Science.gov

Sample records for 50-year dose commitment

  1. Comparison of 50-year and 70-year internal-dose-conversion factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The 50-year inhalation and ingestion dose commitments associated with an acute intake (of a radionuclide) of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq (1 ..mu..Ci) in one day were compared with the corresponding dose commitments calculated for a 70-year integration period resulting from a chronic intake of the same amount at a rate of 101 Bq/d (0.00274 ..mu..Ci/d) for one year. These values, known as dose conversion factors, estimate the dose accumulated during a given period of time following a unit of intake of a radionuclide. It was demonstrated that the acute intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq in one day and the chronic intake of 101 Bq/d for one year (a total intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq) result in essentially the same dose commitment for a relatively long integration period. Therefore, the comparison of 50-year acute dose conversion factors and 70-year chronic dose conversion factors is essentially only a measure of the additional dose accumulated in the 50 to 70 year period. It was found that for radionuclides with atomic mass less than 200 the percent difference in the 70-year and 50-year dose conversion factors was essentially zero in most cases. Differences of approximately 5 to 50% were obtained for dose conversion factors for most alpha emitters with atomic masses of greater than 200. Comparisons were made on the basis of both organ dose equivalent and effective dose equivalent. The implications and significance of these results are discussed.

  2. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  3. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure. PMID:23511708

  4. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...—Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose I. Equivalent Dose The calculation of the committed effective dose (CED) begins with the determination of the equivalent dose, HT, to a tissue or organ, T, listed in... is the radiation weighting factor which is given in Table B.1 below. The unit of equivalent dose...

  5. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  6. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commericial power reactors operating during 1985. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 61 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 73 person-rem to a low of 0.011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 200 person-rem for the 110 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  7. Population Dose Commitments Due to Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Power Plant Sites in 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D. A.

    1980-10-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1977. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ, Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 220 person-rem to a low of 0.003 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 16 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 700 person-rem for the 92 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10{sup -5} mrem to a high of 0.1 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  8. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear-power-plant sites in 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Peloquin, R.A.; Schwab, J.D.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1978. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 200 person-rem to a low of 0.0004 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 14 person-rem. The total population dose for allsites was estimated at 660 person-rem for the 93 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 3 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.08 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  9. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1984. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 56 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 110 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 5 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 280 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.04 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  10. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from Nuclear-Power-Plant Sites in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1982-12-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1979. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 1300 person-rem to a low of 0.0002 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 38 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 1800 person-rem for the 94 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.7 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  11. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  12. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1986. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 66 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 31 person-rem to a low of 0.0007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.7 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 110 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup -6} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. 12 refs.

  13. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1987. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 70 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for reach of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mrem to a high of 0.009 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year). 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  15. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... the radionuclide decays. The time distribution of the absorbed dose rate will vary with the... radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... the radionuclide decays. The time distribution of the absorbed dose rate will vary with the... radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... the radionuclide decays. The time distribution of the absorbed dose rate will vary with the... radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of...

  19. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1992. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1992. Fifty-year dose commitments for a 1-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager, and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses, which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 3.7 person-rem to a low of 0.0015 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 0.66 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 47 person-rem for the 130-million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, design objectives.

  20. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989. Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  1. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1980. In addition doses derived from the shutdown reactors at the Three Mile Island site were included. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 40 person-rem to a low of 0.02 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 4 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 180 person-rem for the 96 million people considered at risk.

  2. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1991. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1995-04-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1991. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1 design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 22 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 88 person-rem for the 130 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix 1 design objectives.

  3. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A. )

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  4. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1983. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 52 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 45 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 170 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk.

  5. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1981. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1981. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways from 48 sites ranged from a high of 20 person-rem to a low of 0.008 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 160 person-rem for the 98 million people considered at risk.

  6. DIFFRACTION DISSOCIATION - 50 YEARS LATER.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.N.

    2005-04-27

    The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d {yields} n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

  7. Discovering Astronomy 50 Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Z.

    2008-09-01

    Three years after graduating in astronomy from Bucharest University, I was finally recruited by the Bucharest Observatory to participate in the International Geophysical Year. I joined the Observatory as the third fellow of the Solar Department. There, I became an expert in satellite affairs thanks to a TV broadcast shot. I was in charge of adjusting the newly received solar instruments and contributed to the international campaign, including the solar patrol. Since it was absolutely impossible for me to start a thesis at that time, I moved to France and started a new career in the Solar Department of Paris-Meudon Observatory. My experience at the Bucharest Observatory was fundamental to the rest of my work over the following 50 years. My cooperation with the Bucharest Observatory increased after 1992 and still continues today.

  8. 50 years of JETP Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly traces the 50-year history of the journal Pis'ma v Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (JETP Letters), whose first issue was published on 1 April 1965. The journal is intended for a wide circle of physicists-readers as a fast publication channel for short communications on new results from research of the highest significance and highest priority in all areas of experimental and theoretical physics. Today, the journal celebrates numerous important contributions to the development of physics both in Russia and worldwide. Over a historically short period, JETP Letters developed into a highly authoritative and influential source for physicists engaged in a wide range of fields. Due to the wise and well-timed editorial policy, the journal continues to retain its leadership position, despite the difficulties the entire science periodical literature - and indeed the whole of science - is currently experiencing in Russia.

  9. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are /sup 35/S, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 67/Ga, /sup 75/Se, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 125/I, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 169/Yb, /sup 182/Ta, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 198/Au, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 204/Tl, and /sup 236/Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine.

  10. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites: Methodology and data base. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    This manual describes a dose assessment system used to estimate the population or collective dose commitments received via both airborne and waterborne pathways by persons living within a 2- to 80-kilometer region of a commercial operating power reactor for a specific year of effluent releases. Computer programs, data files, and utility routines are included which can be used in conjunction with an IBM or compatible personal computer to produce the required dose commitments and their statistical distributions. In addition, maximum individual airborne and waterborne dose commitments are estimated and compared to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1, design objectives. This supplement is the last report in the NUREG/CR-2850 series.

  11. GATA-3 dose-dependent checkpoints in early T cell commitment1

    PubMed Central

    Scripture-Adams, Deirdre D.; Damle, Sagar S.; Li, Long; Elihu, Koorosh J.; Qin, Shuyang; Arias, Alexandra M.; Butler, Robert R.; Champhekar, Ameya; Zhang, Jingli A.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2014-01-01

    GATA-3 expression is crucial for T cell development and peaks during commitment to the T-cell lineage, midway through the CD4−CD8− (DN) 1-3 stages. We used RNA interference and conditional deletion to reduce GATA-3 protein acutely at specific points during T-cell differentiation in vitro. Even moderate GATA-3 reduction killed DN1 cells, delayed progression to DN2 stage, skewed DN2 gene regulation, and blocked appearance of DN3 phenotype. Although a Bcl-2 transgene rescued DN1 survival and improved DN2 cell generation, it did not restore DN3 differentiation. Gene expression analyses (qPCR, RNA-seq) showed that GATA-3-deficient DN2 cells quickly upregulated genes including Spi1 (PU.1) and Bcl11a and downregulated genes including Cpa3, Ets1, Zfpm1, Bcl11b, Il9r and Il17rb, with gene-specific kinetics and dose-dependencies. These targets could mediate two distinct roles played by GATA-3 in lineage commitment, as revealed by removing wildtype or GATA-3-deficient early T-lineage cells from environmental Notch signals. GATA-3 worked as a potent repressor of B-cell potential even at low expression levels, so that only full deletion of GATA-3 enabled pro-T cells to reveal B-cell potential. The ability of GATA-3 to block B-cell development did not require T-lineage commitment factor Bcl11b. In prethymic multipotent precursors, however, titration of GATA-3 activity using tamoxifen-inducible GATA-3 showed that GATA-3 inhibits B and myeloid developmental alternatives at different threshold doses. Furthermore, differential impacts of a GATA-3 obligate repressor construct imply that B and myeloid development are inhibited through distinct transcriptional mechanisms. Thus, the pattern of GATA-3 expression sequentially produces B-lineage exclusion, T-lineage progression, and myeloid-lineage exclusion for commitment. PMID:25172496

  12. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently seven members who joined the Union in 1941 received their gold pins in recognition of 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the other 50-year members, all of whom are listed below by the year they joined. 1941 Max Bookman, Desmond F. Glynn, William F. Guyton, Kenneth E. Lohman, Charles Miron, Russell W. Revell, and Wilbur T. Stuart

  13. Ned Greenberg: 50 Years and Counting | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Can you imagine working for the same company for 50 years? Nathaniel “Ned” Greenberg has accomplished just that, having recently received his 50-year service award from NIH, and he has no immediate plans for retirement. “I don’t look upon my job as a chore, it’s more of an avocation than a vocation,” said Greenberg, a chemist in the Biological Testing Branch (BTB), under Branch Chief Melinda Hollingshead, DVM, Ph.D. “I am lucky that I found something that I enjoy doing.”

  14. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently, 14 AGU members who joined the Union in 1937 received their recognition pins for 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the 50- year AGU members, who are listed below by the year that they joined:1937 A.B. Bryan, Leonard B. Corwin, Tate Dalrymple, Richard H. Fleming, Harry L. Frauenthal, Konrad B. Krauskopf, J. Stuart Meyers, Brian O'Brien, Joseph F. Poland, Edward J. Rutter, Noel H. Stearn, John P. Tully, Victor Vacquier, G.H. Westby, and Harvey O. Westby.

  15. The Business Schools: 50 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a critique of the development of university business schools over the last 50 years and provide a perspective on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal Education + Training. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is critical and reflexive, reviewing the historical growth of…

  16. 50 years of optics research [Invited].

    PubMed

    Schwider, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The 50-year life span of Applied Optics covers also approximately the time I have been engaged in optics. I started in 1962 [1] with the Institute for Optics and Spectroscopy, which was one of several Academy Institutes (mission statement: "theoria cum praxi," G. Leibniz) located in Berlin-Adlershof on the area of the first airfield in Berlin dating back to the beginning of the 20th century.

  17. Child protection: a 50-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Skellern, Catherine Yvette

    2015-01-01

    It has been 50 years since Kempe et al. published 'The Battered Child Syndrome', describing harm from inflicted injury mechanisms derived from parents and care givers. Since then, there has emerged a rapidly expanding literature on paediatric forensic medicine and child protection, which has offered new insights into injury mechanisms, informed us of the sequelae of abuse and neglect, aided diagnosis and guided clinical practice in the treatment and management of children who become involved in the child protection system. Through the scrutiny of government inquiries and at times uncomfortable media exposure, there have been improvements in child protection and forensic practices resulting in recognition of need for specialised forensic training, improved funding, development of resources and development of professional standards that support accountable, objective, safe and robust practice. From the perspective of an Australian child protection paediatrician, this paper chronicles some of the most significant and at times controversial research in the last 50 years in child protection that have played a key role in shaping our current understanding of child abuse and neglect.

  18. Digit Replantation The First 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Scott R; Capo, John T

    2015-06-01

    Since the first successful digit replantation by Japanese surgeons Komatsu and Tamai, the past half century has seen the field of digit replantation in the USA experience exponential growth followed by a steady decline in volume of cases and percentage of successful viable digits. The initial enthusiasm and technical progress of digital replantation has been tempered by mediocre functional outcomes, rising healthcare costs, and limited healthcare resources. The history and approach to digit replantation is reviewed and highlights the likely push toward the development of regional replant centers staffed by highly skilled teams to improve the functional outcomes following these complex procedures. More than 50 years have passed since the first successful digit replantation by Komatsu and Tamai who replanted a sharply amputated thumb in a 28-year-old male at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint level in a 4.5 hour procedure. Two arteries and 2 veins were anastomosed using 8-0 monofilament nylon and 7-0 braided silk suture. The patient remained in the hospital for 40 days and did not return to work for 4 months. News of this triumph of microvascular skill was heralded throughout the world as the first successful replantation of a completely amputated digit. Over the past half century, the field of digit replantation in the USA experienced exponential growth followed by a steady decline in volume of cases and percentage of successful viable digits. The initial enthusiasm and technical progress of digital replantation has been tempered by mediocre functional outcomes, rising healthcare costs, and limited healthcare resources. In the next 50 years, it is possible that the majority of digit replantation procedures in the USA may be performed in tertiary centers or regional replant centers by highly skilled teams. PMID:26517169

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Effective Dose Equivalent A Appendix A to Part 197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dose Equivalent Unless otherwise directed by NRC, DOE shall use the radiation weighting factors and... effective dose equivalent for compliance with §§ 197.20 and 197.25 of this part. NRC may allow DOE to...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Effective Dose Equivalent A Appendix A to Part 197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dose Equivalent Unless otherwise directed by NRC, DOE shall use the radiation weighting factors and... effective dose equivalent for compliance with §§ 197.20 and 197.25 of this part. NRC may allow DOE to...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Effective Dose Equivalent A Appendix A to Part 197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dose Equivalent Unless otherwise directed by NRC, DOE shall use the radiation weighting factors and... effective dose equivalent for compliance with §§ 197.20 and 197.25 of this part. NRC may allow DOE to...

  2. 50 years of snow stratigraphy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, C.; Pohjola, V.; Jonasson, C.; Challagan, T. V.

    2012-04-01

    With start in autumn 1961 the Abisko Scientific Research Station (ASRS) located in the Swedish sub Arctic has performed snow stratigraphy observations, resulting in a unique 50 year long time series of data. The data set contains grain size, snow layer hardness, grain compactness and snow layer dryness, observed every second week during the winter season. In general snow and snow cover are important factors for the global radiation budget, and the earth's climate. On a more local scale the layered snowpack creates a relatively mild microclimate for Arctic plants and animals, and it also determines the water content of the snowpack (snow water equivalent) important for e.g. hydrological applications. Analysis of the snow stratigraphy data, divided into three consecutive time periods, show that there has been a change in the last time period. The variable most affected is the snow layer hardness, which shows an increase in hardness of the snowpack. The number of observations with a very hard snow layer/ice at ground level increased three-fold between the first two time periods and the last time period. The thickness of the bottom layer in the snowpack is also highly affected. There has been a 60% increase in layers thinner than 10 cm in the last time period, resulting in a mean reduction in the thickness of the bottom layer from 14 cm to 11 cm. Hence the living conditions for plants and animals at the ground surface have been highly changed. The changes in the snowpack are correlated to an increased mean winter air temperature. Thus, continued increasing, or temperatures within the same ranges as in the last time period, is likely to create harder snow condition in the future. These changes are likely to affect animals that live under the snow such as lemmings and voles or animals that graze sub-Arctic vegetation in winter (e.g. reindeer that would potentially require increased supplementary feeding that incurs financial costs to Sami reindeer herders). Any decrease

  3. Environmental health physics-50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2004-10-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  4. Environmental health physics: 50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2005-06-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., being gradually delivered as the radionuclide decays. The time distribution of the absorbed dose rate... following an intake of radioactive material into the body: ER15OC08.002 for a single intake of activity...

  6. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  7. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  8. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan).

    PubMed

    Hassona, Rifaat K; Sam, A K; Osman, O I; Sirelkhatim, D A; LaRosa, J

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing (210)Po and (137)Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of (210)Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of (210)Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for (137)Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For (210)Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of (137)Cs is negligible compared to (210)Po.

  9. Governmental re-evaluation of the committed effective dose received by emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    In April 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) noticed that significant discrepancies were present between the committed effective dose (CED) data for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant provided by TEPCO and that reported by five primary contractors. The MHLW, based on re-evaluation of the data, provided administrative guidance which required TEPCO and the five primary contractors to readjust the CED data for 479 workers (2.5% of 19,346 emergency workers). Of these, data for 450 workers from the primary contractors were readjusted based on the change in assessment methods. Doses were readjusted to higher values for 431 workers and doses were readjusted to lower values for 19 workers, CED data were corrected due to calculation errors for 29 workers from seven contractors, 12 additional workers were found to have received more than 50 mSv but no more than 100 mSv, an increase of 1.7% over the previously established count of 723 workers who had received that dose. Six additional workers were found to have received more than 100 mSv, an increase of 3.6% compared with the previous count of 167 workers. Major issues addressed during re-evaluation included: a) selection of intake scenario for the calculation of the residual activity ratio; b) assumptions about the intake date; c) assessments of exposure to radiation from (132)I and (132)Te; and d) assumptions about (131)I exposure in cases where (131)I was undetectable. Regarding the divergent CED data of 138 workers, the MHLW also confirmed that the CEDs assessed by the primary contractors were valid. To prevent the recurrence of similar incidents, the MHLW issued administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and primary contractors to employ standardized CED assessment methods on July 5. 2013. PMID:25585203

  10. Aflatoxin: A 50-Year Odyssey of Mechanistic and Translational Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery 50 years ago, the aflatoxins have become recognized as ubiquitous contaminants of the human food supply throughout the economically developing world. The adverse toxicological consequences of these compounds in populations are quite varied because of a wide range of exposures leading to acute effects, including rapid death, and chronic outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, emerging studies describe a variety of general adverse health effects associated with aflatoxin, such as impaired growth in children. Aflatoxin exposures have also been demonstrated to multiplicatively increase the risk of liver cancer in people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) illustrating the deleterious impact that even low toxin levels in the diet can pose for human health. The public health impact of aflatoxin exposure is pervasive. Aflatoxin biomarkers of internal and biologically effective doses have been integral to the establishment of the etiologic role of this toxin in human disease through better estimates of exposure, expanded knowledge of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and as tools for implementing and evaluating preventive interventions. PMID:20881231

  11. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Natural radioactivity in groundwater and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Villalba, L; Montero-Cabrera, M E; Manjón-Collado, G; Colmenero-Sujo, L; Rentería-Villalobos, M; Cano-Jiménez, A; Rodríguez-Pineda, A; Dávila-Rangel, I; Quirino-Torres, L; Herrera-Peraza, E F

    2006-01-01

    The activity concentration of 222Rn, 226Ra and total uranium in groundwater samples collected from wells distributed throughout the state of Chihuahua has been measured. The values obtained of total uranium activity concentration in groundwater throughout the state run from <0.03 up to 1.34 Bq l-1. Generally, radium activity concentration was <0.16 Bq l-1, with some exceptions; in spring water of San Diego de Alcalá, in contrast, the value reached approximately 5.3 Bq l-1. Radon activity concentration obtained throughout the state was from 1.0 to 39.8 Bq l-1. A linear correlation between uranium and radon dissolved in groundwater of individual wells was observed near Chihuahua City. Committed effective dose estimates for reference individuals were performed, with results as high as 134 microSv for infants in Aldama city. In Aldama and Chihuahua cities the average and many individual wells showed activity concentration values of uranium exceeding the Mexican norm of drinking water quality.

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center: 50 Years, 50 Seconds

    NASA Video Gallery

    Talk about time flying! Take a look at this super-fast review of highlights from the past 50 years at the Marshall Center. This year, Marshall is celebrating its 50th anniversary, highlighting its ...

  14. My 50 years of research in particle physics.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible.

  15. My 50 years of research in particle physics

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

  16. An opportune life: 50 years in human cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article is one person's view of human cytogenetics over the past 50 years. The flowering of human cytogenetics led the way to the establishment of clinical genetics as one of the most important developments in medicine in the twentieth century. The article is written from the viewpoint of a scientist who never tired of analyzing the images of dividing cells on the light microscope and interpreting the wealth of information contained in them. PMID:25184528

  17. 50 years of Dutch immunology--founders, institutions, highlights.

    PubMed

    Gmelig-Meyling, Frits H J; Meyaard, Linde; Mebius, Reina E

    2014-12-01

    At the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology (DSI, de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Immunologie), this contribution deals with some highlights of 50 years of Immunology in the Netherlands. It narrates about the founders and first board members of the DSI, their institutes, progeny and patrimony, describes major centers of immunological activities, mentions key persons in the field, and touches upon some events dear to the Society and its members.

  18. Measles 50 Years After Use of Measles Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Goodson, James L; Seward, Jane F

    2015-12-01

    In response to severe measles, the first measles vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1963. Widespread use of measles vaccines for more than 50 years has significantly reduced global measles morbidity and mortality. However, measles virus continues to circulate, causing infection, illness, and an estimated 400 deaths worldwide each day. Measles is preventable by vaccine, and humans are the only reservoir. Clinicians should promote and provide on-time vaccination for all patients and keep measles in their differential diagnosis of febrile rash illness for rapid case detection, confirmation of measles infection, isolation, treatment, and appropriate public health response. PMID:26610423

  19. Assessment of committed effective dose due to the ingestion of (210)Po and (210)Pb in consumed Lebanese fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant.

    PubMed

    Aoun, M; El Samad, O; Bou Khozam, R; Lobinski, R

    2015-02-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides through seafood intake is a one of the sources contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism. In order to evaluate the internal exposure and potential risks due to (210)Po and (210)Pb associated with fish consumption, these radionuclides were measured in commonly consumed fish species from a clean area and an area subjected to the impact of a Lebanese phosphate fertilizer plant. The highest concentration of (210)Pb was 98.7 Bq/kg fresh weight while (210)Po activity concentrations varied from 3.6 Bq/kg to 140 Bq/kg. A supplementary radiation exposure was detected; the highest committed effective dose due to (210)Po and (210)Pb was found to be 1110 μSv/y and 450 μSv/y, respectively. Moreover, the average mortality and morbidity risks due to the fish consuming were estimated.

  20. Assessment of committed effective dose due to the ingestion of (210)Po and (210)Pb in consumed Lebanese fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant.

    PubMed

    Aoun, M; El Samad, O; Bou Khozam, R; Lobinski, R

    2015-02-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides through seafood intake is a one of the sources contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism. In order to evaluate the internal exposure and potential risks due to (210)Po and (210)Pb associated with fish consumption, these radionuclides were measured in commonly consumed fish species from a clean area and an area subjected to the impact of a Lebanese phosphate fertilizer plant. The highest concentration of (210)Pb was 98.7 Bq/kg fresh weight while (210)Po activity concentrations varied from 3.6 Bq/kg to 140 Bq/kg. A supplementary radiation exposure was detected; the highest committed effective dose due to (210)Po and (210)Pb was found to be 1110 μSv/y and 450 μSv/y, respectively. Moreover, the average mortality and morbidity risks due to the fish consuming were estimated. PMID:25461512

  1. Toward the second 50 years of Water Resources Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first issue in 1965, 49 volumes and 464 issues of Water Resources Research (WRR) have been published, including more than 13,800 contributions that received more than 380,000 citations. WRR has always maintained a forward-looking vision, providing an interdisciplinary platform to nurture the initiation and development of numerous sub-disciplines and research themes in hydrology, water resources, and earth sciences and over the last 50 years. This vision, supported in no small measure by a dedicated community of researchers who submitted their best research to WRR, have helped the journal maintain its international leadership in this field. As we enter the second 50 years of WRR, new trends in scientific publishing, open access publication and web-based discussion forums, pose challenges (and opportunities) for sustaining WRR's leadership role. In this presentation, we will present the vision of the present editorial board for the future of WRR, and discuss several steps we are undertaking to adapt the journal to modern trends in communicating scientific research. This includes the introduction of new article types, such as the forthcoming "Debates on Water Resources", targeted special sections, and efforts to improve the timeliness of the review process. We humbly stand on the shoulders of the thirty-four dedicated previous editors of WRR, and remain open to receiving suggestions from the AGU hydrologic community.

  2. [50 years of hepatology - from therapeutic nihilism to targeted therapies].

    PubMed

    Manns, Michael P

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 50 years significant progress has been made in the whole field of hepatology. Part of this is translation of basic research (biochemistry, immunology, virology, molecular biology and others) into clinical hepatology. This enabled us to understand more about the pathogenesis of liver diseases and led to the discovery of the five major hepatotropic viruses, the identification of hepatocellular autoantigens, and to the development of specific therapies for chronic hepatitis B, C and D. In addition, the molecular basis of most genetic liver diseases has been identified. Significant progress was made in the development of medical therapies for various liver diseases with different underlying etiologies. Surgery significantly contributed to the progress in the management of liver diseases; examples are laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the development of liver transplantation. A multimodal therapeutic algorithm has been established for the therapy of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC); with Sorafenib "targeted therapy" has entered the area of HCC. The progress made over the last 50 years not only led to an aetiological differentiation of acute and chronic liver diseases but also to specific therapies based on the identification and understanding of the underlying etiology. PMID:23585265

  3. Food transitions in last 50 years and related environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, P.; Reusser, D. E.; Kropp, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Food production is an important driver for global change processes such as land use change and green-house-gas emissions. We analyzed a global, long term data set on food consumption per country to identify typical patterns of diets for the last 50 years. From changes in these patterns, we derived food transitions on a global scale. Subsequently we assessed the environmental consequences from green-house-gas (GHG) emission and anthropogenic inputs. More specifically, we applied Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to identify the dietary patterns based on supply of 12 food groups from FAOSTAT dataset for a period 1961-2007. Using the data on energy output/input ratio for crop production and agricultural emission, we estimated fossil energy and GHG emission associated with the diets. We found 16 typical consumption patterns consisting of high, moderate, low and lowest calorie supply with varied food compositions. The high calorie diets are associated with a higher supply of cereals, animal-products, vegetable-oils and sugar-sweeteners featuring a total supply greater than 2800 kcal/cap/day. During the last 50 years, we observed food transitions from lower calories diets to higher calories diets. On the one hand, food transition towards affluent diet, sometime with shortcuts, occurred in developing countries. On the other hand, developed countries increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Some of the developing countries are also stagnated in the low consumption level during the last 50 years. The high calorie diets also embed higher fossil energy (1800-3500 kcal/cap/day) and are associated with higher GHG emissions (3.7-6.1 kg CO2 eq/cap/day). However, their non-CO2 GHG emission intensities per kilo calorie of food are relatively low. Changes in dietary patterns are a part of the global change processes. Identification of past transitions is way to predict possible future transitions. This in turn supports policy processes and negotiations in the fields of climate

  4. [Molecular bases of cellular senescence: Hayflick phenomenon 50 years later].

    PubMed

    Sosińska, Patrycja; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Książek, Krzysztof

    2016-03-17

    Normal human somatic cells have strictly limited proliferative capacity and reach a state of senescence when it becomes exhausted. It is believed that senescence is a response to extensive and irreparable DNA injury, localized in telomeric and/or non-telomeric regions of the genome. Main cause of this damage is oxidative stress, increasing due to deteriorated function of mitochondria. Senescent cells accumulate in tissues during aging, which is causatively linked with the development of various pathologies in elderly individuals, including cancer. This paper, prepared exactly 50 years after Leonard Hayflick's discovery of the relationship between cellular senescence and organismal aging is aimed at presenting the current knowledge about molecular determinants of senescence, with particular emphasis paid to the role of oxidative stress, effectors of senescence at the level of cell cycle, markers of this phenomenon, and the effect of senescent cells on the development of certain age-related diseases.

  5. Personal reflections on 50 years of study of benzene toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Parke, D V

    1996-01-01

    The metabolism of benzene is reviewed, and the objectives of a quantitative balance study begun in 1945 are outlined; problems of toxicology and metabolism research of some 50 years ago are considered. The quantitative metabolism of 14C-benzene in the rabbit is annotated and compared with that of unlabeled benzene quantified by nonisotopic methods. The anomalies of phenylmercapturic acid and trans-trans-muconic acid as metabolites of benzene are examined in detail by isotopic and nonisotopic methods; these compounds are true but minor metabolites of benzene. Oxygen radicals are involved in both the metabolism of benzene and its toxicity; the roles of CYP2E1, the redox cycling of quinone metabolites, glutathione oxidation, and oxidative stress in the unique radiomimetic, hematopoietic toxicity of benzene are discussed. Differences between the toxicity of benzene and the halobenzenes are related to fundamental differences in their electronic structures and to the consequent pathways of metabolic activation and detoxication. PMID:9118881

  6. Case of lupus vulgaris diagnosed 50 years after onset.

    PubMed

    Uttawichai, Pattanawadee; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Kawana, Seiji

    2009-02-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, but is a symptom that can lead to diagnosis of tuberculosis. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 79-year-old woman who had a 50-year history of a slowly growing plaque on her right cheek. She visited many hospitals without resolution and the plaque gradually enlarged. Recently, she was misdiagnosed with eczema and prescribed topical steroids that had no effect, and she subsequently visited our outpatient clinic. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on histopathology, culture and polymerase chain reaction, and isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol were administered as antituberculosis treatment. Although the incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis has decreased significantly in developed countries, knowledge and awareness of the disease are still of importance for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  7. 50 years of studying the scarlet tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Jones, D A

    1989-10-01

    A growing number of long-term studies in plant and animal ecological genetics is now rewarding the patience, perseverance and perspicacity of those involved. A handful have involved work spanning 30 years and more, with an initial major impact on the way the study of population biology has developed. It is 50 years since investigation of the medionigra form of the scarlet tiger moth began, and in spite of very low allele frequencies and population numbers the medionigra allele persists in the original population. It is only by such long-term studies that we will be able to obtain more than just a cursory understanding of what really happens in natural populations of plants and animals.

  8. [Molecular bases of cellular senescence: Hayflick phenomenon 50 years later].

    PubMed

    Sosińska, Patrycja; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Książek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Normal human somatic cells have strictly limited proliferative capacity and reach a state of senescence when it becomes exhausted. It is believed that senescence is a response to extensive and irreparable DNA injury, localized in telomeric and/or non-telomeric regions of the genome. Main cause of this damage is oxidative stress, increasing due to deteriorated function of mitochondria. Senescent cells accumulate in tissues during aging, which is causatively linked with the development of various pathologies in elderly individuals, including cancer. This paper, prepared exactly 50 years after Leonard Hayflick's discovery of the relationship between cellular senescence and organismal aging is aimed at presenting the current knowledge about molecular determinants of senescence, with particular emphasis paid to the role of oxidative stress, effectors of senescence at the level of cell cycle, markers of this phenomenon, and the effect of senescent cells on the development of certain age-related diseases. PMID:27117098

  9. 50 years of CP violation — What have we learned?

    SciTech Connect

    McKellar, Bruce H. J.

    2015-04-24

    Early after the discovery of CP violation, the explanation of how the Standard Model of particle physics could allow CP violation was quickly given, but it took many years for the original observation to be unequivocally explained on that basis. It was also proposed that this observation opened up the possibility that we could now explain the fact that the universe is made of matter. Remarkably, 50 years later we have no evidence in particle physics that there is any CP violation except that of the Kobayashi Maskawa mechanism of the standard model. Yet we fail completely to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe through that mechanism. After reviewing the main points in the history I describe the present experimental attempts to find CP violation beyond the standard model, and explain the theoretical attempts to explain the matter in the Universe.

  10. 238U, 226Ra, 210Po concentrations of bottled mineral waters in Hungary and their committed effective dose.

    PubMed

    Kovács, T; Bodrogi, E; Dombovári, P; Somlai, J; Németh, Cs; Capote, A; Tarján, S

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. The average consumption of these is 0.36 l d(-1) per person in Europe. A considerable segment of the population drinks almost only mineral water as drinking water, which is about 1 l d(-1). As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. The WHO (1993) legislation concerning the drinking waters does not include the mineral waters. In our work, the concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po were determined in mineral waters available in Hungary. To determine the (226)Ra concentration the emanation method was used. The (238)U and (210)Po concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry using semiconductor detector. The dose contribution was calculated using the radionuclide concentrations and the dose conversion factors from the Basic Safety Standard IAEA (1995), for 1 l d(-1) mineral water consumption. In some cases the calculated doses were considerable higher than the limit for drinking waters. Especially for children the doses can be remarkably high.

  11. Concentration of 3H in ground water and estimation of committed effective dose due to ground water ingestion in some places in the Maharashtra state, India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P J; Bhade, S P D; Kolekar, R V; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K S

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of tritium in environmental samples requires highest possible sensitivity. In the present study, the authors have optimised the counting window for the analysis of (3)H in environmental samples using the recently installed Ultra Low Level Quantulus 1220 Liquid Scintillation Counting at BARC to improve the detection limit of the system. The optimised counting window corresponding to the highest figure of merit of 883.8 was found to be 20-162 channels. Different brands of packaged drinking waters were analysed to select a blank that would define the system background. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) achieved was 1.5 Bq l(-1) for a total counting time of 500 min. The concentration of tritium in well and bore well water samples collected from the villages of Pune, villages located at 1.8 km from Tarapur Atomic Power Station, Kolhapur and Ratnagiri, was analysed. The activity concentration ranged from 0.55 to 3.66 Bq l(-1). The associated age-dependant dose from water ingestion in the study area was estimated. The effective committed dose recorded for different age classes is negligible compared with World Health Organization and US Environmental Protection Agency dose guidelines.

  12. A study of the efficacy of radioiodine therapy with individualized dosimetry in Graves' disease: need to retarget the radiation committed dose to the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, M; Bagnara, M C; Calamia, I; Bossert, I; Ceresola, E; Massaro, F; Giusti, M; Pilot, A; Pesce, G; Caputo, M; Bagnasco, M

    2011-03-01

    Although Iodine-131 (131I) therapy is fully validated for Graves' disease (GD), there is debate about radioiodine amount to be administered (prescribed activity), as well as the use of individualized dosimetry vs fixed 131I activity. The clinical outcome of 119 GD patients treated with 131I from 2003 to 2008 has been evaluated. The prescribed activity was calculated according to a dosimetric protocol taking into account several variables, including thyroid volume reduction during treatment. In addition, we performed a simulation according to other dosimetric protocols, by calculating the corresponding prescribed activities. The patients were followed up for at least 12 months after treatment. In the first period of observation (2003), a 120-200 Gray (Gy) radiation dose to the thyroid was prescribed, according to the guidelines published by the Italian Societies of Endocrinology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Physics: hyperthyroidism cure with a single radioiodine administration was obtained in 53% of patients. This outcome raised up to 89% when a higher radiation dose to the target (200- 250 Gy) was prescribed, although the administered activities were still lower, as a rule, than the most commonly employed fixed activities (400-600 Mega-Becquerel--MBq). Our method showed a high level of individual dose optimisation, particularly when compared to simplified methods. In conclusion, the protocol adopted in this study ensures a satisfactory rate of hyperthyroidism cure, while administering quite low 131I activities, provided that an adequate committed radiation dose to the thyroid is prescribed. In this context, the dose indication given by the aforementioned guidelines should probably be revised.

  13. A Dynamic Earth: 50 Years of Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the surface of the Earth began more than a half century ago with the earliest space missions. The global geopolitical environment at the beginning of the space age fueled advances in rocketry and human exploration, but also advances in remote sensing. At the same time that space-based Earth Observations were developing, global investments in infrastructure that were initiated after World War II accelerated large projects such as the construction of highways, the expansion of cities and suburbs, the damming of rivers, and the growth of big agriculture. These developments have transformed the Earth s surface at unprecedented rates. Today, we have a remarkable library of 50 years of observations of the Earth taken by satellite-based sensors and astronauts, and these images and observations provide insight into the workings of the Earth as a system. In addition, these observations record the footprints of human activities around the world, and illustrate how our activities contribute to the changing face of the Earth. Starting with the iconic "Blue Marble" image of the whole Earth taken by Apollo astronauts, we will review a timeline of observations of our planet as viewed from space.

  14. Approved Antiviral Drugs over the Past 50 Years.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik; Li, Guangdi

    2016-07-01

    Since the first antiviral drug, idoxuridine, was approved in 1963, 90 antiviral drugs categorized into 13 functional groups have been formally approved for the treatment of the following 9 human infectious diseases: (i) HIV infections (protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, entry inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (ii) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections (lamivudine, interferons, nucleoside analogues, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (iii) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (ribavirin, interferons, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, and NS5B polymerase inhibitors), (iv) herpesvirus infections (5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, entry inhibitors, nucleoside analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and acyclic guanosine analogues), (v) influenza virus infections (ribavirin, matrix 2 protein inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, and neuraminidase inhibitors), (vi) human cytomegalovirus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and oligonucleotides), (vii) varicella-zoster virus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, nucleoside analogues, 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, and antibodies), (viii) respiratory syncytial virus infections (ribavirin and antibodies), and (ix) external anogenital warts caused by human papillomavirus infections (imiquimod, sinecatechins, and podofilox). Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive overview of antiviral drugs approved over the past 50 years, shedding light on the development of effective antiviral treatments against current and emerging infectious diseases worldwide.

  15. Approved Antiviral Drugs over the Past 50 Years.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik; Li, Guangdi

    2016-07-01

    Since the first antiviral drug, idoxuridine, was approved in 1963, 90 antiviral drugs categorized into 13 functional groups have been formally approved for the treatment of the following 9 human infectious diseases: (i) HIV infections (protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, entry inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (ii) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections (lamivudine, interferons, nucleoside analogues, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (iii) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (ribavirin, interferons, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, and NS5B polymerase inhibitors), (iv) herpesvirus infections (5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, entry inhibitors, nucleoside analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and acyclic guanosine analogues), (v) influenza virus infections (ribavirin, matrix 2 protein inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, and neuraminidase inhibitors), (vi) human cytomegalovirus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and oligonucleotides), (vii) varicella-zoster virus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, nucleoside analogues, 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, and antibodies), (viii) respiratory syncytial virus infections (ribavirin and antibodies), and (ix) external anogenital warts caused by human papillomavirus infections (imiquimod, sinecatechins, and podofilox). Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive overview of antiviral drugs approved over the past 50 years, shedding light on the development of effective antiviral treatments against current and emerging infectious diseases worldwide. PMID:27281742

  16. Discovery of human zinc deficiency: 50 years later.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2012-06-01

    Essentiality of zinc for humans and its deficiency was recognized in 1963. During the past 50 years, it has become apparent that deficiency of zinc in humans is prevalent. Nutritional deficiency of zinc may affect nearly 2 billion subjects in the developing world. Consumption of cereal proteins high in phytate decreases the availability of zinc for absorption. Conditioned deficiency of zinc is also very common. Growth retardation, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, impaired immunity, neuro-sensory disorder and cognitive impairment are some of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. Zinc is involved in many biochemical functions. Over 300 enzymes require zinc for their activation and nearly 2000 transcription factors require zinc for gene expression. Zinc is essential for cell mediated immunity. Zinc is also an effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In therapeutic dosages, zinc has been used for the treatment of acute diarrhea in infants and children, common cold, Wilson's disease, sickle cell disease and for prevention of blindness in patients with age related macular degeneration.

  17. 50 years of computer simulation of the human thermoregulatory system.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Daniel W; Mark, Andrew E; Abella, Jayvee R; Netscher, George M; Wissler, Eugene H; Diller, Kenneth R

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an updated and augmented version of the Wissler human thermoregulation model that has been developed continuously over the past 50 years. The existing Fortran code is translated into C with extensive embedded commentary. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in Python to facilitate convenient user designation of input and output variables and formatting of data presentation. Use of the code with the GUI is described and demonstrated. New physiological elements were added to the model to represent the hands and feet, including the unique vascular structures adapted for heat transfer associated with glabrous skin. The heat transfer function and efficacy of glabrous skin is unique within the entire body based on the capacity for a very high rate of blood perfusion and the novel capability for dynamic regulation of blood flow. The model was applied to quantify the absolute and relative contributions of glabrous skin flow to thermoregulation for varying levels of blood perfusion. The model also was used to demonstrate how the unique features of glabrous skin blood flow may be recruited to implement thermal therapeutic procedures. We have developed proprietary methods to manipulate the control of glabrous skin blood flow in conjunction with therapeutic devices and simulated the effect of these methods with the model.

  18. Human fetal growth and organ development: 50 years of discoveries.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Giorgio; Cetin, Irene

    2006-04-01

    Knowledge about human fetal growth and organ development has greatly developed in the last 50 years. Anatomists and physiologists had already described some crucial aspects, for example, the circulation of blood during intrauterine life through the fetal heart, the liver as well as the placenta. However, only in the last century physiologic studies were performed in animal models. In the human fetus, the introduction of ultrasound and Doppler velocimetry has provided data about the growth and development of the fetus and of the circulation through the different fetal districts. Moreover, in the last 2 decades we have learned about fetal oxygenation and fetal nutrient supply caused by the availability of fetal blood samples obtained under relatively steady state conditions. These studies, together with studies using stable isotope methodologies, have clarified some aspects of the supply of the major nutrients for the fetus such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids. At the same time, the relevance of placental function has been recognized as a major determinant of fetal diseases leading to intrauterine growth restriction. More recently, the availability of new tools such as 3-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, have made possible the evaluation of the growth and development of fetal organs. This knowledge in the healthy fetus will improve the ability of clinicians to recognize abnormal phenotypes of the different fetal organs, thus allowing to stage fetal diseases.

  19. 50 years of space science (Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2013-04-01

    The launch of Sputnik-1 triggered my fascination for space at the age of 20. The past 50 years have allowed me to study the Sun with sounding rockets and satellites, revealing the complexity of our star, contributing to the understanding of its physics, and offering surprising manifestations of its behavior and of its effects on Earth. Building instruments for space astronomy, managing teams of space scientists and engineers, led me to become the science director of the European space agency between 1983 and 2001 where I formulated and managed the Horizon 2000 program, which led Europe to occupy the front row of world space science. The Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture offers me an opportunity, to describe the most spectacular achievements of this long-term plan and to outline some basic principles for reaching success, including the essential role of international cooperation with shared partnership. The Lecture also identifies key problems and controversial issues that space astronomy and exploration will face in the 21st century.

  20. 50 years of computer simulation of the human thermoregulatory system.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Daniel W; Mark, Andrew E; Abella, Jayvee R; Netscher, George M; Wissler, Eugene H; Diller, Kenneth R

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an updated and augmented version of the Wissler human thermoregulation model that has been developed continuously over the past 50 years. The existing Fortran code is translated into C with extensive embedded commentary. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in Python to facilitate convenient user designation of input and output variables and formatting of data presentation. Use of the code with the GUI is described and demonstrated. New physiological elements were added to the model to represent the hands and feet, including the unique vascular structures adapted for heat transfer associated with glabrous skin. The heat transfer function and efficacy of glabrous skin is unique within the entire body based on the capacity for a very high rate of blood perfusion and the novel capability for dynamic regulation of blood flow. The model was applied to quantify the absolute and relative contributions of glabrous skin flow to thermoregulation for varying levels of blood perfusion. The model also was used to demonstrate how the unique features of glabrous skin blood flow may be recruited to implement thermal therapeutic procedures. We have developed proprietary methods to manipulate the control of glabrous skin blood flow in conjunction with therapeutic devices and simulated the effect of these methods with the model. PMID:23445051

  1. Technological advances and the next 50 years of cardiology.

    PubMed

    Flower, J; Dreifus, L S; Bové, A A; Weintraub, W S

    2000-04-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the ACC and the end of the twentieth century are arbitrary points in time, yet they seem to coincide with a true watershed. The last 50 years have brought a rush of new techniques and understandings that have, for the first time, given cardiovascular specialists real tools to prevent and fight cardiovascular disease. Only now, for the first time, has science begun to understand exactly what happens when plaque forms in an artery, when heart muscle fibers cross-link and weaken, when an atrial chamber fibrillates, and when heart muscle cells die en masse after a heart attack. We are beginning to track down the actual chemical, mechanical, and electrical pathways by which the heart is damaged or dies. When we can interfere with those pathways and stop the chain of events, we will have defeated heart disease. Imagination is rapid, but progress is often both uncertain and slow because of the many constraints of cost, regulation, and time needed to test and evaluate new developments. Yet we can now foresee a future in which medical science might actually defeat cardiovascular disease the way it has defeated polio, smallpox, and other serious scourges of the past.

  2. 50 years of hurdles and hope in anxiolytic drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, Guy; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent group of psychiatric diseases, and have high personal and societal costs. The search for novel pharmacological treatments for these conditions is driven by the growing medical need to improve on the effectiveness and the side effect profile of existing drugs. A huge volume of data has been generated by anxiolytic drug discovery studies, which has led to the progression of numerous new molecules into clinical trials. However, the clinical outcome of these efforts has been disappointing, as promising results with novel agents in rodent studies have very rarely translated into effectiveness in humans. Here, we analyse the major trends from preclinical studies over the past 50 years conducted in the search for new drugs beyond those that target the prototypical anxiety-associated GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)–benzodiazepine system, which have focused most intensively on the serotonin, neuropeptide, glutamate and endocannabinoid systems. We highlight various key issues that may have hampered progress in the field, and offer recommendations for how anxiolytic drug discovery can be more effective in the future. PMID:23989795

  3. 50 years of mass balance observations at Vernagtferner, Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Ludwig; Mayer, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The determination and monitoring of the seasonal and annual glacier mass balances of Vernagtferner, Austria, started in 1964 by the Commission of Glaciology, Bavarian Academy of Sciences. Detailed and continuous climate- and runoff measurements complement this mass balance series since 1974. Vernagtferner attracted the attention of scientists since the beginning of the 17th century due to its rapid advances and the resulting glacier lake outburst floods in the Ötztal valley. This is one reason for the first photogrammetric survey in 1889, which was followed by frequent topographic surveys, adding up to more than ten digital elevation models of the glacier until today. By including the known maximum glacier extent at the end of the Little Ice Age in 1845, the geodetic glacier volume balances cover a time span of almost 170 years. The 50 years of glacier mass balance and 40 years of water balance in the drainage basin are therefore embedded in a considerably longer period of glacier evolution, allowing an interpretation within an extended frame of climatology and ice dynamics. The direct mass balance observations cover not only the period of alpine-wide strong glacier mass loss since the beginning of the 1990s. The data also contain the last period of glacier advances between 1970 and 1990. The combination of the observed surface mass exchange and the determined periodic volumetric changes allows a detailed analysis of the dynamic reaction of the glacier over the period of half a century. The accompanying meteorological observations are the basis for relating these reactions to the climatic changes during this period. Vernagtferner is therefore one of the few glaciers in the world, where a very detailed glacier-climate reaction was observed for many decades and can be realistically reconstructed back to the end of the Little Ice Age.

  4. Tritium in Australian precipitation: A 50 year record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda; Hollins, Suzanne E.; Chisari, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 50 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies, and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, a component of the water molecule (HTO), is the only true age tracer for waters. The elevated level of tritium in the environment as a result of last century’s atmospheric thermonuclear testing delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems over a 100 year timeframe. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum of 160 Tritium Units (TU) in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear weapons testing. From 1963 to present we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, and this can be attributed to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Spikes in the tritium level are superimposed over this general trend; the first around 1969, with levels ranging from 39.4 to 84.4 TU was due to French atmospheric weapon testing, and again in 1990, levels peaked between 6.6 and 12.9 TU, which is attributed to tritium leaking from underground tests in the French Pacific. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have declined globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia are stabilising to around 2-3 TU increasing with latitude across the continent, suggesting that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. The spatial distribution of tritium is presented and found to be dominated by the annual stratosphere-troposphere exchange in combination with latitude and continental effects. A precipitation amount effect is also observed for inland sites.

  5. Geochemical Diversity of the Mantle: 50 Years of Acronyms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    50 years ago, Gast, Tilton and Hedge demonstrated that the oceanic mantle is isotopically heterogeneous. 28 years ago, Zindler and Hart formalized the concept of geochemical mantle components, with an attendant, to some, odious, acronym soup. Work on a marriage of mantle geochemistry and dynamics continues unabated. We know unequivocally that the mantle is chemically heterogeneous; we do not know the scale lengths of these heterogeneities. We know unequivocally that these heterogeneities have persisted for eons (Gy); we do not know where they were formed or where they are stored. Through the kind auspices of the Plume Model, we plausibly have access to the whole mantle. The most accessible and well understood mantle reservoir is the upper depleted MORB mantle (DMM). Classically, this mantle was depleted by extraction of oceanic and continental crust from a "chondritic" bulk silicate Earth. In this post-Boyet and Carlson world, the complementary enriched reservoir may instead be hidden in the deepest mantle. In this case, DMM will become an endangered acronym. Hofmann and White (1982) argued that radiogenic Pb mantle (HIMU) is re-cycled ocean crust, and this is a comfortably viable model. It does require some ad hoc chemical manipulations during subduction. Given 2 Gy of aggregate mantle strains, the mafic component in HIMU may be of small length scale (< 50 m), possibly subsumed into the dominant peridotitic lithology. This mantle species is globally widespread. Enriched mantles (EM1 and EM2) almost certainly reflect recycling of enriched continental material. This was splendidly verified by Jackson et al (2007), with 87Sr/86Sr in Samoan EM2 lavas up to 0.721. The lithology and length scale of EM1 and EM2 is unconstrained. EM1 is globally present; EM2 is confined to the SW Pacific hotspots. FOZO is a work in progress; many would like to see it become extinct! The trace element signatures of HIMU and FOZO mantles have been constrained using melting models; in both

  6. CSF shunts 50 years on--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Drake, J M; Kestle, J R; Tuli, S

    2000-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts were invented almost 50 years ago. While their introduction revolutionized the treatment of hydrocephalus, their complications have become legendary, and the focus of much investigation and development of new devices. New devices have been based upon improved understanding of the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus or shunt complications. Despite the rational, or frequently "more physiological," functioning of these devices, all too often unexpected complications have ensued, and the initial enthusiasm for the devices has waned. Assessing the efficacy of the devices has been difficult, owing to the lack of properly conducted studies. Nevertheless, the overall impact of shunt design improvements has seemed very limited. A recent randomized trial of CSF shunt design, examining the failure rates of two new and widely used valves (the Cordis Orbis Sigma and the Medtronic PS Medical Delta valves) failed to find any advantage of these over standard valve designs, many of which have been used almost since the inception of CSF shunts. A search for risk factors for failure, in a post hoc analysis of the data, indicated only that the etiology of the hydrocephalus and the position and local environment of the ventricular catheter tip were probably important. Remarkably, the rate of change in the size of the ventricles and the final ventricular size were not different despite the substantial differences in flow characteristics of the two new valves. Shunt failure rates of less than 5% at 1 year, with infection rates of less than 1%, seem like reasonable goals for the next decade in the new millenium. This can be achieved through basic research into the pathophysiology of shunt failure with improved mathematical models, and perhaps animal models of shunt failure. Efficacy of new devices or treatments must be scrutinized scientifically so as not to waste valuable resources and time on unproven treatments. Uncontrolled series and testimonial

  7. Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities.

  8. Fuzzy Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juels, Ari

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce fuzzy commitment, one of the earliest and simplest constructions geared toward cryptography over noisy data. The chapter also explores applications of fuzzy commitment to two problems in data security: (1) secure management of biometrics, with a focus on iriscodes, and (2) use of knowledge-based authentication (i.e., personal questions) for password recovery.

  9. Backwards and Forwards: 50 years of the Education Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    by representatives from a number of equally prestigious universities. In one, the large physics lecture rooms were taken over by philosophy students, as smaller physics groups traipsed across to distant biology rooms. It was this kind of situation, plus the reduction in the level of technician support, that made demonstrations harder to organize. In the lively discussion that followed Professor Brown's talk there was strong support for his proposal that universities - with the help of the IoP and the Royal Society, say - should set up a national `demonstration bank' that could be tapped to provide portable, well-tried, well-resourced and well-rehearsed demonstrations. Envy was expressed for the bank of experiments and demonstrations available at school level, especially as presented by the Advancing Physics CD-ROM. Universities could also learn from the course designs exemplified by Advancing Physics and the York Salters Horners projects: a set of self-contained, coherent topics with clear end-points and built-in mathematics, with key concepts well-illustrated by relevant experiments. The final session was given by Ken Dobson, who had the onerous but luckily uncheckable task of talking about Physics education: the next 50 years! (organizer's emphasis). In less than 15 minutes he expressed his complete incompetence at carrying out such a task, but in spite of that went on to compare the current state of progress (leading to an unfortunate state of dystopia) with what he thought should happen (leading to a much happier state of utopia). The key differences were the current over-centralization, mechanistic and top-down direction of education based on a system-centred command-psychology, as compared with an organic, self-directed, learner-centred education. He called the first dystopian model the Rucsac Model : everything you needed for life had to be packed by the time you left school, and should serve you all your days. By contrast, he called the utopian future a

  10. Outcome of Silicone Ring Vertical Gastroplasty in Patients Aged 50 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Kyzer; Ramadan; Avraham; Belavsky; Hopp; Chaimoff

    1996-08-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors studied the results Of silicone ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG) in Patients aged 50 years and older. METHODS: The early and late Postoperative results in 28 patients aged.50 Years or older undergoing SRVG were reviewed retrospectively, The results were compared to those of 370 Patients Younger than 50 years operated during the same period. RESULTS: There was no Postoperative mortality among patients aged 50 years and older. There was a significantly higher incidence Of Pulmonary embolus and wound infection among patients aged 50 years and older (P < 0.05). The weight loss did not differ significantly between the two studied age groups. CONCLUSION: SRVG may performed on patients aged 50 years or older with acceptable complication rate and favorable postoperative results. PMID:10729875

  11. Usage and Dose Response of a Mobile Acceptance and Commitment Therapy App: Secondary Analysis of the Intervention Arm of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lappalainen, Raimo; Välkkynen, Pasi; Sairanen, Essi; Lappalainen, Päivi; Karhunen, Leila; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ermes, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps offer a promising medium to deliver psychological interventions. A mobile app based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was developed and studied in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Objective To study usage metrics of a mobile ACT intervention and dose-response relationship between usage and improvement in psychological flexibility. Methods An RCT was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different lifestyle interventions for overweight people with psychological stress. This paper presents a secondary analysis of the group that received an 8-week mobile ACT intervention. Most of the analyzed 74 participants were female (n=64, 86%). Their median age was 49.6 (interquartile range, IQR 45.4-55.3) years and their mean level of psychological flexibility, measured with the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II, was 20.4 (95% confidence interval 18.3-22.5). Several usage metrics describing the intensity of use, usage of content, and ways of use were calculated. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the dose-response relationship between usage and the change in psychological flexibility and to identify the usage metrics with strongest association with improvement. Binary logistic regression analyses were further used to assess the role of usage metrics between those who showed improvement in psychological flexibility and those who did not. In addition, associations between usage and baseline participant characteristics were studied. Results The median number of usage sessions was 21 (IQR 11.8-35), the number of usage days was 15 (IQR 9.0-24), and the number of usage weeks was 7.0 (IQR 4.0-8.0). The participants used the mobile app for a median duration of 4.7 (IQR 3.2-7.2) hours and performed a median of 63 (IQR 46-98) exercises. There was a dose-response relationship between usage and the change in psychological flexibility. The strongest associations with psychological flexibility (results adjusted with gender

  12. Social Network Analysis of 50 Years of International Collaboration in the Research of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shesen; Zhang, Ganzhou; Guo, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    The definition of the field of educational technology has evolved over 50 years. New inventions and economic globalization increasingly facilitate people's communication for exchange of ideas and collaboration. This work attempts to describe international research collaboration in educational technology for the past 50 years. This article intends…

  13. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate in patients aged over 50 years with asthma.

    PubMed

    Boldy, D A; Ayres, J G

    1993-10-01

    We conducted a double-blind parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of inhaled nedocromil sodium and inhaled sodium cromogylcate in patients aged 50 years or over with asthma. Seventy-seven patients were randomized, 38 to receive nedocromil sodium (4 mg q.d.s.) and 39 to receive sodium cromoglycate (10 mg q.d.s.) over a 16-week period. Eight patients withdrew from the study. Both patient groups showed a reduction in inhaled bronchodilator usage during the treatment period. No statistically significant differences were seen in diary card PEF recordings or symptom scores. Both clinic PEF and FEV1 were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the sodium cromoglycate group at week 12. Patients considered the treatment to be very or moderately effective in 59% of the nedocromil sodium group and 50% of the sodium cromoglycate group. Thus, the study suggests that there is no difference in response to nedocromil sodium or sodium cromoglycate in this older group of patients with asthma who are already on moderate doses of inhaled steroids.

  14. Male and Female Photographic Representation in 50 Years of "Music Educators Journal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Adam J.; Giebelhausen, Robin; Shouldice, Heather N.; Ramsey, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the potential for stereotypes to shape professional expectations, the four researchers in this study investigated photographic representation of adult men and women in implied positions of authority in 50 years (1962-2011) of issues of "Music Educators Journal" ("MEJ"). Data included every photograph (N = 7,288) of…

  15. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 50 Years Old but Still Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the events of the past 50 years concerning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that is the first document in human history to codify rights that apply to every person regardless of citizenship in a particular country. Explains why the United States does not comprehend the value of the declaration. (CMK)

  16. The School Health Education Study + 50 Years: Scholars' Reflections on Its Impact and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Robert J.; Mayer, Alyssa B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Launched 50 years ago, the School Health Education Study (SHES) examined the health education offerings in 135 public school systems, in 38 states, and over 1100 elementary schools and 350 secondary schools. In its second year, knowledge surveys were administered to students in grades 6, 9 and 12 at many of these schools. Analysis of…

  17. [Univentricular heart in a 50 year-old woman complicated with infective endocarditis with favorable evolution].

    PubMed

    Aboukhoudir, F; Errera, J; Aboukhoudir, I; Slama, I; Rekik, S

    2014-11-01

    Univentricular heart is a complex cyanotic congenital heart malformation classically repaired during early childhood. Despite correction, a residual risk of infective endocarditis still persists and may be associated with a severe prognosis. We report the case of a 50 year-old woman with a known partially corrected univentricular heart in whom we diagnosed an infective endocarditis with a favorable evolution under antibiotics.

  18. The "Global" Formulation of Thermodynamics and the First Law: 50 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, Henry Bent published his groundbreaking article in this "Journal" introducing the "global" formulation of thermodynamics. In the following years, the global formulation was elaborated by Bent and by one of the present authors. The global formulation of the first law focuses on conservation of energy and the recognition that…

  19. Women in Educational Leadership in the U.S.: Reflections of a 50 Year Veteran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupton, Sandra Lee

    2009-01-01

    Little did I know when I first stepped into that ninth grade classroom as a very young, timid, first year teacher at Brooks County High School in Quitman, Georgia, that I'd still be plugging away in this profession almost 50 years later! The purpose of this paper is to provide a reflective perspective on the status of women in educational…

  20. 1958-2008: 50 Years of Youth Fitness Tests in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Zhu, Weimo; Franks, B. Don; Meredith, Marilu D.; Spain, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The AAHPER Youth Fitness Test, the first U.S. national fitness test, was published 50 years ago. The seminal work of Krause and Hirschland influenced the fitness world and continues to do so today. Important youth fitness test initiatives in the last half century are summarized. Key elements leading to continued interest in youth fitness testing…

  1. Keeping on Keeping on: OCR and Complaints of Racial Discrimination 50 Years after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2005-01-01

    This article, written by a former civil rights investigator in the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), contends that ordinary Americans advocating for equal educational opportunity for students of color might enlist OCR more actively and knowingly to help secure racial equality of opportunity 50 years after "Brown." Now a…

  2. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  3. Optical Sciences Center/College of Optical Sciences: 50 years of excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyant, James C.

    2014-09-01

    Aden B. Meinel established the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center, now known as the College of Optical Sciences, in 1964 to fulfill a national need for more highly trained engineers and physicists in the optical sciences. Throughout its 50-year history, OSC has grown and evolved in response to industrial demand. It now includes a worldclass faculty and an international student body, and its academic programs offer more than 100 graduate and undergraduate courses, an ABET-accredited undergraduate optical sciences and engineering degree program, and outstanding M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs with extensive distance learning options. Its graduates are in great demand and are employed by national and international governments, businesses and universities. This paper will describe the formation of OSC and its 50 years of excellence.

  4. Estimating the distribution of contemporary (<50 year old) groundwater on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K. M.; Gleeson, T. P.; Luijendijk, E.; Jasechko, S.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Time-scales of groundwater dynamics can control how groundwater interacts with many Earth system processes, including weathering, the transport of solutes or contaminants, and hydrologic responses to climate change. In this study, we quantified the global volume and distribution of groundwater that has been recharged over the past 50 years, a time-scale relevant to current policy planning and intimately tied to human generations. We modelled groundwater residence time distributions with several thousand two-dimensional flow and age-as-mass transport simulations guided by global datasets of basin geometric and hydraulic properties. The models suggest that less than 15% of the groundwater on Earth to 2 km depth was recharged in the past 50 years. For most watersheds on Earth, this young groundwater is restricted to the upper 100 m of the Earth's crust. Uncertainty in our estimate stems from the simplification of two-dimensional flow and uncertainty in permeability and porosity.

  5. [Assessment of fruit and vegetable intake among the 50-year-old population of Wroclaw].

    PubMed

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Misiewicz, Dominika; Rózańska, Dorota; Kowalisko, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Intake of fruit and vegetable among 50-year-old population of Wroclaw and the impact of education level on the consumption of fruits and vegetables was assessed. The study group was 50-year-old, 1520 inhabitants of Wroclaw (879 women and 641 men), who participated in 2008 in the Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention Program organized by the Health Division of the Municipal Office in Wroclaw. To assess fruit and vegetable intake Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used. The mean daily intake of vegetables and fruit was 289,4 g for women and 209,1 g for men. Women consumed significantly more vegetables, fruits, and the amounts of fruits and vegetables compared with men. The impact of educational level on fruit and vegetable consumption in the study group was found.

  6. A method to find the 50-year extreme load during production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, René; Veldkamp, Dick

    2016-09-01

    An important yet difficult task in the design of wind turbines is to assess the extreme load behaviour, most notably finding the 50-year load. Where existing methods often focus on ways to extrapolate from small sample sizes, this paper proposes a different approach. It combines generating constrained gusts in turbulence fields, Delaunay tessellation to assign probabilities and a genetic algorithm to find the desired load in an efficient way. The individual parts of the method are verified and the results are compared to both crude Monte Carlo and importance sampling. We found that using a genetic algorithm is a promising approach to find the 50-year load, with only a small number of load cases (∼103) to be evaluated and requiring no user input but an appropriate fitness function.

  7. Physical Inactivity Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Carlson, Susan A; Gunn, Janelle P; Galuska, Deborah A; O'Connor, Ann; Greenlund, Kurt J; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity can help delay, prevent, or manage many of the chronic diseases for which adults aged ≥50 years are at risk (1-3). These diseases can impact the length and quality of life, as well as the long-term ability to live independently.* All adults aged ≥50 years, with or without chronic disease, gain health benefits by avoiding inactivity (2,3). To examine the prevalence of inactivity by selected demographic characteristics and chronic disease status in mid-life and older adults, CDC analyzed data on adults aged ≥50 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Overall, 27.5% of adults aged ≥50 years reported no physical activity outside of work during the past month. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with increasing age and was 25.4% among adults aged 50-64 years, 26.9% among those aged 65-74 years, and 35.3% among those aged ≥75 years. Inactivity prevalence was significantly higher among women than men, among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites, and among adults who reported ever having one or more of seven selected chronic diseases than among those not reporting one. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with decreasing levels of education and increasing body mass index. To help adults with and without chronic disease start or maintain an active lifestyle, communities can implement evidence-based strategies, such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, designing communities and streets to encourage physical activity, and offering programs that address specific barriers to physical activity. PMID:27632143

  8. [Oedema and haemorrhagic diathesis in a 50-year-old woman with thyrotoxicosis].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A; Joeres, R; Braun, U

    2014-11-01

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with tachyarrhythmia, mild fever, peripheral oedema, ascites, epistaxis and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Blood analysis revealed hyperthyroxinaemia. Analysis of thyroid-stimulating antibodies highlighted Graves' disease being the cause of the prevailing thyrotoxic crisis. Remarkable in this case of thyrotoxicosis is a liver affection without elevated transaminases but disturbed serum protein synthesis leading to hypalbuminaemic oedema and haemorrhagic complications. Thyrostatic treatment led to clinical response.

  9. Instruction and Curriculum in Veterinary Medical Education: A 50-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of veterinary medicine has expanded greatly over the past 50 years. To keep pace with these changes and produce competent professionals ready to meet evolving societal needs, instruction within veterinary medical curricula has undergone a parallel evolution. The curriculum of 1966 has given way, shifting away from lecture-laboratory model with few visual aids to a program of active learning, significant increases in case- or problem-based activities, and applications of technology, including computers, that were unimaginable 50 years ago. Curricula in veterinary colleges no longer keep all students in lockstep or limit clinical experiences to the fourth year, and instead have moved towards core electives with clinical activities provided from year 1. Provided here are examples of change within veterinary medical education that, in the view of the authors, had positive impacts on the evolution of instruction and curriculum. These improvements in both how and what we teach are now being made at a more rapid pace than at any other time in history and are based on the work of many faculty and administrators over the past 50 years. PMID:26673214

  10. The distributions of Chinese yak breeds in response to climate change over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    The effects of prior climate change on yak breed distributions are uncertain. Here, we measured changes in the distributions of 12 yak breeds over the past 50 years in China and examined whether the changes could be attributed to climate change. Long-term records of yak breed distribution, grey relational analysis, fuzzy sets classification techniques and attribution methods were used. Over the past 50 years, the distributions of several yak breeds have changed in multiple directions, mainly shifting northward or westward, and most of these changes are related to the thermal index. Driven by climate change over the past years, the suitable range and the distribution centers of certain yak breeds have changed with fluctuation and have mainly shifted northward, eastward or southward. The consistency of observed versus predicted changes in distribution boundaries or distribution centers is higher for certain yak breeds. Changes in the eastern distribution boundary of two yak breeds over the past 50 years can be attributed to climate change. PMID:26470629

  11. The distributions of Chinese yak breeds in response to climate change over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    The effects of prior climate change on yak breed distributions are uncertain. Here, we measured changes in the distributions of 12 yak breeds over the past 50 years in China and examined whether the changes could be attributed to climate change. Long-term records of yak breed distribution, grey relational analysis, fuzzy sets classification techniques and attribution methods were used. Over the past 50 years, the distributions of several yak breeds have changed in multiple directions, mainly shifting northward or westward, and most of these changes are related to the thermal index. Driven by climate change over the past years, the suitable range and the distribution centers of certain yak breeds have changed with fluctuation and have mainly shifted northward, eastward or southward. The consistency of observed versus predicted changes in distribution boundaries or distribution centers is higher for certain yak breeds. Changes in the eastern distribution boundary of two yak breeds over the past 50 years can be attributed to climate change.

  12. Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegler, P.

    1981-09-01

    As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

  13. Learner-Centered Teaching Style: Comparing Face-to-Face and Online Adult Educators' Commitment Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Shanda E.

    2013-01-01

    For at least 50 years, prominent adult learning theorists have recommended that adult educators commit to a learner-centered teaching approach. Extensive teaching styles research has been conducted on face-to-face and online adult educators, albeit separately, to examine their commitment levels to the learner-centered style. In addition, there has…

  14. Assessment of radiation doses from residential smoke detectors that contain americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1981-10-01

    External dose equivalents and internal dose commitments were estimated for individuals and populations from annual distribution, use, and disposal of 10 million ionization chamber smoke detectors that contain 110 kBq (3 ..mu..Ci) americium-241 each. Under exposure scenarios developed for normal distribution, use, and disposal using the best available information, annual external dose equivalents to average individuals were estimated to range from 4 fSv (0.4 prem) to 20 nSv (2 ..mu..rem) for total body and from 7 fSv to 40 nSv for bone. Internal dose commitments to individuals under post disposal scenarios were estimated to range from 0.006 to 80 ..mu..Sv (0.0006 to 8 mrem) to total body and from 0.06 to 800 ..mu..Sv to bone. The total collective dose (the sum of external dose equivalents and 50-year internal dose commitments) for all individuals involved with distribution, use, or disposal of 10 million smoke detectors was estimated to be about 0.38 person-Sv (38 person-rem) to total body and 00 ft/sup 2/).

  15. Formation of the 50-Year Element 94 from Deuteron Bombardment of U{sup 238}

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kennedy, J. W.; Perlman, M. L.; Segre, E.; Wahl, A. C.

    1942-06-01

    It has been shown by bombardment with deuterons of a sample of U{sup 238}, greatly depleted in U{sup 235} and U{sup 234}, that the 50-year 94 activity and 2.0 day 93 activity are formed in approximately the same yield as with the natural mixture of uranium isotopes. The activities are thus shown to arise from the U{sup 238} nucleus, and from considerations of the energy of the compound nucleus (U{sup 238} + d).

  16. Analysing the outcome of surgery for chronic Achilles tendinopathy over the last 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Wasim S; Malvankar, Seema; Bhamra, Jagmeet S; Pengas, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine an association between when the study was performed, the robustness of the study and the outcomes for insertional and non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy surgery. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines to assess the methodology of studies investigating the outcome of surgery in chronic Achilles tendinopathy over the last 50 years to identify any trends that would account for the variable results. The Coleman Methodology Scores were correlated with the reported percentage success rates and with the publication year to determine any trends using Pearson’s correlation. RESULTS: We identified 62 studies published between 1964 and 2014 reporting on a total of 2923 surgically treated Achilles tendinopathies. The average follow-up time was 40 mo (range 5-204 mo), and the mean reported success rate was 83.5% (range 36%-100%). The Coleman Methodology Scores were highly reproducible (r = 0.99, P < 0.01), with a mean of 40.1 (SD 18.9, range 2-79). We found a negative correlation between reported success rate and overall methodology scores (r = -0.40, P < 0.001), and a positive correlation between year of publication and overall methodology scores (r = 0.46, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We conclude that although the success rate of surgery for chronic Acilles tendinopathy described in the literature has fallen over the last 50 years, this is probably due to a more rigorous methodology of the studies. PMID:26191496

  17. Modernization of 50-year-old compressor station produces savings for NGPL

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.

    1986-03-17

    Modernization of Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America's 50-year-old compressor Station 108 at Truro, Iowa, will save NGPL about $450,000/year in fuel costs and reduce maintenance expenses. Station modernization, which began in 1983 and was completed the following summer, was part of a longterm construction program designed to increase the efficiency of NGPL's mainline system from Beatrice, Neb., to Chicago, Truro's 10 horizontal engines - half of them more than 50 years old - were replaced with 3 highly efficient, fuel-saving 5,500-hp Cooper-Bessemer vertical engines. Five of the old horizontals were 1,750-hp Worthingtons which had accumulated 1.6 million operating hr since installation in 1931. The other five units replaced were 1.750-hp Cooper-Bessemers installed in 1948. The new supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system at Station 108, designed by NGPL with Digital Equipment computer and Texas Instruments programmable logic controller (PLC), is as advanced as the engines it monitors.

  18. [Evolution of food science and technology in developing countries during the last 50 years].

    PubMed

    Bressani, R

    1993-01-01

    Malnutrition affects mostly the low-income groups, especially children and pregnant and nursing women despite the advances made in food processing techniques in the last 50 years. Malnutrition is more severe in rural areas of Latin America than big cities. The Institute of Food Science and Technology and the International League for Education and Nutrition of the US in 1976 initiated a study about identifying the actions that could be taken into account for developing countries and donating agencies. The problem of malnutrition in the developing has been evident in these 50 years in terms of deficiencies of protein, iodine, iron, vitamin A, and lack of information concerning proper nutrition during pregnancy and the lactation period. The problem of lack of food was supposed to be solved by the green revolution, which developed cereals with better quality protein using hybrids like triticale (rye and wheat). The population problem with the increase of younger people presents the issue of new jobs and vocations such as professions in nutrition and science. The economic problem is rooted in the dilemma of ¿selling at a low price and buying at a high price¿. The problem of human resources entails the involvement of people in all phases of food production in the developing world.

  19. Level of awareness about osteoporosis among women 50 years and older in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Homero A

    2010-03-01

    Osteoporosis is an established and well-defined disease that affects millions of people around the world and is a major cause of morbidity. Not much is known about the level of awareness of the condition among the general population in Puerto Rico. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the level of awareness and knowledge about osteoporosis among women 50 years and older in Puerto Rico, and 2) to describe the differences in level of awareness and knowledge among women who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis and those who have not. Telephone interviews were conducted among a sample of women 50 years and older who were residents of Puerto Rico during the month on February, 2005. A four-page questionnaire was developed to address the study objectives. Of the total number of women contacted (342), 28 (8%) indicated they did not know anything about osteoporosis and could not answer the remainder of the questionnaire. In spite of widespread awareness about the condition, more than one in ten women responded they did not know what factors contribute to the development of osteoporosis and nearly one in five women did not know the complications associated with osteoporosis. Public education campaigns must address risk factors and the strategies to overcome those that are modifiable in order to prevent the development of osteoporosis and its complications.

  20. Who initiates emergency commitments?

    PubMed

    Christy, Annette; Handelsman, Jessica B; Hanson, Ardis; Ochshorn, Ezra

    2010-04-01

    Florida's Mental Health Act was amended in 2005 and 2006 to include licensed mental health counselors and licensed marriage and family therapists, respectively, to the list of professionals authorized to initiate emergency commitments. The present study evaluates the volume of involuntary emergency commitments by type of initiator for a 5 year period. The results indicate that allowing licensed mental health counselors and licensed marriage and family therapist to initiate emergency commitments has not been related to increased numbers of emergency commitments or a higher proportion of emergency commitments being initiated by mental health professionals. Potential policy and fiscal implications, as well as future directions for research, are discussed. PMID:19597746

  1. Patellar tendon or hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in patients aged above 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Tarun; Nagraj, Raghu; Kumar, Malhar N; Chandy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury consists of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring graft. Satisfactory results have been reported so far in the younger age group. Dilemma arises regarding the suitability of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above. This retrospective analyses the outcome of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above. Materials and Methods: 55 patients aged 50 years and above presented to our institution with symptomatic ACL tear and were managed with arthroscopic reconstruction with patellar tendon/hamstring graft. 22 patients underwent ACL reconstruction with bone- patellar tendon-bone graft and the remaining 33 with a hamstring graft. Evaluation of functional outcome was performed using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scoring in the preoperative period, at the end of 1 year and at the final followup. Radiographic evaluation was performed using the Kellgren–Lawrence grading system. Results: The mean preoperative IKDC score was 39.7 ± 3.3. At the end of 1-year following the operation, the mean IKDC score was 73.6 ± 4.9 and at the final followup was 67.8 ± 7.7. The mean preoperative Lysholm score was 40.4 ± 10.3. At the end of 1-year following the intervention, the mean Lysholm score was 89.7 ± 2.1 and at final followup was 85.3 ± 2.5. Overall, 14 out of 42 patients who underwent radiographic assessment showed progression of osteoarthritis changes at the final followup after the intervention. Conclusion: In our study, there was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and Lysholm scores following the intervention. There was a slight deterioration in the scores at the final followup but the overall rate of satisfaction was still high and most of the patients were able to do their routine chores and light exercises suitable for their age group. Around one-third of patients show progression of radiographic changes

  2. Commentary: civil commitment and its reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alexander I F

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, civil commitment laws have gone through substantial reforms in the past 50 years. Discernible shifts from the medically paternalistic to the excessively legalistic may be giving way to a blending of legislative intent under the rubric of therapeutic jurisprudence. In the light of those international movements, Shao and Xie describe how China's new mental health law shows the impact of these international and local influences on the development and practice of mental health law in China. The new Law was passed in 2012. It sets a broad vision for mental health services and mental health promotion in Chinese society as well as providing the legal framework for civil commitment. Practicalities of implementation may be highly significant in the success of the legislation.

  3. Commentary: civil commitment and its reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alexander I F

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, civil commitment laws have gone through substantial reforms in the past 50 years. Discernible shifts from the medically paternalistic to the excessively legalistic may be giving way to a blending of legislative intent under the rubric of therapeutic jurisprudence. In the light of those international movements, Shao and Xie describe how China's new mental health law shows the impact of these international and local influences on the development and practice of mental health law in China. The new Law was passed in 2012. It sets a broad vision for mental health services and mental health promotion in Chinese society as well as providing the legal framework for civil commitment. Practicalities of implementation may be highly significant in the success of the legislation. PMID:25770279

  4. Overview of inflammatory bowel disease in Australia in the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter R

    2009-10-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the intestine, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease are now very common in Australia and remain major challenges for clinicians. Australian (and New Zealand) clinicians and scientists have made considerable contributions to our current understanding of these diseases over the last 50 years, including pathogenesis (such as the 'butyrate hypothesis', 'endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress', and the identification of the peptide sequences that incite celiac disease), true population epidemiology (albeit in New Zealand), precise clinical observation, new investigative tools, innovative new potential therapies, influential clinical drug trials (such as triple antibiotics for Crohn's disease), and a dietary approach with efficacy for functional gut symptoms (the low FODMAP diet). Underpinning the success has been clinical excellence and adaptation of clinicians to the changing landscape of disease severity and therapeutic options. The future is indeed bright if such trends continue. PMID:19799701

  5. The Last 50 Years: Mismeasurement and Mismanagement Are Impeding Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last 50 years, there have been many changes to the substance, conduct, and style of research. Many of these changes have proved disastrous to the life of scientists and to science itself. As a consequence, the near-romantic spirit of adventure and exploration that inspired young scientists of my own and earlier generations has become tarnished. Now, many of us feel beleaguered by bureaucrats and by politicians: they affect our lives profoundly, apparently without an understanding of the way discoveries are made or of the nature of science itself. The core purposes of universities, teaching and research, are being eroded by excessive administration. The number and locations of our publications are counted up like beans and the outcomes are used to rank us, one against another; a process of evaluation that has recast the purposes of publication. Applying for grants takes far too much time from a young scientist's life. PMID:26970645

  6. The Last 50 Years: Mismeasurement and Mismanagement Are Impeding Scientific Research.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    In the last 50 years, there have been many changes to the substance, conduct, and style of research. Many of these changes have proved disastrous to the life of scientists and to science itself. As a consequence, the near-romantic spirit of adventure and exploration that inspired young scientists of my own and earlier generations has become tarnished. Now, many of us feel beleaguered by bureaucrats and by politicians: they affect our lives profoundly, apparently without an understanding of the way discoveries are made or of the nature of science itself. The core purposes of universities, teaching and research, are being eroded by excessive administration. The number and locations of our publications are counted up like beans and the outcomes are used to rank us, one against another; a process of evaluation that has recast the purposes of publication. Applying for grants takes far too much time from a young scientist's life. PMID:26970645

  7. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    PubMed

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members.

  8. Psychosocial support of the pediatric cancer patient: lessons learned over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Askins, Martha A; Moore, Bartlett D

    2008-11-01

    Advances in pediatric cancer treatment over the past 50 years have dramatically improved survival rates. Once considered almost uniformly fatal, pediatric cancer's overall survival rates now approach 85%. Formerly, little psychosocial support existed for the child with cancer other than that provided by nurses and family. The prospect for long-term survival was so remote that plans for the future (eg, school, social relationships, late effects of treatment, and emotional adjustment) were abandoned. As the survival rate for children with cancer improved, so did the need for and quality of psychosocial care, largely because of hope for a cure. Today children with cancer benefit from comprehensive behavioral pediatric psychosocial support programs in psychiatry, psychology, neuropsychology, child life, education (school), creative arts, chaplaincy, social work, and career and vocational counseling. Pediatric psycho-oncology research has provided insights into clinical care and the psychosocial adaptation of children and families to cancer treatment and survivorship.

  9. The Swedish monitoring of surface waters: 50 years of adaptive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Jens; Johnson, Richard K; Futter, Martyn N; Wilander, Anders

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, scientific insights from surface water monitoring have supported Swedish evidence-based environmental management. Efforts to understand and control eutrophication in the 1960s led to construction of wastewater treatment plants with phosphorus retention, while acid rain research in the 1970s contributed to international legislation curbing emissions. By the 1990s, long-time series were being used to infer climate effects on surface water chemistry and biology. Monitoring data play a key role in implementing the EU Water Framework Directive and other legislation and have been used to show beneficial effects of agricultural management on Baltic Sea eutrophication. The Swedish experience demonstrates that well-designed and financially supported surface water monitoring can be used to understand and manage a range of stressors and societal concerns. Using scientifically sound adaptive monitoring principles to balance continuity and change has ensured long-time series and the capability to address new questions over time.

  10. Cardiomyopathy Induced by Pulmonary Sequestration in a 50-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Shaun; Comp, Robert A.; Grace, R. Randal

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old black man presented at the emergency department with midsternal, nonradiating chest pressure and chronic dyspnea on exertion. Four years before the current admission, he had been diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy at another facility. After our complete evaluation, we suspected that his symptoms arose from left-to-left shunting in association with pulmonary sequestration, a congenital malformation. Our preliminary diagnosis of secondary dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed by normalization of the patient's ventricular size and function after lobectomy. To our knowledge, this patient is the oldest on record to present with cardiomyopathy consequent to pulmonary sequestration. His case is highly unusual because of his age and the rapid resolution of his symptoms after lobectomy. We believe that pulmonary sequestration should be included in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25873803

  11. Microstructure of 50 year old SCK CEN BR1 research reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leenaers, A.; Berghe, S. van den

    2008-07-15

    The BR1 research reactor at SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium) has a graphite core matrix loaded with fuel rods consisting of a natural uranium slug in an aluminum cladding. Fabrication reports show the application of a so-called AlSi bonding layer and an U(Al,Si){sub 3} anti-diffusion layer on the natural uranium fuel slug to limit the interaction between the uranium fuel and aluminum cladding. The BR1 reactor is in operation since 1956 and still contains its original fuel rods. After more than 50 years irradiation at low temperature, the integrity of some of the fuel rods is investigated. The microstructure of the fuel, bonding and anti-diffusion layer and cladding is analysed using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe analysis (EPMA). (author)

  12. [The 50-year-old women or older: preventive actions to the HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela Angelo de Lima; Praça, Neide de Souza

    2010-06-01

    The present study is a qualitative research which aimed to verify the adoption of preventive measures on the transmission of HIV in 50-year-old women or older, who lived in poor communities and were assisted by the Family Health Program in São Paulo, Brazil. Medical Anthropology has been adopted as a theoretical reference, as well as the Discourse of the Collective Individual for data analysis. Thirteen women were interviewed and three discourses were presented: prevention appreciation, invisibility of HIV/AIDS and the rejection of the use of condom. The analysis showed that the group did not realize the risk of contamination through sexual intercourse due to their trust in the partner's loyalty. The casual use of condoms was taken into consideration just out of curiosity. The preventive actions adopted need more scientific support. The results point out the necessity of planning and implementing interventions which are culturally based and directed to the studied segment. PMID:21500513

  13. A review of 50 years of aerodynamic research with NACA/NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    1994-01-01

    Continuous improvements in flight systems have occurred over the past 50 years due, in part, to continuous improvements in aerodynamic research techniques and capabilities. This paper traces that research from the first-hand perspective of the author who, beginning in 1944, has taken part in the NACA/NASA aerodynamic research effort through studies in low-speed wind tunnels, high-speed subsonic tunnels, transonic tunnels, supersonic tunnels, and hypersonic tunnels. New problems were found as systems advanced from low-speed propeller-driven designs to more sophisticated high-speed jet- and rocket-propelled designs. The paper reviews some of these problems and reflects on some of the solutions that have been developed in the course of various aerodynamic research programs in the past. Some of the factors, both technical and nontechnical, that have influenced the aerodynamic design, research, and development of various flight systems will be mentioned.

  14. Cardiomyopathy induced by pulmonary sequestration in a 50-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Shaun; Comp, Robert A; Grace, R Randal; Sabbath, Adam M

    2015-02-01

    A 50-year-old black man presented at the emergency department with midsternal, nonradiating chest pressure and chronic dyspnea on exertion. Four years before the current admission, he had been diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy at another facility. After our complete evaluation, we suspected that his symptoms arose from left-to-left shunting in association with pulmonary sequestration, a congenital malformation. Our preliminary diagnosis of secondary dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed by normalization of the patient's ventricular size and function after lobectomy. To our knowledge, this patient is the oldest on record to present with cardiomyopathy consequent to pulmonary sequestration. His case is highly unusual because of his age and the rapid resolution of his symptoms after lobectomy. We believe that pulmonary sequestration should be included in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy.

  15. The Swedish monitoring of surface waters: 50 years of adaptive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Jens; Johnson, Richard K; Futter, Martyn N; Wilander, Anders

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, scientific insights from surface water monitoring have supported Swedish evidence-based environmental management. Efforts to understand and control eutrophication in the 1960s led to construction of wastewater treatment plants with phosphorus retention, while acid rain research in the 1970s contributed to international legislation curbing emissions. By the 1990s, long-time series were being used to infer climate effects on surface water chemistry and biology. Monitoring data play a key role in implementing the EU Water Framework Directive and other legislation and have been used to show beneficial effects of agricultural management on Baltic Sea eutrophication. The Swedish experience demonstrates that well-designed and financially supported surface water monitoring can be used to understand and manage a range of stressors and societal concerns. Using scientifically sound adaptive monitoring principles to balance continuity and change has ensured long-time series and the capability to address new questions over time. PMID:25403966

  16. Eysenck, Strupp, and 50 years of psychotherapy research: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Barlow, David H; Boswell, James F; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we review the status of psychotherapy research at the time of the founding of the journal Psychotherapy, and trace its history over the past 50 years, spanning the career of the first author. We trace this history in the context of the development of treatments for panic disorder and agoraphobia emanating from our research program. In so doing, we discuss the early visions of Strupp and Eysenck and the realization of many of their own goals for psychotherapy research. We conclude with a view toward the future based on cumulative knowledge of psychotherapy and psychopathology and, in the context of that knowledge, the type of ideal research programs that will be required.

  17. Driving Success over the Past 50 Years-The Faculty in Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Buss, Daryl D

    2015-01-01

    The faculty at member schools and colleges of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) are critical for continued progress in veterinary medicine. The success of those faculty members over the past 50 years has positioned veterinary medicine to engage an ever-widening array of opportunities, responsibilities, and societal needs. Yet the array of skills and accomplishments of faculty in academic veterinary medicine are not always visible to the public, or even within our profession. The quality and the wide range of their scholarship are reflected, in part, through the according of national and international awards and honors from organizations relevant to their particular areas of expertise. The goal of this study was to illustrate the breadth of expertise and the quality of the faculty at 34 schools/colleges of veterinary medicine by examining the diversity of organizations that have recognized excellence in faculty achievements through a variety of awards.

  18. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Osaka Bay, southwestern Japan: Faunal changes over the last 50 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsujimoto, Akira; Nomura, Ritsuo; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Yoshikawa, Shusaku

    2006-01-01

    Live benthic foraminiferal assemblages from surface sediment in Osaka Bay collected in 1999 were analyzed to characterize the distribution of the modern foraminiferal assemblages. Foraminiferal assemblages were compared with those of previous studies to document environmental changes in Osaka Bay over the past 50 years. Sixty-one species of foraminifera belonging to 37 genera were recognized from the 1999 surface sediment samples. An agglutinated assemblage containing Trochammina hadai and Eggerella advena is dominant in the inner part of the bay and is related to eutrophication. The foraminiferal assemblage in areas deeper than about 20 m is composed of Eggerella advena, Ammonia beccarii forma A, and Pseudorotalia gaimardii. This assemblage may be influenced by the large clockwise Okinose Circulation Current which extends throughout the western bay. Foraminiferal assemblages in Osaka Bay have changed dramatically during the last 50 years. The Trochammina hadai-Eggerella advena assemblage became established in the inner part of the bay, reflecting eutrophication that progressed from the 1960s through the 1970s. This assemblage became dominant in 1983, and typically dominated the inner part of the bay. From 1983 to 1999, however, the abundance of taxa belonging to this assemblage decreased greatly following implementation of 1973 Osaka City bylaws that restricted wastewater discharge. Changes in benthic assemblages such as the decrease of Ammonia beccarii forma A and increase of Eggerella advena have occurred in response to decreased incidence of red tides, and floral change in the species that cause these tides. The results of this study demonstrate that the abundance and distribution of benthic foraminifers in Osaka Bay are intimately related to environmental changes related to the urbanization of coastal areas. ?? by the Palaeontological Society of Japan.

  19. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    ScienceCinema

    Socolow, Robert [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2016-07-12

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  20. Biogeochemical control of marine productivity in the Mediterranean Sea during the last 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Piroddi, Chiara; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of biogeochemical variables derived from a coupled 3-D model of the Mediterranean Sea are evaluated for the last 50 years (1960–2010) against independent data on fisheries catch per unit effort (CPUE) for the same time period. Concordant patterns are found in the time series of all of the biological variables (from the model and from fisheries statistics), with low values at the beginning of the series, a later increase, with maximum levels reached at the end of the 1990s, and a posterior stabilization. Spectral analysis of the annual biological time series reveals coincident low-frequency signals in all of them. The first, more energetic signal peaks around the year 2000, while the second, less energetic signal peaks near 1982. Almost identical low-frequency signals are found in the nutrient loads of the rivers and in the integrated nutrient levels in the surface marine ecosystem. Nitrate concentration shows a maximum level in 1998, with a later stabilization to present-day values, coincident with the first low-frequency signal found in the biological series. Phosphate shows maximum concentrations around 1982 and a posterior sharp decline, in concordance with the second low-frequency signal observed in the biological series. That result seems to indicate that the control of marine productivity (plankton to fish) in the Mediterranean is principally mediated through bottom-up processes that could be traced back to the characteristics of riverine discharges. The high sensitivity of CPUE time series to environmental conditions might be another indicator of the overexploitation of this marine ecosystem. Key Points Biogeochemical evolution of the Mediterranean over the past 50 years River nutrient loads drive primary and secondary productions Strong link between low trophic levels and fisheries PMID:26180286

  1. Alzheimer Lesions in the Autopsied Brains of People 30 to 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay L.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Ali, Sabeen Z.; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Gangadeen, Salina; Crain, Barbara J.; Fowler, David R.; Rubio, Ana I.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that asymptomatic Alzheimer disease lesions may appear before 50 years of age. Background Alzheimer disease has an asymptomatic stage during which people are cognitively intact despite having substantial pathologic changes in the brain. While this asymptomatic stage is common in older people, how early in life it may develop has been unknown. Methods We microscopically examined the postmortem brains of 154 people aged 30-39 years (n = 59) and 40-50 years (n = 95) for specific Alzheimer lesions: beta-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and tau-positive neurites. We genotyped DNA samples for the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). Results We found beta-amyloid lesions in 13 brains, all of them from people aged 40 to 49 with no history of dementia. These plaques were of the diffuse type only and appeared throughout the neocortex. Among these 13 brains, 5 had very subtle tau lesions in the entorhinal cortex and/or hippocampus. All individuals with beta-amyloid deposits carried 1 or 2 APOE4 alleles. Among the individuals aged 40 to 50 with genotype APOE3/4, 10 (36%) had beta-amyloid deposits but 18 (64%) had none. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that beta-amyloid deposits in the cerebral cortex appear as early as 40 years of age in APOE4 carriers, suggesting that these lesions may constitute a very early stage of Alzheimer disease. Future preventive and therapeutic measures for this disease may have to be stratified by risk factors like APOE genotype and target people in their 40s or even earlier. PMID:26413742

  2. Investigations at regional scales of reconstruct sea level variability over the past 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.; Llovel, W.; Cazenave, A. A.; Rogel, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sea level rise is a major consequence of global warming, which threatens many low-lying, highly populated coastal regions of the world. In such regions, sea level rise amplifies other stresses due to natural phenomena (e.g., sediment load-induced ground subsidence in deltaic areas, vertical ground motions due to tectonics, volcanism and post-glacial rebound, etc.) or human activities (e.g., ground subsidence due to ground water pumping and/or oil extraction, urbanisation, etc.). Observations for the recent decades from tide gauges and satellite altimetry show that sea level rise is far from being geographically uniform. Here we present an analysis of decadal / multi-decadal sea level variations in a number of selected regions: Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region. For that purpose, we use a reconstruction of past sea level -last 50 years- based on the joint statistical analysis of tide gauge records and gridded sea level from an ocean circulation model. We highlight the sea level trends over the past 50 years in each region. Comparison between reconstructed sea-level trends with tide gauge records at sites not included in the reconstruction shows general good agreement, suggesting that regional trend patterns infer from the reconstruction are realistic (in addition, reconstructed sea-level agrees well with altimeter measurements since 1993). We find above-global average sea level rise since 1950 at several islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (Funafuti, Samoa, Kiribati, Cook Islands). Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses are performed for each region to describe accurately the spatio-temporal interannual variability. We also compute spatial trend patterns in thermal expansion to determine which part of the observed regional sea level variability can be attributed to change in ocean temperature.

  3. Noninvasive assessment of cardiomyopathy in normotensive diabetic patients between 20 and 50 years old

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, A.; Sanz, N.; Botvinick, E.H.; Phillips, N.; Heilbron, D.; Byrd, B.F. 3d.; Karam, J.H.; Schiller, N.B. )

    1989-08-01

    To further the understanding of diabetic heart disease, we tested the hypothesis that an asymptomatic group of normotensive diabetic patients between 20 and 50 years old had a restrictive cardiomyopathy independent of clinically significant coronary artery disease. Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were performed to detect and characterize the cardiac abnormalities in this study group comprising 88 patients with rigorously classified diabetes and 65 volunteer control subjects. Diabetic patients were shown to have a mildly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume index: 50.1 +/- 8.2 and 52.1 +/- 14.7 mL/m2 for patients with type I and type II diabetes, respectively, versus 58.9 +/- 11.7 mL/m2 for control subjects. The left ventricular diastolic filling was also impaired in diabetic patients as reflected by a lower atrial emptying index: 0.73 +/- 0.24 and 0.76 +/- 0.3 for type I and type II diabetics, respectively, compared with 1.14 +/- 0.24 for control subjects. Exercise tolerance was normal in subjects with type I diabetes and slightly reduced in subjects with type II diabetes. Only one patient developed regional ischemia on thallium exercise testing. Using a comprehensive, noninvasive approach, we have shown that asymptomatic normotensive patients with type I or type II diabetes who were between 20 and 50 years old had a restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by mildly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume and altered left ventricular compliance independent of critical coronary artery disease.

  4. Career Commitment, Competencies, and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Kerry David; Carson, Paula Phillips

    1998-01-01

    Nursing department employees (n=75) completed the Career Commitment Measure and other measures. Emotional intelligence was positively related to career commitment but not organizational commitment. Both types of commitment were positively related to organizational citizenship. (SK)

  5. Commitment to health theory.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces commitment to health as a middle-range. Commitment to health (CTH) is derived from Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. CTH theory is designed to predict the likelihood of behavior change between the action and maintenance stages of change. Commitment is defined as a freely chosen internal resolve to perform health behaviors, even when encumbered or inconvenienced by difficulties. Health is defined as the optimal level of well-being. Commitment is an independent continuous variable, but it can be categorized into three time-oriented categories: (1) low-level, (2) middle-level, and (3) high-level commitment. The higher the level of commitment, the more likely the individual will adopt long-term behavior change. This article presents the definitions, assumptions, and relational statements of CTH.

  6. Molecular Typing of Pathogenic Leptospira Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae Strains Circulating in China during the Past 50 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cuicai; Yang, Huimian; Li, Xiuwen; Cao, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Haijian; Zeng, Linzi; Xu, Jianmin; Xu, Yinghua; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Xiaokui; Zhu, Yongzhang; Jiang, Xiugao

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical infectious diseases worldwide. Icterohaemorrhagiae has been throughout recent history, and still is, the predominant serogroup of this pathogen in China. However, very little in detail is known about the serovars or genotypes of this serogroup. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 120 epidemic strains from five geographically diverse regions in China collected over a 50 year period (1958~2008), and 8 international reference strains characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and MLST analysis. 115, 11 and 2 strains were identified as L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, and L. kirschneri, respectively. 17 different STs were identified including 69 ST1 strains, 18 ST17, 18 ST128, 9 ST143 and 2 ST209. The remaining 12 strains belonged to 12 different STs. eBURST analysis demonstrated that, among the clonal complexes isolated (CCs), CC1 accounted for 73.3% (88/120) strains representing three STs: ST1, ST128 and ST98. ST1 was the most likely ancestral strain of this CC, followed by singleton CC17 (17/120) and CC143 (11/120). Further analysis of adding 116 serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains in the MLST database and studies previously described using global eBURST analysis and MST dendrogram revealed relatively similar ST clustering patterns with five main CCs and 8 singletons among these 244 strains. CC17 was found to be the most prevalent clone of pathogenic Leptospira circulating worldwide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ST1 and ST17 strains were distributed among 4 distinct serovars, indicating a highly complicated relationship between serovars and STs. Conclusions/Significance Our studies demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity in the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains. Distinct from ST17 or ST37 circulating elsewhere, ST1 included in CC1, has over the past 50 years or so, proven to be the most prevalent ST of pathogenic leptospires isolated in China. Moreover, the

  7. Commentary on 50 years of research at the NBRL, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Valeri, C R; Giorgio, G R

    2016-02-01

    Research at the NBRL, Boston, MA over the past 50 years assessed the survival and function of RBC and platelets and the function of plasma clotting proteins. Liquid preserved RBC can be stored at 4 °C for only 2 weeks to maintain a 24-hour posttransfusion survival value of 75%, moderately impaired oxygen transport function after transfusion, exert a hemostatic effect, and increase the plasma volume. Liquid preserved platelets can be stored at room temperature with agitation for only 2 days to have acceptable in vivo survival 2 hours following transfusion, normal lifespan, and a hemostatic effect to reduce the bleeding time in thrombocytopenic patients. RBCs frozen with 40% W/V glycerol at -80 °C for at least 10 years, thawed, and deglycerolized in the Haemonetics ACP215 can be stored in Nutricel at 4 °C for 2 weeks with a 24-hour posttransfusion survival of 75%, moderately impaired oxygen transport function after transfusion, exert a hemostatic effect and increase the plasma volume. Leukoreduced single donor platelets treated with 6% DMSO, the supernatant DMSO removed prior to freezing at -80 °C for 2 years, thawed, and diluted with 0.9% NaCl or AB plasma have a bimodal population of platelets: one population has reduced in vivo survival, but increased hemostatic effect and the other has normal in vivo survival. AB plasma can be stored at -80 °C for at least 14 years, thawed, and stored at 4 °C for 24 hours with acceptable in vitro function of clotting proteins. The data reported by the NBRL, Boston, Mass. over the past 50 years and the 15-year experience by the Netherlands military now recommend that FDA, ARC, HHS and DOD should support the use of universal donor frozen group O Rh positive and group O Rh negative RBC, frozen group O platelets and frozen AB plasma from male donors. The frozen blood products will eliminate the severe adverse events of mortality and morbidity associated with the current FDA approved red blood cell products, platelet

  8. Initialisation and predictability of the AMOC over the last 50 years in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Mignot, Juliette; Labetoulle, Sonia; Guilyardi, Eric; Madec, Gurvan

    2013-05-01

    The mechanisms involved in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) decadal variability and predictability over the last 50 years are analysed in the IPSL-CM5A-LR model using historical and initialised simulations. The initialisation procedure only uses nudging towards sea surface temperature anomalies with a physically based restoring coefficient. When compared to two independent AMOC reconstructions, both the historical and nudged ensemble simulations exhibit skill at reproducing AMOC variations from 1977 onwards, and in particular two maxima occurring respectively around 1978 and 1997. We argue that one source of skill is related to the large Mount Agung volcanic eruption starting in 1963, which reset an internal 20-year variability cycle in the North Atlantic in the model. This cycle involves the East Greenland Current intensity, and advection of active tracers along the subpolar gyre, which leads to an AMOC maximum around 15 years after the Mount Agung eruption. The 1997 maximum occurs approximately 20 years after the former one. The nudged simulations better reproduce this second maximum than the historical simulations. This is due to the initialisation of a cooling of the convection sites in the 1980s under the effect of a persistent North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) positive phase, a feature not captured in the historical simulations. Hence we argue that the 20-year cycle excited by the 1963 Mount Agung eruption together with the NAO forcing both contributed to the 1990s AMOC maximum. These results support the existence of a 20-year cycle in the North Atlantic in the observations. Hindcasts following the CMIP5 protocol are launched from a nudged simulation every 5 years for the 1960-2005 period. They exhibit significant correlation skill score as compared to an independent reconstruction of the AMOC from 4-year lead-time average. This encouraging result is accompanied by increased correlation skills in reproducing the observed 2-m air temperature

  9. Modified Methodology for Projecting Coastal Louisiana Land Changes over the Next 50 Years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartley, Steve B.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal Louisiana landscape is continually undergoing geomorphologic changes (in particular, land loss); however, after the 2005 hurricane season, the changes were intensified because of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The amount of land loss caused by the 2005 hurricane season was 42 percent (562 km2) of the total land loss (1,329 km2) that was projected for the next 50 years in the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA), Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration Study. The purpose of this study is to provide information on potential changes to coastal Louisiana by using a revised LCA study methodology. In the revised methodology, we used classified Landsat TM satellite imagery from 1990, 2001, 2004, and 2006 to calculate the 'background' or ambient land-water change rates but divided the Louisiana coastal area differently on the basis of (1) geographic regions ('subprovinces') and (2) specific homogeneous habitat types. Defining polygons by subprovinces (1, Pontchartrain Basin; 2, Barataria Basin; 3, Vermilion/Terrebonne Basins; and 4, the Chenier Plain area) allows for a specific erosion rate to be applied to that area. Further subdividing the provinces by habitat type allows for specific erosion rates for a particular vegetation type to be applied. Our modified methodology resulted in 24 polygons rather than the 183 that were used in the LCA study; further, actively managed areas and the CWPPRA areas were not masked out and dealt with separately as in the LCA study. This revised methodology assumes that erosion rates for habitat types by subprovince are under the influence of similar environmental conditions (sediment depletion, subsidence, and saltwater intrusion). Background change rate for three time periods (1990-2001, 1990-2004, and 1990-2006) were calculated by taking the difference in water or land among each time period and dividing it by the time interval. This calculation gives an annual change rate for each polygon per time period. Change rates for each time period

  10. Commentary on 50 years of research at the NBRL, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Valeri, C R; Giorgio, G R

    2016-02-01

    Research at the NBRL, Boston, MA over the past 50 years assessed the survival and function of RBC and platelets and the function of plasma clotting proteins. Liquid preserved RBC can be stored at 4 °C for only 2 weeks to maintain a 24-hour posttransfusion survival value of 75%, moderately impaired oxygen transport function after transfusion, exert a hemostatic effect, and increase the plasma volume. Liquid preserved platelets can be stored at room temperature with agitation for only 2 days to have acceptable in vivo survival 2 hours following transfusion, normal lifespan, and a hemostatic effect to reduce the bleeding time in thrombocytopenic patients. RBCs frozen with 40% W/V glycerol at -80 °C for at least 10 years, thawed, and deglycerolized in the Haemonetics ACP215 can be stored in Nutricel at 4 °C for 2 weeks with a 24-hour posttransfusion survival of 75%, moderately impaired oxygen transport function after transfusion, exert a hemostatic effect and increase the plasma volume. Leukoreduced single donor platelets treated with 6% DMSO, the supernatant DMSO removed prior to freezing at -80 °C for 2 years, thawed, and diluted with 0.9% NaCl or AB plasma have a bimodal population of platelets: one population has reduced in vivo survival, but increased hemostatic effect and the other has normal in vivo survival. AB plasma can be stored at -80 °C for at least 14 years, thawed, and stored at 4 °C for 24 hours with acceptable in vitro function of clotting proteins. The data reported by the NBRL, Boston, Mass. over the past 50 years and the 15-year experience by the Netherlands military now recommend that FDA, ARC, HHS and DOD should support the use of universal donor frozen group O Rh positive and group O Rh negative RBC, frozen group O platelets and frozen AB plasma from male donors. The frozen blood products will eliminate the severe adverse events of mortality and morbidity associated with the current FDA approved red blood cell products, platelet

  11. Overview of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology in the USA for the past 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Walter; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Boone, John M.

    2008-12-15

    This review covers the role of medical physics in addressing issues directly related to patient dosimetry in radiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, and CT. The sections on radiography and fluoroscopy radiation doses review the changes that have occurred during the last 50 to 60 years. A number of technological improvements have contributed to both a significant reduction in patient and staff radiation doses and improvements to the image quality during this period of time. There has been a transition from film-screen radiography with hand dip film processing to electronic digital imaging utilizing CR and DR. Similarly, fluoroscopy has progressed by directly viewing image intensifiers in darkened rooms to modern flat panel image receptor systems utilizing pulsed radiation, automated variable filtration, and digitally processed images. Mammography is one of the most highly optimized imaging procedures performed, because it is a repetitive screening procedure that results in annual radiation exposure. Mammography is also the only imaging procedure in the United States in which the radiation dose is regulated by the federal government. Consequently, many medical physicists have studied the dosimetry associated with screen-film and digital mammography. In this review, a brief history of mammography dose assessment by medical physicists is discussed. CT was introduced into clinical practice in the early 1970s, and has grown into one of the most important modalities available for diagnostic imaging. CT dose quantities and measurement techniques are described, and values of radiation dose for different types of scanner are presented. Organ and effective doses to adult patients are surveyed from the earliest single slice scanners, to the latest versions that include up to two x-ray tubes and can incorporate as many as 256 detector channels. An overview is provided of doses received by pediatric patients undergoing CT examinations, as well as methods, and results, of studies

  12. Face processing improvements in prosopagnosia: successes and failures over the last 50 years

    PubMed Central

    DeGutis, Joseph M.; Chiu, Christopher; Grosso, Mallory E.; Cohan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers have widely believed that face processing cannot be improved in prosopagnosia. Though more than a dozen reported studies have attempted to enhance face processing in prosopagnosics over the last 50 years, evidence for effective treatment approaches has only begun to emerge. Here, we review the current literature on spontaneous recovery in acquired prosopagnosia (AP), as well as treatment attempts in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia (DP), differentiating between compensatory and remedial approaches. We find that for AP, rather than remedial methods, strategic compensatory training such as verbalizing distinctive facial features has shown to be the most effective approach (despite limited evidence of generalization). In children with DP, compensatory training has also shown some effectiveness. In adults with DP, two recent larger-scale studies, one using remedial training and another administering oxytocin, have demonstrated group-level improvements and evidence of generalization. These results suggest that DPs, perhaps because of their more intact face processing infrastructure, may benefit more from treatments targeting face processing than APs. PMID:25140137

  13. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Observing Earth from space over the past 50 years has fundamentally transformed the way people view our home planet. The image of the "blue marble" is taken for granted now, but it was revolutionary when taken in 1972 by the crew on Apollo 17. Since then the capability to look at Earth from space has grown increasingly sophisticated and has evolved from simple photographs to quantitative measurements of Earth properties such as temperature, concentrations of atmospheric trace gases, and the exact elevation of land and ocean. Imaging Earth from space has resulted in major scientific accomplishments; these observations have led to new discoveries, transformed the Earth sciences, opened new avenues of research, and provided important societal benefits by improving the predictability of Earth system processes. This report highlights the scientific achievements made possible by the first five decades of Earth satellite observations by space-faring nations. It follows on a recent report from the National Research Council (NRC) entitled Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, also referred to as the "decadal survey." Recognizing the increasing need for space observations, the decadal survey identifies future directions and priorities for Earth observations from space. This companion report was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to highlight, through selected examples, important past contributions of Earth observations from space to our current understanding of the planet.

  14. Dynamo Sensitivity in Solar Analogs with 50 Years of Ca II H & K Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Soon, Willie H.; Baliunas, Sallie L.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2016-05-01

    The Sun has a steady 11-year cycle in magnetic activity most well-known by the rising and falling in the occurrence of dark sunspots on the solar disk in visible bandpasses. The 11-year cycle is also manifest in the variations of emission in the Ca II H & K line cores, due to non-thermal (i.e. magnetic) heating in the lower chromosphere. The large variation in Ca II H & K emission allows for study of the patterns of long-term variability in other stars thanks to synoptic monitoring with the Mount Wilson Observatory HK photometers (1966-2003) and Lowell Observatory Solar-Stellar Spectrograph (1994-present). Overlapping measurements for a set of 27 nearby solar-analog (spectral types G0-G5) stars were used to calibrate the two instruments and construct time series of magnetic activity up to 50 years in length. Precise properties of fundamental importance to the dynamo are available from Hipparcos, the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey, and CHARA interferometry. Using these long time series and measurements of fundamental properties, we do a comparative study of stellar "twins" to explore the sensitivity of the stellar dynamo to small changes to structure, rotation, and composition. We also compare this sample to the Sun and find hints that the regular periodic variability of the solar cycle may be rare among its nearest neighbors in parameter space.

  15. Polio Patients in Northern Italy, a 50 Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bertolasi, L.; Danese, A; Monaco, S; Turri, M; Borg, K; Werhagen, L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poliomyelitis was before the immunization an important medical problem. Nowadays polio prior patients (PP) suffer from polio sequelae or have developed post-polio-syndrome (PPS) with increasing paresis, pain and fatigue. Objectives: To analyze the medical situation 50 years after acute polio. The degree of paresis was compared between the recovery 1952-1961 and 2012.The prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for PPS was estimated Method: The study was performed in Italy. Included were PP with rehabilitation after acute polio 1952-1961 and in 2012. During the years PP underwent yearly evaluation. A thorough neurological examination was performed in 2012. A telephone interview with questions concerning pain, paresis, fatigue, walking aids and concomitant diseases was performed in 2012. The patients were divided in two groups, if they fulfilled the criteria for PPS or not. Results: Included were 67(94%) patients receiving rehabilitation after acute poliomyelitis and 2012. 78% were walkers, half of the PPS used wheelchair. Eight out of ten suffered from pain. Four out of ten fulfilled the PPS criteria. Pain was slightly more common in PPS. Conclusion: Female gender, fatigue and wheelchair dependency were significantly more common in PPS while pain was common in both groups. PMID:27651845

  16. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony, kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast, that began with the Bumper rockets. From left are Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. Also present (but not seen) is Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  17. Thoracic outlet syndrome: a 50-year experience at Baylor University Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Kourlis, Harry

    2007-01-01

    During the past 5 decades, the recognition and management of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) have evolved. This article elucidates these changes and improvements in the diagnosis and management of TOS at Baylor University Medical Center. The most remarkable change over the past 50 years is the use of nerve conduction velocity to diagnose and monitor patients with nerve compression. Recognition that procedures such as breast implantation and median sternotomy may produce TOS has been revealing. Prompt thrombolysis followed by surgical venous decompression for Paget-Schroetter syndrome has markedly improved results compared with the conservative anticoagulation approach; thrombolysis and prompt first rib resection is the optimal treatment for most patients with Paget-Schroetter syndrome. Complete first rib extirpation at the initial procedure markedly reduces the incidence of recurrent neurologic symptoms or the need for a second procedure. Chest pain or pseudoangina can be caused by TOS. Dorsal sympathectomy is helpful for patients with sympathetic maintained pain syndrome or causalgia and patients with recurrent TOS symptoms who need a second procedure. PMID:17431445

  18. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, B.; Campbell, J. W.; Dozier, J.; Fleming, J. R.; Gille, J. C.; Hartmann, D. L.; Jezek, K.; Kidder, S.; Ramankutty, N.; Thompson, A.; Ustin, S. L.; Yoder, J.; Probst, L.; Mengelt, C.

    2007-12-01

    Observing the Earth from space over the last five decades has fundamentally transformed the way people view our home planet. The image of the "blue marble" is taken for granted now, but it was revolutionary when it was first taken in 1972 by the crew on Apollo 17. Since then, the capability to look at Earth from space has grown increasingly sophisticated and evolved from simple photographs to quantitative measurements of Earth properties such as temperature, atmospheric gases, and exact elevation of land and ocean. Consequently, every new method of imaging the Earth from space has resulted in scientific accomplishments that have enabled new discoveries, transformed the field, refined scientific understanding, opened new avenues of research, or provided important societal benefits by improving the predictability of Earth system processes. This National Research Council (NRC) study highlights selected scientific achievements made possible by the first 50 years of Earth satellite observations by space-faring nations. It follows on a recent report from the NRC entitled "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" (NRC 2007), also referred to as the "decadal study."

  19. Unilateral lower limb lymphedema resulting from a heart surgery performed 50 years prior

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Satoshi; Miura, Yuki; Sugiyama, Narushi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is classified into two main types: secondary lymphedema accompanied by lymph node excision surgery or radiotherapy; and idiopathic lymphedema. Here we experienced a very rare case of lymphatic edema resulting from cardiac surgery that the patient underwent 50 years previously. Presentation of case A 62-year-old woman experienced progressive unilateral lower leg lymphedema for recent years. After undergoing cardiac surgery at another hospital at the age of 12 years, she gradually developed left lower leg edema. The cause of the edema was unclear and it remained untreated. Her edema symptoms gradually worsened in recent years, so she consulted the plastic surgery division of our hospital. Discusssion Perhaps the lymphatic structures of affected individuals differ prior to disease onset. If the mechanism of lymphatic edema outbreak is elucidated, patients needing conservative and surgical therapy might be more easily identified. Knowing the outbreak mechanism of lymphatic edema would definitely ease the investigation of an unconventional case like this one. Conservative treatments for lymphedema, such as self-massage and compression therapy using garments, were immediately started. With these treatments, the leg volume and edema symptoms reduced. Conclusion The research on the cause of this case may be important step for elucidating the source of secondary lymphatic edema. PMID:26719996

  20. The demoiselle of X-inactivation: 50 years old and as trendy and mesmerising as ever.

    PubMed

    Morey, Céline; Avner, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In humans, sexual dimorphism is associated with the presence of two X chromosomes in the female, whereas males possess only one X and a small and largely degenerate Y chromosome. How do men cope with having only a single X chromosome given that virtually all other chromosomal monosomies are lethal? Ironically, or even typically many might say, women and more generally female mammals contribute most to the job by shutting down one of their two X chromosomes at random. This phenomenon, called X-inactivation, was originally described some 50 years ago by Mary Lyon and has captivated an increasing number of scientists ever since. The fascination arose in part from the realisation that the inactive X corresponded to a dense heterochromatin mass called the "Barr body" whose number varied with the number of Xs within the nucleus and from the many intellectual questions that this raised: How does the cell count the X chromosomes in the nucleus and inactivate all Xs except one? What kind of molecular mechanisms are able to trigger such a profound, chromosome-wide metamorphosis? When is X-inactivation initiated? How is it transmitted to daughter cells and how is it reset during gametogenesis? This review retraces some of the crucial findings, which have led to our current understanding of a biological process that was initially considered as an exception completely distinct from conventional regulatory systems but is now viewed as a paradigm "par excellence" for epigenetic regulation.

  1. Photochemistry and Photobiology of the Spore Photoproduct: A 50-Year Journey.

    PubMed

    Setlow, Peter; Li, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Fifty years ago, a new thymine dimer was discovered as the dominant DNA photolesion in UV-irradiated bacterial spores [Donnellan, J. E. & Setlow R. B. (1965) Science, 149, 308-310], which was later named the spore photoproduct (SP). Formation of SP is due to the unique environment in the spore core that features low hydration levels favoring an A-DNA conformation, high levels of calcium dipicolinate that acts as a photosensitizer, and DNA saturation with small, acid-soluble proteins that alters DNA structure and reduces side reactions. In vitro studies reveal that any of these factors alone can promote SP formation; however, SP formation is usually accompanied by the production of other DNA photolesions. Therefore, the nearly exclusive SP formation in spores is due to the combined effects of these three factors. Spore photoproduct photoreaction is proved to occur via a unique H-atom transfer mechanism between the two involved thymine residues. Successful incorporation of SP into an oligonucleotide has been achieved via organic synthesis, which enables structural studies that reveal minor conformational changes in the SP-containing DNA. Here, we review the progress on SP photochemistry and photobiology in the past 50 years, which indicates a very rich SP photobiology that may exist beyond endospores.

  2. And the next 50 years? The future of recombinant DNA technology in oral medicine.

    PubMed

    Slavkin, H C

    1996-01-01

    As we celebrate this spectacular 50th anniversary, fluoridation continues to be the most effective public health strategy to reduce the disease burden of dental caries. Curiously, while H. Trendley Dean and his colleagues at the National Institutes of Health were investigating the effects of fluoride on tooth enamel in the mid-1930s, two young boys, one in London and the other in Chicago, were growing up to become the catalysts for another "biological revolution." These two very talented individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, would later meet by accident at Cambridge and produce their seminal discovery published in April 1953 as a letter in Nature, a one-page article provoking an international scientific adventure to understand living organisms in terms of the structure and function of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a universal genetic code and a rationale for the applications of recombinant DNA technology (rDNA) in fields as diverse as agriculture, energy, industry, and health. As we now reflect upon the triumphs from fluoridation and ponder the next 50 years and the complexities of craniofacial, oral, and dental diseases, it becomes increasingly evident that recombinant DNA technology coupled with health promotion, disease prevention, and public education offers the promise for remarkable advances in prevention, diagnosis, and therapeutics in oral medicine.

  3. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems

    PubMed Central

    Ladha, J. K.; Tirol-Padre, A.; Reddy, C. K.; Cassman, K. G.; Verma, Sudhir; Powlson, D. S.; van Kessel, C.; de B. Richter, Daniel; Chakraborty, Debashis; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551 Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737 Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25 kg ha−1 yr−1 for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed by sources other than fertilizer- or soil-N. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation appears to be the major source of this N, which is 370 Tg or 24% of total N in the crop, corresponding to 13, 22, and 13 kg ha−1 yr−1 for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively. Manure (217 Tg or 14%) and atmospheric deposition (96 Tg or 6%) are the other sources of N. Crop residues and seed contribute marginally. Our scaling-down approach to estimate the contribution of non-symbiotic N2 fixation is robust because it focuses on global quantities of N in sources and sinks that are easier to estimate, in contrast to estimating N losses per se, because losses are highly soil-, climate-, and crop-specific. PMID:26778035

  4. 50 Years of Electronic Check Out and Launch Systems at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stanley O.

    2007-01-01

    When NASA was created in 1958 one of the elements incorporated into this new agency was the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) in Huntsville, AL and its subordinate Missile Firing Laboratory (MFL) in Cape Canaveral. Under NASA, the MFL became the Launch Operations Directorate of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, but expanding operations in the build up to Apollo dictated that it be given the status of a full fledged Center in July, 1 962[ 1]. The next year it was renamed the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KS C) after the president whose vision transformed its first decade of operation. The ABMA was under the technical leadership of Dr. Werner Von Braun. The MEL was run by his deputy Dr. Kurt Debus, an electrical engineer whose experience in the field began in the early days of V-2 testing in war time Germany. In 1952 a group led by Debus arrived in Cape Canaveral to begin test launches of the new Redstone missile [2]. During the 50's, The MFL built several launch complexes and tested the Redstone, Jupiter and Jupiter C missiles. This small experienced team of engineers and technicians formed the seed from which has grown the KSC team of today. This article briefly reviews the evolution of the KSC electronic technologies for integration, check-out and launch of space vehicles and payloads during NASA's first 50 years.

  5. 1958-2008: 50 years of youth fitness tests in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James R; Zhu, Weimo; Franks, B Don; Meredith, Marilu D; Spain, Christine

    2009-03-01

    The AAHPER Youth Fitness Test, the first U.S. national fitness test, was published 50 years ago. The seminal work of Krause and Hirschland influenced the fitness world and continues to do so today. Important youth fitness test initiatives in the last half century are summarized. Key elements leading to continued interest in youth fitness testing at the start of the 21st century include (a) concerns about children and youth fitness levels, (b) AAHPER(D)-led youth fitness battery development, (c) differentiation between performance-related and health-related fitness testing, (d) the numerous youth fitness tests developed, (e) collaborative discussions on development and adoption of a unified national youth fitness battery, (f) computerization of youth fitness test results, (g) differentiation between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced evaluation of student results, and (h) concern about youth fitness levels (again, but with a focus on health). We have come full circle on youth fitness interests. This article summarizes the key youth fitness tests in the second half of the 20th century and projects future considerations. PMID:19408462

  6. How to renovate a 50-year-old wastewater treating plant: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    How does an existing refinery cost-effectively renovate wastewater/stormwater treating systems to meet today`s environmental regulations and standards? Faced with solving this problem, Amoco`s Whiting Refinery developed a project team consisting of plant and operations engineers, corporate project and design engineers, contractors and vendors to map out a strategy to re-engineer the existing wastewater treating plant (WWTP) and auxiliary functions. This case history shows how an old refinery limited by existing equipment, building space, operation`s availability requirements and costs divided the project into several design phases. The design team used a proactive approach with empowerment responsibilities to solve construction, equipment usage and regulatory problems throughout the project`s lifetime. Focusing on front-end planning and customer service (the refinery), team members applied value-based engineering designs to keep costs down, implemented safe work practices during construction, used HAZOP reviews to scrutinize proposed designs for operating and maintenance procedures, etc. The result has been the renovation of a 50-year-old WWTP completed under budget, ontime and in compliance with federal mandates.

  7. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    PubMed

    Donner, E; Scheckel, K; Sekine, R; Popelka-Filcoff, R S; Bennett, J W; Brunetti, G; Naidu, R; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E

    2015-10-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with (110 m)Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 μg/kg (0.002-3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability.

  8. 50 years of hormonal contraception—time to find out, what it does to our brain

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda A.; Kerschbaum, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are on the market for more than 50 years and used by 100 million women worldwide. However, while endogenous steroids have been convincingly associated with change in brain structure, function and cognitive performance, the effects of synthetic steroids contained in hormonal contraceptives on brain and cognition have barely been investigated. In this article we summarize the sparse findings, describing brain structural, functional and behavioral findings from the literature and suggest that synthetic steroids may contribute to masculinizing as well as feminizing effects on brain and behavior. We try to identify methodological challenges, explain, how results on endogenous steroids may transfer into research on hormonal contraceptives and point out factors that need to be controlled in the study of hormonal contraceptive dependent effects. We conclude that there is a strong need for more systematic studies, especially on brain structural, functional and cognitive changes due to hormonal contraceptive use. The hormonal contraceptive pill is the major tool for population control. Hence, such behavioral changes could cause a shift in society dynamics and should not stay unattended. PMID:25191220

  9. How far we have come in the last 50 years in smoking attitudes and actions.

    PubMed

    Burns, David

    2014-02-01

    Dramatic changes in smoking behavior and attitudes about smoking have occurred over the 50-year interval since the release of the 1964 smoking and health report to the Surgeon General. Between 1965 and 2011, adult prevalence of cigarette smoking fell from 51.9 to 21.6% among men and from 33.9 to 16.5% among women, with an increasing fraction of smokers who do not smoke every day. Federal taxes have increased from $0.08 in 1965 to $1.01, with even larger increases in many state taxes. Workplace restrictions on smoking have increased from only 3% of workers protected by workplace smoking bans in 1986 (e.g., those working in fireworks factories) to more than 70% of workers being protected in 1999. Equally dramatic changes have occurred in restrictions on smoking in the home. The evaporation of the remaining societal support for smoking may be an important part of the "end game" for cigarette smoking in the United States. PMID:24575990

  10. Curly tail: a 50 year history of the mouse spina bifida model

    PubMed Central

    van Straaten, Henny W.M.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews 50 years of progress towards understanding the aetiology and pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTD) in the curly tail (ct) mutant mouse. More than 45 papers have been published on various aspects of curly tail with the result that it is now the best understood mouse model of NTD pathogenesis. The failure of closure of the spinal neural tube, which leads to spina bifida in this mouse, has been traced back to a tissue-specific defect of cell proliferation in the tail bud of the E9.5 embryo. This cell proliferation defect results in a growth imbalance in the caudal region that generates ventral curvature of the body axis. Neurulation movements are opposed, leading to delayed neuropore closure and spina bifida, or tail defects. It is interesting to reflect that these advances have been achieved in the absence of information on the nature of the ct gene product, which remains unidentified. In addition to the principal ct gene, which maps to distal Chromosome 4, the curly tail phenotype is influenced by several modifier genes and by environmental factors. NTD in curly tail are resistant to folic acid, but can be prevented by myo-inositol. These and other features of NTD in this system bear striking similarities to the situation in humans, making curly tail a model for understanding a sub-type of human NTD. PMID:11396850

  11. ABCC/RERF: Commemorating the First 50 Years and Looking to the Future [Symposium program

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    In 1946, President Harry Truman, in a document currently on display at the entrance to this auditorium, approved a directive to the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) to initiate a long-term investigation of the health effects associated with exposure to radiation from the atomic bombs. With funding provided by the Atomic Energy Commission, now the Department of Energy, NAS-NRC established the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in March 1947. The government of Japan through the Japanese National Institute of Health, became a partner in that endeavor in 1948. In 1975, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) was established and assumed the responsibilities of ABCC. This symposium commemorates 50 years of ABCC/RERF. It is dedicated to the many survivors and their families without whose cooperation we would not have learned as much as we have about the effects of radiation. It is also dedicated to the thousands of employees of RERF and scientists around the world who have contributed through the years to the analysis and interpretation of the information emerging from this unique study.

  12. [Vascular prostheses: 50 years of advancement from synthetic towards tissue engineering and cell therapy].

    PubMed

    Chlupác, J; Filová, E; Bacáková, L

    2010-01-01

    Since more than 50 years, the gold standard in synthetic vascular prostheses has been represented by polyethylene terephtalate (PET, Dacron) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). These polymers perform well as sustitutes of large-caliber vessels, however, their long-term patencies are disappointing in small-caliber applications (< 6 mm). Thus, patient's own artery or vein remains the material of choice in coronary, crural or microvessel bypass surgery. Synthetic materials fail due to thrombosis and insufficient healing process that consists in highly incomplete endothelial cells coverage and intimal hyperplasia caused by compliance mismatch and hemodynamic imbalance. To find better small-caliber vascular graft, surgical techniques have been modified, novel biomaterials have been investigated and cell and tissue culture technologies have been adopted. Partly or fully tissue-engineered vascular grafts have been produced and experimentally and clinically evaluated with some promising result. The aim of this review is to briefly list currently used and examined vascular graft materials with special attention to cell/biomaterial ineractions, tissue engineering and authors' own experience. PMID:21351411

  13. How the World Survived the Population Bomb: Lessons From 50 Years of Extraordinary Demographic History

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David

    2012-01-01

    The world population will reach 7 billion in late 2011, a demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This article looks at the last 50 years of demographic change, one of the most extraordinary periods in demographic history. During this period, world population grew at rates that have never been seen before and will almost surely never be seen again. There were many concerns about the potential impact of rapid population growth in the 1960s, including mass starvation in countries such as India, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased poverty in low-income countries. The actual experience was very different. World food production increased faster than world population in every decade since the 1960s, resource prices fell during most of the period, and poverty declined significantly in much of the developing world. The article considers the economic and demographic explanations for the surprising successes of this important period in demographic history. It also looks at regions that have been less successful, especially Africa, and at the lessons for dealing with the important challenges that still remain. PMID:22005884

  14. Air pollution in the last 50 years - From local to global

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Air pollution in the industrialised world has in the last 50 years undergone drastic changes. Until after World War II the most important urban compound was sulphur dioxide combined with soot from the use of fossil fuels in heat and power production. When that problem was partly solved by cleaner fuels, higher stacks and flue gas cleaning in urban areas, the growing traffic gave rise to nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds and in some areas photochemical air pollution, which may be abated by catalytic converters. Lately the interest has centred on small particles and more exotic organic compounds that can be detected with new sophisticated analytical techniques. Simultaneously with the development in compounds, the time and geographical scale of interest have increased. First to transboundary air pollution, which in decades and on continents can degrade ecosystems, later to the depletion of the ozone layer and especially to the increasing greenhouse effect with climate change that will change the conditions for nature and mankind on the entire globe. The possibilities to study these large scale phenomena have been greatly enhanced by the development of electronic computers that can handle large data sets and calculate various scenarios. All these processes take place in the thin layer of gases around the Earth, the atmosphere. Although the abatement is often restricted to a single aspect, they are often connected and should when possible be treated as whole.

  15. How the world survived the population bomb: lessons from 50 years of extraordinary demographic history.

    PubMed

    Lam, David

    2011-11-01

    The world population will reach 7 billion in late 2011, a demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This article looks at the last 50 years of demographic change, one of the most extraordinary periods in demographic history. During this period, world population grew at rates that have never been seen before and will almost surely never be seen again. There were many concerns about the potential impact of rapid population growth in the 1960s, including mass starvation in countries such as India, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased poverty in low-income countries. The actual experience was very different. World food production increased faster than world population in every decade since the 1960s, resource prices fell during most of the period, and poverty declined significantly in much of the developing world. The article considers the economic and demographic explanations for the surprising successes of this important period in demographic history. It also looks at regions that have been less successful, especially Africa, and at the lessons for dealing with the important challenges that still remain. PMID:22005884

  16. Occupational Exposure to Hydrazine and Subsequent Risk of Lung Cancer: 50-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joan K.; Wald, Nicholas J.; Springett, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hydrazine is carcinogenic in animals, but there is inadequate evidence to determine if it is carcinogenic in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the association between hydrazine exposure and the risk of lung cancer. Methods The cause specific mortality rates of a cohort of 427 men who were employed at an English factory that produced hydrazine between 1945 and 1971 were compared with national mortality rates. Results By the end of December 2012 205 deaths had occurred. For men in the highest exposure category with greater than two years exposure and after more than ten years since first exposure the relative risks compared with national rates were: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18–2.48) for lung cancer, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.07–2.21) for cancers of the digestive system, and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.05–1.57) for other cancers. Conclusions After 50 years of follow up, the results provide no evidence of an increased risk of death from lung cancer or death from any other cause. PMID:26394402

  17. Influenza Vaccine-Induced CNS Demyelination in a 50-Year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    Sacheli, Aaron; Bauer, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 50 Final Diagnosis: Acute post-vaccination CNS demyelinating disorder Symptoms: Blurred vision • hemiparesis • hemiplegia • hypertonia • itching • paresthesia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: MRI Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: There are several categories of primary inflammatory demyelinating disorders, which comprise clinically similar neurologic sequelae. Of interest, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are 2 demyelinating conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), whose clinical similarity pose a significant challenge to definitive diagnosis. Yet, both remain important clinical considerations in patients with neurologic signs and symptoms in the context of recent vaccination. Case Report: We report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian male with a course of progressive, focal, neurologic deficits within 24 h after receiving the influenza vaccine. Subsequent work-up revealed the possibility of an acute central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating episode secondary to the influenza vaccine, best described as either CIS or ADEM. Conclusions: Case reports of CNS demyelination following vaccinations have been previously noted, most often occurring in the context of recent influenza vaccination. This report serves to document a case of CNS demyelination occurring 24 h after influenza vaccination in a middle-aged patient, and will describe some salient features regarding the differential diagnosis of CIS and ADEM, as well as their potential management. PMID:25175754

  18. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's (CCAS) Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast that began with the Bumper rockets. At left is artist Darlene Egli who designed the 50th anniversary logo next to her. On stage, from left to right, are Lt. Col. Randall K. Horn, Commander, CCAS; Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  19. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's (CCAS) Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast that began with the Bumper rockets. At right, Norris Gray, a Bumper Program veteran, unveils a street sign that will be used to mark the road leading to the launch complex from which Bumper was launched. Seen on the stage are, left to right, Lt. Col. Randall K. Horn (at the podium), Commander, CCAS; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. Also present (but not seen) is Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  20. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's (CCAS) Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast that began with the Bumper rockets. At left is Jim Thompson, who is with CCAS. Unveiling the 50th anniversary logo at left is the artist Darlene Egli. On stage, from left to right, are Lt. Col. Randall K. Horn, Commander, CCAS; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. Also present (but not seen) is Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  1. Aerospace Coolers: A 50-Year Quest for Long-Life Cryogenic Cooling in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G.

    Cryogenic temperatures are critical to allow infrared, gamma-ray and X-ray detectors to operate with low background noise and high sensitivity. As a result, the world's aerospace industry has long dreamed of having the means for multiyear cryogenic cooling in space to enable long-life sensors of various forms for scientific, missile defense, and reconnaissance observations. Not long after the first Sputnik was launched into space in October 1957, engineers and scientists were actively seeking means of providing cryogenic cooling for evermore sophisticated and sensitive detectors in a variety of spectral regions. Although both passive cryoradiators and stored cryogens have provided a source of cryogenic cooling for many missions, the consistent dream of scientists and mission planners was always for a mechanical refrigerator that could achieve the temperatures of the coldest cryogens (vastly colder than possible with passive radiators) and have multiyear life without the finite life limitations of stored cryogens. The first cryocoolers in space were short-life Joule-Thomson and Stirling cryocoolers flown on both US and USSR missions around 1970. Since that time, extensive research and development of evermore sophisticated cryocoolers (Stirling, Vuilleumier, Brayton, magnetic, sorption, and pulse tube) has taken place in the world's aerospace industry. This chapter examines the enormous progress made by the aerospace industry over the past 50 years in developing both cryostats and cryocoolers to enable the widespread use of cryogenic temperatures in space.

  2. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  3. The Demoiselle of X-Inactivation: 50 Years Old and As Trendy and Mesmerising As Ever

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Céline; Avner, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In humans, sexual dimorphism is associated with the presence of two X chromosomes in the female, whereas males possess only one X and a small and largely degenerate Y chromosome. How do men cope with having only a single X chromosome given that virtually all other chromosomal monosomies are lethal? Ironically, or even typically many might say, women and more generally female mammals contribute most to the job by shutting down one of their two X chromosomes at random. This phenomenon, called X-inactivation, was originally described some 50 years ago by Mary Lyon and has captivated an increasing number of scientists ever since. The fascination arose in part from the realisation that the inactive X corresponded to a dense heterochromatin mass called the “Barr body” whose number varied with the number of Xs within the nucleus and from the many intellectual questions that this raised: How does the cell count the X chromosomes in the nucleus and inactivate all Xs except one? What kind of molecular mechanisms are able to trigger such a profound, chromosome-wide metamorphosis? When is X-inactivation initiated? How is it transmitted to daughter cells and how is it reset during gametogenesis? This review retraces some of the crucial findings, which have led to our current understanding of a biological process that was initially considered as an exception completely distinct from conventional regulatory systems but is now viewed as a paradigm “par excellence” for epigenetic regulation. PMID:21811421

  4. Polio Patients in Northern Italy, a 50 Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bertolasi, L.; Danese, A; Monaco, S; Turri, M; Borg, K; Werhagen, L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poliomyelitis was before the immunization an important medical problem. Nowadays polio prior patients (PP) suffer from polio sequelae or have developed post-polio-syndrome (PPS) with increasing paresis, pain and fatigue. Objectives: To analyze the medical situation 50 years after acute polio. The degree of paresis was compared between the recovery 1952-1961 and 2012.The prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for PPS was estimated Method: The study was performed in Italy. Included were PP with rehabilitation after acute polio 1952-1961 and in 2012. During the years PP underwent yearly evaluation. A thorough neurological examination was performed in 2012. A telephone interview with questions concerning pain, paresis, fatigue, walking aids and concomitant diseases was performed in 2012. The patients were divided in two groups, if they fulfilled the criteria for PPS or not. Results: Included were 67(94%) patients receiving rehabilitation after acute poliomyelitis and 2012. 78% were walkers, half of the PPS used wheelchair. Eight out of ten suffered from pain. Four out of ten fulfilled the PPS criteria. Pain was slightly more common in PPS. Conclusion: Female gender, fatigue and wheelchair dependency were significantly more common in PPS while pain was common in both groups.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography of the Brain-50 Years of Innovation, With a Focus on the Future.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M; Aoki, Shigeki; Bradley, William G; Chang, Kee-Hyun; Essig, Marco; Ma, Lin; Ross, Jeffrey S; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-09-01

    This review focuses specifically on the developments in brain imaging, as opposed to the spine, and specifically conventional, clinical, cross-sectional imaging, looking primarily at advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). These fields are viewed from a perspective of landmark publications in the last 50 years and subsequently more in depth using sentinel publications from the last 5 years. It is also written from a personal perspective, with the authors having witnessed the evolution of both fields from their initial clinical introduction to their current state. Both CT and MRI have made tremendous advances during this time, regarding not only sensitivity and spatial resolution, but also in terms of the speed of image acquisition. Advances in CT in recent years have focused in part on reduced radiation dose, an important topic for the years to come. Magnetic resonance imaging has seen the development of a plethora of scan techniques, with marked superiority to CT in terms of tissue contrast due to the many parameters that can be assessed, and their intrinsic sensitivity. Future advances in MRI for clinical practice will likely focus both on new acquisition techniques that offer advances in speed and resolution, for example, simultaneous multislice imaging and data sparsity, and on standardization and further automation of image acquisition and analysis. Functional imaging techniques including specifically perfusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging will be further integrated into the workflow to provide pathophysiologic information that influence differential diagnosis, assist treatment decision and planning, and identify and follow treatment-related changes.

  6. Commitment Tracking System (CTS)

    2009-08-07

    The CTS enables the identification and management of compliance actions and issues originating from multiple sources. CTS also possesses search capabilities enabling quick identification of upcoming commitments while providing a method of documenting and maintaining completion dates and compliance information when a commitment is met.

  7. The integration of science and politics to clean up 50 years in the nuclear sandbox

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.E.; Holeman, T.

    1999-07-01

    The Cold War was fought between world superpowers for approximately 40 years from the end of the second World War until the end of the 1980s. During that time, the US government devoted billions of dollars to the development and production of nuclear weapons. Now the Cold War is over and the US is left with numerous nuclear weapons factories, stockpiles of nuclear materials, and mountains of waste to decontaminate and decommission. In the heat of the Cold War, little or no thought was given to how the facilities building bombs would be dismantled. Far too little attention was paid to the potential human health and environmental impact of the weapons production. Now, dozens of communities across the country face the problems this negligence created. In many cases, the location, extent, and characteristics of the waste and contamination are unknown, due to negligence or due to intentional hiding of waste and associated problems. Water supplies are contaminated and threatened; air quality is degraded and threatened; workers and residents risk contamination and health impacts; entire communities risk disaster from potential nuclear catastrophe. The US government, in the form of the US Department of Energy (DOE), now accepts responsibility for creating and cleaning up the mess. But it is the local communities, the home towns of the bomb factories and laboratories, that carry a significant share of the burden of inventing the science and politics required to clean up 50 years in the nuclear sandbox. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of the local community in addressing the cleanup of the US nuclear weapons complex. Local governments do not own nor are responsible for the environmental aftermath, but remain the perpetual neighbor to the facility, the hometown of workers, and long-term caretaker of the off-site impacts of the on-site contamination and health risks.

  8. Southern Alpine floods of the last 50 years recorded in the sediment record from Lago Maggiore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, L.; Brauer, A.; Guilizzoni, P.; Lami, A.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency of extreme floods is increasingly discussed under meteorological and anthropogenic forcing aspects because of their potentially disastrous consequences. Existing hydrological and meteorological instrumental data are, however, limited to rather short time scales. Records of natural geoarchives like lacustrine sediments, in contrast, reach much further back in time and reflect climate changes and environmental processes. In particular, extreme floods give an imprint to lake sediment records. The sediment loaded stream enters the lake water and eventually is deposited as a detrital layer. Here we present a multicore study from Pallanza Basin in the western part of Lago Maggiore. Major detrital layers are triggered mainly by flooding events of the Toce River. Through microfacies analyses of petrographic thin-sections and high-resolution element scanning techniques several detrital layers have been identified and correlated to historical flood events of the last 50 years. For this time interval fifteen flood event layers have been identified in the sediment record. Their thicknesses range from 0.5 to more than 15 mm. Noticeable is a rise of flooding events in the 1970s, which might be related to a change in atmospheric circulation patterns as documented in the NAO index. Comparison of these detrital layers in different cores allowed reconstructing their spatial distribution within the Pallanza Basin. Two detrital layers are clearly not related to regional floods but were generated by local slope failure or debris flows. This work is combined with studies of biological remains and pigment analyses, proving evidence of historical changes in the trophic state, pollution and climate history of the lake. Overall a comprehensive reconstruction of anthropogenic and climatic changes to Lake Maggiore for the last five decades is shown.

  9. Spatiotemporal variations of precipitation extremes of China during the past 50 years (1960-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiaoxiao; Yin, Zhan'e.; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Yuke

    2016-05-01

    Extreme weather events have become more frequent and intense under global warming in recent years, which has attracted much attention of scholars at home and abroad. In this paper, we used data sets of daily precipitation recorded at 499 meteorological stations to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation extremes in China over the past 50 years (1960-2009). Through the comparison of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the percentile method, DFA was selected to define the thresholds of precipitation extremes in China. Temporal variations of extreme precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity were analyzed in four major regions: Northwest China, the Qinghai-Tibet region, North China, and South China. Spatial distributions were obtained by the Kriging interpolation method, and then, we examined the varying tendencies of extreme precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity by the Mann-Kendall test. The results show that increasing trends are dominant for all indices over China; extreme precipitation amount and frequency appear to have risen since 1970-1979, but there are some regional differences. The Qinghai-Tibet region and South China have an ascending trend, and Northwest China maintains balance while North China has a descending trend. The amount and intensity of precipitation extremes are decreasing from southeastern coastal areas to northwestern inlands, and the frequency of precipitation extremes is randomly distributed. However, they are all high in the Sichuan Basin, the middle and lower Yangtze River, and the southern part of South China. Trends of most stations are statistically insignificant, but the percentage of stations with a significant increased trend in the Qinghai-Tibet region is larger than that of other regions.

  10. Discovering the 50 Years of Solar System Exploration: Sharing Your Science with the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Halligan, E.; Boonstra, D.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.; Zimmerman Brachman, R.

    2012-10-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers ways for scientists to bring NASA’s science discoveries to their audiences! YSS and the continuing salute to the 50-year history of solar system exploration provide an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system for educators and the general public. During the last five decades, NASA has launched a variety of robotic spacecraft to study our solar system. Over that time, our understanding of planets has been revolutionized, as has the technology that has made these discoveries possible.Looking forward, the numerous ongoing and future robotic missions are returning new discoveries of our solar system at an unprecedented rate. YSS combines the discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of the ongoing missions and connects them to related topics based on the big questions of planetary science, including solar system formation, volcanism, ice, and possible life elsewhere. Planetary scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS in a variety of ways: - Give a talk at a local museum, planetarium, library, or school to share YSS and your research - Partner with a local educational institution to organize a night sky viewing or mission milestone community event - Work with a classroom teacher to explore one of the topics with students - Connect with a planetary science E/PO professional to identify ways to participate, like creating podcasts,vodcasts, or contributing to monthly topics - Share your ideas for events and activities with the planetaryE/PO community to identify partners and pathways for distribution - And more! Promotional and educational materials, updates, a calendar of activities, and a space to share experiences are available at NASA’s Solar System website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. This is an exciting time in planetary sciences as we learn about New Worlds and make New Discoveries!

  11. Sequential Imaging of Earth by Astronauts: 50 Years of Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, astronauts have collected sequential imagery of the Earth. In fact, the collection of astronaut photography comprises one of the earliest sets of data (1961 to present) available to scientists to study the regional context of the Earth s surface and how it changes. While today s availability of global high resolution satellite imagery enables anyone with an internet connection to examine specific features on the Earth s surface with a regional context, historical satellite imagery adds another dimension (time) that provides researchers and students insight about the features and processes of a region. For example, one of the geographic areas with the longest length of record contained within the astronaut photography database is the lower Nile River. The database contains images that document the flooding of Lake Nasser (an analog to today s flooding behind China s Three Gorges Dam), the changing levels of Lake Nasser s water with multiyear cycles of flood and drought, the recent flooding and drying of the Toshka Lakes, as well as urban growth, changes in agriculture and coastal subsidence. The imagery database allows investigations using different time scales (hours to decades) and spatial scales (resolutions and fields of view) as variables. To continue the imagery collection, the astronauts on the International Space Station are trained to understand basic the Earth Sciences and look for and photograph major events such as tropical storms, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, and document landscapes undergoing change (e.g., coastal systems, cities, changing forest cover). We present examples of selected sequences of astronaut imagery that illustrate the interdependence of geological processes, climate cycles, human geography and development, and prompt additional questions about the underlying elements of change.

  12. Gait patterns in a community-dwelling population aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, V J A; van der Geest, J N; Hoogendam, Y Y; Hofman, A; Breteler, M M B; Ikram, M A

    2013-04-01

    Poor gait is an important risk factor for falls and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. It is well established that older age is associated with worse gait, but it remains unclear at what age this association is first seen. Moreover, previous studies focused mainly on normal walking, but gait also encompasses turning and tandem walking. In a large study of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons we investigated the association of age with gait, focusing on normal walking, turning and tandem walking. In 1500 persons aged 50 years and over, we measured gait using an electronic walkway. Participants performed normal walks, turning and a tandem walk. With principal components analysis of 30 variables we summarized gait into five known gait factors: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace and Base of Support; and uncovered two novel gait factors: Tandem and Turning. The strongest associations with age were found for Variability (difference in Z-score -0.29 per 10 years increase (95% confidence interval: -0.34; -0.24)), Phases (-0.31 per 10 years (-0.36; -0.27)) and Tandem (-0.25 per 10 years (-0.30; -0.20)). Additionally, these factors already showed association with the youngest age groups, from 55 to 60 years of age and older. Our study shows that Variability, Phases and Tandem have the strongest association with age and are the earliest to demonstrate a poorer gait pattern with higher age. Future research should further investigate how these gait factors relate with gait-related diseases in their earliest stages.

  13. Physical growth and development of the malnourished child: contributions from 50 years of research at INCAP.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews the main findings and policy implications of 50 years (1949-1999) of research conducted by INCAP on growth and development. Topical areas reviewed include a) maternal size and birthweight and the causes of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), b) patterns and causes of postnatal growth retardation, c) the relative importance of genetics and the environment in explaining differences in growth among populations, d) the implications of being small, for both children and adults, e) bone growth and maturation and dental development, f) menarche, and g) methodological contributions such as anthropometric reference data, quality control of data collection, development of risk indicators and use of anthropometry in nutrition surveillance systems. Key contributions to knowledge by INCAP include a) characterization of growth failure and maturational delays as mainly occurring during the intrauterine period and the first 3 years of life b) clarification of the role of small maternal size and of inadequate dietary intakes during pregnancy as major causes of intrauterine growth failure, c) evidence that diarrheal diseases and poor dietary intakes are the principal causes of growth failure in early childhood, d) demonstration that environmental factors related to poverty, and not genetic or racial ancestry, account for most of the differences in growth between populations, e) evidence that growth failure predicts functional impairment in the child as well as in the adult andf) demonstration that nutrition interventions are effective in preventing growth failure and its consequences, if targeted to needy women and young children. INCAP's work has contributed knowledge that has informed and improved policies and programs aimed at overcoming maternal and child undernutrition and promoting optimal growth and development.

  14. Oscillation of an Anuran Hybrid Zone: Morphological Evidence Spanning 50 Years

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jean-Sébastien; O’Connor, David; Green, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The hybrid zone between the primarily forest-dwelling American toad, Anaxyrus americanus, and the prairie-adapted Canadian toad, A. hemiophrys, in southeastern Manitoba is known to have shifted its position during the past 50 years. Hybrid zones are areas of interbreeding between species and their movement across a landscape should reflect their underlying dynamics and environmental change. However, empirical demonstrations of hybrid zone movements over long periods of time are rare. This hybrid zone is dominated by individuals of intermediate morphology and genetic composition. We sought to determine if it had continued to move and if that movement was associated with shifts in habitat, as predicted. Methodology/Principle Findings We used variation in the toads’ most diagnostic morphological feature, the separation between their interorbital cranial crests, to determine the geographic position of the hybrid zone center at four times between 1960 and 2009 using maximum likelihood methods. The hybrid zone center moved west by 38 km over 19 years and then east again by 10 km over the succeeding 29 years. The position of the hybrid zone did not track either the direction or the magnitude of movement of the forest-prairie habitat transition over the same time period. Conclusions/Significance This is the first reported evidence of oscillation in the position of a hybrid zone. The back and forth movement indicates that neither species maintains a selective advantage over the other in the long term. However, the movement of the hybrid zone was not bounded by the breadth of the habitat transition. Its oscillation suggests that the hybrid zone is better described as being elastically tethered to the habitat transition. PMID:23300785

  15. Watershed-scale Evapotranspiration Changed Little over 50 years of Agricultural Land Abandonment in Southern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, S. K.; Hussain, M. Z.; Lowrie, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The difference between precipitation and stream discharge over annual periods provides an indication of the total water loss to evaporation and evapotranspiration. The response of evaporative water loss to land cover change affects groundwater recharge, stream flow, and lake levels. This study examined the watershed water balance for Augusta Creek, which drains a 95-km2 glacial landscape in southwestern Michigan covered by cropland, grassland, forest, and wetlands. The climate is humid and temperate; between 1964-2014 the water-year precipitation averaged 948 mm and ranged from 695-1386 mm with no temporal trend. Over the study period the percentage of land in agriculture has decreased to about a third of its original extent, with abandoned lands gradually transitioning from old fields to woody vegetation. Comparison of precipitation on the upland watershed to baseflow discharge (USGS data; baseflow estimation by WHAT model) across the 50-year record shows that total evaporative water loss averaged 563 + 103 mm and ranged from 385-897 mm, with no apparent trend over the record. The evaporative water loss accounts for a mean + s.d. of 59 + 6% of precipitation (range, 48-70%). Evaporative water loss was positively related to total precipitation (r2 = 0.74. These results are interpreted using a Budyko plot framework to facilitate comparison with other settings. This water balance approach to infer evaporative water loss compares well with direct measurements in the same watershed since 2009 using eddy covariance (grasslands and crops) and soil moisture monitoring by time-domain reflectometry (grasslands, crops, and forest). Thus the evaporative water loss, which is predominantly by evapotranspiration, has been remarkably similar across a period of changing land cover, leaving a relatively consistent proportion for groundwater recharge and streamflow.

  16. Increase in observed net carbon dioxide uptake by land and oceans during the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, A P; Alden, C B; Miller, J B; Tans, P P; White, J W C

    2012-08-01

    One of the greatest sources of uncertainty for future climate predictions is the response of the global carbon cycle to climate change. Although approximately one-half of total CO(2) emissions is at present taken up by combined land and ocean carbon reservoirs, models predict a decline in future carbon uptake by these reservoirs, resulting in a positive carbon-climate feedback. Several recent studies suggest that rates of carbon uptake by the land and ocean have remained constant or declined in recent decades. Other work, however, has called into question the reported decline. Here we use global-scale atmospheric CO(2) measurements, CO(2) emission inventories and their full range of uncertainties to calculate changes in global CO(2) sources and sinks during the past 50 years. Our mass balance analysis shows that net global carbon uptake has increased significantly by about 0.05 billion tonnes of carbon per year and that global carbon uptake doubled, from 2.4 ± 0.8 to 5.0 ± 0.9 billion tonnes per year, between 1960 and 2010. Therefore, it is very unlikely that both land and ocean carbon sinks have decreased on a global scale. Since 1959, approximately 350 billion tonnes of carbon have been emitted by humans to the atmosphere, of which about 55 per cent has moved into the land and oceans. Thus, identifying the mechanisms and locations responsible for increasing global carbon uptake remains a critical challenge in constraining the modern global carbon budget and predicting future carbon-climate interactions.

  17. The Charles F. Prentice Award Lecture 2014: A 50-Year Research Journey: Giants and Great Collaborators.

    PubMed

    Holden, Brien A

    2015-07-01

    This article, an edited version of the 2014 Charles F. Prentice Medal presentation, recounts my 50-year journey in research, from graduation in 1965 to PhD to 2015. The most important lessons I have learned are that great people, "Giants" as I call them, are generous of spirit, creative, insightful, sharing, and caring, and second, that collaboration is really the only way to do what I want to get done. I have been very fortunate to have worked with many outstanding people. As someone said to me at the Prentice Medal presentation, "I don't like you very much but the people you work with are wonderful."My journey started with a PhD investigation into seeing if orthokeratology could control myopia at the City University London in 1966. It then moved to Australia where all aspects of contact lenses were researched to try to make contact lenses safer and more effective by understanding the cornea and anterior eye systems. That journey has now turned to making contact lenses the best they can be to slow the progress of myopia. An extremely high proportion of people who are involved with global eye care initiatives and ambitious projects to develop treatments and interventions for the major vision problems impacting the world are a joy to work with. Evidence-based systems for delivering vision to the more than 600 million people globally that are blind or vision impaired because of uncorrected refractive error have involved amazing people and collaborations. This article pays tribute to the generosity and humanity of my family and the Giants in and outside the field, and many more not so well known, and the people I work with, who have punctuated and greatly enriched this journey and made many of the scientific advances documented here possible.

  18. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  19. Significant warming of continental West Antarctica in the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steig, E. J.; Schneider, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    We use statistical climate field reconstruction techniques to determine monthly temperature anomalies for the near-surface of the Antarctic ice sheet since 1957. Two independent data sets are used to provide estimates of the spatial covariance patterns of temperature: automatic weather stations and thermal infrared satellite observations. Quality-controlled data from occupied instrumental weather stations are used to determine the amplitude of changes in those covariance patterns through time. We use a modified principal component analyses technique (Steig et al., in review, Nature) to optimize the combination of spatial and temporal information. Verification statistics obtained from subsets of the data demonstrate the resulting reconstructions represent improvements relative to climatological mean values. We find that significant warming has occurred over most of continental West Antarctica. This is an area much larger than previously reported; most studies have concluded that warming is limited to the Antarctic Peninsula. An updated version of the recent temperature reconstruction of Monaghan et al. (2008, JGR) independently confirms our results. Warming in continental West Antarctica in the last 50 years exceeds 0.1 °C/decade, and is strongest in Spring. A possible explanation is an increase in storms in the Amundsen-Bellinghausen sea, resulting in enhanced warm air fluxes to the continent. Increased storminess in this sector is associated with the positive phase of the zonal wave-3 pattern, which independent observations suggest has increased since the 1970s (Raphael, GRL, 2004). The substantial negative sea ice anomalies in the Amundsen-Bellinghausen sea may also play a role. Our results suggest that changes in the wave-3 pattern dominates over (possibly anthropogenic) changes in the Southern Annular Mode in explaining recent Antarctic temperature variability.

  20. Morphological changes of silver and bighead carp in the Yangtze River over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

    2010-12-01

    Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze 30 morphometrical characteristics of 121 one-year-old juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) bred during the 1950s ("the former population") and 2008 ("the current population") and collected from the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The average discriminant accuracies of the former and current silver and bighead carp population were 94.2% and 98.0%, respectively. Discriminant analysis also revealed that significant differences in morphology occurred between the former and current populations of both carp in overall characteristics. One-way analysis of variance indicated that between former and current populations, silver carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in twelve of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics, while bighead carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in eight of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics. Six head morphology variables of the current silver and bighead carp were significantly or highly significantly larger than the former populations; fourteen characteristics of silver carp and ten characteristics of bighead carp of the current populations, mainly reflecting truck and tail morphology, were significantly or very significantly smaller than the former populations. Our results indicate that silver and bighead carp have developed a larger head and smaller truck and tail during the last 50 years. Due to such morphological changes, it seems apparent that the heads of these fish species need to be considered in regards to human diets, particularly in relation to economic and nutritious value. PMID:21174356

  1. The Charles F. Prentice Award Lecture 2014: A 50-Year Research Journey: Giants and Great Collaborators.

    PubMed

    Holden, Brien A

    2015-07-01

    This article, an edited version of the 2014 Charles F. Prentice Medal presentation, recounts my 50-year journey in research, from graduation in 1965 to PhD to 2015. The most important lessons I have learned are that great people, "Giants" as I call them, are generous of spirit, creative, insightful, sharing, and caring, and second, that collaboration is really the only way to do what I want to get done. I have been very fortunate to have worked with many outstanding people. As someone said to me at the Prentice Medal presentation, "I don't like you very much but the people you work with are wonderful."My journey started with a PhD investigation into seeing if orthokeratology could control myopia at the City University London in 1966. It then moved to Australia where all aspects of contact lenses were researched to try to make contact lenses safer and more effective by understanding the cornea and anterior eye systems. That journey has now turned to making contact lenses the best they can be to slow the progress of myopia. An extremely high proportion of people who are involved with global eye care initiatives and ambitious projects to develop treatments and interventions for the major vision problems impacting the world are a joy to work with. Evidence-based systems for delivering vision to the more than 600 million people globally that are blind or vision impaired because of uncorrected refractive error have involved amazing people and collaborations. This article pays tribute to the generosity and humanity of my family and the Giants in and outside the field, and many more not so well known, and the people I work with, who have punctuated and greatly enriched this journey and made many of the scientific advances documented here possible. PMID:26002010

  2. Increase in observed net carbon dioxide uptake by land and oceans during the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, A P; Alden, C B; Miller, J B; Tans, P P; White, J W C

    2012-08-01

    One of the greatest sources of uncertainty for future climate predictions is the response of the global carbon cycle to climate change. Although approximately one-half of total CO(2) emissions is at present taken up by combined land and ocean carbon reservoirs, models predict a decline in future carbon uptake by these reservoirs, resulting in a positive carbon-climate feedback. Several recent studies suggest that rates of carbon uptake by the land and ocean have remained constant or declined in recent decades. Other work, however, has called into question the reported decline. Here we use global-scale atmospheric CO(2) measurements, CO(2) emission inventories and their full range of uncertainties to calculate changes in global CO(2) sources and sinks during the past 50 years. Our mass balance analysis shows that net global carbon uptake has increased significantly by about 0.05 billion tonnes of carbon per year and that global carbon uptake doubled, from 2.4 ± 0.8 to 5.0 ± 0.9 billion tonnes per year, between 1960 and 2010. Therefore, it is very unlikely that both land and ocean carbon sinks have decreased on a global scale. Since 1959, approximately 350 billion tonnes of carbon have been emitted by humans to the atmosphere, of which about 55 per cent has moved into the land and oceans. Thus, identifying the mechanisms and locations responsible for increasing global carbon uptake remains a critical challenge in constraining the modern global carbon budget and predicting future carbon-climate interactions. PMID:22859203

  3. Managing by commitments.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N

    2003-06-01

    What makes a great manager great? Despite differences in their personal attributes, successful managers all excel in the making, honoring, and remaking of commitments. Managerial commitments take many forms, from capital investments to personnel decisions to public statements, but each exerts both immediate and enduring influence on a company. A leader's commitments shape a business's identity, define its strengths and weaknesses, establish its opportunities and limitations, and set its direction. Executives can all too easily forget that commitments are extraordinarily powerful. Caught up in the present, managers often take actions that, while beneficial in the near term, impose lasting constraints on their operations and organizations. When market or competitive conditions change, they can find themselves unable to respond effectively. Managers who understand the nature and power of their commitments can wield them more effectively throughout a company's life cycle. Entrepreneurs can avoid taking actions that imprint a new venture with a dysfunctional character. Managers in established enterprises can buttress past commitments that retain their currency and learn to recognize when commitments have become roadblocks to needed changes. The manager can then replace those roadblocks with new, rejuvenating commitments. That doesn't mean you should try to anticipate all the long-run consequences of every commitment--and it certainly doesn't mean you should shy away from making commitments. But it does mean that before making important decisions about, say, operating processes or partnerships, you should always ask yourself: Is this a process or relationship that we can live with in the future? Am I locking us into a course that we'll come to regret?

  4. Who are the "committed"?

    PubMed

    Tomelleri, C J; Lakshminarayanan, N; Herjanic, M

    1977-10-01

    A record review of patients who were committed by the court during the course of a hospitalization at an acute urban facility was carried out. Court-committed patients represented 4% of total patients admitted during a 2-year period. Black patients and patients over the age of 70 were more likely to reach the stage of a court hearing and be committed. Schizophrenia was the most frequent diagnosis, being present in well over one half of court-committed patients. Approximately one third of the patients had a hospital stay exceeding 3 months, and transfer to a long term inpatient program occurred significantly more often among court-committed patients as compared to the rest of the hospitalized population. The majority of court-committed patients were eventually returned to the community; about one fifth were placed in intermediate facilities such as boarding or nursing homes. When legal status of previous and subsequent hospitalizations of this sample of court-committed patients was examined, a clear predominance of uncomplicated voluntary hospitalization became apparent. PMID:908928

  5. Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2015-07-17

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and Bob each split into several agents exchanging classical information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. In this Letter we first revisit a previously proposed scheme [C. Crépeau et al., Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 7073, 407 (2011)] that realizes bit commitment using only classical communication. We prove that the protocol is secure against quantum adversaries for a duration limited by the light-speed communication time between the locations of the agents. We then propose a novel multiround scheme based on finite-field arithmetic that extends the commitment time beyond this limit, and we prove its security against classical attacks. Finally, we present an implementation of these protocols using dedicated hardware and we demonstrate a 2 ms-long bit commitment over a distance of 131 km. By positioning the agents on antipodal points on the surface of Earth, the commitment time could possibly be extended to 212 ms.

  6. The Astrophysical r-Process 50 Years after B{sup 2}FH

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, K.-L.; Pfeiffer, B.; Farouqi, K.; Mashonkina, L. I.

    2008-01-24

    Since the historical papers by Burbidge et al. and Cameron 50 years ago, it is generally accepted that half of the chemical elements above Fe are formed in explosive stellar scenarios by a rapid neutron-capture process (the classical ''r-process''). Already from their essential ideas, it became clear that a correct modelling of this nucleosynthesis process requires both, the knowledge of various nuclear properties very far from stability and a detailed description of the astrophysical environments. However, it took about three decades, until in 1986 the first experimental nuclear-physics data on the neutron-magic r-isotopes {sup 80}Zn and {sup 130}Cd could be obtained, which act as key ''waiting points'' in the respective A{approx_equal}80 and 130 peaks of the Solar-System (SS) r-abundances (N{sub r,{center_dot}}). Since then, using steadily improved nuclear data, we have optimized our r-process calculations to reproduce the present observables of the isotopic N{sub r,{center_dot}} ''residuals'', as well as the more recent elemental abundances in ultra-metal-poor, r-process-enriched halo stars. Concerning the latter observations, we support the basic idea about two different types of r-processes. Based on our many years' experience with the site-independent ''waiting-point approach'', we recently have extended our studies to fully dynamical network calculations for the most likely astrophysical r-process scenario, i.e. the high-entropy wind (HEW) of core-collapse type II supernovae (SN II). Again, an excellent reproduction of all observables for the ''main'' r-process has been achieved. However, a major difference is the nucleosynthesis origin of the lighter heavy elements in the 29{<=}Z{<=}45 mass region. Here, the HEW model predicts-instead of a ''weak'' neutron-capture r-process component-a primary rapid charged-particle process. This may explain the recent observations of a non-correlation of these elements with the heavier ''main'' r-process elements.

  7. Building on 50 Years of Systems Engineering Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul K.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States (US) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair lunar lander, as well as the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Shuttle's propulsion elements and is managing the design and development of the Ares rockets, along with a host of other engineering assignments in the field of scientific space exploration. Specifically, the Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate houses the skilled workforce and unique facilities needed to build capable systems upon the foundation laid by the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle programs. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level testing activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural

  8. Effects of thinning intensities on transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Pinus koraeinsis stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juhan; Kim, Taekyu; Moon, Minkyu; Cho, Sungsik; Ryu, Daun; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of thinning intensities on stand transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Korean pine forests for two years. Forest thinning, which removes some fraction of trees from stand, is widely conducted for reducing competition between remaining trees, improving tree productivity, reducing the risk of natural fire, and thus maintaining healthy forest. Forest thinning alters the microclimatic conditions such as radiation distribution within canopy, vapor pressure deficit, and amount of available soil water. These changes influence on the tree water use, and related productivity. Thinning was conducted on March, 2012 with two intensities (Control, Light-thinning (20%), and Heavy-thinning (40% of tree density)). Transpiration was estimated from sap flux density, which was measured with Granier-type thermal dissipation sensors. Tree diameter growth was measured with dendrometer, and converted to tree productivity using allometric equations developed specifically in our study sites. The climatic conditions showed little differences between two years. During the first growing season after thinning, stand transpiration was ca. 20% and 42% lower on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively, even though sap flux density were higher in thinned stand. The difference in stand transpiration among treatments showed seasonal trends, so it was larger on summer when soil moisture was abundant due to monsoon, but was diminished on spring and autumn when soil moisture was limited. Tree-level productivity increased ca. 8% and 21% on light-thinning and heavy thinning stand, respectively. However, stand net primary production was ca. 20% lower on light-thinning stand, and ca. 31% on heavy-thinning stand. As a result, water use efficiency increased only in heavy-thinning stand. During the second growing season after thinning, stand transpiration was ca. 19% lower on light-thinning stand, and ca. 37% lower on heavy-thinning stand. The reduction

  9. Effects of thinning intensities on transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Pinus koraeinsis stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kim, T.; Cho, S.; Ryu, D.; Moon, M.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of thinning intensities on stand transpiration and productivity of 50-year-old Korean pine forests for three years. Forest thinning, which remove some fraction of trees from stand, alters the microclimatic conditions such as radiation distribution within canopy, vapor pressure deficit, and amount of available soil water. These changes influence on the tree water use, and related tree growth. Thinning was conducted on March, 2012 with two intensities (Control, Light-thinning, and Heavy-thinning). Transpiration was estimated from sap flux density, which was measured with Granier-type thermal dissipation sensors. Tree diameter growth was measured with dendrometer, and converted to tree productivity using allometric equations developed specifically in our study sites.The climatic conditions showed remarkable differences among three years. In 2012, total precipitation was highest but spring was dry. 2013 was normal year with frequent rain events. In contrast, 2014 was hot and extremely dry. Stand transpiration was initially decreased ca. 20% and 42% on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. In second year, it gradually recovered in both thinning intensities, and was 19% and 37% lower on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. However, the recovery trends were different between two thinning intensities. Transpiration of heavy-thinning stand was recovered slowly than that of light thinning stand. In 2014, heavy-thinning stand transpired ca. 5% more than control plot in early growing season, but severe drought had negative effects that caused reduction of stand transpiration in thinned stand on late growing season. The tree-level productivity was increased initially ca. 24% and 28% on light-thinning and heavy-thinning stand, respectively. During the following growing seasons, this thinning-induced enhancement of productivity was diminished in light-thinning stand (21% in 2013 and 20% in 2014), but was

  10. EDITORIAL: International Conference on Finite Fermionic Systems: Nilsson Model 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    In 1955 Sven Gösta Nilsson published the paper `Binding States of Individual Nucleons in Strongly Deformed Nuclei'. This eminent work has been crucial for the understanding of the structure of deformed atomic nuclei. Moreover, the so-called Nilsson model has been widely used for the description of other types of finite systems of fermions such as quantum dots and cold fermionic atoms. During one week in June 2005 we celebrated in Lund the 50th anniversary of the Nilsson model with the International Conference on Finite Fermionic Systems - Nilsson Model 50 Years. With the historical view in mind, the conference focused on present and future problems in nuclear structure physics as well as on the physics of other types of finite Fermi systems. As a background to the recent developments Nobel Laureate Ben Mottelson presented a recollection of early applications and achievements of the Nilsson model in the first talk of the conference, including a personal view of Sven Gösta Nilsson. We are particularly pleased that this contribution could be included in these proceedings. The scientific programme was structured according to the following subjects: Shell structure and deformations The heaviest elements and beyond Nuclei far from stability Pairing correlations Nuclear spectroscopy: large deformations Nuclear spectroscopy: rotational states Order and chaos Cold fermionic atoms Quantum dots Many new and interesting results were presented in the 15 invited talks, 30 oral contributions, and in the 33 papers of the poster sessions. The present volume of Physica Scripta contains most of the talks, as well as the short contributions of the posters. We thank the speakers and all participants who actively contributed to give this memorable conference a very high scientific level in the presented contributions, as well as in numerous discussions inside and outside the sessions. We also thank the international advisory committee for their invaluable work in helping us setting up

  11. Unit commitment literature synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Sheble, G.B. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Fahd, G.N. )

    1994-02-01

    Several optimization techniques have been applied to the solution of the thermal unit commitment problem. They range from heuristics such as complete enumeration to the more sophisticated ones such as Augmented LaGrangian. The heuristics have even reappeared as expert systems. The problem to solve is the optimal scheduling of generating units over a short-term horizon, typically 168 hours. This paper is an overview of the literature in the unit commitment field over the past twenty five years.

  12. PREFACE: 50 years in science: Alejandro Szanto de Toledo (2045-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    During the XXXVII RTFNB 2014, we had the pleasure to organize a tribute to Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo to commemorate his 50 years of dedication to nuclear physics. Named ''Alexfest'', it gathered friends and very prominent physicists from around the world that came to Brazil specially to render a tribute to Alex, as many friends and colleagues called him. During the whole afternoon, the invited speakers presented some of the physics topics and important contributions that Alex gave to the field of nuclear physics during his five decades of intense work. Alex is the responsible for several landmarks in the Brazilian nuclear science, especially in the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo (IFUSP), where he spent almost his entire career. He started his professional life in the IFUSP Van de Graaf Laboratory, under Oscar Sala's supervision as an undergraduate student. His talent allowed him to give significant contributions to the machine operation since the beginning of his internship in the laboratory. He soon became the responsible for the development, construction and implementation of an ion source for the new Pelletron accelerator, project coordinated by Oscar Sala as well. This was a huge responsibility for a young master degree student. His PhD thesis was about nuclear fusion, a topic that he mastered during his career. His international reputation allowed him to become a visiting researcher at several laboratories in the US, France, Japan, Russia and Germany. Not satisfied with the challenges that his career was imposing to him, Alex pioneered the creation of a high-energy nuclear physics group in Brazil, becoming member of the STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At Rhic) collaboration in 1995, one of the two major experiments of the RHIC accelerator (Relativistic heavy Ion Collider), located in the Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA. Later on, in 2006, he also led his group to become part of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment ALICE (A

  13. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 4). Post World War II 50 years].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    A short history of the pharmaceutical science and technology, postwar 50 years is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. Japan's postwar rehabilitation, Japanese pharmaceutical industries and newly developed pharmaceutical sciences and technologies. In 1945, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry was reconstructed. Production of penicillin was carried out with the strong support of the U.S. Occupation Forces. New sciences in pharmacy (biochemistry, biopharmacy, pharmacology, microbiology, physical chemistry, etc.) were introduced in this period. 2. Introduction age of foreign new drugs and technology (1951 to 1960s). Japan gained independence in 1951. Japanese pharmaceutical companies imported many new drugs and new pharmaceutical technologies from the U.S.A. and European countries in this period. Then, these companies were reconstruction rapidly. However, consequently Japanese pharmaceutical companies were formed as an imitation industry. 3. Rapid economic growth period for pharmaceutical companies (1956 to 1970s). In this period, many Japanese pharmaceutical companies grew rapidly at an annual rate of 15-20% over a period of 15 years, especially with regard to the production of active vitamin B1 analog drugs and some OTC (public health drugs). Some major companies made large profits, which were used to construct research facilities. 4. Problems for the harmful effects of medicines and its ethical responsibility. In the 1970s, many public toxic and harmful effects of medicines were caused, especially SMON's disease. In this time, many pharmaceutical companies changed to its security got development of ethical drugs. 5. Self development of new drugs and administration of pharmaceutical rules (1970s). During the 1970s, many pharmaceutical laws (GLP, GCP, GMP, GPMSP etc.) were enacted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In 1976, the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law was revised, which set forth standards regarding the efficacy and safety of

  14. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    original 4 Mm3. Having a reduced access to water resources, most of the farms during the 90's moved to more efficient water uses (drip irrigation) to save crops from leaf burns or switched to less-water-demanding, but less profitable crops. As a consequence, less competitive areas in the production-distribution chain suffered aquifer' salinisation and were progressively abandoned. As far as drinking water supply, the area is facing water scarcity during the summer period; desalination plants are planned. In one of the plain the water utility pumps out salinised groundwater that is then desalinized with an obvious increase in energy consumption. Although water management needs have grown during the last 50 years and several studies outlined the importance of planning this resource, conflicts among stakeholders and political issues make such problems of difficult solution. Today large dam building seems to be quite unreliable both because of the construction time and the financial issues related. At the same time feasible projects, driven also by innovative and more profitable agricultural development, call for wastewater reuse and artificial aquifer recharge starting at least from pilot tests in priority areas.

  15. Predicting fire activity in the US over the next 50 years using new IPCC climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is an integral part of the Earth system with both direct and indirect effects on terrestrial ecosystems, the atmosphere, and human societies (Bowman et al. 2009). Climate conditions regulate fire activities through a variety of ways, e.g., influencing the conditions for ignition and fire spread, changing vegetation growth and decay and thus the accumulation of fuels for combustion (Arora and Boer 2005). Our recent study disclosed the burned area (BA) in US is strongly correlated with potential evaporation (PE), a measurement of climatic dryness derived from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) climate data (Morton et al. 2012). The correlation varies spatially and temporally. With regard to fire of peak fire seasons, Northwestern US, Great Plains and Alaska have the strongest BA/PE relationship. Using the recently released the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) Version 3 (van der Werf et al. 2010), we showed increasing BA in the last decade in most of NCA regions. Longer time series of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) (Eidenshink et al. 2007) data showed the increasing trends occurred in all NCA regions from 1984 to 2010. This relationship between BA and PE provides us the basis to predict the future fire activities in the projected climate conditions. In this study, we build spatially explicit predictors using the historic PE/BA relationship. PE from 2011 to 2060 is calculated from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and the historic PE/BA relationship is then used to estimate BA. This study examines the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of the future US fires driven by new climate predictions for the next 50 years. Reference: Arora, V.K., & Boer, G.J. (2005). Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 110 Bowman, D.M.J.S., Balch, J.K., Artaxo, P., Bond, W.J., Carlson, J.M., Cochrane, M.A., D

  16. Necessity of Periodic Ophthalmological Examinations in Binocular B Class Driving Licence Holders Over 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ali; Öktem, Çağlar; Karabıçak Acer, Ayşe; Kocamış, Özkan; Taşdemir, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether binocular B class driving licence (BBCDL) holders over 50 years old are in compliance with the BBCDL criteria for visual acuity, to determine the age-based prevalence of ophthalmological disorders reducing visual acuity in this group, and to investigate whether periodic ophthalmological examinations are needed in licence holders over 50 years of age. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 451 adults over 50 years old having a BBCDL. The study subjects were categorized into 3 age groups as group 1 (51-60 years), group 2 (61-70 years), and group 3 (over 71 years). Results: The mean age of the subjects was 60.02±7.27 years; 338 (74.9%) were male and 113 (25.1%) were female. The BBCDL criteria were met by 353 (78.3%) subjects whereas 98 (21.7%) subjects did not meet them. Eighty-four (85.7%) of 98 patients not meeting BBCDL criteria still drove. The mean age of the subjects meeting BBCDL criteria (58.82±6.77 years) was significantly lower than the subjects not meeting them (64.34±7.40 years) (p<0.001). The most common pathologies in the individuals still driving despite not meeting BBCDL criteria were senile cataract (38.5%) and diabetic retinopathy (23.1%) in group 1, senile cataract (55.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (14.9%) in group 2, and senile cataract (63.6%) and senile macular degeneration+senile cataract (18.2%) in group 3. Conclusion: More than a fifth of individuals over 50 years old did not meet the BBCDL criteria, due predominantly to senile cataract, and the majority of these individuals continue to drive. Therefore, we believe that individuals over 50 years old who have a BBCDL should undergo periodic ophthalmological examinations.

  17. CTS. Commitment Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Stucki, F.K.

    1992-06-01

    CTS is a micro based prototype of the data elements, screens, and information processing rules that apply to the Commitment and Non-compliance Tracking Program. The system is focused on the non-compliance or commitment. When some group is out of compliance they need a way of tracking that occurrence. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the non-compliance Event. Additionally, the system must provide data integrity. This is done through a set up of tables and data validation.

  18. Dose assessment during complex meteorology in the Texas panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Schalk, W.W. III; Foster, K.

    1989-06-01

    Recently the opportunity arose to perform a radiological assessment during complex meteorological conditions in the panhandle region of Texas. The complex conditions consisted of the formation of an occluded front from a trof and its passage from the southwest, a southwest to northeast trof formation northwest of the assessment point, an area of low pressure centered to the west, and severe thunderstorms at the assessment time at and near the study region while under watch box notification. Most of these features can be seen on the 17 May 89 surface analysis. The assessment included a normalized release rate of tritiated water vapor in which the 50 year committed effective whole body integrated air dose plots were compared over time. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Commitment to Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Renilde

    1995-01-01

    This reprint from a 1985 issue of "The NAMTA Journal" discusses the ideas of Maria Montessori and Erich Fromm in relation to world peace and the role of education in promoting peace. Also examines the nature of conflict, war, and peace, and the need to commit oneself to peace. (MDM)

  20. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  1. Can changes in the distribution of lizard species over the past 50 years be attributed to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed changes in the distributions of nine lizard species in China over the past 50 years and identified whether these changes could be attributed to climate change. Long-term records of lizard distributions, grey relational analysis, fuzzy set classification techniques, and attribution methods were used. The distribution of nearly half of the lizard species primarily shifted northward, westward, or eastward since the 1970s, and most changes were related to the thermal index. In response to climate change over the past 50 years, the distribution boundary and center of some species have mainly shifted northward, westward, or eastward, with some irregular shifting during the process. The observed and predicted changes in distribution were highly consistent for some lizard species. The changes in the northern and eastern distribution limits of nearly half of the lizard species and the western limits and distribution centers of several species can be attributed to climate change.

  2. From controlled to committed.

    PubMed

    Hess, J C

    1996-02-01

    Most of us agree that people are our most important resource. Yet we spend a minimal amount of time learning more about human behavior, communication, and how our attitudes and behavior impact employee performance. Instead we rely on traditional methods of negative reinforcement in an attempt to control our areas of responsibility. While these methods can render some short-term success, managers and organizations that succeed during these times of change and fierce competition will be those that take the time to understand and capture the power of a committed workforce. The committed workforce is energized, not simply compliant, as a result of having basic human needs for achievement satisfied, belonging to a group, and receiving recognition for its contributions. Committed workers typically describe the manager as one who has the ability to give them a great degree of control over their area of influence. We all know that we don't change our leadership style like we change clothes. Old habits die hard. it takes a personal commitment and lots of practice to rid outselves of habits and behavior that no longer serve our departments and facilities. This commitment, however, is crucial to survival. As managers, we must cope with increasing ambiguity and uncertainty in the workplace. To survive these challenges, we must improve our interpersonal skills and ability to successfully bring out the best in others. I believe that success will continue for managers who not only increase their knowledge and technical ability, but who also inspire their workers to move forward with a collective sense of enthusiasm and purpose. PMID:10154218

  3. From controlled to committed.

    PubMed

    Hess, J C

    1996-02-01

    Most of us agree that people are our most important resource. Yet we spend a minimal amount of time learning more about human behavior, communication, and how our attitudes and behavior impact employee performance. Instead we rely on traditional methods of negative reinforcement in an attempt to control our areas of responsibility. While these methods can render some short-term success, managers and organizations that succeed during these times of change and fierce competition will be those that take the time to understand and capture the power of a committed workforce. The committed workforce is energized, not simply compliant, as a result of having basic human needs for achievement satisfied, belonging to a group, and receiving recognition for its contributions. Committed workers typically describe the manager as one who has the ability to give them a great degree of control over their area of influence. We all know that we don't change our leadership style like we change clothes. Old habits die hard. it takes a personal commitment and lots of practice to rid outselves of habits and behavior that no longer serve our departments and facilities. This commitment, however, is crucial to survival. As managers, we must cope with increasing ambiguity and uncertainty in the workplace. To survive these challenges, we must improve our interpersonal skills and ability to successfully bring out the best in others. I believe that success will continue for managers who not only increase their knowledge and technical ability, but who also inspire their workers to move forward with a collective sense of enthusiasm and purpose.

  4. The Spectrum of Optic Disc Ischemia in Patients Younger than 50 Years (An Amercian Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Anthony C.; Costa, Roberta M. S.; Dumitrascu, Oana M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the spectrum of clinical and fluorescein angiographic features of optic disc ischemia in patients younger than 50 years. Methods: This retrospective comparative case series from a university consultative neuro-ophthalmology practice consisted of two phases. The first compared 108 cases of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in patients younger than 50 years (NAIONy) to a cohort of 108 cases in patients 50 years or older (NAIONo). Predisposing risk factors, fluorescein angiographic features, and clinical course were compared. In the second phase, 12 cases of diabetic papillopathy under age 50 were assessed by fluorescein angiographic criteria for evidence of optic disc ischemia and compared to patients with NAIONy. Results: NAIONy comprised 108 (12.7%) of 848 NAION cases reviewed. Chronic renal failure with dialysis and migraine were more common in NAIONy. Fellow eye involvement rate was significantly higher for NAIONy patients (46/108, 42.6%) than for NAIONo patients (32/108, 29.6%). Fluorescein angiographic features of ischemia were documented in 44 (81.5%) of 54 eyes studied. In one case, these features were documented in pre-NAION edema. Diabetic papillopathy demonstrated delayed filling consistent with ischemia in 7 of 10 (70.0%), without significant visual field loss. Conclusions: Ischemic optic neuropathy in patients younger than 50 years is not rare. Fellow eye involvement is more frequent in younger patients. Fluorescein angiography confirmation of impaired perfusion in multiple syndromes of optic neuropathy corroborates a spectrum of optic disc ischemia ranging from perfusion delay without visual loss to severely impaired perfusion and visual loss and incorporates optic neuropathies previously considered nonischemic. PMID:24167327

  5. Exogenous ochronosis After Prolonged Use of Topical Hydroquinone (2%) in a 50-Year-Old Indian Female.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Vijay; Verma, Prashant; Naik, Geetanjali

    2012-09-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterized by speckled and diffuse pigmentation symmetrically over the face, neck, and photo-exposed areas. It is characterized histologically by banana-shaped ochre-colored deposits in the dermis. It can present in exogenous or endogenous form. We report a case of exogenous ochronosis in a 50-year-old Indian woman after prolonged use of topical hydroquinone which is a rare complication with a commonly used drug which is available over the counter. PMID:23112363

  6. Detecting and Attributing the Effects of Climate Change on the Distributions of Snake Species Over the Past 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the distributions of snakes have changed in association with climate change over the past years. We detected the distribution changes of snakes over the past 50 years and determined whether the changes could be attributed to recent climate change in China. Long-term records of the distribution of nine snake species in China, grey relationship analysis, fuzzy sets classification techniques, the consistency index, and attributed methods were used. Over the past 50 years, the distributions of snake species have changed in multiple directions, primarily shifting northwards, and most of the changes were related to the thermal index. Driven by climatic factors over the past 50 years, the distribution boundary and distribution centers of some species changed with the fluctuations. The observed and predicted changes in distribution were highly consistent for some snake species. The changes in the northern limits of distributions of nearly half of the species, as well as the southern and eastern limits, and the distribution centers of some snake species can be attributed to climate change.

  7. Detecting and Attributing the Effects of Climate Change on the Distributions of Snake Species Over the Past 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the distributions of snakes have changed in association with climate change over the past years. We detected the distribution changes of snakes over the past 50 years and determined whether the changes could be attributed to recent climate change in China. Long-term records of the distribution of nine snake species in China, grey relationship analysis, fuzzy sets classification techniques, the consistency index, and attributed methods were used. Over the past 50 years, the distributions of snake species have changed in multiple directions, primarily shifting northwards, and most of the changes were related to the thermal index. Driven by climatic factors over the past 50 years, the distribution boundary and distribution centers of some species changed with the fluctuations. The observed and predicted changes in distribution were highly consistent for some snake species. The changes in the northern limits of distributions of nearly half of the species, as well as the southern and eastern limits, and the distribution centers of some snake species can be attributed to climate change.

  8. Utility of urine cytology in evaluating hematuria with sonographically suspected bladder lesion in patients older than 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Mady, Hussam Eldin Helmy; Omar, Abd Alhady Mohammad; Elgammal, Mohamed Abd-Alla; Ibrahim, Ghada Hosny Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate the utility of urine cytology (UC) in patients older than 50 years with hematuria and sonographically suspected bladder lesion. Patients and Methods: Between April 2010 and June 2012, 152 patients above 50 years suffering from hematuria were included in this study. In all patients, ultrasound revealed a lesion suspected to be bladder cancer. Voided urine specimens were taken from all patients and transported to Pathology laboratory and processed within 1-3 h. All patients have undergone a cystoscopy examination and biopsy was taken from any suspicious lesion. The cytological diagnosis was reported as one of three categories, positive or negative or suspicious for malignancy. Results: One hundred thirty three (87.5%) patients in this study proved to have bladder carcinoma in histopathological examination. The sensitivity of UC was 53.4% and only five patients were suspicious. Percentage of positive cytology was highest among patients having gross hematuria (51.3%), posterior wall lesions (75%), papillonodular configuration (81.8%), invasive cancer (59.1%) and bilharzial affection (52.5%). Conclusion: Hematuria in patients older than 50 years with sonographically suspected bladder lesion mandates cystoscopy and biopsy. UC does not add more significant information in this group of patients. PMID:25125893

  9. AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk1

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; de Sá, Laísa Ribeiro; de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2014-01-01

    Objective to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over. Method population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS) of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010. Results during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%), mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation); and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state. Conclusion aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group. PMID:25029044

  10. Determination of committed effective doses to skin due to ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ²²²Rn from the application of various Moroccan black soap (Saboun Beldi) samples by members of the general public.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Outeqablit, K

    2010-12-01

    (238)U, (232)Th, (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentrations were measured inside various Moroccan black soap samples widely used by the Moroccan population in traditional baths (Hammans) by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors. The measured (238)U, (232)Th, (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentrations, respectively, ranged from (3.7 ± 0.2) to (11.7 ± 0.7) mBq kg(-1), (0.11 ± 0.01) to (0.32 ± 0.02) mBq kg(-1), (3.8 ± 0.2) to (11.6 ± 0.6) Bq kg(-1) and (0.10 ± 0.01) to (0.31 ± 0.02) Bq kg(-1) for the Moroccan black soap samples studied. The influence of pollution on the concentrations of these radionuclides inside the considered Moroccan black soap was investigated. A new dosimetric model for evaluating annual committed effective doses due to (238)U, (232)Th and (222)Rn to the skin of different age groups of the Moroccan populations from the application of the black soap samples studied was developed. The maximum total committed effective dose to the skin due to (238)U, (232)Th and (222)Rn from the application of unpolluted black soap samples 20 min per week by the Moroccan populations was found to be equal to (0.88 ± 0.05) μ Sv y(-1) cm(-2).

  11. Celebrating 50 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansdottir, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

  12. 50 Years: Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narlesky, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…

  13. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stonehouse, Welma; Wycherley, Thomas; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Taylor, Pennie; Brinkworth, Grant; Riley, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18–50-year-old. Methods: RCTs ≥ 4 weeks comparing the effect of dairy consumption (whole food or supplements) with control diets lower in dairy during energy restriction on body weight, fat and lean mass were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Cochrane Central and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) until March 2016. Reports were identified and critically appraised in duplicate. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Chi2- and I2-statistics indicated heterogeneity. Dose effect was assessed using meta-regression analysis. GRADE guidelines were used to rate the quality (QR) of the evidence considering risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias and effect estimates. Results: 27 RCTs were reviewed. Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20–84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (−1.16 kg [−1.66, −0.66 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 11%, QR = high, n = 644) and body fat mass (−1.49 kg [−2.06, −0.92 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 21%, n = 521, QR = high) were found in studies largely including women (90% women). These effects were absent in studies that imposed resistance training (QR = low-moderate). Dairy intake resulted in smaller loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I2 = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate). No between study dose-response effects were seen. Conclusions: Increased dairy intake as part of energy restricted diets resulted in greater loss in bodyweight and fat mass while attenuating lean mass loss in 18–50-year-old adults. Further research in males is needed to investigate sex effects. PMID:27376321

  14. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    PubMed

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics. PMID:19780367

  15. Psychological Predictors of Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors Among Men Over 50 Years of Age in Hamadan: Perceived Threat and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Majid; Amirzargar, Mohammad Ali; Bashirian, Saeed; Kafami, Vahid; Mousali, Amir Abbas; Moeini, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide and is the second most lethal cancer. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate psychological predictors of prostate cancer screening behaviors among men over 50 years of age in Hamadan. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 men over 50 years of age in Hamadan, west of Iran. Participants were recruited with a cluster sampling method. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, prostate cancer screening behaviors and psychological factors related to prostate cancer. Data was analyzed by SPSS-18 using chi-square, fisher exact test, and logestic regression. Results According to the results, 8.5 and 7.5 percent of participants reported history of digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen test, respectively. Also, the subjects reported 18.5%, 49.3% and 50.3% of receivable scores of knowledge, perceived threat, and perceived efficacy of prostate cancer screening behaviors, respectively. There was a significant association between prostate cancer screening behaviors and age groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that providing analytical studies in this field helps to surface the hidden aspects of this context and the health care providers and administrators will hopefully consider them in planning for identification of psychological factors, such as barriers and facilitators factors.

  16. The use of Zostavax in Spain: the economic case for vaccination of individuals aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Belmonte, Juan Luis; Cisterna, Ramón; Gil de Miguel, Angel; Guilmet, Caroline; Bianic, Florence; Uhart, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    Background Population aging brings up a number of health issues, one of which is an increased incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) and its complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Zostavax vaccine has recently become available to prevent HZ and PHN. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of vaccination against HZ in Spain considering a vaccination of the population aged 50 years and older and comparing this to the current situation where no vaccination is being administered. Methods An existing, validated, and published economic model was adapted to Spain using relevant local input parameters and costs from 2013. Results Vaccinating 30% of the Spanish population aged 50 years and older resulted in €16,577/QALY gained, €2025/HZ case avoided, and €5594/PHN case avoided under the third-party payer perspective. From a societal perspective, the ICERs increased by 6%, due to the higher price of the vaccine. The number needed to vaccinate to prevent one case was 20 for HZ, and 63 for PHN3. Sensitivity analyses showed that the model was most sensitive to the HZ and PHN epidemiological data, the health state utilities values, and vaccine price used. Conclusion Considering an acceptable range of cost-effectiveness of €30,000-€50,000 per QALY gained, vaccination of the 50+ population in Spain against HZ with a new vaccine, Zostavax, is cost-effective and makes good use of the valuable healthcare budget. PMID:26808422

  17. No increases in the rate of undescended testis in Hungary during the last 50 years: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Stelios; Ács, Nándor; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    Undescended testis (cryptorchidism) is a common structural birth defect, i.e. congenital abnormality of the male genital organs and increasing trend in its birth prevalence was reported in some countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the recorded annual birth prevalence of isolated undescended testis (IUT) in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry for the period between 1962 and 2011, i.e. during the last 50 years. Cases with IUT reported after births were evaluated, and their annual rate per 1000 live-births was calculated. The rates of cases with IUT were compared with the so-called true rate of IUT measured in a previous clinical-epidemiological study based on the personal examination of 10,203 newborn infants. The birth prevalence of cases with recorded IUT in Hungary was lower than expected based on the true rate of IUT. Thus the two waves in the rate of IUT were connected with the different completeness of reporting. In conclusion the birth prevalence of cases with IUT in Hungary did not indicate a real increasing trend during the last 50 years.

  18. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR ON ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS UNDER 50 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhão; de Souza, Adriano; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries among patients under 50 years of age. Methods: Sixty-three patients with rotator cuff injuries who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment performed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in the Fernandinho Simonsen wing of Santa Casa Medical School, São Paulo, between August 1998 and December 2007, were reassessed. The study included all patients with rotator cuff injuries who were under 50 years of age and had been followed up postoperatively for at least 24 months. Results: According to the UCLA evaluation criteria, 59 patients (92%) showed excellent and good results; five (8%) showed fair results; and none showed poor results. The postoperative evaluation showed that the mean range of motion was 145° for elevation, 47° for lateral rotation and T10 for medial rotation. Unsatisfactory results were associated with prolonged duration of the injury, with a statistically significant relationship. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in young patients produces excellent or good results for most patients. PMID:27047819

  19. Towards an evidence-based management of right iliac fossa pain in the over 50-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Gammeri, E; Catton, A; van Duren, B H; Appleton, S G; van Boxel, G I

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Right iliac fossa pain is a common presenting complaint to general surgery. The differential diagnosis is wide, particularly in the elderly. Computed tomography (CT) is often used in the 'older' population, as they have a higher prevalence of acute colonic diverticulitis and colonic neoplasia, both of which should be identified prior to surgery. There is, however, no published evidence to support this practice. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients aged over 50 years who presented with right iliac fossa (RIF) pain to a district general hospital. We determined whether tenderness was predominantly right- or left-sided and whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was present on admission. The use of imaging modalities, their results and, if performed, operative findings were recorded. Results Of 3160 patients identified, 89 met the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses included appendicitis (27%), neoplasia (15%), non-specific abdominal pain (15%) and acute colonic diverticulitis (10%). CT was performed in 82% of patients, with a sensitivity of 97% based on operative findings. Six patients underwent surgery without a scan, two of whom required a change in the planned procedure due to unexpected findings. Conclusions Unless contraindicated, CT scanning should be mandatory in patients aged over 50 years presenting with signs of peritonism in the RIF or lower abdomen. PMID:27269436

  20. Myeloma in patients younger than age 50 years presents with more favorable features and shows better survival: an analysis of 10 549 patients from the International Myeloma Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Durie, Brian G. M.; Bolejack, Vanessa; Turesson, Ingemar; Kyle, Robert A.; Blade, Joan; Fonseca, Rafael; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; San Miguel, Jesus; Westin, Jan; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Beksac, Meral; Boccadoro, Mario; Palumbo, Antonio; Barlogie, Bart; Shustik, Chaim; Cavo, Michele; Greipp, Philip R.; Joshua, Douglas; Attal, Michel; Sonneveld, Pieter; Crowley, John

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the presenting features and survival in 1689 patients with multiple myeloma aged younger than 50 years compared with 8860 patients 50 years of age and older. Of the total 10 549 patients, 7765 received conventional therapy and 2784 received high-dose therapy. Young patients were more frequently male, had more favorable features such as low International Staging System (ISS) and Durie-Salmon stage as well as less frequently adverse prognostic factors including high C-reactive protein (CRP), low hemoglobin, increased serum creatinine, and poor performance status. Survival was significantly longer in young patients (median, 5.2 years vs 3.7 years; P < .001) both after conventional (median, 4.5 years vs 3.3 years; P < .001) or high-dose therapy (median, 7.5 years vs 5.7 years; P = .04). The 10-year survival rate was 19% after conventional therapy and 43% after high-dose therapy in young patients, and 8% and 29%, respectively, in older patients. Multivariate analysis revealed age as an independent risk factor during conventional therapy, but not after autologous transplantation. A total of 5 of the 10 independent risk factors identified for conventional therapy were also relevant for autologous transplantation. After adjusting for normal mortality, lower ISS stage and other favorable prognostic features seem to account for the significantly longer survival of young patients with multiple myeloma with age remaining a risk factor during conventional therapy. PMID:18268097

  1. [50 years of the Revista de Biologia Tropical: its contribution to the development of the Geo-Paleontology].

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Teresita

    2002-06-01

    The geosciences contribution along the 50 years of the Revista de Biología Tropical had been scarcity and episodic. Until now there are 2374 papers but only 21 (0.88%) have some relation with geological sciences. It's possible to recognize two periods with geological contributions, one between 1963 and 1978. It's appropriate to underline the importance of the biologist L. D. Gómez with his contributions about Costa Rican Paleobotanic in this period. The other period includes from 1988 to the present, and it's typified by an increase of biologist and geologist participation in different topics regarding with geosciences. Foreign and national researches are in the same ratio and belong from several countries like Costa Rica, México and Dominican Republic. The subjects are concerning mainly about fossil taxonomy (Paleontology: 81%), only 19% are related with geological topics. Such distribution could be explained because the affinity between the fossil studies and the biological sciences.

  2. Changes in management and outcomes for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes over the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the 50 years from 1964 to 2014, outcomes for children with type 1 diabetes have improved significantly, because of both technological advancements and changes in management philosophy. For the child with type 1 diabetes in 2014, intensive management with multiple daily injections or insulin pump therapy and the support of a specialist multidisciplinary team is now standard care. The main treatment goal is no longer the avoidance of hypoglycaemia, but the minimisation of hyperglycaemia and glucose variability, thereby reducing the risk of microvascular complications. However, the inherent burden of care and diligence required by patients and families, if they are to maintain optimal diabetes control, have not changed and may even have increased. While the long sought-after cure for diabetes remains elusive, artificial pancreas or closed-loop systems hold the most promise for improving the burden of care in the near term for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25529223

  3. Size of coarse woody debris 5 years after girdling and removal treatments in 50-year-old Loblolly PIne Plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M. Boyd

    2004-01-01

    PP 108 -113 in: Connor, Kristina F., ed. 2004. Proceedings of the 12th biennial southern silvicultural research conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS71. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 594 p. Abstract: In 1996, a study began at Savannah River Site to investigate large-scale replicated forest areas to control coarse woody debris for integrated biodiversity objectives. Research design was a randomized complete block with four treatments replicated in four blocks, resulting in 16 plots. The treatments applied to 50-year-old loblolly pine stands were (1) control, (2) girdling of 25 percent of trees to create catastrophic simulation, (3) annual removal of down woody debris > 10 cm in diameter, and (4) annual removal of both standing and down woody debris > 10 cm in diameter. The study tracks coarse woody debris recruitment and loading, rates of decomposition, and effects on the forest ecosystem.

  4. Angiosarcoma of the of scalp with calvarium involvement in a 50-year-old African-American man.

    PubMed Central

    Obeng, Michael K.; Hernandez, Ambrosia; Dastgir, Amer; Adegboyega, Patrick A.; Salinas, Paul; Gore, Dennis C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma of the scalp is a rare, aggressive, and deadly cancer that affects mainly elderly Caucasian men. OBJECTIVES: The insidious and masquerading presentation of angiosarcoma poses enormous diagnostic challenges for primary care providers. PATIENTS/METHODS: We present a case of a 50-year-old black man referred for evaluation of a 3.7-cm-x-5.4-cm ulcerated, fluctuant scalp lesion that had failed to respond to different antibiotics and proper wound care. RESULTS: Surgical excision and subsequent histopathology revealed angiosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the importance of high index of suspicion for early diagnosis of cancerous lesions in wounds and stresses the need to include angiosarcoma in the differential diagnosis for all face and scalp lesions, as early detection may save lives. A comprehensive literature review is also presented. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:15586656

  5. 50 year trends in nitrogen use efficiency of world cropping systems: the relationship between yield and nitrogen input to cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Grizzetti, Bruna; Anglade, Juliette; Garnier, Josette

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) is crucial for crop productivity. However, nowadays more than half of the N added to cropland is lost to the environment, wasting the resource, producing threats to air, water, soil and biodiversity, and generating greenhouse gas emissions. Based on FAO data, we have reconstructed the trajectory followed, in the past 50 years, by 124 countries in terms of crop yield and total nitrogen inputs to cropland (manure, synthetic fertilizer, symbiotic fixation and atmospheric deposition). During the last five decades, the response of agricultural systems to increased nitrogen fertilization has evolved differently in the different world countries. While some countries have improved their agro-environmental performances, in others the increased fertilization has produced low agronomical benefits and higher environmental losses. Our data also suggest that, in general, those countries using a higher proportion of N inputs from symbiotic N fixation rather than from synthetic fertilizer have a better N use efficiency.

  6. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  7. Long-term variation analysis of a tropical river's annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyam, Mohammed; Othman, Faridah

    2015-07-01

    Studying the long-term changes of streamflow is an important tool for enhancing water resource and river system planning, design, and management. The aim of this work is to identify the long-term variations in annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010 in the Selangor River, which is one of the main tropical rivers in Malaysia. Initially, the data underwent preliminary independence, normality, and homogeneity testing using the Pearson correlation coefficient and Shapiro-Wilk and Pettitt's tests, respectively. The work includes a study and analysis of the changes through nine variables describing the annual streamflow and variations in the yearly duration of high and low streamflows. The analyses were conducted via two time scales: yearly and sub-periodic. The sub-periods were obtained by segmenting the 50 years into seven sub-periods by two techniques, namely the change-point test and direct method. Even though analysis revealed nearly negligible changes in mean annual flow over the study period, the maximum annual flow generally increased while the minimum annual flow significantly decreased with respect to time. It was also observed that the variables describing the dispersion in streamflow continually increased with respect to time. An obvious increase was detected in the yearly duration of danger level of streamflow, a slight increase was noted in the yearly duration of warning and alert levels, and a slight decrease in the yearly duration of low streamflow was found. The perceived changes validate the existence of long-term changes in annual streamflow regime, which increase the probability of floods and droughts occurring in future. In light of the results, attention should be drawn to developing water resource management and flood protection plans in order to avert the harmful effects potentially resulting from the expected changes in annual streamflow regime.

  8. [50 years of connective tissue research: from the French Connective Tissue Club to the French Society of Extracellular Matrix Biology].

    PubMed

    Maquart, François-Xavier; Borel, Jacques-Paul

    2012-01-01

    The history of connective tissue research began in the late 18th century. However, it is only 50 years later that the concept of connective tissue was shaped. It took another fifty years before biochemical knowledge of extracellular matrix macromolecules began to emerge in the first half of the 20th century. In 1962, thanks to Ladislas and Barbara Robert, back from the US, the first society called "French Connective Tissue Club" was created in Paris. The first board was constituted of Albert Delaunay, Suzanne Bazin and Ladislas Robert. Very quickly, under the influence of these pioneers, national and international meetings were organized and, in 1967, a "Federation of the European Connective Tissue Clubs" was created at the initiative of Ladislas Robert (Paris) and John Scott (Manchester). It spread rapidly to the major European nations. In 1982 the transformation of "Clubs" in "Societies" occurred, a name more in line with the requirements of the time. In 2008, the "French Connective Tissue Society" became the "French Society of Extracellular Matrix Biology" ("Société Française de Biologie de la Matrice Extracellulaire", SFBMEc), to better highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in the biology of living organisms. The SFBMEc's mission today is to promote and develop scientific exchanges between academic, industrial, and hospital laboratories involved in research on the extracellular matrix. SFBMEc organizes or subsidizes scientific meetings and awards scholarships to Ph.D. students or post-docs to participate in international conferences. It includes 200 to 250 members from different disciplines, developing strong interactions between scientists, clinicians and pathologists. It is present all around the French territory in many research laboratories. During these last 50 years, the extraordinary advances made possible by the development of new investigation techniques, in particular molecular biology, cell and tissue imaging, molecular modeling

  9. Organizational Commitment as Symbolic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda; Morrill, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Offers a processual (sic) approach suited to the complex nature of organizational commitment during times of radical change. Emphasizes commitment as communication processes that are integrally tied to the creation of organizational cultures, involve identification via symbolic processes, and encompass various degrees of linkages between…

  10. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  11. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-10

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  12. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  13. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-10

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints. PMID:24483878

  14. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  15. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  16. Who commits matricide?

    PubMed

    Singhal, S; Dutta, A

    1992-07-01

    The authors studied sixteen men who committed matricide. Fifteen out of sixteen cases had a diagnosis of schizophrenia and the remaining patient had a diagnosis of schizophrenia with personality disorder. All were single at the time of the matricide. Data indicate an intense conflict-laden and ambivalent relationship between the majority of patients with their mothers. Thirteen out of sixteen cases described their mothers as quite domineering and demanding but the EMBU inventory revealed that the Matricidal group differed from the Control group in how tolerant they saw their parents. The sample as a whole saw mothers were more over-involved, overprotective, tolerant, affectionate, stimulating, performance-orientated and shaming. The matricidal group differed from the control group in the way they viewed the difference between mother and father on various scales, like over-involved, tolerant, affectionate and performance-orientated. The matricidal groups' mothers were found to be more over-involved, tolerant, affectionate, and fathers more abusive. Mothers in the control group were more performance-orientated. PMID:1513219

  17. Commitment to strength and conditioning: a sport commitment model perspective.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Windee M; Halupnik, Danae

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically apply the sport commitment constructs within the realm of strength and conditioning. Based on prior research in the sport domain, it was predicted that higher enjoyment, investments, benefits, and social support and lower perceived costs and attractive alternatives would predict higher commitment to strength and conditioning. With a sample of 191 intercollegiate male and female athletes, a pilot study was conducted to examine the predictors of commitment to strength and conditioning. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictors of strength and conditioning commitment were perceived investments, benefits, enjoyment, costs, and attractive alternatives. Interestingly, differences emerged between men and women regarding the most salient predictors of commitment to strength and conditioning. Gender differences also emerged with male athletes reporting higher perceptions of enjoyment, benefits, and perceived obligation to their best friend to continue strength and conditioning. These findings are important both theoretically and practically. The Sport Commitment Model may provide an avenue to gain a further insight into strength and conditioning motivation, and providing practical strategies for increasing athletes' commitment: increasing enjoyment and perceived benefits, and decreasing perceived downsides and attractive alternatives.

  18. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A.; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mahmad Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket. PMID:27447646

  19. Evaluating changes in stream fish species richness over a 50-year time-period within a landscape context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Tracy, Bryn H.; Hogue, Gabriela M.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, streams and rivers are facing a suite of pressures that alter water quality and degrade physical habitat, both of which can lead to changes in the composition and richness of fish populations. These potential changes are of particular importance in the Southeast USA, home to one of the richest stream fish assemblages in North America. Using data from 83 stream sites in North Carolina sampled in the 1960’s and the past decade, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to evaluate relationships between species richness and catchment land use and land cover (e.g., agriculture and forest cover). In addition, we examined how the rate of change in species richness over 50 years was related to catchment land use and land cover. We found a negative and positive correlation between forest land cover and agricultural land use and average species richness, respectively. After controlling for introduced species, most (66 %) stream sites showed an increase in native fish species richness, and the magnitude of the rate of increase was positively correlated to the amount of forested land cover in the catchment. Site-specific trends in species richness were not positive, on average, until the percentage forest cover in the network catchment exceeded about 55 %. These results suggest that streams with catchments that have moderate to high (>55 %) levels of forested land in upstream network catchments may be better able to increase the number of native species at a faster rate compared to less-forested catchments.

  20. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50 years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2013-05-01

    In the 50 years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to alternative forms of potent, consumer-acceptable forms of nicotine will be essential to the success of endgames. This appears to uncritically assume (1) the hardening hypothesis: that as smoking prevalence moves toward and below 10%, the remaining smokers will be mostly deeply addicted, and will be largely unable to stop smoking unless they are able to move to other forms of 'clean' nicotine addiction such as e-cigarettes and more potent forms of nicotine replacement; and (2) an overly medicalised view of smoking cessation that sees unassisted cessation as both inefficient and inhumane. In this paper, we question these assumptions. We also note that some vanguard nations which continue to experience declining smoking prevalence have long banned smokeless tobacco and non-therapeutic forms of nicotine delivery. We argue that there are potentially risky consequences of unravelling such bans when history suggests that large-scale cessation is demonstrably possible.

  1. Prognostic features of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes aged < 50 years: update of a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Finsinger, Paola; Loglisci, Giuseppina; Santopietro, Michelina; Salaroli, Adriano; Serrao, Alessandra; Latagliata, Roberto; Volpicelli, Paola; Petrucci, Luigi; Nanni, Mauro; Alimena, Giuliana

    2012-12-01

    Fewer than 10% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are younger than 50 years. A series of 91 younger patients (median age 44 years with female prevalence) are reported and compared with elderly patients. Frequent karyotypic changes were trisomy 8 (9.8%) and monosomy 7 (5%). Twenty-three patients had occupational exposure to potential mutagens (benzene and solvents), with a male predominance, higher frequency of refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) (52%) and higher frequency of monosomy 7 (21.7%). At a median follow-up of 72 months, 22 patients (24%) evolved to acute leukemia, with higher frequency being observed among the exposed cohort (39% vs. 19% non-exposed). Unfavorable factors for overall survival were: age > 40 years, > 5% of blasts, trilinear bone marrow involvement and intermediate-high World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) risk. The present results suggest that younger MDS could be identified as a distinct subset. For patients belonging to the low/intermediate-I risk group, due to a low transformation rate, aggressive approaches should rarely be recommended.

  2. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mahmad Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket. PMID:27447646

  3. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining.

  4. Behavior, knowledge and perception of risks about sexually transmitted diseases in a group of people over 50 years old.

    PubMed

    Olivi, Magali; Santana, Rosangela Getirana; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2008-01-01

    The goal was to analyze the behavior, knowledge and risk perception about sexually transmitted diseases / AIDS (STD/AIDS) in people over 50 years old. 165 public servants at a State Secretary in Mato Grosso, Brazil were interviewed. The chi-square test and logistic regression tests were used for the analysis of risk perception and the behavior and knowledge variables about STD/AIDS. Most of the respondents were female (60.6%), 63.2 had a fixed partner, 72.4% had sexual relations in the past six months, and only 13.3% always wore condoms, with 21.5% being male and 8% female. Perception of risk was associated with non-use of condoms in their last sexual relation (p<0.001) and answering that anyone may acquire a STD/AIDS (p=0.039). The challenge of public policies is to increase actions, directing them to promote the health of the adult and elderly populations, especially regarding sexuality and vulnerability to STD/AIDS.

  5. Nematode diversity, abundance and community structure 50 years after the formation of the volcanic island of Surtsey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva-Makulec, K.; Bjarnadottir, B.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-10-01

    The soil nematode fauna can give important insights into soil development and other habitat changes that occur during primary succession. We investigated the generic composition, density, distribution and community structure of nematodes 50 years after the formation of a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland. Part of the island has received additional nutrient inputs from seagulls breeding there since 1985, while the reminder has been much less affected and is at present found at a different successional sere. In total, 25 genera of nematodes were identified, of which 14 were reported on Surtsey for the first time. Nematode communities were more diverse in the more infertile area outside the gull colony, where 24 genera were found, compared to 18 inside. The trophic structure of the nematode communities showed relatively higher abundance of fungal feeders in the infertile areas, but relatively more bacterial- and plant-feeders inside the colony. Nematode abundance in surface soil was, however, significantly higher within the gull colony, with 16.7 ind. cm-2 compared to 3.6 ind. cm-2 outside. A multivariate analysis indicated that the nematode abundance and distribution on Surtsey were most strongly related to the soil C : N ratio, soil acidity, plant cover and biomass, soil temperature and soil depth.

  6. 50 years return period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

    2014-08-01

    Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or on long-term applications with positive results. New standards like CENELEC EN 50341-1 (2012) take into account for the overhead line design characteristic loads, i.e. 50 years return period loads. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model as described in ISO 12494 annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a POT (Peak Over Threshold) method.

  7. How the Seven Countries Study contributed to the definition and development of the Mediterranean diet concept: a 50-year journey.

    PubMed

    Menotti, A; Puddu, P E

    2015-03-01

    The Seven Countries Study of Cardiovascular Diseases was started at the end of the 1950s and it continues to be run after >50 years. It enrolled, at entry, 16 population cohorts in eight nations of seven countries for a total of 12,763 middle-aged men. It was the prototype of epidemiological studies seeking cultural contrasts and the first to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates related to diet differences. The study has shown that populations suffer widely different incidence and mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as from other CVDs and overall mortality. Higher rates were found in North America and northern Europe, and lower rates in southern Europe - Mediterranean countries - and Japan. These differences in CHD rates were strongly associated with different levels of saturated fat consumption and average serum cholesterol levels, with lowest rates in Greece and Japan where the total fat intake was very different. The cohorts were also different in dietary patterns defined by the ratio of calories derived from plant foods and fish on the one hand and calories derived from animal foods and sugar on the other. These findings pointed to the so-called Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by large values of that plant/animal ratio, a pattern associated with lower incidence and mortality from CHD and also with the lowest death rates and the greatest survival rates. More recent studies have refined these concepts and documented on a larger scale the virtues of these eating habits. PMID:25650160

  8. Drug treatment of epilepsy in the century of the ILAE: the second 50 years, 1959-2009.

    PubMed

    Shorvon, Simon D

    2009-03-01

    The drug therapy of epilepsy evolved enormously in this 50 year period. Advances in therapeutics included the incorporation of pharmacokinetics into clinical practice, enormous advances in neurochemistry, a trend to antiepileptic drug monotherapy, better drug assessment, better understanding of therapeutic outcomes, and the recognition of the large epilepsy treatment gap in many countries. An unprecedented range of new drugs was introduced in this period. Before 1989, these included carbamazepine, valproate, ethosuximide, and the benzodiazepines. Since 1989, 13 more new drugs have been licensed and marketed and there are others in the pipeline. The International League Against Epilepsy and its leading figures have played an important role in these developments. In this period, too, there has been a rapid expansion in research and development within the pharmaceutical industry and a rise in the value of the antiepileptic drug market. In parallel, governmental regulation of pharmaceuticals has greatly increased. To what extent the overall prognosis of epilepsy has improved as a result of these activities is an interesting and perplexing question. PMID:19298435

  9. Hand grip strength and associated factors in non-institutionalised men and women 50 years and older in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence, predictors and gender differences in hand grip strength of older adults in Africa. This study aims to investigate social and health differences in hand grip strength among older adults in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 men and women aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and anthropometric measurements. Linear multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the association of social factors, health variables and grip strength. Results The mean overall hand grip strength was 37.9 kgs for men (mean age 61.1 years, SD = 9.1) and 31.5 kgs for women (mean age 62.0 years, SD = 9.7). In multivariate analysis among men, greater height, not being underweight and lower functional disability was associated with greater grip strength, and among women, greater height, better cognitive functioning, and lower functional disability were associated with greater grip strength. Conclusions Greater height and lower functional disability were found for both older South African men and women to be significantly associated with grip strength. PMID:24393403

  10. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  11. 50 years of physical growth and impressive technological advances unmatched by health human resources reform and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Scott, Graham W S

    2012-01-01

    The year 1962 was pre-medicare. The public was concerned about access and individual affordability of care. Funding involved public or private responsibility and the role of government. Physicians, the most influential providers, were concerned that government funding would result in the loss of their independence and their becoming state employees. The retrospective analysis "Looking Back 50 Years in Hospital Administration" by Graham and Sibbald is arresting as it underlines just how much progress we have made in what could be termed "hardware" in support of healthcare policy and hospital administration. From this perspective, the progress has been eye opening, given the advent of universal healthcare, the advancement in our physical facilities, the development of high-quality diagnostic equipment, the explosion of new research centres and new and complex clinical procedures. The development of this hardware has given our providers better weapons and contributed to a remarkable improvement in life expectancy. But progress in health administration and policy management involves more than hardware. If the hardware constitutes the tools, then the "software" of the healthcare system involves the human resources and the culture change that must be positioned to make maximum use of the hardware. In 2062, looking back at the 2012 experience, the legacy test may be whether we dealt with health human resources and culture change at a rate that matched our progress in hardware.

  12. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mahmad Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2016-07-20

    The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket.

  13. Estimating least-developed countries’ vulnerability to climate-related extreme events over the next 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Patt, Anthony G.; Tadross, Mark; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Asante, Kwabena; Metzger, Marc; Rafael, Jose; Goujon, Anne; Brundrit, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    When will least developed countries be most vulnerable to climate change, given the influence of projected socio-economic development? The question is important, not least because current levels of international assistance to support adaptation lag more than an order of magnitude below what analysts estimate to be needed, and scaling up support could take many years. In this paper, we examine this question using an empirically derived model of human losses to climate-related extreme events, as an indicator of vulnerability and the need for adaptation assistance. We develop a set of 50-year scenarios for these losses in one country, Mozambique, using high-resolution climate projections, and then extend the results to a sample of 23 least-developed countries. Our approach takes into account both potential changes in countries’ exposure to climatic extreme events, and socio-economic development trends that influence countries’ own adaptive capacities. Our results suggest that the effects of socio-economic development trends may begin to offset rising climate exposure in the second quarter of the century, and that it is in the period between now and then that vulnerability will rise most quickly. This implies an urgency to the need for international assistance to finance adaptation. PMID:20080585

  14. Thermal comfort and tourism climate changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Chi, Xiaoli

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the thermal comfort and its changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau over the last 50 years have been evaluated by using the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), and a more complete tourism climate picture is presented by the Climate-Tourism-Information Scheme (CTIS). The results show that PET classes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau cover six out of the nine-point thermal sensation scale — very cold, cold, cool, slightly cool, neutral and slightly warm — and cold stress is prevailing throughout the year. A small number of slightly cool/warm and neutral days occur in summer months. There occur no warm, hot and very hot days. The frequency of PET classes varies among regions, depending on their altitude/latitude conditions. Xining, Lhasa and Yushu are the top three cities in terms of thermal favorability. With global warming, annual cumulative number of thermally favorable days has been increasing, and that of cold stress has been reducing. The change is more obvious in lower elevation than that in higher elevation regions. The improving thermal comfort in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau might be a glad tiding for local communities and tourists. Besides PET, CTIS can provide a number of additional bioclimatic information related to tourism and recreational activities. CTIS for Lhasa and Xining shows that sunshine is plentiful all the year round, and windy days occur frequently from late January to early May. This is a useful bioclimatic information for tourism authorities, travel agencies, resorts and tourists.

  15. Consequences of organizational commitment in abolished company sports team - a case study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuki; Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show that how the abolishment of company sports team influenced the organizational commitment in employees. In this study, Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1997) was tested with 16 employees (10 males, 6 females) of T Company in NAGANO prefecture. The average age of the participants was 44, 50 years (SD=±0.85). And from 16 employees, 3 male employees were measured on organizational commitment with interview test. According to the analysis, the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team was not positive significant correlation. Furthermore, results of interview test did not show the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team. However, results of interview test showed the relation with organizational commitment of players in T Company sports team. Consequently, the goal to possess a sports team in T Company was not to boost organizational commitment in employees. In addition, it is necessary to reconsider the correlation among employees engaged in T Company in the future.

  16. Long-term variability of 50 years of standard phase-height measurement at Kühlungsborn, Mecklenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Dieter H. W.; Entzian, Günter

    2015-04-01

    The phase-height measurements of low-frequency radio waves are used to study the long-term variability of the mesosphere over Europe. Due to international regulations (the Geneva Frequency Plan of 1975), most existing European radio stations were required to change their broadcasting frequencies but slightly. It is shown that the daily standard phase heights (SPHs) determined for a constant zenith angle are equal for close frequencies (up to about 10 kHz). Further, this concept guarantees the continuity of the same series of SPH in the case of slight frequency change. At Kühlungsborn (54°N, 12°E, Mecklenburg, Northern Germany), the field strength measurements of the broadcasting station Allouis (Central France) have been maintained since February 1959. Based on the SPH method, a homogenized daily series was generated for a 50-year period with a loss rate of about 2%. The statistical analysis of the SPH series shows a significant overall trend with a decrease of 114 m per decade. The mean annual cycle is dominant, and it shows a well-known winter minimum. As expected, the long-term variability is partly anticorrelated with the solar cycle. For the solar minimum, the stratospheric influences of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like and quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)-like oscillations on SPH have been found. During winter, the SPH changes are linked to changes of the residual circulation and its induced changes of vertical NO transports, and its subsequent NO photoionization. It is shown that during intervals of solar maximum nonlinearity and solar feedback processes play an important role in phase changes of SPH oscillation.

  17. The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public

  18. Long Distance Bicycle Riding Causes Prostate-Specific Antigen to Increase in Men Aged 50 Years and Over

    PubMed Central

    Mejak, Sandra L.; Bayliss, Julianne; Hanks, Shayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) serum concentrations in healthy older men. Methods 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years), rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. Results Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1–12.9; p<0.001) or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml) increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges). Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. Conclusions Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24–48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results. PMID:23418500

  19. 50-year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: US-born Black and White Americans, 1959–2008

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Beckfield, Jason; Kiang, Mathew V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Debates exist over whether health inequities are bound to rise as population health improves, due to health improving more quickly among the better off, with most analyses focused on mortality data. Methods: We analysed 50 years of socioeconomic inequities in measured health status among US-born Black and White Americans, using data from the National Health Examination Surveys (NHES) I-III (1959–70), National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) I-III (1971–94) and NHANES 1999–2008. Results: Absolute US socioeconomic health inequities for income percentile and education variously decreased (serum cholesterol; childhood height), stagnated [systolic blood pressure (SBP)], widened [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)] and in some cases reversed (age at menarche), even as on-average values rose (BMI, WC), idled (childhood height) and fell (SBP, serum cholesterol, age at menarche), with patterns often varying by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic measure; similar results occurred for relative inequities. For example, for WC, the adverse 20th (low) vs 80th (high) income percentile gap increased only among Whites (NHES I: 0.71 cm [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74, 2.16); NHANES 2005–08: 2.10 (95% CI 0.96, 3.62)]. By contrast, age at menarche for girls in the 20th vs 80th income percentile among Black girls remained consistently lower, by 0.34 years (95% CI 0.12, 0.55) whereas among White girls the initial null difference became inverse [NHANES 2005–08: −0.49 years (95% CI −0.86, −0.12; overall P = 0.0015)]. Adjusting for socioeconomic position only modestly altered Black/White health inequities. Conclusions: Health inequities need not rise as population health improves. PMID:24639440

  20. The new ICSU World Data System: Building on the 50 Year Legacy of the World Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; Minster, J.

    2008-12-01

    The International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data Center (WDC) system was established in 1957 in response to the data needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Its holdings included a wide range of solar, geophysical, environmental, and human dimensions data. The WDC system developed many innovative data management and data exchange procedures and techniques over the last 50 years, which mitigated effectively the impact of global politics on science. The beginning of the 21st century has seen new ICSU requirements for management of large and diverse scientific data from major international programs such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS), the International Polar Year (IPY), the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment (MEA), and the Coordinated Energy and Water Cycle Observation Project (CEOP). As a consequence, a completely new ICSU data activity, the World Data System (WDS) is being created which will incorporate the major ICSU data activities including in particular the WDCs and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data- Analysis Services. Using the legacy of the WDC system, the WDS will place an emphasis on new information technology as applied to modern data management techniques and international data exchange. The new World Data System will support ICSU's enduring mission and objectives, ensuring the long-term stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community and other stakeholders. It will have a broader disciplinary and geographic base than the current ICSU networks and be recognized as a world-wide "community of excellence" for data issues. It will use state-of-the-art systems interoperability, international very high bandwidth capabilities and a coordinated focus on topics such as virtual observatories. It will also encourage the establishment of new data centers and services, using modern paradigms for their establishment

  1. Early Outcomes Following Metal-on-Metal Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Patients Younger Than 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Riley, Clay; Idoine, John; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben; Edwards, Bradley

    2016-09-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is a useful intervention for older patients with glenohumeral arthritis and a deficient rotator cuff. However, as a semiconstrained prosthesis, conventional reverse TSA implanted in a young patient could fail over time secondary to polyethylene wear and subsequent osteolysis. A metal-on-metal prosthesis may avoid this type of failure. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes in an initial cohort of young patients who underwent reverse TSA using a metal-on-metal prosthesis. Surgical indications included age younger than 50 years with a functioning deltoid and significant impairment of shoulder function with irreparable rotator cuff due to tumor resection, arthritis, or revision surgery. Nine patients with an average age of 37 years underwent implantation of a custom metal-on-metal reverse TSA prosthesis. All patients had a minimum 12-month follow-up or a failure of their procedure requiring revision surgery prior to 1 year. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, Constant scores, and range of motion were recorded and analyzed pre- and postoperatively to assess improvement, and all complications were noted. Average ASES score improved from 47 points preoperatively to 73.4 points postoperatively (P=.013). Average Constant and adjusted Constant scores improved from 20.8 points and 16% preoperatively to 61.8 points and 67.3% postoperatively, respectively (P=.019 and P=.068). Mean postoperative active forward flexion and active external rotation were 119.4° and 10°, respectively. Complications included the following: 3 patients sustained a postoperative dislocation, 1 patient had a glenoid fracture and complete loss of fixation of the baseplate, and 1 patient experienced dissociation of the glenosphere from the base-plate. Although metal-on-metal reverse TSA may appear to be an attractive choice in the treatment of young patients with limited reconstructive options, postoperative outcomes are

  2. Exploring the dynamics of agricultural climatic resource utilization of spring maize over the past 50 years in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junfang; Guo, Jianping; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    Exploring the dynamics of the utilization of agricultural climatic resources (i.e., environmental factors that affect crop productivity such as light, temperature, and water) can provide a theoretical basis for modifying agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production in the future. Northeast China is one of the major agricultural production areas in China and also an obvious region of climatic warming. We were motivated to analyze the utilization dynamics of agricultural climatic resource during spring maize cultivation from 1961 to 2010 in Northeast China. To understand these dynamics, we used the daily data from 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China between 1961 and 2010. The demands on agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China imposed by the cultivation of spring maize were combined and agricultural climatic suitability theory was applied. The growth period of spring maize was further detailedly divided into four stages: germination to emergence, emergence to jointing, jointing to tasseling, and tasseling to maturity. The average resource utilization index was established to evaluate the effects. Over the past five decades, Northeast China experienced increases in daily average temperature of 0.246 °C every decade during the growing season (May-September). At the same time, strong fluctuating decreases were observed in average total precipitation of 8.936 mm every decade and an average sunshine hour of 0.122 h every decade. Significant temporal and spatial changes occurred in K from 1961 to 2010. The K showed decreasing trends in Liaoning province and increasing trends in Jilin and especially in Heilongjiang province, which increased by 0.11. Spatial differences were visible in different periods, and the most obvious increase was found in the period 2001-2010. The areas with high values of K shifted northeastward over the past 50 years, indicating more efficient use of agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China.

  3. Response of soil respiration to soil temperature and moisture in a 50-year-old oriental arborvitae plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong

    2011-01-01

    China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (R(s)) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1), with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly R(s) and soil temperature (T(s)), explaining 82% of the variation in R(s) over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m(-2) year(-1). The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of R(s). The logistic model will potentially overestimate R(s) at high T(s) and low VWC. Seasonally, R(s) increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, R(s) showed a positively exponential relationship with T(s). The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to T(s) (Q(10)) ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting.

  4. Home food availability is associated with multiple socio-economic indicators in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Renée; Gearry, Richard B; Grant, Emily; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Ml

    2014-01-01

    Financial restraints and poverty lead to poor diets and poor health outcomes. Limited research shows that socioeconomic status is related to home availability of certain foods. However, studies in this area have used different socio-economic indicators, which may not equally influence eating-related behaviors. Using multiple indicators of socio-economic status may provide a more accurate picture of these relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate whether several socio-economic indicators are independently associated with home availability of selected foods known to influence chronic disease risk in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand, participating in the CHALICE study. Participants were selected randomly from health research extracts from Canterbury. Data from 216 participants (110 females, 106 males) were included. The presence (but not quantity) of foods/beverages in the home was measured by a validated home food inventory. Linear regression analyses were performed for the following home food inventory scores: fruit, vegetables, lower fat dairy, obesogenic foods and sweetened beverages with household income, standard of living and education using multivariate models. Higher household income and standard of living were individually associated with a 2% to 3% higher fruit and vegetables (3 to 5 types/forms) and total food scores (6 to 9 types/forms) (p<0.03). Higher education level was associated with a 2.5% increase in fruit and vegetables score (4 types/forms) and an 8% decrease in sweetened beverages score (0.4 beverages) (p<0.02). These results suggest that using only one measure of socio-economic status cannot accurately capture the effects of social inequalities in food availability. Those experiencing the most social disadvantage had a lesser availability of fruit and vegetables which may be detrimental to good health. PMID:25516330

  5. The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public

  6. Self-determination in sport commitment.

    PubMed

    Zahariadis, Panayotis; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Alexandris, Konstantinos

    2006-04-01

    The study tested utility of self-determination and sport commitment theories to understanding young athletes' sport commitment. 343 young athletes (M= 13.5 yr., SD= +/- 1.1) from soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, and water polo teams volunteered to participate. All completed the Sport Motivation Scale and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire. Pearson correlations showed a strong relationship between commitment and intrinsic motivation scores. In contrast, extrinsic motivation scores were not significantly correlated to commitment, whereas amotivation scores showed a negative correlation to commitment. Path analysis resulted in strong positive association of intrinsic motivation and commitment. Amotivation had small negative relation to commitment. According to the model tested, social constraints and involvement opportunities were not significant contributors to sport commitment. An alternative model supported the mediating role of enjoyment to psychological commitment. The results showed that high self-determination is supportive of sport commitment, whereas low self-determination reduces sport commitment.

  7. Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments

  8. A post audit and inverse modeling in reactive transport: 50 years of artificial recharge in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsen, R. H.; Smits, F. J. C.; Stuyfzand, P. J.; Olsthoorn, T. N.; van Breukelen, B. M.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryThis article describes the post audit and inverse modeling of a 1-D forward reactive transport model. The model simulates the changes in water quality following artificial recharge of pre-treated water from the river Rhine in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes using the PHREEQC-2 numerical code. One observation dataset is used for model calibration, and another dataset for validation of model predictions. The total simulation time of the model is 50 years, from 1957 to 2007, with recharge composition varying on a monthly basis and the post audit is performed 26 years after the former model simulation period. The post audit revealed that the original model could reasonably predict conservative transport and kinetic redox reactions (oxygen and nitrate reduction coupled to the oxidation of soil organic carbon), but showed discrepancies in the simulation of cation exchange. Conceptualizations of the former model were inadequate to accurately simulate water quality changes controlled by cation exchange, especially concerning the breakthrough of potassium and magnesium fronts. Changes in conceptualization and model design, including the addition of five flow paths, to a total of six, and the use of parameter estimation software (PEST), resulted in a better model to measurement fit and system representation. No unique parameter set could be found for the model, primarily due to high parameter correlations, and an assessment of the predictive error was made using a calibration constrained Monte-Carlo method, and evaluated against field observations. The predictive error was found to be low for Na+ and Ca2+, except for greater travel times, while the K+ and Mg2+ error was restricted to the exchange fronts at some of the flow paths. Optimized cation exchange coefficients were relatively high, especially for potassium, but still within the observed range in literature. The exchange coefficient for potassium agrees with strong fixation on illite, a main clay mineral in

  9. Patient Perspectives on Online Health Information and Communication With Doctors: A Qualitative Study of Patients 50 Years Old and Over

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background As health care systems around the world shift toward models that emphasize self-care management, there is increasing pressure for patients to obtain health information online. It is critical that patients are able to identify potential problems with using the Internet to diagnose and treat a health issue and that they feel comfortable communicating with their doctor about the health information they acquire from the Internet. Objective Our aim was to examine patient-identified (1) problems with using the Internet to identify and treat a health issue, (2) barriers to communication with a doctor about online health information seeking, and (3) facilitators of communication with a doctor about patient searches for health information on the Internet. Methods For this qualitative exploratory study, semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 56 adults age 50 years old and over. General concerns regarding use of the Internet to diagnose and treat a health issue were examined separately for participants based on whether they had ever discussed health information obtained through the Internet with a doctor. Discussions about barriers to and facilitators of communication about patient searches for health information on the Internet with a doctor were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six higher-level general concerns emerged: (1) limitations in own ability, (2) credibility/limitations of online information, (3) anxiety, (4) time consumption, (5) conflict, and (6) non-physical harm. The most prevalent concern raised by participants who communicated with a doctor about their online health information seeking related to the credibility or limitations in online information. Participants who had never communicated with a doctor about their online health information seeking most commonly reported concerns about non-physical harm. Four barriers to communication emerged: (1) concerns about embarrassment, (2) concerns that the doctor doesn’t want

  10. Geological Evolution of the Moon: Recent Findings, New Perspectives and Fundamental Questions from 50 Years of Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's Moon provides a fundamental frame of reference for understanding the formation, early history, and evolution of terrestrial planetary bodies. More than 50 years of exploration of the Moon and the Solar System has placed the Moon in the context of the other planetary bodies, including Earth. We look to the well-explored and characterized Moon for an understanding of the nature of its chemical layering (crust, mantle and core), its mechanical layering (lithosphere, asthenosphere), and the nature of its key geological processes (accretion, differentiation, thermal evolution, impact cratering, volcanism and tectonism). What has the Golden Age of Solar System Exploration taught us about the utility and applicability of the lunar historical paradigm? What new questions has it raised? What is thematic in terms of planetary evolution and what is unique to the Moon? How do answers to these three questions inform us about the major outstanding questions concerning the history of the Earth? How do they frame a new paradigm for future lunar exploration? Key questions and focal points include: 1) Does the accretionary history forming the Moon following the Earth impact set the Moon on a different course than bodies accreted by conventional means? 2) How can the impact cratering record of the Moon provide keys to the early bombardment history of the inner solar system, including the "lunar cataclysm"? 3) What is the nature of the lunar magma ocean-derived primary crust and its segregation from the mantle? 4) Are lunar differentiation and primary crustal formation processes and products thematic, unique, or both? 5) What is the nature and significance of the aftermath of primary crustal formation, density stratification and inversion? 6) What are the causes of the lunar magnetic field and its initiation and cessation? 7) What is the process of impact basin formation and how does it change the thickness, physical state, thermal structure, geochemistry and petrology of

  11. [A 50-year history of new drugs in Japan-the development and trends of hemostatics and antithrombotic drugs].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hikaru; Abiko, Yasushi; Akimoto, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The developments and trends of hemostatic and antithrombotic drugs in Japan were investigated chronologically for the last 50 years after the 2nd World War. 1. Hemostatic drugs are classified into three groups ; capillary stabilizers, blood coagulants and antifibrinolytics. l) As to capillary stabilizers, flavonoid (rutin, 1949), adrenochrome derivative (carbazochrome, 1954) and conjugated estrogen (Premarin, 1964) were introduced therapeutically. Especially, the soluble types of adrenochrome compounds (Adona 1956, S-Adchnon, 1962) were devised and used widely in Japan. 2) Drugs concerning blood coagulation, thrombin, introduced in 1953, and hemocoagulase, a snake venom introduced in 1966, were used clinically. V.K. groups producing various coagulation factors were introduced as V.K1 (Phytonadione, 1962) and V.K2 (rnenatetrenone,1972), and they were admitted in "The Japanese Pharmacopoeia"editions 8 and 14, respectively). 3) Regarding antifibrinolytic drugs, Japanese researchers have made remarkable contributions. e-Aminocapronic acid (Ipsilon, 1962) and tranexamic acid (Transamin, 1965) were developed and used for various abnormal bleedings or hemorrhage associated with plasmin over-activation. tranexamic acid also proved to suppress inflammations of the throat such as tonsillitis, pharyngitis or laryngitis. 2. Antithrombotic drugs are also divided into three groups; anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs and fibrinolytics.1) The anticoagulants used therapeutically by injection are heparins (Na-salt, 1951; Ca-salt, 1962) and low-molecular-weight heparins such as dalteparin (1992), parnaparin (1994) and reviparin (1999). The low molecule compounds are superior to the original heparins in reducing the risk of bleeding. As oral anticoagulants, coumarin derivatives, dicumarol (1950), ethylbiscoumacetate (1954), phenylindandione (1956) and warfarin (1962) are known. Warfarin potassium is the main drug for oral therapy of thromboembolism lately. Gabexate mesilate (1989) and

  12. Assessment of coastal erosion and quantification of land loss on Western Pacific atolls during the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborosi, Danko; Zega, Mojca; Jenson, John W.

    2010-05-01

    others, and that land is not always eroding but in some cases accreting. We are currently engaged in a systematic survey of islands across the region in order to differentiate local problems from wide-ranging phenomena and gain insight into the temporal and geospatial "big picture." The direct aim is to comprehensively and more precisely assess coastal erosion and quantify changes in land area of different islands over the past 50 years. The project consists of fieldwork and GIS analyses, and it is the first to employ such methods to evaluate shoreline transformation in the western Pacific. We visit each island, interview local people regarding recent land changes and events, and carry out site investigations and mapping. Each inhabited island is circumambulated on foot, and beach slopes and scarps are measured, sediments examined, human activities and vegetation damage noted, etc. More importantly, the entire coast of each island is mapped using MobileMapper PRO portable units capable of generating GIS shapefiles in the field. Created coverages include the actual shoreline, sandy banks, vegetated areas, coastal engineering, control points, etc. Data collected on the ground is imported into ArcGIS and rectified using remote sensing imagery. It is then compared to all available historical maps, notably US Army Corps of Engineers 1960s topographic charts, which were previously assembled, digitized, and georeferenced for the purposes of this project. Any discrepancies in island outline and land area would have occurred over the past half a century. Due to the vastness of western Pacific region and logistical obstacles to working on remote islands, data are accumulated gradually. Ultimately, this island-by-island approach will allow documentation of historical and regional erosion patterns, contribute to understanding of local and global components of recent coastal changes, and deliver recommendations for environmental management and emergency avoidance on atolls and other

  13. Identifying Determinants of Commitment and Turnover Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Thomas L.

    A study tested the precursors to vocational teachers' commitment to teaching as suggested by the commitment model proposed by Pierce and Dunham. Important consequences of commitment were examined by identifying relationships between commitment, behavioral intentions, and resulting turnover. The study examined the entire population of teachers…

  14. 24 CFR 242.17 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HOSPITALS Application Procedures and Commitments § 242.17 Commitments. (a) Issuance of commitment... terms and conditions under which an insurance endorsement shall be issued for the hospital. The... a period of 90 days. (2) The term of a commitment may be extended in such manner as HUD...

  15. Conscientious commitment to women's health.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J

    2011-05-01

    Conscientious commitment, the reverse of conscientious objection, inspires healthcare providers to overcome barriers to delivery of reproductive services to protect and advance women's health. History shows social reformers experiencing religious condemnation and imprisonment for promoting means of birth control, until access became popularly accepted. Voluntary sterilization generally followed this pattern to acceptance, but overcoming resistance to voluntary abortion calls for courage and remains challenging. The challenge is aggravated by religious doctrines that view treatment of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and emergency contraception not by reference to women's healthcare needs, but through the lens of abortion. However, modern legal systems increasingly reject this myopic approach. Providers' conscientious commitment is to deliver treatments directed to women's healthcare needs, giving priority to patient care over adherence to conservative religious doctrines or religious self-interest. The development of in vitro fertilization to address childlessness further illustrates the inspiration of conscientious commitment over conservative objections.

  16. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  17. Economic perspectives on the advance market commitment for pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Christopher M; Begor, Wills; Berndt, Ernst R

    2011-08-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have long been reluctant to invest in producing new vaccines for the developing world because they have little prospect of earning an attractive return. One way to stimulate such investment is the use of an advance market commitment, an innovative financing program that guarantees manufacturers a long-term market. Under this arrangement, international donors pay a premium for initial doses sold to developing countries. In exchange, companies agree to continue supplying the vaccine over the longer term at more sustainable prices. This article provides a preliminary economic analysis of a pilot advance market commitment program for pneumococcal vaccines, explaining the principles behind the program's design and assessing its early performance. Spurred by the advance market commitment--and other contemporaneous initiatives that also increased resources to vaccine suppliers--new, second-generation pneumococcal vaccines have experienced a much more rapid rollout in developing countries than older first-generation vaccines.

  18. Commitment Profiles: Combinations of Organizational Commitment Forms and Job Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasti, S. Arzu

    2005-01-01

    Although the three-component model of organizational commitment by Meyer and Allen (1991) posits that an employee can experience the three components concurrently, previous research has been largely variable-centered, looking at the antecedents and outcomes of each component separately. Two studies explored how the three components combine to…

  19. "This Is the Beginning of My Life Educationally": Older (50+ Years) Working Class Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Scotland, through the Lens of Critical Educational Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on original research where the primary objective was to critically explore the learning experiences of older (50+ years) working class adults in the context of a new university. Semi-structured interviews with 10 older learners engaged in a range of study in a new university in the west of Scotland were utilised. This…

  20. Mentoring Literacy Professionals: Continuing the Spirit of CRA/ALER after 50 Years. The Thirty-First Yearbook: A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Sampson, Mary Beth, Ed.; Foote, Martha M., Ed.; Falk-Ross, Francine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume is a milestone year for the Yearbook, the conference, and the College Reading Association (CRA). At this conference, CRA celebrated its 50th year. The title of this thirty-first yearbook mirrors the theme of the 2008 conference--"Mentoring Literacy Professionals for 50 Years." The title "Mentoring Literacy Professionals: Continuing the…

  1. School Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry Don

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between school climate and teacher commitment. The study focused on elementary schools in Northeast Alabama. Thirty-four elementary schools consisting of 522 teachers took part in the study. The teachers completed two survey instruments: the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment…

  2. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  3. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  4. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  5. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  6. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  7. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  8. Unraveling 50-Year-Old Clues Linking Neurodegeneration and Cancer to Cycad Toxins: Are microRNAs Common Mediators?

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Peter; Fry, Rebecca C.; Kisby, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of overlapping molecular signaling activated by a chemical trigger of cancer and neurodegeneration is new, but the path to this discovery has been long and potholed. Six conferences (1962–1972) examined the puzzling neurotoxic and carcinogenic properties of a then-novel toxin [cycasin: methylazoxymethanol (MAM)-β-d-glucoside] in cycad plants used traditionally for food and medicine on Guam where a complex neurodegenerative disease plagued the indigenous population. Affected families showed combinations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), parkinsonism (P), and/or a dementia (D) akin to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Modernization saw declining disease rates on Guam and remarkable changes in clinical phenotype (ALS was replaced by P-D and then by D) and in two genetically distinct ALS-PDC-affected populations (Kii-Japan, West Papua-Indonesia) that used cycad seed medicinally. MAM forms DNA lesions – repaired by O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) – that perturb mouse brain development and induce malignant tumors in peripheral organs. The brains of young adult MGMT-deficient mice given a single dose of MAM show DNA lesion-linked changes in cell-signaling pathways associated with miRNA-1, which is implicated in colon, liver, and prostate cancers, and in neurological disease, notably AD. MAM is metabolized to formaldehyde, a human carcinogen. Formaldehyde-responsive miRNAs predicted to modulate MAM-associated genes in the brains of MGMT-deficient mice include miR-17-5p and miR-18d, which regulate genes involved in tumor suppression, DNA repair, amyloid deposition, and neurotransmission. These findings marry cycad-associated ALS-PDC with colon, liver, and prostate cancer; they also add to evidence linking changes in microRNA status both to ALS, AD, and parkinsonism, and to cancer initiation and progression. PMID:23060898

  9. Cognitive and Functional Decline among Individuals 50 Years of Age or Older in Cambé, Paraná, Brazil: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido Sarria; Bortoletto, Maira Aira Sayuri Sakay; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno; Prina, Douglas Manuel Carrapeiro; Vieira, Maria Cristina Umpierrez; Silva, Ana Maria Rigo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify the frequency of cognitive and functional decline (CFD) among adults 50 years of age and older by a population-based study. Methods Cognitive function was analyzed by the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the functional conditions were based on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Cases of CFD included individuals with cognitive decline and 2 or more compromised IADL. Results A total of 693 individuals were studied. The frequency of CFD was 16.3%. A low socioeconomic profile was associated with greater CFD independent of gender, age, education, and presence of depression (OR = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.53-3.97). Conclusions These data show a high frequency of CFD among adults 50 years and older. Individuals with less education and a lower socioeconomic level exhibited poorer cognitive and functional conditions. PMID:27350779

  10. Social commitment robots and dementia.

    PubMed

    Roger, Kerstin; Guse, Lorna; Mordoch, Elaine; Osterreicher, Angela

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, approximately 500,000 Canadians suffered from a dementia-related illness. The number of sufferers is estimated to double in about 25 years. Due to this growing demographic, dementia (most frequently caused by Alzheimer's disease) will increasingly have a significant impact on our aging community and their caregivers. Dementia is associated with challenging behaviours such as agitation, wandering, and aggression. Care providers must find innovative strategies that facilitate the quality of life for this population; moreover, such strategies must value the individual person. Social commitment robots - designed specifically with communication and therapeutic purposes - provide one means towards attaining this goal. This paper describes a study in which Paro (a robotic baby harp seal) was used as part of a summer training program for students. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the integration of social commitment robots may be clinically valuable for older, agitated persons living with dementia in long-term care settings.

  11. Deterministic relativistic quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    We describe new unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes whose security is based on Minkowski causality and the monogamy of quantum entanglement. We first describe an ideal scheme that is purely deterministic, in the sense that neither party needs to generate any secret randomness at any stage. We also describe a variant that allows the committer to proceed deterministically, requires only local randomness generation from the receiver, and allows the commitment to be verified in the neighborhood of the unveiling point. We show that these schemes still offer near-perfect security in the presence of losses and errors, which can be made perfect if the committer uses an extra single random secret bit. We discuss scenarios where these advantages are significant.

  12. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from long-term (50-year) Lupus vulgaris: is there a need for a close medical follow-up in such chronic diseases?

    PubMed

    Leocata, P; Crisman, G; Vitale, A R; Siniscalchi, G; Biondi, P; Colella, G

    2009-12-01

    Skin manifestations of tuberculous infection (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) are represented by miliary tuberculosis of the skin, tuberculous chancre, scrofuloderma, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, periorificial tuberculosis, and lupus vulgaris (LV). Among this group, LV is the most common skin condition, diagnosed in 10% of tuberculotic patients. The authors report herein a case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from long-standing (50-year) LV and underline the need of an extensive follow-up of tuberculotic lesions.

  14. Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis requires a stem cell pool, a period of amplification of cell numbers, the completion of reduction division to haploid cells (meiosis), and the morphological transformation of the haploid cells into spermatozoa (spermiogenesis). The net result of these processes is the production of massive numbers of spermatozoa over the reproductive lifetime of the animal. One study that utilized homogenization-resistant spermatids as the standard determined that human daily sperm production (dsp) was at 45 million per day per testis (60). For each human that means ∼1,000 sperm are produced per second. A key to this level of gamete production is the organization and architecture of the mammalian testes that results in continuous sperm production. The seemingly complex repetitious relationship of cells termed the "cycle of the seminiferous epithelium" is driven by the continuous commitment of undifferentiated spermatogonia to meiosis and the period of time required to form spermatozoa. This commitment termed the A to A1 transition requires the action of retinoic acid (RA) on the undifferentiated spermatogonia or prospermatogonia. In stages VII to IX of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, Sertoli cells and germ cells are influenced by pulses of RA. These pulses of RA move along the seminiferous tubules coincident with the spermatogenic wave, presumably undergoing constant synthesis and degradation. The RA pulse then serves as a trigger to commit undifferentiated progenitor cells to the rigidly timed pathway into meiosis and spermatid differentiation.

  15. Comparison of weight loss outcomes 1 year after sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients aged above 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Praveenraj, Palanivelu; Gomes, Rachel M; Kumar, Saravana; Perumal, Sivalingam; Senthilnathan, Palanisamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Rajapandian, Subbiah; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Safe, effective weight loss with resolution of comorbidities has been convincingly demonstrated with bariatric surgery in the aged obese. They, however, lose less weight than younger individuals. It is not known if degree of weight loss is influenced by the choice of bariatric procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of weight loss between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in patients above the age of 50 years at 1 year after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients more than 50 years of age who underwent LSG or LRYGB between February 2012 and July 2013 with at least 1 year of follow-up. Data evaluated at 1 year included age, sex, weight, body mass index (BMI), mean operative time, percentage of weight loss and excess weight loss, resolution/remission of diabetes, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Of a total of 86 patients, 54 underwent LSG and 32 underwent LRYGB. The mean percentage of excess weight loss at the end of 1 year was 60.19 ± 17.45 % after LSG and 82.76 ± 34.26 % after LRYGB (P = 0.021). One patient developed a sleeve leak after LSG, and 2 developed iron deficiency anaemia after LRYGB. The remission/improvement in diabetes mellitus and biochemistry was similar. CONCLUSION: LRYGB may offer better results than LSG in terms of weight loss in patients over 50 years of age. PMID:27279392

  16. A brief review on quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Álvaro J.; Loura, Ricardo; Paunković, Nikola; Silva, Nuno A.; Muga, Nelson J.; Mateus, Paulo; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2014-08-01

    In classical cryptography, the bit commitment scheme is one of the most important primitives. We review the state of the art of bit commitment protocols, emphasizing its main achievements and applications. Next, we present a practical quantum bit commitment scheme, whose security relies on current technological limitations, such as the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We demonstrate the feasibility of our practical quantum bit commitment protocol and that it can be securely implemented with nowadays technology.

  17. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  18. Organizational and Client Commitment among Contracted Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Morrow, Paula C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines affective commitment to employing and client organizations among long-term contracted employees, a new and growing employment classification. Drawing on organizational commitment and social exchange literatures, we propose two categories of antecedents of employee commitment to client organizations. We tested our hypotheses…

  19. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  20. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  1. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  2. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  3. Radium-226 in drinking water and terrestrial food chains: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Etnier, E.L.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Environmental transport of /sup 226/Ra from geological formations to drinking water and from soil to vegetation, meat and milk were quantitatively analyzed following a review of literature. Both natural and industrial sources were investigated. Particular attention was given to references specific for the phosphate-mining region of southwestern Florida. Literature sources have been interpreted to develop concentration factors describing terrestrial food-chain transport. Unweighted means and associated ranges of concentration factor values, representing averages of data collected over a variety of environmental conditions, soil types, and chemical forms, are also provided. Annual human exposure and 50-year dose commitments to bone, lung, liver, kidney and whole body were estimated by assuming mean concentration factors as well as annual food and water consumption rates.

  4. The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a starting point for psychological research on the sense of commitment within the context of joint action. We begin by formulating three desiderata: to illuminate the motivational factors that lead agents to feel and act committed, to pick out the cognitive processes and situational factors that lead agents to sense that implicit commitments are in place, and to illuminate the development of an understanding of commitment in ontogeny. In order to satisfy these three desiderata, we propose a minimal framework, the core of which is an analysis of the minimal structure of situations which can elicit a sense of commitment. We then propose a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the sense of commitment, and discuss cognitive and motivational processes which may underpin the sense of commitment. PMID:26779080

  5. Civil commitment is disappearing in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, in Oregon, the number of individuals entered into the civil commitment process has risen, but the number of those actually committed has gone down dramatically. This commentary compares commitment data during a time when the state's population has increased substantially, while commitment rates have dropped by 50 percent. There are many possible factors that have contributed to this decline in commitment rates, including a stricter functional definition of "danger to self or others," but perhaps the most significant reason is the shortage of the acute psychiatric beds that are essential in the commitment process. It is hard not to conclude that civil commitment in this state is headed toward functional extinction.

  6. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  7. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes. PMID:23598491

  8. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes.

  9. Commitment accounting for CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Socolow, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Long-lived energy infrastructure that burns fossil fuels represents a multi-decade 'commitment' to emit CO2. Today's global power sector, alone, represents hundreds of billions of tons of still unrealized 'committed emissions' of CO2. And every year, substantial new commitments to future emissions are made, as new power plants are built. The socioeconomic inertia of these commitments is a major barrier to climate change mitigation. Here, we quantify these annual commitments by a bottom-up analysis of all power plants commissioned between 1950 and 2011; assigning emission commitments to the year when each generator came on line. We find, assuming 40-year commitments, that the global commitment to future emissions from the world's generators in 2011 (the most recent year in our analysis) was 318 Gt CO2, of which 216 Gt CO2 were commitments from the world's coal-fired generators and 134 Gt CO2 were commitments from China's generators. Annual new global commitments exceeded 15 Gt CO2 per year in every year since 2000. Moreover, between 2005-2010 (the latest year of available emissions data), new global commitments were more than twice as large as actual emissions from all power plants. Country-specific ratios of new committed emissions to actual emissions, averaged over 1990-2010 were 4.1 for China, 2.6 for India, 0.9 for the EU, and 0.6 for the US. We urge that the reporting of annual CO2 emissions, already widely institutionalized, be augmented by 'commitment accounting' which makes these future emissions salient. Annual committed emissions and annual emissions of primary power infrastructure. New committed emissions (light green) have grown from approximately 4 Gt CO2 per year in 1960 to roughly 10 Gt CO2 per year between 1970-1995, and then to more than 15 Gt CO2 per year since 2000. Throughout this period, new committed emissions have exceeded annual emissions (blue curve, source: IEA). Although the commitments made 30-40 years ago have largely been realized (dark

  10. 50 years of fiber diffraction.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kenneth C

    2010-05-01

    In 1955 Ken Holmes started working on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a research student with Rosalind Franklin at Birkbeck College, London. Afterward he spent 18months as a post doc with Don Caspar and Carolyn Cohen at the Children's Hospital, Boston where he continued the work on TMV and also showed that the core of the thick filament of byssus retractor muscle from mussels is made of two-stranded alpha-helical coiled-coils. Returning to England he joined Aaron Klug's group at the newly founded Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge. Besides continuing the TMV studies, which were aimed at calculating the three-dimensional density map of the virus, he collaborated with Pringle's group in Oxford to show that two conformation of the myosin cross-bridge could be identified in insect flight muscle. In 1968 he opened the biophysics department at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Germany. With Gerd Rosenbaum he initiated the use of synchrotron radiation as a source for X-ray diffraction. In his lab the TMV structure was pushed to 4A resolution and showed how the RNA binds to the protein. With his co-workers he solved the structure of g-actin as a crystalline complex and then solved the structure of the f-actin filament by orientating the g-actin structure so as to give the f-actin fiber diffraction pattern. He was also able to solve the structure of the complex of actin with tropomyosin from fiber diffraction. PMID:20079849

  11. 50 years of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

  12. Celebrating 50 Years of Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebel, Heinigerd

    2010-11-01

    When thinking of an innovation that has truly changed our world, it is the laser. Right after discovery back in 1960, it is immediately propelled to a public star. People loved the mystery around this new kind of light. It was soon recognized as a symbol of our entry into the future: The Laser Age has started. Newspapers speculated about ``death rays'' as new weapons. It did not take long time until it appeared in Science fiction movies. However reality was much more beneficial and even more diverse. This device has managed to exceed the wildest predictions of the early laser pioneers when it comes to its applications. Today lasers are not a weird scientist's toy, but are commonly used in our everyday life. Of course, nothing of that was foreseen in the early 1950s. Important fundamentals of lasers have been laid already in 1917 by Albert Einstein, introducing the Einstein coefficient of stimulated emission, and subsequent experimental work by Rudolf Ladenburg, Willis Lamb, Alfred Kastler and others.

  13. Celebrating 50 Years of Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Heinigerd

    2010-11-24

    When thinking of an innovation that has truly changed our world, it is the laser. Right after discovery back in 1960, it is immediately propelled to a public star. People loved the mystery around this new kind of light. It was soon recognized as a symbol of our entry into the future: The Laser Age has started. Newspapers speculated about ''death rays'' as new weapons. It did not take long time until it appeared in Science fiction movies. However reality was much more beneficial and even more diverse. This device has managed to exceed the wildest predictions of the early laser pioneers when it comes to its applications. Today lasers are not a weird scientist's toy, but are commonly used in our everyday life.Of course, nothing of that was foreseen in the early 1950s. Important fundamentals of lasers have been laid already in 1917 by Albert Einstein, introducing the Einstein coefficient of stimulated emission, and subsequent experimental work by Rudolf Ladenburg, Willis Lamb, Alfred Kastler and others.

  14. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewedpublicationsbytheauthorand/orFredHoyle. Theprevailingreluctancetoaccepttheseclear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance - a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  15. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  16. Fission: The first 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbosch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of fission had been largely unanticipated prior to its discovery in 1938. This process, with its dramatically large energy release and its formation of previously unknown nuclides, immediately captured the imagination of the scientific community. Both theoretical and experimental developments occurred at a rapid pace. I will begin my discussion of fission with the far-reaching paper of Bohr and Wheeler, who in little more than half a year laid out a framework for understanding many features of the fission process. I will then turn to our current understanding of a number of aspects of fission. One of these is the pronounced tendency of many nuclear species to fission asymmetrically. In fact, the discovery of fission was based on the identification of barium isotopes produced in asymmetric fission. The dramatic changes in the preferred mass division and kinetic energy release with the addition of only a few neutrons to the spontaneously fissioning Fermium isotopes will be emphasized. The problem of the dynamics of saddle to scission will be discussed---this is one aspect of fission for which we do not have all the answers. Another dynamical effect to be discussed is the apparent failure of transition state theory at high excitation energies. The role of single particle (shell) effects in enriching the structure if the potential energy surface will be explored. Spontaneously fissioning isomers and intermediate structure resonances will be discussed. The recognition that short-lived fission isomers are superdeformed shape isomers has been followed by the recent observation of superdeformed shape isomers in the rare earth region. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Your 50-Year Career Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the meaning and importance of the long-term view in the academic profession. Taking the half-century view of a career allows everyone to conceptualize his/her work as both a solitary venture and a group effort. As your career develops and you build alliances and partnerships with colleagues--and then with…

  18. The First 50 Years at Palomar: 1949-1999 The Early Years of Stellar Evolution, Cosmology, and High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandage, Allan

    An account is given of the history of two observational programs set for the Palomar 200-inch telescope, one by Walter Baade and the other by Edwin Hubble near the start of the scheduled operation of the telescope 50 years ago. The review is partly an assessment of whether, and how well, these programs have been carried to completion, and partly an account of the response of Palomar to new discoveries and developments not foreseen in 1950. Stellar evolution, the discovery of variations in the metallicity of stars of different populations, the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, the Cepheid P-L relation, the redshift-distance relation of the expanding universe, and the extragalactic distance scale are discussed as they relate to the predictions for progress on the programs set out by Baade and Hubble. Not foreseen was the invention and development of radio astronomy and high energy astrophysics, leading to the discovery of radio galaxies, quasars, and the gradual realization of violent events, both in stars and in galaxies. The review is highly restricted to these subjects, covering only three areas among the totality of the work in observational astrophysics studied during the first 50 years at Palomar.

  19. Family members' opinions about civil commitment.

    PubMed

    McFarland, B H; Faulkner, L R; Bloom, J D; Hallaux, R; Bray, J D

    1990-05-01

    As part of a survey of 260 Oregon family members with mentally ill relatives, respondents were asked about their experiences with civil commitment and their opinions about proposed modifications in the commitment statutes. Family members typically described their mentally ill relative as a schizophrenic man in his thirties who had had six psychiatric hospitalizations and was currently being treated with medications at a community mental health center. Three-fourths of the relatives had been committed. A majority (57 percent) of the respondents were in favor of mandatory outpatient treatment and medication after involuntary hospitalization but were not enthusiastic about outpatient commitment without hospitalization. Family members also wanted more education about mental illness, more information about the commitment process, and assignment of a professional to help in the commitment process.

  20. Leadership and satisfaction in change commitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    Managerial transformational leadership skills may directly influence banking counter staff toward change commitment and improve job satisfaction and service quality, or the influence instead may be mediated by change commitment. For a sample comprised of 246 managers from four large Taiwanese banks, the following path relationships were tested: (1) the association of transformational leadership with change commitment, (2) the association of change commitment with job satisfaction, and (3) the direct or indirect (through the mediation of change commitment) effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction. Regression was utilized to gain insight into the effects of transformational leadership and change commitment on job satisfaction. Transformational leadership may foster change by providing psychological support to the banking counter staff, enabling them to use their skills to meet the needs of individual customers in response to complex environments. PMID:21879618

  1. On the justification for civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Høyer, G

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores some of the controversies in the debate regarding the justification of civil commitment. The sometimes conflicting values reflected in the mental health legislation, human rights principles, moral philosophy and psychiatric professional standards are discussed. In spite of the often substantial use of civil commitment in many countries, there are almost no scientifically sound studies addressing the outcome of coercive treatment. The paper establishes that the traditional arguments in favour of civil commitment, like lack of insight and competence as well as the effectiveness of civil commitment, are poorly founded. The paper concludes that there seems to be a general agreement that civil commitment of patients who are dangerous to themselves or others should be the responsibility of the mental health care system, while civil commitment for treatment purposes is more controversial and hard to justify.

  2. Beyond deinstitutionalization: a commitment law in evolution.

    PubMed

    Durham, M L; Pierce, G L

    1982-03-01

    In 1973 Washington State changed its civil commitment law to more rigorously control the number of involuntary commitments in a move consistent with the national trend toward deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill and the development of community treatment alternatives. In 1979, after six years of working within narrowly drawn criteria for commitment, the state strengthened its civil commitment authority through revisions that included expanding the definition of "gravely disabled", adding destruction of property to the "likelihood of serious harm" clause, making the provisions for revoking conditional releases more stringent, and allowing spouses of mentally ill individuals to testify against them during commitment proceedings. Early figures show that involuntary commitments, while trying to cope with federal cutbacks and diminishing resources.

  3. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition.

  4. Beijing: a conference of commitments?

    PubMed

    Davis, S

    1996-05-01

    The author of this article holds the view that the Declaration and Platform for Action at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 was the product of the most highly participatory process ever organized under the auspices of the UN. The Declaration and Platform expressed the strongest views on gender equality, empowerment, and justice that governments have ever endorsed. These documents were the consolidation of gains made by women in previous UN conferences. The 135-page Platform can be used at all levels of decision making. Governments and international can be held accountable for its provisions. The Platform exposes the problems violence and exploitation against women and girls as well as the revelation that environmental destruction is due to an unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in developed countries. Conference participants included about 3000 nongovernmental groups (NGOs). The Women's Linkage Caucus and WEDO served to facilitate the advocacy process by providing briefings on text still under negotiation and providing on-line recommendations from the 1995 and 1994 Commission on the Status of Women preparatory committee meetings. A scoreboard that tracked government's commitment at the 1995 preparatory committee meetings was reinstated in Beijing. The information was conveyed on the Internet. The European Union is credited with diluting the language about government commitment to the Platform. Governments are still given responsibility for implementation, and the need for political will is stressed (paragraph 293). Paragraph 297 indicates the process for implementation of the Platform and coordination with NGOs. Although the Platform recognizes the importance of women's groups and other NGOs, the responsibility for implementation is still given to governments.

  5. Real-world adjuvant TAC or FEC-D for HER2-negative node-positive breast cancer in women less than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lupichuk, S.; Tilley, D.; Kostaras, X.; Joy, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared the efficacy, toxicity, and use of granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (g-csf) with tac (docetaxel–doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide) and fec-d (5-fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel) in women less than 50 years of age. Methods The study included all women more than 18 years but less than 50 years of age with her2-negative, node-positive, stage ii or iii breast cancer diagnosed in Alberta between 2008 and 2012 who received tac (n = 198) or fec-d (n = 274). Results The patient groups were well-balanced, except that radiotherapy use was higher in the tac group (91.9% vs. 79.9%, p < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 49.6 months, disease-free survival was 91.4% for tac and 92.0% for fec-d (p = 0.76). Overall survival (os) was 96% with tac and 95.3% with fec-d (p = 0.86).The incidences of grades 3 and 4 toxicities were similar in the two groups (all p > 0.05). Overall, febrile neutropenia (fn) was reported in 11.6% of tac patients and 15.7% of fec-d patients (p = 0.26). However, use of g-csf was higher in the tac group than in the fec-d group (96.4% vs. 71.5%, p < 0.001). Hospitalization for fn was required in 10.5% of tac patients and 13.0% of fec-d patients (p = 0.41). In g-csf–supported and –unsupported patients receiving tac, fn occurred at rates of 11.1% and 33.3% respectively (p = 0.08); in patients receiving the fec portion of fec-d, those proportions were 2.9% and 8.1% respectively (p = 0.24); and in patients receiving docetaxel after fec, the proportions were 4.1% and 17.6% respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions In women less than 50 years of age receiving adjuvant tac or fec-d, we observed no differences in efficacy or other nonhematologic toxicities. Based on the timing and rates of fn, use of prophylactic g-csf should be routine for the docetaxel-containing portion of treatment; however, prophylactic g-csf could potentially be avoided during the fec portion of fec-d treatment. PMID:27330344

  6. Comparison of intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of a herpes zoster live-attenuated vaccine in adults aged ≥50 years: a randomised non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; Weinke, Thomas; Garcia de Lomas, Juan; Meyer, Claudius U; Bertrand, Isabelle; Eymin, Cécile; Thomas, Stéphane; Sadorge, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Zostavax(®) is a live, attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine developed specifically for the prevention of HZ and PHN in individuals aged ≥50 years. During the clinical development of Zostavax, which was mainly in the US, the vaccine was administrated by the subcutaneous (SC) route. In Europe, many healthcare professionals prefer administering vaccines by the intramuscular (IM) route. This was an open-label, randomised trial conducted in 354 subjects aged ≥50 years. The primary objectives were to demonstrate that IM administration is both non-inferior to SC administration in terms of 4-week post-vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs), and elicits an acceptable geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) of antibody titres measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pre-specified non-inferiority was set as the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the GMT ratio (IM/SC) being >0.67. An acceptable GMFR for the IM route was pre-specified as the lower bound of its 95% CI being >1.4. Description of the VZV immune response using the interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT) assay and of the safety were secondary objectives. Participants were randomised to IM or SC administration (1:1). The baseline demographics were comparable between groups; mean age: 62.6 years (range: 50.0-90.5). The primary immunogenicity objectives were met (per protocol analysis): GMT ratio (IM/SC): 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93-1.18); GMFR: 2.7 (2.4-3.0). VZV immune response using IFN-γ ELISPOT were comparable between groups. Frequencies of systemic adverse events were comparable between groups. Injection-site reactions were less frequent with IM than SC route: erythema (15.9% versus 52.5%), pain (25.6% versus 39.5%) and swelling (13.6% versus 37.3%), respectively. In adults aged ≥50 years, IM administration of Zostavax elicited similar immune responses to SC administration and was well tolerated, with fewer injection-site reactions than with SC

  7. Requesting a commitment to change: conditions that produce behavioral or attitudinal commitment.

    PubMed

    Overton, Githa Kanisin; MacVicar, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is a lack of clarity in the conceptualization of commitment underlying the commitment to change (CTC) procedure used by organizers of continuing education in the health professions. This article highlights the two distinct conceptualizations of commitment that have emerged in the literature outside health care education and practice. The distinction is important because different antecedent conditions produce different types and dimensions of commitment. This article goes on to explore the antecedents of behavioral and attitudinal commitment and illustrates how different types of commitment may have been produced in previous CTC studies. As a result, the article also demonstrates the need for clarity in the conceptualization of commitment, especially to guide empirical research into the nature and strength of commitment produced by the variety of CTC strategies. Such research is relevant in increasing our understanding of how and why CTCs are able to influence practice change.

  8. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model. PMID:24197720

  9. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

  10. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  11. Long-Term Results of Total Hip Arthroplasty with 28-Millimeter Cobalt-Chromium Femoral Heads on Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years and Less.

    PubMed

    Stambough, Jeffrey B; Pashos, Gail; Bohnenkamp, Frank C; Maloney, William J; Martell, John M; Clohisy, John C

    2016-01-01

    Highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) is the most commonly used bearing surface in total hip arthroplasty (THA) because of its superior wear properties, but long-term results in young patients are limited. We report on the clinical outcome, radiographic wear patterns and survivorship of 72 patients ≤50 years old who had a 28-millimeter cobalt-chromium femoral head on HXLPE acetabular liner. Mean and median true linear wear rates at average ten-year follow-up were 0.0104 and 0.01 mm per year ± 0.07 mm. Mean and median two-dimensional volumetric wear rates were 12.79 mm(3) and 5.834 mm(3) per year ± 26.1mm(3) as determined by Martell analysis. As a result of the minimal wear profile, there was no evidence of radiographic osteolysis and no wear-related revisions.

  12. A current reader's response to the article of 50 years ago by Karpman, B. (1949): "The principles and methods of objective psychotherapy".

    PubMed

    Luborsky, L

    2000-07-01

    The first aim is to describe the psychotherapy of 1949 in the light of today's psychotherapies. The old psychotherapy is suited to treating severely ill patients. It does not use free association, but rather is focused on current problems. It uses dreams, yet it also uses homework and bibliotherapy. The second aim is to critique the treatment. Consistent with its era. it does not make use of medications, and there is an absence of references to psychotherapy research, which was then just starting. The treatment relies over-heavily on the authority of the therapist. A third aim is to describe the changes in our field in the past 50 years and examine the predictions for the future. Although the treatment is called objective psychotherapy, it does not make use of the most up-to-date means of measuring accuracy of interpretations, such as the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method and other methods like it.

  13. Cirrhosis mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Page, W F; Miller, R N

    2000-10-01

    In our earlier, 30-year follow-up of American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict, we found evidence of increased cirrhosis mortality. Using federal records, we have now extended our follow-up to 50 years (42 years for Korean conflict veterans) and have used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs with that of controls. Compared with their controls, World War II POWs had a 32% higher risk of cirrhosis mortality (statistically significant), and mortality risk was higher in the first 30 years of follow-up and also among those aged 51 years and older. Korean POWs had roughly the same risk of cirrhosis mortality as their controls. Neither self-reported data on alcohol consumption nor supplemental morbidity data satisfactorily explained the differences in risk between POWs and controls, although there was evidence that POWs tended to have higher rates of hepatitis, helminthiasis, and nutritional deprivation. PMID:11050876

  14. Ferruccio Ritossa's scientific legacy 50 years after his discovery of the heat shock response: a new view of biology, a new society, and a new journal.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Antonio; Santoro, M Gabriella; Tanguay, Robert M; Hightower, Lawrence E

    2012-03-01

    The pioneering discovery of the heat shock response by the Italian scientist Ferruccio Ritossa reached maturity this year, 2012. It was 50 years ago that Professor Ritossa, through an extraordinary combination of serendipity, curiosity, knowledge and inspiration, published the first observation that cells could mount very strong transcriptional activity when exposed to elevated temperatures, which was coined the heat shock response. This discovery led to the identification of heat shock proteins, which impact many areas of current biology and medicine, and has created a new avenue for more exciting discoveries. In recognition of the discovery of the heat shock response, Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) awarded Professor Ritossa with the CSSI medallion in October 2010 in Dozza, Italy. This article is based on a session of the Fifth CSSI Congress held in Québec commemorating Professor Ritossa and his discovery. PMID:22252402

  15. An analysis of the sequence variability of meningococcal fHbp, NadA and NHBA over a 50-year period in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Stefania; Piet, Jurgen; Muzzi, Alessandro; Keijzers, Wendy; Comandi, Sara; De Tora, Lisa; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie; Comanducci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of meningococcal evolution and genetic population structure, including the long-term stability of non-random associations between variants of surface proteins, are essential for vaccine development. We analyzed the sequence variability of factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA) and Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), three major antigens in the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine 4CMenB. A panel of invasive isolates collected in the Netherlands over a period of 50 years was used. To our knowledge, this strain collection covers the longest time period of any collection available worldwide. Long-term persistence of several antigen sub/variants and of non-overlapping antigen sub/variant combinations was observed. Our data suggest that certain antigen sub/variants including those used in 4CMenB are conserved over time and promoted by selection.

  16. Long-Term Results of Total Hip Arthroplasty with 28-Millimeter Cobalt-Chromium Femoral Heads on Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years and Less.

    PubMed

    Stambough, Jeffrey B; Pashos, Gail; Bohnenkamp, Frank C; Maloney, William J; Martell, John M; Clohisy, John C

    2016-01-01

    Highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) is the most commonly used bearing surface in total hip arthroplasty (THA) because of its superior wear properties, but long-term results in young patients are limited. We report on the clinical outcome, radiographic wear patterns and survivorship of 72 patients ≤50 years old who had a 28-millimeter cobalt-chromium femoral head on HXLPE acetabular liner. Mean and median true linear wear rates at average ten-year follow-up were 0.0104 and 0.01 mm per year ± 0.07 mm. Mean and median two-dimensional volumetric wear rates were 12.79 mm(3) and 5.834 mm(3) per year ± 26.1mm(3) as determined by Martell analysis. As a result of the minimal wear profile, there was no evidence of radiographic osteolysis and no wear-related revisions. PMID:26260785

  17. Commitment of measles elimination by 2020: challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, S R

    2015-02-01

    The eleven member states of World Health Organization South-East Asia Region committed to eliminate measles by 2020. In phased manner, Government of India is working on this goal, and has introduced two-dose strategy for measles vaccine in the routine immunization. Molecular epidemiology of measles in India has been considerably growing that would be useful for understanding the circulation of wild type measles in pre- and post-elimination period. However, importations of cases from other countries may be likely. This article describes major challenges to achieve the measles elimination goal in India.

  18. Commitment Profiles: The Configural Effect of the Forms and Foci of Commitment on Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoumbris, Petros; Xenikou, Athena

    2010-01-01

    This study is based upon the conceptual linking of the multidimensional and multi-focal nature of work-related commitment. The main aims of our study were to create, through K-means cluster analysis, commitment profiles based on the three components of organizational and occupational commitment, and to examine their joint effect on key work…

  19. Requesting a Commitment to Change: Conditions that Produce Behavioral or Attitudinal Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Githa Kanisin; MacVicar, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is a lack of clarity in the conceptualization of "commitment" underlying the commitment to change (CTC) procedure used by organizers of continuing education in the health professions. This article highlights the two distinct conceptualizations of commitment that have emerged in the literature outside health care education and practice. The…

  20. Associations of various perceived-stress situations with depressive symptoms in ≥50-year old Taiwanese men and women: Results from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Jen; Chang, Fu-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between various perceived-stress and depressive symptoms in old Taiwanese men and women aged 50 years and over. Data were derived from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Stress for health, finance, and family members' related issues were all cross-sectionally associated with concurrent depressive symptoms for men and women (all P<0.05). Increased/constant-high health stress was positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in both genders (all P<0.05). Constantly high job stress and increased stress over family members' problems were associated with higher likelihood of subsequent depressive symptoms in men (P<0.05). Constantly high/increased financial stress and relationship strain with family members were positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in women (all P<0.05). The results suggest that stress for health, job, finance, and family members-related issues are unequally associated with depressive symptoms among Taiwanese men and women aged 50 years and over. Changes of health stress even reduced are significantly associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Long-term job stress and increased stress over family members' problems increase occurrences of men's depressive symptoms, while increased/long-term financial stress and relationship-strain with family members increase occurrences of women's depressive symptoms. Long-term high health stress has more impacts on men's depressive symptoms than women's, while long-term high relationship strain with family members has more impacts on women's depressive symptoms than men's. PMID:27490720

  1. Overview of the Core Commitments Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the Core Commitments Initiative conducted by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). Core Commitments was intended to reinvigorate the conversation about personal and social responsibility within higher education, and served as the impetus for this "New Directions" volume.

  2. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  3. Teachers' Organizational Commitment in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celep, Cevat

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish teachers' levels of commitment to their schools, the tasks involved in teaching, work groups, and the occupation. A 28-item scale was administered to 302 teachers working in public high schools in the districts of Zonguldak and in the city center. The questionnaire asked about their commitment to the school;…

  4. The Influence of Culture on Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd Razak, Nordin; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Culture is believed to be an important factor that influences various aspects of human life, such as behaviour, thinking, perceptions and attitudes. This article examines the similarities and differences in the influence of culture on teacher commitment in three types of Malaysian primary schools. Since commitment to teaching has rarely been…

  5. Role Performance and Commitment to the Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Jack L.

    Report examines the relationships between the power exercised by an organization, commitment to the organization, and task performance, using the theory of compliance proposed by Etzioni for the following hypotheses: (1) Organizations relying mostly on normative power tend to elicit more commitment from lower participants than do organizations…

  6. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment of the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Ruta J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the issue of involuntary outpatient commitment, and its implications for social workers working in the health system. Describes a nationwide movement to establish a new system of involuntary outpatient commitment to address the failure of deinstitutionalization, mandating mental health treatment in the community for persons ineligible for…

  7. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  8. Predictors of Commitment to Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: In order for athletic training students to be successful in any athletic training education program (ATEP), a certain level of commitment to the program and profession is required. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of the sport commitment model (SCM) to an ATEP by applying the SCM in an academic setting…

  9. Education on the Internet: Anonymity vs. Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that learning a skill requires the kind of commitment which is undermined by the Press (the Public) and the Internet, citing Soren Kierkegaard's "The Present Age", and states that learning by apprenticeship is impossible in cyberspace. Includes: aesthetic sphere--commitment to the enjoyment of sheer information; ethical sphere--turning…

  10. [Infanticide committed by the mother].

    PubMed

    Marleau, J D; Roy, R; Laporte, L; Webanck, T; Poulin, B

    1995-04-01

    Using data gathered at the Institut Philippe Pinel in Montréal, we shall describe the sociodemographic and psychiatric profile of a sample of 17 women who have killed (n = 14) or attempted to kill (n = 3) one of their children. Our data indicate that women who have committed this type of offence generally come from a disadvantaged socioeconomic environment. Most have a psychiatric history (evaluation and/or hospitalization). Review of the offence demonstrates that most women do not use a weapon to kill their child; the preferred methods are strangulation or drowning. Most of these offences may be classified as extended suicide or altruistic acts. Several of the women present with a severe personality disorder and an additional depressive episode in the context of the offence. We hope our study will help clarify understanding of filicide and assist in the development of certain prevention axes. These results indicate that the population at large and various intervenors in our society (family physicians, psychiatrists, criminologists, social workers, pediatricians, psychologists, gynecologists) must become increasingly vigilant and avoid trivialization of signals such as verbalization of homicidal thoughts about the child or recourse to certain disorganized behaviours. PMID:7606704

  11. How Do Different Types of Community Commitment Influence Brand Commitment? The Mediation of Brand Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management. PMID:23768073

  12. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  13. Changes in the channel-bed level of the eastern Carpathian rivers: Climatic vs. human control over the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rădoane, Maria; Obreja, Florin; Cristea, Ionuţ; Mihailă, Dumitru

    2013-07-01

    This paper is focused on the changes over the past 50 years in the channel beds of seven major rivers that are part of the Siret drainage basin located in eastern Romania. Each river has been subjected to various degrees of human intervention, assessed based on the morphological quality index (MQI): two rivers (Siret and Bistrita) have undergone complex human interventions on 40 and 60%, respectively, of their channel lengths, two rivers (Suceava and Moldova) are 30% artificial, and the remaining three rivers (Trotus, Putna, and Buzău) have a good or moderate MQI. The changes occurring in channel beds and data on water discharge (Qw) and sediment load (Qs) were assessed simultaneously for the last 50 years. The bedload was indirectly evaluated as ranging between 5 and 15% of the total sediment load. It was determined that incision was prevalent among the processes acting on the channel-bed sections under investigation (representing 62% of the altered area and changing bed level by between - 0.25 and - 2.70 m), with aggradation accounting for the remaining 38% (causing changes ranging from + 0.15 to + 1.25 m). The magnitude of the processes (incision or aggradation) for sections with an MQI < 0.3 was four times higher than for sections with a moderate or good MQI (> 0.3). The pattern of change in the channel-bed processes between 1960 and 2010 for all river categories was as follows: a low rate of incision from 1960 to 1979, followed by a higher rate of incision from 1980 to 1989, and finally a tendency of recovery toward the river's initial state, characterised by a decrease in the incision rate or slight aggradation after 1990. The variable that exhibited the strongest response to climate conditions was water discharge (Qw), whereas the sediment load (Qs) was highly responsive to both climatic signals and anthropogenic factors. The sediment load has been instrumental in the adjustments of the channel beds by maintaining a balance between the two controlling

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  18. 38 CFR 14.701 - Commitment and restoration proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate court. (3) Illegal commitment. When a hospitalized veteran, previously committed to the Department... safety or the safety of others, and the Regional Counsel determines the commitment to be...

  19. 38 CFR 14.701 - Commitment and restoration proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appropriate court. (3) Illegal commitment. When a hospitalized veteran, previously committed to the Department... safety or the safety of others, and the Regional Counsel determines the commitment to be...

  20. Long-term outcome of 73 Zweymüller total hip prostheses with a screw cup in patients under 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Busch, Vincentius J J F; Pouw, Martin H; Laumen, Armand M R P; van Susante, Job L C; Vervest, Antonius M J S

    2012-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty in young patients is associated with high failure rates and the best option for this demanding group of patients remains controversial. We report the long-term results of 73 consecutive Zweymüller total hip arthroplasties with a titanium threaded cup and a polyethylene insert in 67 patients aged under 50 years at the time of surgery (mean 43 years, range 23-49). Independent assessment was performed clinically and radiographically, and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine survival for different end-points. Three hips were revised for septic loosening, three cups for aseptic loosening and one hip because of a periprosthetic fracture. Three patients (3 hips) died and seven patients (8 hips) were lost to radiographic follow-up without any reoperation. The mean follow-up was 17.5 (15-21) years and the mean HHS was 90 (52-100). Survival with an end-point of revision for any reason was 89% (95% C.I. 85-93) and of revision for aseptic loosening was 94% (C.I. 95-99) at 17 years. Zweymüller total hip arthroplasty with a titanium threaded cup and a polyethylene insert showed good long-term results, even in this group of young patients. PMID:22740279

  1. Development of numerical models for injury biomechanics research: a review of 50 years of publications in the Stapp Car Crash Conference.

    PubMed

    Yang, King H; Hu, Jingwen; White, Nicholas A; King, Albert I; Chou, Clifford C; Prasad, Priya

    2006-11-01

    Numerical analyses frequently accompany experimental investigations that study injury biomechanics and improvements in automotive safety. Limited by computational speed, earlier mathematical models tended to simplify the system under study so that a set of differential equations could be written and solved. Advances in computing technology and analysis software have enabled the development of many sophisticated models that have the potential to provide a more comprehensive understanding of human impact response, injury mechanisms, and tolerance. In this article, 50 years of publications on numerical modeling published in the Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings and Journal were reviewed. These models were based on: (a) author-developed equations and software, (b) public and commercially available programs to solve rigid body dynamic models (such as MVMA2D, CAL3D or ATB, and MADYMO), and (c) finite element models. A clear trend that can be observed is the increasing use of the finite element method for model development. A review of these modeling papers clearly indicates the progression of the state-of-the-art in computational methods and technologies in injury biomechanics. PMID:17311173

  2. Soil water capture trends over 50 years of single-cross maize (Zea mays L.) breeding in the US corn-belt.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Andres; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L; Liu, Lu; van Oosterom, Erik; Lafitte, Renee; Cooper, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Breeders have successfully improved maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield for the conditions of the US corn-belt over the past 80 years, with the past 50 years utilizing single-cross hybrids. Long-term improvement for grain yield under water-limited conditions has also been reported. Grain yield under water-limited conditions depends on water use, water use efficiency, and harvest index. It has been hypothesized that long-term genetic gain for yield could be due, in part, to increased water capture from the soil. This hypothesis was tested using a set of elite single-cross hybrids that were released by DuPont Pioneer between 1963 and 2009. Eighteen hybrids were grown in the field during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at Woodland, CA, USA. Crops grew predominantly on stored soil water and drought stress increased as the season progressed. Soil water content was measured to 300cm depth throughout the growing season. Significant water extraction occurred to a depth of 240-300cm and seasonal water use was calculated from the change in soil water over this rooting zone. Grain yield increased significantly with year of commercialization, but no such trend was observed for total water extraction. Therefore, the measured genetic gain for yield for the period represented by this set of hybrids must be related to either increased efficiency of water use or increased carbon partitioning to the grain, rather than increased soil water uptake.

  3. PAH fluxes in the Laja Lake of south central Chile Andes over the last 50 years: evidence from a dated sediment core.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Roberto; Popp, Peter; Urrutia, Roberto; Bauer, Coretta; Araneda, Alberto; Treutler, Hanns-Christian; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-10-15

    This paper reports the occurrence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposition inferred from a sediment core of an Andean lake in south central Chile. Sediments were carefully collected from one of the deepest section of the lake and sliced every 1 cm. The samples were analyzed for PAHs, (137)Cs, (210)Pb, organic carbon and grain-size. The stratigraphic chronology and the sedimentation rates were estimated using the sedimentary signature left by the (137)Cs and (210)Pb fallout as temporal markers. PAHs were quantified by HPLC-fluorescence detection (HPLC-Fluorescence). 15 priority EPA PAHs were analyzed in this study. Based on these results, PAH deposition over the last 50 years was estimated (a period characterized by an important intervention in the area). PAH concentration ranged from 226 to 620 ng g(-1) d.w. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found in the core's bottom. The PAH profile is dominated by the presence of perylene indicating a natural source of PAH. In addition, two clear PAH deposition periods could be determined: the most recent with two-four rings PAHs, the older one with five-seven rings predomination. Determined fluxes where 71 to 972 microg m(-2) year(-1), dominated by perylene deposition. PAH levels and fluxes are lower compared to the levels found in sediments from remote lakes in Europe and North America. It is concluded that the main source of PAHs into the Laja Lake sediments are of natural origin.

  4. Caesium-137 in sandy sediments of the River Loire (France): Assessment of an alluvial island evolving over the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Détriché, Sébastien; Rodrigues, Stéphane; Macaire, Jean-Jacques; Bonté, Philippe; Bréhéret, Jean-Gabriel; Bakyono, Jean-Paul; Jugé, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    Recent sedimentological and morphological evolution of an island in the River Loire (France) was investigated using the 137Cs method. This study describes the morphological adjustment of the island in the last 50 years, which corresponds to the increased bed incision of this sandy, multiple-channel environment because of, among other things, the increase in sediment extraction up to 1995. The results show that some 137Cs can be retained by sandy particles, potentially in clay minerals forming weathering features included in detrital sand grains. From a morphological perspective, significant lateral erosion can be observed in the upstream part of the island, while a weak lateral accretion occurs in its downstream section. Data about 137Cs and aerial photographs show that the morphology of the island margins has undergone significant changes leading to a lateral migration, while the centre of the island has remained relatively stable or is slowly eroding. The migration of the island depends on: (1) the withdrawal of inherited preincision morphological units, such as levees, or the development of new units, such as a channel shelf; (2) water and sediment supply from surrounding channels during flood events; (3) preferential sediment trapping (20 mm year - 1 ) from the presence of riparian vegetation on the bank of the secondary channel that is subject to narrowing. The sedimentological and morphological response of the island in the context of incision of the Loire river bed is expressed mainly by lateral migration and secondarily by a low vertical adjustment.

  5. Hanford Area 1990 population and 50-year projections. [Appendix contains computer programming for population projections and graphs showing them by grid areas

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Scott, M.J.; Shindle, S.F.; Napier, B.A.; Thurman, A.G.; Batishko, N.C. ); Davis, M.D. ); Pittenger, D.B. )

    1991-10-01

    The complex and comprehensive safety analysis activities carried out at Hanford for nonreactor nuclear facilities require data from a number of scientific and engineering disciplines. The types of data that are required include data pertaining to current population and population projections. The types of data found in this document include 1990 census totals for residential population within a 50-mile radius of the 100-N, 200, 300, and 400 Area meteorological towers. This document also contains 50-year projections for residential populations within a 50-mile radius of these four meteorological towers. The analysis of population projections indicates that residential population within a 50-mile radius of the four meteorological towers in question will continue to grow through 2040, although at a slower rate each decade. In all cases, the highest growth is projected for the decade ending in the year 2000. The annual growth rate for this period is projected to be 0.646, 0.633, 0.543, and 0.570 in the 100-N, 200, 300, and 400 Areas, respectively. By 2040, these growth rates are projected to drop to 0.082, 0.068, 0.078, 0.078, respectively. 4 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. [The changes in values and beliefs through the first 50 years of the department of Psychiatry at the University of Montreal].

    PubMed

    Borgeat, François; Dongier, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe and discuss the major changes in values and fundamental beliefs related to clinical practice within the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal since its creation fifty years ago.Being an essay, the methods include shared recollections, discussions with colleagues, especially between the co-authors, and the study of some documents related to the practice of psychiatry 40 to 50 years ago.Five major axes of change are proposed: 1- From psychoanalysis to brain diseases, 2- From "Can a non-physician practice psychoanalysis?" to "Can a psychiatrist still perform psychotherapy?" 3- From continuity of care to episodes of treatment, 4- From treatment first to repeated assessments of patients, 5- From love that can heal and repair to a taboo of love.Finally it is suggested that the increasing emphasis on psychopharmacology and on DSM classifications has contributed to a shift from attempts to understand the intimate nature of symptoms and suffering to a priority given to rather mechanical clinical assessments in search of "objective" criteria. PMID:26559213

  7. Long-term outcome of 73 Zweymüller total hip prostheses with a screw cup in patients under 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Busch, Vincentius J J F; Pouw, Martin H; Laumen, Armand M R P; van Susante, Job L C; Vervest, Antonius M J S

    2012-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty in young patients is associated with high failure rates and the best option for this demanding group of patients remains controversial. We report the long-term results of 73 consecutive Zweymüller total hip arthroplasties with a titanium threaded cup and a polyethylene insert in 67 patients aged under 50 years at the time of surgery (mean 43 years, range 23-49). Independent assessment was performed clinically and radiographically, and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine survival for different end-points. Three hips were revised for septic loosening, three cups for aseptic loosening and one hip because of a periprosthetic fracture. Three patients (3 hips) died and seven patients (8 hips) were lost to radiographic follow-up without any reoperation. The mean follow-up was 17.5 (15-21) years and the mean HHS was 90 (52-100). Survival with an end-point of revision for any reason was 89% (95% C.I. 85-93) and of revision for aseptic loosening was 94% (C.I. 95-99) at 17 years. Zweymüller total hip arthroplasty with a titanium threaded cup and a polyethylene insert showed good long-term results, even in this group of young patients.

  8. The "CEO" of women's work lives: how Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness predict 50 years of work experiences in a changing sociocultural context.

    PubMed

    George, Linda G; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2011-10-01

    Few long-term longitudinal studies have examined how dimensions of personality are related to work lives, especially in women. We propose a life-course framework for studying work over time, from preparatory activities (in the 20s) to descending work involvement (after age 60), using 50 years of life data from the women in the Mills Longitudinal Study. We hypothesized differential work effects for Extraversion (work as pursuit of rewards), Openness (work as self-actualization), and Conscientiousness (work as duty) and measured these 3 traits as predictor variables when the women were still in college. In a prospective longitudinal design, we then studied how these traits predicted the women's subsequent work lives from young adulthood to age 70 and how these effects depended on the changing sociocultural context. Specifically, the young adulthood of the Mills women in the mid-1960s was rigidly gender typed and family oriented; neither work nor education variables at that time were predicted from earlier personality traits. However, as women's roles changed, later work variables became related to all 3 traits, as expected from current Big Five theory and research. For example, early personality traits predicted the timing of involvement in work, the kinds of jobs chosen, and the status and satisfaction achieved, as well as continued work participation and financial security in late adulthood. Early traits were also linked to specific cultural influences, such as the traditional feminine role, the women's movement, and graduate education for careers. PMID:21859225

  9. Malignant mesotheliomas in former miners and millers of crocidolite at Wittenoom (Western Australia) after more than 50 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Berry, G; Reid, A; Aboagye-Sarfo, P; de Klerk, N H; Olsen, N J; Merler, E; Franklin, P; Musk, A W

    2012-01-01

    Background: To report the number of malignant pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas that have occurred in former Wittenoom crocidolite workers to the end of 2008, to compare this with earlier predictions, and to relate the mesothelioma rate to amount of exposure. Methods: A group of 6489 men and 419 women who had worked for the company operating the former Wittenoom crocidolite mine and mill at some time between 1943 and 1966 have been followed up throughout Australia and Italy to the end of 2008. Results: The cumulative number of mesotheliomas up to 2008 was 316 in men (268 pleural, 48 peritoneal) and 13 (all pleural) in women. There had been 302 deaths with mesothelioma in men and 13 in women, which was almost 10% of all known deaths. Mesothelioma rate, both pleural and peritoneal, increased with time since first exposure and appeared to reach a plateau after about 40 to 50 years. The mesothelioma rate increased with amount of exposure and the peritoneal mesotheliomas occurred preferentially in the highest exposure group, 37% compared with 15% overall. Conclusion: By the end of 2008, the number of mesothelioma deaths had reached 4.7% for all the male workers and 3.1% for the females. Over the past 8 years the numbers were higher than expected. It is predicted that about another 60 to 70 deaths with mesothelioma may occur in men by 2020. PMID:22315054

  10. [Carbon monoxide poisoning: clinical features of the victims of the explosion accident of Mitsui-Miike Mikawa coal mine 50 years ago].

    PubMed

    Kato, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning have been described in 24 victims of an intense explosion accident of the Mitsui-Miike Mikawa coal mine in Japan 50 years ago; these victims were admitted to the Kyushu University Hospital as they suffered from severe poisoning. In the early stage of poisoning, all victims showed disturbed state of consciousness, varying in duration from 5.5 hours to 3 months, and the duration of unconsciousness was closely correlated to the clinical severity in the late stage. Some of the severely poisoned patients showed a transient stage of apallic syndrome. After recovery from unconsciousness, all patients presented with severe amnestic syndrome and loss of initiative. Neurologically, the extrapyramidal signs were prominent in the early stage, which gradually improved in the late stage. Variable types of agnosia and apraxia were apparent in some of the severely and moderately poisoned patients in the late stage, with prominent Gerstmann syndrome and visual-visuospatial agnosias. Since these signs showed poor improvement, the agnosia and apraxia, as well as impaired intellectual ability, remained as a sequela of the poisoning, and were one of the major causes of deficits of the patients in their daily life activities in the late stage.

  11. Mortgage Delinquency and Changes in Access to Health Resources and Depressive Symptoms in a Nationally Representative Cohort of Americans Older Than 50 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Jennifer; Pagán, José A.; Pollack, Craig E.; Shardell, Michelle; Cannuscio, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated associations between mortgage delinquency and changes in health and health-relevant resources over 2 years, with data from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal survey representative of US adults older than 50 years. Methods. In 2008, participants reported whether they had fallen behind on mortgage payments since 2006 (n = 2474). We used logistic regression to compare changes in health (incidence of elevated depressive symptoms, major declines in self-rated health) and access to health-relevant resources (food, prescription medications) between participants who fell behind on their mortgage payments and those who did not. Results. Compared with nondelinquent participants, the mortgage-delinquent group had worse health status and less access to health-relevant resources at baseline. They were also significantly more likely to develop incident depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 8.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.38, 21.85), food insecurity (OR = 7.53; 95% CI = 3.01, 18.84), and cost-related medication nonadherence (OR = 8.66; 95% CI = 3.72, 20.16) during follow-up. Conclusions. Mortgage delinquency was associated with significant elevations in the incidence of mental health impairments and health-relevant material disadvantage. Widespread mortgage default may have important public health implications. PMID:22021301

  12. Soil water capture trends over 50 years of single-cross maize (Zea mays L.) breeding in the US corn-belt

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Andres; Messina, Carlos D.; Hammer, Graeme L.; Liu, Lu; van Oosterom, Erik; Lafitte, Renee; Cooper, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Breeders have successfully improved maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield for the conditions of the US corn-belt over the past 80 years, with the past 50 years utilizing single-cross hybrids. Long-term improvement for grain yield under water-limited conditions has also been reported. Grain yield under water-limited conditions depends on water use, water use efficiency, and harvest index. It has been hypothesized that long-term genetic gain for yield could be due, in part, to increased water capture from the soil. This hypothesis was tested using a set of elite single-cross hybrids that were released by DuPont Pioneer between 1963 and 2009. Eighteen hybrids were grown in the field during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at Woodland, CA, USA. Crops grew predominantly on stored soil water and drought stress increased as the season progressed. Soil water content was measured to 300cm depth throughout the growing season. Significant water extraction occurred to a depth of 240–300cm and seasonal water use was calculated from the change in soil water over this rooting zone. Grain yield increased significantly with year of commercialization, but no such trend was observed for total water extraction. Therefore, the measured genetic gain for yield for the period represented by this set of hybrids must be related to either increased efficiency of water use or increased carbon partitioning to the grain, rather than increased soil water uptake. PMID:26428065

  13. Novel mutations in the VKORC1 gene of wild rats and mice – a response to 50 years of selection pressure by warfarin?

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Simone; Pelz, Hans-Joachim; Menzel, Sandra; MacNicoll, Alan D; León, Vanina; Song, Ki-Joon; Jäkel, Thomas; Oldenburg, Johannes; Müller, Clemens R

    2009-01-01

    Background Coumarin derivatives have been in world-wide use for rodent pest control for more than 50 years. Due to their retarded action as inhibitors of blood coagulation by repression of the vitamin K reductase (VKOR) activity, they are the rodenticides of choice against several species. Resistance to these compounds has been reported for rodent populations from many countries around the world and poses a considerable problem for efficacy of pest control. Results In the present study, we have sequenced the VKORC1 genes of more than 250 rats and mice trapped in anticoagulant-exposed areas from four continents, and identified 18 novel and five published missense mutations, as well as eight neutral sequence variants, in a total of 178 animals. Mutagenesis in VKORC1 cDNA constructs and their recombinant expression revealed that these mutations reduced VKOR activities as compared to the wild-type protein. However, the in vitro enzyme assay used was not suited to convincingly demonstrate the warfarin resistance of all mutant proteins Conclusion Our results corroborate the VKORC1 gene as the main target for spontaneous mutations conferring warfarin resistance. The mechanism(s) of how mutations in the VKORC1 gene mediate insensitivity to coumarins in vivo has still to be elucidated. PMID:19200363

  14. Role of research and regulation in 50 years of pest management in agriculture. Prepared for the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Willis B

    2002-07-17

    Pest management techniques have evolved over the past 50 years. Inorganic chemical pesticides were replaced by synthetic organic chemicals, and now biopesticides constitute a significant part of pest management technology. Requirements for the regulatory approval of pesticides changed dramatically in 1996 with the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). The FQPA directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to make more rigorous and conservative evaluation of risks and hazards and mandates a special emphasis on the safety of infants and children. The EPA provides incentives for the industry to register materials that are designated "reduced risk". The future for the registrant industry will include continued reduction in numbers of registrants through mergers and acquisitions. Conventional chemicals will remain as important pest management components, and the processes of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput bioassays will allow the rapid synthesis and testing of large numbers of candidate compounds. Biopesticides will become more important tools in pest management, with microbial pesticides and transgenic crops being likely to play important crop protection roles. There will be a continuing need for research-based approaches to pest control.

  15. Phylogeography of circulating populations of human echovirus 30 over 50 years: nucleotide polymorphism and signature of purifying selection in the VP1 capsid protein gene.

    PubMed

    Bailly, J-L; Mirand, A; Henquell, C; Archimbaud, C; Chambon, M; Charbonné, F; Traoré, O; Peigue-Lafeuille, H

    2009-07-01

    A comprehensive set of 443 1D gene sequences (encoding the VP1 capsid protein) was analyzed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary patterns among strains of human echovirus 30 (E30; genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae) characterized over 50 years. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic trees of complete and nonredundant 1D gene sequences (total length=876 nucleotides) showed evidence of distinct lineages related to the isolation period of virus strains. Virus transportation was confirmed as a major epidemiological factor in the appearance of epidemics since recurrence of aseptic meningitis outbreaks in a given geographic area was associated with distinct E30 variants detected earlier in distant regions. Detection of the codon changes associated with E30 evolution was investigated with methods implemented in the Datamonkey web server. Evolution of the 1D gene was dominated by continual negative (purifying) selection against nonsynonymous substitutions at most codon sites, as determined by dN/dS ratio. Amino acid polymorphism was maintained at a limited number of sites (10/292) in the VP1 protein (within loops connecting beta strands and C-terminus). Amino acid changes are allowed at these sites because they are likely exposed on the virion particle and nonsynonymous substitutions are observed in the corresponding codons because negative selection is relaxed.

  16. Outpatient commitment: a therapeutic jurisprudence analysis.

    PubMed

    Winick, Bruce J

    2003-01-01

    This article analyzes the legal and therapeutic jurisprudence considerations raised by outpatient commitment. Although older forms of outpatient commitment have both legal and therapeutic advantages, preventive outpatient commitment raises serious legal problems and potential antitherapeutic consequences that may outweigh its claimed therapeutic value. As a result, alternatives are proposed, including wider availability of community treatment and outreach and case management services, assertive community treatment, police and mental health court diversion programs, and creative uses of advanced directive instruments and behavioral contracting. Proposals also are made for how preventive outpatient commitment can be applied more therapeutically, including hearings that accord patients a sense of procedural justice and techniques designed to motivate individuals facing such hearings to agree to accept treatment voluntarily. PMID:16700139

  17. Sexually violent predators and civil commitment laws.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Wanda D Beyer; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review Websites identify 16 states that have civil commitment statutes to address the problem and treatment of SVPs, four states that are in the process of passing such laws, six states that failed to enact proposed statutes, six states that lack SVP legislation, and 18 states that do not have relevant data available. The majority of such laws have created a false sense of safety because they address only convicted sex offenders. New approaches to the civil commitment of sexually violent predators have created multifaceted demands, controversy, ethical dilemmas, and learning opportunities. It is advised that research should be focused on the parameters of sexually violent behaviors, program flexibility, and treatment effectiveness.

  18. A practical quantum bit commitment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.

  19. Outpatient commitment: what, why, and for whom.

    PubMed

    Torrey, E F; Zdanowicz, M

    2001-03-01

    The authors describe studies showing the effectiveness of involuntary outpatient commitment in improving treatment compliance, reducing hospital readmission, and reducing episodes of violence among persons with severe psychiatric illnesses. They point out that because of its role in enhancing compliance with treatment, outpatient commitment can be regarded as a form of assisted treatment, such as assertive case management, representative payeeship, and mental health courts. The authors argue that such assisted treatment is necessary for persons with severe psychiatric illnesses who are noncompliant with their medication regimens because many lack awareness of their illnesses because of biologically based cognitive deficits. They recommend outpatient commitment for any individual with a severe psychiatric disorder who has impaired awareness of his or her illness and is at risk of becoming homeless, incarcerated, or violent or of committing suicide, and they provide case examples. The authors conclude by addressing eight of the most common objections to outpatient commitment by mental health professionals and civil liberties groups that oppose outpatient commitment.

  20. Dysplasia of the contralateral hip in patients with unilateral late-detected congenital dislocation of the hip: 50 years' follow-up of 48 patients.

    PubMed

    Terjesen, T

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of dysplasia in the 'normal' contralateral hip in patients with unilateral developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH) and to evaluate the long-term prognosis of such hips. A total of 48 patients (40 girls and eight boys) were treated for late-detected unilateral DDH between 1958 and 1962. After preliminary skin traction, closed reduction was achieved at a mean age of 17.8 months (4 to 65) in all except one patient who needed open reduction. In 25 patients early derotation femoral osteotomy of the contralateral hip had been undertaken within three years of reduction, and later surgery in ten patients. Radiographs taken during childhood and adulthood were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 50.9 years (43 to 55) at the time of the latest radiological review. In all, eight patients (17%) developed dysplasia of the contralateral hip, defined as a centre-edge (CE) angle < 20° during childhood or at skeletal maturity. Six of these patients underwent surgery to improve cover of the femoral head; the dysplasia improved in two after varus femoral osteotomy and in two after an acetabular shelf operation. During long-term follow-up the dysplasia deteriorated to subluxation in two patients (CE angles 4° and 5°, respectively) who both developed osteoarthritis (OA), and one of these underwent total hip replacement at the age of 49 years. In conclusion, the long-term prognosis for the contralateral hip was relatively good, as OA occurred in only two hips (4%) at a mean follow-up of 50 years. Regular review of the 'normal' side is indicated, and corrective surgery should be undertaken in those who develop subluxation. PMID:25183584

  1. Use of anchoring vignettes to evaluate health reporting behavior amongst adults aged 50 years and above in Africa and Asia – testing assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier; Oti, Samuel; Debpuur, Cornelius; Juvekar, Sanjay; Tollman, Stephen; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Ng, Nawi

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparing self-rating health responses across individuals and cultures is misleading due to different reporting behaviors. Anchoring vignettes is a technique that allows identifying and adjusting self-rating responses for reporting heterogeneity (RH). Objective This article aims to test two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE) and response consistency (RC) that are required to be met before vignettes can be used to adjust self-rating responses for RH. Design We used self-ratings, vignettes, and objective measures covering domains of mobility and cognition from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health, administered to older adults aged 50 years and above from eight low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. For VE, we specified a hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT) model to test for equality of perceived vignette locations. For RC, we tested for equality of thresholds that are used to rate vignettes with thresholds derived from objective measures and used to rate their own health function. Results There was evidence of RH in self-rating responses for difficulty in mobility and cognition. Assumptions of VE and RC between countries were violated driven by age, sex, and education. However, within a country context, assumption of VE was met in some countries (mainly in Africa, except Tanzania) and violated in others (mainly in Asia, except India). Conclusion We conclude that violation of assumptions of RC and VE precluded the use of anchoring vignettes to adjust self-rated responses for RH across countries in Asia and Africa. PMID:24011254

  2. How many orthopedic surgeons does it take to write a research article? 50 years of authorship proliferation in and internationalization of the orthopedic surgery literature.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Luthfur; Muirhead-Allwood, Sarah K

    2010-07-13

    Publications are considered to indicate academic achievement and can lead to various rewards, including job opportunities and research funding. Recent years have seen a rising trend in the number of articles published, multiple authorship, and internationalization of the biomedical literature. The goal of this study was to analyze the trends in authorship over the past 50 years to determine whether the orthopedic literature parallels trends seen in other areas of the biomedical literature. We performed an observational study with analysis of the number of authors and geographic origin of articles published in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery British Volume (JBJS) and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (CORR). We analyzed 2776 articles (CORR, n=1809; JBJS, n=967) published between 1958 and 2008 at 10-year intervals. There has been a significant increase in the mean number of authors per article from 1.638 to 4.08 (P<.0001) and 1.633 to 4.540 (P<.0001) for CORR and JBJS, respectively between 1958 and 2008. There has been a significant increase in the international contribution to both journals (P<.0001). The number of countries contributing to articles increased from 5 to 39 and from 17 to 33 for CORR and JBJS, respectively. These findings are similar to other areas of the biomedical literature. The reasons for this proliferation are multifactorial, including multicenter trials and inappropriate authorship. Guidelines for authorship and preparation of manuscripts from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors or from individual journals are widely available, and every effort should be made to adhere to them to prevent inappropriate authorship proliferation in the future.

  3. Assessment of universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in six middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Frenz, Patricia; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Keil, Thomas; Tinnemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Methods We obtained data on 16 631 participants aged 50 years or older who had at least one diagnosed chronic condition from the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Access to basic chronic care and financial hardship were assessed and the influence of health insurance and rural or urban residence was determined by logistic regression analysis. Findings The weighted proportion of participants with access to basic chronic care ranged from 20.6% in Mexico to 47.6% in South Africa. Access rates were unequally distributed and disadvantaged poor people, except in South Africa where primary health care is free to all. Rural residence did not affect access. The proportion with catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure for the last outpatient visit ranged from 14.5% in China to 54.8% in Ghana. Financial hardship was more common among the poor in most countries but affected all income groups. Health insurance generally increased access to care but gave insufficient protection against financial hardship. Conclusion No country provided access to basic chronic care for more than half of the participants with chronic illness. The poor were less likely to receive care and more likely to face financial hardship in most countries. However, inequity of access was not fully determined by the level of economic development or insurance coverage. Future health reforms should aim to improve service quality and increase democratic oversight of health care. PMID:27034521

  4. 50-year return-period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

    2014-11-01

    Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or long-term applications with positive results. New standard like CENELEC EN 580341-1 (2012) take into account characteristic loads, i.e. 50-year return-period loads, for the overhead line design. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model, as described in ISO 12494 standard (2001), annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a peak-over-threshold (POT) method. A practical method to determine the 90% confidence intervals of those characteristic values is given. As it is demonstrated that there is only one value of the ice class (IC) masses proposed by ISO 12494 in each confidence interval, characteristic loads can be easily expressed in terms of ICs. That method shows that ICs ranging from R1 (0.5 kg m-1) to R5 (5 kg m-1) could be used for overhead line design in France.

  5. A 50-years record of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes and hexachlorocyclohexanes in lake sediments and penguin droppings on King George Island, Maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-guang; Yin, Xue-bin; Pan, Can-ping; Wang, Yu-hong

    2005-01-01

    Since the ban on the use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH) in agriculture, their levels have generally dropped. In a number of cases, however, the levels of these OCPs were found to be unchanging or even increasing after the ban. With the aim to unveil the possible causes of these exceptions, we collected two lake cores from King George Island, West Antarctica, and determined their accumulation flux profiles and temporal trends of these OCPs. In the lake core sediments with glacier meltwater input, the accumulation flux of DDT shows an abnormal peak around 1980s in addition to the expected one in 1960s. In the lake core sediments without glacier meltwater input, the accumulation flux of DDT shows a gradual decline trend after the peak in 1960s. This striking difference in the DDT flux profiles between the two lake cores is most likely caused by the regional climate warming and the resulted discharge of the DDT stored in the Antarctic ice cap into the lakes in the Antarctic glacier frontier. Furthermore, to investigate the change of OCPs loadings in the Antarctic coastal ecosystem, we reconstructed the HCH and DDT concentration profiles in penguin droppings and observed a gradual increase for the former and a continuous decrease for the latter during the past 50 years. The increase of HCH seems to be due to the regional warming from the early 1970s and the resulted HCH discharge to the coastal ecosystem by glaciers' meltwater and the illegal use of HCH in the Southern Hemisphere in the recent decade. Thedifferent temporal trends of HCH and DDT accumulation rate in the lake core with glacier meltwater input and the aged penguin droppings can be explained by their different water-soluble property.

  6. Interaction of the recent 50 year SST trend and La Niña 2010: amplification of the Southern Annular Mode and Australian springtime rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Chung, Christine; Moise, Aurel F.; Hope, Pandora; Young, Griffith; Zhao, Mei

    2016-10-01

    Australia experienced record high rainfall in austral spring 2010, which has previously been attributed to the concurrence of a strong La Niña event and a strong positive excursion of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). In this study, we examine the role of the sea surface temperature (SST) trend over the recent 50 years, which has large warming over the tropical Indian, western Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, in driving the extraordinary climate conditions of spring 2010, using the Australian Bureau of Meteorology coupled model seasonal forecast system. Four forecast sensitivity experiments were designed by using randomly chosen atmospheric initial conditions but with: (1) observed ocean initial conditions for 1 September 2010; (2) the same ocean initial conditions except the linear temperature trend over the period 1960-2010 was removed; (3) ocean initial conditions in which the trend was added to the climatological ocean state for 1 September; and (4) climatological ocean conditions only. A synergistic response to the La Niña SST anomalies and the SST trend was detected: the tropical rainfall anomalies were amplified over the western side of the Indo-Pacific warm-pool, which led to a significant increase of tropical upper tropospheric warming and a resultant increase of meridional temperature gradient in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) extratropics. Consequently, the SH eddy-driven jet was shifted poleward (i.e. positive phase of the SAM), which induced rainfall over subtropical Australia. Our findings highlight that the interaction of interannual anomalies and the trend may play an important role in the amplification of extreme events.

  7. Comparison of transplant outcomes from matched sibling bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell and unrelated cord blood in patients 50 years or older.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takaaki; Tsukada, Nobuhiro; Kanda, Junya; Uchida, Naoyuki; Ohno, Yuju; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kanamori, Heiwa; Hidaka, Michihiro; Sakura, Toru; Onizuka, Makoto; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sawa, Masashi; Eto, Tetsuya; Matsuhashi, Yoshiko; Kato, Koji; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Miyamura, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    Older recipient and donor age were associated with higher incidences of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from matched sibling donors (MSDs) and matched unrelated donors. Since a lower incidence of severe GVHD is advantageous in unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT), a higher incidence of GVHD using older MSDs could be overcome using cord blood for older patients. We retrospectively analyzed Japanese registration data of 2,091 patients with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome aged 50 years or older who underwent MSD bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (n = 319), MSD peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) (n = 462), or unrelated CBT (n = 1,310) between 2007 and 2012. Median age of MSD was 56 (range, 38-74) years. Compared with CBT, the risk of developing extensive chronic GVHD was higher after BMT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.00; P = 0.001) or PBSCT (HR, 2.38; P < 0.001), and transplant-related mortality was lower after BMT (HR, 0.61; P < 0.001) or PBSCT (HR, 0.63; P < 0.001). Relapse rates were not significant difference between three groups. Although overall mortality was lower after BMT (HR, 0.67; P < 0.001) or PBSCT (HR, 0.75; P = 0.002) compared with CBT, the rates of a composite endpoint of GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were not significant difference between three groups. These data showed that MSDs remain the best donor source for older patients, but CBT led to similar GRFS to BMT and PBSCT.

  8. Comparison of transplant outcomes from matched sibling bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell and unrelated cord blood in patients 50 years or older.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takaaki; Tsukada, Nobuhiro; Kanda, Junya; Uchida, Naoyuki; Ohno, Yuju; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kanamori, Heiwa; Hidaka, Michihiro; Sakura, Toru; Onizuka, Makoto; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sawa, Masashi; Eto, Tetsuya; Matsuhashi, Yoshiko; Kato, Koji; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Miyamura, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    Older recipient and donor age were associated with higher incidences of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from matched sibling donors (MSDs) and matched unrelated donors. Since a lower incidence of severe GVHD is advantageous in unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT), a higher incidence of GVHD using older MSDs could be overcome using cord blood for older patients. We retrospectively analyzed Japanese registration data of 2,091 patients with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome aged 50 years or older who underwent MSD bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (n = 319), MSD peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) (n = 462), or unrelated CBT (n = 1,310) between 2007 and 2012. Median age of MSD was 56 (range, 38-74) years. Compared with CBT, the risk of developing extensive chronic GVHD was higher after BMT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.00; P = 0.001) or PBSCT (HR, 2.38; P < 0.001), and transplant-related mortality was lower after BMT (HR, 0.61; P < 0.001) or PBSCT (HR, 0.63; P < 0.001). Relapse rates were not significant difference between three groups. Although overall mortality was lower after BMT (HR, 0.67; P < 0.001) or PBSCT (HR, 0.75; P = 0.002) compared with CBT, the rates of a composite endpoint of GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were not significant difference between three groups. These data showed that MSDs remain the best donor source for older patients, but CBT led to similar GRFS to BMT and PBSCT. PMID:26910296

  9. Decision Support in a Changing and Contentious World--Successfully Supporting the Development of a 50-year Comprehensive Coastal Master Plan in Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, D.

    2014-12-01

    After the devastating 2005 hurricane season, Louisiana embarked on an ambitious and daunting effort to develop and implement a comprehensive Coastal Master Plan. The Master Plan sought to achieve two key goals simultaneously: reduce hurricane flood risk and halt the net conversion of its coastal landscape to open ocean. Numerous prior efforts to achieve these goals had been tried without significant success. In 2012, however, the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA) produced a 50-year, $50 billion Master Plan. It had broad support from a diverse and often adversarial set of stakeholders, and it was unanimously passed by the Louisiana legislature. In contrast to other efforts, CPRA took an approach to planning called by the U.S. National Research Council as "deliberation with analysis". Specifically, CPRA used data, models, and decision support tools not to define an optimal or best strategy, but instead to support stakeholder dialogue and deliberations over alterative coastal management strategies. RAND researchers, with the support of CPRA and other collaborators, developed the planning tool at the center of this process. The CPRA planning tool synthesized large amounts of information about how the coast might evolve over time with and without different combinations of hundreds of different projects and programs. The tool helped CPRA propose alternative strategies that could achieve the State's goals while also highlighting to stakeholders the key tradeoffs among them. Importantly, this process helped bring diverse communities together to support a single vision and specific set of projects and programs to meet many of Louisiana's coastal water resources challenges. This presentation will describe the planning approach and decision support tools developed to support the Master Plan's participatory stakeholder process. The presentation will also highlight several important key takeaway messages that have broad applicability to other water

  10. The effect of a senior jazz dance class on static balance in healthy women over 50 years of age: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wallmann, Harvey W; Gillis, Carrie B; Alpert, Patricia T; Miller, Sally K

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the impact of a senior jazz dance class on static balance for healthy women over 50 years of age using the NeuroCom Smart Balance Master System (Balance Master). A total of 12 healthy women aged 54-88 years completed a 15-week jazz dance class which they attended 1 time per week for 90 min per class. Balance data were collected using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) at baseline (pre), at 7 weeks (mid), and after 15 weeks (post). An equilibrium score measuring postural sway was calculated for each of six different conditions. The composite equilibrium score (all six conditions integrated to 1 score) was used as an overall measure of balance. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to compare the means of each participant's SOT composite equilibrium score in addition to the equilibrium score for each individual condition (1-6) across the 3 time points (pre, mid, post). There was a statistically significant difference among the means, p < .0005. Pairwise (Bonferroni) post hoc analyses revealed the following statistically significant findings for SOT composite equilibrium scores for the pre (67.33 + 10.43), mid (75.25 + 6.97), and post (79.00 + 4.97) measurements: premid (p = .008); prepost (p < .0005); midpost (p = .033). In addition, correlational statistics were used to determine any relationship between SOT scores and age. Results indicated that administration of a 15-week jazz dance class 1 time per week was beneficial in improving static balance as measured by the Balance Master SOT.

  11. The Archiv für Ohrenheilkunde (Archive of Otology): a structural analysis of the first 50 years (1864-1914).

    PubMed

    Peinhardt, Juliane; Plontke, Stefan K; Mudry, Albert; Steger, Florian

    2015-06-01

    In 1864, Anton von Tröltsch in Würzburg, Hermann Schwartze in Halle/Saale, and Adam Politzer in Vienna founded the Archiv für Ohrenheilkunde (Archive of Otology), the ancestor of the European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck. It was the world's first journal solely devoted to otology, and thus to otorhinolaryngology. The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of this journal and its contents during the first 50 years of its publication, until it definitively became an otorhinolaryngological journal in 1915. A total of 2,271 articles were registered during this time. They were classified according to content topic, article type, and the number of figures and graphs that they contained. Almost three-quarters of the articles were related to purely otological topics, as implied by the journal's title. Until the turn of the twentieth century, the majority of the articles were original papers or case reports. The number of original papers declined over the decades in favour of case reports. One-third of each volume usually consisted of a vast variety of items, such as congress announcements, conference proceedings, and book reviews. The journal also maintained a wide variety of scientific and current social and political subjects. Otological reviews and conference proceedings were key landmarks of the journal. All of these various papers provided an overview of the historical organisation and development of otology between 1864 and 1914. At that time, the Archiv für Ohrenheilkunde was a leading national and international journal.

  12. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  13. Association between Frailty, Osteoporosis, Falls and Hip Fractures among Community-Dwelling People Aged 50 Years and Older in Taiwan: Results from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Background Association of frailty with adverse clinical outcomes has been reported in Western countries, but data from the Asian population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population and to explore its association with musculoskeletal health in Taiwan. Methods I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) data were retrieved for this study. Frailty was defined by the Fried’s criteria; a comparison of demographic characteristics, physical performance, and body composition, including skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as recent falls, history of hip fractures and the functional status of subjects with different frailty statuses were accomplished. Results Overall, the data of 1,839 participants (mean age: 63.9±9.3 years, male 47.5%) were obtained for analysis. The prevalence of pre-frailty was 42.3% in men and 38.8% in women, whereas the prevalence of frailty was 6.9% and 6.7% in men and women, respectively. Frailty was significantly associated with older age, the male gender, larger waist circumference, lower skeletal muscle index, lower hip BMD, poorer physical function, poorer nutritional status, and poorer cognitive function. Also, frailty was significantly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 7.73, 95% CI: 5.01–11.90, p<0.001), history of hip fractures (OR: 8.66, 95% CI: 2.47–30.40, p = 0.001), and recent falls (O.R: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.35–4.76, p = 0.004). Conclusions Frailty and pre-frailty, in Taiwan, was closely associated with recent falls, history of hip fractures and osteoporosis among community-dwelling people 50 years of age and older. Furthermore, frailty intervention programs should take an integrated approach towards strengthening both and muscle mass, as well as prevention of falls. PMID:26348034

  14. The discovery of a new class of synaptic transmitters in smooth muscle 50 years ago and amelioration of coronary artery thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M R

    2013-02-01

    Clopidogrel and ticagrelor, antagonists to P2Y(12) receptor molecules on platelet membranes, significantly ameliorate acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery thrombosis, the most common cause of death in the developed world. A personal account is given here of the foundational research that lead to the identification of P2Y receptors, carried out 50 years ago in the Melbourne University Zoology Department headed by Geoffrey Burnstock. In Christmas 1962, I made the serendipitous observation of large hyperpolarizing changes across the membranes of smooth muscle cells in the taenia coli of the intestine on stimulating its nerve supply. I then showed that these potentials relaxed the muscle and were not due to noradrenaline or acetylcholine, which were then the only substances known to be released from nerves. I called these non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) terminals in the laboratory and showed that this NANC transmitter acted at receptor molecules on the muscle cells, promoting efflux of potassium ions, and so the observed potential changes. In 1968, Graeme Campbell showed that ATP relaxed the taenia coli muscle, and in 1969, David Satchell, using purine chromatography, showed that ATP was likely to be released from NANC terminals. The receptor molecules involved were shown to be exceptionally sensitive to 2-methylthio-ATP (Satchell and Macguire, 1975, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 195, 540), and so belonged to the class P2Y receptors as designated by Abbracchio and Burnstock, with subclasses P2Y(1)-P2Y(12). The discovery of the role of P2Y(12) receptors in increasing thrombosis lead to the focused research that resulted in clopidogrel and ticagrelor.

  15. Increasing Medical Practice Team Commitment: Twenty-Five Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Employee commitment is one of the most important principles of practice man- agement. Yet commitment is delicate; it must be carefully earned, and it can easily deteriorate. This article explores practical strategies the medical practice manager can use to assess, foster, and increase employee commitment. It de- fines commitment and how commitment is manifested in employee attitudes and behavior. It provides a 10-question guide medical practice managers can use to assess employee commitment, and a four-part roadmap that will inspire commitment through leadership. This article also offers 25 hands-on strate- gies to increase employee commitment, and more than a dozen questions to guide difficult conversations with employees when their commitment level to the medical practice is low or unclear. Finally, this article suggest four drivers of employee commitment and a five-part strategy medical practice managers can use to model commitment through their own leadership. PMID:27039637

  16. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  17. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to themore » uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.« less

  18. Civil commitment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Testa, Megan; West, Sara G

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the academic literature on the psychiatric practice of civil commitment. It provides an overview of the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States-from the creation of the first asylum and the era of institutionalization to the movement of deinstitutionalization. The ethical conflict that the practice of involuntary hospitalization presents for providers, namely the conflict between the ethical duties of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy, is presented. The evolution of the United States commitment standards, from being based on a right to treatment for patients with mental illness to being based on dangerousness, as well as the implications that the changes in commitment criteria has had on patients and society, are discussed. Involuntary hospitalization of patient populations that present unique challenges for psychiatry (e.g., not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees, sex offenders, and individuals with eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders) is discussed. Finally, an overview of outpatient commitment is provided. By reading this article, one will learn the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States and gain an understanding of the ethical issues that make civil commitment one of the most controversial practices in modern psychiatry.

  19. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to the uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.

  20. Civil commitment of the anorexic patient.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, P S; Rumpf, T

    1998-07-01

    Involuntary commitment appears to be an infrequently used intervention with anorexic patients, in part because of clinicians' uncertainty about its applicability to this population. In contrast to overtly suicidal patients, anorexic patients typically fail to express an intent to harm themselves, although their actions may result in severe harm. Examination of the language of civil commitment statutes, however, suggests that when the behavior of anorexic patients endangers their lives, they will usually be committable under grave disability standards. This appears to comport with the practices of experts in the treatment of anorexia, and with practices in other countries as well. Involuntary commitment should be used as an approach of last resort, when patients decline voluntary hospitalization and their physical safety is at risk. Moreover, civil commitment should probably also be limited to circumstances in which therapeutic gain is likely from hospitalization. Many severely ill anorexic patients will lack competence to make treatment decisions on their own behalf, allowing involuntary feeding and other procedures to take place, if necessary. Civil commitment is a tool that can legitimately be used in emergent situations with anorexic patients.

  1. Commitment and the Long-Term Marriage Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swensen, Clifford H.; Trahaug, Geir

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship of commitment in marriage and change in commitment over marriage to the expression of love and marriage problems among long-term Norwegian married couples. Results indicated that those who were committed to their spouses as persons had significantly fewer marriage problems. Those whose commitment increased expressed more…

  2. The Revised Commitment Inventory: Psychometrics and Use with Unmarried Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    The Commitment Inventory measures interpersonal commitment (dedication) and constraint commitment. Since it was first published, substantial revisions have been made, but there are no published data on the psychometric properties of the new version. Furthermore, little information is available on measuring commitment for unmarried couples. This…

  3. Commitment Elements Reframed (Antecedents & Consequences) for Organizational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra L.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify theories of commitment in the workplace to develop a framework that helps the field create higher levels of commitment, productivity, and satisfaction. The paper is organized into five main sections: the method, commitment in the workplace, mapping workplace commitment, and the implications for HRD and…

  4. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  5. Influence of Teacher Empowerment on Teachers' Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between teacher empowerment and teachers' organizational commitment, professional commitment (PC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It examines which subscales of teacher empowerment can best predict these outcomes. The data were collected through a questionnaire returned by a sample of…

  6. Perceived Sacrifice and Few Alternatives Commitments: The Motivational Underpinnings of Continuance Commitment's Subdimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Panaccio, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Using work on self-concepts and Conservation of Resources theory, the present research examined the motivational underpinnings of continuance commitment's subcomponents of perceived sacrifice and few alternatives. Study 1 (N=208) found job scope to be positively related to perceived sacrifice commitment, and negatively related to few alternatives…

  7. Effects of seabird nitrogen input on biomass and carbon accumulation after 50 years of primary succession on a young volcanic island, Surtsey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblans, N. I. W.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Roefs, P.; Thuys, R.; Magnússon, B.; Janssens, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    What happens during primary succession after the first colonizers have occupied a pristine surface largely depends on how they ameliorate living conditions for other species. For vascular plants the onset of soil development and associated increase in nutrient (mainly nitrogen; N) and water availability is especially important. Here, we report the relationship between N accumulation and biomass and ecosystem carbon (C) stocks in a 50-year-old volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland, where N stocks are still exceptionally low. However, a 28-year-old seagull colony on the island provided nutrient-enriched areas, which enabled us to assess the relationship between N stock and biomass and ecosystem C stocks across a much larger range in N stock. Further, we compared areas on shallow and deep tephra sands as we expected that deep-rooted systems would be more efficient in retaining N. The sparsely vegetated area outside the colony had accumulated 0.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which was ca. 50-60% of the estimated N input rate from wet deposition. This approximates values for systems under low N input and bare dune habitats. The seagulls have added, on average, 47 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which induced a shift from belowground to aboveground in ecosystem N and C stocks and doubled the ecosystem N-use efficiency, determined as the ratio of biomass and C storage per unit N input. Soil depth did not significantly affect total N stocks, which suggests a high N retention potential. Both total ecosystem biomass and C stocks were strongly correlated with N stock inside the colony, which indicated the important role of N during the first steps of primary succession. Inside the colony, the ecosystem biomass C stocks (17-27 ton C ha-1) had reached normal values for grasslands, while the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (4-10 ton C ha-1 were only a fraction of normal grassland values. Thus, it will take a long time until the SOC stock reaches equilibrium with the current primary production, during which

  8. Effects of seabird nitrogen input on biomass and carbon accumulation after 50 years of primary succession on a young volcanic island, Surtsey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblans, N. I. W.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Roefs, P.; Thuys, R.; Magnússon, B.; Janssens, I. A.

    2014-05-01

    What happens during primary succession after the first colonizers have occupied a pristine surface largely depends on how they ameliorate living conditions for other species. For vascular plants the onset of soil development and associated increase in nutrient (mainly nitrogen, N) and water availability is especially important. Here, we report the relation between N accumulation and biomass- and ecosystem carbon (C) stocks in a 50 year old volcanic island, Surtsey, in Iceland, where N stocks are still exceptionally low. However, 27 year old seagull colony on the island provided nutrient-enriched areas, which enabled us to assess the relationship between N stock and biomass- and ecosystem C stocks across a much larger range in N stock. Further, we compared areas on shallow and deep tephra sands as we expected that deep-rooted systems would be more efficient in retaining N. The sparsely vegetated area outside the colony was more efficient in N retention than we expected and had accumulated 0.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which was ca. 60% of the estimated N input rate from wet deposition. The seagulls have added, on average, 47 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which induced a shift from belowground to aboveground in ecosystem N and C stocks and doubled the ecosystem "N use efficiency", determined as the ratio of biomass and C storage per unit N input. Soil depth did not significantly affect total N stocks, which suggests a high N retention potential. Both total ecosystem biomass and C stocks were strongly correlated with N stock inside the colony, which indicated the important role of N during the first steps of primary succession. Inside the colony, the ecosystem biomass C stocks (17-27 kg C ha-1) had reached normal values for grasslands, while the soil organic carbon stocks (SOC; 4-10 kg C ha-1) were only a fraction of normal grassland values. Thus, it will take a long time until the SOC stock reaches equilibrium with the current primary production; during which conditions for new colonists

  9. 50 Years And 400 Radiocarbon Measurements Since 1959: What Has The “Bomb Spike” Taught Us About Soil C Dynamics In New Zealand Soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, W. T.; Parfitt, R. L.; Ross, C.

    2009-12-01

    In 1959, Athol Rafter began a substantial programme of monitoring the flow of 14C produced by atmospheric thermonuclear tests through New Zealand’s atmosphere, biosphere and soil. The programme produced important publications, but also leaves a legacy of unpublished data critical for understanding soil C dynamics. A database of ~400 soil radiocarbon measurements spanning 50 years has now been compiled. Among the most compelling data is a comparison of soil carbon dynamics in deforested dairy pastures under similar climate in the Tokomaru silt loam (non-Andisol) versus the Egmont black loam (Andisol), originally sampled in 1962-3, 1965 and 1969. After adding soil profiles sampled to similar depths in 2008, we can use a relatively simple 2-box model to calculate that the residence time of soil C (upper ~8 cm) in the Tokomaru soil is ~9 years compared to ~15 years for the Egmont soil. This difference represents nearly a doubling of soil C residence time, and roughly explains the doubling of the soil C stock. With three measurements in the 1960s, the data is of sufficient resolution to estimate the parameters for an “inert” or “passive pool” comprising approximately 15% of soil C, and having a residence time of 600 years in the Tokomaru soil versus 3000 years in the Egmont surface soil. The Tokomaru/Egmont comparison is necessarily illustrative since the 1960s samplings were not replicated extensively, but provides globally unique data illustrating the nature of C movement through soil. Moreover, the Tokomaru/Egmont comparison supports evidence that C dynamics does differ in Andisols versus other soils. Additional lines of evidence include emerging theories of soil organic matter stabilisation processes, rates of soil organic matter change following land-use change, and chemistry data. The contrasting soil C dynamics in these different soils appear to have implications for land-use change and management schemes that could be eligible for “C credits”. More

  10. Chronic radioisotope effects on residents of the Techa River (Russia) region: cytogenetic analysis more than 50 years after onset of exposure.

    PubMed

    Vozilova, A V; Shagina, N B; Degteva, M O; Akleyev, A V

    2013-08-30

    This paper presents the results of a cytogenetic study conducted among residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia) exposed in the early 1950s as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium-production facility. The study was performed 50-60 years after the beginning of the exposure for those individuals who were predominantly exposed to strontium radioisotopes ((89,90)Sr) through drinking contaminated river water and consumption of local foodstuff. Standard cytogenetic methods were used for evaluation of the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations in exposed persons as well as in persons from the control group who were of similar age and sex, living in similar socio-economic conditions in non-contaminated territories of the Southern Urals. The exposure doses were reconstructed for the studied donors using the Techa River Dosimetry System developed in 2009. The doses of internal exposure from ingested radionuclides were evaluated using individual or family in vivo measurements of (90)Sr-body burden. Individual cumulative absorbed doses in red bone marrow (RBM) in the studied persons varied in the range of 0.01-4.4Gy. A significantly higher level of unstable chromosome aberrations (UCA) in T-cells was observed in the group of exposed individuals as compared to control group. The highest UCA level was detected in the individuals who were suspected of having chronic radiation syndrome. PMID:23751212

  11. Optimism as modifier of escalation of commitment.

    PubMed

    Juliusson, Asgeir

    2006-10-01

    To study whether optimism-pessimism modifies escalation of commitment, 52 undergraduates were told that they had made an unsuccessful investment, then they chose to continue or discontinue this investment. Optimism about future returns was induced in one group by varying the probability of a successful outcome from an initial low to medium, pessimism was induced in another group by varying this probability from an initial high to medium. Supporting the assumption of the manipulation, the results showed that optimistic participants preferred to continue investments whereas pessimistic participants preferred not to. As predicted, when the sunk cost increased, optimism led to escalation of commitment, whereas pessimism led to de-escalation of commitment. These effects were strengthened when probability of a successful outcome was ambiguous.

  12. Arrest and incarceration of civil commitment candidates.

    PubMed

    Hiday, V A

    1991-07-01

    To gauge whether more stringent civil commitment criteria have led to the criminalization of mentally ill persons, forcing them into jails and prisons instead of treating them, a statewide sample of 1,226 civil commitment candidates in North Carolina was tracked for six months after their commitment hearings. Only 72 sample members were arrested during the period, mostly for burglary or larceny (22 arrests), simple or aggravated assault (17 arrests), and minor offenses (40 arrests), including drunkenness, trespassing, and traffic violations. Fourteen sample members were jailed, and two were sent to prison. The mentally ill who were not involuntarily hospitalized or who were hospitalized for only short periods were seldom arrested; when they were arrested, the charges were generally for nondangerous offenses.

  13. Contractor and Government: Teamwork and Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Gerald D.

    1984-01-01

    The assigned topic, "Contractor and Government: Teamwork and Commitment," is a subject about vitally interested. The successes of the U.S. space program were built on such teamwork and commitment. It seems only a short time ago that man's role in space was an unknown quantity. In rapid succession, however, the flights of Shepard, Glenn, and Armstrong demonstrated man's capability to live and travel in space. Consequently, we no longer live with the same awe of space. The success of these joint industry-NASA efforts in achieving our Nation's space goals testifies to the validity of our team's past commitment, management expertise, communications techniques, and teamwork over a period of 25 years. Today, however, We are at the beginning of a new era in space.

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order..., or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  15. 76 FR 58999 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 21, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-24631 Filed 9-21-11; 2:15 pm] Billing... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or Support Terrorism...

  16. 75 FR 57159 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 16, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-23557 Filed 9-17-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001... commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic...

  17. 78 FR 58149 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 18, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-23132 Filed 9-19-13; 11:15... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism...

  18. Commitment strategies in hierarchical task network planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuneto, R.; Hendler, J.; Nau, D.; Erol, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper compares three commitment strategies for HTN planning: (1) a strategy that delays variable bindings as much as possible; (2) a strategy in which no non-primitive task is expanded until all variable constraints are committed; and (3) a strategy that chooses between expansion and variable instantiation based on the number of branches that will be created in the search tree. Our results show that while there exist planning domains in which the first two strategies do well, the third does well over a broader range of planning domains.

  19. Type A behavior pattern and escalating commitment.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, J; Williams, S

    1993-10-01

    Subjects (N = 98) were randomly assigned to high- and low-responsibility conditions in a commitment-escalation experiment. Global Type A behavior pattern and the underlying dimension of achievement strivings were positively related to the desire to continue the same course of action in the high prior-responsibility condition but not in the low prior-responsibility condition. These findings are discussed in terms of future research into the judgment processes of people with Type A personality and the possible role of escalating commitment in disorders experienced by people with Type A personality.

  20. Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2012-06-01

    Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.

  1. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    PubMed

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments.

  2. A Retrospective Study Evaluating the Impact of Preoperative Breast MRI on Surgical Decision-Making in Young Patients (≤50 Years) with Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Som D.; Hodgson, Nicole; Lovrics, Peter J.; Dhamanaskar, Kavita; Minuk, Terry; Chambers, Shelley; Sussman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered a more sensitive diagnostic test for detecting invasive breast cancer than mammography or breast ultrasound. Breast MRI may be particularly useful in younger premenopausal women with higher density breast tissue for differentiating between dense fibroglandular breast tissue and breast malignancies. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of preoperative breast MRI on surgical decision-making in young women with breast cancer. METHODS A retrospective review of patients with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer and age of ≤50 years was performed. All patients underwent physical examination, preoperative mammogram, breast ultrasound, and bilateral breast MRI. Two breast cancer surgeons reviewed the preoperative mammogram report, breast ultrasound report, and physical examination summary and were asked if they would recommend a lumpectomy, a quandrantectomy, or a mastectomy. A few weeks later, the two surgeons were shown the same information with the breast MRI report and were asked what type of surgery they would now recommend. In each case, MRI was classified by two adjudicators as having affected the surgical outcome in a positive, negative, or neutral fashion. A positive impact was defined as the situation where breast MRI detected additional disease that was not found on physical examination, mammogram, or breast ultrasound and led to an appropriate change in surgical management. A negative impact was defined as the situation where breast MRI led the surgeon to recommend more extensive surgery, with less extensive disease actually found at pathology. No impact was defined as the situation where MRI findings did not alter surgical recommendations or outcomes. RESULTS Of 37 patients whose charts were reviewed, five patients were deemed to be ineligible due to having received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, having previous breast implants, or having had their tumor fully excised

  3. Differences in Reach and Attrition Between Web-Based and Print-Delivered Tailored Interventions Among Adults over 50 Years of Age: Clustered Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne Henrica Johanna; De Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart Nicolaas; van Stralen, Maartje Marieke; Lechner, Lilian

    2012-01-01

    participants of the printed intervention. The dropout rate was significantly higher in the Web-based intervention group (53%) compared to the print-delivered intervention (39%, P<.001). A low intention to be physically active was a strong predictor for dropout within both delivery modes (P<.001). The difference in dropout rate between the Web-based and the printed intervention was not explained by user characteristics. Conclusions The reach of the same tailored physical activity (PA) intervention in a printed or Web-based delivery mode differed between sociodemographic subgroups of participants over 50 years of age. Although the reach of the Web-based intervention is lower, Web-based interventions can be a good channel to reach high-risk populations (lower PA intention and higher BMI). While the dropout rate was significantly higher in the Web-based intervention group, no specific user characteristics explained the difference in dropout rates between the delivery modes. More research is needed to determine what caused the high rate of dropout in the Web-based intervention. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register (NTR): 2297: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2297 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/65TkwoESp). PMID:23246790

  4. Climatic change effects on hydro-metereological variables in the Alps: a case study on the upper Arve catchment at Chamonix (France) over the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, Alessandra; Condom, Thomas; Bacchi, Baldassare; Zin, Isabella; Six, Delphine; Gottardi, Frederic; Rabatel, Antoine; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological changes in partially glaciated catchments are expected under future climate scenarios, with consequences for water availability and management at catchment and regional scales. In order to correctly predict the magnitude of such changes and envisage adaptation and/or mitigation measures against water related hazards, a good understanding of the water cycle dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales is needed. The Upper Arve catchment in Chamonix (202 square kilometers), situated in the French Northern Alps, between the two massifs of Mont Blanc and Aiguilles Rouges, is a perfect case study for evaluating the sensitivity of the alpine water cycle to climate change. It is highly glaciated (32% of the total area in 2012) with three important glaciers: Glacier du Tour, Glacier d'Argentiere and Glacier de la Mer de Glace. Its elevation ranges from 1025 up to 4295 m a.s.l. and the exposure of the ice cover is generally north and east oriented. Long term time-series exist of (i) glacier mass balance, (ii) meteorological (in-situ and reanalyses) and (iii) hydrological data. The objectives of the presented study were: 1 - To characterize the inter-annual regimes of the different climatological and hydrological variables: precipitation, temperature and discharge; 2 - To estimate trends on the previous variables, at different temporal scales (annual and monthly) for different altitudes, and compare them to usually observed values in alpine regions; 3 - To infer from the previous statistical analyses and from a cross-analysis between the different considered variables the catchment's hydrological evolution during the last 50 years. Results showed precipitation, temperature and discharge regimes typical of high mountainous partially glaciated catchments. In the long term period, this catchment is characterized by an evident retreat of glacier. Long term trends over the past five decades show no significant change in the annual amount of precipitation. At the

  5. Close deciphering of the sediment record of stable and radioactive contamination in the upper Seine estuary, over the last 50 years: a phosphogypsum legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrel, A.; Boust, D.; Lesueur, P.; Deloffre, J.; Dillies, R.; Rozet, M.; Solier, L.; Dubrulle-Brunaud, C.; Cossonnet, C.; Thomas, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Seine estuary is the outlet of a huge catchment area (the Basin of Paris), into which fine sediments and anthropogenic elements and substances end in. In the upper Seine estuary, stable and radioactive contaminants come both from upstream and from local in the industrialized agglomeration of Rouen. It is particularly challenging to decipher the relative contribution of these two sources due to the lack of historical data for most of the contaminants of concern. The key issue was the collection of two sediment cores: (1) in a flood plain of the lower Seine River and (2) in an old careening basin of the Rouen harbour which was not dredged since many decades. These cores were carefully dated using artificial radionuclide (atmospheric fallout from Chernobyl and nuclear weapon tests - 137Cs - or discharges in the river - 238Pu) and signal processing techniques and an accurate model age was obtained, yielding a 50 years long sediment record. Major elements, 44 trace elements and 14 naturally-occurring radionuclides (235U, 238U and 232Th series) were measured by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry. As some elements display no almost constant (Co, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hf, Nb, Rb, Sr, Ta, V) or continuous decreasing concentrations (Ag, As, Pb, Sb, Sn, W, Zn) since the early 60's, some others show much higher concentrations (Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Y and lanthanides, U and, to a lesser extent, Th series) from mid-60's to mid-80's, and only in the core collected in the Rouen harbour. Even if some minor contributions cannot be ruled out, it is likely that these huge excess concentrations (up to 50 times) are due to the phosphate fertilizer industry. In fact, between 1960 and 1984, the upper Seine estuary underwent big direct discharges of phosphogypsum (an acidic by-product of the process) from two plants located in the vicinity of the Rouen harbour, which peaked up to 1million tons per year in 1974. Cd and Bi are, from far, the most enriched stable elements (up to 300

  6. Work Commitment through the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitin, Teresa E.; Quinn, Robert P.

    Data obtained from a national, cross-sectional survey of the American work force were used to examine the relationship between age and an interview measure of psychological involvement with work (i.e., paid employment). For men, this relationship was curvilinear. Commitment began at a low level among the 16-20 year old men, rose to its highest…

  7. 40 CFR 63.75 - Enforceable commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section; (4) All information specified in § 63.74(b), (c) and (e)(1)(i), which defines and...) reduction from base year emissions; (ii) A statement certifying that the base year emission data submitted as part of the enforceable commitment constitute the best available data for base year emissions...

  8. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commitments. 241.510 Section 241.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  9. Why Does an Adolescent Commit a Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziiadova, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, Russian adolescents have become a criminally active category of the population. A substantial portion of the contingents of participants in crime consists of students in general education schools. In 2000, their proportion added up to 27 percent of all crimes committed by minors. A study of the structure of the total file of…

  10. Commitment at Work and Independence from Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Jacques; Edwards, Paul K.; Wright, Martyn

    2003-01-01

    Case study of a Canadian aluminum smelter through 15 interviews, observation, and employee survey (n=214) revealed high commitment, acceptance of change, and worker independence from management. This pattern emerged from a traditionally strong union presence. Comparison with other cases underlines the centrality of collective organization to…

  11. Children's Developing Commitments to Joint Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Katharina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated young children's commitment to a joint goal by assessing whether peers in collaborative activities continue to collaborate until all received their rewards. Forty-eight 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children worked on an apparatus dyadically. One child got access to her reward early. For the partner to benefit as well, this child…

  12. 40 CFR 63.75 - Enforceable commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Regulations Governing... Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460 and the EPA Emission Standards Division (MD-13), Research Triangle... standard issued under section 112(d) of the Act. Commitments received after the proposal date shall be...

  13. Reframing the Dialogue about Committed Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    There is a pressing need to refocus teacher education on five professional mind sets: reflective (self), collaborative (relationships), analytic (organizations), worldly (context), and action (change). These mind sets affirm that effective, committed teaching requires integration of content expertise and organizational and relationship skills.…

  14. Civic Virtue and High Commitment Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, M. Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Sigal Ben-Porath objects to the educational strategies of a number of high commitment charter schools, arguing that they do not pay sufficient attention to the need to develop and exercise the civic virtues of students. This response article highlights a number of philosophical disagreements concerning the traits of character that are central to…

  15. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commitments. 241.510 Section 241.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  16. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commitments. 241.510 Section 241.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  17. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  18. Sex, Love, and the Committed Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Carl A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Six responses are presented to the question of relationship of love, sex, and commitment as revised by Sager in the Spring 1976 issue of this journal. Theoretical and historical perspectives as well as issues of coupling, eroticism, sexual dysfunction and therapy, and psychosexual development are discussed. (HLM)

  19. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commitments. 241.510 Section 241.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  20. 7 CFR 3550.70 - Conditional commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approval of an affirmative marketing plan. (b) Limitations. Conditional commitments for new or... RHS-approved plans, specifications, and regulations and priced within the lesser of the property's... financing for any proposed construction or rehabilitation; and (5) Comply with the requirements of 7...

  1. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  2. Political commitment to tuberculosis control in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    As part of expanding and sustaining tuberculosis (TB) control, the Stop TB Partnership of the World Health Organization initiative has called for strong political commitment to TB control, particularly in developing countries. Framing political commitment within the theoretical imperatives of the political economy of health, this study explores the existing and the expected dimensions of political commitment to TB control in Ghana. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 purposively selected staff members of the Ghana Health Service and some political officeholders. In addition, the study analysed laws, policies and regulations relevant to TB control. Four dimensions of political commitment emerged from the interviews: provision of adequate resources (financial, human and infrastructural); political authorities' participation in advocacy for TB; laws and policies' promulgation and social protection interventions. Particularly in respect to financial resources, donors such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria presently give more than 60% of the working budget of the programme. The documentary review showed that laws, policies and regulations existed that were relevant to TB control, albeit they were not clearly linked.

  3. [Social workers in the commitment procedure].

    PubMed

    Schröder, S; Straub, R; Stolz, K; Frick, E

    1993-09-01

    Regular inclusion of a social worker alongside the expertising physician whenever a judge has to decide on committing a person to a psychiatric hospital, is known in German legal practice as "Stuttgart model". Our experiences with this procedure are discussed on an interdisciplinary level. In our opinion this model agrees with the spirit of the new German law governing guardianship and care.

  4. Cohabitation and Marital Stability: Quality or Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Elizabeth; Colella, Ugo

    1992-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to examine cohabitation. Couples who cohabited before marriage reported lower quality marriages, lower commitment to institution of marriage, more individualistic views of marriage (wives only), and greater likelihood of divorce than couples who did not cohabit. Effects were generally…

  5. The Relationship Talk: Assessing Partner Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Bobbie Jo; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    "The talk" is culturally understood to mean a discussion whereby both partners in a relationship reveal their feelings about each other and their commitment to a future together. Typically, one partner feels a greater need to clarity the future and instigates "the talk." This study reports the analysis of a 15 item questionnaire completed by 211…

  6. Committed to the Cause: James Forman Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Steeped in the values of the civil rights movement, James Forman Jr. has charted a path into academia that has demonstrated both a keen commitment to social justice as well as impressive legal and academic achievements. Among his most notable accomplishments prior to his Georgetown appointment in 2003, Forman co-founded the nationally acclaimed…

  7. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment issuance. 200.46 Section 200.46 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  8. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  9. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  10. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  11. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitments. 241.510 Section 241.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  12. Crime, Commitment and the Responsive Bystander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Thomas

    The paper describes a field experiment conducted at Jones Beach, New York, to determine (1) how responsive are individuals who witness a crime, and (2) under what conditions will bystanders take action to prevent a crime. The major independent variable in this study was the degree of prior commitment to the victim; whether or not the subject had…

  13. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  14. Re-invigorating Japan's commitment to global health: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Llano, Rayden; Kanamori, Sayako; Kunii, Osamu; Mori, Rintaro; Takei, Teiji; Sasaki, Hatoko; Nakamura, Yasuhide; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Hai, Yu; Chen, Lincoln; Takemi, Keizo; Shibuya, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, Japan has successfully developed and maintained an increasingly equitable system of universal health coverage in addition to achieving the world's highest life expectancy and one of the lowest infant mortality rates. Against this backdrop, Japan is potentially in a position to become a leading advocate for and supporter of global health. Nevertheless, Japan's engagement with global health has not been outstanding relative to its substantial potential, in part because of government fragmentation, a weak civil society, and lack of transparency and assessment. Japan's development assistance for health, from both governmental and non-governmental sectors, has remained low and Japanese global health leadership has been weak. New challenges arising from changes in governance and global and domestic health needs, including the recent Great East Japan Earthquake, now provide Japan with an opportunity to review past approaches to health policy and develop a new strategy for addressing global and national health. The fragmented functioning of the government with regards to global health policy needs to be reconfigured and should be accompanied by further financial commitment to global health priorities, innovative non-governmental sector initiatives, increased research capacity, and investments in good leadership development as witnessed at the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit. Should this strategy development and commitment be achieved, Japan has the potential to make substantial contributions to the health of the world as many countries move toward universal coverage and as Japan itself faces the challenge of maintaining its own health system.

  15. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  16. Legal intervention in civil commitment: the impact of broadened commitment criteria.

    PubMed

    Durham, M L; Pierce, G L

    1986-03-01

    Recent legal changes in Washington State have broadened the grave-disability criterion for civil commitment of the mentally ill. Analysis of data from state mental hospitals and from records of commitment authorities in Washington's two largest counties revealed that, while there was an increase in the number of involuntary hospitalizations immediately before and after the changes in law, there was a virtual disappearance of voluntary patients in state hospitals. Moreover, expansion of the definition of "grave disability" resulted in a move toward a parens patriae-dominated civil commitment system. Analysis of the empirical consequences of the legal changes on commitment decisions is presented, along with the response of mental health officials and the public.

  17. [Fifty years of research on tuberculosis. Lessons I have learnt during 50 years and topics to be investigated in the future].

    PubMed

    Shimao, T

    2000-07-01

    I have engaged in the research on tuberculosis for 50 years, and lessons I have learnt during this period could be summarized in the following ten topics. First is great research achievements by our predecessors on the establishment of so-called primary infection theory on the pathogenesis of TB, planning of TB control principles based on the theory and development of new technologies used for TB control, such as mass miniature X-ray examination and BCG vaccination in 1920s and 1930s. TB control law was enforced in 1951, and the modern TB programme was initiated. Second, the field is a treasure house of interesting data. Several interesting data on TB soon after the World War II in Tokyo and a rural area were collected and analyzed from the mass health examination. Third, looking at the increase of tuberculin positivity with age, it was found that the tuberculin negativity decreased as the exponential function of age, and the current concept of the annual risk of TB infection was already developed in late 1940s. It was 18.1% in male and 11.6% in female in Tokyo in late 1940s. Based on this concept, age specific TB mortality was analyzed by the type of TB, and the rates of miliary TB and TB meningitis were similar to the rate of newly infected to the total population, while the rate of all forms could be divided into early and late death as shown in Fig. 1. Fourth, I suffered from TB by myself from 1951 to 1953, receiving first thoracoplasty in two stages under local anaesthesia, then right upper lobectomy and segmentectomy of superior segment of right lower lobe. From this experience, I learnt a lot about the psychology and suffering of TB patients. Fifth, the importance of recognition of real magnitude of the problem in such a disease as TB in which many TB cases did not aware of their disease. The answer to this was the first TB prevalence survey in 1953 using stratified random sampling method, and based on the results of the survey, the mass health examination

  18. Code System for Emergency Response Dose Assessment.

    2002-01-16

    Version: 00 A dose assessment model for emergency response applications. Dose pathways represented in the model are those that are most likely to be important during and immediately following a release (hours) rather than over an extended time frame (days or weeks). The doses computed include: external dose resulting from exposure to radiation emitted by radionuclides in the air and deposited on the ground, internal dose commitment resulting from inhalation, and total whole-body dose. Threemore » preprocessors are included. RSFPREP generates the MESORAD run specification (input) file, METWR creates the meteorological data file, and RELPREP prepares the release definition file. PRNT is a postprocessor for generating printer or screen-compatible output. All four programs run interactively. MESORAD was developed from version 2.0 of the MESOI atmospheric dispersion model (NESC 9862) retaining its modular nature.« less

  19. Criminal justice procedures in civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Slovenko, R

    1977-11-01

    The actions of federal district courts and state legislatures in recent years have resulted in the growing application of procedures of the criminal justice system to the civil commitment process. Increasingly patients can be confined only if they are dangerous to others, and increasingly due-process procedures of the criminal law are required, to the detriment of the patient's treatment and his survival in the community. The author says that allegations of patients' being railroaded into hospitals are, with few exceptions, fictitious. Abuses thet do exist should be handled through writs of habeas corpus and malpractice suits, remedies much more available now than in the past. The principal abuse in commitment occurs not when patients are admitted, the author believes, but at discharge, when so many patients are turned out into communities that lack proper services for them.

  20. Criminal justice procedures in civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Slovenko, R

    1977-11-01

    The actions of federal district courts and state legislatures in recent years have resulted in the growing application of procedures of the criminal justice system to the civil commitment process. Increasingly patients can be confined only if they are dangerous to others, and increasingly due-process procedures of the criminal law are required, to the detriment of the patient's treatment and his survival in the community. The author says that allegations of patients' being railroaded into hospitals are, with few exceptions, fictitious. Abuses thet do exist should be handled through writs of habeas corpus and malpractice suits, remedies much more available now than in the past. The principal abuse in commitment occurs not when patients are admitted, the author believes, but at discharge, when so many patients are turned out into communities that lack proper services for them. PMID:914239

  1. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  2. Acceptance and Commitment: Implications for Prevention Science

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in behavior analysis and clinical psychology points to the importance of language processes having to do with the control of negative cognition and emotion and the commitment to valued action. Efforts to control unwanted thoughts and feelings, also referred to as experiential avoidance, appear to be associated with a diverse array of psychological and behavioral difficulties. Recent research shows that interventions that reduce experiential avoidance (EA) and help people to identify and commit to the pursuit of valued directions is beneficial for ameliorating diverse problems in living. These developments have the potential to improve the efficacy of many preventive interventions. This paper reviews the basic findings in these areas and points to some ways in which these developments could enhance the impact of preventive interventions. PMID:18690535

  3. Commitment Tracking System Version 3.5

    1992-06-01

    The Commitment Tracking System (CTS) was developed to standardize data input and report output. A CTS administrator is responsible for data entry, updating, reporting, and record keeping. The administrator will produce reports as required for actionee/manager information and update. In addition, the administrator will process uploads to the Office Vision Company Action Log (CAL) of all required issues addressed in the Company Procedure.

  4. Assessment, Commitment and motivation in marital therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosenbluth, M; Cameron, P M

    1981-04-01

    The importance of a discrete assessment phase in the treatment of people with martial problems is emphasized. The consequence of such phase in terms of clarification of treatment selection and engagement is discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the importance of attending to the factors of commitment to the marriage and motivation and capacity to work in therapy. Attention to these issues facilitates proper treatment planning designed to best suit the couple's specific therapeutic needs.

  5. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime. PMID:25589599

  6. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  7. Commitment and concern in the health service.

    PubMed

    Weir, R D

    1976-01-01

    As part of a general review of the use of local health services resources, a specific enquiry was mounted to examine the recurring complaint of a lack of identity or sense of belonging made by staff working in the largest district of the Grampian Health Board. The investigation pointed to clearly identifiable sources of confusion and concern: (a) a need to identify with and feel committed to the health service; (b) a sense of purpose and direction; (c) satisfaction with the conditions of service; (d) an understanding of an individual's role and its relationship to others'. It is relatively easy to list the problems, such as friction between occupational groups, lack of commitment, uncertainty over duties and authority, reluctance to delegate and resistance to, or even outright rejection of, decisions apparently at variance with professional advice. In addition to these internal stresses the health service is perpetually beset by two other external problems, namely what it is expected to achieve and the finance allowed to attain its goals. The various groups within the service are in no way agreed on roles and responsibilities, Without agreement goals cannot be defined. Without goals, use of resources cannot be rationalized. Without a demonstrably fair distribution of resources, neither the public nor health service staff will feel confident or committed. Somewhere this cycle must be broken.

  8. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  9. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as “steadfast role models” in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy.

  10. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as "steadfast role models" in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy. PMID:23214763

  11. Job Stress and Organizational Commitment among Mentoring Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Orly; Court, Deborah; Petal, Pnina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the impact of job stress on the organizational commitment of a random, representative sample of coordinators in the Israeli educational mentoring organization PMP. Organizational commitment, including affective, continuance and normative commitment, refers to worker relations in the organization, and how…

  12. 28 CFR 571.52 - Procedures-committed fines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the inmate's commitment, staff shall inform the inmate that there is a committed fine, or fine and... the fine, or fine and costs is paid, except— (i) The inmate may spend money from his/her trust fund.... (b) If the inmate pays the committed fine, or fine and costs, or staff have verified payment,...

  13. Building organizational commitment of Asian nurses in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Fostering nurses' organizational commitment is important. However, antecedents of commitment among Asian nurses may differ from those for native nurses in Western countries. The authors analyze organizational commitment and suggest that healthcare administrators become familiar with the differences between collectivist and individualistic cultural outlooks in order to help Asian nurses adapt to new environments more quickly and smoothly.

  14. Satisfied and Dissatisfied Commitment: Teachers in Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the self-appraisal of teacher commitment and their associated emotional experiences in the first ten years of teaching among three generations of Hong Kong teachers. Findings affirm previous view that high commitment level of teachers is characterized with psychological attachment to the commitment objects. However the…

  15. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from 415 primary teachers…

  16. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  17. 48 CFR 801.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who lack contracting authority. (b) A contracting officer must not ratify unauthorized commitments... unauthorized commitments. 801.602-3 Section 801.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a)...

  18. 24 CFR 242.20 - Reopening of expired commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Application Procedures and Commitments § 242.20 Reopening of... no later than 90 days after the date of expiration of the commitment. The reopening request shall be...-day period, a new application accompanied by an application fee must be submitted. If a commitment...

  19. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  20. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...