal visibility as proxy for fire emissions, reported by weather stations and airports in the Amazon, which started around 1940, and having widespread coverage since 1973. We show that these datasets overlap with fire emission estimates from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) enabling us to estimate fire emissions over the last 50 years. We will discuss how fires have varied over time in this region with globally significant emissions, how droughts have influenced fire activity and deforestation rates, and what the impact is of land-use change caused by fire on emissions in the Amazon region.

  19. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Observing Earth from space over the past 50 years has fundamentally transformed the way people view our home planet. The image of the "blue marble" is taken for granted now, but it was revolutionary when taken in 1972 by the crew on Apollo 17. Since then the capability to look at Earth from space has grown increasingly sophisticated and has evolved from simple photographs to quantitative measurements of Earth properties such as temperature, concentrations of atmospheric trace gases, and the exact elevation of land and ocean. Imaging Earth from space has resulted in major scientific accomplishments; these observations have led to new discoveries, transformed the Earth sciences, opened new avenues of research, and provided important societal benefits by improving the predictability of Earth system processes. This report highlights the scientific achievements made possible by the first five decades of Earth satellite observations by space-faring nations. It follows on a recent report from the National Research Council (NRC) entitled Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, also referred to as the "decadal survey." Recognizing the increasing need for space observations, the decadal survey identifies future directions and priorities for Earth observations from space. This companion report was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to highlight, through selected examples, important past contributions of Earth observations from space to our current understanding of the planet.

  20. Occupational Exposure to Hydrazine and Subsequent Risk of Lung Cancer: 50-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joan K.; Wald, Nicholas J.; Springett, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hydrazine is carcinogenic in animals, but there is inadequate evidence to determine if it is carcinogenic in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the association between hydrazine exposure and the risk of lung cancer. Methods The cause specific mortality rates of a cohort of 427 men who were employed at an English factory that produced hydrazine between 1945 and 1971 were compared with national mortality rates. Results By the end of December 2012 205 deaths had occurred. For men in the highest exposure category with greater than two years exposure and after more than ten years since first exposure the relative risks compared with national rates were: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18–2.48) for lung cancer, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.07–2.21) for cancers of the digestive system, and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.05–1.57) for other cancers. Conclusions After 50 years of follow up, the results provide no evidence of an increased risk of death from lung cancer or death from any other cause. PMID:26394402

  1. 50 Years of renal physiology from one man and the perfused tubule: Maurice B. Burg.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kirk L; Moore, Antoni B

    2016-08-01

    Technical advancements in research techniques in science are made in slow increments. Even so, large advances from insight and hard work of an individual with a single technique can have astonishing ramifications. Here, we examine the impact of Dr. Maurice B. Burg and the isolated perfused renal tubule technique and celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication by Dr. Burg and his colleagues of their landmark paper in the American Journal of Physiology in 1966. In this study, we have taken a scientific visualization approach to study the scientific contributions of Dr. Burg and the isolated perfused tubule preparation as determining research impact by the number of research students, postdoctoral fellows, visiting scientists, and national and international collaborators. Additionally, we have examined the research collaborations (first and second generation scientists), established the migrational visualization of the first generation scientists who worked directly with Dr. Burg, quantified the metrics indices, identified and quantified the network of coauthorship of the first generation scientists with their second generation links, and determined the citations analyses of outputs of Dr. Burg and/or his first generation collaborators as coauthors. We also review the major advances in kidney physiology that have been made with the isolated perfused tubule technique. Finally, we are all waiting for the discoveries that the isolated perfused preparation technique will bring during the next 50 years. PMID:27122544

  2. Applications of mass spectrometry in drug metabolism: 50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bo; Zhu, Mingshe

    2015-02-01

    Mass spectrometry plays a pivotal role in drug metabolism studies, which are an integral part of drug discovery and development nowadays. Metabolite identification has become critical to understanding the metabolic fate of drug candidates and to aid lead optimization with improved metabolic stability, toxicology and efficacy profiles. Ever since the introduction of atmospheric ionization techniques in the early 1990s, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has secured a central role as the predominant analytical platform for metabolite identification as LC and MS technologies continually advanced. In this review, we discuss the evolution of both MS technology and its applications over the past 50 years to meet the increasing demand of drug metabolism studies. These advances include ionization sources, mass analyzers, a wide range of MS acquisition strategies and data mining tools that have substantially accelerated the metabolite identification process and changed the overall drug metabolism landscape. Exemplary applications for characterization and identification of both small-molecule xenobiotics and biological macromolecules are described. In addition, this review discusses novel MS technologies and applications, including xenobiotic metabolomics that hold additional promise for advancing drug metabolism research, and offers thoughts on remaining challenges in studying the metabolism and disposition of drugs and other xenobiotics. PMID:25639893

  3. How the World Survived the Population Bomb: Lessons From 50 Years of Extraordinary Demographic History

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David

    2012-01-01

    The world population will reach 7 billion in late 2011, a demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This article looks at the last 50 years of demographic change, one of the most extraordinary periods in demographic history. During this period, world population grew at rates that have never been seen before and will almost surely never be seen again. There were many concerns about the potential impact of rapid population growth in the 1960s, including mass starvation in countries such as India, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased poverty in low-income countries. The actual experience was very different. World food production increased faster than world population in every decade since the 1960s, resource prices fell during most of the period, and poverty declined significantly in much of the developing world. The article considers the economic and demographic explanations for the surprising successes of this important period in demographic history. It also looks at regions that have been less successful, especially Africa, and at the lessons for dealing with the important challenges that still remain. PMID:22005884

  4. Incidence and Mortality after Distal Radius Fractures in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and mortality of distal radius fracture among patients 50 years of age and older with diagnosis code (ICD10; S52.5, S52.6) and treatment code using a nationwide claims database from 2008 to 2012. All patients were followed using patient identification code to identify deaths. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of distal radius fracture were calculated based on age and gender-specific rates in the entire Korean population. The number of distal radius fractures increased by 54.2% over the 5-year study (48,145 in 2008 and 74,240 in 2012). The incidence of distal radius fracture increased from 367.4/100,000 in 2008 to 474.1/100,000 in 2012. The cumulative mortality rate over the first 12 months after distal radius fracture was decreased from 2.0% (968/48,145) in 2008 to 1.4% (1,045/74,240) in 2012. The mean year mortality over 5 years in men (2.6%, 1,279/50,128) over the first 12 months was 1.7-times higher than in women (1.5%, 3,952/257,045). The mean of SMR of distal radius fracture at 1 year post-fracture was 1.45 in men and 1.17 in women. This study using a nationwide database demonstrates that the distal radius fractures are increasing with a decreasing mortality in Korea. PMID:27051250

  5. Influenza Vaccine-Induced CNS Demyelination in a 50-Year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    Sacheli, Aaron; Bauer, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 50 Final Diagnosis: Acute post-vaccination CNS demyelinating disorder Symptoms: Blurred vision • hemiparesis • hemiplegia • hypertonia • itching • paresthesia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: MRI Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: There are several categories of primary inflammatory demyelinating disorders, which comprise clinically similar neurologic sequelae. Of interest, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are 2 demyelinating conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), whose clinical similarity pose a significant challenge to definitive diagnosis. Yet, both remain important clinical considerations in patients with neurologic signs and symptoms in the context of recent vaccination. Case Report: We report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian male with a course of progressive, focal, neurologic deficits within 24 h after receiving the influenza vaccine. Subsequent work-up revealed the possibility of an acute central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating episode secondary to the influenza vaccine, best described as either CIS or ADEM. Conclusions: Case reports of CNS demyelination following vaccinations have been previously noted, most often occurring in the context of recent influenza vaccination. This report serves to document a case of CNS demyelination occurring 24 h after influenza vaccination in a middle-aged patient, and will describe some salient features regarding the differential diagnosis of CIS and ADEM, as well as their potential management. PMID:25175754

  6. Thoracic outlet syndrome: a 50-year experience at Baylor University Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Kourlis, Harry

    2007-01-01

    During the past 5 decades, the recognition and management of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) have evolved. This article elucidates these changes and improvements in the diagnosis and management of TOS at Baylor University Medical Center. The most remarkable change over the past 50 years is the use of nerve conduction velocity to diagnose and monitor patients with nerve compression. Recognition that procedures such as breast implantation and median sternotomy may produce TOS has been revealing. Prompt thrombolysis followed by surgical venous decompression for Paget-Schroetter syndrome has markedly improved results compared with the conservative anticoagulation approach; thrombolysis and prompt first rib resection is the optimal treatment for most patients with Paget-Schroetter syndrome. Complete first rib extirpation at the initial procedure markedly reduces the incidence of recurrent neurologic symptoms or the need for a second procedure. Chest pain or pseudoangina can be caused by TOS. Dorsal sympathectomy is helpful for patients with sympathetic maintained pain syndrome or causalgia and patients with recurrent TOS symptoms who need a second procedure. PMID:17431445

  7. Unilateral lower limb lymphedema resulting from a heart surgery performed 50 years prior

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Satoshi; Miura, Yuki; Sugiyama, Narushi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is classified into two main types: secondary lymphedema accompanied by lymph node excision surgery or radiotherapy; and idiopathic lymphedema. Here we experienced a very rare case of lymphatic edema resulting from cardiac surgery that the patient underwent 50 years previously. Presentation of case A 62-year-old woman experienced progressive unilateral lower leg lymphedema for recent years. After undergoing cardiac surgery at another hospital at the age of 12 years, she gradually developed left lower leg edema. The cause of the edema was unclear and it remained untreated. Her edema symptoms gradually worsened in recent years, so she consulted the plastic surgery division of our hospital. Discusssion Perhaps the lymphatic structures of affected individuals differ prior to disease onset. If the mechanism of lymphatic edema outbreak is elucidated, patients needing conservative and surgical therapy might be more easily identified. Knowing the outbreak mechanism of lymphatic edema would definitely ease the investigation of an unconventional case like this one. Conservative treatments for lymphedema, such as self-massage and compression therapy using garments, were immediately started. With these treatments, the leg volume and edema symptoms reduced. Conclusion The research on the cause of this case may be important step for elucidating the source of secondary lymphatic edema. PMID:26719996

  8. Aging in Prader-Willi syndrome: twelve persons over the age of 50 years.

    PubMed

    Sinnema, Margje; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M; Maaskant, Marian A; Boer, Harm; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-06-01

    The life expectancy of persons with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) has increased in recent years. Because of the paucity of reports on older persons with PWS, the natural history, the onset, and type of age-related problems are poorly understood. Twelve persons with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of PWS aged over 50 years are described (4 deletion; 8 mUPD). Data on physical, behavioral, psychiatric, and aging characteristics were collected through semi-structured interviews with the individuals with PWS and their main carers. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, dermatological, and orthopedic problems were common physical complaints in older people with PWS. Functioning in activities of daily living, psychological functioning, physical functions, and care dependence were substantially worse in the older age group (50+) compared to the control group (18-49 years). Seven out of eight persons with mUPD had a history of psychiatric illness. Behavioral problems were observed in the older age group. Given the combination of age-related physical morbidity, physical appearance, behavioral and psychiatric problems, and functional decline in our cohort, we hypothesize that premature aging occurs in PWS. The care for older people with PWS requires a lifespan approach that recognizes the presence, progression, and consequences of specific morbidity. Special medical surveillance of people with PWS from 40 years onwards would ensure that intervention and support is offered with respect to specific areas of decline at the earliest possible time. PMID:22585395

  9. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's (CCAS) Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast that began with the Bumper rockets. At right, Norris Gray, a Bumper Program veteran, unveils a street sign that will be used to mark the road leading to the launch complex from which Bumper was launched. Seen on the stage are, left to right, Lt. Col. Randall K. Horn (at the podium), Commander, CCAS; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. Also present (but not seen) is Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  10. Alumina-alumina hip replacement in patients younger than 50 years old.

    PubMed

    Sedel, L; Nizard, R S; Kerboull, L; Witvoet, J

    1994-01-01

    From April 1977 to December 1990, 131 total hip arthroplasties were performed on 113 patients younger than 50 years of age (median, 41 years); 64 were men and 49 women. The majority were active people. Sixty-six hips had no previous operations, and 33 had at least one previous arthroplasty. The femoral component was a cemented collared titanium alloy stem, and alumina socket was cemented for 99 hips and press-fit for 32. The mean follow-up period was five years, with 32 hips followed for more than ten years. Revision arthroplasty was considered as a failure. Survivorship analysis depicted a 97.5% rate of survival at five years, an 89.4% rate at ten years, and an 86.2% at 11 years. Nine revisions were performed: one experienced a femoral head rupture after three years, one had bipolar loosening, one experienced femoral cystic formation, and six were revised for acetabular cup loosening, all from the cemented group. Two revisions occurred on the same patient. No stem revision was necessary before ten years. Only one of these revisions was required in patients aged 40 or younger (64 patients). Alumina-alumina friction is an extremely interesting phenomenon in young patients, and could be related to the low wear debris production. PMID:8118972

  11. Orthogonal electrocardiogram, apex cardiogram, and atrial sound in normotensive and hypertensive 50-year-old men.

    PubMed Central

    Wikstrand, J; Berglund, G; Wilhelmsen, L; Wallentin, I

    1976-01-01

    The prevalence of signs of heart involvement was studied non-invasively in a group of untreated hypertensives (n=35) and a reference group (n=73), all derived from a random population sample of 50-year-old men. Signs of left ventricular hypertrophy were studied by means of orthogonal electrocardiography and conventional electrocardiography. Signs of decreased distensibility of the left ventricle were studied by apex cardiography and registration of atrial sounds. Left ventricular hypertrophy among hypertensives was significantly more common according to orthogonal electrocardiography (33%) than according to conventional electrocardiography (9%), indicating that the former may be a better method for detection of left ventricular hypertrophy than the latter. In the hypertension group the amplitude of the R wave in lead X on orthogonal electrocardiography was positively correlated to casual diastolic blood pressure (r=0-40) and to diastolic blood pressure after one hour's rest (r=0-65). The degree of pressure load leading to left ventricular hypertrophy seems to be better reflected by resting than by casual blood pressure. There was no hypertensive subject with both signs of left ventricular hypertrophy on orthogonal electrocardiography and either an a/H ratio over 15 per cent or an abnormal atrial sound, indicating two different forms of cardiac involvement as the result of hypertension. Casual blood pressures became normal during rest in hypertensives with a/H ratio over 15 per cent on apex cardiography or abnormal atrial sound, not in hypertensives with signs of left ventricular hypertrophy on orthogonal electrocardiography. PMID:135571

  12. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems

    PubMed Central

    Ladha, J. K.; Tirol-Padre, A.; Reddy, C. K.; Cassman, K. G.; Verma, Sudhir; Powlson, D. S.; van Kessel, C.; de B. Richter, Daniel; Chakraborty, Debashis; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551 Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737 Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25 kg ha−1 yr−1 for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed by sources other than fertilizer- or soil-N. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation appears to be the major source of this N, which is 370 Tg or 24% of total N in the crop, corresponding to 13, 22, and 13 kg ha−1 yr−1 for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively. Manure (217 Tg or 14%) and atmospheric deposition (96 Tg or 6%) are the other sources of N. Crop residues and seed contribute marginally. Our scaling-down approach to estimate the contribution of non-symbiotic N2 fixation is robust because it focuses on global quantities of N in sources and sinks that are easier to estimate, in contrast to estimating N losses per se, because losses are highly soil-, climate-, and crop-specific. PMID:26778035

  13. How far we have come in the last 50 years in smoking attitudes and actions.

    PubMed

    Burns, David

    2014-02-01

    Dramatic changes in smoking behavior and attitudes about smoking have occurred over the 50-year interval since the release of the 1964 smoking and health report to the Surgeon General. Between 1965 and 2011, adult prevalence of cigarette smoking fell from 51.9 to 21.6% among men and from 33.9 to 16.5% among women, with an increasing fraction of smokers who do not smoke every day. Federal taxes have increased from $0.08 in 1965 to $1.01, with even larger increases in many state taxes. Workplace restrictions on smoking have increased from only 3% of workers protected by workplace smoking bans in 1986 (e.g., those working in fireworks factories) to more than 70% of workers being protected in 1999. Equally dramatic changes have occurred in restrictions on smoking in the home. The evaporation of the remaining societal support for smoking may be an important part of the "end game" for cigarette smoking in the United States. PMID:24575990

  14. The Demoiselle of X-Inactivation: 50 Years Old and As Trendy and Mesmerising As Ever

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Céline; Avner, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In humans, sexual dimorphism is associated with the presence of two X chromosomes in the female, whereas males possess only one X and a small and largely degenerate Y chromosome. How do men cope with having only a single X chromosome given that virtually all other chromosomal monosomies are lethal? Ironically, or even typically many might say, women and more generally female mammals contribute most to the job by shutting down one of their two X chromosomes at random. This phenomenon, called X-inactivation, was originally described some 50 years ago by Mary Lyon and has captivated an increasing number of scientists ever since. The fascination arose in part from the realisation that the inactive X corresponded to a dense heterochromatin mass called the “Barr body” whose number varied with the number of Xs within the nucleus and from the many intellectual questions that this raised: How does the cell count the X chromosomes in the nucleus and inactivate all Xs except one? What kind of molecular mechanisms are able to trigger such a profound, chromosome-wide metamorphosis? When is X-inactivation initiated? How is it transmitted to daughter cells and how is it reset during gametogenesis? This review retraces some of the crucial findings, which have led to our current understanding of a biological process that was initially considered as an exception completely distinct from conventional regulatory systems but is now viewed as a paradigm “par excellence” for epigenetic regulation. PMID:21811421

  15. The Axon Initial Segment, 50Years Later: A Nexus for Neuronal Organization and Function.

    PubMed

    Leterrier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The axon initial segment is a highly specialized neuronal compartment, identified almost 50years ago by the pioneers of electron microscopy. Located in the first 50μm of the axon, it contains unique cytoskeletal features and concentrates a repertoire of specific scaffold and membrane proteins that assembles just after axon determination. The axon initial segment (AIS) supports two crucial physiological functions of the mature neuron: first, it generates and shapes the action potential. Second, it separates the cell body from the axon, preserving the molecular identity of each compartment. In addition to a diffusion barrier restricting membrane proteins and lipids exchange, an intracellular filter has been proposed that could selectively exclude somatodendritic vesicles and recruit axonal cargoes. Finally, the AIS scaffold is capable of morphological plasticity during development or in response to network activity. These changes directly impact the neuron excitability, allowing an adaptive and homeostatic response. These plastic electrogenic properties, as well as the regulation of protein transport to and from the axon, may have important implications in several neuropathological contexts where the AIS structure is altered. Fifty years after its first characterization, the AIS thus emerges as a nexus for both neuronal organization and physiology. PMID:26781833

  16. 50 Years of Electronic Check Out and Launch Systems at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stanley O.

    2007-01-01

    When NASA was created in 1958 one of the elements incorporated into this new agency was the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) in Huntsville, AL and its subordinate Missile Firing Laboratory (MFL) in Cape Canaveral. Under NASA, the MFL became the Launch Operations Directorate of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, but expanding operations in the build up to Apollo dictated that it be given the status of a full fledged Center in July, 1 962[ 1]. The next year it was renamed the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KS C) after the president whose vision transformed its first decade of operation. The ABMA was under the technical leadership of Dr. Werner Von Braun. The MEL was run by his deputy Dr. Kurt Debus, an electrical engineer whose experience in the field began in the early days of V-2 testing in war time Germany. In 1952 a group led by Debus arrived in Cape Canaveral to begin test launches of the new Redstone missile [2]. During the 50's, The MFL built several launch complexes and tested the Redstone, Jupiter and Jupiter C missiles. This small experienced team of engineers and technicians formed the seed from which has grown the KSC team of today. This article briefly reviews the evolution of the KSC electronic technologies for integration, check-out and launch of space vehicles and payloads during NASA's first 50 years.

  17. Commitment Tracking System (CTS)

    2009-08-07

    The CTS enables the identification and management of compliance actions and issues originating from multiple sources. CTS also possesses search capabilities enabling quick identification of upcoming commitments while providing a method of documenting and maintaining completion dates and compliance information when a commitment is met.

  18. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective

    PubMed Central

    Trompetter, Hester R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Lamers, Sanne M. A.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.

    2016-01-01

    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web

  19. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective.

    PubMed

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Lamers, Sanne M A; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2016-01-01

    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web

  20. Watershed-scale Evapotranspiration Changed Little over 50 years of Agricultural Land Abandonment in Southern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, S. K.; Hussain, M. Z.; Lowrie, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The difference between precipitation and stream discharge over annual periods provides an indication of the total water loss to evaporation and evapotranspiration. The response of evaporative water loss to land cover change affects groundwater recharge, stream flow, and lake levels. This study examined the watershed water balance for Augusta Creek, which drains a 95-km2 glacial landscape in southwestern Michigan covered by cropland, grassland, forest, and wetlands. The climate is humid and temperate; between 1964-2014 the water-year precipitation averaged 948 mm and ranged from 695-1386 mm with no temporal trend. Over the study period the percentage of land in agriculture has decreased to about a third of its original extent, with abandoned lands gradually transitioning from old fields to woody vegetation. Comparison of precipitation on the upland watershed to baseflow discharge (USGS data; baseflow estimation by WHAT model) across the 50-year record shows that total evaporative water loss averaged 563 + 103 mm and ranged from 385-897 mm, with no apparent trend over the record. The evaporative water loss accounts for a mean + s.d. of 59 + 6% of precipitation (range, 48-70%). Evaporative water loss was positively related to total precipitation (r2 = 0.74. These results are interpreted using a Budyko plot framework to facilitate comparison with other settings. This water balance approach to infer evaporative water loss compares well with direct measurements in the same watershed since 2009 using eddy covariance (grasslands and crops) and soil moisture monitoring by time-domain reflectometry (grasslands, crops, and forest). Thus the evaporative water loss, which is predominantly by evapotranspiration, has been remarkably similar across a period of changing land cover, leaving a relatively consistent proportion for groundwater recharge and streamflow.

  1. Discovering the 50 Years of Solar System Exploration: Sharing Your Science with the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Halligan, E.; Boonstra, D.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.; Zimmerman Brachman, R.

    2012-10-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers ways for scientists to bring NASA’s science discoveries to their audiences! YSS and the continuing salute to the 50-year history of solar system exploration provide an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system for educators and the general public. During the last five decades, NASA has launched a variety of robotic spacecraft to study our solar system. Over that time, our understanding of planets has been revolutionized, as has the technology that has made these discoveries possible.Looking forward, the numerous ongoing and future robotic missions are returning new discoveries of our solar system at an unprecedented rate. YSS combines the discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of the ongoing missions and connects them to related topics based on the big questions of planetary science, including solar system formation, volcanism, ice, and possible life elsewhere. Planetary scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS in a variety of ways: - Give a talk at a local museum, planetarium, library, or school to share YSS and your research - Partner with a local educational institution to organize a night sky viewing or mission milestone community event - Work with a classroom teacher to explore one of the topics with students - Connect with a planetary science E/PO professional to identify ways to participate, like creating podcasts,vodcasts, or contributing to monthly topics - Share your ideas for events and activities with the planetaryE/PO community to identify partners and pathways for distribution - And more! Promotional and educational materials, updates, a calendar of activities, and a space to share experiences are available at NASA’s Solar System website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. This is an exciting time in planetary sciences as we learn about New Worlds and make New Discoveries!

  2. Spatiotemporal variations of precipitation extremes of China during the past 50 years (1960-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiaoxiao; Yin, Zhan'e.; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Yuke

    2016-05-01

    Extreme weather events have become more frequent and intense under global warming in recent years, which has attracted much attention of scholars at home and abroad. In this paper, we used data sets of daily precipitation recorded at 499 meteorological stations to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation extremes in China over the past 50 years (1960-2009). Through the comparison of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the percentile method, DFA was selected to define the thresholds of precipitation extremes in China. Temporal variations of extreme precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity were analyzed in four major regions: Northwest China, the Qinghai-Tibet region, North China, and South China. Spatial distributions were obtained by the Kriging interpolation method, and then, we examined the varying tendencies of extreme precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity by the Mann-Kendall test. The results show that increasing trends are dominant for all indices over China; extreme precipitation amount and frequency appear to have risen since 1970-1979, but there are some regional differences. The Qinghai-Tibet region and South China have an ascending trend, and Northwest China maintains balance while North China has a descending trend. The amount and intensity of precipitation extremes are decreasing from southeastern coastal areas to northwestern inlands, and the frequency of precipitation extremes is randomly distributed. However, they are all high in the Sichuan Basin, the middle and lower Yangtze River, and the southern part of South China. Trends of most stations are statistically insignificant, but the percentage of stations with a significant increased trend in the Qinghai-Tibet region is larger than that of other regions.

  3. Biogeochemical control of marine productivity in the Mediterranean Sea during the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Piroddi, Chiara; Stips, Adolf

    2014-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of biogeochemical variables derived from a coupled 3-D model of the Mediterranean Sea are evaluated for the last 50 years (1960-2010) against independent data on fisheries catch per unit effort (CPUE) for the same time period. Concordant patterns are found in the time series of all of the biological variables (from the model and from fisheries statistics), with low values at the beginning of the series, a later increase, with maximum levels reached at the end of the 1990s, and a posterior stabilization. Spectral analysis of the annual biological time series reveals coincident low-frequency signals in all of them. The first, more energetic signal peaks around the year 2000, while the second, less energetic signal peaks near 1982. Almost identical low-frequency signals are found in the nutrient loads of the rivers and in the integrated nutrient levels in the surface marine ecosystem. Nitrate concentration shows a maximum level in 1998, with a later stabilization to present-day values, coincident with the first low-frequency signal found in the biological series. Phosphate shows maximum concentrations around 1982 and a posterior sharp decline, in concordance with the second low-frequency signal observed in the biological series. That result seems to indicate that the control of marine productivity (plankton to fish) in the Mediterranean is principally mediated through bottom-up processes that could be traced back to the characteristics of riverine discharges. The high sensitivity of CPUE time series to environmental conditions might be another indicator of the overexploitation of this marine ecosystem.

  4. 50 years of DNA ‘Breathing’: Reflections on Old and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    von Hippel, Peter H.; Johnson, Neil P.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The coding sequences for genes, and much other regulatory information involved in genome expression, are located ‘inside’ the DNA duplex. Thus the ‘macromolecular machines’ that read-out this information from the base sequence of the DNA must somehow access the DNA ‘interior’. Double-stranded (ds) DNA is a highly structured and cooperatively stabilized system at physiological temperatures, but is also only marginally stable and undergoes a cooperative ‘melting phase transition’ at temperatures not far above physiological. Furthermore, due to its length and heterogeneous sequence, with AT-rich segments being less stable than GC-rich segments, the DNA genome ‘melts’ in a multistate fashion. Therefore the DNA genome must also manifest thermally driven structural (‘breathing’) fluctuations at physiological temperatures that should reflect the heterogeneity of the dsDNA stability near the melting temperature. Thus many of the breathing fluctuations of dsDNA are likely also to be sequence dependent, and could well contain information that should be ‘readable’ and useable by regulatory proteins and protein complexes in site-specific binding reactions involving dsDNA ‘opening’. Our laboratory has been involved in studying the breathing fluctuations of duplex DNA for about 50 years. In this ‘Reflections’ article we present a relatively chronological overview of these studies, starting with the use of simple chemical probes (such as hydrogen exchange, formaldehyde and simple DNA ‘melting’ proteins) to examine the local stability of the dsDNA structure, and culminating in sophisticated spectroscopic approaches that can be used to monitor the breathing-dependent interactions of regulatory complexes with their duplex DNA targets in ‘real time’. PMID:23840028

  5. Southern Alpine floods of the last 50 years recorded in the sediment record from Lago Maggiore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, L.; Brauer, A.; Guilizzoni, P.; Lami, A.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency of extreme floods is increasingly discussed under meteorological and anthropogenic forcing aspects because of their potentially disastrous consequences. Existing hydrological and meteorological instrumental data are, however, limited to rather short time scales. Records of natural geoarchives like lacustrine sediments, in contrast, reach much further back in time and reflect climate changes and environmental processes. In particular, extreme floods give an imprint to lake sediment records. The sediment loaded stream enters the lake water and eventually is deposited as a detrital layer. Here we present a multicore study from Pallanza Basin in the western part of Lago Maggiore. Major detrital layers are triggered mainly by flooding events of the Toce River. Through microfacies analyses of petrographic thin-sections and high-resolution element scanning techniques several detrital layers have been identified and correlated to historical flood events of the last 50 years. For this time interval fifteen flood event layers have been identified in the sediment record. Their thicknesses range from 0.5 to more than 15 mm. Noticeable is a rise of flooding events in the 1970s, which might be related to a change in atmospheric circulation patterns as documented in the NAO index. Comparison of these detrital layers in different cores allowed reconstructing their spatial distribution within the Pallanza Basin. Two detrital layers are clearly not related to regional floods but were generated by local slope failure or debris flows. This work is combined with studies of biological remains and pigment analyses, proving evidence of historical changes in the trophic state, pollution and climate history of the lake. Overall a comprehensive reconstruction of anthropogenic and climatic changes to Lake Maggiore for the last five decades is shown.

  6. Significant warming of continental West Antarctica in the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steig, E. J.; Schneider, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    We use statistical climate field reconstruction techniques to determine monthly temperature anomalies for the near-surface of the Antarctic ice sheet since 1957. Two independent data sets are used to provide estimates of the spatial covariance patterns of temperature: automatic weather stations and thermal infrared satellite observations. Quality-controlled data from occupied instrumental weather stations are used to determine the amplitude of changes in those covariance patterns through time. We use a modified principal component analyses technique (Steig et al., in review, Nature) to optimize the combination of spatial and temporal information. Verification statistics obtained from subsets of the data demonstrate the resulting reconstructions represent improvements relative to climatological mean values. We find that significant warming has occurred over most of continental West Antarctica. This is an area much larger than previously reported; most studies have concluded that warming is limited to the Antarctic Peninsula. An updated version of the recent temperature reconstruction of Monaghan et al. (2008, JGR) independently confirms our results. Warming in continental West Antarctica in the last 50 years exceeds 0.1 °C/decade, and is strongest in Spring. A possible explanation is an increase in storms in the Amundsen-Bellinghausen sea, resulting in enhanced warm air fluxes to the continent. Increased storminess in this sector is associated with the positive phase of the zonal wave-3 pattern, which independent observations suggest has increased since the 1970s (Raphael, GRL, 2004). The substantial negative sea ice anomalies in the Amundsen-Bellinghausen sea may also play a role. Our results suggest that changes in the wave-3 pattern dominates over (possibly anthropogenic) changes in the Southern Annular Mode in explaining recent Antarctic temperature variability.

  7. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  8. The integration of science and politics to clean up 50 years in the nuclear sandbox

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.E.; Holeman, T.

    1999-07-01

    The Cold War was fought between world superpowers for approximately 40 years from the end of the second World War until the end of the 1980s. During that time, the US government devoted billions of dollars to the development and production of nuclear weapons. Now the Cold War is over and the US is left with numerous nuclear weapons factories, stockpiles of nuclear materials, and mountains of waste to decontaminate and decommission. In the heat of the Cold War, little or no thought was given to how the facilities building bombs would be dismantled. Far too little attention was paid to the potential human health and environmental impact of the weapons production. Now, dozens of communities across the country face the problems this negligence created. In many cases, the location, extent, and characteristics of the waste and contamination are unknown, due to negligence or due to intentional hiding of waste and associated problems. Water supplies are contaminated and threatened; air quality is degraded and threatened; workers and residents risk contamination and health impacts; entire communities risk disaster from potential nuclear catastrophe. The US government, in the form of the US Department of Energy (DOE), now accepts responsibility for creating and cleaning up the mess. But it is the local communities, the home towns of the bomb factories and laboratories, that carry a significant share of the burden of inventing the science and politics required to clean up 50 years in the nuclear sandbox. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of the local community in addressing the cleanup of the US nuclear weapons complex. Local governments do not own nor are responsible for the environmental aftermath, but remain the perpetual neighbor to the facility, the hometown of workers, and long-term caretaker of the off-site impacts of the on-site contamination and health risks.

  9. Sequential Imaging of Earth by Astronauts: 50 Years of Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, astronauts have collected sequential imagery of the Earth. In fact, the collection of astronaut photography comprises one of the earliest sets of data (1961 to present) available to scientists to study the regional context of the Earth s surface and how it changes. While today s availability of global high resolution satellite imagery enables anyone with an internet connection to examine specific features on the Earth s surface with a regional context, historical satellite imagery adds another dimension (time) that provides researchers and students insight about the features and processes of a region. For example, one of the geographic areas with the longest length of record contained within the astronaut photography database is the lower Nile River. The database contains images that document the flooding of Lake Nasser (an analog to today s flooding behind China s Three Gorges Dam), the changing levels of Lake Nasser s water with multiyear cycles of flood and drought, the recent flooding and drying of the Toshka Lakes, as well as urban growth, changes in agriculture and coastal subsidence. The imagery database allows investigations using different time scales (hours to decades) and spatial scales (resolutions and fields of view) as variables. To continue the imagery collection, the astronauts on the International Space Station are trained to understand basic the Earth Sciences and look for and photograph major events such as tropical storms, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, and document landscapes undergoing change (e.g., coastal systems, cities, changing forest cover). We present examples of selected sequences of astronaut imagery that illustrate the interdependence of geological processes, climate cycles, human geography and development, and prompt additional questions about the underlying elements of change.

  10. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease in individuals between 40 and 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Holzmann, Martin J; Wändell, Per; Gasevic, Danijela; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has decreased in general but not among younger middle-aged adults. We performed a cohort study of the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) at the age of 40 and risk of MI before the age of 50 years. Methods All individuals in Sweden were included in the year of their 40th birthday, if it occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorise neighbourhood SES into high, middle and low, and to retrieve information on incident MI and coronary heart disease (CHD). Cox regression models, adjusted for marital status, education level, immigrant status and region of residence, provided an estimate of the HRs and 95% CIs for MI or CHD. Results Out of 587 933 men and 563 719 women, incident MI occurred in 2877 (0.48%) men and 932 (0.17%) women; and CHD occurred in 4400 (0.74%) men and 1756 (0.31%) women during a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. Using individuals living in middle-SES neighbourhoods as referents, living in high-SES neighbourhoods was associated with lower risk of MI in both sexes (HR (95% CI): men: 0.72 (0.64 to 0.82), women: 0.66 (0.53 to 0.81)); living in low-SES neighbourhoods was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR (95% CI): men: 1.31 (1.20 to 1.44), women: 1.28 (1.08 to 1.50)). Similar risk estimates for CHD were found. Conclusions The results of our study suggest an increased risk of MI and CHD among residents from low-SES neighbourhoods and a lower risk in those from high-SES neighbourhoods compared with residents in middle-SES neighbourhoods. PMID:26864672

  11. Perceptions of employment relations and permanence in the organization: mediating effects of affective commitment in relations of psychological contract and intention to quit.

    PubMed

    Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José

    2012-06-01

    Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations. PMID:22897088

  12. Estimating least-developed countries' vulnerability to climate-related extreme events over the next 50 years.

    PubMed

    Patt, Anthony G; Tadross, Mark; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Asante, Kwabena; Metzger, Marc; Rafael, Jose; Goujon, Anne; Brundrit, Geoff

    2010-01-26

    When will least developed countries be most vulnerable to climate change, given the influence of projected socio-economic development? The question is important, not least because current levels of international assistance to support adaptation lag more than an order of magnitude below what analysts estimate to be needed, and scaling up support could take many years. In this paper, we examine this question using an empirically derived model of human losses to climate-related extreme events, as an indicator of vulnerability and the need for adaptation assistance. We develop a set of 50-year scenarios for these losses in one country, Mozambique, using high-resolution climate projections, and then extend the results to a sample of 23 least-developed countries. Our approach takes into account both potential changes in countries' exposure to climatic extreme events, and socio-economic development trends that influence countries' own adaptive capacities. Our results suggest that the effects of socio-economic development trends may begin to offset rising climate exposure in the second quarter of the century, and that it is in the period between now and then that vulnerability will rise most quickly. This implies an urgency to the need for international assistance to finance adaptation. PMID:20080585

  13. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mahmad Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket. PMID:27447646

  14. Estimating least-developed countries’ vulnerability to climate-related extreme events over the next 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Patt, Anthony G.; Tadross, Mark; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Asante, Kwabena; Metzger, Marc; Rafael, Jose; Goujon, Anne; Brundrit, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    When will least developed countries be most vulnerable to climate change, given the influence of projected socio-economic development? The question is important, not least because current levels of international assistance to support adaptation lag more than an order of magnitude below what analysts estimate to be needed, and scaling up support could take many years. In this paper, we examine this question using an empirically derived model of human losses to climate-related extreme events, as an indicator of vulnerability and the need for adaptation assistance. We develop a set of 50-year scenarios for these losses in one country, Mozambique, using high-resolution climate projections, and then extend the results to a sample of 23 least-developed countries. Our approach takes into account both potential changes in countries’ exposure to climatic extreme events, and socio-economic development trends that influence countries’ own adaptive capacities. Our results suggest that the effects of socio-economic development trends may begin to offset rising climate exposure in the second quarter of the century, and that it is in the period between now and then that vulnerability will rise most quickly. This implies an urgency to the need for international assistance to finance adaptation. PMID:20080585

  15. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A.; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mahmad Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket. PMID:27447646

  16. Building on 50 Years of Systems Engineering Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul K.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States (US) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair lunar lander, as well as the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Shuttle's propulsion elements and is managing the design and development of the Ares rockets, along with a host of other engineering assignments in the field of scientific space exploration. Specifically, the Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate houses the skilled workforce and unique facilities needed to build capable systems upon the foundation laid by the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle programs. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level testing activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural

  17. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Richard; Peto, Richard; Boreham, Jillian; Sutherland, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the hazards of cigarette smoking in men who formed their habits at different periods, and the extent of the reduction in risk when cigarette smoking is stopped at different ages. Design Prospective study that has continued from 1951 to 2001. Setting United Kingdom. Participants 34 439 male British doctors. Information about their smoking habits was obtained in 1951, and periodically thereafter; cause specific mortality was monitored for 50 years. Main outcome measures Overall mortality by smoking habit, considering separately men born in different periods. Results The excess mortality associated with smoking chiefly involved vascular, neoplastic, and respiratory diseases that can be caused by smoking. Men born in 1900-1930 who smoked only cigarettes and continued smoking died on average about 10 years younger than lifelong non-smokers. Cessation at age 60, 50, 40, or 30 years gained, respectively, about 3, 6, 9, or 10 years of life expectancy. The excess mortality associated with cigarette smoking was less for men born in the 19th century and was greatest for men born in the 1920s. The cigarette smoker versus non-smoker probabilities of dying in middle age (35-69) were 42% ν 24% (a twofold death rate ratio) for those born in 1900-1909, but were 43% ν 15% (a threefold death rate ratio) for those born in the 1920s. At older ages, the cigarette smoker versus non-smoker probabilities of surviving from age 70 to 90 were 10% ν 12% at the death rates of the 1950s (that is, among men born around the 1870s) but were 7% ν 33% (again a threefold death rate ratio) at the death rates of the 1990s (that is, among men born around the 1910s). Conclusion A substantial progressive decrease in the mortality rates among non-smokers over the past half century (due to prevention and improved treatment of disease) has been wholly outweighed, among cigarette smokers, by a progressive increase in the smoker ν non-smoker death rate ratio due to earlier and more

  18. Evidence for water cycle changes during past 50 years in Tibetan Plateau: Review and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, the largest geomorphologic unit on the Eurasian continent, and highest plateau in the world, exhibits “Asian water tower” A large amount of water is stored in the world’s highest and largest plateau, the Tibetan Plateau, in the forms of glaciers, snowpacks, lakes, and rivers. It is vital to understand whether the supply to these water resources has been experiencing any changes during recent global warming. Climate warming on the plateau in past decades has been suggested by meteorological observation and ice core records. The average annual and winter temperatures on the plateau rose about 0.16o and 0.32 o C per decade, respectively, from 1955 to 1996. The climatic warming trend seems more evident on the plateau than globally during the past 50 years. In response to the warming, one of the more important questions in hydrology is: if the climate warms in the future, will there be an intensification of the water cycle and, if so, what are evidence have been cached by current framework? There is considerable interest in this question because an intensification of the water cycle may lead to changes in water-resource availability, an increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts, and an amplification of warming through the water vapor feedback. Empirical evidence for ongoing intensification of the water cycle would provide additional support for the theoretical framework that links intensification with warming. There are 75 metrological observatories and 16 hydrological stations located on the Tibetan Plateau, comprising the Tibetan Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, and parts of Sichuan and Gansu provinces, widely ranging from southern to northern part of the plateau. These data can be approximately regarded as natural flow data because the human water use is very small in quantity and can thus be ignored in these gauged catchments, These data were widely used in estimation of variation of runoff and evaporation. Various satellite

  19. Relationship between microbial diversity and chemical contamination along a 50-year-old sediment core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthe, T.; Petit, F.; Boust, D.; Lesueur, P.; Roose-Amsaleg, C.; Cécillon, S.; Kaci-Benaicha, A.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of sediment microbial diversity (community structure) as an indicator of the impact of anthropogenic activities within an estuarine ecosystem. The diversity of microbial communities was investigated along a 5-m-long sediment core collected in an anthropized European estuary (Seine, France), giving an evolution of trace metal, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations over the last 50 years. An increase of trace metal and PCB concentrations are observed with depth, with an enrichment of these contaminants in the 1970s. The concentration profiles of light, intermediate and heavy PAHs showed distinct peaks, but the highest total PAH concentration was also detected in the sediment from the 1970s. We first investigated the bacterial community resistant to cobalt, zinc and cadmium by analyzing the diversity of the czcA gene encoding an RND efflux pump (Heavy Metal Efflux-RND) in 5-year and 33-year-old sediment samples displaying contrasted concentrations in these trace metals. The diversity of the czcA gene was reduced in the 33-year-old and more contaminated sediments suggesting a selection of resistant bacterial species. A molecular fingerprinting method (DGGE) was used to study the evolution of total microbial (Bacteria and Archaea) community structures for samples selected along the sediment core. A correlation is observed between the bacterial community structures, the sediment age, the trace metal and PAH concentrations. The metabolically active and total microbial communities were further characterized by a microarray approach (Phylochips) in sediment samples selected according to the DGGE results. Bacterial diversity was found dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes in all analyzed samples. Diversity of phylotypes corresponds to changes in PAH and trace metal concentrations in sediment, suggesting that chemical contaminants have

  20. The Astrophysical r-Process 50 Years after B{sup 2}FH

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, K.-L.; Pfeiffer, B.; Farouqi, K.; Mashonkina, L. I.

    2008-01-24

    Since the historical papers by Burbidge et al. and Cameron 50 years ago, it is generally accepted that half of the chemical elements above Fe are formed in explosive stellar scenarios by a rapid neutron-capture process (the classical ''r-process''). Already from their essential ideas, it became clear that a correct modelling of this nucleosynthesis process requires both, the knowledge of various nuclear properties very far from stability and a detailed description of the astrophysical environments. However, it took about three decades, until in 1986 the first experimental nuclear-physics data on the neutron-magic r-isotopes {sup 80}Zn and {sup 130}Cd could be obtained, which act as key ''waiting points'' in the respective A{approx_equal}80 and 130 peaks of the Solar-System (SS) r-abundances (N{sub r,{center_dot}}). Since then, using steadily improved nuclear data, we have optimized our r-process calculations to reproduce the present observables of the isotopic N{sub r,{center_dot}} ''residuals'', as well as the more recent elemental abundances in ultra-metal-poor, r-process-enriched halo stars. Concerning the latter observations, we support the basic idea about two different types of r-processes. Based on our many years' experience with the site-independent ''waiting-point approach'', we recently have extended our studies to fully dynamical network calculations for the most likely astrophysical r-process scenario, i.e. the high-entropy wind (HEW) of core-collapse type II supernovae (SN II). Again, an excellent reproduction of all observables for the ''main'' r-process has been achieved. However, a major difference is the nucleosynthesis origin of the lighter heavy elements in the 29{<=}Z{<=}45 mass region. Here, the HEW model predicts-instead of a ''weak'' neutron-capture r-process component-a primary rapid charged-particle process. This may explain the recent observations of a non-correlation of these elements with the heavier ''main'' r-process elements.

  1. EDITORIAL: International Conference on Finite Fermionic Systems: Nilsson Model 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    In 1955 Sven Gösta Nilsson published the paper `Binding States of Individual Nucleons in Strongly Deformed Nuclei'. This eminent work has been crucial for the understanding of the structure of deformed atomic nuclei. Moreover, the so-called Nilsson model has been widely used for the description of other types of finite systems of fermions such as quantum dots and cold fermionic atoms. During one week in June 2005 we celebrated in Lund the 50th anniversary of the Nilsson model with the International Conference on Finite Fermionic Systems - Nilsson Model 50 Years. With the historical view in mind, the conference focused on present and future problems in nuclear structure physics as well as on the physics of other types of finite Fermi systems. As a background to the recent developments Nobel Laureate Ben Mottelson presented a recollection of early applications and achievements of the Nilsson model in the first talk of the conference, including a personal view of Sven Gösta Nilsson. We are particularly pleased that this contribution could be included in these proceedings. The scientific programme was structured according to the following subjects: Shell structure and deformations The heaviest elements and beyond Nuclei far from stability Pairing correlations Nuclear spectroscopy: large deformations Nuclear spectroscopy: rotational states Order and chaos Cold fermionic atoms Quantum dots Many new and interesting results were presented in the 15 invited talks, 30 oral contributions, and in the 33 papers of the poster sessions. The present volume of Physica Scripta contains most of the talks, as well as the short contributions of the posters. We thank the speakers and all participants who actively contributed to give this memorable conference a very high scientific level in the presented contributions, as well as in numerous discussions inside and outside the sessions. We also thank the international advisory committee for their invaluable work in helping us setting up

  2. Comparison of weight loss outcomes 1 year after sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients aged above 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Praveenraj, Palanivelu; Gomes, Rachel M; Kumar, Saravana; Perumal, Sivalingam; Senthilnathan, Palanisamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Rajapandian, Subbiah; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Safe, effective weight loss with resolution of comorbidities has been convincingly demonstrated with bariatric surgery in the aged obese. They, however, lose less weight than younger individuals. It is not known if degree of weight loss is influenced by the choice of bariatric procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of weight loss between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in patients above the age of 50 years at 1 year after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients more than 50 years of age who underwent LSG or LRYGB between February 2012 and July 2013 with at least 1 year of follow-up. Data evaluated at 1 year included age, sex, weight, body mass index (BMI), mean operative time, percentage of weight loss and excess weight loss, resolution/remission of diabetes, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Of a total of 86 patients, 54 underwent LSG and 32 underwent LRYGB. The mean percentage of excess weight loss at the end of 1 year was 60.19 ± 17.45 % after LSG and 82.76 ± 34.26 % after LRYGB (P = 0.021). One patient developed a sleeve leak after LSG, and 2 developed iron deficiency anaemia after LRYGB. The remission/improvement in diabetes mellitus and biochemistry was similar. CONCLUSION: LRYGB may offer better results than LSG in terms of weight loss in patients over 50 years of age. PMID:27279392

  3. Unit commitment literature synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Sheble, G.B. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Fahd, G.N. )

    1994-02-01

    Several optimization techniques have been applied to the solution of the thermal unit commitment problem. They range from heuristics such as complete enumeration to the more sophisticated ones such as Augmented LaGrangian. The heuristics have even reappeared as expert systems. The problem to solve is the optimal scheduling of generating units over a short-term horizon, typically 168 hours. This paper is an overview of the literature in the unit commitment field over the past twenty five years.

  4. The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public

  5. PREFACE: 50 years in science: Alejandro Szanto de Toledo (2045-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    During the XXXVII RTFNB 2014, we had the pleasure to organize a tribute to Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo to commemorate his 50 years of dedication to nuclear physics. Named ''Alexfest'', it gathered friends and very prominent physicists from around the world that came to Brazil specially to render a tribute to Alex, as many friends and colleagues called him. During the whole afternoon, the invited speakers presented some of the physics topics and important contributions that Alex gave to the field of nuclear physics during his five decades of intense work. Alex is the responsible for several landmarks in the Brazilian nuclear science, especially in the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo (IFUSP), where he spent almost his entire career. He started his professional life in the IFUSP Van de Graaf Laboratory, under Oscar Sala's supervision as an undergraduate student. His talent allowed him to give significant contributions to the machine operation since the beginning of his internship in the laboratory. He soon became the responsible for the development, construction and implementation of an ion source for the new Pelletron accelerator, project coordinated by Oscar Sala as well. This was a huge responsibility for a young master degree student. His PhD thesis was about nuclear fusion, a topic that he mastered during his career. His international reputation allowed him to become a visiting researcher at several laboratories in the US, France, Japan, Russia and Germany. Not satisfied with the challenges that his career was imposing to him, Alex pioneered the creation of a high-energy nuclear physics group in Brazil, becoming member of the STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At Rhic) collaboration in 1995, one of the two major experiments of the RHIC accelerator (Relativistic heavy Ion Collider), located in the Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA. Later on, in 2006, he also led his group to become part of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment ALICE (A

  6. Implementing principles of the integrated control concept 50 years later – current challenges in IPM for arthropod pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1959 publication of the article ‘The Integrated Control Concept’ by Stern and colleagues established a new philosophical framework for pest management that eventually provided a foundation for IPM to develop. Considered within the context of pest control approaches 50 years ago, the integrated ...

  7. Internet-based vestibular rehabilitation for adults aged 50 years and over: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Adam W A; Kirby, Sarah; Essery, Rosie; Little, Paul; Bronstein, Adolfo; Turner, David; Stuart, Beth; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Yardley, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dizziness is highly prevalent in older adults and can lead to falls, fear of falling, loss of confidence, anxiety and depression. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) exercises are effective in reducing dizziness due to vestibular dysfunction, but access to trained therapists is limited. Providing dizzy patients with booklets teaching them how to carry out VR exercises has been shown to be a cost-effective way of managing dizziness in primary care. Internet-based intervention delivery has many advantages over paper-based methods, including the provision of video instructions, automated tailoring and symptom-related feedback. This trial will examine whether an internet-based VR intervention is (1) effective in reducing dizziness and (2) a cost-effective primary care treatment option. Methods/analysis This will be a single blind, randomised controlled trial carried out in UK primary care. A stand-alone internet-based VR intervention will be compared with routine care in 262 dizzy patients aged 50 years and over. Measures will be taken at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Our primary outcome measure will be the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing dizziness symptoms compared with routine care at 6 months. Cost-effectiveness will be examined along with the effect of the intervention on dizziness-related disability and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Psychological process variables including expectancy, self-efficacy and acceptance will be explored in relation to adherence and symptom reduction. Ethics/dissemination This trial has undergone ethical scrutiny and been approved by an NHS Research Ethics Committee, Southampton A REC Reference: 13/SC/0119. The findings of this trial will be disseminated to the scientific community through presentations at national and international conferences, and by publishing in peer review journals. Findings will be disseminated to the public through targeted press releases. This trial will provide valuable information on

  8. Disease Burden Due to Herpes Zoster among Population Aged ≥50 Years Old in China: A Community Based Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dapeng; Liu, Yanmin; Huang, Zhuoying; Xu, Jianfang; Ma, Yujie; Tu, Qiufeng; Li, Qi; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the disease burden due to Herpes Zoster (HZ) among people aged ≥50 years old in China and provide baseline data for future similar studies, and provide evidence for development of herpes zoster vaccination strategy. Methods Retrospective cohort study was conducted in 4 townships and one community. A questionnaire was used to collect information on incidence and cost of HZ among people aged ≥ 50 years old. Results The cumulative incidence rate was 22.6/1,000 among people aged ≥ 50 years old. The average annual incidence rate of HZ was 3.43/1,000 among people aged ≥ 50 years old in 2010–2012. Cumulative incidence and average annual incidence rate increased with age: the cumulative incidence of HZ among people aged ≥ 80 years old was 3.34 times of that among 50- years old (52.3/1000vs15.7/1,000); average annual incidence rate rises from 2.66/1,000 among 50- years old to 8.55/1,000 among 80- year old. Cumulative incidence and average annual incidence rate for females were higher than that for males (cumulative incidence, 26.5/1000vs18.7/1,000; annual incidence rate, 3.95/1000vs2.89/1,000). Cumulative incidence and average annual incidence rate in urban were higher than in rural (cumulative incidence, 39.5/1000vs 17.2/1,000; annual incidence rate, 7.65/1000vs2.06/1,000). The hospitalization rate of HZ was 4.53%. And with the increase of age, the rate has an increasing trend. HZ costs 945,709.5 RMB in total, corresponding to 840.6 RMB per patient with a median cost of 385 RMB (interquartile range 171.7–795.6). Factors associated with cost included the first onset year, area, whether hospitalized and whether sequelae left. Conclusion Incidence rate, complications, hospitalization rate and average cost of HZ increase with age. We recommend that the HZ vaccinations should target people aged ≥50 years old if Zoster vaccine is licensed in China. PMID:27055179

  9. Exploring the dynamics of agricultural climatic resource utilization of spring maize over the past 50 years in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junfang; Guo, Jianping; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    Exploring the dynamics of the utilization of agricultural climatic resources (i.e., environmental factors that affect crop productivity such as light, temperature, and water) can provide a theoretical basis for modifying agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production in the future. Northeast China is one of the major agricultural production areas in China and also an obvious region of climatic warming. We were motivated to analyze the utilization dynamics of agricultural climatic resource during spring maize cultivation from 1961 to 2010 in Northeast China. To understand these dynamics, we used the daily data from 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China between 1961 and 2010. The demands on agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China imposed by the cultivation of spring maize were combined and agricultural climatic suitability theory was applied. The growth period of spring maize was further detailedly divided into four stages: germination to emergence, emergence to jointing, jointing to tasseling, and tasseling to maturity. The average resource utilization index was established to evaluate the effects. Over the past five decades, Northeast China experienced increases in daily average temperature of 0.246 °C every decade during the growing season (May-September). At the same time, strong fluctuating decreases were observed in average total precipitation of 8.936 mm every decade and an average sunshine hour of 0.122 h every decade. Significant temporal and spatial changes occurred in K from 1961 to 2010. The K showed decreasing trends in Liaoning province and increasing trends in Jilin and especially in Heilongjiang province, which increased by 0.11. Spatial differences were visible in different periods, and the most obvious increase was found in the period 2001-2010. The areas with high values of K shifted northeastward over the past 50 years, indicating more efficient use of agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China.

  10. The new ICSU World Data System: Building on the 50 Year Legacy of the World Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; Minster, J.

    2008-12-01

    The International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data Center (WDC) system was established in 1957 in response to the data needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Its holdings included a wide range of solar, geophysical, environmental, and human dimensions data. The WDC system developed many innovative data management and data exchange procedures and techniques over the last 50 years, which mitigated effectively the impact of global politics on science. The beginning of the 21st century has seen new ICSU requirements for management of large and diverse scientific data from major international programs such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS), the International Polar Year (IPY), the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment (MEA), and the Coordinated Energy and Water Cycle Observation Project (CEOP). As a consequence, a completely new ICSU data activity, the World Data System (WDS) is being created which will incorporate the major ICSU data activities including in particular the WDCs and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data- Analysis Services. Using the legacy of the WDC system, the WDS will place an emphasis on new information technology as applied to modern data management techniques and international data exchange. The new World Data System will support ICSU's enduring mission and objectives, ensuring the long-term stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community and other stakeholders. It will have a broader disciplinary and geographic base than the current ICSU networks and be recognized as a world-wide "community of excellence" for data issues. It will use state-of-the-art systems interoperability, international very high bandwidth capabilities and a coordinated focus on topics such as virtual observatories. It will also encourage the establishment of new data centers and services, using modern paradigms for their establishment

  11. Effects of the men's program on U.S. Army soldiers' intentions to commit and willingness to intervene to prevent rape: a pretest posttest study.

    PubMed

    Foubert, John D; Masin, Ryan C

    2012-01-01

    Noncommissioned male officers in the U.S. Army stationed in Germany were trained to present a 1-hour rape prevention workshop--The Men's Program--to 237 enlisted male soldiers. A comparison group of 244 male soldiers received a briefing focused on reducing the individual's risk for experiencing sexual assault, discussion of myths and facts about sexual assault, and how to avoid being accused of sexual assault. Participants in The Men's Program experienced significant change in the predicted direction for bystander willingness to help, bystander efficacy, rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault with low to medium effect sizes. Comparison group participants experienced no effect on these variables except for a significant decline in rape myth acceptance with a very low effect size. Between-group differences pointed to the efficacy of The Men's Program. Implications of these results for rape prevention programming in the military are discussed. PMID:23393953

  12. Influences on Researchers' Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jeffrey G.

    1994-01-01

    A study in a new university investigated the relative importance of six factors (job security/promotion, availability of research resources, contribution to university mission, personal stimulation/challenge, colleague relationship, and professional recognition/development) on research commitment and productivity. Discipline, rank, and gender were…

  13. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  14. Mathematical modeling reveals differential effects of erythropoietin on proliferation and lineage commitment of human hematopoietic progenitors in early erythroid culture

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Daniel; Carter, Deborah; Homer, Martin; Marucci, Lucia; Gampel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietin is essential for the production of mature erythroid cells, promoting both proliferation and survival. Whether erythropoietin and other cytokines can influence lineage commitment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is of significant interest. To study lineage restriction of the common myeloid progenitor to the megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor of peripheral blood CD34+ cells, we have shown that the cell surface protein CD36 identifies the earliest lineage restricted megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor. Using this marker and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester to track cell divisions in vitro, we have developed a mathematical model that accurately predicts population dynamics of erythroid culture. Parameters derived from the modeling of cultures without added erythropoietin indicate that the rate of lineage restriction is not affected by erythropoietin. By contrast, megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor proliferation is sensitive to erythropoietin from the time that CD36 first appears at the cell surface. These results shed new light on the role of erythropoietin in erythropoiesis and provide a powerful tool for further study of hematopoietic progenitor lineage restriction and erythropoiesis. PMID:26589912

  15. Mathematical modeling reveals differential effects of erythropoietin on proliferation and lineage commitment of human hematopoietic progenitors in early erythroid culture.

    PubMed

    Ward, Daniel; Carter, Deborah; Homer, Martin; Marucci, Lucia; Gampel, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Erythropoietin is essential for the production of mature erythroid cells, promoting both proliferation and survival. Whether erythropoietin and other cytokines can influence lineage commitment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is of significant interest. To study lineage restriction of the common myeloid progenitor to the megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor of peripheral blood CD34(+) cells, we have shown that the cell surface protein CD36 identifies the earliest lineage restricted megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor. Using this marker and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester to track cell divisions in vitro, we have developed a mathematical model that accurately predicts population dynamics of erythroid culture. Parameters derived from the modeling of cultures without added erythropoietin indicate that the rate of lineage restriction is not affected by erythropoietin. By contrast, megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor proliferation is sensitive to erythropoietin from the time that CD36 first appears at the cell surface. These results shed new light on the role of erythropoietin in erythropoiesis and provide a powerful tool for further study of hematopoietic progenitor lineage restriction and erythropoiesis. PMID:26589912

  16. Can changes in the distribution of lizard species over the past 50 years be attributed to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianguo

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed changes in the distributions of nine lizard species in China over the past 50 years and identified whether these changes could be attributed to climate change. Long-term records of lizard distributions, grey relational analysis, fuzzy set classification techniques, and attribution methods were used. The distribution of nearly half of the lizard species primarily shifted northward, westward, or eastward since the 1970s, and most changes were related to the thermal index. In response to climate change over the past 50 years, the distribution boundary and center of some species have mainly shifted northward, westward, or eastward, with some irregular shifting during the process. The observed and predicted changes in distribution were highly consistent for some lizard species. The changes in the northern and eastern distribution limits of nearly half of the lizard species and the western limits and distribution centers of several species can be attributed to climate change.

  17. Can changes in the distribution of lizard species over the past 50 years be attributed to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed changes in the distributions of nine lizard species in China over the past 50 years and identified whether these changes could be attributed to climate change. Long-term records of lizard distributions, grey relational analysis, fuzzy set classification techniques, and attribution methods were used. The distribution of nearly half of the lizard species primarily shifted northward, westward, or eastward since the 1970s, and most changes were related to the thermal index. In response to climate change over the past 50 years, the distribution boundary and center of some species have mainly shifted northward, westward, or eastward, with some irregular shifting during the process. The observed and predicted changes in distribution were highly consistent for some lizard species. The changes in the northern and eastern distribution limits of nearly half of the lizard species and the western limits and distribution centers of several species can be attributed to climate change.

  18. From controlled to committed.

    PubMed

    Hess, J C

    1996-02-01

    Most of us agree that people are our most important resource. Yet we spend a minimal amount of time learning more about human behavior, communication, and how our attitudes and behavior impact employee performance. Instead we rely on traditional methods of negative reinforcement in an attempt to control our areas of responsibility. While these methods can render some short-term success, managers and organizations that succeed during these times of change and fierce competition will be those that take the time to understand and capture the power of a committed workforce. The committed workforce is energized, not simply compliant, as a result of having basic human needs for achievement satisfied, belonging to a group, and receiving recognition for its contributions. Committed workers typically describe the manager as one who has the ability to give them a great degree of control over their area of influence. We all know that we don't change our leadership style like we change clothes. Old habits die hard. it takes a personal commitment and lots of practice to rid outselves of habits and behavior that no longer serve our departments and facilities. This commitment, however, is crucial to survival. As managers, we must cope with increasing ambiguity and uncertainty in the workplace. To survive these challenges, we must improve our interpersonal skills and ability to successfully bring out the best in others. I believe that success will continue for managers who not only increase their knowledge and technical ability, but who also inspire their workers to move forward with a collective sense of enthusiasm and purpose. PMID:10154218

  19. Struggle and Moral Purpose in American Education 50 Years after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip; Geringer, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Fifty years ago, on 17 May 1954, the United States Supreme Court ruled in "Brown v. Board of Education" that the "separate but equal" doctrine that had effectively legalized "educational apartheid" some 58 years earlier deprived racially segregated children of the equal protection of laws guaranteed by the fourteenth Amendment. The historical…

  20. An observational study of comorbidity and healthcare utilisation among HIV-positive patients aged 50 years and over.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshani; Moore, Thomas; Cooper, Vanessa; McArdle, Conor; Perry, Nicky; Cheek, Elizabeth; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fisher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number of HIV-positive people aged ≥50 years is rising each year. We measured the prevalence of non-infectious illnesses and their risk factors and described healthcare use in this UK population. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at an outpatient HIV specialist clinic in south east England. Patients age ≥50 years were invited to complete questionnaires measuring demographics, non-infectious illnesses, medication use, lifestyle and healthcare utilisation. The response rate was 67%. Of 299 participants, 84% reported ≥1 comorbid condition and 61% reported ≥2 (multimorbidity). Most commonly reported were high cholesterol, sexual dysfunction, hypertension and depression. In multivariate analyses, age, number of years HIV-positive and duration of antiretroviral therapy remained significant predictors of comorbidity when controlling for lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking and use of recreational drugs and alcohol). Use of non-HIV healthcare services was associated with increasing comorbidity, a longer duration of HIV and recreational drug use. The majority of HIV-patients aged ≥50 years reported multiple comorbidities and this was associated with polypharmacy and increased use of non-HIV services. Further research examining the quality, safety and patient experience of healthcare is needed to inform development of services to optimally meet the needs of older HIV-positive patients. PMID:26068965

  1. AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk1

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; de Sá, Laísa Ribeiro; de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2014-01-01

    Objective to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over. Method population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS) of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010. Results during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%), mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation); and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state. Conclusion aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group. PMID:25029044

  2. Assessment of committed effective dose due to the ingestion of (210)Po and (210)Pb in consumed Lebanese fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant.

    PubMed

    Aoun, M; El Samad, O; Bou Khozam, R; Lobinski, R

    2015-02-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides through seafood intake is a one of the sources contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism. In order to evaluate the internal exposure and potential risks due to (210)Po and (210)Pb associated with fish consumption, these radionuclides were measured in commonly consumed fish species from a clean area and an area subjected to the impact of a Lebanese phosphate fertilizer plant. The highest concentration of (210)Pb was 98.7 Bq/kg fresh weight while (210)Po activity concentrations varied from 3.6 Bq/kg to 140 Bq/kg. A supplementary radiation exposure was detected; the highest committed effective dose due to (210)Po and (210)Pb was found to be 1110 μSv/y and 450 μSv/y, respectively. Moreover, the average mortality and morbidity risks due to the fish consuming were estimated. PMID:25461512

  3. The good, the bad, and the ugly: a 50-year perspective on the outcome problem.

    PubMed

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2013-03-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, Hans Eysenck reviewed studies of psychotherapy, which consisted primarily of psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and eclectic treatments, and concluded that psychotherapy (as opposed to behavior therapy) was not effective and was possibly harmful. In the inaugural article in Psychotherapy, Hans Strupp challenged Eysenck's conclusions and discussed how psychotherapy research should progress. Eysenck criticized Strupp's conjectures and Strupp responded. In this article, I discuss progress in psychotherapy research by examining "the good, the bad, and the ugly" aspects of the Eysenck and Strupp interchange. Essentially, Eysenck and Strupp motivated researchers to pursue, with increased sophistication, process and outcome research, but each was defending a theoretical position (behavior therapy and psychodynamic therapy, respectively). Despite the progress, the conjecture at issue continues to be debated today. PMID:23505977

  4. Evidence Base Update: 50 Years of Research on Treatment for Child and Adolescent Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Francis, Sarah E; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorder among children and adolescents. We examined 111 treatment outcome studies testing 204 treatment conditions for child and adolescent anxiety published between 1967 and mid-2013. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review using the PracticeWise Evidence-Based Services database. Using guidelines identified by this journal (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014 ), studies were included if they were conducted with children and/or adolescents (ages 1-19) with anxiety and/or avoidance problems. In addition to reviewing the strength of the evidence, the review also examined indicators of effectiveness, common practices across treatment families, and mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. Six treatments reached well-established status for child and adolescent anxiety, 8 were identified as probably efficacious, 2 were identified as possibly efficacious, 6 treatments were deemed experimental, and 8 treatments of questionable efficacy emerged. Findings from this review suggest substantial support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as an effective and appropriate first-line treatment for youth with anxiety disorders. Several other treatment approaches emerged as probably efficacious that are not primarily CBT based, suggesting that there are alternative evidence-based treatments that practitioners can turn to for children and adolescents who do not respond well to CBT. The review concludes with a discussion of treatments that improve functioning in addition to reducing symptoms, common practices derived from evidence-based treatments, mediators and moderators of treatment outcomes, recommendations for best practice, and suggestions for future research. PMID:26087438

  5. Non-operative advances: what has happened in the last 50 years in paediatric surgery?

    PubMed

    Holland, Andrew J A; McBride, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric surgeons remain paediatric clinicians who have the unique skill set to treat children with surgical problems that may require operative intervention. Many of the advances in paediatric surgical care have occurred outside the operating theatre and have involved significant input from medical, nursing and allied health colleagues. The establishment of neonatal intensive care units, especially those focusing on the care of surgical infants, has greatly enhanced the survival rates and long-term outcomes of those infants with major congenital anomalies requiring surgical repair. Educational initiatives such as the advanced trauma life support and emergency management of severe burns courses have facilitated improved understanding and clinical care. Paediatric surgeons have led with the non-operative management of solid organ injury following blunt abdominal trauma. Nano-crystalline burn wound dressings have enabled a reduced frequency of painful dressing changes in addition to effective antimicrobial efficacy and enhanced burn wound healing. Burns care has evolved so that many children may now be treated almost exclusively in an ambulatory care setting or as day case-only patients, with novel technologies allowing accurate prediction of burn would outcome and planning of elective operative intervention to achieve burn wound closure. PMID:25588791

  6. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation—50 Years of Evolution and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Henig, Israel; Zuckerman, Tsila

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a highly specialized and unique medical procedure. Autologous transplantation allows the administration of high-dose chemotherapy without prolonged bone marrow aplasia. In allogeneic transplantation, donor-derived stem cells provide alloimmunity that enables a graft-versus-tumor effect to eradicate residual disease and prevent relapse. The first allogeneic transplantation was performed by E. Donnall Thomas in 1957. Since then the field has evolved and expanded worldwide. New indications beside acute leukemia and aplastic anemia have been constantly explored and now include congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease. The use of matched unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, and partially matched related donors has dramatically extended the availability of allogeneic transplantation. Transplant-related mortality has decreased due to improved supportive care, including better strategies to prevent severe infections and with the incorporation of reduced-intensity conditioning protocols that lowered the toxicity and allowed for transplantation in older patients. However, disease relapse and graft-versus-host disease remain the two major causes of mortality with unsatisfactory progress. Intense research aiming to improve adoptive immunotherapy and increase graft-versus-leukemia response while decreasing graft-versus-host response might bring the next breakthrough in allogeneic transplantation. Strategies of graft manipulation, tumor-associated antigen vaccinations, monoclonal antibodies, and adoptive cellular immunotherapy have already proved clinically efficient. In the following years, allogeneic transplantation is likely to become more complex, more individualized, and more efficient. PMID:25386344

  7. 50 years of monitoring of the ozone layer in the Czech Republic - results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanicek, Karel; Skrivankova, Pavla; Metelka, Ladislav; Stanek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    preferred to continue the TOZ data series at SOO the seasonal effect need to be eliminated to avoid their effect in trend estimations and validation of satellite observations.. This is going to be done by assimilation of the Dobson data series to the Brewer one and creation of the homogenized data set. - The Brewer Umkehr observations have been implemented at the SOO in the recent years to expand measurements of vertical distribution of ozone in stratosphere over Central Europe. Accuracy of the new UM-04 algorithm developed for processing of the Umkehr profiles from SOO is being tested using the ozone sonde observations from AD. First results confirm a good perspective of this technology for implementation in the global network. Further improvement of monitoring and investigation of stratospheric ozone continues in the CHMI. Currently the activities are supported by the project P209/10/0058 "Long-term changes of the ozone layer over the Czech territory" of the Czech Grant Agency (2010-2012). The main goals of the Project are defined are specified in the presentation.

  8. Overview of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology in the USA for the past 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Walter; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Boone, John M.

    2008-12-15

    This review covers the role of medical physics in addressing issues directly related to patient dosimetry in radiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, and CT. The sections on radiography and fluoroscopy radiation doses review the changes that have occurred during the last 50 to 60 years. A number of technological improvements have contributed to both a significant reduction in patient and staff radiation doses and improvements to the image quality during this period of time. There has been a transition from film-screen radiography with hand dip film processing to electronic digital imaging utilizing CR and DR. Similarly, fluoroscopy has progressed by directly viewing image intensifiers in darkened rooms to modern flat panel image receptor systems utilizing pulsed radiation, automated variable filtration, and digitally processed images. Mammography is one of the most highly optimized imaging procedures performed, because it is a repetitive screening procedure that results in annual radiation exposure. Mammography is also the only imaging procedure in the United States in which the radiation dose is regulated by the federal government. Consequently, many medical physicists have studied the dosimetry associated with screen-film and digital mammography. In this review, a brief history of mammography dose assessment by medical physicists is discussed. CT was introduced into clinical practice in the early 1970s, and has grown into one of the most important modalities available for diagnostic imaging. CT dose quantities and measurement techniques are described, and values of radiation dose for different types of scanner are presented. Organ and effective doses to adult patients are surveyed from the earliest single slice scanners, to the latest versions that include up to two x-ray tubes and can incorporate as many as 256 detector channels. An overview is provided of doses received by pediatric patients undergoing CT examinations, as well as methods, and results, of studies

  9. Govindjee at 80: more than 50 years of free energy for photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eaton-Rye, Julian J

    2013-10-01

    We provide here a glimpse of Govindjee and his pioneering contributions on the two light reactions and the two pigment systems, particularly on the water-plastoquinone oxido-reductase, Photosystem II. His focus has been on excitation energy transfer; primary photochemistry, and the role of bicarbonate in electron and proton transfer. His major tools have been kinetics and spectroscopy (absorption and fluorescence), and he has provided an understanding of both thermoluminescence and delayed light emission in plants and algae. He pioneered the use of lifetime of fluorescence measurements to study the phenomenon of photoprotection in plants and algae. He, however, is both a generalist and a specialist all at the same time. He communicates very effectively his passion for photosynthesis to the novice as well as professionals. He has been a prolific author, outstanding lecturer and an editor par excellence. He is the founder not only of the Historical Corner of Photosynthesis Research, but of the highly valued Series Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration Including Bioenergy and Related Processes. He reaches out to young people by distributing Z-scheme posters, presenting Awards of books, and through tri-annual articles on "Photosynthesis Web Resources". At home, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, he has established student Awards for Excellence in Biological Sciences. On behalf of all his former graduate students and associates, I wish him a Happy 80th birthday. I have included here several tributes to Govindjee by his well-wishers. These write-ups express the high regard the photosynthesis community holds for "Gov" and illuminate the different facets of his life and associations. PMID:24113923

  10. The Living Filter: Monitoring Nitrate Accumulation after 50 Years of Wastewater Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, J.

    2015-12-01

    As global freshwater sources decline due to environmental contamination and a growing population, more sustainable wastewater renovation techniques will need to be applied to ensure freshwater for future generations. One such example of a sustainable solution is called the Living Filter, located on the campus of Pennsylvania State University. For fifty years, Pennsylvania State University has sprayed treated wastewater onto agricultural fields and forest ecosystems, leaving natural processes to further filter the wastewater. This cyclical process is deemed sustainable because the freshwater is recycled, providing drinking water to an increasing university population and nutrients to agricultural crops, without causing major environmental catastrophes such as fish kills, eutrophication or groundwater contamination. At first glance this project seems sustainable and effective, but for how long can this setup continue without nutrient overloading and environmental contamination? To be truly declared sustainable, the hopeful answer to this question is indefinitely. Using a combination of soil core and monitoring tools, ecosystem indicators such as soil nutrient capacities, moisture levels, and soil characteristics were measured. Comparing data from the initial system installation to present data collected from soil cores showed how ecosystems changed over time. Results revealed that nitrate concentrations were elevated through the profile in all land use types, but the concentrations were below EPA threshold. Soil characteristic analysis including particle size distribution, soil elemental composition, and texture yielded inconclusive results regarding which factors control the nitrate accumulation most significantly. The nitrate depth profile findings suggest that spray irrigation at the Living Filter under the current rates of application has not caused the ultimate stage of nitrogen saturation in the spray irrigation site. Variations in land use present interesting

  11. Humid tropical rain forest has expanded into eucalypt forest and savanna over the last 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y P; Murphy, Brett P; Weber, Ellen; Sanders, Gregor; Williamson, Grant J; Kemp, Jeanette; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest expansion and savanna woody vegetation thickening appear to be a global trend, but there remains uncertainty about whether there is a common set of global drivers. Using geographic information techniques, we analyzed aerial photography of five areas in the humid tropics of northeastern Queensland, Australia, taken in the 1950s and 2008, to determine if changes in rain forest extent match those reported for the Australian monsoon tropics using similar techniques. Mapping of the 1950s aerial photography showed that of the combined study area (64,430 ha), 63% was classified as eucalypt forests/woodland and 37% as rain forest. Our mapping revealed that although most boundaries remained stable, there was a net increase of 732 ha of the original rain forest area over the study period, and negligible conversion of rain forest to eucalypt forest/woodland. Statistical modeling, controlling for spatial autocorrelation, indicated distance from preexisting rain forest as the strongest determinant of rain forest expansion. Margin extension had a mean rate across the five sites of 0.6 m per decade. Expansion was greater in tall open forest types but also occurred in shorter, more flammable woodland vegetation types. No correlations were detected with other local variables (aspect, elevation, geology, topography, drainage). Using a geographically weighted mean rate of rain forest margin extension across the whole region, we predict that over 25% of tall open forest (a forest type of high conservation significance) would still remain after 2000 years of rain forest expansion. This slow replacement is due to the convoluted nature of the rain forest boundary and the irregular shape of the tall open forest patches. Our analyses point to the increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 as the most likely global driver of indiscriminate rain forest expansion occurring in northeastern Australia, by increasing tree growth and thereby overriding the effects of fire

  12. 50years of oral lipid-based formulations: Provenance, progress and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Orlagh M; Crum, Matthew F; McEvoy, Claire L; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Williams, Hywel D; Pouton, Colin W; Charman, William N; Bergström, Christel A S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-06-01

    precludes enduring effects on receptor promiscuity and off target toxicity. Finally, recent efforts to generate solid LBF are briefly described as a means to circumvent the need to encapsulate in soft or hard gelatin capsules, although the latter remain popular with consumers and a proven means of LBF delivery. PMID:27089810

  13. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes. PMID:23598491

  14. Celebrating 50 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansdottir, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

  15. Vitamin B-6 intakes and plasma B-6 vitamer concentrations of men and women, 19-50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Driskell, J A; Giraud, D W; Mitmesser, S H

    2000-09-01

    The vitamin B-6 intakes and plasma B-6 vitamer levels of healthy nonsupplemented men and women, 19-24 and 25-50 years, were compared. The subjects did not take nutrient supplements or medications or use tobacco products. Subjects were grouped as follows: eight, 19-24 y men; nine, 25-50 y men; 11, 19-24 y women; and 13, 25-50 y women. The estimated vitamin B-6 intakes, obtained via 24-h recalls followed by 2-d food records, of the two groups of men were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the two groups of women. Thirty-five percent of the women reported consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin B-6. The four gender: age groups had similar B-6 vitamer concentrations of plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, 4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate. Males 25-50 y had significantly higher (P < 0.05) plasma pyridoxal concentrations than the two groups of females. All subjects had pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentrations indicative of vitamin B-6 adequacy. Generally the plasma B-6 vitamer concentrations of these men and women, 19-24 and 25-50 years of age, all having adequate vitamin B-6 status, were similar. PMID:11068702

  16. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR ON ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS UNDER 50 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhão; de Souza, Adriano; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries among patients under 50 years of age. Methods: Sixty-three patients with rotator cuff injuries who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment performed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in the Fernandinho Simonsen wing of Santa Casa Medical School, São Paulo, between August 1998 and December 2007, were reassessed. The study included all patients with rotator cuff injuries who were under 50 years of age and had been followed up postoperatively for at least 24 months. Results: According to the UCLA evaluation criteria, 59 patients (92%) showed excellent and good results; five (8%) showed fair results; and none showed poor results. The postoperative evaluation showed that the mean range of motion was 145° for elevation, 47° for lateral rotation and T10 for medial rotation. Unsatisfactory results were associated with prolonged duration of the injury, with a statistically significant relationship. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in young patients produces excellent or good results for most patients. PMID:27047819

  17. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depression, Psychological Well-Being and Feeling of Guilt in 7 - 15 Years Old Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayyeh; Moazezi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes restrictions on physical, emotional, and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression, psychological well-being and feeling of guilt in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The study population consisted of 34 participants selected using convenient sampling out of all 7 - 15 years old patients that referred to the Diabetes Association of Tabriz. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were reynolds child depression scale (RCDS), eysenck feelings of guilt scale and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). Results: Multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that the treatment was effective on variables of depression, psychological well-being and feeling guilty in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The aforementioned treatment is effective and suggested to be used in other psychosomatic diseases of children. PMID:26396702

  18. The forecast model of relationship commitment.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Edward P

    2016-07-01

    Four studies tested the forecast model of relationship commitment, which posits that forecasts of future relationship satisfaction determine relationship commitment and prorelationship behavior in romantic relationships independently of other known predictors and partially explain the effects of these other predictors. This model was supported in 2 cross-sectional studies, a daily report study, and a study using behavioral observation, informant, and longitudinal methods. Across these studies, forecasts of future relationship satisfaction predicted relationship commitment and prorelationship behavior during relationship conflict and partially explained the effects of relationship satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and investment size. These results suggest that representations of the future have a prominent role in interpersonal processes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27183320

  19. The Effect of School Principals' Leadership Styles on Teachers' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ayhan; Sarier, Yilmaz; Uysal, Sengul

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have conducted a number of studies in order to demonstrate the effects of leadership styles on school outcomes. In these research studies, particularly, the full range of leadership styles have been used. The impact of transformational leadership, transactional leadership and laissez faire stated in this model on job satisfaction and…

  20. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Bibliotherapy for Enhancing the Psychological Health of Japanese College Students Living Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muto, Takashi; Hayes, Steven C.; Jeffcoat, Tami

    2011-01-01

    International students often experience significant psychological distress but empirically tested programs are few. Broadly distributed bibliotherapy may provide a cost-effective approach. About half of the Japanese international students in a western university in the United States (N=70) were randomly assigned to a wait-list or to receive a…

  1. Commitment and Compatibility: Teachers' Perspectives on the Implementation of an Effective School-Based, Peer-Led Smoking Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Campbell, Rona

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although current UK policy argues that schools have a key role in raising health standards, emphasis on the core curriculum restricts teachers' opportunities to undertake health promotion activities. The challenge is to design effective health promotion interventions that minimize pressures on teaching staff and curriculum space. Here…

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: The next 50 years of the SI: a review of the opportunities for the e-Science age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Marcus P.

    2010-12-01

    The International System of Units (SI) was declared as a practical and evolving system in 1960 and is now 50 years old. A large amount of theoretical and experimental work has been conducted to change the standards for the base units from artefacts to physical constants, to improve their stability and reproducibility. Less attention, however, has been paid to improving the SI definitions, utility and usability, which suffer from contradictions, ambiguities and inconsistencies. While humans can often resolve these issues contextually, computers cannot. As an ever-increasing volume and proportion of data about physical quantities is collected, exchanged, processed and rendered by computers, this paper argues that the SI definitions, symbols and syntax should be made more rigorous, so they can be represented wholly and unambiguously in ontologies, programs, data and text, and so the SI notation can be rendered faithfully in print and on screen.

  3. Statistical analysis of fires and explosions attributed to static electricity over the last 50 years in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of 153 accidents attributable to static electricity in Japanese industry over the last 50 years. A more thorough understanding of their causes could help prevent similar incidents and identify hazards that could assist in the task of risk assessment. Most of the incidents occurred during operations performed by workers. In addition, more than 70% of the flammable atmospheres resulted from the presence of vapours. A noteworthy finding is that at least 70% of the ignitions were caused by isolated conductors including operators' bodies leading to spark discharges, which could have easily been prevented with earthing. These tendencies indicate that, when operators handle flammable liquids with any conductors, the ignition risk is significantly high. A serious lack of information regarding fundamental countermeasures for static electricity seems to be the main cause of such hazards. Only organised management, including education and risk communication, would prevent them.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health, and health care utilization 50 years after repeated exposure to a toxic gas.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Schnurr, Paula P; Friedman, Matthew J; Green, Bonnie L; Adams, Gary; Jex, Steve

    2004-06-01

    The posttraumatic sequelae of contaminant exposure are a contemporary international concern due to the threats posed to military personnel and civilians by war and bioterrorism. The role of PTSD symptoms as a mediator between potentially traumatic toxin exposure and physical health outcomes was examined with structural equation modeling in a probability sample of 302 male World War II-era U.S. military veterans 50 years after exposure to mustard gas tests. Controlling for age and psychological distress, the most parsimonious structural model involved PTSD symptoms mediating the relationship between toxin exposure and physical health problems, and physical health problems mediating the relationship between PTSD symptoms and outpatient health care utilization. Implications for researchers, mental health clinicians, and health care providers are discussed. PMID:15253090

  5. Changes in management and outcomes for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes over the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the 50 years from 1964 to 2014, outcomes for children with type 1 diabetes have improved significantly, because of both technological advancements and changes in management philosophy. For the child with type 1 diabetes in 2014, intensive management with multiple daily injections or insulin pump therapy and the support of a specialist multidisciplinary team is now standard care. The main treatment goal is no longer the avoidance of hypoglycaemia, but the minimisation of hyperglycaemia and glucose variability, thereby reducing the risk of microvascular complications. However, the inherent burden of care and diligence required by patients and families, if they are to maintain optimal diabetes control, have not changed and may even have increased. While the long sought-after cure for diabetes remains elusive, artificial pancreas or closed-loop systems hold the most promise for improving the burden of care in the near term for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25529223

  6. 50 year trends in nitrogen use efficiency of world cropping systems: the relationship between yield and nitrogen input to cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Grizzetti, Bruna; Anglade, Juliette; Garnier, Josette

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) is crucial for crop productivity. However, nowadays more than half of the N added to cropland is lost to the environment, wasting the resource, producing threats to air, water, soil and biodiversity, and generating greenhouse gas emissions. Based on FAO data, we have reconstructed the trajectory followed, in the past 50 years, by 124 countries in terms of crop yield and total nitrogen inputs to cropland (manure, synthetic fertilizer, symbiotic fixation and atmospheric deposition). During the last five decades, the response of agricultural systems to increased nitrogen fertilization has evolved differently in the different world countries. While some countries have improved their agro-environmental performances, in others the increased fertilization has produced low agronomical benefits and higher environmental losses. Our data also suggest that, in general, those countries using a higher proportion of N inputs from symbiotic N fixation rather than from synthetic fertilizer have a better N use efficiency.

  7. Ion beams 12, Legnaro 6-8 June 2012, the 50 years (1961-2011) of the Legnaro Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Renato Angelo

    2013-07-18

    A short review of the history of the Legnaro Laboratory is presented since its foundation 50 years ago by Prof. A. Rostagni of the University of Padova. The evolution of the Laboratory as a national reference center for fundamental and applied nuclear physics researches is outlined, pointing out its transformation into the INFN National Laboratories in 1968. After the first CN VdG Accelerator of 5.5 MV operating in 1961 and the AN2000 devoted to interdisciplinary researches (1971), i.e. 40 years ago, ten years later the advent of the first heavy ion facility in Italy, the XTU Tandem accelerator, and later on of the ALPI superconducting linear accelerator, was crucial for any future developments, not only in the field of nuclear physics but also for the evolution of interdisciplinary programmes with ion beams.

  8. [The historical aspect: the first 10 years of the Danish Medicines Agency--and the 50 years that came before].

    PubMed

    Overø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In 1997, the office for administration regarding medicines and pharmacies was separated from the Danish Board of Health and organised as the Danish Medicines Agency (Laegemiddelstyrelsen). This Agency celebrated its 10 years anniversary by publishing a book, "Staten og laegemidlerne" (The state and the medicines), describing various aspects of the official control of medicines. The book chapters focus mainly on the latest 25-50 years, because the earlier periods from the 16th century and onwards have been thoroughly described previously, whereas more recent developments are more sparsely discussed in the literature. The present article emphasises the importance of keeping knowledge of the historical development alive. Many aspects of present day regulation only make sense with knowledge of what came before. PMID:18548943

  9. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  10. Transient reactive papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma in a 50-year-old woman: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Adişen, Esra; Karaca, Fulya; Gürer, Mehmet Ali

    2008-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman who presented with intermittent symmetric edema and wrinkling of the palms after soaking in water was found to have transient reactive papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma (TRPA). This is the oldest patient ever reported to have this condition. The patient was advised to avoid water exposure as much as possible and to wear gloves. Topical treatment with 5% salicylic acid in Vaseline also provided some relief. TRPA presents with translucent, white, confluent papules that become evident on the palms after 3-5 minutes' exposure to water (the so-called 'hand-in-the-bucket' sign) and resolve within a short time after drying. It is a rare disorder with fewer than 40 cases having been reported in the world literature. The disease is seen mostly in female patients, with ages ranging from 6 to 44 years prior to our case in a 50-year-old woman. The most common histologic findings are hyperkeratosis and dilated eccrine ostia. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown but a transitory structural or functional alteration of components of the stratum corneum or aberration of the sweat duct have been considered. TRPA has been reported in patients with cystic fibrosis and more recently, in patients taking selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors. Therefore, the pathogenesis of the condition appears to be related to increased water absorption as a result of an increased epidermal sodium level. Treatment with barrier creams such as hydrophilic petrolatum, glycerin emollients, 5-20% salicylic acid in Vaseline, 10% urea cream, and 12% ammonium lactate cream have been reported. Cases with associated hyperhidrosis respond well to aluminum chloride-containing products. PMID:18973409

  11. [Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) - the end of a 50 years-dogma?].

    PubMed

    Rath, W

    2013-10-01

    Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Since more than 50 years AMTSL has been proposed for the prevention of PPH and is still recommended in current guidelines. The 3 key components of AMTSL are the prophylactic administration of oxytocin, clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord immediately after delivery of the baby and controlled cord traction. AMTSL has proven to reduce the rate of severe PPH by 70%. Despite of the long tradition of AMTSL it is still unclear, which of the 3 components significantly contributes to the reduction in PPH. Cochrane analyses and a recent metaanalysis gave strong evidence, that prophylactic oxytocin administration reduces the risk of PPH significantly, however, the optimal dose and mode of application is still a matter of debate.Until a little while ago no randomized controlled studies exist regarding the significance of controlled cord traction and the time of cord clamping in AMTSL. A randomized WHO trial 2012 and the 2013 published TRACOR (Traction of the CORd)-trial from France could clearly demonstrate that controlled cord traction is not associated with a significant reduction in postpartum blood loss and in the risk of severe PPH. A Cochrane analysis 2008 and a recent randomized trial from Sweden came to the conclusion, that there are no significant -differences between early (< 15 s) and delayed (> 1-3 min) cord clamping in the reduction of PPH and severe PPH. Uterine massage after delivery of the placenta, placental cord drainage and umbilical vein injection of uterotonics after delivery of the baby as part of AMTSL are not evidence-based methods. It has taken 50 years since AMTSL was first described for it to become clear that prophylactic oxytocin is the most important and the only evidence-based component of AMTSL. Future guidelines and textbooks should consider these new -findings. PMID:24170442

  12. Teacher Team Commitment, Teamwork and Trust: Exploring Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungmin; Henkin, Alan B.; Egley, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate relationships between teamwork, trust and teacher team commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Research has confirmed the value-added effects of organizational commitment in terms of job performance, organizational effectiveness, and employee retention. This study focused on teacher teams as the unit of analysis, and…

  13. Diagnostic chest x-rays and breast cancer risk before age 50 years for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; McGuire, Valerie; Thomas, Duncan; Haile, Robert; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Milne, Roger L.; Felberg, Anna; West, Dee W.; Miron, Alexander; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra S.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Apicella, Carmel; Thorne, Heather; Whittemore, Alice S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of low-dose medical radiation on breast cancer risk are uncertain, and few studies have included genetically susceptible women, such as those who carry germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Methods We studied 454 BRCA1 and 273 BRCA2 mutation carriers aged <50 years from three breast cancer family registries in the USA, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand. We estimated breast cancer risk associated with diagnostic chest x-rays by comparing mutation carriers with breast cancer (cases) with those without breast cancer (controls). Exposure to chest x-rays was self-reported. Mammograms were not considered in the analysis. Results After adjusting for known risk factors for breast cancer, the odds ratio (OR) for a history of diagnostic chest x-rays, excluding those for tuberculosis or pneumonia, was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64–2.11) for BRCA1 mutations carriers and 1.22 (95% CI=0.62–2.42) for BRCA2 mutations carriers. The OR was statistically elevated for BRCA2 mutation carriers with 3–5 diagnostic chest x-rays (p = 0.01), but not for those with 6 or more chest x-rays. Few women reported chest fluoroscopy for tuberculosis or chest x-rays for pneumonia; the OR estimates were elevated, but not statistically significant, for BRCA1 mutation carriers. Conclusions Our findings do not support a positive association between diagnostic chest x-rays and breast cancer risk before age 50 years for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Given the increasing use of diagnostic imaging involving higher ionizing radiation doses, further studies of genetically predisposed women are warranted. PMID:23853209

  14. Estimating the burden of hospitalization for pneumococcal pneumonia in a general population aged 50 years or older and implications for vaccination strategies

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, Emanuele; Costantino, Claudio; Boccalini, Sara; Tramuto, Fabio; Maida, Carmelo M; Vitale, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human infectious diseases worldwide. Despite this documented evidence, data on pneumococcal disease rates among general populations are scant because of the frequent lack of cultural identification. In this study we propose a model for estimating the burden of pneumococcal pneumonia on hospitalizations. The study was performed by analyzing administrative and clinical data of patients aged 50 years or older, resident in Sicily, and hospitalized, from 2005 to 2012. Demographic information, admission/discharge dates, discharge status, and up to 6 discharge diagnoses coded according to ICD-9 CM were collected for each hospitalized patient. During the 8-year study period, a total of 72 372 hospitalizations with at least one ICD-9 CM diagnosis code suggestive of all-cause pneumonia were recorded. Of these, 1943 (2.7%) hospitalizations had specific ICD-9 CM diagnosis codes for pneumococcal pneumonia. According to the proposed model, 16 541 (22.9%) pneumonia out of all-cause pneumonia was estimated to be attributable to S. pneumoniae. Pneumococcal pneumonia and model-estimated pneumococcal pneumonia had mean hospitalization rates of 13.4 and 113.3/100 000, respectively, with a decreasing temporal trend. The risk of hospitalization for pneumococcal pneumonia was strongly correlated with age (P < 0.001). Our model provides data usable to construct suitable decisional models for the decision-makers and could allow to the responsibles of healthcare facilities to assess the budget impact if they hypothesize to offer vaccination for pneumococcal disease to certain cohorts of subjects aged 50 years or older. In our area, the high estimated hospitalization rates among adults aged ≥65 years suggest the need to implement effective preventive strategies (e.g., vaccination) tailored for these groups. PMID:24577505

  15. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Highly Concomitant but Not Strong Risk Factor for Mortality in Patients Aged 50 Year and Older with Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyeong-Hak; Lim, Jung-Won; Park, Yong-Gum

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and risk factors associated with mortality in patients ≥50-year-of-age with hip fractures. Methods A total of 489 patients ≥50-year-of-age who sustained a hip fracture from January 2010 to October 2014 were followed-up for a minimum of 1 year. Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated including prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Crude mortality rates were calculated, and the effects of different risk factors on mortality were assessed. Results Vitamin D deficiency was present in 76.5% of cases (n=237). The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 12.3%, and only 11.2% of patients had normal vitamin D levels. Accumulated mortality was 11% (54 patients) at 1 year. A univariate analysis showed that vitamin D deficiency (P=0.012), age (P<0.001), BMI (P<0.001), type of management (P<0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (P=0.009), pre-fracture ambulatory status (P<0.001), and osteoporosis (P<0.001) were associated with mortality. A multivariate analysis performed using a Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that ASA score (P=0.001) and pre-fracture ambulatory status (P=0.011) were independently associated with mortality after hip fracture. Conclusions We did not find a relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels and mortality after hip fracture, although we observed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and a significant association with mortality in the univariate analysis. PMID:26713312

  16. Overstretched and unreciprocated commitment: reviewing research on the occupational health and safety effects of downsizing and job insecurity.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Michael; Bohle, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a leading business practice has been often-repeated rounds of downsizing and restructuring (also referred to as reorganization, re-engineering, and a host of other euphemistic terms) by large private and public sector employers. Frequently associated with other practices such as outsourcing, privatization, and the increased use of temporary workers, downsizing/restructuring has increased the level of job insecurity among workers as well as leading to changes in work processes (including work intensification and multi-tasking) and management behavior. How has downsizing/restructuring and increased job insecurity affected the occupational health, safety, and well-being of workers, and what measures have employers, unions, and governments taken to address any adverse effects? The authors reviewed international studies of the occupational health and safety (OHS) effects of downsizing/restructuring and increased job insecurity undertaken over the past 20 years. After imposing quality filters, they obtained 86 studies. Analysis revealed that 73 (85%) of the studies found poorer OHS outcomes (using a range of measures). Studies were examined to see whether they provided clues as to the reasons for negative outcomes. PMID:19326777

  17. Synergistic Effects of Hypoxia and Morphogenetic Factors on Early Chondrogenic Commitment of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Embryoid Body Culture

    PubMed Central

    Yodmuang, Supansa; Marolt, Darja; Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Gadjanski, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Derivation of articular chondrocytes from human stem cells would advance our current understanding of chondrogenesis, and accelerate development of new stem cell therapies for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been studied using supplemental and cell-secreted morphogenetic factors. The use of bioreactors enabled insights into the effects of physical forces and controlled oxygen tension. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of controlled variation of oxygen tension and chondrocyte-secreted morphogenetic factors on chondrogenic differentiation of hESCs in the embryoid body format (hESC-EB). Transient hypoxic culture (2 weeks at 5 % O2 followed by 1 week at 21 % O2) of hESC-EBs in medium conditioned with primary chondrocytes up-regulated the expression of SOX9 and suppressed pluripotent markers OCT4 and NANOG. Pellets derived from these cells showed significant up-regulation of chondrogenic genes (SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN) and enhanced production of cartilaginous matrix (collagen type II and proteoglycan) as compared to the pellets from hESC-EBs cultured under normoxic conditions. Gene expression profiles corresponded to those associated with native cartilage development, with early expression of N-cadherin (indicator of cell condensation) and late expression of aggrecan (ACAN, indicator of proteoglycan production). When implanted into highly vascularized subcutaneous area in immunocompromised mice for 4 weeks, pellets remained phenotypically stable and consisted of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM), without evidence of dedifferentiation or teratoma formation. Based on these results, we propose that chondrogenesis in hESC can be synergistically enhanced by a control of oxygen tension and morphogenetic factors secreted by chondrocytes. PMID:25618295

  18. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and morphogenetic factors on early chondrogenic commitment of human embryonic stem cells in embryoid body culture.

    PubMed

    Yodmuang, Supansa; Marolt, Darja; Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Gadjanski, Ivana; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-04-01

    Derivation of articular chondrocytes from human stem cells would advance our current understanding of chondrogenesis, and accelerate development of new stem cell therapies for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been studied using supplemental and cell-secreted morphogenetic factors. The use of bioreactors enabled insights into the effects of physical forces and controlled oxygen tension. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of controlled variation of oxygen tension and chondrocyte-secreted morphogenetic factors on chondrogenic differentiation of hESCs in the embryoid body format (hESC-EB). Transient hypoxic culture (2 weeks at 5 % O2 followed by 1 week at 21 % O2) of hESC-EBs in medium conditioned with primary chondrocytes up-regulated the expression of SOX9 and suppressed pluripotent markers OCT4 and NANOG. Pellets derived from these cells showed significant up-regulation of chondrogenic genes (SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN) and enhanced production of cartilaginous matrix (collagen type II and proteoglycan) as compared to the pellets from hESC-EBs cultured under normoxic conditions. Gene expression profiles corresponded to those associated with native cartilage development, with early expression of N-cadherin (indicator of cell condensation) and late expression of aggrecan (ACAN, indicator of proteoglycan production). When implanted into highly vascularized subcutaneous area in immunocompromised mice for 4 weeks, pellets remained phenotypically stable and consisted of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM), without evidence of dedifferentiation or teratoma formation. Based on these results, we propose that chondrogenesis in hESC can be synergistically enhanced by a control of oxygen tension and morphogenetic factors secreted by chondrocytes. PMID:25618295

  19. Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2012-06-01

    Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.

  20. 24 CFR 232.510 - Commitment and commitment fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commitment and commitment fee. 232.510 Section 232.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND...

  1. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stonehouse, Welma; Wycherley, Thomas; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Taylor, Pennie; Brinkworth, Grant; Riley, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18–50-year-old. Methods: RCTs ≥ 4 weeks comparing the effect of dairy consumption (whole food or supplements) with control diets lower in dairy during energy restriction on body weight, fat and lean mass were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Cochrane Central and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) until March 2016. Reports were identified and critically appraised in duplicate. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Chi2- and I2-statistics indicated heterogeneity. Dose effect was assessed using meta-regression analysis. GRADE guidelines were used to rate the quality (QR) of the evidence considering risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias and effect estimates. Results: 27 RCTs were reviewed. Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20–84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (−1.16 kg [−1.66, −0.66 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 11%, QR = high, n = 644) and body fat mass (−1.49 kg [−2.06, −0.92 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 21%, n = 521, QR = high) were found in studies largely including women (90% women). These effects were absent in studies that imposed resistance training (QR = low-moderate). Dairy intake resulted in smaller loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I2 = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate). No between study dose-response effects were seen. Conclusions: Increased dairy intake as part of energy restricted diets resulted in greater loss in bodyweight and fat mass while attenuating lean mass loss in 18–50-year-old adults. Further research in males is needed to investigate sex effects. PMID:27376321

  2. The effect of glow discharge plasma surface modification of polymers on the osteogenic differentiation of committed human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Fackson; Wang, Hong Tian; Nelea, Valentin; Luo, Li; Antoniou, John; Wertheimer, Michael R

    2006-04-01

    Little is known of the effect of material surfaces on stem cell differentiation. The present study has addressed the hypothesis that the interaction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with material surfaces modified by glow discharge plasma is a major regulator of osteogenic differentiation. We found that biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) plasma treated in ammonia significantly reduced up-regulation of expression of osteogenic marker genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC). In contrast, ALP expression was up-regulated when cultured on treated Nylon-6 polyamide (Ny-t) but was substantially reduced when cultured on its pristine counterpart (Ny-p) on day 3. On day 7, ALP expression was down-regulated with MSCs cultured on Ny-t although its expression level was up again on day 14. BSP was expressed weakly on day 3, but was up-regulated when cultured on Ny-t and Ny-p. Its expression reached its maximum on day 14 when cultured on a polystyrene control, while it was cyclically up-regulated on Ny-t. Similarly, there was a slight increase in OC expression when MSCs were cultured on Ny-t and Ny-p on day 3, when compared to control. Thus, the nature of the surface can directly influence MSCs differentiation, ultimately affecting the quality of new tissue formation with BOPP-t suppressing osteogenic differentiation. PMID:16313952

  3. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  4. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  5. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  6. Organizational Commitment as Symbolic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda; Morrill, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Offers a processual (sic) approach suited to the complex nature of organizational commitment during times of radical change. Emphasizes commitment as communication processes that are integrally tied to the creation of organizational cultures, involve identification via symbolic processes, and encompass various degrees of linkages between…

  7. Work empowerment and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    McDermott, K; Laschinger, H K; Shamian, J

    1996-05-01

    As organizations struggle to deliver the same level and quality of services with fewer resources, administrators are challenged with redesigning workplaces to maximize nurses' commitment. This study used Kanter's Structural Theory of Organizational Behavior to examine the relationship between job-related empowerment perceptions of staff nurses and their commitment to the organization. Strategies for creating more empowered work environments are discussed. PMID:8710344

  8. The Measurement of Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowday, Richard T.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes a stream of research aimed at developing and validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Satisfactory test-retest reliabilities and internal consistency reliabilities were found. (Author)

  9. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-10

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints. PMID:24483878

  10. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  11. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  12. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  13. Who commits matricide?

    PubMed

    Singhal, S; Dutta, A

    1992-07-01

    The authors studied sixteen men who committed matricide. Fifteen out of sixteen cases had a diagnosis of schizophrenia and the remaining patient had a diagnosis of schizophrenia with personality disorder. All were single at the time of the matricide. Data indicate an intense conflict-laden and ambivalent relationship between the majority of patients with their mothers. Thirteen out of sixteen cases described their mothers as quite domineering and demanding but the EMBU inventory revealed that the Matricidal group differed from the Control group in how tolerant they saw their parents. The sample as a whole saw mothers were more over-involved, overprotective, tolerant, affectionate, stimulating, performance-orientated and shaming. The matricidal group differed from the control group in the way they viewed the difference between mother and father on various scales, like over-involved, tolerant, affectionate and performance-orientated. The matricidal groups' mothers were found to be more over-involved, tolerant, affectionate, and fathers more abusive. Mothers in the control group were more performance-orientated. PMID:1513219

  14. Commitment Approach to Motivating Community Recycling: New Zealand Curbside Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Wendy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In a New Zealand community, 200 households made commitment to recycle and 201 did not; 198 were asked to pay for recycling bins, 203 were not. A control group received only recycling information. Verbal commitment significantly increased participation. Difficulties in administering the financial incentive made it impossible to determine effect on…

  15. Why Do Countries Commit to Human Rights Treaties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Oona A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines states' decisions to commit to human rights treaties. It argues that the effect of a treaty on a state--and hence the state's willingness to commit to it--is largely determined by the domestic enforcement of the treaty and the treaty's collateral consequences. These broad claims give rise to several specific predictions. For…

  16. Mid-to long-term results of revision total hip replacement in patients aged 50 years or younger.

    PubMed

    Lee, P T H; Lakstein, D L; Lozano, B; Safir, O; Backstein, J; Gross, A E

    2014-08-01

    Revision total hip replacement (THR) for young patients is challenging because of technical complexity and the potential need for subsequent further revisions. We have assessed the survivorship, functional outcome and complications of this procedure in patients aged < 50 years through a large longitudinal series with consistent treatment algorithms. Of 132 consecutive patients (181 hips) who underwent revision THR, 102 patients (151 hips) with a mean age of 43 years (22 to 50) were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 11 years (2 to 26) post-operatively. We attempted to restore bone stock with allograft where indicated. Using further revision for any reason as an end point, the survival of the acetabular component was 71% (sd 4) and 54% (sd 7) at ten- and 20 years. The survival of the femoral component was 80% (sd 4) and 62% (sd 6) at ten- and 20 years. Complications included 11 dislocations (6.1%), ten periprosthetic fractures (5.5%), two deep infections (1.1%), four sciatic nerve palsies (2.2%; three resolved without intervention, one improved after exploration and freeing from adhesions) and one vascular injury (0.6%). The mean modified Harris Hip Score was 41 (10 to 82) pre-operatively, 77 (39 to 93) one year post-operatively and 77 (38 to 93) at the latest review. This overall perspective on the mid- to long-term results is valuable when advising young patients on the prospects of revision surgery at the time of primary replacement. PMID:25086120

  17. Hand grip strength and associated factors in non-institutionalised men and women 50 years and older in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence, predictors and gender differences in hand grip strength of older adults in Africa. This study aims to investigate social and health differences in hand grip strength among older adults in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 men and women aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and anthropometric measurements. Linear multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the association of social factors, health variables and grip strength. Results The mean overall hand grip strength was 37.9 kgs for men (mean age 61.1 years, SD = 9.1) and 31.5 kgs for women (mean age 62.0 years, SD = 9.7). In multivariate analysis among men, greater height, not being underweight and lower functional disability was associated with greater grip strength, and among women, greater height, better cognitive functioning, and lower functional disability were associated with greater grip strength. Conclusions Greater height and lower functional disability were found for both older South African men and women to be significantly associated with grip strength. PMID:24393403

  18. Nematode diversity, abundance and community structure 50 years after the formation of the volcanic island of Surtsey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva-Makulec, K.; Bjarnadottir, B.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-10-01

    The soil nematode fauna can give important insights into soil development and other habitat changes that occur during primary succession. We investigated the generic composition, density, distribution and community structure of nematodes 50 years after the formation of a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland. Part of the island has received additional nutrient inputs from seagulls breeding there since 1985, while the reminder has been much less affected and is at present found at a different successional sere. In total, 25 genera of nematodes were identified, of which 14 were reported on Surtsey for the first time. Nematode communities were more diverse in the more infertile area outside the gull colony, where 24 genera were found, compared to 18 inside. The trophic structure of the nematode communities showed relatively higher abundance of fungal feeders in the infertile areas, but relatively more bacterial- and plant-feeders inside the colony. Nematode abundance in surface soil was, however, significantly higher within the gull colony, with 16.7 ind. cm-2 compared to 3.6 ind. cm-2 outside. A multivariate analysis indicated that the nematode abundance and distribution on Surtsey were most strongly related to the soil C : N ratio, soil acidity, plant cover and biomass, soil temperature and soil depth.

  19. Thermal comfort and tourism climate changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Chi, Xiaoli

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the thermal comfort and its changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau over the last 50 years have been evaluated by using the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), and a more complete tourism climate picture is presented by the Climate-Tourism-Information Scheme (CTIS). The results show that PET classes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau cover six out of the nine-point thermal sensation scale — very cold, cold, cool, slightly cool, neutral and slightly warm — and cold stress is prevailing throughout the year. A small number of slightly cool/warm and neutral days occur in summer months. There occur no warm, hot and very hot days. The frequency of PET classes varies among regions, depending on their altitude/latitude conditions. Xining, Lhasa and Yushu are the top three cities in terms of thermal favorability. With global warming, annual cumulative number of thermally favorable days has been increasing, and that of cold stress has been reducing. The change is more obvious in lower elevation than that in higher elevation regions. The improving thermal comfort in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau might be a glad tiding for local communities and tourists. Besides PET, CTIS can provide a number of additional bioclimatic information related to tourism and recreational activities. CTIS for Lhasa and Xining shows that sunshine is plentiful all the year round, and windy days occur frequently from late January to early May. This is a useful bioclimatic information for tourism authorities, travel agencies, resorts and tourists.

  20. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  1. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining.

  2. The Utility of Capsule Endoscopy in Patients under 50 Years of Age with Recurrent Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze?

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Prabhjot Singh; McAlindon, Mark E.; Drew, Kaye; Sidhu, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The role of capsule endoscopy (CE) in the <50 years of age patients with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) remains unclear. We aim to assess its utility in this cohort. Methods. All patients referred for CE for recurrent IDA were included retrospectively. Patients were divided into Group 1 (<50 years) and Group 2 (≥50 years). Results. There were 971 patients with recurrent IDA and 28% belonged to Group 1. The mean age was 40 years in this group with a DY of 28% (n = 76). Significant diagnoses included erosions and ulcers (26%; n = 71), small bowel (SB) angioectasia (AE) (10%; n = 27), SB tumours (3%; n = 7), Crohn's disease (3%; n = 7), SB bowel strictures (1%; n = 3), and SB varices (1%; n = 2). On logistic regression, the presence of diabetes (P = 0.02) and the use of warfarin (P = 0.049) was associated with increased DY. The DY in Group 2 was 38% which was significantly higher than in Group 1 (P = 0.02). While SB tumours were equally common in both groups, AE was commoner in Group 2 (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A significant proportion of patients <50 years are referred for CE. Although the DY is lower compared to those ≥50 years, significant pathology is found in this age group. CE is advisable in patients <50 years old with recurrent IDA and negative bidirectional endoscopies. PMID:25922603

  3. Arbitrarily Long Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    We consider the recent relativistic bit commitment protocol introduced by Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015)] and present a new security analysis against classical attacks. In particular, while the initial complexity of the protocol scales double exponentially with the commitment time, our analysis shows that the correct dependence is only linear. This has dramatic implications in terms of implementation: in particular, the commitment time can easily be made arbitrarily long, by only requiring both parties to communicate classically and perform efficient classical computation.

  4. The changes of glaciers on northern Baikal ridges over 50 years using in-situ and remotely sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Egor; Alexander, Kitov

    2013-04-01

    All the glaciers lying over the Baikalsky and Barguzinsky ridges of Northern Baikal are small. They are located in hard-to-reach regions both for In-situ such and for remotely sensed observations. A researcher can reach glaciers only by using special alpine equipment. The deep ruggedness of hollows and the being of glaciers in the shade over a period of significant time prevent from remotely sensed observations. The Glaciers of Baikalsky ridge are not registered in the catalogue of the Eurasia glaciers since there are no data about the glaciers in the catalogue of the glaciers of USSR. In result of our expedition works and the analyzing of satellite photograph it was determined that the largest cirque glacier- Cherskogo sufficiently stable. Its retreat has been insignificantly in over 50 years - from 0.446 to 0.407 sq. km, id est on 8,7 %. The glaciers of Barguzinsky ridge are very poorly explored. IG SB RAS in 2011 year for the first time completed the expedition with the object of inventory of these ridge glaciers. This region is extremely difficult to approach. The space survey of ultrahigh resolution for the study area (0.5 m) was ordered before the start of the expedition. Also the accessible archive data of Landsat resolution by 15-30 meters have been received. The comparison of cartographical, distance and expedition data show essential retreat of most of glaciers and its degradation from cirque to slope glaciers. Discovered snow-glacial formations can be divided on 3 main groups: 1 -real glaciers; 2 - slope pendent glacier remains; 3 - permanent snow patches. The region is interesting because there practically are all the forms of little glaciations. In addition it can be observed not only glacier's degradation but their origins too. In the favorable year conditions the snow patches are increased with occupying of the basic of cirque bed and form the ice core and continue the formation of the cirque. The second group of glaciers has actually been reserved

  5. Dynamics of rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers in the Central Chilean Andes over the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Xavier; Brenning, Alexander; Rojas Marchini, Fernanda

    2010-05-01

    In the semiarid Central Andes of Chile at 33.5°S., mountain permafrost is widely present above 3500-4000 m asl, especially in the form of rock glaciers, which often coexist with glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. This peculiar configuration of the cryosphere involves complex and poorly known responses of its components to climate change. Our study area in the Laguna Negra catchment is part of a watershed that provides up to two-thirds of the drinking water supplies to Chile's capital Santiago (5.5 million inhabitants) during the dry summer months. The 35 km² watershed contains 2.3 km² of uncovered glaciers, 0.9 km² of debris-covered glacier area and 4.3 km² of rock glaciers, and hosts the longest series of glacier mass balance measurement in Chile (Echaurren Norte glacier). Using orthorectified aerial photographs of 1956 and 1996 and a high resolution satellite image of 2008, we mapped the geometric changes that affected the glacier and the debris-covered glacier of the Punta Negra sub-catchment during the last 50 years. Surface displacements and volume changes were estimated based on 1956 and 1996 digital elevation models (DEMs), and the total loss of water equivalent in the catchment was quantified. At a shorter time scale, rock glaciers and a debris-covered glacier are being monitored since 2004, providing insights into their kinematics and near-surface thermal regime. The orthophotos reveal a 44.7% reduction of the uncovered glacier area between 1955 and 1996, and only small surface changes between 1996 and 2008. The volume reduction of both uncovered and debris-covered glaciers is estimated at at least 3.9 million m3 water equivalent between 1955 and 1996. The second noticeable change is the growth of the thermokarst areas on the debris-covered glacier, with the formation of new and the widening and deepening of existing melt-out depressions between 1955 and 2008. The thermal monitoring revealed that, in 2003/04, the mean annual ground surface

  6. The Effect of Supportive Organizational Leadership, Organizational Socialization, and Satisfaction with Supervision on Turnover as Mediated by Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowhorn, Greg L.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized a predictive, multivariate research design to test the relationship between three independent variables--supportive organizational leadership, organizational socialization, and satisfaction with supervision--and the dependent variable--turnover intent--as mediated by organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The…

  7. The Effect of Personal Values, Organizational Values, and Person-Organization Fit on Ethical Behaviors and Organizational Commitment Outcomes among Substance Abuse Counselors: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tammara Petrill

    2013-01-01

    Numerous research studies have concluded that values drive perceptions, responses to situations, judgments, interactions among people, and behaviors. In addition, studies have found that congruence or agreement between individual values and organizational values can increase job satisfaction and commitment. Minimal research has explored the…

  8. Effects of Two Versions of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program on Fraternity Men's Survivor Empathy, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intent to Commit Rape or Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.

    2006-01-01

    Fraternity men (N = 261) at a small to midsized public university saw one of two versions of a rape prevention program or were in a control group. Program participants reported significant increases in empathy toward rape survivors and significant declines in rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault.…

  9. [Clinical and tomographic aspects of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease associated with hypertensive crisis in adults under 50 years of age].

    PubMed

    Arismendi-Morillo, G J; Fernández-Abreu, M; Añez-Moreno, R E

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze both the clinical and tomographic aspects of the hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease (HCd), associated with hypertensive crisis in adults under 50 years of age. Forty six patients, who were not under anticoagulant therapy, were not using illegal drugs, who had not a cerebral tumor disease, and who had neither arteriovenous malformations nor past traumatic episodes, were studied. Seventy eight percent of the patients had preexisted arterial hypertension, 30% of them had at least a previous emergency for a hypertensive crisis. Mortality for intracerebral hematoma (ICH) and for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was 21% and 23% respectively. In 68% of the cases, ICH was located in the deep structures of the brain. Asymmetric ventricular system, compression or the absence of mesencephalic cisterna were significantly associated (p > 0.01; p > 0.001 respectively) with higher mortality. There was not a significant difference between the deceased and the survivors in relation with their systolic and diastolic arterial pressure on admission to the emergency unit. A significant positive relation was found between the severity of the injury (percentage of patients with an Scale Coma Glasgow < or = 8 points) and the mortality percentage for the type of HCd (r = 0.81 for ICH; p < 0.001, r = 0.98 for SAH; p < 0.001). Age and a low Scale Coma Glasgow score on the admission, represent unfavorable prognostic factors. Due to the different criteria used to evaluate the tomographic characteristics of intracerebral hematomas, comparisons of the present results with other findings can be difficult. PMID:11029832

  10. Incidence, Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Older than 50 Years with Second Hip Fracture in a Jeju Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Geun; Jang, Sunmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of a second hip fracture is relatively well described, mortality and morbidity after a second hip fracture are seldom evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, morbidity, and mid-term mortality of a second hip fracture and evaluate the cause of death after a second hip fracture. Materials and Methods Information on patients older than 50 years, who sustained a subsequent hip fracture, were obtained from the records of eight Jeju Island hospitals between 2002 and 2011 to calculate the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of hip fractures in this age group. All patients were followed a minimum of 2 years. A systemic search for death certificates at the National Statistical Office was conducted for patients who were lost to follow-up. Results Of 2,055 hip fractures (419 men and 1,636 women), 98 were second hip fractures (13 men and 85 women) during the study period. The mean ages of the patients at the time of the first and second fractures were 78.8 and 80.8 years, respectively. The incidence of a subsequent hip fracture among the first hip fracture was 4.8%. Mean mortality rates at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years were 10.5%, 15.2%, 23.5%, and 42.0% respectively. Cumulative mortality after the second hip fracture at the 5 years follow-up was 41.8%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a secondary fracture prevention program is necessary to prevent second hip fractures in elderly patients.

  11. Long Distance Bicycle Riding Causes Prostate-Specific Antigen to Increase in Men Aged 50 Years and Over

    PubMed Central

    Mejak, Sandra L.; Bayliss, Julianne; Hanks, Shayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) serum concentrations in healthy older men. Methods 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years), rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. Results Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1–12.9; p<0.001) or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml) increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges). Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. Conclusions Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24–48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results. PMID:23418500

  12. 50-year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: US-born Black and White Americans, 1959–2008

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Beckfield, Jason; Kiang, Mathew V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Debates exist over whether health inequities are bound to rise as population health improves, due to health improving more quickly among the better off, with most analyses focused on mortality data. Methods: We analysed 50 years of socioeconomic inequities in measured health status among US-born Black and White Americans, using data from the National Health Examination Surveys (NHES) I-III (1959–70), National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) I-III (1971–94) and NHANES 1999–2008. Results: Absolute US socioeconomic health inequities for income percentile and education variously decreased (serum cholesterol; childhood height), stagnated [systolic blood pressure (SBP)], widened [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)] and in some cases reversed (age at menarche), even as on-average values rose (BMI, WC), idled (childhood height) and fell (SBP, serum cholesterol, age at menarche), with patterns often varying by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic measure; similar results occurred for relative inequities. For example, for WC, the adverse 20th (low) vs 80th (high) income percentile gap increased only among Whites (NHES I: 0.71 cm [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74, 2.16); NHANES 2005–08: 2.10 (95% CI 0.96, 3.62)]. By contrast, age at menarche for girls in the 20th vs 80th income percentile among Black girls remained consistently lower, by 0.34 years (95% CI 0.12, 0.55) whereas among White girls the initial null difference became inverse [NHANES 2005–08: −0.49 years (95% CI −0.86, −0.12; overall P = 0.0015)]. Adjusting for socioeconomic position only modestly altered Black/White health inequities. Conclusions: Health inequities need not rise as population health improves. PMID:24639440

  13. Performance And Agreement Of Risk Stratification Instruments For Postoperative Delirium In Persons Aged 50 Years Or Older

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Carolien J.; Absalom, Anthony R.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2014-01-01

    Several risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium in older people have been developed because early interventions may prevent delirium. We investigated the performance and agreement of nine commonly used risk stratification instruments in an independent validation cohort of consecutive elective and emergency surgical patients aged ≥50 years with ≥1 risk factor for postoperative delirium. Data was collected prospectively. Delirium was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The observed incidence of postoperative delirium was calculated per risk score per risk stratification instrument. In addition, the risk stratification instruments were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and positive and negative predictive value. Finally, the positive agreement between the risk stratification instruments was calculated. When data required for an exact implementation of the original risk stratification instruments was not available, we used alternative data that was comparable. The study population included 292 patients: 60% men; mean age (SD), 66 (8) years; 90% elective surgery. The incidence of postoperative delirium was 9%. The maximum observed incidence per risk score was 50% (95%CI, 15–85%); for eight risk stratification instruments, the maximum observed incidence per risk score was ≤25%. The AUC (95%CI) for the risk stratification instruments varied between 0.50 (0.36–0.64) and 0.66 (0.48–0.83). No AUC was statistically significant from 0.50 (p≥0.11). Positive predictive values of the risk stratification instruments varied between 0–25%, negative predictive values between 89–95%. Positive agreement varied between 0–66%. No risk stratification instrument showed clearly superior performance. In conclusion, in this independent validation cohort, the performance and agreement of commonly used risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium was poor. Although some caution is

  14. The "CEO" of women's work lives: how Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness predict 50 years of work experiences in a changing sociocultural context.

    PubMed

    George, Linda G; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2011-10-01

    Few long-term longitudinal studies have examined how dimensions of personality are related to work lives, especially in women. We propose a life-course framework for studying work over time, from preparatory activities (in the 20s) to descending work involvement (after age 60), using 50 years of life data from the women in the Mills Longitudinal Study. We hypothesized differential work effects for Extraversion (work as pursuit of rewards), Openness (work as self-actualization), and Conscientiousness (work as duty) and measured these 3 traits as predictor variables when the women were still in college. In a prospective longitudinal design, we then studied how these traits predicted the women's subsequent work lives from young adulthood to age 70 and how these effects depended on the changing sociocultural context. Specifically, the young adulthood of the Mills women in the mid-1960s was rigidly gender typed and family oriented; neither work nor education variables at that time were predicted from earlier personality traits. However, as women's roles changed, later work variables became related to all 3 traits, as expected from current Big Five theory and research. For example, early personality traits predicted the timing of involvement in work, the kinds of jobs chosen, and the status and satisfaction achieved, as well as continued work participation and financial security in late adulthood. Early traits were also linked to specific cultural influences, such as the traditional feminine role, the women's movement, and graduate education for careers. PMID:21859225

  15. Satisfied Movers, Committed Stayers. The Impact of Job Mobility on Work Attitudes in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastekaasa, Arne; Kalleberg, Arne L.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of data from 2,910 Norwegian workers indicated that promotions increased job satisfaction and commitment; lateral/downward mobility decreased them. Quitting generally led to higher rewards and satisfaction, but commitment took time to build. Layoffs had no effect on satisfaction but a strong negative effect on commitment. (Contains 51…

  16. CD4 count at presentation for HIV care in the United States and Canada: Are those over 50 years more likely to have a delayed presentation?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We assessed CD4 count at initial presentation for HIV care among ≥50-year-olds from 1997-2007 in 13 US and Canadian clinical cohorts and compared to <50-year-olds. 44,491 HIV-infected individuals in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) were included in our study. Trends in mean CD4 count (measured as cells/mm3) and 95% confidence intervals ([,]) were determined using linear regression stratified by age category and adjusted for gender, race/ethnicity, HIV transmission risk and cohort. From 1997-2007, the proportion of individuals presenting for HIV care who were ≥50-years-old increased from 17% to 27% (p-value < 0.01). The median CD4 count among ≥50 year-olds was consistently lower than younger adults. The interaction of age group and calendar year was significant (p-value <0.01) with both age groups experiencing modest annual improvements over time (< 50-year-olds: 5 [4 , 6] cells/mm3; ≥50-year-olds: 7 [5 , 9] cells/mm3), after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, HIV transmission risk group and cohort; however, increases in the two groups were similar after 2000. A greater proportion of older individuals had an AIDS-defining diagnosis at, or within three months prior to, first presentation for HIV care compared to younger individuals (13% vs. 10%, respectively). Due to the increasing proportion, consistently lower CD4 counts, and more advanced HIV disease in adults ≥50-year-old at first presentation for HIV care, renewed HIV testing efforts are needed. PMID:21159161

  17. Nurses organizational commitment: the discriminating power of gender.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico

    2007-01-01

    The study of the organizational commitment has risen interest within the organization's researchers, who have been trying to understand the intensity and stability of the individual's dedication to the organization. The interest that this construct has raised is based on the idea of the existence of an association of the organizational commitment with variables considered important to the increase of the organizational effectiveness and productivity. The aim of this article is to describe organizational commitment, in its affective, normative, and continuance dimensions, from nurse practitioners, and to analyze the differences of that commitment regarding gender. Data were collected by questionnaire. The sample is constituted by nurse practitioners who develop their professional activity in 6 Portuguese hospitals. Data were analyzed using means, standard deviation, and independent samples t test. The sample consists of 1201 nurses. The organizational commitment of the studied nurses is, on average, 2.87+/-0.69 (in 5-point scale). When we make an analysis regarding gender, we verify that the organizational commitment is higher in women, being the difference statistically significant (t = -2.07; P < .05). There are different levels of commitment in male and female nurses, and it is higher in all dimensions in female nurses; however, the difference is only significant to the organizational and continuance commitment. PMID:17198121

  18. Considerations in civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Dolan, David

    2016-01-01

    Several states currently have enacted laws that allow for civil commitment for individuals diagnosed with severe substance use disorders. Civil commitment or involuntary commitment refers to the legal process by which individuals with mental illness are court-ordered into inpatient and/or outpatient treatment programs. Although initially civil commitment laws were intended for individuals with severe mental illness, these statutes have been extended to cover individuals with severe substance use disorders. Much of the recent legislation allowing for civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders has come about in response to the heroin epidemic and is designed to provide an alternative to the unrelenting progression of opioid use disorders. Civil commitment also provides an opportunity for individuals with opioid use disorders to make informed decisions regarding ongoing or continued treatment. However, civil commitment also raises concerns regarding the potential violation of 14th Amendment rights, specifically pertaining to abuses of deprivation of liberty or freedom, which are guaranteed under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This commentary examines these issues while supporting the need for effective brief civil commitment legislation in all states. PMID:25832824

  19. Long space missions, gene therapy, and the vital role of magnesium: a three-pronged plan for the next 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, William J

    2010-01-01

    Since pharmaceuticals cannot be used in space until liver and kidney dysfunctions are corrected, and with invariable malabsorption, it appears there is no alternative other than to use subcutaneous magnesium (Mg) replacements in the presence of deficiencies and use of gene therapy. I suggest beginning with the correction of as many as four gene deficiencies: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and erythropoietin (EPO), all as well as Mg related to perfusion and angiogenesis. There is no evidence of significant lunar radiation levels in the absence of a solar storm. It could then be determined whether this has resulted in correction of liver and kidney dysfunction. If this persists, serial additions of gene therapy will be required determining the effect of each individual gene trial on organ function. Microgravity and endothelial gaps with leaks trigger reduced plasma volume. Partial correction by use of a plasma volume substitute and development of a delivery device may reduce complexity of gene therapy. Research would be conducted both on Earth and in microgravity, with the development of subcutaneous pharmaceuticals and Mg, and a space walk-reliable subcutaneous silicon device, given that no replenishable subcutaneous device is presently available. A three-pronged approach provides a plan for the next 50 years: A. complete correction of a Mg deficit; B. partial replacement with plasma volume substitutes, and C. multiple gene factor strategy. PMID:21694938

  20. The Association between the Consumption of Fish/Shellfish and the Risk of Osteoporosis in Men and Postmenopausal Women Aged 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunjin; Park, Youngsoon

    2016-01-01

    Fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to have a favorable effect on bone health, but previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that the consumption of fish and shellfish is positively associated with bone mass and negatively associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans and Americans. Men and postmenopausal women ≥50 years old from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 (n = 7154) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (n = 2658) were included. There was a positive correlation between the consumption of fish and shellfish and bone mineral density (BMD) of the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in Koreans. Consistently, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between intake of fish and shellfish and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans. Consumption of fish and shellfish was 4–5 times higher in Koreans than Americans in the present study. In conclusion, intake of fish and shellfish was associated with BMD and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans, suggesting that a minimum intake level of fish and shellfish might be recommended to protect against bone loss and osteoporosis. PMID:26927165

  1. A post audit and inverse modeling in reactive transport: 50 years of artificial recharge in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsen, R. H.; Smits, F. J. C.; Stuyfzand, P. J.; Olsthoorn, T. N.; van Breukelen, B. M.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryThis article describes the post audit and inverse modeling of a 1-D forward reactive transport model. The model simulates the changes in water quality following artificial recharge of pre-treated water from the river Rhine in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes using the PHREEQC-2 numerical code. One observation dataset is used for model calibration, and another dataset for validation of model predictions. The total simulation time of the model is 50 years, from 1957 to 2007, with recharge composition varying on a monthly basis and the post audit is performed 26 years after the former model simulation period. The post audit revealed that the original model could reasonably predict conservative transport and kinetic redox reactions (oxygen and nitrate reduction coupled to the oxidation of soil organic carbon), but showed discrepancies in the simulation of cation exchange. Conceptualizations of the former model were inadequate to accurately simulate water quality changes controlled by cation exchange, especially concerning the breakthrough of potassium and magnesium fronts. Changes in conceptualization and model design, including the addition of five flow paths, to a total of six, and the use of parameter estimation software (PEST), resulted in a better model to measurement fit and system representation. No unique parameter set could be found for the model, primarily due to high parameter correlations, and an assessment of the predictive error was made using a calibration constrained Monte-Carlo method, and evaluated against field observations. The predictive error was found to be low for Na+ and Ca2+, except for greater travel times, while the K+ and Mg2+ error was restricted to the exchange fronts at some of the flow paths. Optimized cation exchange coefficients were relatively high, especially for potassium, but still within the observed range in literature. The exchange coefficient for potassium agrees with strong fixation on illite, a main clay mineral in

  2. Evidence of bottom-up control of marine productivity in the Mediterranean Sea during the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Piroddi, Chiara; Stips, Adolf

    2014-05-01

    The temporal dynamics of biogeochemical variables derived from a coupled 3D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model of the entire Mediterranean Sea is evaluated during the last 50 years (1960 - 2010). Realistic atmospheric forcing and river discharge are used to force the dynamics of the coupled model system. The time evolutions of primary and secondary productions in the entire basin are assessed against available independent data on fisheries yields and catches per unit effort for the same time period. Concordant patterns are found in the time-series of all biological variables (from the model and from fisheries statistics), with low values at the beginning of the series, a later increase with maximum values reached at the end of the 1990's and a posterior stabilization or a small decline. Spectral analysis of the annual biological time-series reveals coincident low-frequency signals in all of them; the first, more energetic signal, peaks at 2000 while the second one (less energetic) presents maximum values at around 1982. Almost identical low-frequency signals are found in the nutrient loads of the main rivers of the basin and in the integrated (0-100 meters) mean nutrient concentrations in the marine ecosystem. Nitrate concentration shows an increasing trend up to 1998 with a later stabilization or a slight decline to present day values. This nitrate evolution seems to be driving the first low-frequency signal found in the biological time series. Phosphate, on the other hand, shows maximum concentrations around 1982 and a posterior sharp decline. This nutrient seems to be responsible for the second low-frequency signal observed in the biological time-series. Our analysis shows that the control of marine productivity (from plankton to fish) in the Mediterranean basin seem to be principally mediated through bottom-up processes that could be traced back to the characteristics of riverine discharges. Other types of control could not be excluded from our analysis (e

  3. Geological Evolution of the Moon: Recent Findings, New Perspectives and Fundamental Questions from 50 Years of Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's Moon provides a fundamental frame of reference for understanding the formation, early history, and evolution of terrestrial planetary bodies. More than 50 years of exploration of the Moon and the Solar System has placed the Moon in the context of the other planetary bodies, including Earth. We look to the well-explored and characterized Moon for an understanding of the nature of its chemical layering (crust, mantle and core), its mechanical layering (lithosphere, asthenosphere), and the nature of its key geological processes (accretion, differentiation, thermal evolution, impact cratering, volcanism and tectonism). What has the Golden Age of Solar System Exploration taught us about the utility and applicability of the lunar historical paradigm? What new questions has it raised? What is thematic in terms of planetary evolution and what is unique to the Moon? How do answers to these three questions inform us about the major outstanding questions concerning the history of the Earth? How do they frame a new paradigm for future lunar exploration? Key questions and focal points include: 1) Does the accretionary history forming the Moon following the Earth impact set the Moon on a different course than bodies accreted by conventional means? 2) How can the impact cratering record of the Moon provide keys to the early bombardment history of the inner solar system, including the "lunar cataclysm"? 3) What is the nature of the lunar magma ocean-derived primary crust and its segregation from the mantle? 4) Are lunar differentiation and primary crustal formation processes and products thematic, unique, or both? 5) What is the nature and significance of the aftermath of primary crustal formation, density stratification and inversion? 6) What are the causes of the lunar magnetic field and its initiation and cessation? 7) What is the process of impact basin formation and how does it change the thickness, physical state, thermal structure, geochemistry and petrology of

  4. Patient Perspectives on Online Health Information and Communication With Doctors: A Qualitative Study of Patients 50 Years Old and Over

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background As health care systems around the world shift toward models that emphasize self-care management, there is increasing pressure for patients to obtain health information online. It is critical that patients are able to identify potential problems with using the Internet to diagnose and treat a health issue and that they feel comfortable communicating with their doctor about the health information they acquire from the Internet. Objective Our aim was to examine patient-identified (1) problems with using the Internet to identify and treat a health issue, (2) barriers to communication with a doctor about online health information seeking, and (3) facilitators of communication with a doctor about patient searches for health information on the Internet. Methods For this qualitative exploratory study, semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 56 adults age 50 years old and over. General concerns regarding use of the Internet to diagnose and treat a health issue were examined separately for participants based on whether they had ever discussed health information obtained through the Internet with a doctor. Discussions about barriers to and facilitators of communication about patient searches for health information on the Internet with a doctor were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six higher-level general concerns emerged: (1) limitations in own ability, (2) credibility/limitations of online information, (3) anxiety, (4) time consumption, (5) conflict, and (6) non-physical harm. The most prevalent concern raised by participants who communicated with a doctor about their online health information seeking related to the credibility or limitations in online information. Participants who had never communicated with a doctor about their online health information seeking most commonly reported concerns about non-physical harm. Four barriers to communication emerged: (1) concerns about embarrassment, (2) concerns that the doctor doesn’t want

  5. Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments

  6. Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter the last 50 years for the seismic area of Evoikos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Demetrious N.; Vergos, George; Spatalas, Spyrous

    2015-04-01

    The results of the analysis of the last 50 years earthquakes series in seismic active areas of Greece, i.e. the areas (a) of the Mygdonian Basin(Contadakis et al. 2007), (b) of the Ionian Islands (Contadakis et al. 2012 ) and (c) of the Hellenic Arc (Vergos et al. 2012 ), indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly and semi-monthly (Mm and Mf) variations. The same happens with the corresponding daily variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal luni-solar (K1, O1) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) and solar (S2) tidal variations. In addition the confidence level for the identification of such period accordance between earthquakes occurrence frequency and tidal periods varies with seismic activity, i.e. the higher confidence level corresponds to periods with stronger seismic activity. These results are in favor of a tidal triggering process on earthquakes when the stress in the focal area is near the critical level. Based on these results, we consider the confidence level of earthquake frequency of occurrence - tidal period accordance, p, as an index of tectonic stress criticality for earthquake occurrence. A test on posterior of this idea, (i.e. the value of the confidence level index, p, indicate the fault matureness) in the case of the recent seismic activity at Fthiotida, was positive (Contadakis et al 2014). In this paper we present the results of a second test by the occasion of the recent seismic activity of Central Evoikos. The results also are positive. We suggest that this compliance parameter may be used as an additional element for the seismic risk assessment. References Cadicheanu, N., van Ruymbeke, M and Zhu P.,2007:Tidal triggering evidence of intermediate depth earthquakes in Vrancea zone(Romania), NHESS 7,733-740. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. N., Spatalas, S., 2009, Evidence for tidal triggering on the shallow earthquakes of the

  7. Assessment of coastal erosion and quantification of land loss on Western Pacific atolls during the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborosi, Danko; Zega, Mojca; Jenson, John W.

    2010-05-01

    others, and that land is not always eroding but in some cases accreting. We are currently engaged in a systematic survey of islands across the region in order to differentiate local problems from wide-ranging phenomena and gain insight into the temporal and geospatial "big picture." The direct aim is to comprehensively and more precisely assess coastal erosion and quantify changes in land area of different islands over the past 50 years. The project consists of fieldwork and GIS analyses, and it is the first to employ such methods to evaluate shoreline transformation in the western Pacific. We visit each island, interview local people regarding recent land changes and events, and carry out site investigations and mapping. Each inhabited island is circumambulated on foot, and beach slopes and scarps are measured, sediments examined, human activities and vegetation damage noted, etc. More importantly, the entire coast of each island is mapped using MobileMapper PRO portable units capable of generating GIS shapefiles in the field. Created coverages include the actual shoreline, sandy banks, vegetated areas, coastal engineering, control points, etc. Data collected on the ground is imported into ArcGIS and rectified using remote sensing imagery. It is then compared to all available historical maps, notably US Army Corps of Engineers 1960s topographic charts, which were previously assembled, digitized, and georeferenced for the purposes of this project. Any discrepancies in island outline and land area would have occurred over the past half a century. Due to the vastness of western Pacific region and logistical obstacles to working on remote islands, data are accumulated gradually. Ultimately, this island-by-island approach will allow documentation of historical and regional erosion patterns, contribute to understanding of local and global components of recent coastal changes, and deliver recommendations for environmental management and emergency avoidance on atolls and other

  8. Dimensionality of Organizational Commitment in Volunteer Workers: Chamber of Commerce Board Members and Role Fulfillment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawley, David D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Stephens, David B.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the multi-dimensionality of organizational commitment of volunteer chamber of commerce board members using the Meyer and Allen (1997) scale. The effect of organizational commitment on desirable board member roles is also tested. Theory is developed by uniting past research in both organizational commitment and employee…

  9. Mortality and cancer registration experience of the Sellafield workers known to have been involved in the 1957 Windscale accident: 50 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    McGeoghegan, D; Whaley, S; Binks, K; Gillies, M; Thompson, K; McElvenny, D M

    2010-09-01

    This paper studies the mortality and cancer morbidity of the 470 male workers involved in tackling the 1957 Sellafield Windscale fire or its subsequent clean-up. Workers were followed up for 50 years to 2007, extending the follow-up of a previously published cohort study on the Windscale fire by 10 years. The size of the study population is small, but the cohort is of interest because of the involvement of the workers in the accident. Significant excesses of deaths from diseases of the circulatory system (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 120, 95% CI = 103-138; 194 deaths) driven by ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (SMR = 133, 95% CI = 112-157, 141 deaths) were found when compared with the population of England and Wales but not when compared with the population of Northwest England (SMR = 105, 95% CI = 90-120 and SMR = 115, 95% CI = 97-136 respectively). When compared with those workers in post at the time of the fire but not directly involved in the fire the mortality rate from IHD among those involved in tackling the fire was raised but not statistically significantly (rate ratio (RR) = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.92-1.33). A RR of 1.11 is consistent with an excess relative risk of 0.65 Sv(-1) as reported in an earlier study of non-cancer mortality in the British Nuclear Fuels plc cohort of which these workers are a small but significant part. There was a statistically significant difference in lung cancer mortality (RR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.05-4.52) rates between workers who had received higher recorded external doses during the fire and those who had received lower external doses. Comparison of the mortality rates of workers directly involved in the accident with workers in post, but not so involved, showed no significant differences overall. On the basis of the use of a propensity score the average effect of involvement in the Windscale fire on all causes of death was - 2.13% (se = 3.64%, p = 0.56) though this difference is not statistically significant. The average effect

  10. Antecedents and Outcomes of Career Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryee, Samuel; Tan, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    A model of antecedents and outcomes of career commitment was tested with data from 510 of 650 Singaporean teachers and nurses surveyed. The model did not fit the data: career satisfaction did not affect career commitment directly or indirectly through organizational commitment. Career commitment was not significantly related to work quality. (SK)

  11. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  12. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  13. Gender-Specific Associations between Perceived Neighbourhood Walkability and Meeting Walking Recommendations When Walking for Transport and Recreation for Czech Inhabitants over 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Pelclová, Jana; Frömel, Karel; Cuberek, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the different effects that the built environment may have on the physical activity behaviours of men and women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the gender differences in meeting walking recommendations in relation to perceived neighbourhood walkability attributes within the active transportation and leisure-time domains for Czech inhabitants over 50 years of age. The sample included 1,417 men and 1,422 women who were randomly selected. The Abbreviated Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (ANEWS) was used to obtain information about the perceived environment. The self-administered long version of the IPAQ was used to assess physical activity levels. When walking for transport, men living in neighbourhoods with high street connectivity (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.04–2.9) and higher traffic and crime safety (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.02–1.6) and women living in neighbourhoods with high proximity (OR = 1.36, CI = 1.04–1.77) and high neighbourhood aesthetics (OR = 1.36, CI = 1.04–1.76) were more likely to meet recommended levels of walking. No environmental attributes were found to significantly influence the accomplishment of walking recommendations by men or women when walking for leisure. The study results indicate the gender-specific associations between transportation-related walking and the environment factors. The consideration of those factors in the design of gender-specific walking interventions for Czech inhabitants may help the interventions to be more effective in promotion of physical activity. PMID:24380981

  14. Mental contrasting and goal commitment: the mediating role of energization.

    PubMed

    Oettingen, Gabriele; Mayer, Doris; Timur Sevincer, A; Stephens, Elizabeth J; Pak, Hyeon-ju; Hagenah, Meike

    2009-05-01

    Mentally contrasting a desired future with present reality is a self-regulation strategy that leads to goal commitment in line with a person's expectations of success. One possible mediator variable of these effects is level of energization. In Study 1, energization assessed by physiological measures was found to mediate the effect of mental contrasting on goal commitment. In Study 2, feelings of energization, as assessed by self-report, mediated the effect of mental contrasting on goal commitment as gauged by performance on an acute stress paradigm (giving a talk in front of a camera). Results imply that when expectations of success are high, mental contrasting provides the level of energy needed to commit to realizing desired futures. PMID:19213924

  15. Conceptual and methodological challenges to measuring political commitment to respond to HIV

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Researchers have long recognized the importance of a central government’s political “commitment” in order to mount an effective response to HIV. The concept of political commitment remains ill-defined, however, and little guidance has been given on how to measure this construct and its relationship with HIV-related outcomes. Several countries have experienced declines in HIV infection rates, but conceptual difficulties arise in linking these declines to political commitment as opposed to underlying social and behavioural factors. Methods This paper first presents a critical review of the literature on existing efforts to conceptualize and measure political commitment to respond to HIV and the linkages between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. Based on the elements identified in this review, the paper then develops and presents a framework to assist researchers in making choices about how to assess a government's level of political commitment to respond to HIV and how to link political commitment to HIV-related outcomes. Results The review of existing studies identifies three components of commitment (expressed, institutional and budgetary commitment) as different dimensions along which commitment can be measured. The review also identifies normative and ideological aspects of commitment and a set of variables that mediate and moderate political commitment that need to be accounted for in order to draw valid inferences about the relationship between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. The framework summarizes a set of steps that researchers can follow in order to assess a government's level of commitment to respond to HIV and suggests ways to apply the framework to country cases. Conclusions Whereas existing studies have adopted a limited and often ambiguous conception of political commitment, we argue that conceiving of political commitment along a greater number of dimensions will allow researchers to draw a more complete

  16. Commitment Profiles: Combinations of Organizational Commitment Forms and Job Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasti, S. Arzu

    2005-01-01

    Although the three-component model of organizational commitment by Meyer and Allen (1991) posits that an employee can experience the three components concurrently, previous research has been largely variable-centered, looking at the antecedents and outcomes of each component separately. Two studies explored how the three components combine to…

  17. Mentoring Literacy Professionals: Continuing the Spirit of CRA/ALER after 50 Years. The Thirty-First Yearbook: A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Sampson, Mary Beth, Ed.; Foote, Martha M., Ed.; Falk-Ross, Francine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume is a milestone year for the Yearbook, the conference, and the College Reading Association (CRA). At this conference, CRA celebrated its 50th year. The title of this thirty-first yearbook mirrors the theme of the 2008 conference--"Mentoring Literacy Professionals for 50 Years." The title "Mentoring Literacy Professionals: Continuing the…

  18. Trichuris sp. from 1,040 +/- 50-year-old Cervidae coprolites from the archaeological site Furna do Estrago, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sianto, Luciana; Duarte, Antônio Nascimento; Chame, Marcia; Magalhães, Juliana; Souza, Mônica Vieira de; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-03-01

    We present results of the paleoparasitological analysis of Cervidae coprolites that were recovered from the archaeological site Furna do Estrago, Pernambuco, Brazil. Trichuris sp. eggs were recovered from the coprolite samples dated 1,040 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of Trichuris sp. in semiarid Cervidae, unexpectedly recorded in archaeological material. PMID:22415268

  19. "This Is the Beginning of My Life Educationally": Older (50+ Years) Working Class Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Scotland, through the Lens of Critical Educational Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on original research where the primary objective was to critically explore the learning experiences of older (50+ years) working class adults in the context of a new university. Semi-structured interviews with 10 older learners engaged in a range of study in a new university in the west of Scotland were utilised. This…

  20. Qualitative Assessment of the Impact of Implementing Reiki Training in a Supported Residence for People Older Than 50 Years with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Renfrew, Nita M; Mainguy, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Reiki is a Japanese form of energy healing that has become popular in the US. Reiki training involves three stages—levels I, II, and III—to a master practitioner level and requires both giving and receiving Reiki. We set out to implement a program to train clients of a supported residence in Brooklyn, NY. They were all older than age 50 years and had HIV/AIDS and substance-abuse and/or mental-health disorders. Methods: A qualitative, narrative-inquiry study was conducted. The Reiki master kept a journal of her 3 years of providing 90 minutes of Reiki treatment and/or training once weekly at the residence. Forty-five of 50 potential participants attended these sessions with various frequencies. Stories were collected from 35 participants regarding their experience of Reiki training. We posited success as continued involvement in the program. Results: All 35 participants reported receiving benefit from participation in Reiki. Participants first took part in training because of the offered subway tokens; however, 40 continued their involvement despite a lack of compensation. When asked why they continued, participants reported life-changing experiences, including a greater ability to cope with addictions, a greater ability to manage counseling, healing of wounds, improvement of T-cell counts, and improved skills of daily living. Conclusion: Reiki training can be successfully implemented in a supported housing facility with people with HIV/AIDS and comorbid disorders. Some people in our study population reported areas of improvement and life-changing experiences. Our study did not establish the efficacy of Reiki, but our findings support the effect of the entire gestalt of implementing a program related to spirituality and healing and supports the goal of implementing a larger randomized, controlled trial in this setting to establish the efficacy of Reiki. PMID:22058669

  1. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as “steadfast role models” in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy.

  2. Parenting--Challenge and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, Eleanore Braun

    1973-01-01

    This is a revised version of the National Council on Family Relations Presidential address delivered November 3, 1972, Portland Oregon. This address concerned the new constitution and reorganization of N.C.F.R. and a plea for reexamination of the membership's commitment to family issues. (JC)

  3. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  4. Hampshire Country School Staff Commitments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampshire Country School, Rindge, NH.

    Intended for professional personnel of the Hampshire Country School, which treats gifted children with immobilizing emotional dysfunctions, the handbook specifies staff commitments. The Code of Ethics, adapted from the National Education Association Code as supplemented by The Council for Exceptional Children, sets forth four principles:…

  5. Faculty Organizational Commitment and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Bell, Alli

    2012-01-01

    Building on a theoretical framework that links characteristics of individuals and their work settings to organizational commitment (OC) and citizenship behavior, this study considers why faculty may be disengaging from institutional service. Analyses of survey data collected from a state system of higher education suggest that job characteristics,…

  6. School Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry Don

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between school climate and teacher commitment. The study focused on elementary schools in Northeast Alabama. Thirty-four elementary schools consisting of 522 teachers took part in the study. The teachers completed two survey instruments: the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment…

  7. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  8. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  9. 28 CFR 522.13 - Relationship between existing civil contempt commitment orders and new criminal sentences imposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Code. (a) Except as stated in (b), if a civil contempt commitment order is in effect when a criminal... contempt commitment order is in effect when a criminal sentence of imprisonment is imposed, the...

  10. The Relationships between Collegiate DECA Commitment, Mentoring and College Students' Perceived Career Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between student's Collegiate DECA commitment, psychological capital, mentoring, and perceived career commitment. Proposed relationships were supported with several psychological theories and frameworks including Organizational Commitment, Psychological Capital, and Social Identity Theory. Data was…

  11. Relationships among perceived career support, affective commitment, and work engagement.

    PubMed

    Poon, June M L

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to test the predictive effects of perceived career support and affective commitment on work engagement. It was hypothesized that perceived career support would relate positively to work engagement and this relationship would be transmitted through affective commitment. Survey data were collected from 115 full-time employees enrolled as part-time graduate students in a large public university in Malaysia. Multiple regression analysis yielded results indicating that the relationship between perceived career support and work engagement was mediated by affective commitment. This finding suggests that employers can promote employee work engagement by ensuring employees perceive their organization to be supportive of their career and increasing employees' level of affective commitment. PMID:23406464

  12. The effects of maternal parenting style and religious commitment on self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American parochial college students.

    PubMed

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L; Winsler, Adam

    2009-04-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior. Participants also completed youth report measures of parental religiosity and perceived maternal parenting style. Correlational analyses show authoritative parenting to be associated with high levels of academic performance and study skills. Additional correlations revealed that highly religious students tend to perform well academically, study better, and engage in fewer risk behaviors than youth less committed to religion. Although no direct relations were observed between parenting style and student religiosity, maternal parenting style was found to moderate relations between parental and student religiosity. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the population studied. PMID:18692235

  13. Cognitive and Functional Decline among Individuals 50 Years of Age or Older in Cambé, Paraná, Brazil: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido Sarria; Bortoletto, Maira Aira Sayuri Sakay; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno; Prina, Douglas Manuel Carrapeiro; Vieira, Maria Cristina Umpierrez; Silva, Ana Maria Rigo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify the frequency of cognitive and functional decline (CFD) among adults 50 years of age and older by a population-based study. Methods Cognitive function was analyzed by the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the functional conditions were based on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Cases of CFD included individuals with cognitive decline and 2 or more compromised IADL. Results A total of 693 individuals were studied. The frequency of CFD was 16.3%. A low socioeconomic profile was associated with greater CFD independent of gender, age, education, and presence of depression (OR = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.53-3.97). Conclusions These data show a high frequency of CFD among adults 50 years and older. Individuals with less education and a lower socioeconomic level exhibited poorer cognitive and functional conditions. PMID:27350779

  14. Social commitment robots and dementia.

    PubMed

    Roger, Kerstin; Guse, Lorna; Mordoch, Elaine; Osterreicher, Angela

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, approximately 500,000 Canadians suffered from a dementia-related illness. The number of sufferers is estimated to double in about 25 years. Due to this growing demographic, dementia (most frequently caused by Alzheimer's disease) will increasingly have a significant impact on our aging community and their caregivers. Dementia is associated with challenging behaviours such as agitation, wandering, and aggression. Care providers must find innovative strategies that facilitate the quality of life for this population; moreover, such strategies must value the individual person. Social commitment robots - designed specifically with communication and therapeutic purposes - provide one means towards attaining this goal. This paper describes a study in which Paro (a robotic baby harp seal) was used as part of a summer training program for students. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the integration of social commitment robots may be clinically valuable for older, agitated persons living with dementia in long-term care settings. PMID:22336517

  15. Deterministic relativistic quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    We describe new unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes whose security is based on Minkowski causality and the monogamy of quantum entanglement. We first describe an ideal scheme that is purely deterministic, in the sense that neither party needs to generate any secret randomness at any stage. We also describe a variant that allows the committer to proceed deterministically, requires only local randomness generation from the receiver, and allows the commitment to be verified in the neighborhood of the unveiling point. We show that these schemes still offer near-perfect security in the presence of losses and errors, which can be made perfect if the committer uses an extra single random secret bit. We discuss scenarios where these advantages are significant.

  16. Donor commitment and patient needs.

    PubMed

    Bakken, R; van Walraven, A-M; Egeland, T

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses views and recommendations of the World Marrow Donor Association concerning ethical issues related to the donation of hematopoietic stem cell products with respect to recruitment, evaluation, workup, and follow-up of unrelated donors. Particular emphasis is placed upon commitment of individual donors, in particular, with respect to the needs of patients to find HLA-matched donors, who may be asked to donate stem cell and other cell products more than once for given patients. PMID:14628078

  17. Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis requires a stem cell pool, a period of amplification of cell numbers, the completion of reduction division to haploid cells (meiosis), and the morphological transformation of the haploid cells into spermatozoa (spermiogenesis). The net result of these processes is the production of massive numbers of spermatozoa over the reproductive lifetime of the animal. One study that utilized homogenization-resistant spermatids as the standard determined that human daily sperm production (dsp) was at 45 million per day per testis (60). For each human that means ∼1,000 sperm are produced per second. A key to this level of gamete production is the organization and architecture of the mammalian testes that results in continuous sperm production. The seemingly complex repetitious relationship of cells termed the "cycle of the seminiferous epithelium" is driven by the continuous commitment of undifferentiated spermatogonia to meiosis and the period of time required to form spermatozoa. This commitment termed the A to A1 transition requires the action of retinoic acid (RA) on the undifferentiated spermatogonia or prospermatogonia. In stages VII to IX of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, Sertoli cells and germ cells are influenced by pulses of RA. These pulses of RA move along the seminiferous tubules coincident with the spermatogenic wave, presumably undergoing constant synthesis and degradation. The RA pulse then serves as a trigger to commit undifferentiated progenitor cells to the rigidly timed pathway into meiosis and spermatid differentiation. PMID:26537427

  18. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  19. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  20. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  1. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  2. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  3. Organizational and Client Commitment among Contracted Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Morrow, Paula C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines affective commitment to employing and client organizations among long-term contracted employees, a new and growing employment classification. Drawing on organizational commitment and social exchange literatures, we propose two categories of antecedents of employee commitment to client organizations. We tested our hypotheses…

  4. Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steers, Richard M.

    1977-01-01

    Personal characteristics, job characteristics, and work experiences influenced commitment. Moreover, commitment was found to be strongly related to intent and desire to remain for both samples and moderately related to attendance and turnover for one sample. Performance was generally unrelated to commitment. (Author)

  5. Satisfaction and commitment in homosexual and heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S M; Rusbult, C E

    Rusbult's (1980, 1983) investment model was utilized to explore the determinants of satisfaction with and commitment to maintain romantic relationships among male and female homosexuals and male and female heterosexuals. The study employed a questionnaire designed to obtain both specific and global measures of rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments, and to obtain global measures of satisfaction and commitment. Women, both lesbians and heterosexuals, reported that they had invested more in their relationships and were more committed to maintaining their relationships than did men. Heterosexuals, male and female, reported greater costs and marginally greater investments in their relationships. In general, the investment model effectively predicted satisfaction and commitment for the sample as a whole and for all four groups of respondents. Greater satisfaction with relationships was associated with higher levels of rewards and lower levels of costs. Greater commitment was associated with greater satisfaction, greater investments, and poorer quality alternatives. Relationship costs were more strongly related to satisfaction and commitment for females than for males. Differences in the average level and the importance of a wide variety of specific predictors were also examined. In general, gender appeared to be a more important predictor of the behaviors explored in this study than was sexual preference. PMID:3835198

  6. The birthplace of planetary radio astronomy: The Seneca, Maryland observatory 50 years after Burke and Franklin's Jupiter radio emission discovery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L. N.; Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    Burke and Franklin's discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter in 1955 effectively marked the birth of the field of planetary radio astronomy. The discovery was made near Seneca, Maryland using the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism/Carnegie Institution of Washington's Mills Cross Array. Fifty years later there is very little evidence of this 96-acre X-shaped array of dipoles still in existence, nor evidence of any of the other antennas used at this site. The site, now known as the McKee Besher Wildlife Management Area, is owned by the State of Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Radio Jove, a NASA/GSFC education and public outreach project, will recognize the 50th anniversary of this discovery through an historic reenactment using their receiver and dual-dipole array system. Our search through the DTM/CIW archives, our visit to the site to look for evidence of this array, and other efforts at commemorating this anniversary will be described.

  7. Modeling the response of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, to external forcings for the next 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.; Larour, E. Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Khazendar, A.

    2012-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier experienced spectacular changes over the past decades. This glacier has been thinning and accelerating since the 1970's at least and its grounding line has been retreating inland at a rate of about 1 km/yr. Initiation of these changes is usually attributed to warmer ocean waters in the Amundsen Sea affecting the floating part of Pine Island. By buttressing grounded ice flow and controlling the discharge of inland ice to the ocean, the ice shelf of Pine Island plays a major role in the stability of the glacier. Interactions between the ice shelf and ice stream remain poorly understood, which limits the ability to predict the future evolution of major outlet glaciers and ice streams and their contribution to sea level rise. We use the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) and a three-dimensional higher-order model to simulate the evolution of the glacier for the next fifty years and assess the effect of changes in several climate forcings and model parameters, namely basal melting under the floating part, ice front position, atmospheric conditions and grounding line retreat. Simulation results show the dominant effect of basal melting and of grounding line retreat. Results also show that changes are not limited to the ice shelf and the grounding line area but propagate far inland, almost to the ice divide. We find that enhanced basal melting or grounding line retreat are each associated with a distinct pattern of ice thinning and acceleration. We compare the simulation results with remote sensing observations of velocity changes and grounding line evolution to elucidate which forcing is more likely to have caused the recent acceleration of Pine Island Glacier. In general, our simulations indicate that Pine Island Glacier has much potential to continue changing over the coming years. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine and the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National

  8. Characterizing Cold Giant Planets in Reflected Light: Lessons from 50 Years of Outer Solar System Exploration and Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Hammel, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    A space based coronagraph, whether as part of the WFIRST/AFTA mission or on a dedicated space telescope such as Exo-C or -S, will be able to obtain photometry and spectra of multiple gas giant planets around nearby stars, including many known from radial velocity detections. Such observations will constrain the masses, atmospheric compositions, clouds, and photochemistry of these worlds. Giant planet albedo models, such as those of Cahoy et al. (2010) and Lewis et al. (this meeting), will be crucial for mission planning and interpreting the data. However it is equally important that insights gleaned from decades of solar system imaging and spectroscopy of giant planets be leveraged to optimize both instrument design and data interpretation. To illustrate these points we will draw on examples from solar system observations, by both HST and ground based telescopes, as well as by Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini, to demonstrate the importance clouds, photochemical hazes, and various molecular absorbers play in sculpting the light scattered by solar system giant planets. We will demonstrate how measurements of the relative depths of multiple methane absorption bands of varying strengths have been key to disentangling the competing effects of gas column abundances, variations in cloud height and opacity, and scattering by high altitude photochemical hazes. We will highlight both the successes, such as the accurate remote determination of the atmospheric methane abundance of Jupiter, and a few failures from these types of observations. These lessons provide insights into technical issues facing spacecraft designers, from the selection of the most valuable camera filters to carry to the required capabilities of the flight spectrometer, as well as mission design questions such as choosing the most favorable phase angles for atmospheric characterization.

  9. Coniston Dam: The rehabiliation of a 50-year-old concrete dam affected by alkali aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.H.; Thomas, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the rehabilitation of the Coniston main dam in Ontario, with particular emphasis on the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) related aspects of the investigation and the influence of these on the design approach adopted, including measures taken to allow for possible future expansion of the original gravity section concrete. The rehabilitation program was primarily undertaken to increase the stability of the gravity sections and log chute which did not meet current dam safety criteria. However, all parts of the structure were found to be affected by AAR and the downstream face of the gravity sections were severely deteriorated due to the combined effects of AAR and freeze-thaw cycles. Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken to determine the extent of deterioration of the dam structures and to assess the potential for continued deterioration. Based on the findings from these studies, a rehabilitation and upgrade strategy was developed which included removal of badly deteriorated concrete, placement of reinforced concrete liners (upstream and downstream), addition of mass concrete buttresses along the length of the gravity sections, replacement of the deck and epoxy injection of the cracked sluiceway piers. Particular attention was paid to the design of the new concrete mixes (to limit the supply of alkalis to the existing concrete) and to the relief of stress between the original concrete core and new concrete liners. The new gravity section liner was debonded from the core concrete to reduce the transfer of stress due to continued expansion of the core; furthermore, the reinforcement of the liner was designed to resist tensile stresses induced by future expansion. Consideration was also given to minimizing the ingress of water to the dam core in order to reduce the degree of saturation and likelihood of further AAR and freeze-thaw action.

  10. Lessons Learned from 50+ Years of NSF-Funded Geoscience Teacher Education Initiatives at Michigan Technological University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawiter, M.; Klawiter, F.

    2011-12-01

    Michigan Technological University has a long and successful tradition of coupling its spectacular geological setting with a dedicated faculty and staff in efforts to improve geoscience education. Beginning with a National Science Foundation Summer Institute in 1960 and culminating in MiTEP (Michigan Teacher Excellence Program, a NSF-funded Math-Science Partnership) now in midcourse, the presenter will focus on many facets of planning, implementation, and evaluation of several successful MTU Geoscience Education programs funded by NSF. Featuring personal accounts and reminiscences of involvement (beginning in 1960) as an attendee, teacher participant, evaluator, pedagogy consultant, and finally as a graduate student contributing to the planning of NSF-funded professional development activities at Michigan Technological University, the presenter will discuss how a consideration of prior program designs has led to a synthesis of successful strategies employed in MiTEP, including: -Addressing teachers' needs based upon pre-assessments in the planning and implementation of high-quality professional development activities -The employment of extensive and varied field-based learning experiences in expanding teachers' content knowledge -The importance of pedagogy in stimulating improvement in course content -Place-based design -Sustainability of lessons learned through sharing methods (such as lesson study, professional learning communities, and participation in conferences conducted by professional organizations) -Incorporation of resources and initiatives from state and federal agencies and organizations into the design and implementation plan (e.g. ESLP Big Ideas, state and federal academic standards, EarthComm) -Evaluation of program effectiveness and implementation of corrections and/or enhancements based upon critical evaluative feedback -Communication of lessons learned

  11. Characterizing Cold Giant Planets in Reflected Light: Lessons from 50 Years of Outer Solar System Observation and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Hammel, Heidi B.

    2014-06-01

    A space-based coronagraph, whether as part of the WFIRST/AFTA mission or on a dedicated space telescope such as Exo-C or -S concepts, will be able to obtain photometry and spectra of multiple giant planets around nearby stars, including many known from radial velocity detections. Such observations will constrain the masses, atmospheric compositions, clouds, and photochemistry of these worlds. Giant planet albedo models, such as those of Cahoy et al. (2010) and Lewis et al. (this meeting), will be crucial for mission planning and interpreting the data. However it is equally important that insights gleaned from decades of solar system imaging and spectroscopy of giant planets be leveraged to optimize both instrument design and data interpretation. To illustrate these points we will draw on examples from solar system observations, by both HST and ground-based telescopes, as well as by Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini, to demonstrate the importance clouds, photochemical hazes, and various molecular absorbers play in sculpting the light scattered by solar system giant planets. We will demonstrate how measurements of the relative depths of multiple methane absorption bands of varying strengths have been key to disentangling the competing effects of gas column abundances, variations in cloud height and opacity, and scattering by high altitude photochemical hazes. We will highlight both the successes, such as the accurate remote determination of the atmospheric methane abundance of Jupiter, and a few failures from these types of observations. These lessons provide insights into technical issues facing spacecraft designers, from the selection of the most valuable camera filters to carry to the required capabilities of the flight spectrometer, as well as mission design questions such as choosing the most favorable phase angles for atmospheric characterization.

  12. Comparing the clinical-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention with a waiting list control among adults with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sara; Hogan, Michael; Dowd, Haulie; Doherty, Edel; O'Higgins, Siobhan; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; MacNeela, Padraig; Murphy, Andrew W; Kropmans, Thomas; O'Neill, Ciaran; Newell, John; McGuire, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Internet-delivered psychological interventions among people with chronic pain have the potential to overcome environmental and economic barriers to the provision of evidence-based psychological treatment in the Irish health service context. While the use of internet-delivered cognitive–behavioural therapy programmes has been consistently shown to have small-to-moderate effects in the management of chronic pain, there is a paucity in the research regarding the effectiveness of an internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) programme among people with chronic pain. The current study will compare the clinical-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an online ACT intervention with a waitlist control condition in terms of the management of pain-related functional interference among people with chronic pain. Methods and analysis Participants with non-malignant pain that persists for at least 3 months will be randomised to one of two study conditions. The experimental group will undergo an eight-session internet-delivered ACT programme over an 8-week period. The control group will be a waiting list group and will be offered the ACT intervention after the 3-month follow-up period. Participants will be assessed preintervention, postintervention and at a 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be pain-related functional interference. Secondary outcomes will include: pain intensity, depression, global impression of change, acceptance of chronic pain and quality of life. A qualitative evaluation of the perspectives of the participants regarding the ACT intervention will be completed after the trial. Ethics and dissemination The study will be performed in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and is approved by the National University of Ireland Galway Research Ethics Committee (12/05/05). The results of the trial will be published according to the CONSORT statement and will be presented at conferences and reported in peer

  13. The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a starting point for psychological research on the sense of commitment within the context of joint action. We begin by formulating three desiderata: to illuminate the motivational factors that lead agents to feel and act committed, to pick out the cognitive processes and situational factors that lead agents to sense that implicit commitments are in place, and to illuminate the development of an understanding of commitment in ontogeny. In order to satisfy these three desiderata, we propose a minimal framework, the core of which is an analysis of the minimal structure of situations which can elicit a sense of commitment. We then propose a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the sense of commitment, and discuss cognitive and motivational processes which may underpin the sense of commitment. PMID:26779080

  14. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  15. Commit to Sit in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Pittsenbargar, Jared; Amos, Gwendolyn; Gaudet, Jo-Anne

    2015-01-01

    At Houston Methodist Hospital, Commit to Sit is a program that encourages radiology professionals to communicate with patients in a way that demonstrates compassion, respect, empathy, and competence in order to foster a trusting relationship. Using active and empathic listening, dialogue is received and understood in the way it was intended, creating a patient centric environment resulting in high quality, safe patient care with improved outcomes. The implicit understanding derived from results and outcomes confirms the fact that patients prefer the radiology staff to sit while communicating with them. This understanding allows the voice of the patient to be heard and should be a consistent practice among all staff. PMID:26485897

  16. Commitment to Nonwork Roles and Job Performance: Enrichment and Conflict Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weer, Christy H.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Linnehan, Frank

    2010-01-01

    An extensive commitment to nonwork roles was negatively associated with the job performance of 182 women legal secretaries. In addition to its direct negative effect on job performance, nonwork role commitment had both a negative indirect effect (through emotional energy expended on nonwork roles) and a positive indirect effect (through resources…

  17. Your 50-Year Career Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the meaning and importance of the long-term view in the academic profession. Taking the half-century view of a career allows everyone to conceptualize his/her work as both a solitary venture and a group effort. As your career develops and you build alliances and partnerships with colleagues--and then with…

  18. 50 years of fiber diffraction.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kenneth C

    2010-05-01

    In 1955 Ken Holmes started working on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a research student with Rosalind Franklin at Birkbeck College, London. Afterward he spent 18months as a post doc with Don Caspar and Carolyn Cohen at the Children's Hospital, Boston where he continued the work on TMV and also showed that the core of the thick filament of byssus retractor muscle from mussels is made of two-stranded alpha-helical coiled-coils. Returning to England he joined Aaron Klug's group at the newly founded Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge. Besides continuing the TMV studies, which were aimed at calculating the three-dimensional density map of the virus, he collaborated with Pringle's group in Oxford to show that two conformation of the myosin cross-bridge could be identified in insect flight muscle. In 1968 he opened the biophysics department at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Germany. With Gerd Rosenbaum he initiated the use of synchrotron radiation as a source for X-ray diffraction. In his lab the TMV structure was pushed to 4A resolution and showed how the RNA binds to the protein. With his co-workers he solved the structure of g-actin as a crystalline complex and then solved the structure of the f-actin filament by orientating the g-actin structure so as to give the f-actin fiber diffraction pattern. He was also able to solve the structure of the complex of actin with tropomyosin from fiber diffraction. PMID:20079849

  19. 50 years of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

  20. Celebrating 50 Years of Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Heinigerd

    2010-11-24

    When thinking of an innovation that has truly changed our world, it is the laser. Right after discovery back in 1960, it is immediately propelled to a public star. People loved the mystery around this new kind of light. It was soon recognized as a symbol of our entry into the future: The Laser Age has started. Newspapers speculated about ''death rays'' as new weapons. It did not take long time until it appeared in Science fiction movies. However reality was much more beneficial and even more diverse. This device has managed to exceed the wildest predictions of the early laser pioneers when it comes to its applications. Today lasers are not a weird scientist's toy, but are commonly used in our everyday life.Of course, nothing of that was foreseen in the early 1950s. Important fundamentals of lasers have been laid already in 1917 by Albert Einstein, introducing the Einstein coefficient of stimulated emission, and subsequent experimental work by Rudolf Ladenburg, Willis Lamb, Alfred Kastler and others.

  1. Celebrating 50 Years of Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebel, Heinigerd

    2010-11-01

    When thinking of an innovation that has truly changed our world, it is the laser. Right after discovery back in 1960, it is immediately propelled to a public star. People loved the mystery around this new kind of light. It was soon recognized as a symbol of our entry into the future: The Laser Age has started. Newspapers speculated about ``death rays'' as new weapons. It did not take long time until it appeared in Science fiction movies. However reality was much more beneficial and even more diverse. This device has managed to exceed the wildest predictions of the early laser pioneers when it comes to its applications. Today lasers are not a weird scientist's toy, but are commonly used in our everyday life. Of course, nothing of that was foreseen in the early 1950s. Important fundamentals of lasers have been laid already in 1917 by Albert Einstein, introducing the Einstein coefficient of stimulated emission, and subsequent experimental work by Rudolf Ladenburg, Willis Lamb, Alfred Kastler and others.

  2. Commitment and the responsive bystander: a field evaluation with a less problematic request.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Prior research on the effect of commitment on bystander intervention has focused on situations involving crime (e.g., robbery). However, the effect of commitment on less problematic situations has never been examined. In this field study, a female confederate asked (commitment condition) or did not ask (no-commitment condition) a customer to keep an eye on her grocery cart on the pretext that she had forgotten something in the store. Several seconds later, a male confederate arrived behind the first confederate's cart and began to move it in order to take her place. It was found that participants (N = 40) intervened to stop the second confederate more frequently in the commitment condition. The results support the assumption that bystander commitment influences behavior even in a non-crime situation. PMID:25153842

  3. Incidence and Mortality after Proximal Humerus Fractures Over 50 Years of Age in South Korea: National Claim Data from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmi; Jang, Sunmee; Lee, Areum; Kim, Ha Young; Lee, Yong Beom; Ha, Yong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been lack of epidemiology of proximal humerus fracture using nationwide database in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of proximal humerus fracture and its mortality following proximal humerus fracture in Korean over 50 years of age. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance data were evaluated to determine the incidence and mortality of proximal humerus fracture aged 50 years or older from 2008 through 2012. Results Proximal humerus fracture increased by 40.5% over 5 year of study. The incidence of fracture increased from 104.7/100,000 in 2008 to 124.7/100,000 in 2012 in women and from 45.3/100,000 in 2008 to 52.0/100,000 in 2012 in men, respectively. One year mortality rate after proximal humerus fracture was 8.0% in 2008 and 7.0% in 2012. One year mortality rate were 10.8% for men and 7.0% for women in 2008 and 8.5% for men and 6.4% for women in 2012. Conclusions Our study showed that the proximal humerus fracture in elderly was recently increasing and associated with high mortality in Korea. Considering proximal humerus fracture was associated with an increased risk of associated fractures and an increased mortality risk, public health strategy to prevent the proximal humerus fracture in elderly will be mandatory. PMID:25774360

  4. Elucidating the Linkage Between Changes in Land Use, Atmospheric Mineral Dust Loading, and Precipitation in Central Asia During the Past 50-years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, I. N.; Tatarskii, V. V.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    It is believed that both land-use/land cover changes and atmospheric mineral dust are among the main factors controlling the precipitation and hydrological cycle. Over the past 50-years Central Asia has been undergoing major human-induced land-use changes that altered the geographical area and intensity of dust sources. Desiccation of the Aral Sea and conversion of the steppe in Kazakhstan to the agriculture fields are just a few examples of occurred land-use changes. Interactions of precipitation with land use changes and atmospheric dust can occur at a variety of scales through a poorly understood series of feedback mechanisms. This study addresses this issue by performing a detailed analysis of empirical data at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The 50-year daily precipitation observations reported from ground-based stations in Central Asia were analyzed to 1) determine the changes in the precipitation distribution and trends and 2) elucidate the potential linkages between precipitation trends and land use and dust loading changes. Utilizing several statistical techniques, we analyzed the precipitation time series for the individual stations as well as for a subset of the stations considering different time-averaging. Several criteria were used to group the stations to separate those affected by dust transport and/or by same types of land-use changes. The consistency between observed precipitation trends and those predicted by the models will be discussed.

  5. Open-Label Trial of Immunogenicity and Safety of a 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Adults ≥50 Years of Age in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Christine; Ruiz Palacios, Guillermo M.; Vazquez-Narvaez, Jorge; Enkerlin-Pauwells, Hermann Leo; Sundaraiyer, Vani; Pathirana, Sudam; Kalinina, Elena; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2014-01-01

    This open-label multicenter clinical trial conducted in Mexico assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults ≥50 years of age not previously vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The PCV13 elicited a robust immune response in this study population, as reflected by the magnitude of fold rises in functional antibody levels measured by serotype-specific opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assays before and 1 month after vaccination. Although the prevaccination OPA geometric mean titers (GMTs) for the majority of the serotypes were significantly lower in the 50- to 64-year age group than those in the ≥65-year age group, the postvaccination immune responses were generally similar. The overall immune responses were higher for the majority of the serotypes in the Mexican study population than those in similar adult study populations who received the PCV13 in Europe and the United States. PCV13 was well tolerated, and there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, PCV13 is safe and immunogenic when administered to adults ≥50 years of age in Mexico and has the potential to protect against vaccine-type pneumococcal disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01432262.) PMID:25499011

  6. Younger and older adolescents' thinking about commitments.

    PubMed

    Galotti, K M; Kozberg, S F; Appleman, D

    1990-12-01

    One hundred and sixty-three adolescents listed factors they consider or would consider when choosing a career and a romantic partner, and defined "commitment" in an open-ended essay. Male and female ninth graders, twelfth graders, and college juniors, from public and private schools served as subjects. Gender, grade, and type of school differences were found in the types and number of different types of factors listed for the above commitments, but not in the number of factors listed. Conceptions of the nature of commitment became more complex with grade, and differed as a function of gender and of type of school. Females listed more "internal" factors than did males for romantic commitments. Males described commitment more contractually, women more affectively. Older students focused more upon long-term and internal concerns, and defined "commitment" more in terms of cognitive processing and emotional attachment than younger students. Implications for related areas of work are discussed. PMID:2262760

  7. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition. PMID:25490128

  8. Walking a tightrope: case management services and outpatient commitment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, W Patrick; Carpenter, Jenneth; Floyd, Destinee F

    2014-01-01

    Effective case managers in community mental health are successful at forging a working alliance with recipients. This article explores one key aspect of case management practice, serving involuntary clients, specifically those on outpatient commitment orders. In 19 intensive interviews, a subset of a larger study, case managers shared their perceptions of the utility of outpatient commitment with a focus on how such orders impacted the professional relationship. We argue that the use of advance psychiatric directives and shared decision-making processes can reduce the need for coercive practice. PMID:25222837

  9. Real-world adjuvant TAC or FEC-D for HER2-negative node-positive breast cancer in women less than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lupichuk, S.; Tilley, D.; Kostaras, X.; Joy, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared the efficacy, toxicity, and use of granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (g-csf) with tac (docetaxel–doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide) and fec-d (5-fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel) in women less than 50 years of age. Methods The study included all women more than 18 years but less than 50 years of age with her2-negative, node-positive, stage ii or iii breast cancer diagnosed in Alberta between 2008 and 2012 who received tac (n = 198) or fec-d (n = 274). Results The patient groups were well-balanced, except that radiotherapy use was higher in the tac group (91.9% vs. 79.9%, p < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 49.6 months, disease-free survival was 91.4% for tac and 92.0% for fec-d (p = 0.76). Overall survival (os) was 96% with tac and 95.3% with fec-d (p = 0.86).The incidences of grades 3 and 4 toxicities were similar in the two groups (all p > 0.05). Overall, febrile neutropenia (fn) was reported in 11.6% of tac patients and 15.7% of fec-d patients (p = 0.26). However, use of g-csf was higher in the tac group than in the fec-d group (96.4% vs. 71.5%, p < 0.001). Hospitalization for fn was required in 10.5% of tac patients and 13.0% of fec-d patients (p = 0.41). In g-csf–supported and –unsupported patients receiving tac, fn occurred at rates of 11.1% and 33.3% respectively (p = 0.08); in patients receiving the fec portion of fec-d, those proportions were 2.9% and 8.1% respectively (p = 0.24); and in patients receiving docetaxel after fec, the proportions were 4.1% and 17.6% respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions In women less than 50 years of age receiving adjuvant tac or fec-d, we observed no differences in efficacy or other nonhematologic toxicities. Based on the timing and rates of fn, use of prophylactic g-csf should be routine for the docetaxel-containing portion of treatment; however, prophylactic g-csf could potentially be avoided during the fec portion of fec-d treatment. PMID:27330344

  10. Unit Commitment by Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Miyagi, Tsukasa; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    This paper presents an Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) for Unit Commitment (UC) problem. APSO reliably and accurately tracks a continuously changing solution. By analyzing the social model of standard PSO for the UC problem of variable size and load demand, adaptive criteria are applied on PSO parameters and the global best particle (knowledge) based on the diversity of fitness. In this proposed method, PSO parameters are automatically adjusted using Gaussian modification. To increase the knowledge, the global best particle is updated instead of a fixed one in each generation. To avoid the method to be frozen, idle particles are reset. The real velocity is digitized (0/1) by a logistic function for binary UC. Finally, the benchmark data and methods are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Outpatient commitment and procedural due process.

    PubMed

    Player, Candice Teri-Lowe

    2015-01-01

    A large empirical literature on Kendra's Law has assessed the impact of court ordered outpatient treatment on outcomes such as treatment adherence, psychiatric hospitalization, quality of life, and treatment costs. Missing from the empirical literature, however, is a better understanding of procedural due process under Kendra's Law. Procedural due process concerns the safeguards that must be in place when governments deprive persons of their liberties, for example--notice, the right to a hearing and the right to appeal. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study of procedural due process and assisted outpatient treatment hearings under Kendra's Law. Attorneys reported significant barriers to effective advocacy on behalf of their clients. Further, despite the shift from a medical model of civil commitment to a judicial model in the 1970s, by and large judges continue to accord great deference to clinical testimony. PMID:25748886

  12. Building successful student-athlete coach relationships: examining coaching practices and commitment to the coach.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Davar; Gurney, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this study we utilized the concept of commitment to explain the impact of coaching practices on student-athlete's behaviour. We examined the impact of commitment to the coach on the coaching outcome of in-role behaviour, and the influence of coaching practices, of information sharing, training, and encouraging teamwork, on the formation of relationships. We adopted measures from the organizational behaviour literature and surveyed student-athletes at two universities in Canada. The sample included data from 165 student-athletes from two universities. Results from structural equation modeling indicate support for the effect of coaching practices on commitment to the coach. Results also support the effect of commitment to the coach on the student-athletes' role behaviour and performance. By showing that coaching practices impact commitment to the coach, and that commitment to the coach impacts student-athlete role behaviour and performance, the findings have important implications for a better understanding of the determinants of coaches' and athletes' performance. The managerial significance of this research rests in the insight provided into how coaching practices influence athlete's behaviour through commitment to the coach. This study contributes to the literature on coach-athlete relationship within universities and colleges by applying the concept of commitment to the coach. This helps diversity research approaches to understanding coach-athlete relationships and extends prior research on commitment by looking at the context of the relationship between the student-athlete and their coach. PMID:25105087

  13. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  14. Reality Shock and Commitment: A Study of New Employees' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Roger A.; Wanous, John P.

    Reality shock within organizations can be defined as the discrepancy between an individual's expectations established prior to joining an organization and the individual's perceptions after becoming a member of the organization. To investigate the effects of reality shock on organizational commitment, 109 bank tellers were monitored for 10 months…

  15. Personal Commitment, Support and Progress in Doctoral Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsuo, Miia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research on doctoral education has associated study progress with the student's own capabilities and faculty support. The purpose of this study is to investigate how students' personal commitment and various forms of support, as well as their complementary effects, explain progress in doctoral studies. Data were collected by a…

  16. The Relationship between Diversity Training, Organizational Commitment, and Career Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Margaret; Holmes, Mark Robert; Hannan, Charity-Ann; Cukier, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between employees' perceptions of diversity training (DT) existence and effectiveness with organizational commitment (OC), and career satisfaction (CS). Design/methodology/approach: The analyses in this paper utilize survey data collected between 2006 and 2007 from over 11,000…

  17. Cirrhosis mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Page, W F; Miller, R N

    2000-10-01

    In our earlier, 30-year follow-up of American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict, we found evidence of increased cirrhosis mortality. Using federal records, we have now extended our follow-up to 50 years (42 years for Korean conflict veterans) and have used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs with that of controls. Compared with their controls, World War II POWs had a 32% higher risk of cirrhosis mortality (statistically significant), and mortality risk was higher in the first 30 years of follow-up and also among those aged 51 years and older. Korean POWs had roughly the same risk of cirrhosis mortality as their controls. Neither self-reported data on alcohol consumption nor supplemental morbidity data satisfactorily explained the differences in risk between POWs and controls, although there was evidence that POWs tended to have higher rates of hepatitis, helminthiasis, and nutritional deprivation. PMID:11050876

  18. A current reader's response to the article of 50 years ago by Karpman, B. (1949): "The principles and methods of objective psychotherapy".

    PubMed

    Luborsky, L

    2000-07-01

    The first aim is to describe the psychotherapy of 1949 in the light of today's psychotherapies. The old psychotherapy is suited to treating severely ill patients. It does not use free association, but rather is focused on current problems. It uses dreams, yet it also uses homework and bibliotherapy. The second aim is to critique the treatment. Consistent with its era. it does not make use of medications, and there is an absence of references to psychotherapy research, which was then just starting. The treatment relies over-heavily on the authority of the therapist. A third aim is to describe the changes in our field in the past 50 years and examine the predictions for the future. Although the treatment is called objective psychotherapy, it does not make use of the most up-to-date means of measuring accuracy of interpretations, such as the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method and other methods like it. PMID:10902948

  19. Ferruccio Ritossa's scientific legacy 50 years after his discovery of the heat shock response: a new view of biology, a new society, and a new journal.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Antonio; Santoro, M Gabriella; Tanguay, Robert M; Hightower, Lawrence E

    2012-03-01

    The pioneering discovery of the heat shock response by the Italian scientist Ferruccio Ritossa reached maturity this year, 2012. It was 50 years ago that Professor Ritossa, through an extraordinary combination of serendipity, curiosity, knowledge and inspiration, published the first observation that cells could mount very strong transcriptional activity when exposed to elevated temperatures, which was coined the heat shock response. This discovery led to the identification of heat shock proteins, which impact many areas of current biology and medicine, and has created a new avenue for more exciting discoveries. In recognition of the discovery of the heat shock response, Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) awarded Professor Ritossa with the CSSI medallion in October 2010 in Dozza, Italy. This article is based on a session of the Fifth CSSI Congress held in Québec commemorating Professor Ritossa and his discovery. PMID:22252402

  20. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis co-existing with aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis in a 50 year old diabetic woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anita A; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajkumar, K; Natesan, Senthilkumar; Srinivasan, Devasena; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Sundaresan, Manjunath; Rajamanickam, Deepan

    2008-01-01

    Aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis coexisting with multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the same patient is a rare entity. We report a 50 year old South Indian woman, a diabetic, who presented to us with complaints of productive cough and hemoptysis for the past 2 months. She was diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis 2 years ago for which she took irregular treatment. Lung imaging showed features of a thick walled cavity in the right upper lobe with an indwelling aspergilloma. She underwent a right lung upper lobe resection. Biopsy and culture of the resected specimen showed the coexistence of Aspergillus fumigatus and multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 2 blood cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus. She was successfully treated with Voriconazole and anti tuberculous therapy against MDR-TB. PMID:18992166

  1. An analysis of the sequence variability of meningococcal fHbp, NadA and NHBA over a 50-year period in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Stefania; Piet, Jurgen; Muzzi, Alessandro; Keijzers, Wendy; Comandi, Sara; De Tora, Lisa; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie; Comanducci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of meningococcal evolution and genetic population structure, including the long-term stability of non-random associations between variants of surface proteins, are essential for vaccine development. We analyzed the sequence variability of factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA) and Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), three major antigens in the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine 4CMenB. A panel of invasive isolates collected in the Netherlands over a period of 50 years was used. To our knowledge, this strain collection covers the longest time period of any collection available worldwide. Long-term persistence of several antigen sub/variants and of non-overlapping antigen sub/variant combinations was observed. Our data suggest that certain antigen sub/variants including those used in 4CMenB are conserved over time and promoted by selection. PMID:23717687

  2. Morphological and Morphometrical Study of the Human Ossicular Chain: A Review of the Literature and a Meta-Analysis of Experience Over 50 Years

    PubMed Central

    Noussios, George; Chouridis, Pantelis; Kostretzis, Lazaros; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The ossicular chain has been known for 500 years and yet there are a small number of morphometrical studies. We reviewed the whole literature that is available online regarding the human ossicular chain from an anatomist perspective and correlated the data from all the papers that showed any relevance. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. A thorough description of all ossicular differences has been made and we present their variations in dimensions trying to associate measurements obtained with race. This research included papers spreading on a horizon of over 50 years of worldwide experience. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a great difference in measurements and the results cannot be sufficiently associated. The explanation of this variation in the measurements obtained might be due to errors in the procedure. We conclude that ossicular chain reveals a great variety, and propose that a measurement protocol for auditory ossicles must be widely performed. PMID:26767074

  3. Associations of various perceived-stress situations with depressive symptoms in ≥50-year old Taiwanese men and women: Results from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Jen; Chang, Fu-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between various perceived-stress and depressive symptoms in old Taiwanese men and women aged 50 years and over. Data were derived from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Stress for health, finance, and family members' related issues were all cross-sectionally associated with concurrent depressive symptoms for men and women (all P<0.05). Increased/constant-high health stress was positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in both genders (all P<0.05). Constantly high job stress and increased stress over family members' problems were associated with higher likelihood of subsequent depressive symptoms in men (P<0.05). Constantly high/increased financial stress and relationship strain with family members were positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in women (all P<0.05). The results suggest that stress for health, job, finance, and family members-related issues are unequally associated with depressive symptoms among Taiwanese men and women aged 50 years and over. Changes of health stress even reduced are significantly associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Long-term job stress and increased stress over family members' problems increase occurrences of men's depressive symptoms, while increased/long-term financial stress and relationship-strain with family members increase occurrences of women's depressive symptoms. Long-term high health stress has more impacts on men's depressive symptoms than women's, while long-term high relationship strain with family members has more impacts on women's depressive symptoms than men's. PMID:27490720

  4. Requesting a Commitment to Change: Conditions that Produce Behavioral or Attitudinal Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Githa Kanisin; MacVicar, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is a lack of clarity in the conceptualization of "commitment" underlying the commitment to change (CTC) procedure used by organizers of continuing education in the health professions. This article highlights the two distinct conceptualizations of commitment that have emerged in the literature outside health care education and practice. The…

  5. Education on the Internet: Anonymity vs. Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that learning a skill requires the kind of commitment which is undermined by the Press (the Public) and the Internet, citing Soren Kierkegaard's "The Present Age", and states that learning by apprenticeship is impossible in cyberspace. Includes: aesthetic sphere--commitment to the enjoyment of sheer information; ethical sphere--turning…

  6. The Social Construction of Marital Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Stephanie Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This paper articulates a theoretical framework for understanding how individuals orient themselves toward marital commitment. Using a life history interview methodology and interpretive framework, it examines the orientations toward marital commitment for a sample of women and men, single and married, between the ages of 28 and 35 (N = 75).…

  7. Commitment and Dependence Upon Regular Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Michael L.; Pargman, David

    The linear relationship between intellectual commitment to running and psychobiological dependence upon running is examined. A sample of 540 regular runners (running frequency greater than three days per week for the past year for the majority) was surveyed with a questionnaire. Measures of commitment and dependence on running, as well as…

  8. Bilingual Education Commitment and Involvement. Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olstad, Charles, Ed.

    This report consists of papers presented during the 6th annual conference of the Southwest Council for Bilingual Education. Seven papers are included in the report: (1) Community Involvement in Bilingual Programs of Las Cruces Public Schools; (2) Bilingual Education--A Commitment to Community Development; (3) The Commitment of a State Department…

  9. Overview of the Core Commitments Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the Core Commitments Initiative conducted by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). Core Commitments was intended to reinvigorate the conversation about personal and social responsibility within higher education, and served as the impetus for this "New Directions" volume.

  10. 47 CFR 54.643 - Funding commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Funding commitments. 54.643 Section 54.643... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.643 Funding commitments. (a) Once a vendor is selected, applicants must submit a “Funding Request” (and...

  11. 47 CFR 54.643 - Funding commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Funding commitments. 54.643 Section 54.643... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.643 Funding commitments. (a) Once a vendor is selected, applicants must submit a “Funding Request” (and...

  12. The Influence of Culture on Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd Razak, Nordin; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Culture is believed to be an important factor that influences various aspects of human life, such as behaviour, thinking, perceptions and attitudes. This article examines the similarities and differences in the influence of culture on teacher commitment in three types of Malaysian primary schools. Since commitment to teaching has rarely been…

  13. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  14. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  15. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  16. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  17. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commitment issuance. 200.46 Section 200.46 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  18. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commitment issuance. 200.46 Section 200.46 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  19. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commitment issuance. 200.46 Section 200.46 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  20. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commitment issuance. 200.46 Section 200.46 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  1. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment issuance. 200.46 Section 200.46 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  2. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  3. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  5. Teachers' Organizational Commitment in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celep, Cevat

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish teachers' levels of commitment to their schools, the tasks involved in teaching, work groups, and the occupation. A 28-item scale was administered to 302 teachers working in public high schools in the districts of Zonguldak and in the city center. The questionnaire asked about their commitment to the school;…

  6. Bases of social power, leadership styles, and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Antonio; Raven, Bertram H; Amato, Clara; Bélanger, Jocelyn J

    2013-01-01

    Affective organizational commitment reflects the extent to which organizational members are loyal and willing to work toward organizational objectives (Meyer & Allen, 1997). In particular, affective organizational commitment holds very important implications at all organizational levels (e.g., turnover rates, performance, and citizenship behavior). Whereas previous research has evinced the positive influence of transformational and charismatic leadership styles on affective commitment toward the organization (Bass & Avolio, 1994), little is known with regard to the nature of this relationship. In line with the interpersonal power/interaction model, the present investigation aimed to investigate the mechanism at play between transformational leadership style and affective organizational commitment. Specifically, we hypothesized that transformational leadership style would increase affective organizational commitment through its effect on willingness to comply with soft bases of power. In two studies, we subjected the foregoing hypotheses to empirical scrutiny. In Study 1, the proposed mediation model was empirically supported with Italian employees in the public sector. Attesting to the robustness of our findings, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 with Italian employees from the public and private sectors. In addition, Study 2 replicated Study 1 using a different measure of transformational leadership. Both Study 1 and Study 2 provided results consistent with our hypotheses. Specifically, the present paper reports empirical evidence that (1) the more participants report having a transformational leader, the more willing they become to comply with soft (but not harsh) power bases, (2) in turn, greater willingness to comply with soft (but not harsh) power bases increases one's affective organizational commitment. These findings provide additional support for the interpersonal power/interaction model and pave the way for new research directions. PMID:23072507

  7. Organisational commitment in nurses: is it dependent on age or education?

    PubMed

    Jones, April

    2015-02-01

    In hospitals in the United States, the ratio of nurses to patients is declining, resulting in an increase in workloads for the remaining nurses. Consequently, the level of commitment that these nurses have to their jobs is important. Outside health care, employees from different generations working for a variety of organisations differ in their levels of organisational commitment, but this information has not been available for nurses. This study, carried out in the state of Alabama, looks at whether nurses from different generations differ in their levels of organisational commitment, and also whether there are any differences in organisational commitment between licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and registered nurses (RNs). A questionnaire designed to measure levels of organisational commitment was answered by 145 nurses. The results were analysed for any differences in organisational commitment in nurses from different generations and with different nursing degrees. Nurses from different generations showed the same levels of organisational commitment, but LPNs showed significantly less affective commitment, that is, lower feelings of loyalty to their workplace, than RNs. This information may be useful for hospital administrators and human resource managers in the United States to highlight the value of flexible incentive packages to address the needs of a diverse workforce. For healthcare employers in the UK, the concept that there is an association between nursing qualifications and levels of organisational commitment is critical for building organisational stability and effectiveness, and for nurse recruitment and retention. PMID:25629349

  8. The influence of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and fairness perceptions on organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Schappe, S P

    1998-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that job satisfaction, perceptions of procedural justice, and organizational commitment are all significant correlates of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Those variables were studied collectively to determine their relative effects on OCB. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that when all three of the variables were considered concurrently, only organizational commitment accounted for a unique amount of variance in OCB. PMID:9540226

  9. Clients' Satisfaction with Monopolistic Services and Commitment to the Organization: A University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James L.; Cunningham, Brent J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between monopolistic service providers and customer satisfaction and commitment. The authors investigated how the ethical perceptions of service consumers, their perceptions of service quality, and satisfaction effect commitment to the long-term relationship with monopolistic service providers. Results…

  10. The Influence of Distributed Leadership on Teachers' Organizational Commitment: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the effects of a cooperative leadership team, distributed leadership, participative decision-making, and context variables on teachers' organizational commitment are investigated. Multilevel analyses on data from 1522 teachers indicated that 9% of the variance in teachers' organizational commitment is attributable to…

  11. The Quest for Status and Effectiveness in Public Relations: More a Question of Philosophy, Commitment to Values, and Research Development Than Academic Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    The public relations educators in the university departments that house public relations must be aware of key issues that have an impact on the quest for status and effectiveness. Failure to adhere to these concerns may turn out students who will be trapped and have a much lower level of job satisfaction. These concerns are as follows: (1)…

  12. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  13. It’s Harder to Break a Relationship When you Commit Long

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Manabu; Nakamura, Chie

    2016-01-01

    Past research has produced evidence that parsing commitments strengthen over the processing of additional linguistic elements that are consistent with the commitments and undoing strong commitments takes more time than undoing weak commitments. It remains unclear, however, whether this so-called digging-in effect is exclusively due to the length of an ambiguous region or at least partly to the extra cost of processing these additional phrases. The current study addressed this issue by testing Japanese relative clause structure, where lexical content and sentence meaning were controlled for. The results showed evidence for a digging-in effect reflecting the strengthened commitment to an incorrect analysis caused by the processing of additional adjuncts. Our study provides strong support for the dynamical, self-organizing models of sentence processing but poses a problem for other models including serial two-stage models as well as frequency-based probabilistic models such as the surprisal theory. PMID:27271881

  14. An examination of the role of perceived support and employee commitment in employee-customer encounters.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Bentein, Kathleen; Michon, Richard; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Tremblay, Michel; Fils, Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    The authors examined the relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, commitment to customers, and service quality in a fast-food firm. The research design matched customer responses with individual employees' attitudes, making this study a true test of the service provider-customer encounter. On the basis of a sample of matched employee-customer data (N = 133), hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that perceived organizational support had both a unit-level and an employee-level effect on 1 dimension of service quality: helping behavior. Contrary to affective organizational commitment, affective commitment to customers enhanced service quality. The 2 sub-dimensions of continuance commitment to the organization--perceived high sacrifice and perceived lack of alternatives--exerted effects opposite in sign: The former fostered service quality, whereas the latter reduced it. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of research on employee-customer encounters. PMID:17638475

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  18. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  19. Athletic Trainers' Barriers to Maintaining Professional Commitment in the Collegiate Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Professional commitment simply describes one's obligation to his or her work. For athletic trainers (ATs), the demanding work environment and job expectations may affect their characterization of professional commitment. Our breadth of knowledge regarding professional commitment within athletic training is narrow. Objective: To evaluate the professional commitment of ATs in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Collegiate. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three Board of Certification-certified ATs employed in the collegiate setting (National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I = 11, Division II = 9, Division III = 13) with an average of 10 ± 8 years of clinical experience volunteered. Data saturation guided the total number of participants. Data Collection and Analysis: Online journaling via QuestionPro was completed by all participants. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were conducted for data credibility. Analysis followed a general inductive method. Results: Four themes speak to the factors that negatively affect ATs' professional enthusiasm and commitment: (1) life stage, (2) work overload, (3) organizational climate, and (4) human resources. The latter 3 speak to the effect the workplace can have on ATs' professional commitment, and the first speaks to the effect outside responsibilities can have. Conclusions: Our results suggest that several of the factors that negatively influence the professional commitment of collegiate ATs are modifiable organizational components. Developing resiliency strategies at the individual and organizational levels may help to facilitate improved professional commitment for the AT. PMID:25761133

  20. Commitment to Sport and Exercise: Re-examining the Literature for a Practical and Parsimonious Model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A commitment to physical activity is necessary for personal health, and is a primary goal of physical activity practitioners. Effective practitioners rely on theory and research as a guide to best practices. Thus, sound theory, which is both practical and parsimonious, is a key to effective practice. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature in search of such a theory - one that applies to and explains commitment to physical activity in the form of sport and exercise for youths and adults. The Sport Commitment Model has been commonly used to study commitment to sport and has more recently been applied to the exercise context. In this paper, research using the Sport Commitment Model is reviewed relative to its utility in both the sport and exercise contexts. Through this process, the relevance of the Investment Model for study of physical activity commitment emerged, and a more parsimonious framework for studying of commitment to physical activity is suggested. Lastly, links between the models of commitment and individuals' participation motives in physical activity are suggested and practical implications forwarded. PMID:23412904