Science.gov

Sample records for 500-hpa geopotential height

  1. Observed teleconnection patterns between Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget anomalies and ECMWF 500 mb geopotential heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, David L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    Broadband observations from the Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instrument package were used to calculate the outgoing-longwave-radiation (OLR) anomalies as well as the net balance anomalies. The areas of anomalous net balance and OLR were correlated with the ECMWF 500-mb geopotential height anomalies, and many areas of significant correlation were found. Their most interesting teleconnection area was associated with the net balance anomaly near Indonesia, where a series of alternating correlation waves was found similar to the wave pattern reported by Hoskins and Karoly (1981) in their model study of tropical heat sources. The strongest OLR anomaly correlation occurred in central Pacific.

  2. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height and pressure for 0-120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Barnett, John J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a monthly mean climatology of zonal mean temperature, zonal wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 deg S-80 deg N) for 0-120 km which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. This climatology reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as the lowering and cooling of the mesopause and the lowering and warming of the stratopause during the summer months at high latitudes. A series of zonal wind profiles is also presented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The two data sets compare well below 80 km, with some general seasonal trend agreement observed above 80 km. The zonal wind at the equator presented here simulates the observed features of the semiannual oscillation in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere.

  3. Linear trends in Northern Hemisphere tropospheric geopotential height and temperature patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, E. R.; Westhoff, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Gridded National Meteorological Center data for 500 mb geopotential height and 300-500 mb and 500-700 mb thickness for the period 1951-1978 are subjected to linear trend analyses. The analyses are carried out for each calendar month. Significant geographical and seasonal distributions of cooling and warming patterns are found. An atmospheric cooling trend over the North Pacific during the winter months is seen in a region where oceanic cooling has also been observed, but planetary-wave adjustments rather than ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanisms appear to be dominant in the atmospheric cooling on climatic time scales. Consistently large temperature trends are also seen over the continent of Asia. Comparisons between thickness trends in the layer 300-500 mb and those in the layer 500-700 mb reveal pronounced patterns of stabilization and destabilization.

  4. Description of data on the Nimbus 7 LIMS map archive tape: Temperature and geopotential height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, K. V.; Remsberg, E. E.; Grose, W. L.; Russell, J. M., III; Marshall, B. T.; Lingenfelser, G.

    1986-01-01

    The process by which the analysis of the Limb Infared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment data were used to produce estimates of synoptic maps of temperature and geopotential height is described. In addition to a detailed description of the analysis procedure, several interesting features in the data are discussed and these features are used to demonstrate how the analysis procedure produced the final maps and how one can estimate the uncertainties in the maps. In addition, features in the analysis are noted that would influence how one might use, or interpret, the results. These include subjects such as smoothing and the interpretation of wave components. While some suggestions are made for an improved analysis of the data, it is shown that, in general, the maps are an excellent estimation of the synoptic fields.

  5. Using eddy geopotential height to measure the western North Pacific subtropical high in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-11-01

    The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is crucial to the East Asian summer climate, and geopotential height (H) is widely used to measure the WPNSH. However, a rapidly rising trend of H in the future is projected by the models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Diagnoses based on the hypsometric equation suggest that more than 80% of the rise in H are attributable to zonal uniform warming. Because circulation is determined by the gradient of H rather than its absolute magnitude, the spatially uniform rising trend of H gives rise to difficulties when measuring the WNPSH with H. These difficulties include an invalid western boundary of WNPSH in the future and spurious information regarding long-term trends and interannual variability of WNPSH. Using CMIP5 model simulations and reanalysis data, the applicability of a metric based on eddy geopotential height (H e ) to the warming climate is investigated. The results show that the H e metric outperforms the H metric under warming climate conditions. First, the mean state rainfall-H e relationship is more robust than the rainfall-H relationship. Second, the area, intensity, and western boundary indices of WNPSH can be effectively defined by the H e = 0-m contour in future warming climate scenarios without spurious trends. Third, the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is more closely related to the H e -based WNPSH indices. We recommend that the H e metric be adopted as an operational metric on the WNPSH under the current warming climate.

  6. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0 - 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Barnett, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A monthly mean climatology is presented of temperature, wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 S to 80 N) for 0 to 210 km, which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. The purpose is to provide a reference for various atmospheric research and analysis activities. Data sources and methods of computation are described; in general, hydrostatic and thermal wind balance are maintained at all levels and latitudes. As observed in a series of cross-sectional plots, this climatology accurately reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as equatorial wind and the general structure of the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause. A series of zonal wind profiles is also represented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The temperature and zonal wind climatology at stratospheric levels is compared with corresponding data from the National Meteorological Center, and general agreement is observed between the two data sets. Tables of the climatological values as a function of latitude and height for each month are contained in Appendix B, and are also available in floppy disk.

  7. The Evaluation of Winds from Geopotential Height Data in the Stratosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randel, William J.

    1987-10-01

    Several methods of obtaining horizontal wind fields in the extratropical stratosphere from geopotential height data are evaluated and compared to geostrophic estimates, with focus on the poleward fluxes of momentum and heat and on the resulting Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux divergence estimates. Winds derived from a coupled iterative solution of the zonal and meridional momentum equations (`balance' winds) are proposed and tested, in addition to winds derived from linearizing these equations about the zonal mean flow (`linen' winds). Comparison of the different analysis methods are made for a general circulation model simulation of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter stratosphere, and for NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH) winter observational data.The balance and linear wind estimates of poleward momentum flux are similar and substantially smaller than geostrophic values in the high-latitude stratosphere; neglect of local curvature effects is the primary cause of the geostrophic overestimate. The relative errors are larger in the southern winter stratosphere due to the stronger polar night jet. Poleward beat flux estimates are not substantially changed. Use of the improved wind fluxes results in a sizable reduction in the EP flux divergence in the high-latitude stratosphere.Comparison with model winds suggests that the balance method is the superior analysis technique for evaluating local winds, particularly in the NH winter where local nonlinear effects can be important. Based on observed balance winds, estimates are made of the relative importance of rotational versus divergent motions in the winter stratosphere.

  8. Regional Analysis of Northern Hemisphere 50 kPa Geopotential Heights from 1946 to 1985.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbar, Amir; Higuchi, Kaz; Knox, John L.

    1990-05-01

    In Knox et al., the interannual variation of the Northern Hemisphere 50 kPa geopotential height field averaged between 30° and 80°N was investigated for the 40-year period from 1946 to 1985. We presented strong statistical evidence supporting the notion that a rather abrupt transition in the climate system took place during the early 1960s. There was no attempt to compare the spatial distribution of the 50 kPa height difference between Regime 1 (1946-62) and Regime 2 (1963-85).As a sequel to the first paper, we investigate the spatial characteristics of the transition height field. We find that the difference in the 50 kPa height field between Regime 1 and Regime 2 is characterized by low frequency circulation modes of the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and an Arctic oscillation. There was an increase (in the residual sense) of the frequency and amplitude of the positive phase of the PNA in Regime 2 relative to Regime 1.Fourier analysis is applied to interpret the regime changes in terms of planetary and long waves during the winter season. The change in the Arctic circulation is primarily associated with an amplification of the wave 2 component in its normal phase location, while in the midlatitudes the primary contributor is wave 1, again in its normal location.We also examine the 40-year time series of 50 kPa height at the three centers of the winter PNA and confirm a strong negative correlation between the first two centers and a significant positive correlation between the first and third.To assess the current trend, the 50 kPa anomaly field averaged over the 1981-87 period is examined. The winter season shows an eastward shift of the North Pacific Ocean cooling pattern and amplified warming over most of North America, the maximum centered over western Canada. The NAO phase changed to negative.Our results are discussed in relation to the interregime sea surface temperature change over the North

  9. Quasi-decadal variations in total ozone content, wind velocity, temperature, and geopotential height over the Arosa station (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visheratin, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the phase relationships between the quasi-decadal variations (QDVs) (in the range from 8 to 13 years) in the total ozone content (TOC) at the Arosa station for 1932-2012 and a number of meteorological parameters: monthly mean values of temperature, meridional and zonal components of wind velocity, and geopotential heights for isobaric surfaces in the layer of 10-925 hPa over the Arosa station using the Fourier methods and composite and cross-wavelet analysis. It has been shown that the phase relationships of the QDVs in the TOC and meteorological parameters with an 11-year cycle of solar activity change in time and height; starting with cycle 24 of solar activity (2008-2010), the variations in the TOC and a number of meteorological parameters occur in almost counter phase with the variations in solar activity. The periods of the maximum growth rate of the temperature at isobaric surfaces 50-100 hPa nearly correspond to the TOC's maximum periods, and the periods of the maximum temperature correspond the periods of the decrease of the peak TOC rate. The highest correlation coefficients between the meridional wind velocity and temperature are observed at 50 hPa at positive and negative delays of ~27 months. The times of the maxima (minima) of the QDVs in the meridional wind velocity nearly correspond to the periods of the maximum amplification (attenuation) rate of the temperature of the QDVs. The QDVs in the geopotential heights of isobaric surfaces fall behind the variations in the TOC by an average of 1.5 years everywhere except in the lower troposphere. In general, the periods of variations in the TOC and meteorological parameters in the range of 8-13 years are smaller than the period of variations in the level of solar activity.

  10. Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Geopotential Height Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Lambert, A.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Livesey, N. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Ao, C. O.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Cofield, R. E.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Fetzer, E. J.; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Jiang, J. H.; Jiang, Y. B.; Knosp, B. W.; Krueger, K.; Li, J.-L. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Pawson, S.; Russell, J. M., III; Santee, M. L.; Snyder, W. V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the retrievals algorithm used to determine temperature and height from radiance measurements by the Microwave Limb Sounder on EOS Aura. MLS is a "limbscanning" instrument, meaning that it views the atmosphere along paths that do not intersect the surface - it actually looks forwards from the Aura satellite. This means that the temperature retrievals are for a "profile" of the atmosphere somewhat ahead of the satellite. Because of the need to view a finite sample of the atmosphere, the sample spans a box about 1.5km deep and several tens of kilometers in width; the optical characteristics of the atmosphere mean that the sample is representative of a tube about 200-300km long in the direction of view. The retrievals use temperature analyses from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system as a priori states. The temperature retrievals are somewhat deperrdezt on these a priori states, especially in the lower stratosphere. An important part of the validation of any new dataset involves comparison with other, independent datasets. A large part of this study is concerned with such comparisons, using a number of independent space-based measurements obtained using different techniques, and with meteorological analyses. The MLS temperature data are shown to have biases that vary with height, but also depend on the validation dataset. MLS data are apparently biased slightly cold relative to correlative data in the upper troposphere and slightly warm in the middle stratosphere. A warm MLS bias in the upper stratosphere may be due to a cold bias in GEOS-5 temperatures.

  11. On High-Frequency Topography-Implied Gravity Signals for a Height System Unification Using GOCE-Based Global Geopotential Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grombein, Thomas; Seitz, Kurt; Heck, Bernhard

    2016-12-01

    National height reference systems have conventionally been linked to the local mean sea level, observed at individual tide gauges. Due to variations in the sea surface topography, the reference levels of these systems are inconsistent, causing height datum offsets of up to ±1-2 m. For the unification of height systems, a satellite-based method is presented that utilizes global geopotential models (GGMs) derived from ESA's satellite mission Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). In this context, height datum offsets are estimated within a least squares adjustment by comparing the GGM information with measured GNSS/leveling data. While the GNSS/leveling data comprises the full spectral information, GOCE GGMs are restricted to long wavelengths according to the maximum degree of their spherical harmonic representation. To provide accurate height datum offsets, it is indispensable to account for the remaining signal above this maximum degree, known as the omission error of the GGM. Therefore, a combination of the GOCE information with the high-resolution Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008) is performed. The main contribution of this paper is to analyze the benefit, when high-frequency topography-implied gravity signals are additionally used to reduce the remaining omission error of EGM2008. In terms of a spectral extension, a new method is proposed that does not rely on an assumed spectral consistency of topographic heights and implied gravity as is the case for the residual terrain modeling (RTM) technique. In the first step of this new approach, gravity forward modeling based on tesseroid mass bodies is performed according to the Rock-Water-Ice (RWI) approach. In a second step, the resulting full spectral RWI-based topographic potential values are reduced by the effect of the topographic gravity field model RWI_TOPO_2015, thus, removing the long to medium wavelengths. By using the latest GOCE GGMs, the impact of topography

  12. On High-Frequency Topography-Implied Gravity Signals for a Height System Unification Using GOCE-Based Global Geopotential Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grombein, Thomas; Seitz, Kurt; Heck, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    National height reference systems have conventionally been linked to the local mean sea level, observed at individual tide gauges. Due to variations in the sea surface topography, the reference levels of these systems are inconsistent, causing height datum offsets of up to ±1-2 m. For the unification of height systems, a satellite-based method is presented that utilizes global geopotential models (GGMs) derived from ESA's satellite mission Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). In this context, height datum offsets are estimated within a least squares adjustment by comparing the GGM information with measured GNSS/leveling data. While the GNSS/leveling data comprises the full spectral information, GOCE GGMs are restricted to long wavelengths according to the maximum degree of their spherical harmonic representation. To provide accurate height datum offsets, it is indispensable to account for the remaining signal above this maximum degree, known as the omission error of the GGM. Therefore, a combination of the GOCE information with the high-resolution Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008) is performed. The main contribution of this paper is to analyze the benefit, when high-frequency topography-implied gravity signals are additionally used to reduce the remaining omission error of EGM2008. In terms of a spectral extension, a new method is proposed that does not rely on an assumed spectral consistency of topographic heights and implied gravity as is the case for the residual terrain modeling (RTM) technique. In the first step of this new approach, gravity forward modeling based on tesseroid mass bodies is performed according to the Rock-Water-Ice (RWI) approach. In a second step, the resulting full spectral RWI-based topographic potential values are reduced by the effect of the topographic gravity field model RWI_TOPO_2015, thus, removing the long to medium wavelengths. By using the latest GOCE GGMs, the impact of topography

  13. Effects of air-sea interaction on extended-range prediction of geopotential height at 500 hPa over the northern extratropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xujia; Zheng, Zhihai; Feng, Guolin

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of air-sea interaction on the extended-range prediction of geopotential height at 500 hPa in the northern extratropical region has been analyzed with a coupled model form Beijing Climate Center and its atmospheric components. Under the assumption of the perfect model, the extended-range prediction skill was evaluated by anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC), root mean square error (RMSE), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The coupled model has a better prediction skill than its atmospheric model, especially, the air-sea interaction in July made a greater contribution for the improvement of prediction skill than other months. The prediction skill of the extratropical region in the coupled model reaches 16-18 days in all months, while the atmospheric model reaches 10-11 days in January, April, and July and only 7-8 days in October, indicating that the air-sea interaction can extend the prediction skill of the atmospheric model by about 1 week. The errors of both the coupled model and the atmospheric model reach saturation in about 20 days, suggesting that the predictable range is less than 3 weeks.

  14. Flood variability over 1871-2012 in Northern Québec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree-rings and on geopotential height field reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, Pierre; Brissette, François; Caya, Daniel; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Kuentz, Anna; Mathevet, Thibault; Gailhard, Joël

    2015-04-01

    For the next couple of decades, the impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes are likely to be masked by climate natural variability. Thus, a better understanding and quantification of natural climate variability on hydrological extremes would be helpful for short-term adaptation. However, studying natural variability requires long instrumental records, which are inexistant in remote regions such as Northern Québec. Different methods have been proposed to extend observed hydroclimatic time-series, based on other data sources such as tree rings or sedimentological datasets. For example, tree ring multi-proxies have been studied for the Caniapiscau Reservoir in Northern Québec (Canada), leading to the reconstruction of spring flood series (Boucher et al., 2011) and of annual and seasonal mean flow series (Nicault et al., 2014), for the last 150 years. Here, we apply a different reconstruction method on the same catchment, using historical reanalysis of geopotential height fields, to compare the flood series obtained and study the observed flood variability over the 1871-2012 period. The applied method, named ANATEM (Kuentz et al., 2013), aims firstly at producing climatic time series (temperature and precipitation) which are then used as inputs to one or several hydrological model previously calibrated in order to obtain streamflow time series. The climatic reconstruction is based on the analog method, using the link between atmospheric pressure situations and local climatic variables and thus requires (i) a geopotential height field reanalysis (here the NOAA reanalysis, available over the 1871-2012 period (Compo et al., 2011)), and (ii) the available observed temperature and precipitation time series (here available over the 1960-2012 period). The hypothesis of the analog method is that two different days having similar atmospheric circulations are expected to produce similar temperature and precipitation patterns. Using this hypothesis, the method

  15. Streamflow variability over the 1881-2011 period in northern Québec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree rings and geopotential height field reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, Pierre; Brissette, François; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Kuentz, Anna; Mathevet, Thibault; Gailhard, Joël

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decades, different methods have been used by hydrologists to extend observed hydro-climatic time series, based on other data sources, such as tree rings or sedimentological datasets. For example, tree ring multi-proxies have been studied for the Caniapiscau Reservoir in northern Québec (Canada), leading to the reconstruction of flow time series for the last 150 years. In this paper, we applied a new hydro-climatic reconstruction method on the Caniapiscau Reservoir and compare the obtained streamflow time series against time series derived from dendrohydrology by other authors on the same catchment and study the natural streamflow variability over the 1881-2011 period in that region. This new reconstruction is based not on natural proxies but on a historical reanalysis of global geopotential height fields, and aims firstly to produce daily climatic time series, which are then used as inputs to a rainfall-runoff model in order to obtain daily streamflow time series. The performances of the hydro-climatic reconstruction were quantified over the observed period, and showed good performances, in terms of both monthly regimes and interannual variability. The streamflow reconstructions were then compared to two different reconstructions performed on the same catchment by using tree ring data series, one being focused on mean annual flows and the other on spring floods. In terms of mean annual flows, the interannual variability in the reconstructed flows was similar (except for the 1930-1940 decade), with noteworthy changes seen in wetter and drier years. For spring floods, the reconstructed interannual variabilities were quite similar for the 1955-2011 period, but strongly different between 1880 and 1940. The results emphasize the need to apply different reconstruction methods on the same catchments. Indeed, comparisons such as those above highlight potential differences between available reconstructions and, finally, allow a retrospective analysis of the

  16. Geopotential Research Mission (GRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) is a satellite system proposed to determine variations in the gravitational and magnetic fields to a resolution of about 100 kilometers. Knowledge and interpretations of the potential fields on scales of 100 kilometers and greater, to clarify the needs for better data in this range of wavelengths were reviewed. The potential contribution of these data to the determination, by satellite altimetry, of a more accurate geoidal reference was discussed.

  17. Satellite techniques for determining the geopotential for sea-surface elevations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisacane, V. L.

    1984-01-01

    Spaceborne altimetry with measurement accuracies of a few centimeters which has the potential to determine sea surface elevations necessary to compute accurate three-dimensonal geostrophic currents from traditional hydrographic observation is discussed. The limitation in this approach is the uncertainties in knowledge of the global and ocean geopotentials which produce satellite and height uncertainties about an order of magnitude larger than the goal of about 10 cm. The quantative effects of geopotential uncertainties on processing altimetry data are described. Potential near term improvements, not requiring additional spacecraft, are discussed. Even though there is substantial improvements at the longer wavelengths, the oceanographic goal will be achieved. The geopotential research mission (GRM) is described which should produce goepotential models that are capable of defining the ocean geid to 10 cm and near-Earth satellite position. The state of the art and the potential of spaceborne gravimetry is described as an alternative approach to improve our knowledge of the geopotential.

  18. Evaluation and comparisons of recent geopotential solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of some of the recent satellite determined gravity models, including some with distinct data base, indicates that the geopotential coefficients of these models are individually meaningful for frequencies with wave numbers n = 2 through 7 certainly and wave numbers n = 8 through 10 probably. Geopotential coefficients in higher frequency ranges while apparently important for computing accurate satellite orbits seem to have little geophysical significance in an individual sense. Differences between various gravity models and those satellite purely between determined geopotential models and their associated combination models show no consistent relationship to surface gravimetric coverage. Additional classical tracking data are important in improving the existing description of the earth's gravity field but their contribution in extending its frequency range beyond what is now available is uncertain.

  19. Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Tetsushi; Takamoto, Masao; Ushijima, Ichiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Akatsuka, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kuroishi, Yuki; Munekane, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Basara; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-10-01

    According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the passage of time changes in a gravitational field. On Earth, raising a clock by 1 cm increases its apparent tick rate by 1.1 parts in 1018, allowing chronometric levelling through comparison of optical clocks. Here, we demonstrate such geopotential measurements by determining the height difference of master and slave clocks separated by 15 km with an uncertainty of 5 cm. A subharmonic of the master clock laser is delivered through a telecom fibre to synchronously operate the distant clocks. Clocks operated under such phase coherence reject clock laser noise and facilitate proposals for linking clocks and interferometers. Taken over half a year, 11 measurements determine the fractional frequency difference between the two clocks to be 1,652.9(5.9) × 10-18, consistent with an independent measurement by levelling and gravimetry. Our system demonstrates a building block for an internet of clocks, which may constitute ‘quantum benchmarks’, serving as height references with dynamic responses.

  20. Geopotential Error Analysis from Satellite Gradiometer and Global Positioning System Observables on Parallel Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.; Baker, Gregory A.

    1997-01-01

    The recovery of a high resolution geopotential from satellite gradiometer observations motivates the examination of high performance computational techniques. The primary subject matter addresses specifically the use of satellite gradiometer and GPS observations to form and invert the normal matrix associated with a large degree and order geopotential solution. Memory resident and out-of-core parallel linear algebra techniques along with data parallel batch algorithms form the foundation of the least squares application structure. A secondary topic includes the adoption of object oriented programming techniques to enhance modularity and reusability of code. Applications implementing the parallel and object oriented methods successfully calculate the degree variance for a degree and order 110 geopotential solution on 32 processors of the Cray T3E. The memory resident gradiometer application exhibits an overall application performance of 5.4 Gflops, and the out-of-core linear solver exhibits an overall performance of 2.4 Gflops. The combination solution derived from a sun synchronous gradiometer orbit produce average geoid height variances of 17 millimeters.

  1. Recent advances in the determination of a high spatial resolution geopotential model using chronometric geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Guillaume; Guerlin, Christine; Bize, Sébastien; Wolf, Peter; Delva, Pacôme; Panet, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Current methods to determine the geopotential are mainly based on indirect approaches using gravimetric, gradiometric and topographic data. Satellite missions (GRACE, GOCE) have contributed significantly to improve the knowledge of the Earth's gravity field with a spatial resolution of about 90 km, but it is not enough to access, for example, to the geoid variation in hilly regions. While airborne and ground-based gravimeters provide the high resolution, the problem of these technics is that the accuracy is hampered by the heterogeneous coverage of gravity data (ground and offshore). Recent technological advances in atomic clocks are opening new perspectives in the determination of the geopotential. To date, the best of them reach a stability of 1.6×10-18 (NIST, RIKEN + Univ. Tokyo) in just 7 hours of integration, an accuracy of 2.0×10-18 (JILA). Using the relation of the relativistic gravitational redshift, this corresponds to a determination of geopotential differences at the 0.1 m²/s² level (or 1 cm in geoid height). In this context, the present work aims at evaluating the contribution of optical atomic clocks for the determination of the geopotential at high spatial resolution. To do that, we have studied a test area surrounding the Massif Central in the middle of southern of France. This region, consists in low mountain ranges and plateaus, is interesting because, the gravitational field strength varies greatly from place to place at high resolution due to the relief. Here, we present the synthetic tests methodology: generation of synthetic gravity and potential data, then estimation of the potential from these data using the least-squares collocation and assessment of the clocks contribution. We shall see how the coverage of the data points (realistic or not) can affect the results, and discuss how to quantify the trade-off between the noise level and the number of data points used.

  2. Determination of a high spatial resolution geopotential model using atomic clock comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, G.; Panet, I.; Wolf, P.; Guerlin, C.; Bize, S.; Delva, P.

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances in optical atomic clocks are opening new perspectives for the direct determination of geopotential differences between any two points at a centimeter-level accuracy in geoid height. However, so far detailed quantitative estimates of the possible improvement in geoid determination when adding such clock measurements to existing data are lacking. We present a first step in that direction with the aim and hope of triggering further work and efforts in this emerging field of chronometric geodesy and geophysics. We specifically focus on evaluating the contribution of this new kind of direct measurements in determining the geopotential at high spatial resolution (≈ 10 km). We studied two test areas, both located in France and corresponding to a middle (Massif Central) and high (Alps) mountainous terrain. These regions are interesting because the gravitational field strength varies greatly from place to place at high spatial resolution due to the complex topography. Our method consists in first generating a synthetic high-resolution geopotential map, then drawing synthetic measurement data (gravimetry and clock data) from it, and finally reconstructing the geopotential map from that data using least squares collocation. The quality of the reconstructed map is then assessed by comparing it to the original one used to generate the data. We show that adding only a few clock data points (less than 1% of the gravimetry data) reduces the bias significantly and improves the standard deviation by a factor 3. The effect of the data coverage and data quality on the results is investigated, and the trade-off between the measurement noise level and the number of data points is discussed.

  3. Determination of an Optimal Geopotential Value for the North American Geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2011-12-01

    Canada, The United States, Mexico and other countries in North America having been working under the auspices of the International Association of Geodesy to develop a common geoid height model for the continent. Such a model would provide a common vertical reference system of orthometric heights accessed using GNSS technology. Canada and the U.S.A. already have plans to implement this for new national datums in 2013 (Canada) and 2022 (U.S.A.). The resulting geopotential values would also serve as the basis for determining dynamic heights as a part of the International Great Lakes Datum due to be updated around 2015. A critical aspect of this process then is the determining the most optimal geopotential value (W_0) for these datum definitions. A number of different data sets were compared in this analysis including various geoid height models, GNSS-determined ellipsoidal coordinates on tidal bench marks (TBM's), models of mean ocean dynamic topography (MODT) determined from physical oceanography, and altimeter-derived mean sea surface heights (MSSH). The expectation of this analysis is that the geoid and MODT heights should equal the heights observed either at TBM's or in the MSSH models. The requirement that the MODT models be based on physical oceanography reduces potential correlation with the MSSH in the results. The aim of this study then was to evaluate independent data sets to determine uncorrelated and unambiguous results. Any biases would potentially indicate an incorrect choice of W_0. Current models of the U.S.A. and Canada use a W_0 value of 62636856.88 m^2/s^2. The result of the comparisons show that this number is near optimal though some small change may be required depending pending refinement of the results along the eastern coast of the U.S.A., where the effects of the Gulf Stream complicate this analysis.

  4. Accuracy of the GEM-T2 geopotential from Geosat and ERS 1 crossover altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C. A.; Klokočník, J.

    1994-05-01

    Extensive analyses of altimetrically determined sea height differences at crossovers have been used to assess the accuracy of the GEM-T2 geopotential. The orbits used were determined with GEM-T2 for Geosat in its 17-day Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) in 1986-1989 and ERS 1 in both its 3-day ERM in 1991-1992 and its 35-day ERM in 1992. The data examined are completely independent of the data used in GEM-T2's development though GEM-T2 had considerable use of Doppler tracking information on Geosat. The test of the radial accuracy of the ERS 1 orbit (98.5° inclination) is especially significant because it is not ``close'' to any other orbit well represented in GEM-T2. The assessment consists of a comparison of observed mean height differences at thousands of distinct geographic locations with error projections from the GEM-T2 covariance matrix which was estimated from other data sources. This first comprehensive, independent test of the purely radial accuracy of an orbit-geopotential model clearly shows that the covariant predictions for GEM-T2 are broadly reliable for this purpose. Thus, the agreement of crossover predictions and observations suggests that the total radial errors for these ERMs, due to only to GEM-T2 (but excluding the effects of initial state error) are about 23 cm for Geosat and 115 cm (rms) for ERS 1. However, there is little detailed agreement of measurements and predictions for ERS 1 and only partial agreement in detail for Geosat. Our 30,000 mean crossover discrepancies for Geosat (derived from ERM cycles 1-44) are also shown to reduce substantially the crossover height differences in cycles 45-61, almost exactly as predicted if these are the true GEM-T2 errors for this orbit.

  5. Formulation of geopotential difference determination using optical-atomic clocks onboard satellites and on ground based on Doppler cancellation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancellation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks (OACs) and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits, respectively, two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 m2 s- 2 based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s s-1) level. Since OACs with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimetre level accuracy in the near future.

  6. Stabilized determination of geopotential coefficients by the mixed hom-BLUP approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middel, B.; Schaffrin, B.

    1989-01-01

    For the determination of geopotential coefficients, data can be used from rather different sources, e.g., satellite tracking, gravimetry, or altimetry. As each data type is particularly sensitive to certain wavelengths of the spherical harmonic coefficients it is of essential importance how they are treated in a combination solution. For example the longer wavelengths are well described by the coefficients of a model derived by satellite tracking, while other observation types such as gravity anomalies, delta g, and geoid heights, N, from altimetry contain only poor information for these long wavelengths. Therefore, the lower coefficients of the satellite model should be treated as being superior in the combination. In the combination a new method is presented which turns out to be highly suitable for this purpose due to its great flexibility combined with robustness.

  7. An analysis of methods for gravity determination and their utilization for the calculation of geopotential numbers in the Slovak national levelling network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majkráková, Miroslava; Papčo, Juraj; Zahorec, Pavol; Droščák, Branislav; Mikuška, Ján; Marušiak, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    The vertical reference system in the Slovak Republic is realized by the National Levelling Network (NLN). The normal heights according to Molodensky have been introduced as reference heights in the NLN in 1957. Since then, the gravity correction, which is necessary to determine the reference heights in the NLN, has been obtained by an interpolation either from the simple or complete Bouguer anomalies. We refer to this method as the "original". Currently, the method based on geopotential numbers is the preferred way to unify the European levelling networks. The core of this article is an analysis of different ways to the gravity determination and their application for the calculation of geopotential numbers at the points of the NLN. The first method is based on the calculation of gravity at levelling points from the interpolated values of the complete Bouguer anomaly using the CBA2G_SK software. The second method is based on the global geopotential model EGM2008 improved by the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) approach. The calculated gravity is used to determine the normal heights according to Molodensky along parts of the levelling lines around the EVRF2007 datum point EH-V. Pitelová (UELN-1905325) and the levelling line of the 2nd order NLN to Kráľova hoľa Mountain (the highest point measured by levelling). The results from our analysis illustrate that the method based on the interpolated value of gravity is a better method for gravity determination when we do not know the measured gravity. It was shown that this method is suitable for the determination of geopotential numbers and reference heights in the Slovak national levelling network at the points in which the gravity is not observed directly. We also demonstrated the necessity of using the precise RTM for the refinement of the results derived solely from the EGM2008.

  8. Marine Geoid Undulation Assessment Over South China Sea Using Global Geopotential Models and Airborne Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazid, N. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, K. M.; Som, Z. A. M.; Omar, A. H.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Tugi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Global geopotential models (GGMs) are vital in computing global geoid undulations heights. Based on the ellipsoidal height by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations, the accurate orthometric height can be calculated by adding precise and accurate geoid undulations model information. However, GGMs also provide data from the satellite gravity missions such as GRACE, GOCE and CHAMP. Thus, this will assist to enhance the global geoid undulations data. A statistical assessment has been made between geoid undulations derived from 4 GGMs and the airborne gravity data provided by Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM). The goal of this study is the selection of the best possible GGM that best matches statistically with the geoid undulations of airborne gravity data under the Marine Geodetic Infrastructures in Malaysian Waters (MAGIC) Project over marine areas in Sabah. The correlation coefficients and the RMS value for the geoid undulations of GGM and airborne gravity data were computed. The correlation coefficients between EGM 2008 and airborne gravity data is 1 while RMS value is 0.1499.In this study, the RMS value of EGM 2008 is the lowest among the others. Regarding to the statistical analysis, it clearly represents that EGM 2008 is the best fit for marine geoid undulations throughout South China Sea.

  9. Geopotential research mission, science, engineering and program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, T. (Editor); Taylor, P. (Editor); Kahn, W. (Editor); Lerch, F. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is based upon the accumulated scientific and engineering studies pertaining to the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The scientific need and justification for the measurement of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon the studies and conclusions of scientific organizations and NASA advisory groups. The engineering design and investigations performed over the last 4 years are described, and a spacecraft design capable of fulfilling all scientific objectives is presented. In addition, critical features of the scientific requirements and state-of-the-art limitations of spacecraft design, mission flight performance, and data processing are discussed.

  10. Modelling of the Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, C.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    Lateral density and topography variations yield in and important contribution to the lithospheric stress field. The leading quantity is the Geopotential Energy, the integrated lithostatic pressure in a rock column. The horizontal gradient of this quantity is related to horizontal stresses through the Equations of equilibrium of stresses. The Geopotential Energy furthermore can be linearly related to the Geoid under assumption of local isostasy. Satellite Geoid measurements contain, however, also non-isostatic deeper mantle responses of long wavelength. Unfortunately, high-pass filtering of the Geoid does not suppress only the deeper sources. The age-dependent signal of the oceanic lithosphere, for instance, is of long wave length and a prominent representative of in-plane stress, derived from the horizontal gradient of isostatic Geoid anomalies and responsible for the ridge push effect. Therefore a global lithospheric density model is required in order to isolate the shallow Geoid signal and calculate the stress pattern from isostatically compensated lithospheric sources. We use a linearized inverse method to fit a lithospheric reference model to observations such as topography and surface heat flow in the presence of local isostasy and a steady state geotherm. Subsequently we use a FEM code to solve the Equations of equilibrium of stresses for a three dimensional elastic shell. The modelled results are shown and compared with the global stress field and other publications.

  11. Simulation and analysis of a geopotential research mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Lisa K.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for the determination of the initial conditions for the two satellites that will satisfy Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) requirements are investigated. For certain gravitational recovery techniques, the satellites must remain close to a specified separation distance and their groundtracks must repeat after a specified interval of time. Since the objective of the GRM mission is to improve the gravity model, any pre-mission orbit predicted using existing gravity models will be in error. A technique has been developed to eliminate the drift between the two satellites caused by gravitational modeling errors and return them to repeating groundtracks. The concept of frozen orbits, which minimize altitude variations over given latitudes, was investigated. Finally, the effects of temporal perturbations on the relative range-rate signal were studied. At the proposed altitude of 160 km, the range-rate signal produced by perturbations other than the static geopotential field are dominated by the luni-solar effect. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of all the temporal perturbations does not prevent the orbit from being frozen or the satellites from obtaining a repeating groundtrack to within a specified closure distance.

  12. Evaluation of flat-Earth approximation results for geopotential missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapley, M. B.

    1997-04-01

    Simplified calculations can approximate the formal uncertainties in estimates of the spherical harmonic coefficients representing the Earth's gravitational potential. The calculations model the Earth locally as a plane, producing errors negligible for wavelengths shorter than the radius of the Earth. Information derived from observations of low altitude polar orbiting satellites is considered. With some constraints, the final model uncertainties derive from a priori gravitational field information, specific orbital elements, and parameters describing instrumentation characteristics. The author demonstrates how to refine the technique to accept inputs from the currently operational Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation and how to use information from partial tensor gravitational gradiometers. This approach is beneficial when evaluating prospective satellite geodesy missions because the covariance analyses for various mission scenarios can be made efficiently and expeditiously. The author demonstrates the utility of the flat Earth approach by comparing results with those of more elaborate and time consuming calculations performed for the European Space Agency ARISTOTELES proposed geopotential mapping mission, the NASA Gravity Probe B Relativity mission, and the NASA/Center National d'Etudes Spatiales Topographic Ocean Experiment Satellite (TOPEX)/Poseidon mission.

  13. The Time Evolution of the Earth's Gravity Field Since 2002: Do we need to rethink geopotential-based reference systems in the GRACE era?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Hardy, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The gravity field of the Earth has changed dramatically over the last few decades as it responds to the melting of continental ice, depletion of groundwater, glacial isostatic adjustment, earthquakes, and other effects. The GRACE mission, launched in 2002, allows us to quantify these effects on gravity anomalies, geoid heights, deflections, and geopotential-based vertical reference systems at long wavelengths. We will examine these changes in different parts of the world and discuss the potential implications for different applications employing static (mean) gravity field models. We will furthermore show that GRACE and future satellite gravity missions can inform the changes in these vertical datums as the Earth's gravity field continues to evolve.

  14. Study of geopotential error models used in orbit determination error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, C.; Kelbel, D.; Lee, T.; Samii, M. V.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The uncertainty in the geopotential model is currently one of the major error sources in the orbit determination of low-altitude Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The results of an investigation of different geopotential error models and modeling approaches currently used for operational orbit error analysis support at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are presented, with emphasis placed on sequential orbit error analysis using a Kalman filtering algorithm. Several geopotential models, known as the Goddard Earth Models (GEMs), were developed and used at GSFC for orbit determination. The errors in the geopotential models arise from the truncation errors that result from the omission of higher order terms (omission errors) and the errors in the spherical harmonic coefficients themselves (commission errors). At GSFC, two error modeling approaches were operationally used to analyze the effects of geopotential uncertainties on the accuracy of spacecraft orbit determination - the lumped error modeling and uncorrelated error modeling. The lumped error modeling approach computes the orbit determination errors on the basis of either the calibrated standard deviations of a geopotential model's coefficients or the weighted difference between two independently derived geopotential models. The uncorrelated error modeling approach treats the errors in the individual spherical harmonic components as uncorrelated error sources and computes the aggregate effect using a combination of individual coefficient effects. This study assesses the reasonableness of the two error modeling approaches in terms of global error distribution characteristics and orbit error analysis results. Specifically, this study presents the global distribution of geopotential acceleration errors for several gravity error models and assesses the orbit determination errors resulting from these error models for three types of spacecraft - the Gamma Ray Observatory, the Ocean Topography Experiment, and the Cosmic

  15. Effect of Varying Crustal Thickness on CHAMP Geopotential Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, P. T.; Kis, K. I.; vonFrese, R. R. B.; Korhonen, J. V.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, H. R.; Potts, L. V.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of crustal thickness variation on satellite-altitude geopotential anomalies we compared two regions of Europe with vastly different values, Central/Southern Finland and the Pannonian Basin. Crustal thickness exceeds 62 km in Finland and is less than 26 km in the Pannonian Basin. Heat-flow maps indicate that the thinner and more active crust of the Pannonian Basin has a value nearly three times that of the Finnish Svecofennian Province. Ground based gravity mapping in Hungary shows that the free-air gravity anomalies across the Pannonian Basin are near 0 to +20 mGal with shorter wavelength anomalies from +40 to less than +60 mGal and some 0 to greater than -20 mGal. Larger anomalies are detected in the mountainous areas. The minor value anomalies can indicate the isostatic equilibrium for Hungary (the central part of the Pannonian Basin). Gravity data over Finland are complicated by de-glaciation. CHAMP gravity data (400 km) indicates a west-east positive gradient of greater than 4 mGal across Central/Southern Finland and an ovoid positive anomaly (approximately 4 mGal) quasi-coincidental with the magnetic anomaly traversing the Pannonian Basin. CHAMP magnetic data (425 km) reveal elongated semicircular negative anomalies for both regions with South-Central Finland having larger amplitude (less than -6 nT) than that over the Pannonian Basin, Hungary (less than -5 nT). In both regions subducted oceanic lithosphere has been proposed as the anomalous body.

  16. Estimation of geopotential differences over intercontinental locations using satellite and terrestrial measurements. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1991-01-01

    An error analysis study was conducted in order to assess the current accuracies and the future anticipated improvements in the estimation of geopotential differences over intercontinental locations. An observation/estimation scheme was proposed and studied, whereby gravity disturbance measurements on the Earth's surface, in caps surrounding the estimation points, are combined with corresponding data in caps directly over these points at the altitude of a low orbiting satellite, for the estimation of the geopotential difference between the terrestrial stations. The mathematical modeling required to relate the primary observables to the parameters to be estimated, was studied for the terrestrial data and the data at altitude. Emphasis was placed on the examination of systematic effects and on the corresponding reductions that need to be applied to the measurements to avoid systematic errors. The error estimation for the geopotential differences was performed using both truncation theory and least squares collocation with ring averages, in case observations on the Earth's surface only are used. The error analysis indicated that with the currently available global geopotential model OSU89B and with gravity disturbance data in 2 deg caps surrounding the estimation points, the error of the geopotential difference arising from errors in the reference model and the cap data is about 23 kgal cm, for 30 deg station separation.

  17. Constrained Regional Recovery of Continental Water Mass Time-variations from GRACE-based Geopotential Anomalies over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G. L.; Seoane, L.; Frappart, F.; Biancale, R.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.; Bourgogne, S.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a "constrained" least-squares approach to estimate regional maps of equivalent-water heights by inverting GRACE-based potential anomalies at satellite altitude. According to the energy integral method, the anomalies of difference of geopotential between the two GRACE vehicles are derived from along-track K-Band Range-Rate (KBRR) residuals that correspond mainly to the continental water storage changes, once a priori known accelerations (i.e. static field, polar movements, atmosphere and ocean masses including tides) are removed during the orbit adjustment process. Newton's first law merely enables the Difference of Potential Anomalies from accurate KBRR data and the equivalent-water heights to be recovered. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between elementary surface tiles are introduced to stabilize the linear system to cancel the effects of the north-south striping. Unlike the "mascons" approach, no basis of orthogonal functions (e.g., spherical harmonics) is used, so that the proposed regional method does not suffer from drawbacks related to any spectrum truncation. Time series of 10-day regional maps over South America for 2006-2009 also prove to be consistent with independent data sets, namely the outputs of hydrological models, "mascons" and global GRACE solutions.

  18. Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function, from zero to 18th order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are usually tabulated in normalized form to provide immediate information as to the relative significance of the coefficients in the gravity model. The normalized form of the geopotential coefficients cannot be used for computational purposes unless the gravity model has been modified to receive them. This modification is usually not done because the absolute or unnormalized form of the coefficients can be obtained from the simple mathematical relationship that relates the two forms. This computation can be quite tedious for hand calculation, especially for the higher order terms, and can be costly in terms of storage and execution time for machine computation. In this report, zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are tabulated in absolute or unnormalized form. The report is designed to be used as a ready reference for both hand and machine calculation to save the user time and effort.

  19. Dynamic Heights in the Great Lakes using OPUS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. will be implementing new geometric and vertical reference frames in 2022 to replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), respectively. Less emphasized is the fact that a new dynamic height datum will also be defined about the same time to replace the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85). IGLD 85 was defined concurrent with NAVD 88 and used the same geopotential values. This paper focuses on the use of an existing tool for determining geometric coordinates and a developing geopotential model as a means of determining dynamic heights. The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) Projects (OP) is an online tool available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) for use in developing geometric coordinates from simultaneous observations at multiple sites during multiple occupations. With observations performed at the water level gauges throughout the Great Lakes, the geometric coordinates of the mean water level surface can be determined. NGS has also developed the xGEOID15B model from satellite, airborne and surface gravity data. Using the input geometric coordinates determined through OP, the geopotential values for the water surface at the water level stations around the Great Lakes were determined using the xGEOID15B model. Comparisons were made between water level sites for each Lake as well as to existing IGLD 85 heights. A principal advantage to this approach is the ability to generate new water level control stations using OP, while maintaining the consistency between orthometric and dynamic heights by using the same gravity field model. Such a process may provide a means for determining dynamic heights for a future Great Lakes Datum.

  20. Evaluation of the Recent GOCE-based Global Geopotential Models in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sideris, M. G.; Amjadiparvar, B.; Rangelova, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) dedicated satellite gravity field mission was launched on March 17, 2009. The GOCE came to an end in October 21, 2013. Five generations of global geopotential models (GGMs) have been computed and released based on the data collected by GOCE so far. The models are available via IAG's International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM, http://icgem.gfz-potsdam.de/ICGEM/). The first generation models were computed from the first two months of the data, but the final generation models have been recently computed based on approximately 42 months of GOCE observations. Evaluation of these models in North America is important in view of the availability of high quality geodetic data in Canada and USA and the upcoming redefinition of the North American vertical datum through a continental geoid model based on a GOCE GGM. In this study, the performance of the models, developed by ESA's High-level Processing Facility (HPF), is evaluated by degree variances and also by comparing to the GNSS-levelling geoid undulations as independent control values. The GNSS-leveling stations in Canada, USA, Alaska and Mexico are used in this study. The results provide evidence that the signal of the Earth's gravitational field has been obtained solely from GOCE measurements up to degree and order (DO) 220, which corresponds to the spatial resolution of approximately 91 km. The cumulative global geoid error of TIM5 and DIR5 models up to DO 220 are 3.6 and 1.2 cm, respectively. The evaluation of the models by the North American GNSS-leveling stations in different spectral bands showed that the TIM5 and DIR5 models have slightly better performance than the EGM2008 model in the spectral band between DO 100 and 210 in Canada and the USA. The improvement brought by GOCE to Alaska and Mexico is more significant. In Alaska, the TIM5 and DIR5 models improve the geoid signal in the spectral band between DO 100 and 250. In Mexico

  1. Comparison of Selected Geopotential Models in Terms of the GOCE Orbit Determination Using Simulated GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobojć, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    This work contains a comparative study of the performance of six geopotential models in an orbit estimation process of the satellite of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission. For testing, such models as ULUX_CHAMP2013S, ITG-GRACE 2010S, EIGEN-51C, EIGEN5S, EGM2008, EGM96, were adopted. Different sets of pseudo-range simulations along reference GOCE satellite orbital arcs were obtained using real orbits of the Global Positioning System satellites. These sets were the basic observation data used in the adjustment. The centimeter-accuracy Precise Science Orbit (PSO) for the GOCE satellite provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) was adopted as the GOCE reference orbit. Comparing various variants of the orbital solutions, the relative accuracy of geopotential models in an orbital aspect is determined. Full geopotential models were used in the adjustment process. The solutions were also determined taking into account truncated geopotential models. In such case, an accuracy of the solutions was slightly enhanced. Different arc lengths were taken for the computation.

  2. Geopotential coefficient determination and the gravimetric boundary value problem: A new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjoeberg, Lars E.

    1989-01-01

    New integral formulas to determine geopotential coefficients from terrestrial gravity and satellite altimetry data are given. The formulas are based on the integration of data over the non-spherical surface of the Earth. The effect of the topography to low degrees and orders of coefficients is estimated numerically. Formulas for the solution of the gravimetric boundary value problem are derived.

  3. Testing of Selected Geopotential Models in Terms of GOCE Satellite Orbit Determination Using Simulated GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobojc, Andrzej; Drozyner, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    This work contains a comparative study of performance of twenty geopotential models in an orbit estimation process of the satellite of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission. For testing, among others, such models as JYY_GOCE02S, ITG-GOCE02, ULUX_CHAMP2013S, GOGRA02S, ITG-GRACE2010S, EIGEN-51C, EGM2008, EGM96, JGM3, OSU91a, OSU86F were adopted. A special software package, called the Orbital Computation System (OCS), based on the classical method of least squares was used. In the frame of OCS, initial satellite state vector components are corrected in an iterative process, using the given geopotential model and the models describing the remaining gravitational perturbations. An important part of the OCS package is the 8th order Cowell numerical integration procedure, which enables a satellite orbit computation. Different sets of pseudorange simulations along reference GOCE satellite orbital arcs were obtained using real orbits of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. These sets were the basic observation data used in the adjustment. The centimeter-accuracy Precise Science Orbit (PSO) for the GOCE satellite provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) was adopted as the GOCE reference orbit. Comparing various variants of the orbital solutions, the relative accuracy of geopotential models in an orbital aspect is determined. Full geopotential models were used in the adjustment process. However, the solutions were also determined taking into account truncated geopotential models. In such case, an accuracy of the orbit estimated was slightly enhanced. The obtained solutions refer to the orbital arcs with the lengths of 90-minute and 1-day.

  4. Spatial and Temporal scales of time-averaged 700 MB height anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutzler, D.

    1981-01-01

    The monthly and seasonal forecasting technique is based to a large extent on the extrapolation of trends in the positions of the centers of time averaged geopotential height anomalies. The complete forecasted height pattern is subsequently drawn around the forecasted anomaly centers. The efficacy of this technique was tested and time series of observed monthly mean and 5 day mean 700 mb geopotential heights were examined. Autocorrelation statistics are generated to document the tendency for persistence of anomalies. These statistics are compared to a red noise hypothesis to check for evidence of possible preferred time scales of persistence. Space-time spectral analyses at middle latitudes are checked for evidence of periodicities which could be associated with predictable month-to-month trends. A local measure of the average spatial scale of anomalies is devised for guidance in the completion of the anomaly pattern around the forecasted centers.

  5. Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.

  6. Report of the panel on geopotential fields: Gravity field, section 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Kaula, William M.; Lazarewics, Andrew R.; Lefebvre, Michel; Phillips, Roger J.; Rapp, Richard H.; Rummel, Reinhard F.; Smith, David E.; Tapley, Byron D.; Zlotnick, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Geopotential Panel was to develop a program of data acquisition and model development for the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields that meet the basic science requirements of the solid Earth and ocean studies. Presented here are the requirements for gravity information and models through the end of the century, the present status of our knowledge, data acquisition techniques, and an outline of a program to meet the requirements.

  7. On Comparing Precision Orbit Solutions of Geodetic Satellites Given Several Ocean Tide and Geopotential Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    using data obtained from the GRACE mission. Principal investigators for GRACE at the University of Texas at Austin Center for Space Research ( CSR ...Researchers at CSR have also developed the Grace Gravity Model (GGM) geopotential series. The first GGM series model (GGM01) was released in 2003.19...Potsdam and GCGS Toulouse,” AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2013, Abstract G51A-0860. 24Eanes, R. J. and Bettadpur, S., “The CSR 3.0 Ocean Tide Model: Diurnal

  8. Preliminary Goddard geopotential using optical tracking data and a comparison with SAO models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Putney, B. H.; Nickerson, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geopotential and center of mass station coordinate solution was obtained from satellite orbital data using numerical integration theory. This geodetic solution is a prelude to a more general solution which will combine the 1971 International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) laser data with the present data being employed. The present GSFC geopotential solution consists of the spherical harmonic coefficients through degree and order eight with higher order satellite resonant coefficients. The solution represents a first iteration result from 17 satellites with approximately 150 weekly orbital arcs containing some 40,000 optical observations. The GSFC preliminary result is compared with final results from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) solutions including the 1969 SAO Standard Earth II solution. One aspect of interest for the comparison is that SAO uses an analytic theory for the orbital solution whereas GSFC uses a numerical integration theory. The comparison of geopotential results shows that good agreement exists in general but that there are some areas of minor differences.

  9. A series expansion of the solid Earth tide effect on geopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Sergey M.

    2013-04-01

    We develop analytical series representing the main part of corrections to the geopotential coefficients caused by the solid Earth tides, where Love numbers are assumed to be frequency-independent. The series are compact, precise and valid over 1800 A.D.-2200 A.D. The maximum difference between the corrections given by the analytical series and their numerical values, obtained with use of the DE/LE-423 planetary/lunar ephemerides, does not exceed 0.7× 10^{-12}. A new algorithm is proposed for calculating amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients for frequency dependence of Love numbers. It uses the representation of the Earth tide-generating potential in the standard HW95 format and takes into account the phase of tidal waves. Corrections of up to 2× 10^{-12} to the published by the IERS Conventions (2010) amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients are suggested. Examples of use of the obtained series in analytical theories of motion of low-altitude STARLETTE and high-altitude ETALON-1 satellites are given.

  10. Results from the simulations of geopotential coefficient estimation from gravity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettadpur, S.; Schutz, B. E.; Lundberg, J. B.

    New information of the short and medium wavelength components of the geopotential is expected from the measurements of gravity gradients made by the future ESA Aristoteles and the NASA Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer missions. In this paper, results are presented from preliminary simulations concerning the estimation of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the geopotential expansion from gravity gradients data. Numerical issues in the brute-force inversion (BFI) of the gravity gradients data are examined, and numerical algorithms are developed that substantially speed up the computation of the potential, acceleration, and gradients, as well as the mapping from the gravity gradients to the geopotential coefficients. The solution of a large least squares problem is also examined, and computational requirements are determined for the implementation of a large scale inversion. A comparative analysis of the results from the BFI and a symmetry method is reported for the test simulations of the estimation of a degree and order 50 gravity field. The results from the two, in the presence of white noise, are seen to compare well. The latter method is implemented on a special, axially symmetric surface that fits the orbit within 380 meters.

  11. Evaluation of geopotential and luni-solar perturbations by a recursive algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.

    1975-01-01

    The disturbing functions due to the geopotential and Luni-solar attractions are linear and bilinear forms in spherical harmonics. Making use of recurrence relations for the solid spherical harmonics and their derivatives, recurrence formulas are obtained for high degree terms as function of lower degree for any term of those disturbing functions and their derivative with respect to any element. The equations obtained are effective when a numerical integration of the equations of motion is appropriate. In analytical theories, they provide a fast way of obtaining high degree terms starting from initial very simple functions.

  12. A comparative study of spherical and flat-Earth geopotential modeling at satellite elevations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, M. H.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Flat-Earth and spherical-Earth geopotential modeling of crustal anomaly sources at satellite elevations are compared by computing gravity and scalar magnetic anomalies perpendicular to the strike of variably dimensioned rectangular prisms at altitudes of 150, 300, and 450 km. Results indicate that the error caused by the flat-Earth approximation is less than 10% in most geometric conditions. Generally, error increase with larger and wider anomaly sources at higher altitudes. For most crustal source modeling applications at conventional satellite altitudes, flat-Earth modeling can be justified and is numerically efficient.

  13. The Ohio State 1991 geopotential and sea surface topography harmonic coefficient models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Wang, Yan Ming; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1991-01-01

    The computation is described of a geopotential model to deg 360, a sea surface topography model to deg 10/15, and adjusted Geosat orbits for the first year of the exact repeat mission (ERM). This study started from the GEM-T2 potential coefficient model and it's error covariance matrix and Geosat orbits (for 22 ERMs) computed by Haines et al. using the GEM-T2 model. The first step followed the general procedures which use a radial orbit error theory originally developed by English. The Geosat data was processed to find corrections to the a priori geopotential model, corrections to a radial orbit error model for 76 Geosat arcs, and coefficients of a harmonic representation of the sea surface topography. The second stage of the analysis took place by doing a combination of the GEM-T2 coefficients with 30 deg gravity data derived from surface gravity data and anomalies obtained from altimeter data. The analysis has shown how a high degree spherical harmonic model can be determined combining the best aspects of two different analysis techniques. The error analysis was described that has led to the accuracy estimates for all the coefficients to deg 360. Significant work is needed to improve the modeling effort.

  14. Average Offsets of the Local Vertical Datums in New Zealand Relative to the World Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenzer, Robert; Abdalla, Ahmed; Vatrt, Viliam; Dayoub, Nadim

    2010-05-01

    We determine the average offsets of 12 major local vertical datums (LVDs) in New Zealand relative to the World Height System (WHS). The LVD offsets are estimated using the EGM2008 global geopotential model coefficients complete to degree 2160 of spherical harmonics and the GPS-levelling data. The WHS is defined by the currently adopted best-estimated geoidal geopotential value W0= 62636856 m2s-2. Our test results reveal that the average offsets of 12 major local vertical datums situated throughout the South and North Islands of New Zealand range from -0.25 to 1.34 m. The EGM2008 and GPS-levelling data are further used to compute the differences between the NZGeoid05 regional quasigeoid model and the EGM2008 global quasigeoid model. The same analysis is done for the NZGeoid09 which is the latest version of the official national quasigeoid model for New Zealand. The numerical results at the network of GPS-levelling points show that the differences between the NZGeoid05 and the EGM2008 quasigeoid models vary from 0.24 to 0.81 m with the mean of 0.56 m. The corresponding differences between the NZGeoid09 and the EGM2008 quasigeoid models vary from 0.27 to 1.14 m with the mean of 0.51 m. Keywords: geoidal geopotential value, GPS-leveling data, local vertical datum, World Height System

  15. Accuracy assessment of GOCE-based geopotential models and their use for modelling the gravimetric quasigeoid - A case study for Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godah, Walyeldeen; Szelachowska, Malgorzata; Krynski, Jan

    2014-06-01

    The GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) has significantly upgraded the knowledge on the Earth gravity field. In this contribution the accuracy of height anomalies determined from Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) based on approximately 27 months GOCE satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) data have been assessed over Poland using three sets of precise GNSS/levelling data. The fits of height anomalies obtained from 4th release GOCE-based GGMs to GNSS/levelling data were discussed and compared with the respective ones of 3rd release GOCE-based GGMs and the EGM08. Furthermore, two highly accurate gravimetric quasigeoid models were developed over the area of Poland using high resolution Faye gravity anomalies. In the first, the GOCE-based GGM was used as a reference geopotential model, and in the second - the EGM08. They were evaluated with GNSS/levelling data and their accuracy performance was assessed. The use of GOCE-based GGMs for recovering the long-wavelength gravity signal in gravimetric quasigeoid modelling was discussed. Misja GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) przyczyniła się do znacznego poprawienia znajomości pola siły ciężkości Ziemi. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki oszacowania dokładności anomalii wysokości, wyznaczonych z globalnych modeli geopotencjału opracowanych na podstawie blisko 27 miesięcy pomiarów z satelitarnej misji gradiometrycznej GOCE. Do oszacowania wykorzystano trzy zbiory dokładnych danych satelitarno-niwelacyjnych z obszaru Polski. Omówiono wyniki wpasowania wartości anomalii wysokości otrzymanych z czwartej wersji globalnych modeli geopotencjału wyznaczonych na podstawie danych misji GOCE do danych satelitarno-niwelacyjnych oraz porównano je z wynikami odpowiedniego wpasowania trzeciej wersji globalnych modeli geopotencjału otrzymanych z GOCE oraz z modelu EGM08. Ponadto, wykorzystując wysokorozdzielczy zbiór grawimetrycznych anomalii Faye'a, wyznaczono dla

  16. Assessment and Improvement of GOCE based Global Geopotential Models Using Wavelet Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Serdar; Erol, Bihter; Serkan Isik, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of recent Earth gravity field satellite missions, specifically GOCE mission, leads significant improvement in quality of gravity field models in both accuracy and resolution manners. However the performance and quality of each released model vary not only depending on the spatial location of the Earth but also the different bands of the spectral expansion. Therefore the assessment of the global model performances with validations using in situ-data in varying territories on the Earth is essential for clarifying their exact performances in local. Beside of this, their spectral evaluation and quality assessment of the signal in each part of the spherical harmonic expansion spectrum is essential to have a clear decision for the commission error content of the model and determining its optimal degree, revealed the best results, as well. The later analyses provide also a perspective and comparison on the global behavior of the models and opportunity to report the sequential improvement of the models depending on the mission developments and hence the contribution of the new data of missions. In this study a review on spectral assessment results of the recently released GOCE based global geopotential models DIR-R5, TIM-R5 with the enhancement using EGM2008, as reference model, in Turkey, versus the terrestrial data is provided. Beside of reporting the GOCE mission contribution to the models in Turkish territory, the possible improvement in the spectral quality of these models, via decomposition that are highly contaminated by noise, is purposed. In the analyses the motivation is on achieving an optimal amount of improvement that rely on conserving the useful component of the GOCE signal as much as possible, while fusing the filtered GOCE based models with EGM2008 in the appropriate spectral bands. The investigation also contain the assessment of the coherence and the correlation between the Earth gravity field parameters (free-air gravity anomalies and

  17. User-driven update of a high-resolution geopotential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebera, Josef; Bezděk, Aleš; Kostelecký, Jan; Pešek, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Almost every year, there is a lot of (not only) new gravity data from satellite altimetry available to the users. This is in contradiction to the situation over the lands where financial and time costs are usually much higher. Hence, it might be reasonable to update global gravity field models in specific areas with new data. In this contribution, we outline a simple and user-driven concept for updating geopotential models over the oceans if relevant new data become available. The approach employs a grid-wise ellipsoidal harmonic analysis applied to gravity disturbance, while the resolution can achieve a higher maximum degree compared to recent combination models like EGM2008. The obtained harmonic coefficients represent global but regionally updated gravity information. As a test case, we present the concept using EGM2008 and DTU10.

  18. Influence of the inner core geopotential variations on the rotation of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escapa, A.; Getino, J.; Miguel, D.; Ferrándiz, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    In this investigation we determine a new contribution to the rotation of a three layer Earth model composed by an axial-symmetric mantle, a fluid core, and an axial-symmetric inner core. This contribution emerges as a consequence of the variation of the geopotential induced by the differential rotation of the solid inner core. Within the framework of the Hamiltonian theory of the rotation of the non-rigid Earth, and following the same guidelines as those described in Escapa et al. (2001, 2008), we discuss the influence of this effect on the motion of the Earth figure axis. We also provide numerical estimations for the amplitudes of the nutational motion of this axis.

  19. Effects of height acceleration on Geosat heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, David W., III; Brooks, Ronald L.; Lockwood, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    A radar altimeter tracking loop, such as that utilized by Geosat, produces height errors in the presence of persistent height acceleration h(a). The correction factor for the height error is a function of both the loop feedback parameters and the height acceleration. The correction, in meters, to the sea-surface height (SSH) derived from Geosat is -0.16 h(a), where h(a) is in m/sec per sec. The errors induced by accelerations are produced primarily by changes in along-track geoid slopes. The nearly circular Geosat orbit and dynamic ocean topography produce small h(a) values. One area studied in detail encompasses the Marianas Trench and the Challenger Deep in the west central Pacific Ocean. Histograms of SSH corrections due to range accelerations have also been determined from 24-hour segments of Geosat global data. The findings are that 20 percent of the Geosat measurements have acceleration-induced errors of 2 cm or more, while 8 percent have errors of 3 cm or more.

  20. Future satellite missions for time-variable geopotential recovery - results from the ESA Mass Transport Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, T.; Sneeuw, N.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; van Dam, T.; Losch, M.

    2009-04-01

    With the successful GRACE mission (data collection since Spring 2002), global time-variable gravity fields can be recovered beyond the lower degrees for the first time. Although GRACE is able to detect significant features of the time-variable geopotential, e.g. the continental hydrological cycle, trends in ice-mass change in Antarctica or Greenland or sea level rise, its mission concept suffers from inherent deficiencies. The main limitations of GRACE are (i) the range-rate measurements (insufficient accuracy, anisotropy of the leader-follower-formation), (ii) aliasing due to spatial and temporal undersampling and (iii) inaccurate de-aliasing products. This leads to an erroneous North-South striping pattern and a limited accuracy and resolution for many scientific studies. Within the ESA project „Monitoring and Modeling Individual Sources of Mass Distribution and Transport in the Earth System by Means of Satellites" potential future satellite mission concepts, which could improve time-variable geopotential-recovery, have been studied. An improved accuracy of a future laser instrument as well as an enhanced temporal sampling have been regarded in the simulations, which were based on repeat orbits. An enhanced sampling can be achieved by means of multi-satellite-missions, where the spatial and/or temporal resolutions are improved by: 1) additional satellites on interleaved groundtracks and/or 2) time shifted satellites on the same groundtrack. Another possibility is the so-called Pete-Bender-design, where the satellites fly on different repeat-orbits with different inclinations, which also allows for more homogeneous groundtrack coverage. Sophisticated satellite-formations such as cartwheels or gravity wheels have not been regarded so far due to the unsolved technical problems (e.g. control of the laser instrument) related to these designs. The primary objective of the simulation studies was the precise recovery of the input hydrological signal and the trends of

  1. Pin-Height Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Daniel R.; Nichols, Vincent P.

    1992-01-01

    Gauge aligns itself and retains indication for later reading. Measuring tool indicates height of protrusion of pin from flat surface. Tool surrounds pin and holds itself square with flat surface, ensuring proper alignment and accuracy of measurement. Used in hard-to-see and hard-to-reach places. Holds indication of height until read. Metal scale slides in and out through slot in top plate. Scale value at slot gives height of pin under piston. Dimensions in inches.

  2. Estimation of geopotential from satellite-to-satellite range rate data: Numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thobe, Glenn E.; Bose, Sam C.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for high-resolution geopotential field estimation by recovering the harmonic coefficients from satellite-to-satellite range rate data is presented and tested against both a controlled analytical simulation of a one-day satellite mission (maximum degree and order 8) and then against a Cowell method simulation of a 32-day mission (maximum degree and order 180). Innovations include: (1) a new frequency-domain observation equation based on kinetic energy perturbations which avoids much of the complication of the usual Keplerian element perturbation approaches; (2) a new method for computing the normalized inclination functions which unlike previous methods is both efficient and numerically stable even for large harmonic degrees and orders; (3) the application of a mass storage FFT to the entire mission range rate history; (4) the exploitation of newly discovered symmetries in the block diagonal observation matrix which reduce each block to the product of (a) a real diagonal matrix factor, (b) a real trapezoidal factor with half the number of rows as before, and (c) a complex diagonal factor; (5) a block-by-block least-squares solution of the observation equation by means of a custom-designed Givens orthogonal rotation method which is both numerically stable and tailored to the trapezoidal matrix structure for fast execution.

  3. Modeling and estimation of a low degree geopotential model from terrestrial gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1988-01-01

    The development of appropriate modeling and adjustment procedures for the estimation of harmonic coefficients of the geopotential, from surface gravity data was studied, in order to provide an optimum way of utilizing the terrestrial gravity information in combination solutions currently developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission. The mathematical modeling was based on the fundamental boundary condition of the linearized Molodensky boundary value problem. Atmospheric and ellipsoidal corrections were applied to the surface anomalies. Terrestrial gravity solutions were found to be in good agreement with the satellite ones over areas which are well surveyed (gravimetrically), such as North America or Australia. However, systematic differences between the terrestrial only models and GEMT1, over extended regions in Africa, the Soviet Union, and China were found. In Africa, gravity anomaly differences on the order of 20 mgals and undulation differences on the order of 15 meters, over regions extending 2000 km in diameter, occur. Comparisons of the GEMT1 implied undulations with 32 well distributed Doppler derived undulations gave an RMS difference of 2.6 m, while corresponding comparison with undulations implied by the terrestrial solution gave RMS difference on the order of 15 m, which implies that the terrestrial data in that region are substantially in error.

  4. Analogs in the wintertime 500 mb height field. [recurrent flow patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutzler, D. S.; Shukla, J.

    1984-01-01

    Lorenz (1969) has considered the possibility that an atmospheric circulation pattern might recur, taking into account the definition of a pair of analogous flows or 'analogs'. The present investigation is concerned with a search of time series of Northern Hemisphere wintertime geopotential heights for possible analogs. Attention is given to data and analysis procedure, analog quality, and error growth rates. The obtained results imply that the found analogs are not a useful tool for forecasting the evolution of the midlatitude flow on time scales of several days. It is pointed out, however, that the negative results should not be extended to other applications of analog forecasting.

  5. Height, health, and development

    PubMed Central

    Deaton, Angus

    2007-01-01

    Adult height is determined by genetic potential and by net nutrition, the balance between food intake and the demands on it, including the demands of disease, most importantly during early childhood. Historians have made effective use of recorded heights to indicate living standards, in both health and income, for periods where there are few other data. Understanding the determinants of height is also important for understanding health; taller people earn more on average, do better on cognitive tests, and live longer. This paper investigates the environmental determinants of height across 43 developing countries. Unlike in rich countries, where adult height is well predicted by mortality in infancy, there is no consistent relationship across and within countries between adult height on the one hand and childhood mortality or living conditions on the other. In particular, adult African women are taller than is warranted by their low incomes and high childhood mortality, not to mention their mothers' educational level and reported nutrition. High childhood mortality in Africa is associated with taller adults, which suggests that mortality selection dominates scarring, the opposite of what is found in the rest of the world. The relationship between population heights and income is inconsistent and unreliable, as is the relationship between income and health more generally. PMID:17686991

  6. Structural characterization of the Nigerian sector of Benin Basin using geopotential field attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladele, S.; Ayolabi, E. A.; Dublin-Green, C. O.

    2016-09-01

    The structural dispositions of the Nigerian sector of the Benin Basin have been investigated using attributes of geomagnetic and gravimetric fields. Aeromagnetic anomalies were reduced to the equator to improve the correspondence of the anomalies with the causative bodies. The residual, upward continued, tilt and horizontal derivatives, and pseudogravity attributes and forward models of both geomagnetic and gravimetric anomalies were computed to accentuate geological features including shallow and regional faults, fracture network, basement block pattern and depth to magnetic basement. Three generations of sinistral faults were identified. The oldest generation of faults (F1) is the NE-SW trend corresponding to the oceanic fracture zones trend. The F1 is truncated by the second generation of faults (F2) with E-W trends. The third generation of faults (F3) assumes NW-SE trend and is offset by F2. Shallow and deep regional faults and fractures envisaged to play major role in migration and entrapment of hydrocarbons and localization of mineral resources in this area were imaged. The coastline, Lagos and Lekki Lagoons surface geometry showed high degree of similarity with their underlying basement block pattern, thus implying that these surface features are structurally controlled. The basement morphology is not flat but of horst and graben architecture in which sediment thickness attained about 4 km within the graben. Hence, the graben has significant hydrocarbon potential. This study has shown the capabilities of geopotential field attributes in providing information about the structural architecture of frontier basin. Such knowledge will aid the understanding of the geology of the basin and its resources.

  7. Reducing On-Board Computer Propagation Errors Due to Omitted Geopotential Terms by Judicious Selection of Uploaded State Vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greatorex, Scott (Editor); Beckman, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Several future, and some current missions, use an on-board computer (OBC) force model that is very limited. The OBC geopotential force model typically includes only the J(2), J(3), J(4), C(2,2) and S(2,2) terms to model non-spherical Earth gravitational effects. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Wide-field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), and X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) all plan to use this geopotential force model on-board. The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) is already flying this geopotential force model. Past analysis has shown that one of the leading sources of error in the OBC propagated ephemeris is the omission of the higher order geopotential terms. However, these same analyses have shown a wide range of accuracies for the OBC ephemerides. Analysis was performed using EUVE state vectors that showed the EUVE four day OBC propagated ephemerides varied in accuracy from 200 m. to 45 km. depending on the initial vector used to start the propagation. The vectors used in the study were from a single EUVE orbit at one minute intervals in the ephemeris. Since each vector propagated practically the same path as the others, the differences seen had to be due to differences in the inital state vector only. An algorithm was developed that will optimize the epoch of the uploaded state vector. Proper selection can reduce the previous errors of anywhere from 200 m. to 45 km. to generally less than one km. over four days of propagation. This would enable flight projects to minimize state vector uploads to the spacecraft. Additionally, this method is superior to other methods in that no additional orbit estimates need be done. The definitive ephemeris generated on the ground can be used as long as the proper epoch is chosen. This algorithm can be easily coded in software that would pick the epoch within a specified time range that would

  8. An orbit simulation study of a geopotential research mission including satellite-to-satellite tracking and disturbance compensation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, Peter G.

    1988-01-01

    Two orbit simulations, one representing the actual Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) orbit and the other representing the orbit estimated from orbit determination techniques, are presented. A computer algorithm was created to simulate GRM's drag compensation mechanism so the fuel expenditure and proof mass trajectories relative to the spacecraft centroid could be calculated for the mission. The results of the GRM DISCOS simulation demonstrated that the spacecraft can essentially be drag-free. The results showed that the centroid of the spacecraft can be controlled so that it will not deviate more than 1.0 mm in any direction from the centroid of the proof mass.

  9. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  10. Time variations of geopotential, gravity and vertical crustul deformations: nature and unity of cyclicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2003-04-01

    TIME VARIATIONS OF GEOPOTENTIAL, GRAVITY AND VERTICAL CRUSTAL DEFORMATIONS: NATURE AND UNITY OF CYCLICITIES Yu.V.Barkin Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia, barkin@sai.msu.ru Gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun on the Earth generates very big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of its neighboring shells (liquid core, mantle and another layers) and produces cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells, redistribution of the plastic and fluid masses and others. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce deformations of the all layers of the Earth and organize and control practically all natural processes. In given report we analyze these forces and moments caused by the Moon attraction. We have shown that they are conditionally periodic functions of time with definite basis of frequencies, which are some combinations of the frequencies of perturbations in the Moon orbital motion. Very important conclusion follows from our approach - natural processes are controlled and dictated by pointed mechanism and are subjected by cyclic variations with general for all processes base of frequencies. The fundamental basis of frequencies was established in result of theoretical study of the gravitational interaction of the Earth’s core and mantle with the Moon and the Sun and in result of analysis of observed variations of the many natural processes [1]. Predicted periods of variations of the natural processes were conformed by last results of the spectral analysis of gravity at Moscow fidicial station and by similar studies of the Earth rotation, vertical crustul deformations [2]. In particular periods, amplitudes (in a few microGal) and phases for about 20 harmonics of gravity variations were discovered in result of spectral analysis of the absolute

  11. Unification of Intercontinental Height Systems based on the Fixed Geodetic Boundary Value Problem - A Case Study in Spherical Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grombein, T.; Seitz, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    In general, national height reference systems are related to individual vertical datums defined by specific tide gauges. The discrepancy of these vertical datums causes height system biases that range in an order of 1-2 m at a global scale. Continental height systems can be connected by spirit leveling and gravity measurements along the leveling lines as performed for the definition of the European Vertical Reference Frame. In order to unify intercontinental height systems, an indirect connection is needed. For this purpose, global geopotential models derived from recent satellite missions like GOCE provide an important contribution. However, to achieve a highly-precise solution, a combination with local terrestrial gravity data is indispensable. Such combinations result in the solution of a Geodetic Boundary Value Problem (GBVP). In contrast to previous studies, mostly related to the traditional (scalar) free GBVP, the present paper discusses the use of the fixed GBVP for height system unification, where gravity disturbances instead of gravity anomalies are applied as boundary values. The basic idea of our approach is a conversion of measured gravity anomalies to gravity disturbances, where unknown datum parameters occur that can be associated with height system biases. In this way, the fixed GBVP can be extended by datum parameters for each datum zone. By evaluating the GBVP at GNSS/leveling benchmarks, the unknown datum parameters can be estimated in a least squares adjustment. Beside the developed theory, we present numerical results of a case study based on the spherical fixed GBVP and boundary values simulated by the use of the global geopotential model EGM2008. In a further step, the impact of approximations like linearization as well as topographic and ellipsoidal effects is taken into account by suitable reduction and correction terms.

  12. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYThe International Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an International <span class="hlt">Height</span> Reference System (IHRS). According to this resolution, the IHRS coordinates are potential differences referring to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the IHRS realisation is the integration of the existing <span class="hlt">height</span> systems into the global one; i.e. existing vertical coordinates should be referred to one and the same reference level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, i.e., the potential differences between the local and the global reference levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American <span class="hlt">height</span> systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American <span class="hlt">height</span> systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8810058K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8810058K"><span>The contraction of satellite orbits under the influence of air drag. Part 8: Orbital lifetime in an oblate atmosphere, when perigee distance is perturbed by odd zonal harmonics in the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King-Hele, D. G.; Walker, Doreen M. C.</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>This report is devoted to developing the necessary orbital theory for predicting the lifetimes of satellites moving in an oblate atmosphere and subjected to the perturbations due to odd zonal harmonics in the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span>. The effects of odd zonal harmonics and atmospheric oblateness are expressed as multiplying factors, F(oz) and F(ao), to be applied to the lifetime predictions calculted in the absence of the perturbations. The results are valid for the great majority of orbits about the Earth, and in particular for all orbital eccentricities between 0 and 1; but the limits set for the controlling parameters exclude (a) near-polar orbits with perigee <span class="hlt">heights</span> lower than about 180 km, and (b) orbits having inclinations within a narrow band centred on 63.4 deg. The results show that, when the controlling parameters are at their upper limits, either F(oz) or F(ao) can change the lifetime by up to about 35%, and taken together they can produce changes of up to 60%, if the initial and final positions of perigee are at specified points on the orbit and the eccentricity exceeds 0.2. Such combinations of values rarely arise, however, and the effects are more often on the order of 10-20%. Even at these moderate levels, the effects need to be taken into account in order to make realistic estimates of the decay dates of satellites in the last few months of their lives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987RSPSA.414..271K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987RSPSA.414..271K"><span>The contraction of satellite orbits under the influence of air drag. VIII - Orbital lifetime in an oblate atmosphere, when perigee distance is perturbed by odd zonal harmonics in the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King-Hele, D. G.; Walker, Doreen M. C.</p> <p>1987-12-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to developing the necessary orbital theory for predicting the lifetimes of satellites moving in an oblate atmosphere and subjected to the perturbations due to odd zonal harmonics in the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span>. The effects of odd zonal harmonics and atmospheric oblateness are expressed as multiplying factors, F(oz) and F(ao), to be applied to the lifetime predictions calculated in the absence of the perturbations. The results are valid for the great majority of orbits about the earth, and in particular for all orbital eccentricities between 0 and 1; but the limits set for the controlling parameters exclude near-polar orbits with perigee <span class="hlt">heights</span> lower than about 180 km and orbits having inclinations within a narrow band centered on 63.4 deg. The results show that, when the controlling parameters are at their upper limits, either F(oz) or F(ao) can change the lifetime by up to about 35 percent, and taken together they can produce changes of up to 60 percent, if the initial and final positions of perigee are at specified points on the orbit and the eccentricity exceeds 0.2. Such combinations of values rarely arise, however, and the effects are more often of order 10-20 percent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06670&hterms=Tsunami&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DTsunami','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06670&hterms=Tsunami&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DTsunami"><span>Sri Lanka, Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><p/> The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). <p/> Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. <p/> For this special view <span class="hlt">heights</span> below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. <p/> Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. <p/> The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28232287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28232287"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> premium for job performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna</p> <p>2017-02-02</p> <p>This study assessed the relationship of <span class="hlt">height</span> with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was <span class="hlt">height</span> measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of <span class="hlt">height</span> per 5cm span (<155cm, 155-160cm, 160-165cm, and ≥165cm for women; <165cm, 165-170cm, 170-175cm, 175-180cm, and ≥180cm for men). We controlled for household- and individual-level random effects. We used a random-effect quantile regression model for monthly wages to assess the heterogeneity in the <span class="hlt">height</span>-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of <span class="hlt">height</span> with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">height</span> wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The <span class="hlt">height</span>-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on <span class="hlt">height</span>-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between <span class="hlt">height</span> and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between <span class="hlt">height</span> and wages, by wage level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870024446&hterms=GLa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGLa','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870024446&hterms=GLa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGLa"><span>Response of the GLA fourth order model to changes in horizontal resolution and terrain <span class="hlt">heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pfaendtner, J.; Balgovind, R.; Duffy, D.; Helfand, H. M.; Kalnay, E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The effects the selection of the orographic data for the boundary conditions has on results of simulations with the NASA-Goddard Laboratory for Atmospherics fourth order GCM were examined. Two different lower boundary conditions were compared in generating preliminary weather forecasts: mean areally averaged <span class="hlt">heights</span>, and an enhanced significant <span class="hlt">height</span> orography for rugged terrain. The latter condition was developed to emphasize the effects the tallest peaks in a given region have on the atmospheric flow by considering only the highest 1/3 of the 1 deg x 1 deg values in the averaging process. Simulations were carried out for five 10 day forecasts with a 4 deg lat x 5 deg long resolution and six with a horizontal grid resolution of 2 deg lat by 2.5 deg long, three with each boundary condition. The rms errors of the sea level pressure and the 500 mb <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">heights</span> were calculated. The mean errors decreased after the second or third day with the enhanced significant <span class="hlt">height</span> orography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1223A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1223A"><span>Spectral characteristics of the Hellenic vertical network - Validation over Central and Northern Greece using GOCE/GRACE global <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andritsanos, Vassilios D.; Vergos, George S.; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N.; Pagounis, Vassilios; Tziavos, Ilias N.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Elevation project, funded by the action "Archimedes III - Funding of research groups in T.E.I.", co-financed by the E.U. (European Social Fund) and national funds under the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning 2007-2013" aims mainly to the validation of the Hellenic vertical datum. This validation is carried out over two areas under study, one in Central and another in Northern Greece. During the first stage of the validation process, satellite-only as well as combined satellite-terrestrial models of the Earth's <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> are used. GOCE and GRACE satellite information is compared against recently measured GPS/Levelling observations at specific benchmarks of the vertical network in Attiki (Central Greece) and Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). A spectral enhancement approach is followed where, given the GOCE/GRACE GGM truncation degree, EGM2008 is used to fill-in the medium and high-frequency content along with RTM effects for the high and ultra high part. The second stage is based on the localization of possible blunders of the vertical network using the spectral information derived previously. The undoubted accuracy of the contemporary global models at the low frequency band leads to some initial conclusions about the consistency of the Hellenic vertical datum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chair+AND+wheel&pg=2&id=EJ247704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chair+AND+wheel&pg=2&id=EJ247704"><span>A Variable-<span class="hlt">Height</span> Wheelchair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Jack M.; And Others</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Describes a variable-<span class="hlt">height</span> wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair <span class="hlt">height</span> by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15103376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15103376"><span>The limits to tree <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koch, George W; Sillett, Stephen C; Jennings, Gregory M; Davis, Stephen D</p> <p>2004-04-22</p> <p>Trees grow tall where resources are abundant, stresses are minor, and competition for light places a premium on <span class="hlt">height</span> growth. The <span class="hlt">height</span> to which trees can grow and the biophysical determinants of maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> are poorly understood. Some models predict <span class="hlt">heights</span> of up to 120 m in the absence of mechanical damage, but there are historical accounts of taller trees. Current hypotheses of <span class="hlt">height</span> limitation focus on increasing water transport constraints in taller trees and the resulting reductions in leaf photosynthesis. We studied redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens), including the tallest known tree on Earth (112.7 m), in wet temperate forests of northern California. Our regression analyses of <span class="hlt">height</span> gradients in leaf functional characteristics estimate a maximum tree <span class="hlt">height</span> of 122-130 m barring mechanical damage, similar to the tallest recorded trees of the past. As trees grow taller, increasing leaf water stress due to gravity and path length resistance may ultimately limit leaf expansion and photosynthesis for further <span class="hlt">height</span> growth, even with ample soil moisture.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.4303A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.4303A"><span>Arctic sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span> variability and change from satellite radar altimetry and GRACE, 2003-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Bacon, Sheldon; Ridout, Andy L.; Thomas, Sam F.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Wingham, Duncan J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Arctic sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span> (SSH) is poorly observed by radar altimeters due to the poor coverage of the polar oceans provided by conventional altimeter missions and because large areas are perpetually covered by sea ice, requiring specialized data processing. We utilize SSH estimates from both the ice-covered and ice-free ocean to present monthly estimates of Arctic Dynamic Ocean Topography (DOT) from radar altimetry south of 81.5°N and combine this with GRACE ocean mass to estimate steric <span class="hlt">height</span>. Our SSH and steric <span class="hlt">height</span> estimates show good agreement with tide gauge records and <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">height</span> derived from Ice-Tethered Profilers. The large seasonal cycle of Arctic SSH (amplitude ˜5 cm) is dominated by seasonal steric <span class="hlt">height</span> variation associated with seasonal freshwater fluxes, and peaks in October-November. Overall, the annual mean steric <span class="hlt">height</span> increased by 2.2 ± 1.4 cm between 2003 and 2012 before falling to circa 2003 levels between 2012 and 2014 due to large reductions on the Siberian shelf seas. The total secular change in SSH between 2003 and 2014 is then dominated by a 2.1 ± 0.7 cm increase in ocean mass. We estimate that by 2010, the Beaufort Gyre had accumulated 4600 km3 of freshwater relative to the 2003-2006 mean. Doming of Arctic DOT in the Beaufort Sea is revealed by Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis to be concurrent with regional reductions in the Siberian Arctic. We estimate that the Siberian shelf seas lost ˜180 km3 of freshwater between 2003 and 2014, associated with an increase in annual mean salinity of 0.15 psu yr-1. Finally, ocean storage flux estimates from altimetry agree well with high-resolution model results, demonstrating the potential for altimetry to elucidate the Arctic hydrological cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1515G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1515G"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span>-Latitude Structure of Planetary Waves in the Stratosphere and Troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guryanov, Vladimir</p> <p></p> <p>Daily UK Met Office stratospheric assimilated data for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere period of 1992-2008 for the pressure range from 1000 to 0.316 hPa are used. Amplitudes and phases of the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">height</span> (g), temperature (t), zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind for zonal wave numbers 1 and 2 are calculated. Three calculation methods were used: 1) at first are calculated daily amplitudes and phases, then they averaged for each month for all years (non stationary waves caused by day-to-day variability); 2) at first were averaged the 3-dimensional fields (g, t, u, v) for each month a separate year then calculate monthly amplitudes and phases, which then averaged for all years (non stationary waves caused by year-to-year variability) 3) at first were averaged the 3-dimensional fields (g, t, u, v) for each month for all years and then calculated the amplitudes and phases (stationary waves). It was found that the magnitude of amplitudes and <span class="hlt">height</span>-latitude distribution of the amplitudes and phases for wave numbers 1 and 2 for all parameters depend on the calculation method. Also found that the <span class="hlt">height</span>-latitude distribution is significantly different to g, t, u, v and depend on the wave number and hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ094042.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ094042.pdf"><span>Olive School, Arlington <span class="hlt">Heights</span>, Illinois</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rausch, Kathy</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington <span class="hlt">Heights</span>, Illinois. (Author/RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nr85AAR8vY0','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nr85AAR8vY0"><span>Taking America To New <span class="hlt">Heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is taking America to new <span class="hlt">heights</span> with its Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) partners. In 2011, NASA entered into funded Space Act Agreements (SAAs) w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24963031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24963031"><span>Epigenetic heredity of human <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simeone, Pasquale; Alberti, Saverio</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Genome-wide SNP analyses have identified genomic variants associated with adult human <span class="hlt">height</span>. However, these only explain a fraction of human <span class="hlt">height</span> variation, suggesting that significant information might have been systematically missed by SNP sequencing analysis. A candidate for such non-SNP-linked information is DNA methylation. Regulation by DNA methylation requires the presence of CpG islands in the promoter region of candidate genes. Seventy two of 87 (82.8%), <span class="hlt">height</span>-associated genes were indeed found to contain CpG islands upstream of the transcription start site (USC CpG island searcher; validation: UCSC Genome Browser), which were shown to correlate with gene regulation. Consistent with this, DNA hypermethylation modules were detected in 42 <span class="hlt">height</span>-associated genes, versus 1.5% of control genes (P = 8.0199e(-17)), as were dynamic methylation changes and gene imprinting. Epigenetic heredity thus appears to be a determinant of adult human <span class="hlt">height</span>. Major findings in mouse models and in human genetic diseases support this model. Modulation of DNA methylation are candidate to mediate environmental influence on epigenetic traits. This may help to explain progressive <span class="hlt">height</span> changes over multiple generations, through trans-generational heredity of progressive DNA methylation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53G0213K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53G0213K"><span>Boundary Layer <span class="hlt">Heights</span> from CALIOP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuehn, R.; Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Roubert, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This work is focused on the development of a planetary boundary layer (PBL) <span class="hlt">height</span> retrieval algorithm for CALIOP and validation studies. Our current approach uses a wavelet covariance transform analysis technique to find the top of the boundary layer. We use the methodology similar to that found in Davis et. al. 2000, ours has been developed to work with the lower SNR data provided by CALIOP, and is intended to work autonomously. Concurrently developed with the CALIOP algorithm we will show results from a PBL <span class="hlt">height</span> retrieval algorithm from profiles of potential temperature, these are derived from Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay (AMDAR) observations. Results from 5 years of collocated AMDAR - CALIOP retrievals near O'Hare airport demonstrate good agreement between the CALIOP - AMDAR retrievals. In addition, because we are able to make daily retrievals from the AMDAR measurements, we are able to observe the seasonal and annual variation in the PBL <span class="hlt">height</span> at airports that have sufficient instrumented-aircraft traffic. Also, a comparison has been done between the CALIOP retrievals and the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) PBL <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals acquired during the GoMACCS experiment. Results of this comparison, like the AMDAR comparison are favorable. Our current work also involves the analysis and verification of the CALIOP PBL <span class="hlt">height</span> retrieval from the 6 year CALIOP global data set. Results from this analysis will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24480546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24480546"><span>The <span class="hlt">height</span> premium in Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sohn, Kitae</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey for the year 2007, this paper estimates that a 10 cm increase in physical stature is associated with an increase in earnings of 7.5% for men and 13.0% for women, even after controlling for an extensive set of productivity variables. When the <span class="hlt">height</span> premium is estimated by sector, it is 12.3% for self-employed men and 18.0% for self-employed women; a <span class="hlt">height</span> premium of 11.1% is also estimated for women in the private sector. In the public sector, however, the <span class="hlt">height</span> premium estimate is not statistically significant for either men or women. This paper provides further evidence of discrimination based on customers' preferences for tall workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740002450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740002450"><span>An analytic study on bounds for the associated Legendre functions. [for truncation of <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> series in spherical harmonics in orbital analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Payne, M. H.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The bounds for the normalized associated Legendre functions P sub nm were studied to provide a rational basis for the truncation of the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> series in spherical harmonics in various orbital analyses. The conjecture is made that the largest maximum of the normalized associated Legendre function lies in the interval which indicates the greatest integer function. A procedure is developed for verifying this conjecture. An on-line algebraic manipulator, IAM, is used to implement the procedure and the verification is carried out for all n equal to or less than 2m, for m = 1 through 6. A rigorous proof of the conjecture is not available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175923','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175923"><span>Fear of <span class="hlt">heights</span> in infants?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of <span class="hlt">heights</span>. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of <span class="hlt">heights</span> in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267874"><span>Fear of <span class="hlt">heights</span> in infants?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of <span class="hlt">heights</span>. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of <span class="hlt">heights</span> in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2809930','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2809930"><span>Adult <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Childhood Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>BOZZOLI, CARLOS; DEATON, ANGUS; QUINTANA-DOMEQUE, CLIMENT</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Taller populations are typically richer populations, and taller individuals live longer and earn more. In consequence, adult <span class="hlt">height</span> has recently become a focus in understanding the relationship between health and wealth. We investigate the childhood determinants of population adult <span class="hlt">height</span>, focusing on the respective roles of income and of disease. Across a range of European countries and the United States, we find a strong inverse relationship between postneonatal (ages 1 month to 1 year) mortality, interpreted as a measure of the disease and nutritional burden in childhood, and the mean <span class="hlt">height</span> of those children as adults. Consistent with these findings, we develop a model of selection and stunting in which the early-life burden of undernutrition and disease not only is responsible for mortality in childhood but also leaves a residue of long-term health risks for survivors, risks that express themselves in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and in late-life disease. The model predicts that at sufficiently high mortality levels, selection can dominate scarring, leaving a taller population of survivors. We find evidence of this effect in the poorest and highest-mortality countries of the world, supplementing recent findings on the effects of the Great Chinese Famine. PMID:20084823</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jg8rKeYIpbA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jg8rKeYIpbA"><span>Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Height</span> 1993 - 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span>, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..DFD.NU003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..DFD.NU003H"><span>Rise <span class="hlt">Heights</span> of Lazy Fountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hunt, Gary</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The initial rise <span class="hlt">height</span> zm of turbulent Boussinesq fountains is determined analytically for small and large source Froude numbers Fr0. Solutions were obtained after recasting the plume conservations equations of Morton, Taylor & Turner (1956) in terms of the inverse square of a local Froude number and a local dimensionless fountain width. For large Fr0, the fountain is `forced' and the well-established linear increase of the rise <span class="hlt">height</span> with Fr0 is obtained, i.e. zm/r0˜Fr0; r0 denoting the source radius. However, for small Fr0 the fountain is `lazy' and the dependence zm/r0˜Fr0^2 more sensitive. Additionally, the rise <span class="hlt">height</span> for lazy fountains is predicted to be independent of the entrainment coefficient α. Comparison of our solutions with existing experimental and numerical results of fountain rise <span class="hlt">height</span>, as well as with our own experimental results, show good agreement and support the derived scalings. Experimental results suggest that the entrainment coefficient for highly-forced fountains is αf 0.058, i.e. closer to that of a jet than of a plume. Morton, B. R., Taylor, G. I. & Turner, J. S. (1956), "Turbulent gravitational convection from maintained and instantaneous sources", Proc. Roy. Soc. A 234, 1-23.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720004897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720004897"><span>Determination of stratospheric temperature and <span class="hlt">height</span> gradients from nimbus 3 radiation data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nicholas, G. W.; Hovland, D. N.; Belmont, A. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>To improve the specification of stratospheric horizontal temperature and <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">height</span> fields from satellite radiation data, needed for high flying aircraft, a technique was derived to estimate data between satellite tracks using interpolated IRIS 15-micron data from Nimbus III. The interpolation is based on the observed gradients of the MRIR 15-micron radiances between subsatellite tracks. The technique was verified with radiosonde data taken within 6 hours of the satellite data. The sample varied from 1126 pairs at low levels to 383 pairs at 10 mb using northern hemisphere data for June 15 to July 20, 1969. The data were separated into five latitude bands. The Rms temperature differences were generally from 2 to 5 C for all levels above 300 mb. From 500 to 300 mb RMS differences vary from 4 to 9C except at high latitudes which show values near 3C. The RMS differences between radiosonde <span class="hlt">heights</span> and those calculated hydrostatically from the surface were from 30 to 280 meters increasing from the surface to 10 mb. Integration starting at 100 mb reduced the RMS difference in the stratosphere to 20 to 120 meters from 70 to 10 mb. From a comparison with actual operational maps at 50 and 10 mb, it appears the techniques developed produce analyses in general agreement with those from radiosonde data. In addition, they are able to indicate details over areas of sparse data not shown by conventional techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813573V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813573V"><span>GOCE-based <span class="hlt">height</span> system unification between Greece and Turkey. First considerations over marine and land areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vergos, Georgios S.; Erol, Bihter; Natsiopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N.; Serkan Işık, Mustafa; Tziavos, Ilias N.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The unification of local vertical Datums (LVDs) at a country-wide scale has gained significant attention lately, due to the availability of GOCE-based Global <span class="hlt">Geopotential</span> Models (GGMs). The latter, offer unprecedented geoid <span class="hlt">height</span> accuracies at the 1-1.5 cm level for spherical harmonic expansions to d/o 225-230. Within a single country, several LVDs may be used, especially in the event of islandic nations, therefore the unification of all of them to a single nation-wide LVD is of utmost importance. The same holds for neighboring countries, where the unification of their vertical datums is necessary as a tool of engineering, cross-border collaboration and environmental and risk management projects. The aforementioned set the main scope of the work carried out in the frame of the present study, which referred to the use of GOCE and GOCE/GRACE GGMs in order to unify the LVDs of Greece and Turkey. It is well-known that the two countries share common borders and are a path for large-scale engineering projects in the energy sector. Therefore, the availability of a common reference for orthometric <span class="hlt">heights</span> in both countries and/or the determination of the relative offset of their individual zero-level <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> value poses an emerging issue. The determination of the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> value Wo(LVD) for the Greek and Turkish LVDs was first carried out separately for each region performing as well different estimates for the marine area of the Aegean Sea and the terrestrial border-region along eastern Thrace. From that, possible biases of the Hellenic and Turkish LVDs themselves have been drawn and analyzed to determine spatial correlations. Then, the relative offset between the two LVDs was determined employing GPS/Levelling data for both areas and the latest GO-DIR-R5, GO-TIM-R5 and GOCO05s models as well as EGM2008. The estimation of the mean offset was used to provide as well a direct link between the Greek and Turkish LVDs with the IAG conventional value recently proposed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B41A0366N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B41A0366N"><span>Another definition of forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakai, T.; Sumida, A.; Kodama, Y.; Hara, T.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span>, the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the highest vegetation components above ground level, is essential in normalizing micrometeorological parameters and in estimating forest biomass and carbon pools, but previous definitions of forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> from inventory data bear uncertainties owing to arbitrary criteria of tall trees accounting for top <span class="hlt">height</span> (i.e. mean <span class="hlt">height</span> of tall trees selected by a certain definition) or to the effect of many shorter understory trees on Lorey's mean <span class="hlt">height</span> (i.e. mean <span class="hlt">height</span> weighted by basal area). We proposed a new concept of forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span>: the representative <span class="hlt">height</span> of taller trees composing the crown surface or the upper canopy layer estimated on the basis of cumulative basal area from the shortest tree plotted against corresponding individual tree <span class="hlt">height</span>. Because tall trees have large basal area, the cumulative basal area showing a sigmoidal curve would have an inflection point at a <span class="hlt">height</span> class where many tall trees occur. Hence the forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> is defined as the inflection point of the sigmoid function fitted to the cumulative basal area curve. This new forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> is independent of the presence or absence of many shorter understory trees unlike Lorey's mean <span class="hlt">height</span>, and is free from the definition of selecting the trees composing the upper canopy to determine their mean <span class="hlt">height</span>. Applying this concept to actual forests, we found the new canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> was larger than the arithmetic mean <span class="hlt">height</span> and Lorey's mean <span class="hlt">height</span>, and it was close to the aerodynamic canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> determined by micrometeorological method, not only in the birch forest (even-aged pure stand) but also in the complex mixed forest of evergreen conifer and deciduous broadleaf species. Therefore the new canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> would be suitable for intersite comparison studies and ground truth for remote sensing such as airborne laser scanning (ALS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4307567','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4307567"><span>MULTICHANNEL PULSE-<span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> ANALYZER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Russell, J.T.; Lefevre, H.W.</p> <p>1958-01-21</p> <p>This patent deals with electronic computing circuits and more particularly to pulse-<span class="hlt">height</span> analyzers used for classifying variable amplitude pulses into groups of different amplitudes. The device accomplishes this pulse allocation by by converting the pulses into frequencies corresponding to the amplitudes of the pulses, which frequencies are filtered in channels individually pretuned to a particular frequency and then detected and recorded in the responsive channel. This circuit substantially overcomes the disadvantages of prior annlyzers incorporating discriminators pre-set to respond to certain voltage levels, since small variation in component values is not as critical to satisfactory circuit operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740002449','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740002449"><span>A computer program to calculate zeroes, extrema, and interval integrals for the associated Legendre functions. [for estimation of bounds of truncation error in spherical harmonic expansion of <span class="hlt">geopotential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Payne, M. H.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A computer program is described for the calculation of the zeroes of the associated Legendre functions, Pnm, and their derivatives, for the calculation of the extrema of Pnm and also the integral between pairs of successive zeroes. The program has been run for all n,m from (0,0) to (20,20) and selected cases beyond that for n up to 40. Up to (20,20), the program (written in double precision) retains nearly full accuracy, and indications are that up to (40,40) there is still sufficient precision (4-5 decimal digits for a 54-bit mantissa) for estimation of various bounds and errors involved in <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> modelling, the purpose for which the program was written.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10..827R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10..827R"><span>OZO v.1.0: software for solving a generalised omega equation and the Zwack-Okossi <span class="hlt">height</span> tendency equation using WRF model output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rantanen, Mika; Räisänen, Jouni; Lento, Juha; Stepanyuk, Oleg; Räty, Olle; Sinclair, Victoria A.; Järvinen, Heikki</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A software package (OZO, Omega-Zwack-Okossi) was developed to diagnose the processes that affect vertical motions and <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">height</span> tendencies in weather systems simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. First, this software solves a generalised omega equation to calculate the vertical motions associated with different physical forcings: vorticity advection, thermal advection, friction, diabatic heating, and an imbalance term between vorticity and temperature tendencies. After this, the corresponding <span class="hlt">height</span> tendencies are calculated with the Zwack-Okossi tendency equation. The resulting <span class="hlt">height</span> tendency components thus contain both the direct effect from the forcing itself and the indirect effects (related to the vertical motion induced by the same forcing) of each physical mechanism. This approach has an advantage compared with previous studies with the Zwack-Okossi equation, in which vertical motions were used as an independent forcing but were typically found to compensate the effects of other forcings.The software is currently tailored to use input from WRF simulations with Cartesian geometry. As an illustration, results for an idealised 10-day baroclinic wave simulation are presented. An excellent agreement is found between OZO and the direct WRF output for both the vertical motion and the <span class="hlt">height</span> tendency fields. The individual vertical motion and <span class="hlt">height</span> tendency components demonstrate the importance of both adiabatic and diabatic processes for the simulated cyclone. OZO is an open-source tool for both research and education, and the distribution of the software will be supported by the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020039794&hterms=Poseidon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPoseidon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020039794&hterms=Poseidon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPoseidon"><span>Intercomparison of Satellite Derived Gravity Time Series with Inferred Gravity Time Series from TOPEX/POSEIDON Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Heights</span> and Climatological Model Output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cox, C.; Au, A.; Klosko, S.; Chao, B.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The upcoming GRACE mission promises to open a window on details of the global mass budget that will have remarkable clarity, but it will not directly answer the question of what the state of the Earth's mass budget is over the critical last quarter of the 20th century. To address that problem we must draw upon existing technologies such as SLR, DORIS, and GPS, and climate modeling runs in order to improve our understanding. Analysis of long-period <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> changes based on SLR and DORIS tracking has shown that addition of post 1996 satellite tracking data has a significant impact on the recovered zonal rates and long-period tides. Interannual effects such as those causing the post 1996 anomalies must be better characterized before refined estimates of the decadal period changes in the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> can be derived from the historical database of satellite tracking. A possible cause of this anomaly is variations in ocean mass distribution, perhaps associated with the recent large El Nino/La Nina. In this study, a low-degree spherical harmonic gravity time series derived from satellite tracking is compared with a TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span> time series. Corrections for atmospheric mass effects, continental hydrology, snowfall accumulation, and ocean steric model predictions will be considered.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol7/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol7-sec1917-113.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol7/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol7-sec1917-113.pdf"><span>29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance <span class="hlt">heights</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance <span class="hlt">heights</span>. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance <span class="hlt">heights</span>. Clearance <span class="hlt">heights</span> shall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299964','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299964"><span>The genetic architecture of maize <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, <span class="hlt">height</span> is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize <span class="hlt">height</span> remains a formida...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087842','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087842"><span>Estimating vehicle <span class="hlt">height</span> using homographic projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter</p> <p>2013-07-16</p> <p>Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different <span class="hlt">heights</span> are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated <span class="hlt">height</span> range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different <span class="hlt">heights</span>. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The <span class="hlt">height</span> of the group of salient points is estimated to be the <span class="hlt">height</span> corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27440676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27440676"><span>Use of knee <span class="hlt">height</span> for the estimation of body <span class="hlt">height</span> in Thai adult women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chumpathat, Nopphanath; Rangsin, Ram; Changbumrung, Supranee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Durongritichai, Vanida; Kwanbunjan, Karunee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Knee <span class="hlt">height</span> has been the most frequently used measure for <span class="hlt">height</span> prediction where full <span class="hlt">height</span> is difficult to measure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive equations using knee <span class="hlt">height</span> to estimate the <span class="hlt">height</span> of Thai women. The female participants were 18-59 years of age and lived in Bangkok or three surrounding provinces. They were assigned to one of two groups; the equation development group (n=488) and the equation validation group (n=188). Standing <span class="hlt">height</span> and knee <span class="hlt">height</span> were measured in duplicate using a stadiometer and a knee <span class="hlt">height</span> calliper. Age and physical characteristics of the equation development group and the validate group were comparable. The measured <span class="hlt">heights</span> showed a significant strongly positive correlation with the mean knee <span class="hlt">height</span> (r=0.84, p<0.001). Mean knee <span class="hlt">height</span> in a regression model exhibited the most accurate <span class="hlt">height</span> prediction (adjusted R(2)=0.718, standard error of estimate=2.80), according to the equation "<span class="hlt">Height</span>=38.1+2.45 (average knee <span class="hlt">height</span>) - 0.051(age)". This study proposes a new <span class="hlt">height</span> estimation equation for Thai adult women using knee <span class="hlt">height</span>. The equation shows more estimation power than the previous studies conducted in Thailand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648271','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648271"><span>Genetically Determined <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Coronary Artery Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nelson, C.P.; Hamby, S.E.; Saleheen, D.; Hopewell, J.C.; Zeng, L.; Assimes, T.L.; Kanoni, S.; Willenborg, C.; Burgess, S.; Amouyel, P.; Anand, S.; Blankenberg, S.; Boehm, B.O.; Clarke, R.J.; Collins, R.; Dedoussis, G.; Farrall, M.; Franks, P.W.; Groop, L.; Hall, A.S.; Hamsten, A.; Hengstenberg, C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, E.; Kathiresan, S.; Kee, F.; König, I.R.; Kooner, J.; Lehtimäki, T.; März, W.; McPherson, R.; Metspalu, A.; Nieminen, M.S.; O’Donnell, C.J.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Peters, A.; Perola, M.; Reilly, M.P.; Ripatti, S.; Roberts, R.; Salomaa, V.; Shah, S.H.; Schreiber, S.; Siegbahn, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Veronesi, G.; Wareham, N.; Willer, C.J.; Zalloua, P.A.; Erdmann, J.; Deloukas, P.; Watkins, H.; Schunkert, H.; Danesh, J.; Thompson, J.R.; Samani, N.J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between <span class="hlt">height</span> and CAD, using 180 <span class="hlt">height</span>-associated genetic variants. We tested the association between a change in genetically determined <span class="hlt">height</span> of 1 SD (6.5 cm) with the risk of CAD in 65,066 cases and 128,383 controls. Using individual-level genotype data from 18,249 persons, we also examined the risk of CAD associated with the presence of various numbers of <span class="hlt">height</span>-associated alleles. To identify putative mechanisms, we analyzed whether genetically determined <span class="hlt">height</span> was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors and performed a pathway analysis of the <span class="hlt">height</span>-associated genes. RESULTS We observed a relative increase of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4 to 22.1; P<0.001) in the risk of CAD per 1-SD decrease in genetically determined <span class="hlt">height</span>. There was a graded relationship between the presence of an increased number of <span class="hlt">height</span>-raising variants and a reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio for <span class="hlt">height</span> quartile 4 versus quartile 1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84; P<0.001). Of the 12 risk factors that we studied, we observed significant associations only with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (accounting for approximately 30% of the association). We identified several overlapping pathways involving genes associated with both development and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS There is a primary association between a genetically determined shorter <span class="hlt">height</span> and an increased risk of CAD, a link that is partly explained by the association between shorter <span class="hlt">height</span> and an adverse lipid profile. Shared biologic processes that determine achieved <span class="hlt">height</span> and the development of atherosclerosis may explain some of the association. PMID:25853659</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL4..105J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL4..105J"><span>Development of large Area Covering <span class="hlt">Height</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, K.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of <span class="hlt">height</span> models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some <span class="hlt">height</span> models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial <span class="hlt">height</span> models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground <span class="hlt">height</span>, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no <span class="hlt">height</span> of the bare ground is available. These <span class="hlt">height</span> models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic <span class="hlt">height</span> errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X <span class="hlt">height</span> model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering <span class="hlt">height</span> models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a <span class="hlt">height</span> model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a <span class="hlt">height</span> model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656205"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> and calories in early childhood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Griffen, Andrew S</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This paper estimates a <span class="hlt">height</span> production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on <span class="hlt">height</span> are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on <span class="hlt">height</span>. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the <span class="hlt">height</span> production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase <span class="hlt">height</span> by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the <span class="hlt">height</span> gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750007150','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750007150"><span>Uncertainties in derived temperature-<span class="hlt">height</span> profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minzner, R. A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Nomographs were developed for relating uncertainty in temperature T to uncertainty in the observed <span class="hlt">height</span> profiles of both pressure p and density rho. The relative uncertainty delta T/T is seen to depend not only upon the relative uncertainties delta P/P or delta rho/rho, and to a small extent upon the value of T or H, but primarily upon the sampling-<span class="hlt">height</span> increment Delta h, the <span class="hlt">height</span> increment between successive observations of p or delta. For a fixed value of delta p/p, the value of delta T/T varies inversely with Delta h. No limit exists in the fineness of usable <span class="hlt">height</span> resolution of T which may be derived from densities, while a fine <span class="hlt">height</span> resolution in pressure-<span class="hlt">height</span> data leads to temperatures with unacceptably large uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA350136','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA350136"><span>The Return of the Golan <span class="hlt">Heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>interrupt water flow from the Golan <span class="hlt">Heights</span> rivers; President Asad of Syria must instill peace m southern Lebanon; and Syria and Israel must reinitiate talks...have early warning stations; Israel must have a phased withdrawal from the Golan <span class="hlt">Heights</span>; Syria must not interrupt water flow from the Golan <span class="hlt">Heights</span>...DISARMAMENT ZONES, EARLY WARNING STATIONS, AND PHASED WITHDRAWAL 15 THREE. WATER 25 FOUR. PEACE IN SOUTHERN LEBANON 31 FIVE. REINITIATION OF TALKS 42 SDC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4892290','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4892290"><span>Adult <span class="hlt">height</span>, nutrition, and population health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult <span class="hlt">height</span>, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult <span class="hlt">height</span> (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of <span class="hlt">height</span> with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult <span class="hlt">height</span> is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult <span class="hlt">height</span> may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal <span class="hlt">height</span> as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26928678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26928678"><span>Adult <span class="hlt">height</span>, nutrition, and population health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult <span class="hlt">height</span>, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult <span class="hlt">height</span> (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of <span class="hlt">height</span> with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult <span class="hlt">height</span> is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult <span class="hlt">height</span> may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal <span class="hlt">height</span> as a potentially important influence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12664962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12664962"><span>Determinants of variation in adult body <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silventoinen, Karri</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Final body <span class="hlt">height</span> is achieved as the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this article is to review past studies on body <span class="hlt">height</span> that have followed different scientific traditions. In modern Western societies, about 20% of variation in body <span class="hlt">height</span> is due to environmental variation. In poorer environments, this proportion is probably larger, with lower heritability of body <span class="hlt">height</span> as well as larger socioeconomic body <span class="hlt">height</span> differences. The role of childhood environment is seen in the increase in body <span class="hlt">height</span> during the 20th century simultaneously with the increase in the standard of living. The most important non-genetic factors affecting growth and adult body <span class="hlt">height</span> are nutrition and diseases. Short stature is associated with poorer education and lower social position in adulthood. This is mainly due to family background, but other environmental factors in childhood also contribute to this association. Body <span class="hlt">height</span> is a good indicator of childhood living conditions, not only in developing countries but also in modern Western societies. Future studies combining different scientific traditions in auxology are needed to create a more holistic view of body <span class="hlt">height</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514905"><span>The genetic architecture of maize <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peiffer, Jason A; Romay, Maria C; Gore, Michael A; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; Zhang, Zhiwu; Millard, Mark J; Gardner, Candice A C; McMullen, Michael D; Holland, James B; Bradbury, Peter J; Buckler, Edward S</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, <span class="hlt">height</span> is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize <span class="hlt">height</span> remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant <span class="hlt">height</span>, ear <span class="hlt">height</span>, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in >64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained >7300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the United States and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize <span class="hlt">height</span> was estimated to be >90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1 ± 0.9% of <span class="hlt">height</span> variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS colocalized with established <span class="hlt">height</span> loci, including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained >80% of <span class="hlt">height</span> variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize <span class="hlt">height</span> was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed that multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population's variation in maize <span class="hlt">height</span>, but they may vary in predictive efficacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24133358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24133358"><span>Longitudinal standards for <span class="hlt">height</span> and <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity in Korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha study. [corrected].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Longitudinal standards for <span class="hlt">height</span> and <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. <span class="hlt">Height</span> and <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final <span class="hlt">height</span>. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final <span class="hlt">height</span> was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final <span class="hlt">height</span> was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean <span class="hlt">height</span> for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for <span class="hlt">height</span> and <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec95-51.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95a2134S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95a2134S"><span>Local average <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution of fluctuating interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of <span class="hlt">height</span> in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average <span class="hlt">height</span>. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average <span class="hlt">height</span>. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time <span class="hlt">height</span>-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of <span class="hlt">height</span> in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208441"><span>Local average <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution of fluctuating interfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of <span class="hlt">height</span> in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1+1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average <span class="hlt">height</span>. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average <span class="hlt">height</span>. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time <span class="hlt">height</span>-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1+1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of <span class="hlt">height</span> in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2+1 dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol5-sec3280-104.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol5-sec3280-104.pdf"><span>24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling <span class="hlt">heights</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.104 Ceiling..., 0 inches for a minimum of 50 percent of the room's floor area. The remaining area may have a ceiling with a minimum <span class="hlt">height</span> of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum <span class="hlt">height</span> under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7280816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7280816"><span>Roentgenographic measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andersson, G B; Schultz, A; Nathan, A; Irstam, L</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The influences of differences in both intervertebral motion segment orientations and in reader judgments on measurements of the apparent intervertebral disc <span class="hlt">heights</span> in lateral roentgenographs of the lumbar spine were examined. Forty-nine roentgenographs were obtained of nine discs that were titled laterally up to +/- 10 degrees, and rotated longitudinally up to +/- 20 degrees. Three orthopaedic surgeons and three radiologists measured disc <span class="hlt">heights</span> from five of these roentgenographs, all using the same measurement method. The differences in apparent <span class="hlt">height</span> that resulted from the orientation changes and differences in judgments among the six readers were considerable, usually of the order of one half of the nominal disc <span class="hlt">height</span>. The results show that, while roentgenographic measurements can be used to estimate disc <span class="hlt">height</span>, accurate measurements cannot readily be made from routine roentgenographs, and the interpretation should always be cautious.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169501','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169501"><span>Raman lidar/AERI PBL <span class="hlt">Height</span> Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Ferrare, Richard</p> <p>2012-12-14</p> <p>Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) <span class="hlt">heights</span> have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span>. PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span> were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span> were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These <span class="hlt">heights</span> are provided as meters above ground level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47.3031M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47.3031M"><span>Low Melt <span class="hlt">Height</span> Solidification of Superalloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Effect of a reduced melt <span class="hlt">height</span> in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt <span class="hlt">height</span> ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt <span class="hlt">height</span> leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722981"><span>The epigenesis of wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dahl, Audun; Campos, Joseph J; Anderson, David I; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Witherington, David C; Ueno, Mika; Poutrain-Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Human infants with little or no crawling experience surprisingly show no wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span>, but such wariness becomes exceptionally strong over the life span. Neither depth perception nor falling experiences explain this extraordinary developmental shift; however, something about locomotor experience does. The crucial component of locomotor experience in this emotional change is developments in visual proprioception-the optically based perception of self-movement. Precrawling infants randomly assigned to drive a powered mobility device showed significantly greater visual proprioception, and significantly greater wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span>, than did controls. More important, visual proprioception mediated the relation between wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span> and locomotor experience. In a separate study, crawling infants' visual proprioception predicted whether they would descend onto the deep side of a visual cliff, a finding that confirms the importance of visual proprioception in the development of wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020627','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020627"><span>Estimating Mixing <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Using Microwave Temperature Profiler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) <span class="hlt">height</span> determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer <span class="hlt">height</span>. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML <span class="hlt">height</span> from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML <span class="hlt">height</span> were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030449"><span>Love and fear of <span class="hlt">heights</span>: the pathophysiology and psychology of <span class="hlt">height</span> imbalance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Individual psychological responses to <span class="hlt">heights</span> vary on a continuum from acrophobia to <span class="hlt">height</span> intolerance, <span class="hlt">height</span> tolerance, and <span class="hlt">height</span> enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to <span class="hlt">heights</span> while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to <span class="hlt">height</span> arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase <span class="hlt">height</span> imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to <span class="hlt">height</span> imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve <span class="hlt">height</span> imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to <span class="hlt">heights</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18432445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18432445"><span>Evaluation of proper <span class="hlt">height</span> for squatting stool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Many jobs and activities in people's daily lives have them in squatting postures. Jobs such as housekeeping, farming and welding require various squatting activities. It is speculated that prolonged squatting without any type of supporting stool would gradually and eventually impose musculoskeletal injuries on workers. This study aims to examine the proper <span class="hlt">height</span> of the stool according to the position of working materials for the squatting worker. A total of 40 male and female college students and 10 female farmers participated in the experiment to find the proper stool <span class="hlt">height</span>. Student participants were asked to sit and work in three different positions: floor level of 50 mm; ankle level of 200 mm; and knee level of 400 mm. They were then provided with stools of various <span class="hlt">heights</span> and asked to maintain a squatting work posture. For each working position, they were asked to write down their thoughts on a preferred stool <span class="hlt">height</span>. A Likert summated rating method as well as pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate user preference for provided stools under conditions of different working positions. Under a similar experimental procedure, female farmers were asked to indicate their body part discomfort (BPD) on a body chart before and after performing the work. Statistical analysis showed that comparable results were found from both evaluation measures. When working position is below 50 mm, the proper stool <span class="hlt">height</span> is 100 or should not be higher than 150 mm. When working position is 200 mm, the proper stool <span class="hlt">height</span> is 150 mm. When working position is 400 mm, the proper stool <span class="hlt">height</span> is 200 mm. Thus, it is strongly recommended to use proper <span class="hlt">height</span> of stools with corresponding working position. Moreover, a wearable chair prototype was designed so that workers in a squatting posture do not have to carry and move the stool from one place to another. This stool should ultimately help to relieve physical stress and hence promote the health of squatting workers. This study sought</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713138I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713138I"><span>Approach for a Global <span class="hlt">Height</span> Reference System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ihde, Johannes</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hermann Drewes, Christoph Foerste, Thomas Gruber, Gunter Liebsch, Roland Pail, Laura Sanchez For Earth system monitoring the <span class="hlt">heights</span> are main parameters for global changes. Physical <span class="hlt">heights</span> are potential differences of the outer Earth gravity field at different positions. Long term monitoring of the vertical component of the Earth surface needs a standardized defined and realized global reference relating the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth. In the last two decades, in several working groups of the International Association of Geodesy were different concepts for definition and realization of global <span class="hlt">height</span> reference system discussed. Furthermore, the satellite gravity missions have the Earth gravity field data basis general extended. So far, it is possible to develop the present local and regional <span class="hlt">height</span> reference systems concepts to a global approach. The presented proposal has to be understood as a model that consider the present possibilities and actual needs for the realization of a global <span class="hlt">height</span> reference system. It includes aspects for the combination of observations and products representing the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116096','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116096"><span>Epigenetic and genetic components of <span class="hlt">height</span> regulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benonisdottir, Stefania; Oddsson, Asmundur; Helgason, Agnar; Kristjansson, Ragnar P.; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Oskarsdottir, Arna; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Davidsson, Olafur B.; Arnadottir, Gudny A.; Sulem, Gerald; Jensson, Brynjar O.; Holm, Hilma; Alexandersson, Kristjan F.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Walters, G. Bragi; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Ward, Lucas D.; Sigurdsson, Jon K.; Iordache, Paul D.; Frigge, Michael L.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Helgason, Hannes; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Sulem, Patrick; Stefansson, Kari</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Adult <span class="hlt">height</span> is a highly heritable trait. Here we identified 31.6 million sequence variants by whole-genome sequencing of 8,453 Icelanders and tested them for association with adult <span class="hlt">height</span> by imputing them into 88,835 Icelanders. Here we discovered 13 novel <span class="hlt">height</span> associations by testing four different models including parent-of-origin (|β|=0.4–10.6 cm). The minor alleles of three parent-of-origin signals associate with less <span class="hlt">height</span> only when inherited from the father and are located within imprinted regions (IGF2-H19 and DLK1-MEG3). We also examined the association of these sequence variants in a set of 12,645 Icelanders with birth length measurements. Two of the novel variants, (IGF2-H19 and TET1), show significant association with both adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and birth length, indicating a role in early growth regulation. Among the parent-of-origin signals, we observed opposing parental effects raising questions about underlying mechanisms. These findings demonstrate that common variations affect human growth by parental imprinting. PMID:27848971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990MaCom..55..723S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990MaCom..55..723S"><span>The difference between the Weil <span class="hlt">height</span> and the canonical <span class="hlt">height</span> on elliptic curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silverman, Joseph H.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>Estimates for the difference of the Weil <span class="hlt">height</span> and the canonical <span class="hlt">height</span> of points on elliptic curves are used for many purposes, both theoretical and computational. In this note we give an explicit estimate for this difference in terms of the j-invariant and discriminant of the elliptic curve. The method of proof, suggested by Serge Lang, is to use the decomposition of the canonical <span class="hlt">height</span> into a sum of local <span class="hlt">heights</span>. We illustrate one use for our estimate by computing generators for the Mordell-Weil group in three examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667279','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667279"><span>The <span class="hlt">height</span> limit of a siphon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the <span class="hlt">height</span> of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516790B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516790B"><span>The <span class="hlt">height</span> limit of a siphon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the <span class="hlt">height</span> of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28244107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28244107"><span>Relative Width and <span class="hlt">Height</span> of Handwritten Letter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lizega Rika, Joseba</p> <p>2017-02-28</p> <p>This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the <span class="hlt">height</span> of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the <span class="hlt">height</span> of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the <span class="hlt">height</span> of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhA...45i5003F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhA...45i5003F"><span>The <span class="hlt">height</span> of watermelons with wall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feierl, Thomas</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15-22) on the average <span class="hlt">height</span> of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067-83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3400549','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3400549"><span>Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McQuillan, Ruth; Eklund, Niina; Pirastu, Nicola; Kuningas, Maris; McEvoy, Brian P.; Esko, Tõnu; Corre, Tanguy; Davies, Gail; Kaakinen, Marika; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Kristiansson, Kati; Havulinna, Aki S.; Gögele, Martin; Vitart, Veronique; Tenesa, Albert; Aulchenko, Yurii; Hayward, Caroline; Johansson, Åsa; Boban, Mladen; Ulivi, Sheila; Robino, Antonietta; Boraska, Vesna; Igl, Wilmar; Wild, Sarah H.; Zgaga, Lina; Amin, Najaf; Theodoratou, Evropi; Polašek, Ozren; Girotto, Giorgia; Lopez, Lorna M.; Sala, Cinzia; Lahti, Jari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Prokopenko, Inga; Kals, Mart; Viikari, Jorma; Yang, Jian; Pouta, Anneli; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kähönen, Mika; Milani, Lili; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Räikkönen, Katri; Masciullo, Corrado; Starr, John M.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Esposito, Laura; Kolčić, Ivana; Farrington, Susan M.; Oostra, Ben; Zemunik, Tatijana; Campbell, Harry; Kirin, Mirna; Pehlic, Marina; Faletra, Flavio; Porteous, David; Pistis, Giorgio; Widén, Elisabeth; Salomaa, Veikko; Koskinen, Seppo; Fischer, Krista; Lehtimäki, Terho; Heath, Andrew; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Madden, Pamela A. F.; d'Adamo, Pio; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Dunlop, Malcolm; Rudan, Igor; Gasparini, Paolo; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Deary, Ian J.; Toniolo, Daniela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli T.; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Uitterlinden, André; Visscher, Peter M.; Wilson, James F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%–90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human <span class="hlt">height</span>; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult <span class="hlt">height</span> in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between <span class="hlt">height</span> and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a <span class="hlt">height</span> reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2×10−20). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human <span class="hlt">height</span>. Although this exploratory work focuses on <span class="hlt">height</span> alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance. PMID:22829771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.804..167W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.804..167W"><span>Pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> model for deuterated scintillation detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>An analytical model of light pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270387','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270387"><span>Growth hormone: health considerations beyond <span class="hlt">height</span> gain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving <span class="hlt">height</span> in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec9-222.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec9-222.pdf"><span>27 CFR 9.222 - Naches <span class="hlt">Heights</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Naches <span class="hlt">Heights</span>. 9.222 Section 9.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA633546','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA633546"><span>Environmental Assessment: Disposition of Maxwell <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Annex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Maxwell Support Division May 4, 2005 Mr. David Rabon Tribal Historic Preservation Officer Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma P.O. Box 948 Tahlequah...Oklahoma 74465 RE: Disposal of the Existing Property and Facilities of the Maxwell <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Annex Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama Dear Mr. Rabon , The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH41A1485N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH41A1485N"><span>The MISR Wildfire Smoke Plume <span class="hlt">Height</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, D. L.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.; Kahn, R. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Together the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra satellite observe several characteristics of wildfire smoke plumes. With support from NASA and the EPA, the MISR team is assembling a database of these observations for North America, Africa, Siberia, Indonesia, etc. that extends back to the beginning of the Terra mission in 2000. The thermal infrared channels on MODIS provide the location of fires and their approximate radiative power. By using an interactive visualization program called the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX), users interactively digitize wildfire plumes to retrieve accurate plume <span class="hlt">heights</span> and wind speeds using a new stereo <span class="hlt">height</span> retrieval algorithm. This information, along with the locations and directions of individual plumes, their areas and aerosol properties derived from the operational MISR aerosol algorithm, are stored in this publicly accessible database for subsequent analysis (http://www-misr2.jpl.nasa.gov/EPA-Plumes/). The plume database currently contains about 4000 smoke plumes and smoke clouds from North America. An equal number of plumes and clouds for other regions around the world has also been digitized. A few thousand additional plumes are in the process of being incorporated. Smoke plumes in this context are considered to be discrete regions of smoke that can be followed to their fire sources at ground level and have a distinctive shape determined by the direction the smoke is driven downwind. Smoke “clouds” are defined here as regions of dense smoke not clearly associated with specific fire sources, and whose direction of transport is not easily determined. Plume <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements can be used as a surrogate for injection <span class="hlt">heights</span>, which are important for modeling smoke transport. Examples of <span class="hlt">height</span> and wind retrievals for specific plumes will be shown. Those chosen have not only been incorporated in statistical analyses of plume</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC31E..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC31E..05S"><span>CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection <span class="hlt">height</span> and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection <span class="hlt">height</span> is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume <span class="hlt">height</span> was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection <span class="hlt">height</span> estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection <span class="hlt">height</span> using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection <span class="hlt">height</span> evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25983572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25983572"><span>Predicting vertical jump <span class="hlt">height</span> from bar velocity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump <span class="hlt">height</span> in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump <span class="hlt">height</span> was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump <span class="hlt">height</span> from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump <span class="hlt">height</span> variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump <span class="hlt">height</span> variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump <span class="hlt">height</span> in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump <span class="hlt">height</span> in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4424452','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4424452"><span>Predicting Vertical Jump <span class="hlt">Height</span> from Bar Velocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump <span class="hlt">height</span> in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump <span class="hlt">height</span> was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump <span class="hlt">height</span> from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump <span class="hlt">height</span> variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump <span class="hlt">height</span> variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump <span class="hlt">height</span> in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump <span class="hlt">height</span> in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460030','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460030"><span>A GEOMETRICAL <span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V. E-mail: brc@iac.e</p> <p>2010-09-10</p> <p>Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical <span class="hlt">height</span> scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical <span class="hlt">height</span> scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The retrieved geometrical <span class="hlt">height</span> scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each <span class="hlt">height</span>. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15894522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15894522"><span>Love, careers, and <span class="hlt">heights</span> in France, 2001.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herpin, Nicolas</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Short men are less likely to be married or live in a permanent relationship than their taller counterparts. This pattern is not due to their social status. While blue-collar workers are shorter on average than managers, the effects of <span class="hlt">height</span> on finding a mate are similar in the two social groups. Being tall is also economically advantageous for men. With identical educational attainment levels, tall men have better careers than short men as they are given greater supervisory responsibilities. In making a commitment, some women might take <span class="hlt">height</span> into account as an anticipated indicator of future resources of the household. Choice of partner is also influenced by social norms--i.e., partners should be physically well-matched--which is more difficult for shorter men.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000117694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000117694"><span>BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer <span class="hlt">Height</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer <span class="hlt">height</span> information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer <span class="hlt">height</span> data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzMat..80..813A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzMat..80..813A"><span>Feynman amplitudes and limits of <span class="hlt">heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amini, O.; Bloch, S. J.; Burgos Gil, J. I.; Fresán, J.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We investigate from a mathematical perspective how Feynman amplitudes appear in the low-energy limit of string amplitudes. In this paper, we prove the convergence of the integrands. We derive this from results describing the asymptotic behaviour of the <span class="hlt">height</span> pairing between degree-zero divisors, as a family of curves degenerates. These are obtained by means of the nilpotent orbit theorem in Hodge theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C44A..04W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C44A..04W"><span>Measuring Ice Sheet <span class="hlt">Height</span> with ICESat-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, K.; Smith, B.; Neumann, T.; Hancock, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>ICESat-2 is NASA's next-generation laser altimeter, designed to measure changes in ice sheet <span class="hlt">height</span> and sea ice freeboard. Over the ice sheets, it will use a continuous repeat-track pointing strategy to ensure that it accurately measures elevation changes along a set of reference tracks. Over most of the area of Earth's ice sheets, ICESat-2 will provide coverage with a track-to-track spacing better than ~3 km. The onboard ATLAS instrument will use a photon-counting approach to provide a global geolocated photon point cloud, which is then converted into surface-specific elevation data sets. In this presentation, we will outline our strategy for taking the low-level photon point cloud and turning it into measurements posted at 20 m along-track for a set of pre-defined reference points by (1) selecting groups of photon events (PEs) around each along-track point, (2) refining the initial PE selection by fitting selected PEs with an along-track segment model and eliminating outliers to the model, (3) applying histogram-based corrections to the surface <span class="hlt">height</span> based on the residuals to the along-track segment model, (4) calculate error estimates based on estimates of relative contributions of signal and noise PEs to the observed PE count, and (5) determining the final location and surface <span class="hlt">height</span> of the along-track segment. These measurements are then corrected for short-scale (100-200 m) across-track surface topography around the reference points to develop a time series of land ice <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The resulting data products will allow us to measure ice sheet elevation change with a point-for-point accuracy of a few centimeters over Earth's ice sheets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6422855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6422855"><span>Ionospheric true <span class="hlt">height</span> profiles from oblique ionograms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reilly, M.H.</p> <p>1985-06-01</p> <p>An improved direct technique in which HF oblique ionograms are reduced to ionospheric true <span class="hlt">height</span> profiles is introduced. The benefits of this method result principally from the use of a more accurate Breit-Tuve relation to curved earth and ionosphere geometries. By comparing the results of calculations on known cases, the extent of improvement with this technique relative to the techniques by Gething and Maliphant (1967), George (1970), and Smith (1970), is demonstrated. 14 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G11A0891R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G11A0891R"><span>Regional geoid <span class="hlt">height</span> models developed using aerogravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Holmes, S. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The techniques employed during the development of the Geoid Slope Validation Study of 2011 (GSVS 11) were adapted to modeling of regional geoid <span class="hlt">height</span> models. Aerogravity from the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project was first evaluated with respect to satellite gravity field models developed from both GRACE and GOCE data to establish long wavelength consistency and remove biases in individual survey lines. In turn, the airborne and satellite gravity were then combined to evaluate surface gravity data from around 1400 separate surveys over the conterminous United States (CONUS). These surveys can span anywhere from 10's to 100's of kilometers and comprise the surface gravity database held by the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. These surface data have been used as-is in the development of previous gravimetric geoid models. With the availability of aerogravity, these surveys were examined to detect and mitigate potential biases that can create artifacts in geoid <span class="hlt">height</span> models. About 5% of these surveys exhibit significant biases of 3-5 mGals, which equate to 10-20 cm errors in subsequent geoid <span class="hlt">height</span> models. Given the requirement for cm-level accuracy in a future vertical datum based on geoid <span class="hlt">height</span> models, these errors must be addressed. GSVS 11 demonstrated that it is possible to combine satellite, airborne and surface gravity to achieve cm-level accuracy over a limited locale. This study demonstrates that this can also be achieved over more regional scales. While not all of the CONUS has yet been flown by the GRAV-D Project, significant portions have been flown and those regions have been evaluated here. In the GSVS 11 study, external metrics were collected simultaneously to permit evaluation of the overall error. Such data is generally not available on a national basis, but comparisons are made with the GSVS 11 data, tidal benchmarks in combination with ocean topography models, and astrogeodetic deflection of the vertical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf"><span>47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf"><span>47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf"><span>47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf"><span>47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec22-1011.pdf"><span>47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limitations. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol3-sec910-54.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol3-sec910-54.pdf"><span>36 CFR 910.54 - Build-to <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Build-to <span class="hlt">height</span>. 910.54... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.54 Build-to <span class="hlt">height</span>. Build-to <span class="hlt">height</span> means a specified minimum <span class="hlt">height</span> of development to which the exterior wall of a building in a development must rise. Minor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol3-sec910-54.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol3-sec910-54.pdf"><span>36 CFR 910.54 - Build-to <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Build-to <span class="hlt">height</span>. 910.54... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.54 Build-to <span class="hlt">height</span>. Build-to <span class="hlt">height</span> means a specified minimum <span class="hlt">height</span> of development to which the exterior wall of a building in a development must rise. Minor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....7.3863V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....7.3863V"><span>Ash plume top <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate using AATSR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Virtanen, T. H.; Kolmonen, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>An algorithm is presented for estimation of volcanic ash plume top <span class="hlt">height</span> using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard ENVISAT. The algorithm is based on matching the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared against other satellite observations and in-situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic, and can be implemented into operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 μm and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows simultaneous retrieval of horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash efficiently. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented. The <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate method results are validated against available satellite and ground based data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040001604&hterms=tide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040001604&hterms=tide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtide"><span>Statistical Sampling of Tide <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The goal of the study was to determine if it was possible to reduce the cost of verifying computational models of tidal waves and currents. Statistical techniques were used to determine the least number of samples required, in a given situation, to remain statistically significant, and thereby reduce overall project costs. Commercial, academic, and Federal agencies could benefit by applying these techniques, without the need to 'touch' every item in the population. For example, the requirement of this project was to measure the <span class="hlt">heights</span> and times of high and low tides at 8,000 locations for verification of computational models of tidal waves and currents. The application of the statistical techniques began with observations to determine the correctness of submitted measurement data, followed by some assumptions based on the observations. Among the assumptions were that the data were representative of data-collection techniques used at the measurement locations, that time measurements could be ignored (that is, <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements alone would suffice), and that the <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements were from a statistically normal distribution. Sample means and standard deviations were determined for all locations. Interval limits were determined for confidence levels of 95, 98, and 99 percent. It was found that the numbers of measurement locations needed to attain these confidence levels were 55, 78, and 96, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7875779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7875779"><span>Evaluation of short neck: new neck length percentiles and linear correlations with <span class="hlt">height</span> and sitting <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahajan, P V; Bharucha, B A</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>Qualitative impressions of neck length are often used as aids to dysmorphology in syndromes like Turner, Noonan, Klippel-Feil and in craniovertebral anomalies, some of which have serious neurological implications. There are no national or international standards for neck length. The present study attempted to create standards and percentile charts for Indian children and compute age-independent correlations of neck length with linear measurements such as standing and sitting <span class="hlt">height</span>. A total of 2724 children of both sexes between 3 and 15 years, whose <span class="hlt">heights</span> and weights conformed to ICMR standards were inducted. Neck length was measured by a modified two-point discriminator between two fixed bony points-inion and spinous process of C7 with the head held in neutral position. Percentiles (5th-95th) were constructed for both sexes. Growth was rapid from 3 to 6 years. Neck length formed a mean of 12.7 +/- 4.58% of <span class="hlt">height</span> and 20.1 +/- 6.73% of sitting <span class="hlt">height</span>. Age independent linear regression equations: Neck length = 10 + (0.035 x <span class="hlt">height</span>) and Neck length = 9.65 + (0.07 x sitting <span class="hlt">height</span>) were highly significant (p < 0.001). Neck length relationships of 30 randomly selected normal children clustered around the regression lines and 16 with genetic syndromes fell below the regression lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255593','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255593"><span>Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual <span class="hlt">height</span> intolerance when exposed to <span class="hlt">heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Visual <span class="hlt">height</span> intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at <span class="hlt">heights</span> with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “<span class="hlt">height</span> situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at <span class="hlt">heights</span>, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p < 0.01), which correlated with the estimated <span class="hlt">height</span> of the balcony (R2 = 0.453, p < 0.05). These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at <span class="hlt">heights</span> may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI. PMID:25538595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1468M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1468M"><span>Comparison of Methods of <span class="hlt">Height</span> Anomaly Computation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazurova, E.; Lapshin, A.; Menshova, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>As of today, accurate determination of <span class="hlt">height</span> anomaly is one of the most difficult problems of geodesy, even with sustainable perfection of mathematical methods, computer possibilities. The most effective methods of <span class="hlt">height</span> anomaly computation are based on the methods of discrete linear transformations, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Fast Wavelet Transform (FWT). The main drawback of the classical FFT is weak localization in the time domain. If it is necessary to define the time interval of a frequency presence the STFT is used that allows one to detect the presence of any frequency signal and the interval of its presence. It expands the possibilities of the method in comparison with the classical Fourier Transform. However, subject to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is impossible to tell precisely what frequency signal is present at a given moment of time (it is possible to speak only about the range of frequencies); and it is impossible to tell at what precisely moment of time the frequency signal is present (it is possible to speak only about a time span). A wavelet-transform gives the chance to reduce the influence of the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle on the obtained time-and-frequency representation of the signal. With its help low frequencies have more detailed representation relative to the time, and high frequencies - relative to the frequency. The paper summarizes the results of <span class="hlt">height</span> anomaly calculations done by the FFT, STFT, FWT methods and represents 3-D models of calculation results. Key words: Fast Fourier Transform(FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Fast Wavelet Transform(FWT), Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.724..102S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.724..102S"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> Determination Techniques for the Next National <span class="hlt">Height</span> System of Finland- A Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in <span class="hlt">height</span> determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for <span class="hlt">height</span> determination that could decrease the creation time of national <span class="hlt">height</span> systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements.We compared the techniques in a field test, where the <span class="hlt">height</span> difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the <span class="hlt">height</span> differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements.This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4030404','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4030404"><span>Reaching new <span class="hlt">heights</span>: Comparing interpretation bias modification to exposure therapy for extreme <span class="hlt">height</span> fear</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Steinman, Shari A.; Teachman, Bethany A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Cognitive models of anxiety disorders posit that biases in interpretation maintain, and potentially cause, anxiety. This study tested whether it is possible to decrease <span class="hlt">height</span> fear symptoms through cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I). Additionally, the clinical utility of CBM-I was tested by comparing it to an already established treatment: exposure therapy. Method Extremely <span class="hlt">height</span> fearful (N = 110) individuals participated in the study. Acrophobic symptoms were measured before and after two sessions of CBM-I, and compared to the standard treatment for acrophobia (exposure therapy), a combination of CBM-I and exposure therapy, and a Control condition. Results In line with hypotheses, participants in the three active conditions showed greater response to treatment than the Control condition in <span class="hlt">height</span>-relevant interpretation bias, symptoms, and behavioral avoidance on a <span class="hlt">height</span> stressor, with few differences between the active conditions. Further, symptom change was mediated by change in interpretation bias. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that different pathways to fear reduction (exposure vs. shifting interpretations) can lead to similar reductions in <span class="hlt">height</span> fear. This study provides the first evidence that directly shifting cognitive processing, even with no therapist involvement, can reduce symptoms as effectively as the gold standard, therapist-directed exposure therapy. PMID:24588406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC38012C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC38012C"><span>Meniscus <span class="hlt">height</span> controlled convective self-assembly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choudhary, Satyan; Crosby, Alfred</p> <p></p> <p>Convective self-assembly techniques based on the 'coffee-ring effect' allow for the fabrication of materials with structural hierarchy and multi-functionality across a wide range of length scales. The coffee-ring effect describes deposition of non-volatiles at the edge of droplet due to capillary flow and pattern formations due to pinning and de-pinning of meniscus with the solvent evaporation. We demonstrate a novel convective self-assembly method which uses a piezo-actuated bending motion for driving the de-pinning step. In this method, a dilute solution of nanoparticles or polymers is trapped by capillary forces between a blade and substrate. As the blade oscillates with a fixed frequency and amplitude and the substrate translates at a fixed velocity, the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the capillary meniscus oscillates. The meniscus <span class="hlt">height</span> controls the contact angle of three phase contact line and at a critical angle de-pinning occurs. The combination of convective flux and continuously changing contact angle drives the assembly of the solute and subsequent de-pinning step, providing a direct means for producing linear assemblies. We demonstrate a new method for convective self-assembly at an accelerated rate when compared to other techniques, with control over deposit dimensions. Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0185).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.2437V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.2437V"><span>Ash plume top <span class="hlt">height</span> estimation using AATSR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Virtanen, T. H.; Kolmonen, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>An algorithm is presented for the estimation of volcanic ash plume top <span class="hlt">height</span> using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard Envisat. The algorithm is based on matching top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared to other satellite observations and in situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic and can be implemented in operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows efficient simultaneous retrieval of the horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E2228B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E2228B"><span>Optimal inflatable space towers of high <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolonkin, A.</p> <p></p> <p>Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the <span class="hlt">heights</span> some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their <span class="hlt">height</span>. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984MsT.........17M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984MsT.........17M"><span>Development of a pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> analyzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreira, E. S.</p> <p></p> <p>The development of a Pulse <span class="hlt">Height</span> Analyzer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consists of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable of memorizing pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consists of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. This device was used to acquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this department. The appraratus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse <span class="hlt">Height</span> Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.143..218F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.143..218F"><span>Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortelli, Alberto; Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and <span class="hlt">500</span> <span class="hlt">hpa</span> <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">heights</span> and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic parameter was the 850 hPa <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">height</span>, which is located about 1500 m of altitude. We compared local meteorological conditions (specifically wind stress, rain amount and thermal inversion) against the urban air pollution levels from 2009 to 2013. We found several empirical criteria for forecasting high daily PM10 air pollution levels in Naples. Pollution crises occurred when (a) the wind stress was between 1 and 2 m/s, (b) the thermal inversion between two strategic locations was at least 3°C/200 m and (c) it did not significantly rain for at least 7 days. Beside these meteorological conditions, severe pollution crises occurred also during festivals when fireworks and bonfires are lighted, and during anomalous breeze conditions and severe fire accidents. Finally, we propose a basic model to predict PM10 concentration levels from local meteorological conditions that can be easily forecast a few days in advance. The synthetic PM10 record predicted by the model was found to correlate with the PM10 observations with a correlation coefficient close to 0.80 with a confidence level greater than 99%. The proposed model is expected to provide reliable information to city officials to carry out practical strategies to mitigate air pollution effects. Although the proposed model equation is calibrated on the topographical and meteorological conditions of Naples, it should be easily adaptable to alternative locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14697000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14697000"><span>Vowel category dependence of the relationship between palate <span class="hlt">height</span>, tongue <span class="hlt">height</span>, and oral area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala; Alwan, Abeer; Cha, Jul Setsu; Haker, Katherine</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>This article evaluates intertalker variance of oral area, logarithm of the oral area, tongue <span class="hlt">height</span>, and formant frequencies as a function of vowel category. The data consist of coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and acoustic recordings of 5 talkers, each producing 11 different vowels. Tongue <span class="hlt">height</span> (left, right, and midsagittal), palate <span class="hlt">height</span>, and oral area were measured in 3 coronal sections anterior to the oropharyngeal bend and were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, variance ratio analysis, and regression analysis. The primary finding of this article is that oral area (between palate and tongue) showed less intertalker variance during production of vowels with an oral place of articulation (palatal and velar vowels) than during production of vowels with a uvular or pharyngeal place of articulation. Although oral area variance is place dependent, percentage variance (log area variance) is not place dependent. Midsagittal tongue <span class="hlt">height</span> in the molar region was positively correlated with palate <span class="hlt">height</span> during production of palatal vowels, but not during production of nonpalatal vowels. Taken together, these results suggest that small oral areas are characterized by relatively talker-independent vowel targets and that meeting these talker-independent targets is important enough that each talker adjusts his or her own tongue <span class="hlt">height</span> to compensate for talker-dependent differences in constriction anatomy. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate that these results may be explained by an acoustic control strategy: When talkers with very different anatomical characteristics try to match talker-independent formant targets, the resulting area variances are minimized near the primary vocal tract constriction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol4-sec52-2384.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol4-sec52-2384.pdf"><span>40 CFR 52.2384 - Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... affected by stack <span class="hlt">height</span> credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited dispersion... ‘good engineering practice’ stack <span class="hlt">height</span> or from using ‘other dispersion techniques.’ ” Thus,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4899843','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4899843"><span>Head Circumference and <span class="hlt">Height</span> in Autism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lainhart, Janet E.; Bigler, Erin D.; Bocian, Maureen; Coon, Hilary; Dinh, Elena; Dawson, Geraldine; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dunn, Michelle; Estes, Annette; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan; McMahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Osann, Kathy; Ozonoff, Sally; Rodier, Patricia; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Volkmar, Fred</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149 siblings, and typically developing controls. ASDs were diagnosed, and head circumference and clinical variables measured in a standardized manner across all sites. All subjects with autism met ADI-R, ADOS-G, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 criteria. The results show the distribution of standardized head circumference in autism is normal in shape, and the mean, variance, and rate of macrocephaly but not microcephaly are increased. Head circumference tends to be large relative to <span class="hlt">height</span> in autism. No site, gender, age, SES, verbal, or non-verbal IQ effects were present in the autism sample. In addition to autism itself, standardized <span class="hlt">height</span> and average parental head circumference were the most important factors predicting head circumference in individuals with autism. Mean standardized head circumference and rates of macrocephaly were similar in probands with autism and their parents. Increased head circumference was associated with a higher (more severe) ADI-R social algorithm score. Macrocephaly is associated with delayed onset of language. Although mean head circumference and rates of macrocephaly are increased in autism, a high degree of variability is present, underscoring the complex clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The wide distribution of head circumference in autism has major implications for genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research. PMID:17022081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> above...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf"><span>47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. The effective <span class="hlt">height</span> of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf"><span>47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions. The overall antenna structure <span class="hlt">heights</span> employed by mobile stations in the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.... No minimum antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf"><span>47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. The effective <span class="hlt">height</span> of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> above...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf"><span>47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions. The overall antenna structure <span class="hlt">heights</span> employed by mobile stations in the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf"><span>47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions. The overall antenna structure <span class="hlt">heights</span> employed by mobile stations in the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf"><span>47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. The effective <span class="hlt">height</span> of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf"><span>47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. The effective <span class="hlt">height</span> of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf"><span>47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions. The overall antenna structure <span class="hlt">heights</span> employed by mobile stations in the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> above...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec101-125.pdf"><span>47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restrictions. The overall antenna structure <span class="hlt">heights</span> employed by mobile stations in the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec80-763.pdf"><span>47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. The effective <span class="hlt">height</span> of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.... No minimum antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.... No minimum antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.... No minimum antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec24-132.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol4-sec73-614.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.... No minimum antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.87 - <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of <span class="hlt">height</span> and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.87 - <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of <span class="hlt">height</span> and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.87 - <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of <span class="hlt">height</span> and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.87 - <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of <span class="hlt">height</span> and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-87.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.87 - <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 <span class="hlt">Height</span>-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of <span class="hlt">height</span> and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=examination+AND+results+AND+reinforcements&pg=2&id=ED169605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=examination+AND+results+AND+reinforcements&pg=2&id=ED169605"><span>The Perceptual Distortion of <span class="hlt">Height</span> in Intercollegiate Debate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hensley, Wayne E.; Angoli, Marilyn</p> <p></p> <p>Both balance and reinforcement theories were used in an examination of the perceptual distortion of <span class="hlt">height</span> among 146 college debaters. Balance theory predicted that losers would distort winners' <span class="hlt">heights</span> upward; reinforcement theory predicted that winners would distort losers' <span class="hlt">heights</span> upward. The results confirmed both predictions. The possibility…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24e9202Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24e9202Z"><span>Extra-seasonal prediction of summer <span class="hlt">500</span>-<span class="hlt">hPa</span> <span class="hlt">height</span> field in the area of cold vortices over East Asia with a dynamical-statistical method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Jun-Hu; Yang, Liu; Hou, Wei; Liu, Gang; Zeng, Yu-Xing</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The cold vortex is a major high impact weather system in northeast China during the warm season, its frequent activities also affect the short-term climate throughout eastern China. How to objectively and quantitatively predict the intensity trend of the cold vortex is an urgent and difficult problem for current short-term climate prediction. Based on the dynamical-statistical combining principle, the predicted results of the Beijing Climate Center’s global atmosphere-ocean coupled model and rich historical data are used for dynamic-statistical extra-seasonal prediction testing and actual prediction of the summer <span class="hlt">500</span>-<span class="hlt">hPa</span> <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">height</span> over the cold vortex activity area. The results show that this method can significantly reduce the model’s prediction error over the cold vortex activity area, and improve the prediction skills. Furthermore, the results of the sensitivity test reveal that the predicted results are highly dependent on the quantity of similar factors and the number of similar years. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41375078), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB955902 and 2013CB430204), and the Special Scientific Research Fund of Public Welfare Profession of China (Grant No. GYHY201306021).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=220400','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=220400"><span>Waist to <span class="hlt">height</span> ratio is correlated with <span class="hlt">height</span> in US children and adolescents age 2-18y</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The waist-to-<span class="hlt">height</span> ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-<span class="hlt">height</span> ratio, however, retains residual correlation with <span class="hlt">height</span>, which could cause the measure to o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03394&hterms=green+world&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgreen%2Bworld','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03394&hterms=green+world&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgreen%2Bworld"><span>World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/>These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.<p/>Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04950&hterms=indonesia+culture&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dindonesia%2Bculture','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04950&hterms=indonesia+culture&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dindonesia%2Bculture"><span>Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/>The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).<p/>Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.<p/>The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06672&hterms=Bogs&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBogs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06672&hterms=Bogs&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBogs"><span>Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><p/> The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. <p/> Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. <p/> Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04957&hterms=asia+relief&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dasia%2Brelief','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04957&hterms=asia+relief&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dasia%2Brelief"><span>Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. <p/> The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. <p/> Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. <p/> Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NIMPB.213..167S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NIMPB.213..167S"><span>Verification of the pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> tally in MCNP 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sood, Avneet; Forster, R. A.; Adams, Bryce J.; White, Morgan C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> tallies are commonly used in Monte Carlo codes to predict detailed measured photon spectra for spectrometry purposes. The pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> tally is unique among the various tallies in MCNP. Unlike flux or current tallies, which are calculated as soon as the particle exits or collides in the cell, the entire set of tracks for a history must be completed before the pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> tally can be made. The objective of this work was to verify the pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> tally and prepare to verify the new MCNP 5 variance reduction features with the pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> tally. In this paper, we give details to the analytic solution of the pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution using a modification to Shuttleworth's fictitious elements, report MCNP 5 results for the pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> tally, energy deposited and current tallies for the problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28240706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28240706"><span>Manifestations of proprioception during vertical jumps to specific <span class="hlt">heights</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Artur, Struzik; Bogdan, Pietraszewski; Adam, Kawczyñski; Sławomir, Winiarski; Grzegorz, Juras; Andrzej, Rokita</p> <p>2017-02-23</p> <p>Jumping and proprioception are important abilities in many sports. The efficiency of the proprioceptive system is indirectly related to jumps performed at specified <span class="hlt">heights</span>. Therefore, this study recorded the ability of young athletes who play team sports to jump to a specific <span class="hlt">height</span> compared to their maximum ability. A total of 154 male (age: 14.8±0.9 years, body <span class="hlt">height</span>: 181.8±8.9 cm, body weight: 69.8±11.8 kg, training experience: 3.8±1.7 years) and 151 female (age: 14.1±0.8 years, body <span class="hlt">height</span>: 170.5±6.5 cm, body weight: 60.3±9.4 kg, training experience: 3.7±1.4 years) team games players were recruited for this study. Each participant performed two countermovement jumps with arm swing to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum <span class="hlt">height</span>. Measurements were performed using a force plate. Jump <span class="hlt">height</span> and its accuracy with respect to a specified <span class="hlt">height</span> were calculated. The results revealed no significant differences in jump <span class="hlt">height</span> and its accuracy to the specified <span class="hlt">heights</span> between the groups (stratified by age, gender and sport). Individuals with a higher jumping accuracy also exhibited greater maximum jump <span class="hlt">heights</span>. Jumps to 25% of the maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> were approximately two times higher than the target <span class="hlt">height</span>. The decreased jump accuracy to a specific <span class="hlt">height</span> when attempting to jump to lower <span class="hlt">heights</span> should be reduced with training, particularly among athletes who play team sports. These findings provide useful information regarding the proprioceptive system for team sport coaches and may shape guidelines for training routines by working with submaximal loads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920009511','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920009511"><span><span class="hlt">Geopotential</span> models of the Earth from satellite tracking, altimeter and surface gravity observations: GEM-T3 and GEM-T3S</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Williamson, R. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Chan, J. C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Improved models of the Earth's gravitational field have been developed from conventional tracking data and from a combination of satellite tracking, satellite altimeter and surface gravimetric data. This combination model represents a significant improvement in the modeling of the gravity field at half-wavelengths of 300 km and longer. Both models are complete to degree and order 50. The Goddard Earth Model-T3 (GEM-T3) provides more accurate computation of satellite orbital effects as well as giving superior geoidal representation from that achieved in any previous GEM. A description of the models, their development and an assessment of their accuracy is presented. The GEM-T3 model used altimeter data from previous satellite missions in estimating the orbits, geoid, and dynamic <span class="hlt">height</span> fields. Other satellite tracking data are largely the same as was used to develop GEM-T2, but contain certain important improvements in data treatment and expanded laser tracking coverage. Over 1300 arcs of tracking data from 31 different satellites have been used in the solution. Reliable estimates of the model uncertainties via error calibration and optimal data weighting techniques are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002STIN...0318097B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002STIN...0318097B"><span>Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolonkin, Alexander</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Author provides theory and computations for building inflatable space towers up to a hundred km in <span class="hlt">height</span>. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, earth's surface, weather, top atmosphere, as well as for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the earth's surface. The transport system for this tower consists a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanism in case of a damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in subsequent publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JGR....86..125W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JGR....86..125W"><span>Empirical models of <span class="hlt">height</span> integrated conductivities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wallis, D. D.; Budzinski, E. E.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional distributions of the <span class="hlt">height</span>-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities have been computed for latitudes poleward of 60 deg invariant representative of two Kp activity levels. Average precipitating fluxes of electrons with energies of 0.15, 1.27, 9.65, and greater than 22 keV obtained by the energetic particle detector of Isis 2 during 1971-1974 are used as input to a Rees-type computation. The assumption of equilibrium conditions and a recombination rate profile permit calculation of electron density profiles and conductivity profiles. Calculations are performed at 300 grid points, specifically 12 local times and 25 latitudes from 60 to 84 deg invariant latitude. The models include ionization due to galactic EUV and other background sources that produces base conductivities as well as solar photon ionization through an empirical fit to Chatanika radar observations. Substantial modulation of the conductivities is found to result from longitudinal variation of the magnitude of the earth's magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810010999','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810010999"><span>Seasat altimeter <span class="hlt">height</span> calibration. [related to sea surface <span class="hlt">heights</span> near bermuda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kolenkiewicz, R.; Martin, C. F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The Seasat altimeter was calibrated for <span class="hlt">height</span> bias using four overflight passes of Bermuda which were supported by the Bermuda laser. The altimeter data was corrected for: tides, using recorded tide gauge data; propagation effects, using meteorological data taken around the time of each pass; acceleration lag; and sea state bias, including both surface effects and instrumental effects. Altimeter data for each of the four passes was smoothed and extrapolated across the island. Interpolation between passes then produced an equivalent altimeter measurement to the geoid at the laser site, so that the altimeter bias could be estimated without the use of a geoid model. The estimated <span class="hlt">height</span> bias was 0.0 + or - 0.07.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23156912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23156912"><span>Effect of different professions' clothing on children's <span class="hlt">height</span> perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rashidi, Mahmoud; Keshtkaran, Katayoun; Zabihidan, Sahar; Hosseinchari, Masoud; Pazhoohi, Farid</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> is a biological factor that can affect how others perceive and behave toward an individual. <span class="hlt">Height</span> is a biological factor that can affect how others perceive and behave toward an individual. Clothing, as a non-biological factor, can affect these perceptions of <span class="hlt">height</span>. In this study weClothing, as a non-biological factor, can affect these perceptions of <span class="hlt">height</span>. In this study we investigated the effect of different professions' clothing on children's perceptions of <span class="hlt">height</span>. One investigated the effect of different professions' clothing on children's perceptions of <span class="hlt">height</span>. One hundred and eighty primary school students participated in this study and estimated the <span class="hlt">height</span> of an actor in the clothing of four different professions which differed in terms of prestige. The results of study showed that the difference between the perceived and actual <span class="hlt">height</span> was larger when participants estimated the <span class="hlt">height</span> of socially esteemed professions. Also there was no difference between girls' and boys' estimation of different professions' <span class="hlt">height</span>. The implications of these findings are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN34A..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN34A..06R"><span>Maintaining the Accuracy of a Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Height</span> Climate Data Record from Multi-mission Altimeter Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Yang, X.; Mitchum, G. T.; Ricko, M.; Desai, S.; Brown, S. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The determination of the rate of change of mean sea level (MSL) has undeniable societal significance. The measurement of geocentric sea level change from satellite altimetry requires an extreme stability of the altimeter measurement system since the signal being measured is at the level of a few mm/yr. Many of the obstacles previously impeding the measurement and validation of estimates of GMSL from satellite altimetry have been overcome (Fu and Haines, 2012). Nonetheless, measuring sea level rates at the precision required for climate science continues to be challenging for at least two reasons: (1) the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) realizations are determined using space geodetic data over finite time spans, and must be periodically updated; (2) the dynamic nature of the Earth engenders global and regional variations in the <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> which if not properly modeled ultimately cause errors in the computed sea level. Recent developments in Precise Orbit Determinations (POD) due to in particular to revisions to the terrestrial reference frame (i.e. updates to ITRF2008, and the expected availability of ITRF2013) and the development of improved time variable gravity (TVG) models continue to provide improvements to the accuracy and stability of the POD that directly affect mean sea level estimates. Long-term and reliable MSL estimates that rely on data from multiple altimeter missions require the highest possible orbit accuracy and consistency in the use of applied geophysical models in POD computations. The stringent GMSL accuracy requirements are particularly essential for closure of the mass budget over the relative short time period where measurements from Jason-1&2, GRACE, and Argo are coincident. In this presentation we describe the development, utility, and the accuracy maintenance of the MEaSURE's TPJAOS V3.0 sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span> Climate Data Record (http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/dataset/MERGED_TP_J1_OSTM_OST_ALL). We provide an assessment of recent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04959&hterms=Hominids&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DHominids','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04959&hterms=Hominids&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DHominids"><span>Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p> color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. <p/> Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. <p/> Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06665&hterms=railway&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drailway','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06665&hterms=railway&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drailway"><span>Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. <p/> Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. <p/> Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03388&hterms=waterfall&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwaterfall','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03388&hterms=waterfall&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwaterfall"><span>South America, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p> that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.<p/>To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.<p/>Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03393&hterms=Chalk&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DChalk','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03393&hterms=Chalk&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DChalk"><span>France, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/>This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.<p/>The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.<p/>To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03396&hterms=Guiana+Highlands&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGuiana%2BHighlands','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03396&hterms=Guiana+Highlands&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGuiana%2BHighlands"><span>Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p> inspiration for Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.<p/>Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.7294M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.7294M"><span>Imaging magnetospheric boundaries at ionospheric <span class="hlt">heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wroten, Joei; Martinis, Carlos; Smith, Steven; Merenda, Kevin-Druis; Fritz, Theodore; Hairston, Marc; Heelis, Rod; Barbieri, Cesare</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>all-sky imager (ASI) records atmospheric emissions from zenith to low on the horizon at all azimuths, a region typically spanning millions of square kilometers. Each pixel (with its unique elevation, azimuth, and emission <span class="hlt">height</span>) can be mapped along B-field lines to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Auroral and subauroral structures and boundaries seen in emission within the ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) system can thus be related to source regions. For a midlatitude site, this I-T to inner magnetosphere connection typically falls within the L = 2-5 earth radii domain. In this study, we present the first case of a stable auroral red (SAR) arc observed from three widely spaced ASI sites (Europe, North America, New Zealand). SAR arcs are produced during the main and recovery phases of a geomagnetic storm, with emission driven by heat conduction from a very specific location in the magnetosphere—the L value where the plasmapause and the inner edge of the ring current overlap. Using three-site observations, we show that this boundary can be followed for 24 consecutive hours. Simultaneous observations made by three satellites in the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) show that the lowest latitude peak in electron temperature can be used to map the same boundary. A key structure of the inner magnetosphere that cannot be observed continuously from sensors orbiting within the magnetosphere is made continuously visible to ground-based optical systems via effects caused by the drainage of small amounts of ring current energy into the I-T system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23926409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23926409"><span>Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal <span class="hlt">Height</span> Gain and Adult <span class="hlt">Height</span> in Boys with Early Puberty for <span class="hlt">Height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Twenty-one boys with a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal <span class="hlt">height</span> gain and adult <span class="hlt">height</span> were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal <span class="hlt">height</span> gain from onset of puberty till adult <span class="hlt">height</span> was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (p<0.0001). The mean adult <span class="hlt">height</span> was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (164.3 cm) than in the untreated group (156.9 cm) (p<0.0001). The percentage of subjects with an adult <span class="hlt">height</span> of 160 cm or taller was 90.5% (19/21) in the combination treatment group, and it was 13.8% (4/29) in the untreated group (p<0.0001). Since growth of the penis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased <span class="hlt">height</span> gain during puberty and adult <span class="hlt">height</span> in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5821004','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5821004"><span>Frac <span class="hlt">height</span> may increase away from well bore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hunt, E. )</p> <p>1991-02-25</p> <p>Well logs with deep investigation capabilities are necessary to determine accurately the <span class="hlt">height</span> of hydraulically produced fractures. Logs with shallow investigation capability will indicate the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the fracture near the well bore, but as shown in a test in an East Texas well, fracture <span class="hlt">height</span> in some formations can be substantially greater away from the well bore. In the East Texas test, six wire line surveys were run, including the usual gamma ray surveys. The fracture <span class="hlt">heights</span> determined by the above logs are plotted. The independent estimates of gross fracture <span class="hlt">height</span> varied considerably. Four logs, TWRL, VDL, SCAN, and CEL appear to be influenced by the fracture. Results were inconclusive from the Au and the CBL log. Analysis of each of these indicates a different minimum fracture <span class="hlt">height</span> in this well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25289684','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25289684"><span>Analysis of web <span class="hlt">height</span> ratios according to age and sex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sari, Elif</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Each component of the web space, a three-dimensional structure, should be carefully created during reconstruction of web space loss. One of these web space components is the web <span class="hlt">height</span>. In this study, the dorsal view of subjects' hands was analyzed to determine the web <span class="hlt">height</span> ratios. The web <span class="hlt">height</span> ratios were then compared with respect to age and sex. The second and third web <span class="hlt">height</span> ratios differed between adult men and women and between children and adults. However, no differences were observed among children. This study is unique because it focuses on the web <span class="hlt">height</span> ratios of all web spaces according to age and sex and provides a very easy-to-use scale that may help surgeons to perform web space reconstruction. Moreover, the present study adds to the literature by providing information on the first web <span class="hlt">height</span> ratios of the hand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16908504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16908504"><span>Reducing stem bending increases the <span class="hlt">height</span> growth of tall pines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meng, Shawn X; Lieffers, Victor J; Reid, Douglas E B; Rudnicki, Mark; Silins, Uldis; Jin, Ming</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The hypothesis was tested that upper limits to <span class="hlt">height</span> growth in trees are the result of the increasing bending moment of trees as they grow in <span class="hlt">height</span>. The increasing bending moment of tall trees demands increased radial growth at the expense of <span class="hlt">height</span> growth to maintain mechanical stability. In this study, the bending moment of large lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) was reduced by tethering trees at 10 m <span class="hlt">height</span> to counter the wind load. Average bending moment of tethered trees was reduced to 38% of control trees. Six years of tethering resulted in a 40% increase in <span class="hlt">height</span> growth relative to the period before tethering. By contrast, control trees showed decreased <span class="hlt">height</span> growth in the period after tethering treatment. Average radial growth along the bole, relative to <span class="hlt">height</span> growth, was reduced in tethered trees. This strongly suggests that mechanical constraints play a crucial role in limiting the <span class="hlt">height</span> growth of tall trees. Analysis of bending moment and basal area increment at both 10 m and 1.3 m showed that the amount of wood added to the stem was closely related to the bending moment produced at these <span class="hlt">heights</span>, in both control and tethered trees. The tethering treatment also resulted in an increase in the proportion of latewood at the tethering <span class="hlt">height</span>, relative to 1.3 m <span class="hlt">height</span>. For untethered control trees, the ratio of bending stresses at 10 m versus 1.3 m <span class="hlt">height</span> was close to 1 in both 1998 and 2003, suggesting a uniform stress distribution along the outer surface of the bole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481609"><span>Mendelian randomization study of <span class="hlt">height</span> and risk of colorectal cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thrift, Aaron P; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Slattery, Martha L; Chan, Andrew T; Esko, Tonu; Wood, Andrew R; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Gustafsson, Stefan; Pers, Tune H; Baron, John A; Bezieau, Stéphane; Küry, Sébastien; Ogino, Shuji; Berndt, Sonja I; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Du, Mengmeng; Harrison, Tabitha A; Thornquist, Mark; Duggan, David J; Le Marchand, Loic; Lemire, Mathieu; Lindor, Noralane M; Seminara, Daniela; Song, Mingyang; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Newcomb, Polly A; Schoen, Robert E; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann; White, Emily; Hsu, Li; Campbell, Peter T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: For men and women, taller <span class="hlt">height</span> is associated with increased risk of all cancers combined. For colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unclear whether the differential association of <span class="hlt">height</span> by sex is real or is due to confounding or bias inherent in observational studies. We performed a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between <span class="hlt">height</span> and CRC risk. Methods: To minimize confounding and bias, we derived a weighted genetic risk score predicting <span class="hlt">height</span> (using 696 genetic variants associated with <span class="hlt">height</span>) in 10 226 CRC cases and 10 286 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between <span class="hlt">height</span>, genetically predicted <span class="hlt">height</span> and CRC. Results: Using conventional methods, increased <span class="hlt">height</span> (per 10-cm increment) was associated with increased CRC risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02–1.15). In sex-specific analyses, <span class="hlt">height</span> was associated with CRC risk for women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05–1.26), but not men (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92–1.05). Consistent with these results, carrying greater numbers of (weighted) <span class="hlt">height</span>-increasing alleles (per 1-unit increase) was associated with higher CRC risk for women and men combined (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01–1.14) and for women (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01–1.19). There was weaker evidence of an association for men (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.96–1.15). Conclusion: We provide evidence for a causal association between <span class="hlt">height</span> and CRC for women. The CRC-<span class="hlt">height</span> association for men remains unclear and warrants further investigation in other large studies. PMID:25997436</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770062872&hterms=bonn+scale&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbonn%2Bscale','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770062872&hterms=bonn+scale&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbonn%2Bscale"><span>Global exospheric temperatures from ESRO 4 scale <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keating, G. M.; Prior, E. J.; Lake, L. R.; Nicholson, J. Y., III; Fricke, K.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The scale <span class="hlt">height</span> temperatures considered are based on molecular nitrogen measurements by the gas analyzer aboard the ESRO 4 in the altitude range from 280 to 310 km during the interval from December 1972 to April 1974, a period of low solar activity. At the altitude of measurement during the considered period, the scale <span class="hlt">height</span> temperature is essentially the exospheric temperature. The mean scale <span class="hlt">height</span> temperature derived from 1833 independent N2 scale <span class="hlt">heights</span> is 708 K. It is concluded that the ESRO 4 data provides evidence of mean global temperatures of less than 800 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513779P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513779P"><span>On the parameterization of Injection <span class="hlt">Height</span> and the use of the MISR plume <span class="hlt">height</span> project data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paugam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Atherton, Jonathan; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Freitas, Saulo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The parameterization of fire injection <span class="hlt">height</span> in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection <span class="hlt">height</span> and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) or the brightness temperature which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the plume rise model (PRM) originally developed by Saulo Freitas, so that effects of atmospheric stability and latent heat are also taken into account. The original plume rise model is modified: (i) the input data of convective heat flux and the Active Fire area are directly force from FRP data derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD12 product, (ii) and the dynamical core of the plume model is modified with a new entrainment scheme inspired from latest results in shallow convection parameterization. An original aspect of this work is to present an optimization of the new version of the Freitas PRM based on (i) fire plume characteristics of single fire events extracted from the official MISR plume <span class="hlt">height</span> project and (ii) atmospheric profile derived from the ECMWF analysis. The selection of the fire events out of the MISR data set represents the main task of this work. In particular, it is shown that the only information extracted from Terra overpass is not enough to guaranty that the injection <span class="hlt">height</span> of the plume is linked to the FRP measured at the same time. The plume is a dynamical system, and a time delay (related to the atmospheric state) is necessary to adjust change in FRP to the plume behaviour. Therefore, here multiple overpasses of the same fire from Terra and Aqua are used to determine fire and plume behaviours and system in a steady state at the time of MISR (central scan of Terra) overpass are selected for the optimization procedure. Results show that in the case of some fire event, the PRM is able to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03388&hterms=Guiana+Highlands&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGuiana%2BHighlands','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03388&hterms=Guiana+Highlands&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGuiana%2BHighlands"><span>South America, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p> that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.<p/>To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.<p/>Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811809K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811809K"><span>Tsunami focusing and leading wave <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanoglu, Utku</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> and Synolakis, 1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112) with a finite crest length, which is most common tsunami initial waveform. We fit earthquake initial waveform calculated through Okada (1985, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 75, 1135-1040) to the N-wave form presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994). First, we investigate focusing phenomena as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015) and compare our results with their non-dispersive and dispersive linear analytical solutions. We confirm focusing phenomena, which amplify the wave <span class="hlt">height</span> in the leading depression side. We then study sequencing of an N-wave profile with a finite crest length. Our preliminary results show that sequencing is more pronounced on the leading depression side. We perform parametric study to understand sequencing in terms of N-wave, hence earthquake, parameters. We then discuss the results both in terms of tsunami focusing and leading wave amplitude. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04175&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04175&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Mississippi Delta, Radar Image with Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation <p/> <i>About the animation</i>: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Lake Pontchartrain and the New Orleans area was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Although it is protected by levees and sea walls against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, much of the city is below sea level, and flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes is a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments. <p/> <i>About the image</i>: The geography of the New Orleans and Mississippi delta region is well shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. In this image, bright areas show regions of high radar reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using <span class="hlt">height</span> data also from the mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. <p/> New Orleans is situated along the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the large, roughly circular lake near the center of the image. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest over water highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern. <p/> Data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0425.photos.340240p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0425.photos.340240p/"><span>2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar towards, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title16-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title16-vol2-sec1509-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title16-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title16-vol2-sec1509-3.pdf"><span>16 CFR 1509.3 - Crib-side <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crib-side <span class="hlt">height</span>. 1509.3 Section 1509.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.3 Crib-side <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) With the mattress support in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title16-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title16-vol2-sec1509-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title16-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title16-vol2-sec1509-3.pdf"><span>16 CFR 1509.3 - Crib-side <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crib-side <span class="hlt">height</span>. 1509.3 Section 1509.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.3 Crib-side <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) With the mattress support in...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8315E..1XY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8315E..1XY"><span>Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a <span class="hlt">height</span> compass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a <span class="hlt">height</span> compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic <span class="hlt">height</span> variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, <span class="hlt">height</span> compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A <span class="hlt">height</span> compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The <span class="hlt">height</span> value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The <span class="hlt">height</span> compass shows intuitive display of the <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in <span class="hlt">height</span> value at the sites of the fractures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol2-sec51-118.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol2-sec51-118.pdf"><span>40 CFR 51.118 - Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> provisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.118 Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> provisions. (a) The plan must provide that the degree of emission limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack <span class="hlt">height</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1475058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1475058"><span>Effects of time and <span class="hlt">height</span> on behavior of emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Van der Hoven, I</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The effect of the two parameters is reviewed. Variability with time is discussed in relation to stability and other atmospheric conditions. The magnitude of ground level concentrations from elevated release is discussed as an interaction between rate of emission release, physical <span class="hlt">height</span> of stack, and thermal conditions. The point is made that plant effluent rates have increased in proportion to stack <span class="hlt">height</span>. PMID:1157787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec95-1315.pdf"><span>47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-205.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814017G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814017G"><span>Tree <span class="hlt">height</span> growth indicating drought and nitrogen deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gulyás, Krisztina; Berki, Imre</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Several studies have been reported the increasing trends of forest growth in Europe in the last decades. Sites, where the water is not limiting factor, the increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and high nitrogen deposition influenced accelerated tree <span class="hlt">height</span> growth. However few researches show that the drying climate conditions and water deficit cause slow/not definite trend of tree <span class="hlt">height</span> growth in forests. The aim of our study presents the effects of drying climate and surplus nitrogen on <span class="hlt">height</span> growth of sessile oak (Quercus petraea). Almost 50 sessile oak stands (with zonal site condition) have been measured along a humid-arid climatic transect in Hungary. Top <span class="hlt">heights</span> of the trees are the best dendrometric parameter for indicating the changing site conditions. Observed top <span class="hlt">heights</span> dates were compared with 50-years climate condition along the humid-arid climatic transect. Tree <span class="hlt">height</span> growth in the dry and mesic section of climatic gradient slowed at the last 4 decades, because of the increasing frequency of dry periods. Accelerated <span class="hlt">height</span> growth were measured in the mesic and humid section of transect, where the nitrogen deposition due to local air pollution were higher than the background deposition. These results draw attention to the importance of the drying climate and surplus nitrogen in the global changes. Keywords: climate change impacts, drought periods, surplus deposition, tree <span class="hlt">height</span> growth Acknowledgements: Research is supported by the "Agroclimate.2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) EU-national joint funded research project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-1517.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-1517.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting <span class="hlt">height</span>-speed envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting <span class="hlt">height</span>-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of <span class="hlt">heights</span> and its variation with forward speed must be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-1517.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-1517.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting <span class="hlt">height</span>-speed envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting <span class="hlt">height</span>-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of <span class="hlt">heights</span> and its variation with forward speed must be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-1517.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-1517.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting <span class="hlt">height</span>-speed envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting <span class="hlt">height</span>-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of <span class="hlt">heights</span> and its variation with forward speed must be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-1517.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-1517.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting <span class="hlt">height</span>-speed envelope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting <span class="hlt">height</span>-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of <span class="hlt">heights</span> and its variation with forward speed must be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol2-sec45-69.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol2-sec45-69.pdf"><span>46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correction for bow <span class="hlt">height</span>. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.69 Correction for bow <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol2-sec45-69.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol2-sec45-69.pdf"><span>46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correction for bow <span class="hlt">height</span>. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.69 Correction for bow <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452198"><span>Socioeconomic development and secular trend in <span class="hlt">height</span> in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Wu, Hua-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Qin</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic development on secular trend in <span class="hlt">height</span> among children and adolescents in China. Body <span class="hlt">height</span> and spermarcheal/menarcheal ages were obtained from two periodic large-scale national representative surveys in China between 1975 and 2010. Chinese socioeconomic development indicators were obtained from the United Nations world population prospects. The effects of plausible determinants were assessed by partial least-squares regression. The average <span class="hlt">height</span> of children and adolescents improved in tandem with socioeconomic development, without any tendency to plateau. The increment of <span class="hlt">height</span> trend presented larger around puberty than earlier or later ages. The partial least-squares regressions with gross national income, life expectancy and spermarcheal/menarcheal age accounted for increment of <span class="hlt">height</span> trend from 88.3% to 98.3% for males and from 82.9% to 97.3% for females in adolescence. Further, through the analysis of the variable importance for projection, the contributions of gross national income and life expectancy on <span class="hlt">height</span> increment were confirmed to be significant in childhood and adolescence, and the contribution of spermarcheal/menarcheal age was superior to both of them in adolescence. We concluded that positive secular trend in <span class="hlt">height</span> in China was significantly associated with socioeconomic status (GNI as indicator) and medical and health conditions (life expectancy as indicator). Earlier onset of spermarche and menarche proved to be an important role in larger increment of the trend over time of <span class="hlt">height</span> at puberty for a population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22025389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22025389"><span>The intergenerational transmission of <span class="hlt">height</span>: evidence from rural Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Venkataramani, Atheendar S</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A growing body of work suggests that health may be transferred across generations. The aim of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that might account for observed intergenerational associations in health outcomes. Using data from Vietnam, this study analyzes intergenerational correlations in <span class="hlt">height</span>, a measure of long-run health status, between parents and their children. Insights from biology and economics are used to motivate several strategies that collectively provide insight on the role and importance of different mechanisms. The results illustrate strong intergenerational associations in <span class="hlt">height</span>, which remain stable with the inclusion of controls for parent and household characteristics. Maternal <span class="hlt">height</span> is more strongly associated with the <span class="hlt">heights</span> of boys than girls, while the associations with paternal <span class="hlt">height</span> are similar across genders. The use of conditions faced by parents early in life as instruments for their <span class="hlt">height</span> yields significantly larger estimates of the mother-child <span class="hlt">height</span> association relative to OLS, while the estimated father-child associations move to zero. These results, in conjunction with those from several other tests, illustrate that non-genetic factors are important in determining parent-child associations in <span class="hlt">height</span>, and more speculatively, that epigenetic mechanisms may play an important role. These findings illustrate the value of investments in early childhood, as these may confer intergenerational benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec24-232.pdf"><span>47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> limits. (a)(1) Base...) below. (2) Base stations with an emission bandwidth greater than 1 MHz are limited to 1640 watts/MHz... described in paragraph (b) below. (3) Base station antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> may exceed 300 meters HAAT with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26822335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26822335"><span>Measuring perceived ceiling <span class="hlt">height</span> in a visual comparison task.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a <span class="hlt">height</span>-matching method in which perceived ceiling <span class="hlt">height</span> had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The <span class="hlt">height</span>-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling <span class="hlt">heights</span> between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling <span class="hlt">height</span>. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling <span class="hlt">height</span>. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The <span class="hlt">height</span> matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling <span class="hlt">height</span> to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5874..242F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5874..242F"><span>The <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Range of Watermelons without Wall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feierl, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>We determine the weak limit of the distribution of the random variables "<span class="hlt">height</span>" and "range" on the set of p-watermelons without wall restriction as the number of steps tends to infinity. Additionally, we provide asymptotics for the moments of the random variable "<span class="hlt">height</span>".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=264067','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=264067"><span>Modeling low-<span class="hlt">height</span> vegetation with airborne LiDAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Low-<span class="hlt">height</span> vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-<span class="hlt">height</span> vegetation structural characteristics a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051039"><span>The value of male <span class="hlt">height</span> in the marriage market.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sohn, Kitae</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2007, this paper estimates the value of relative <span class="hlt">height</span> (relative to the spouse's <span class="hlt">height</span>) in the marriage market of a developing country. The results indicate that the value of a 1cm reduction in the husband's <span class="hlt">height</span> relative to his wife's <span class="hlt">height</span> is about 3% of his earnings. 3% of the mean of yearly earnings amounts to Rp. 492,000 or US$54 in 2007. That value is reduced to 1% when earnings-generating attributes are controlled for. This difference of 2% points can be considered the value that women attach to their husbands' earnings-generating attributes; meanwhile, the remaining 1% suggests that there are still other attributes that women look for in male <span class="hlt">height</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARB16006D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARB16006D"><span>Imaging <span class="hlt">height</span> fluctuations in free-standing graphene membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorsey, Kyle; Miskin, Marc; Barnard, Arthur; Rose, Peter; Cohen, Itai; McEuen, Paul</p> <p></p> <p>We present a technique based on multi-wavelength interference microscopy to measure the <span class="hlt">heights</span> of observed ripples in free-standing graphene membranes. Graphene membranes released from a transparent substrate produce interference fringes when viewed in the reflection mode of an inverted microscope(Blees et. al. Nature 524 (7564): 204-207 (2015)). The fringes correspond to corrugation of the membrane as it floats near an interface. A single set of fringes is insufficient to uniquely determine the <span class="hlt">height</span> profile, as a given fringe spacing can correspond to an increase or decrease in <span class="hlt">height</span> by λ / 2 . Imaging at multiple wavelengths resolves the ambiguities in phase, and enables unique determination of the <span class="hlt">height</span> profile of the membrane (Schilling et. al.Phys. Rev. E, 69:021901, 2004). We utilize this technique to map out the <span class="hlt">height</span> fluctuations in free-standing graphene membranes to answer questions about fundamental mechanical properties of two-dimensional materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JOSAA..12.2105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JOSAA..12.2105S"><span>Representation of videokeratoscopic <span class="hlt">height</span> data with Zernike polynomials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwiegerling, Jim; Greivenkamp, John E.; Miller, Joseph M.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>Videokeratoscopic data are generally displayed as a color-coded map of corneal refractive power, corneal curvature, or surface <span class="hlt">height</span>. Although the merits of the refractive power and curvature methods have been extensively debated, the display of corneal surface <span class="hlt">height</span> demands further investigation. A significant drawback to viewing corneal surface <span class="hlt">height</span> is that the spherical and cylindrical components of the cornea obscure small variations in the surface. To overcome this drawback, a methodology for decomposing corneal <span class="hlt">height</span> data into a unique set of Zernike polynomials is presented. Repeatedly removing the low-order Zernike terms reveals the hidden <span class="hlt">height</span> variations. Examples of the decomposition-and-display technique are shown for cases of astigmatism, keratoconus, and radial keratotomy. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1847Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1847Z"><span>Research on ionospheric tomography based on variable pixel <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Dunyong; Li, Peiqing; He, Jie; Hu, Wusheng; Li, Chaokui</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A novel ionospheric tomography technique based on variable pixel <span class="hlt">height</span> was developed for the tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The method considers the <span class="hlt">height</span> of each pixel as an unknown variable, which is retrieved during the inversion process together with the electron density values. In contrast to conventional computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT), which parameterizes the model with a fixed pixel <span class="hlt">height</span>, the variable-pixel-<span class="hlt">height</span> computerized ionospheric tomography (VHCIT) model applies a disturbance to the <span class="hlt">height</span> of each pixel. In comparison with conventional CIT models, the VHCIT technique achieved superior results in a numerical simulation. A careful validation of the reliability and superiority of VHCIT was performed. According to the results of the statistical analysis of the average root mean square errors, the proposed model offers an improvement by 15% compared with conventional CIT models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10638996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10638996"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span>-related risk factors for prostate cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norrish, A E; McRae, C U; Holdaway, I M; Jackson, R T</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies have reported that adult <span class="hlt">height</span> is positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer. The authors carried out a population-based case-control study involving 317 prostate cancer cases and 480 controls to further investigate the possibility that <span class="hlt">height</span> is more strongly associated with advanced, compared with localized forms of this disease. Since the inherited endocrine factors, which in part determine <span class="hlt">height</span> attained during the growing years, may influence the risk of familial prostate cancer later in life, the relationship with <span class="hlt">height</span> was also investigated for familial versus sporadic prostate cancers. Adult <span class="hlt">height</span> was not related to the risk of localized prostate cancer, but there was a moderate positive association between increasing <span class="hlt">height</span> and the risk of advanced cancer (relative risk (RR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.73, upper versus lowest quartile, P-trend = 0.07). <span class="hlt">Height</span> was more strongly associated with the risk of prostate cancer in men with a positive family history compared with those reporting a negative family history. The RR of advanced prostate cancer for men in the upper <span class="hlt">height</span> quartile with a positive family history was 7.41 (95% CI 1.68-32.67, P-trend = 0.02) compared with a reference group comprised of men in the shortest <span class="hlt">height</span> quartile with a negative family history. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels did not correlate with <span class="hlt">height</span> amongst men with familial or sporadic prostate cancers. These findings provide evidence for the existence of growth-related risk factors for prostate cancer, particularly for advanced and familial forms of this disease. The possible existence of inherited mechanisms affecting both somatic and tumour growth deserves further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04965&hterms=Scientists+lies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DScientists%2Blies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04965&hterms=Scientists+lies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DScientists%2Blies"><span>SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p> central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands. <p/> Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain which widens out in Mozambique in the southeast. <p/>Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications. <p/> In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands. <p/> Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23337954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23337954"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> matters-from monogenic disorders to normal variation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Durand, Claudia; Rappold, Gudrun A</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> is a classic polygenic quantitative trait with a high level of heritability. As it is a simple and stable parameter to measure, <span class="hlt">height</span> is a model for both common, complex disorders and monogenic, Mendelian disease. In this Review, we examine <span class="hlt">height</span> from the perspective of monogenic and complex genetics and discuss the lessons learned so far. We explore several examples of rare sequence variants with large effects on <span class="hlt">height</span> and compare these variants to the common variants identified in genome-wide association studies that have small effects on <span class="hlt">height</span>. We discuss how copy number changes or genetic interactions might contribute to the unidentified aspects of the heritability of <span class="hlt">height</span>. We also ask whether information derived from genome-wide association studies on specific loci in the vicinity of genes can be used for further research in clinical paediatric endocrinology. Furthermore, we address key challenges that remain for gene discovery and for the transition of moving from genomic localization to mechanistic insights, with an emphasis on using next-generation sequencing to identify causative variants of people at the extremes of <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26642759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26642759"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> and skeletal morphology in relation to modern life style.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane; Groth, Detlef; Aßmann, Christian</p> <p>2015-12-08</p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> and skeletal morphology strongly relate to life style. Parallel to the decrease in physical activity and locomotion, modern people are slimmer in skeletal proportions. In German children and adolescents, elbow breadth and particularly relative pelvic breadth (50th centile of bicristal distance divided by body <span class="hlt">height</span>) have significantly decreased in recent years. Even more evident than the changes in pelvic morphology are the rapid changes in body <span class="hlt">height</span> in most modern countries since the end-19th and particularly since the mid-20th century. Modern Japanese mature earlier; the age at take-off (ATO, the age at which the adolescent growth spurt starts) decreases, and they are taller at all ages. Preece-Baines modelling of six national samples of Japanese children and adolescents, surveyed between 1955 and 2000, shows that this gain in <span class="hlt">height</span> is largely an adolescent trend, whereas <span class="hlt">height</span> at take-off (HTO) increased by less than 3 cm since 1955; adolescent growth (<span class="hlt">height</span> gain between ATO and adult age) increased by 6 cm. The effect of globalization on the modern post-war Japanese society ("community effect in <span class="hlt">height</span>") on adolescent growth is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/274067','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/274067"><span>Estimation of cirrus and stratus cloud <span class="hlt">heights</span> using landsat imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Inomata, Yasushi; Feind, R.E.; Welch, R.M.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>A new method based upon high-spatial-resolution imagery is presented that matches cloud and shadow regions to estimate cirrus and stratus cloud <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The distance between the cloud and the matching shadow pattern is accomplished using the 2D cross-correlation function from which the cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> is derived. The distance between the matching cloud-shadow patterns is verified manually. The derived <span class="hlt">heights</span> also are validated through comparison with a temperature-based retrieval of cloud <span class="hlt">height</span>. It is also demonstrated that an estimate of cloud thickness can be retrieved if both the sunside and antisunside of the cloud-shadow pair are apparent. The technique requires some interpretation to determine the cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> level retrieved (i.e., the top, base, or mid-level). It is concluded that the method is accurate to within several pixels, equivalent to cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> variations of about {plus_minus}250 m. The results show that precise placement of the templates is unnecessary, so that the development of a semiautomated procedure is possible. Cloud templates of about 64 pixels on a side or larger produce consistent results. The procedure was repeated for imagery degraded to simulate lower spatial resolutions. The results suggest that spatial resolution of 150-200 m or better is necessary in order to obtain stable cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals. 22 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27912007','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27912007"><span>Global patterns and determinants of forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tao, Shengli; Guo, Qinghua; Li, Chao; Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> is an important indicator of forest biomass, species diversity, and other ecosystem functions; however, the climatic determinants that underlie its global patterns have not been fully explored. Using satellite LiDAR-derived forest canopy <span class="hlt">heights</span> and field measurements of the world's giant trees, combined with climate indices, we evaluated the global patterns and determinants of forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span>. The mean canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> was highest in tropical regions, but tall forests (>50 m) occur at various latitudes. Water availability, quantified by the difference between annual precipitation and annual potential evapotranspiration (P-PET), was the best predictor of global forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span>, which supports the hydraulic limitation hypothesis. However, in striking contrast with previous studies, the canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> exhibited a hump-shaped curve along a gradient of P-PET: it initially increased, then peaked at approximately 680 mm of P-PET, and finally declined, which suggests that excessive water supply negatively affects the canopy <span class="hlt">height</span>. This trend held true across continents and forest types, and it was also validated using forest inventory data from China and the United States. Our findings provide new insights into the climatic controls of the world's giant trees and have important implications for forest management and improvement of forest growth models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060848"><span>Generational effects and gender <span class="hlt">height</span> dimorphism in contemporary Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>We examine the influence of socio-environmental (and birth cohort specific) effects on both adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and gender dimorphism (<span class="hlt">height</span> gap). Our data set is from contemporary Spain, a country governed by an authoritarian regime for about 40 years. Both OLS and quantile regression approaches are used to examine these patterns. Furthermore, we then draw upon a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain the influence of socio-political environment in explaining gender dimorphism. Our findings point to a significant increase in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> in the generations that benefited from the country's economic liberalization in the 1950s, and especially among those brought up after the transition to democracy in the 1970s. In contrast, individual heterogeneity suggests that only in recent generations has "<span class="hlt">height</span> increased more among the tallest". We also find that the effects of education on <span class="hlt">height</span> are greater among shorter individuals. Although the mean gender difference in <span class="hlt">height</span> is 11.7cm, birth cohort and capabilities effects along with other controls explain on average roughly 4% of the gender <span class="hlt">height</span> dimorphism, irrespective of the quantile considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3453V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3453V"><span>Estimation of Volcanic Ash Plume Top <span class="hlt">Height</span> using AATSR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Virtanen, Timo; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) <span class="hlt">height</span> estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top <span class="hlt">height</span>. The <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's 55° forward and nadir views, and thus the corresponding <span class="hlt">height</span>. Besides the stereo view, AATSR provides another advantage compared to other satellite based instruments. With AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 µm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. In addition, it is possible to study the effect of using different wavelengths in the <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate, ranging from visible (555 nm) to thermal infrared (12 µm). The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015. Accurate information on the volcanic ash position is important for air traffic safety. The ACM algorithm can provide valuable data of both horizontal and vertical ash dispersion. These data may be useful for comparisons with existing volcanic ash dispersion models and retrieval methods. We present ACM plume top <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate results for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, and comparisons against available ground based and satellite observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970023461','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970023461"><span>Estimation of Cirrus and Stratus Cloud <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Using Landsat Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Inomata, Yasushi; Feind, R. E.; Welch, R. M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A new method based upon high-spatial-resolution imagery is presented that matches cloud and shadow regions to estimate cirrus and stratus cloud <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The distance between the cloud and the matching shadow pattern is accomplished using the 2D cross-correlation function from which the cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> is derived. The distance between the matching cloud-shadow patterns is verified manually. The derived <span class="hlt">heights</span> also are validated through comparison with a temperature-based retrieval of cloud <span class="hlt">height</span>. It is also demonstrated that an estimate of cloud thickness can be retrieved if both the sunside and anti-sunside of the cloud-shadow pair are apparent. The technique requires some intepretation to determine the cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> level retrieved (i.e., the top, base, or mid-level). It is concluded that the method is accurate to within several pixels, equivalent to cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> variations of about +/- 250 m. The results show that precise placement of the templates is unnecessary, so that the development of a semi-automated procedure is possible. Cloud templates of about 64 pixels on a side or larger produce consistent results. The procedure was repeated for imagery degraded to simulate lower spatial resolutions. The results suggest that spatial resolution of 150-200 m or better is necessary in order to obtain stable cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4393754','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4393754"><span>Early life mortality and <span class="hlt">height</span> in Indian states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coffey, Diane</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Height</span> is a marker for health, cognitive ability and economic productivity. Recent research on the determinants of <span class="hlt">height</span> suggests that postneonatal mortality predicts <span class="hlt">height</span> because it is a measure of the early life disease environment to which a cohort is exposed. This article advances the literature on the determinants of <span class="hlt">height</span> by examining the role of early life mortality, including neonatal mortality, in India, a large developing country with a very short population. It uses state level variation in neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and pre-adult mortality to predict the <span class="hlt">heights</span> of adults born between 1970 and 1983, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality to predict the <span class="hlt">heights</span> of children born between 1995 and 2005. In contrast to what is found in the literature on developed countries, I find that state level variation in neonatal mortality is a strong predictor of adult and child <span class="hlt">heights</span>. This may be due to state level variation in, and overall poor levels of, pre-natal nutrition in India. PMID:25499239</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21869631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21869631"><span>Changes in biomechanical properties during drop jumps of incremental <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Hsien-Te</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate changing biomechanical properties with increasing drop jump <span class="hlt">height</span>. Sixteen physically active college students participated in this study and performed drop jumps from <span class="hlt">heights</span> of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm (DJ20-DJ60). Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using 11 Eagle cameras and 2 force platforms. Data pertaining to the dominant leg for each of 3 trials for each drop <span class="hlt">height</span> were recorded and analyzed. Statistical comparisons of vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), impulse, moment, power, work, and stiffness were made between different drop jump <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The peak vGRF of the dominant leg exceeded 3 times the body weight during DJ50 and DJ60; these values were significantly greater than those for DJ20, DJ30, and DJ40 (all p < 0.004). The <span class="hlt">height</span> jumped during DJ60 was significantly less than that during DJ20 and DJ30 (both p = 0.010). Both the landing impulse and total impulse during the contact phase were significantly different between each drop <span class="hlt">height</span> (all p < 0.036) and significantly increased with drop <span class="hlt">height</span>. There were no significant differences in the takeoff impulse. Peak and mean power absorption and negative work at the knee and ankle joints during DJ40, DJ50, and DJ60 were significantly greater than those during DJ20 and DJ30 (all p < 0.049). Leg, knee, and ankle stiffness during DJ60 were significantly less than during DJ20, DJ30, and DJ40 (all p < 0.037). The results demonstrated that drop jumps from <span class="hlt">heights</span> >40 cm offered no advantages in terms of mechanical efficiency (SSC power output) and stiffness. Drop jumps from <span class="hlt">heights</span> in excess of 60 cm are not recommended because of the lack of biomechanical efficiency and the potentially increased risk of injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23G..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23G..01H"><span>Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer <span class="hlt">Height</span> Derived from CALIPSO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) <span class="hlt">height</span>, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The derived PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span> are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span> over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span> occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span> appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span> from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL <span class="hlt">height</span> estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL <span class="hlt">heights</span> from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2564G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2564G"><span>Improving lidar-based mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements with radon-222</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Griffiths, A.; Chambers, S.; Parkes, S.; Williams, A. G.; McCabe, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We have found that near-surface hourly atmospheric radon-222 measurements can be combined with elastic backscatter lidar data to obtain a higher quality time-series of mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> than is currently possible with lidar data alone. The standard method of determining mixing <span class="hlt">heights</span> from lidar observations relies on algorithms which detect the contrast between relatively turbid aerosol-laden air within the boundary layer and clear air above. However, this approach can be confounded by meteorological conditions that lead to the formation of multiple aerosol layers within or above the boundary layer, or when the contrast between boundary layer air and the overlying air is weak. In such ambiguous circumstances, extra information would be helpful to choose the appropriate mixing <span class="hlt">height</span>. Radon-222 has the properties-almost-of an ideal passive tracer emitted at a constant rate from the surface. Assuming horizontal homogeneity, the near-surface concentration time-series can be inverted to determine an effective mixing <span class="hlt">height</span>, which is equal to the true mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> if the tracer is mixed uniformly throughout the boundary layer. A time-series of effective mixing <span class="hlt">heights</span> derived in this manner can then be used to choose between lidar-derived candidates for mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> in ambiguous meteorological conditions. This approach has the potential to extend the usefulness of lidar observations to conditions where, at present, it is only marginally applicable, and to improve the performance of automatic PBL <span class="hlt">height</span> detection procedures. A time-series of mixing <span class="hlt">heights</span> derived from a combination of lidar and radon observations would have fewer gaps, and therefore be more useful for applications such as model validation or pollution studies under a wider range of meteorological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14754069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14754069"><span>Correct <span class="hlt">height</span> measurement in noncontact atomic force microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sadewasser, Sascha; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch</p> <p>2003-12-31</p> <p>We demonstrate that topography measurements by noncontact atomic force microscopy are subject to residual electrostatic forces. On highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) with a submonolayer coverage of C60, we monitor the step <span class="hlt">height</span> from C60 to HOPG as a function of dc bias between tip and sample. Because of the different contact potential of C60 and HOPG ( approximately 50 mV), the step <span class="hlt">height</span> is strongly dependent on the dc bias. The presented results and additional simulations demonstrate clearly that for correct <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements it is mandatory to use a Kelvin probe force microscopy method with active compensation of electrostatic forces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24122280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24122280"><span>Detective value of historical <span class="hlt">height</span> loss and current <span class="hlt">height</span>/knee <span class="hlt">height</span> ratio for prevalent vertebral fracture in Japanese postmenopausal women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoh, Kousei; Kuwabara, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Vertebral fracture (VFx) is associated with various co-morbidities and increased mortality. In this paper, we have studied the detective value of <span class="hlt">height</span> loss for VFx using two indices; historical <span class="hlt">height</span> loss (HHL) which is the difference between the maximal <span class="hlt">height</span>, and the current <span class="hlt">height</span> (CH), and CH/knee <span class="hlt">height</span> (KH) ratio. One-hundred and fifty-one postmenopausal women visiting the outpatient clinic of orthopaedics were studied for their CH, self-reported maximal <span class="hlt">height</span>, KH, and radiographically diagnosed VFx number(s). VFx was present in 41.1 % of the subjects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the number of prevalent fractures was a significant predictor of HHL and CH/KH ratio. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis has shown that for HHL, the area under the curve (AUC) with their 95 %CI in the parentheses was 0.84 (0.77, 0.90), 0.88 (0.83, 0.94), and 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) for ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3 fractures, respectively. For the presence of ≥ 1 VFx, the cut-off value was 4.0 cm (specificity 79 %; sensitivity 79 %). Regarding the CH/KH ratio, AUC was 0.73 (0.65, 0.82), 0.85 (0.78, 0.93), and 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) for ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3 fractures, respectively. For the presence of ≥ 1 VFx, the cut-off value was 3.3 (specificity 47 %; sensitivity 91 %). Both cut-off values for HHL and CH/KH ratio had high negative predictivity across the wide range of theoretical VFx prevalence. Thus, HHL and CH/KH were both good detectors of VFx. Our data would be the basis to determine the cut-off value for the screening or case finding of subjects with VFx.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...46a2059H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...46a2059H"><span>Wave <span class="hlt">height</span> possibility distribution characteristics of significant wave <span class="hlt">height</span> in China Sea based on multi-satellite grid data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, W.; Yang, J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the group of wave <span class="hlt">height</span> possibility distribution characteristics of significant wave <span class="hlt">height</span> in China Sea based on multi-satellite grid data, the grid SWH data merges six satellites (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1/2, ENVISAT, Cryosat-2, HY-2A) corrected satellite altimeter data into the global SWH grid data in 2000∼2015 using Inverse Distance Weighting Method. Comparing the difference of wave <span class="hlt">height</span> possibility distribution of two schemes that scheme two includes all of 6 satellite data and scheme one includes all of other 5 satellite data except HY-2A in two wave <span class="hlt">height</span> interval, the first interval is [0,25) m, the second interval is [4,25) m, finding that two schemes have close wave <span class="hlt">height</span> probability distribution and the probability change trend, there are difference only in interval [0.4, 1.8) m and the possibility in this interval occupies over 70%; then mainly discussing scheme two, finding that the interval of greatest wave <span class="hlt">height</span> possibility is [0.6, 3) m, and the wave <span class="hlt">height</span> possibility that the SWH is greater than 4m is less than 0.18%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26ES....1a2024H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26ES....1a2024H"><span>Sodar detection of mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> in flat and mountainous terrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hennemuth, B.; Kirtzel, H.-Jürgen</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The atmospheric boundary layer plays an important role in air pollution and dispersion problems because the transport processes are managed within this layer and its top limits the vertical exchange of pollutants. A method for the derivation of the mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> from measurements of sodar, RASS and sonic anemometer-thermometer is presented for flat terrain. It does not only use vertical profiles of measured parameters but also bulk information like histograms and time evolution. Results from a two-years period are verified by radiosonde-derived mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> values and show the potential of the combination of the three systems to monitor the mixing <span class="hlt">height</span>. Difficulties arise at locations in mountainous terrain where thermal wind regimes dominate which are highly non-local. An additional problem is a strong local heat source at an industrial site where even the definition of the mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> is unclear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Equator&pg=2&id=EJ474903','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Equator&pg=2&id=EJ474903"><span>A Mathematical Model for the <span class="hlt">Height</span> of a Satellite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thoemke, Sharon S.; And Others</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Emphasizes a real-world-problem situation using sine law and cosine law. Angles of elevation from two tracking stations located in the plane of the equator determine <span class="hlt">height</span> of a satellite. Calculators or computers can be used. (LDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1110.photos.046471p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1110.photos.046471p/"><span>GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, <span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> C. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, <span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> C. 20 FEET. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0425.photos.340241p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0425.photos.340241p/"><span>3. VIEW NORTHWEST, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar towers, and radar tower ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. VIEW NORTHWEST, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0425.photos.340239p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0425.photos.340239p/"><span>1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar tower, and ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18184978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18184978"><span>Bed and toilet <span class="hlt">height</span> as potential environmental risk factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Capezuti, Elizabeth; Wagner, Laura; Brush, Barbara L; Boltz, Marie; Renz, Susan; Secic, Michelle</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Seat <span class="hlt">height</span> that is too high (> 120% of lower leg length [LLL]) or too low (< 80% of LLL) can impede safe transfer and result in falls. This study examines the difference between LLL of frail nursing home residents and the <span class="hlt">height</span> of their toilets and beds in the lowest position, compares the patient or environmental characteristics of those able to transfer from the bed or toilet to those who cannot, and determines the relationship of patient or environmental characteristics to bed-related falls. A retrospective observational design using secondary data from 263 nursing home residents finds that bed <span class="hlt">height</span> of three fourths of participants was greater than 140% of LLL, whereas toilet <span class="hlt">height</span> of more than half was 100% to 120% of LLL. Increased fall risk is associated with increased age, shorter length of stay, normal lower extremity range of motion, less cognitive impairment, more behavioral symptoms, and no complaints of pain during exam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/fundal-height/faq-20057962?p=1','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/fundal-height/faq-20057962?p=1"><span>Fundal <span class="hlt">Height</span>: An Accurate Indicator of Fetal Growth?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... generally defined as the distance from the pubic bone to the top of the uterus measured in centimeters. After 20 weeks of pregnancy, your fundal <span class="hlt">height</span> measurement often matches the number of weeks you've ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0187.photos.168639p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0187.photos.168639p/"><span>79. VIEW OF SPILLWAY THAT AUTOMATICALLY REGULATES <span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> OF WATER ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>79. VIEW OF SPILLWAY THAT AUTOMATICALLY REGULATES <span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> OF WATER IN RESERVOIR, 'BACKWATER OVERFLOW,' Print No. 233, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730030150&hterms=Herons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHerons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730030150&hterms=Herons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHerons"><span>Ionospheric scale <span class="hlt">height</span> from the refraction of satellite signals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heron, M. L.; Titheridge, J. E.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Accurate observations of the elevation angle of arrival of 20 MHz signals from the polar orbiting satellite Beacon-B for a 20 month period have provided transmission ionograms which may be reduced to give Hp the scale <span class="hlt">height</span> at the peak of the ionosphere. Noon seasonal averages of Hp are 1.35 (in winter) to 1.55 (in summer) times greater than the scale <span class="hlt">height</span> obtained from bottom-side ionograms. A comparison of scale <span class="hlt">height</span> at the peak with routine measurements of total content and peak electron density indicates that the O+/H+ transition level is above 1000 km during the day but comes down to about 630 km on winter nights. A predawn peak in the overall scale <span class="hlt">height</span> is caused by a lowering of the layer to a region of increased recombination and is magnified in winter by low O+/H+ transition levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CEAB...39..101W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CEAB...39..101W"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">height</span> spectroscopy for probing the solar atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiśniewska, A.; Roth, M.; Staiger, J.</p> <p></p> <p>We present preliminary results from multi-<span class="hlt">height</span> observations, taken with the HELLRIDE (HELioseismic Large Region Interferometric DEvice) instrument at the VTT (Vacuum Tower Telescope) in Izaña, Tenerife. The goal of this work is to study solar oscillations at different atmospheric <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The data was obtained in May 2014 for 10 different wavelengths with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution. In this paper we discuss the results from quiet sun measurements. The region was selected in such a way to be near to the disk center. Using spectral and cross-spectral analysis methods we derive phase differences of waves propagating between the atmospheric layers. The formation <span class="hlt">heights</span> of the photospheric spectral lines were calculated by τ^c_{5000} = 1 in agreement with an LTE approximation and chromospheric lines with an NLTE method, respectively. We find that the acoustic cut-off frequency is a function of <span class="hlt">height</span> in the solar atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503163"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the <span class="hlt">height</span> to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye <span class="hlt">height</span> (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye <span class="hlt">height</span> varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye <span class="hlt">height</span> changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during a complete gait cycle. The influence of head tilt on the EH was investigated in 20 healthy men. Markers were attached to the face and the subjects were instructed to stand relaxed, tilt their head to the right, to the left, forward and backward. The marker data for the right eye were used to calculate the EH. The respective deviation and SD from the relaxed standing EH and the EH in the Frankfurt plane, left tilted, right tilted, forward tilted and backward tilted, in addition to the corresponding head tilt angles were calculated. There was no correlation between the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the subject and the maximum vertical displacement of the EH throughout the gait cycle nor between <span class="hlt">height</span> of the subjects and the variation of the EH throughout the gait cycle. The average maximum vertical displacement for the test subject group was 4.76 cm (± 1.56 cm). The average EH was lower when the subjects were standing in the relaxed position than in the Frankfurt plane. The average EH was higher in the relaxed position than when the subjects tilted their heads, except when they tilted their heads backwards. The subjects had a slightly larger range of motion to the right than to the left, which was not significant. The results of this study provide a range for eye <span class="hlt">height</span> estimates and may be readily implemented in forensic case work. It can be used as a reference in <span class="hlt">height</span> estimates in cases with <span class="hlt">height</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006637&hterms=analyze+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Danalyze%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006637&hterms=analyze+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Danalyze%2Bdata"><span>MISR Interactive Explorer (MINX) : Production Digitizing to Retrieve Smoke Plume <span class="hlt">Heights</span> and Validating <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Against Lidar Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dunst, Ben</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">height</span> at which smoke from a wildfire is injected into the atmosphere is an important parameter for climatology, because it determines how far the smoke can be transported. Using the MINX program to analyze MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) data, I digitized wildfire smoke plumes to add to an existing database of these <span class="hlt">heights</span> for use by scientists studying smoke transport and plume dynamics. In addition to using MINX to do production digitizing of <span class="hlt">heights</span>, I assisted in gathering lidar data for an ongoing validation of MINX and helped evaluate those data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864802','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864802"><span>Control of bed <span class="hlt">height</span> in a fluidized bed gasification system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.</p> <p>1983-12-20</p> <p>In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed <span class="hlt">height</span> which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...105.2679C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...105.2679C"><span>Origin of intraplate volcanoes from guyot <span class="hlt">heights</span> and oceanic paleodepth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; Duennebier, Fred; Ito, Garrett</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">height</span> of a guyot as measured from the surrounding regional sea floor to the volcano's slope break records the water depth at the time the guyot submerged. Thus guyot <span class="hlt">heights</span> may be used as indicators of the paleodepth of the surrounding ocean floor. We compile data on the <span class="hlt">heights</span> of 68 intraplate guyots and atolls in the Pacific Ocean as well as 46 volcanic islands in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. We find that guyot <span class="hlt">heights</span> generally increase with the age of the lithosphere upon which they were emplaced, although there is a large amount of scatter. In nearly all cases, seamount <span class="hlt">height</span>, and thus seafloor paleodepth, is less than expected of normal seafloor. These results suggest that most of the volcanoes in this study formed on anomalously shallow seafloor, consistent with formation at hotspots. To characterize thermal anomalies associated with these hotspot swells, we model guyot <span class="hlt">heights</span> by calculating the isostatic uplift predicted for normal lithosphere that has been partly reheated and is underlain by anomalously hot mantle. This model is able to explain the anomalous water depth at most of the seamounts with hotspot thermal anomalies of 100°-300°C. The <span class="hlt">heights</span> of a few volcanic chains, however, are not anomalously low, suggesting that these volcanoes are not associated with hotspots. In addition, the observed trend of Hawaiian-Emperor guyot <span class="hlt">heights</span> as well as the subdued morphology and gravity signature of the oldest Emperor seamounts supports our hypothesis that Cretaceous age Meiji seamount may have formed on or near a spreading center.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NW....101.1017S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NW....101.1017S"><span>Body <span class="hlt">height</span>, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Health, facial and vocal attributes and body <span class="hlt">height</span> of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body <span class="hlt">height</span> was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body <span class="hlt">height</span> was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body <span class="hlt">height</span> and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body <span class="hlt">height</span> negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27458798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27458798"><span>A century of trends in adult human <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-07-26</p> <p>Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of <span class="hlt">height</span> on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean <span class="hlt">height</span> for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average <span class="hlt">heights</span> surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The <span class="hlt">height</span> differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B33A0381T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B33A0381T"><span>Sensitivity of LIDAR Canopy <span class="hlt">Height</span> Estimate to Geolocation Error</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Many factors affect the quality of canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> structure data derived from space-based lidar such as DESDynI. Among these is geolocation accuracy. Inadequate geolocation information hinders subsequent analyses because a different portion of the canopy is observed relative to what is assumed. This is especially true in mountainous terrain where the effects of slope magnify geolocation errors. Mission engineering design must trade the expense of providing more accurate geolocation with the potential improvement in measurement accuracy. The objective of our work is to assess the effects of small errors in geolocation on subsequent retrievals of maximum canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> for a varying set of canopy structures and terrains. Dense discrete lidar data from different forest sites (from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, Sierra National Forest, California, and Hubbard Brook and Bartlett Experimental Forests in New Hampshire) are used to simulate DESDynI <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals using various geolocation accuracies. Results show that canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> measurement errors generally increase as the geolocation error increases. Interestingly, most of the <span class="hlt">height</span> errors are caused by variation of canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> rather than topography (slope and aspect).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11922005L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11922005L"><span>Forest Canopy <span class="hlt">Height</span> Estimation from Calipso Lidar Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Lucker, Patricia L.; Trepte, Charles</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> is an important parameter in aboveground biomass estimation. Lidar remote sensing from airborne or satellite platforms, has a unique capability for forestry applications. This study introduces an innovative concept to estimate canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> using CALIOP two wavelengths lidar measurements. One main advantage is that the concept proposed here is dependent on the penetration depths at two wavelengths without making assumption about the last peak of waveform as the ground location, and it does not require the ancillary Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data in order to obtain the slope information of terrain. Canopy penetration depths at two wavelengths indicate moderately strong relationships for estimating the canopy <span class="hlt">height</span>. Results show that the CALIOP-derived canopy <span class="hlt">heights</span> were highly correlated with the ICESat/GLAS-derived values with a mean RMSE of 3.4 m and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.89. Our findings present a relationship between the penetration difference and canopy <span class="hlt">height</span>, which can be used as another metrics for canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> estimation, except the full waveforms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961475','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961475"><span>A century of trends in adult human <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of <span class="hlt">height</span> on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean <span class="hlt">height</span> for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average <span class="hlt">heights</span> surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The <span class="hlt">height</span> differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25326093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25326093"><span>Body <span class="hlt">height</span>, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J; Krams, Indrikis</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Health, facial and vocal attributes and body <span class="hlt">height</span> of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body <span class="hlt">height</span> was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body <span class="hlt">height</span> was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body <span class="hlt">height</span> and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body <span class="hlt">height</span> negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL3..385E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL3..385E"><span>Comparing Icesat/glas Based Elevation <span class="hlt">Heights</span> with Photogrammetric Terrain <span class="hlt">Heights</span> from Uav-Imagery on the East Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enßle, F.; Fritz, A.; Koch, B.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Digital elevation models (DEMs) and <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements are broadly used in environmental studies. Two common elevation sources are the Ice Cloud and land elevation Satellite (ICESat), which acquired laser range measurements with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) across the globe and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Current developments of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide the opportunity to collect aerial images of remote areas at a high spatial resolution. These can be further processed to digital surface models by stereophotogrammetry and provide a reliable data source to evaluate coarse scale Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). This study compares ICESat/GLAS and SRTM90 elevation data against photogrammetric terrain <span class="hlt">heights</span> within GLAS footprints on high altitudes on the East Tibetan Plateau. Without vegetation-bias, we were able to examine <span class="hlt">height</span> differences under different topographic conditions and of different acquisition dates. Several resampling techniques were applied to SRTM90 data and averaged <span class="hlt">height</span> within each footprint was calculated. ICESat/GLAS <span class="hlt">heights</span> (n = 148) are most similar to UAV data based elevations with an averaged difference of -0.8m ±3.1m. Results furthermore indicate the validity of ICESat/GLAS <span class="hlt">heights</span>, which are usually removed from analyses by applying different quality flags. Smallest difference of SRTM90 to UAV based <span class="hlt">heights</span> could be observed by a natural neighbour resampling technique (averaged 3.6m ±14m), whereat other techniques achieved quite similar results. It can be confirmed that within a range of 3,800-4,200m above mean sea level the ICESat/GLAS <span class="hlt">heights</span> are a precise source to determine elevation at footprint geolocation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823409','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823409"><span>Comparison of spinal anesthesia dosage based on <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight versus <span class="hlt">height</span> alone in patients undergoing elective cesarean section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Siddiqui, Khalid Maudood; Ullah, Hameed</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, typically used for elective and emergency cesarean section, is associated with a significant incidence of hypotension resulting from sympathetic blockade. A variety of dosing regimens have been used to administer spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension following two different fixed dosing regimens. Methods This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial with a two-sided design, 5% significance level and 80% power. After approval of the hospital ethics review committee, 60 patients were divided randomly into two groups. In one group, the local anesthetic dose was adjusted according to <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight, and in the other, the dose was adjusted according to <span class="hlt">height</span> only. Results Sixty women with a singleton pregnancy were included. Of the factors that could affect dose and blood pressure, including age, weight, <span class="hlt">height</span>, and dose, only <span class="hlt">height</span> differed between the groups. Mean heart rate was similar between the groups. Hypotension was significantly more frequent with dosage based on <span class="hlt">height</span> alone than with two-factor dose calculation (56.7% vs. 26.7%; P = 0.018). Conclusions Adjusting the dose of isobaric bupivacaine to a patient's <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight provides adequate anesthesia for elective cesarean section and is associated with a decreased incidence and severity of maternal hypotension and less use of ephedrine. PMID:27066205</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10513353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10513353"><span>Effects of sampling <span class="hlt">height</span> and climatic conditions in aerobiological studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alcázar, P; Galán, C; Cariñanos, P; Domínguez-Vilches, E</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the effect of sampling <span class="hlt">height</span> on the measurement of airborne particles (pollen grains) common in the sampling area in the outskirts of the city of Córdoba, Spain. The effect of certain meteorological parameters on variations in concentration at different <span class="hlt">heights</span> were also examined. The study was carried out throughout 1991 and 1992 using two Hirst samplers placed at two different <span class="hlt">heights</span> (1.5 and 15 m) at the Faculty of Science at the University of Córdoba. The statistical results indicated that there were significant differences in the concentrations obtained at different <span class="hlt">heights</span>, the values at 1.5 m being generally higher with the exception of pollen belonging to the Urticaceae family. The pollen counts of this type were greater at the higher elevation, probably due to the small size of the pollen, especially in the Urtica membranacea species, and to the convective phenomena in this climatic zone in spring, the season in which this species blooms. When these <span class="hlt">height</span> comparison studies were conducted, the importance of the effect of placing the sampler in relation to a nearby building was also observed. Higher pollen concentrations were detected when the lower sampler was located on the leeward side. The meteorological parameters studied had some influence on the vertical dispersion of the pollen, although the percentage of variation according to <span class="hlt">height</span> was very small, probably due to the short duration of the study. However, a certain relation between the differences in concentration per <span class="hlt">height</span> and the degree of atmospheric stability was observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100039646','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100039646"><span>Preliminary Results of the Effect of Microgravity on Seated <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond will be highly dependent on the seat layout. A primary concern with the seat layout design of the new vehicle is the amount of seated <span class="hlt">height</span> growth that occurs in space; this could cause a major accommodation issue. The design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation are all critically affected due to the increase in <span class="hlt">height</span> that occurs in microgravity. The increase in <span class="hlt">height</span> due to spinal elongation caused by the absence of gravity could lead to inadequate clearances that would have implications for the ability of crewmembers to return safely or to conduct nominal operations during the mission. This study was designed to reduce the risk of inadequate design of the vehicle, environment, tools, equipment, etc. (SHFE risk 2.3.1.1) and safely return crewmembers to earth from low-earth orbit travel, ISS, and beyond. In order to safely return the crewmembers, the design requirements must anticipate microgravity growth, elongation of the spine, bone and muscle loss, fluid shifts, etc. Thus, this study is to determine the amount of torso growth (spinal elongation) for a seated posture during Shuttle and ISS missions. Crewmembers seated <span class="hlt">heights</span> were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to quantify the amount of growth that occurred as a result of microgravity. The changes in seated <span class="hlt">height</span> will provide the designers with a design requirement which allows for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that , during flight, seated <span class="hlt">height</span> increases by a range of approximately 2-6 percent compared to pre-launch seated <span class="hlt">height</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE..32P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE..32P"><span>Behaviour of Atmospheric Boundary Layer <span class="hlt">Height</span> at Dome C, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pietroni, I.; Argentini, S.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The Antarctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer presents characteristics which are substantially different from the mid-latitudes ABLs. On the Antarctic plateau two different extreme situations are observed. During the summer a mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> develops during the warmer hours of the day although the sensible heat flux is reduced compared to that at mid-latitudes. During the winter a long lived stable boundary layer is continuously present, the residual layer is never observed, consequently the inversion layer is connected at the free atmosphere. To understand the stable ABL process the STABLEDC (Study of the STAble Boundary Layer Environmental at Dome C) experimental field was held at Concordia, the French Italian plateau station at Dome C, during 2005. In the same period the RMO (Routine Measurements Observations) started. The data included turbulence data at the surface, temperature profiles by a microwave profiler (MTP-5P), a mini-sodar and radio-soundings. In this work we will show the results of a comparison of the ABL <span class="hlt">height</span> at Concordia (3233 m a.s.l) during the summer and the winter using direct measurements and parameterization. The winter ABL <span class="hlt">height</span> was estimated directly using experimental data (radio-soundings and radiometer temperature and wind velocity profiles) and different methods proposed in literature. The stable ABL <span class="hlt">height</span> was also estimated using the formulation proposed by Zilitinkevich et al. (2007) for the long-lived stable boundary layer. The correlation of ABL <span class="hlt">height</span> with the temperature and wind speed is also shown. The summer mixing <span class="hlt">height</span> was instead estimated by mini-sodar data and compared with the <span class="hlt">height</span> given by the model suggested by Batchvarova and Gryning (1991) which use as input the turbulence data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4729509','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4729509"><span>Estrogen-mediated <span class="hlt">Height</span> Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for <span class="hlt">height</span> control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for <span class="hlt">height</span> control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final <span class="hlt">height</span> was estimated using the initial <span class="hlt">height</span> percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final <span class="hlt">height</span> was compared to the actual final <span class="hlt">height</span> (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for <span class="hlt">height</span> control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old. PMID:26839483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5297874','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5297874"><span>Assortative mating for human <span class="hlt">height</span>: A meta‐analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simons, Mirre J.P.; Grasman, Sara; Pollet, Thomas V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Objectives The study of assortative mating for <span class="hlt">height</span> has a rich history in human biology. Although the positive correlation between the stature of spouses has often been noted in western populations, recent papers suggest that mating patterns for stature are not universal. The objective of this paper was to review the published evidence to examine the strength of and universality in assortative mating for <span class="hlt">height</span>. Methods We conducted an extensive literature review and meta‐analysis. We started with published reviews but also searched through secondary databases. Our search led to 154 correlations of <span class="hlt">height</span> between partners. We classified the populations as western and non‐western based on geography. These correlations were then analyzed via meta‐analytic techniques. Results 148 of the correlations for partner <span class="hlt">heights</span> were positive and the overall analysis indicates moderate positive assortative mating (r = .23). Although assortative mating was slightly stronger in countries that can be described as western compared to non‐western, this difference was not statistically significant. We found no evidence for a change in assortative mating for <span class="hlt">height</span> over time. There was substantial residual heterogeneity in effect sizes and this heterogeneity was most pronounced in western countries. Conclusions Positive assortative mating for <span class="hlt">height</span> exists in human populations, but is modest in magnitude suggesting that <span class="hlt">height</span> is not a major factor in mate choice. Future research is necessary to understand the underlying causes of the large amount of heterogeneity observed in the degree of assortative mating across human populations, which may stem from a combination of methodological and ecological differences. PMID:27637175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839483"><span>Estrogen-mediated <span class="hlt">Height</span> Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Dong-Yun; Hyun, Hye Sun; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for <span class="hlt">height</span> control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for <span class="hlt">height</span> control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final <span class="hlt">height</span> was estimated using the initial <span class="hlt">height</span> percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final <span class="hlt">height</span> was compared to the actual final <span class="hlt">height</span> (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for <span class="hlt">height</span> control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2986552','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2986552"><span>Predicting human <span class="hlt">height</span> by Victorian and genomic methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aulchenko, Yurii S; Struchalin, Maksim V; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I; Weedon, Michael N; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Kayser, Manfred; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Borodin, Pavel M</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that ‘when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average <span class="hlt">height</span> of the two parents, … is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54 loci showing strong statistical evidence for association to human <span class="hlt">height</span> were described, providing us with potential genomic means of human <span class="hlt">height</span> prediction. In a population-based study of 5748 people, we find that a 54-loci genomic profile explained 4–6% of the sex- and age-adjusted <span class="hlt">height</span> variance, and had limited ability to discriminate tall/short people, as characterized by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). In a family-based study of 550 people, with both parents having <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements, we find that the Galtonian mid-parental prediction method explained 40% of the sex- and age-adjusted <span class="hlt">height</span> variance, and showed high discriminative accuracy. We have also explored how much variance a genomic profile should explain to reach certain AUC values. For highly heritable traits such as <span class="hlt">height</span>, we conclude that in applications in which parental phenotypic information is available (eg, medicine), the Victorian Galton's method will long stay unsurpassed, in terms of both discriminative accuracy and costs. For less heritable traits, and in situations in which parental information is not available (eg, forensics), genomic methods may provide an alternative, given that the variants determining an essential proportion of the trait's variation can be identified. PMID:19223933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA283453','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA283453"><span>A Unified Approach to <span class="hlt">Geopotential</span> Field Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>l, 1) OMEGA (1, 2) -YD*LAMDA (1, 2) OMEGA(1, 3)-ZD*LAMDA(1,3) OMEGA(2, 1)=XD*LAMDA(2,1) OMEGA(2,2)-YD*LAMDA(2, 2) OMEGA(2, 3)-ZD*LAMDA(2, 3) OMEGA ( 3 , l...XD*LAMDA(3,1) OMEGA(3,2)-YD*LAMDA(3, 2) OMEGA ( 3 , 3)-ZD*LAMDA(3, 3) C DLAMD(1,1,2)=-(S/R)*(XD/(R+ZD)) DLAMD(1, 1,3) =-(S/R) *(XD/ (R+YD)) DLAMD(1,2...OMEGA(2,2)-YD*LAMDA(2, 2) ONEGA(2, 3)=ZD*LAMDA(2, 3) OMEGA ( 3 , 1)-XD*LAMDA(3, 1) OMEGA(3,2)=YD*LAMDA(3,2) OMEGA(3,3)-ZD*LAMDA(3,3) C GAI(A(1, 1)-XD*OMEGA(l</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1235M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1235M"><span><span class="hlt">Geopotential</span> field anomalies and regional tectonic features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B1..333J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B1..333J"><span>Analysis and Correction of Systematic <span class="hlt">Height</span> Model Errors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, K.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The geometry of digital <span class="hlt">height</span> models (DHM) determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC). Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of <span class="hlt">height</span> models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic <span class="hlt">height</span> model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of <span class="hlt">height</span> models, but also low frequency <span class="hlt">height</span> deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP), but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the <span class="hlt">height</span> model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference <span class="hlt">height</span> models better accuracy has been reached. As reference <span class="hlt">height</span> model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital surface model (DSM) or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS PRISM images, are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGeod..85..133F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGeod..85..133F"><span>The AUSGeoid09 model of the Australian <span class="hlt">Height</span> Datum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Featherstone, W. E.; Kirby, J. F.; Hirt, C.; Filmer, M. S.; Claessens, S. J.; Brown, N. J.; Hu, G.; Johnston, G. M.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>AUSGeoid09 is the new Australia-wide gravimetric quasigeoid model that has been a posteriori fitted to the Australian <span class="hlt">Height</span> Datum (AHD) so as to provide a product that is practically useful for the more direct determination of AHD <span class="hlt">heights</span> from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This approach is necessary because the AHD is predominantly a third-order vertical datum that contains a ~1 m north-south tilt and ~0.5 m regional distortions with respect to the quasigeoid, meaning that GNSS-gravimetric-quasigeoid and AHD <span class="hlt">heights</span> are inconsistent. Because the AHD remains the official vertical datum in Australia, it is necessary to provide GNSS users with effective means of recovering AHD <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The gravimetric component of the quasigeoid model was computed using a hybrid of the remove-compute-restore technique with a degree-40 deterministically modified kernel over a one-degree spherical cap, which is superior to the remove-compute-restore technique alone in Australia (with or without a cap). This is because the modified kernel and cap combine to filter long-wavelength errors from the terrestrial gravity anomalies. The zero-tide EGM2008 global gravitational model to degree 2,190 was used as the reference field. Other input data are ~1.4 million land gravity anomalies from Geoscience Australia, 1' × 1' DNSC2008GRA altimeter-derived gravity anomalies offshore, the 9'' × 9'' GEODATA-DEM9S Australian digital elevation model, and a readjustment of Australian National Levelling Network (ANLN) constrained to the CARS2006 mean dynamic ocean topography model. To determine the numerical integration parameters for the modified kernel, the gravimetric component of AUSGeoid09 was compared with 911 GNSS-observed ellipsoidal <span class="hlt">heights</span> at benchmarks. The standard deviation of fit to the GNSS-AHD <span class="hlt">heights</span> is ±222 mm, which dropped to ±134 mm for the readjusted GNSS-ANLN <span class="hlt">heights</span> showing that careful consideration now needs to be given to the quality of the levelling data used to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5118794','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5118794"><span>Body <span class="hlt">height</span> as risk factor for emphysema in COPD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Pavlickova, Ivana; Monti, Simonetta</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Pulmonary emphysema is a phenotypic component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which carries substantial morbidity and mortality. We explored the association between emphysema and body <span class="hlt">height</span> in 726 patients with COPD using computed tomography as the reference diagnostic standard for emphysema. We applied univariate analysis to look for differences between patients with emphysema and those without, and multivariate logistic regression to identify significant predictors of the risk of emphysema. As covariates we included age, sex, body <span class="hlt">height</span>, body mass index, pack-years of smoking, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as percent predicted. The overall prevalence of emphysema was 52%. Emphysemic patients were significantly taller and thinner than non-emphysemic ones, and featured significantly higher pack-years of smoking and lower FEV1 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of emphysema rose linearly by 10-cm increase in body <span class="hlt">height</span> (r2 = 0.96). In multivariate analysis, the odds of emphysema increased by 5% (95% confidence interval, 3 to 7%) along with one-centimeter increase in body <span class="hlt">height</span>, and remained unchanged after adjusting for all the potential confounders considered (P < 0.001). The odds of emphysema were not statistically different between males and females. In conclusion, body <span class="hlt">height</span> is a strong, independent risk factor for emphysema in COPD. PMID:27874046</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84S.198S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84S.198S"><span>A Note on the <span class="hlt">Height</span> of Auroras by Leonhard Euler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schröder, Wilfried</p> <p></p> <p>In former times, mostly before the end of the 19th century, many speculations were made about the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the Earth's atmosphere. Scientists also discussed the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the auroras, which were often observed in middle Europe. Mostly, people thought the auroras were manifestations of the lower Earth's atmosphere, and that they formed a circle inside of it. Only a few speculations were devoted to the exact <span class="hlt">height</span> and nature of these phenomena. They were thought to be signs from God, until the appearance of the aurora on 17 March 1716 (for detail, see Schröder [2001]). An interesting letter written by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), a Swiss mathematician and member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, to the theologian and scholar Johann Esaias Silberschlag (1716-1791)-also a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences- gives some insight into the discussion that took place in the 18th century. Euler wrote in his letter that the auroras, similar to the great meteors or fireballs, must be placed in the high atmosphere, mostly above the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the meteors. For Euler, it was clear that meteors, fireballs, and auroras were all objects associated with the Earth's atmosphere. In those days, the idea that the auroral phenomena were caused in the atmosphere and were part of its constitution was new. Following the 17 March 1716 event, scientists of the day concluded that the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the aurora was above that of the normally observed clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SoSyR..50....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SoSyR..50....1S"><span>Determination of the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the "meteoric explosion"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuvalov, V. V.; Popova, O. P.; Svettsov, V. V.; Trubetskaya, I. A.; Glazachev, D. O.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>When cosmic bodies of asteroidal and cometary origin, with a size from 20 to approximately 100 m, enter dense atmospheric layers, they are destroyed with a large probability under the action of aerodynamic forces and decelerated with the transfer of their energy to the air at <span class="hlt">heights</span> from 20-30 to several kilometers. The forming shock wave reaches the Earth's surface and can cause considerable damage at great distances from the entry path similar to the action of a high-altitude explosion. We have performed a numerical simulation of the disruption (with allowance for evaporation of fragments) and deceleration of meteoroids having the aforesaid dimensions and entering the Earth's atmosphere at different angles and determined the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the equivalent explosion point generating the same shock wave as the fall of a cosmic body with the given parameters. It turns out that this <span class="hlt">height</span> does not depend on the velocity of the body and is approximately equal to the <span class="hlt">height</span> at which this velocity is reduced by half. The obtained results were successfully approximated by a simple analytical formula allowing one to easily determine the <span class="hlt">height</span> of an equivalent explosion depending on the dimensions of the body, its density, and angle of entry into the atmosphere. A comparison of the obtained results with well-known approximate analytical (pancake) models is presented and an application of the obtained formula to specific events, in particular, to the fall of the Chelyabinsk meteorite on February 15, 2013, and Tunguska event of 1908, is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6525W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6525W"><span>A generalized multivariate regression model for modelling ocean wave <span class="hlt">heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, X. L.; Feng, Y.; Swail, V. R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In this study, a generalized multivariate linear regression model is developed to represent the relationship between 6-hourly ocean significant wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> (Hs) and the corresponding 6-hourly mean sea level pressure (MSLP) fields. The model is calibrated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis of Hs and MSLP fields for 1981-2000, and is validated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 2001-2010 and ERA40 reanalysis of Hs and MSLP for 1958-2001. The performance of the fitted model is evaluated in terms of Pierce skill score, frequency bias index, and correlation skill score. Being not normally distributed, wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> are subjected to a data adaptive Box-Cox transformation before being used in the model fitting. Also, since 6-hourly data are being modelled, lag-1 autocorrelation must be and is accounted for. The models with and without Box-Cox transformation, and with and without accounting for autocorrelation, are inter-compared in terms of their prediction skills. The fitted MSLP-Hs relationship is then used to reconstruct historical wave <span class="hlt">height</span> climate from the 6-hourly MSLP fields taken from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR, Compo et al. 2011), and to project possible future wave <span class="hlt">height</span> climates using CMIP5 model simulations of MSLP fields. The reconstructed and projected wave <span class="hlt">heights</span>, both seasonal means and maxima, are subject to a trend analysis that allows for non-linear (polynomial) trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23936959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23936959"><span>Change of patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> with age and sex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kar, Maitreyee Nandi; Bhakta, Abhijit; Mondal, Gopal Chandra; Bandyopadhyay, Maitreyi; Kar, Chinmaya; Nandi, Sujit Narayan</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> is one of the important parameter in patellar stability. Growth spurt or excessive physical strain can lead to high-riding patella or patella alta. But this is not yet proved. This study was mainly targeted at eliciting the influence of age on Insall-Salvati index, one of the important index to measure patellar <span class="hlt">height</span>. As the present study is meant for measuring the patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> separately in male and female, it is also to find out the effect of gender on patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> if any. The study was been conducted in North Bengal Medical College and Hospital among 93 subjects covering both adult and adolescent age groups. Patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> of respective subjects was measured radiologically using Insall-Salvati Index; results were extrapolated for statistical analysis. It revealed that value of Insall-Salvati index was higher in adult compared to adolescent group but the difference was not statistically significant. Statistical tests shows no significant difference in Insall-Salvati index according to sex. While screening the athletes patella alta must be kept in mind as this can be associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patellae, knees with apophysitis of tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schiatter disease). Not only that, significant cause of recurrent patellar dislocation can be associated with patella alta</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212294S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212294S"><span>Drumlin <span class="hlt">height</span> variability in the New York State drumlin field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spagnolo, Matteo; Hess, Dale P.; Clark, Chris D.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Although drumlins are among the most common landforms found in formerly glaciated terrain and have been studied for centuries, we still lack a general agreement on their genesis. No one theory of formation can be accepted, though, unless it is capable of explaining the shape of drumlins observed in nature. Most scientists will agree that drumlins have a characteristic shape, but what are the exact figures? While many studies have focused on drumlin length, width and elongation, there is a relatively lack of work on bedform <span class="hlt">height</span>. In the few exceptions that can be found in the literature, drumlin <span class="hlt">height</span> has been usually quantified in terms of altitudinal range, with biases related to topography, and from studies of a relatively small number of drumlins. In this work, the <span class="hlt">height</span> of over 6000 drumlins mapped in New York State, south of Lake Ontario, is analyzed. Specific GIS techniques are applied to effectively quantify drumlin <span class="hlt">height</span> rather than the once typically measured altitudinal range. Results are discussed statistically and in respect to those reported in the literature as well as those recently emerged from a study of the British Isles. The spatial distribution of drumlin <span class="hlt">height</span> across the New York State field varies systematically. This paper explores the potential influence of topography, bedrock and glacial history on this variation through spatial analysis. The correlation to other morphometric properties, i.e. length, width and elongation, has also revealed interesting trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12854807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12854807"><span>The effect of stimulus <span class="hlt">height</span> on visual discrimination in horses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hall, C A; Cassaday, H J; Derrington, A M</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of stimulus <span class="hlt">height</span> on the ability of horses to learn a simple visual discrimination task. Eight horses were trained to perform a two-choice, black/white discrimination with stimuli presented at one of two <span class="hlt">heights</span>: ground level or at a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 70 cm from the ground. The <span class="hlt">height</span> at which the stimuli were presented was alternated from one session to the next. All trials within a single session were presented at the same <span class="hlt">height</span>. The criterion for learning was four consecutive sessions of 70% correct responses. Performance was found to be better when stimuli were presented at ground level with respect to the number of trials taken to reach the criterion (P < 0.05), percentage of correct first choices (P < 0.01), and repeated errors made (P < 0.01). Thus, training horses to carry out tasks of visual discrimination could be enhanced by placing the stimuli on the ground. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the visual appearance of ground surfaces is an important factor in both horse management and training.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.735E..14V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.735E..14V"><span>AATSR Based Volcanic Ash Plume Top <span class="hlt">Height</span> Estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundstrom, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) <span class="hlt">height</span> estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top <span class="hlt">height</span>. The <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's nadir and 55◦ forward views, and thus the corresponding <span class="hlt">height</span>. AATSR provides an advantage compared to other stereo-view satellite instruments: with AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 μm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. Besides ash plumes, the algorithm can be applied to any elevated feature with sufficient contrast to the background, such as smoke and dust plumes and clouds. The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906357"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean <span class="hlt">height</span> of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory <span class="hlt">height</span> to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct <span class="hlt">height</span> is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790027754&hterms=radio+caroline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradio%2Bcaroline','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790027754&hterms=radio+caroline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradio%2Bcaroline"><span>Measurement of ocean wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> using the Geos 3 altimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rufenach, C. L.; Alpers, W. R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Radar altimeter signals transmitted from the low-orbiting satellite Geos 3 were analyzed for two selected orbits over high seas associated with hurricane 'Caroline' in the Gulf of Mexico and a North Atlantic storm. The measured values of significant wave <span class="hlt">height</span> are in reasonable agreement with surface measurements, provided that the altimeter data are properly edited. The internal consistency of estimated wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> for the North Atlantic storm, a standard deviation of 0.6 m or less, and the good agreement with surface truth lend credence to the method. A statistical analysis of the pulse slope variation gives estimated values of significant wave <span class="hlt">height</span> within + or - 1 m of the true values 75% of the time for spatial averaging over 70 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10063777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10063777"><span>The effects of increasing heel <span class="hlt">height</span> on forefoot peak pressure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mandato, M G; Nester, E</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing heel <span class="hlt">height</span> on peak forefoot pressure. Thirty-five women were examined while wearing sneakers and shoes with 2-inch and 3-inch heels. An in-shoe pressure-measurement system was used to document the magnitude and location of plantar peak pressures. Pressure under the forefoot was found to increase significantly with increasing heel <span class="hlt">height</span>. As the heel <span class="hlt">height</span> increased, the peak pressure shifted toward the first metatarsal and the hallux. The reproducibility of data obtained with the in-shoe pressure-measurement system was tested in five subjects; the data were found to be reproducible to within approximately 3% of measured pressures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhTea..53..220K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhTea..53..220K"><span>Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and <span class="hlt">Height</span> Using an Elevator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kinser, Jason M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to <span class="hlt">height</span> is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time1, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v (t ) =∫ a (t ) d t (1) and x (t ) =∫ v (t ) dt. Mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets have accelerometers that capture slowly evolving acceleration with respect to time and can deliver those measurements as a CSV file. A recent example measured the oscillations of the elevator as it starts its motion.2 In the application presented here the mobile device is used to estimate the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the elevator ride. By estimating the functional form of the acceleration of an elevator ride, it is possible to estimate the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the ride through Eqs. (1) and (2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.801a2049S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.801a2049S"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> Measuring System On Video Using Otsu Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandy, C. L. M.; Meiyanti, R.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A measurement of <span class="hlt">height</span> is comparing the value of the magnitude of an object with a standard measuring tool. The problems that exist in the measurement are still the use of a simple apparatus in which one of them is by using a meter. This method requires a relatively long time. To overcome these problems, this research aims to create software with image processing that is used for the measurement of <span class="hlt">height</span>. And subsequent that image is tested, where the object captured by the video camera can be known so that the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the object can be measured using the learning method of Otsu. The system was built using Delphi 7 of Vision Lab VCL 4.5 component. To increase the quality of work of the system in future research, the developed system can be combined with other methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22055866','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22055866"><span>Electronic measurement of microchannel plate pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gamboa, E. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>Microchannel plates are a central component of the x-ray framing cameras used as analog imagers in many plasma experiment diagnostic systems. The microchannel plate serves as an amplifying element, increasing the electronic signal from incident radiation by factors of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5}, with a broad pulse-<span class="hlt">height</span> distribution. Seeking to optimize the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and noise distribution of x-ray cameras, we will characterize the pulse-<span class="hlt">height</span> distribution of the electron output from a single microchannel plate. Replacing the framing camera's phosphor-coated fiber optic screen with a charge-collection plate and coupling to a low-noise multichannel analyzer, we quantified the distribution in the total charge generated per photon event. The electronically measured pulse <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution is used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of radiographic images from framing cameras.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870026456&hterms=flood+basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dflood%2Bbasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870026456&hterms=flood+basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dflood%2Bbasalt"><span>Basaltic fissure eruptions, plume <span class="hlt">heights</span>, and atmospheric aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stothers, R. B.; Wolff, J. A.; Self, S.; Rampino, M. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Convective plumes that rise above Hawaiian-style fire fountains consist of volcanic gases, aerosols, fine ash, and entrained heated air. Plume theory has been applied to observational estimates of the rate of thermal energy release from large fire fountains. The theoretically predicted <span class="hlt">heights</span> of maintained plumes agree very well with the <span class="hlt">heights</span> found from actual observations. Predicted plume <span class="hlt">heights</span> for both central-vent (point-source) and fissure (line-source) eruptions indicate a stratospheric penetration by plumes that form over vents with very high magma-production rates. Flood basalt fissure eruptions that produce individual lava flows with volumes greater than 100 cu km at very high mass eruption rates are capable of injecting large quantities of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere, with potentially drastic short-term atmospheric consequences, like acid precipitation, darkening of the sky, and climatic cooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6533349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6533349"><span>Real <span class="hlt">height</span> analysis of ionograms - a generalized formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Titheridge, J.E.</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>A new procedure is described for the calculation of real <span class="hlt">height</span> profiles from ionospheric h(f) records. The equations are formulated in a way which can reproduce all current methods of analysis and provide many powerful extensions. For general use, a sixth-order overlapping polynomial analysis is recommended, with real <span class="hlt">height</span> sections determined by a least squares fit to real and virtual <span class="hlt">height</span> data. Coefficients can also be obtained for single polynomials fitted separately to each ionospheric layer. All methods include Chapman layer peaks and a model valley between layers. High-order, least squares calculations give greater accuracy and stability than any current procedures, and are particularly suitable for the analysis of high-density data from digital ionosondes. 33 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17119043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17119043"><span>A prospective investigation of <span class="hlt">height</span> and prostate cancer risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sequoia, Jacqueline S P; Wright, Margaret E; McCarron, Peter; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Greater adult <span class="hlt">height</span>, which reflects a combination of early nutrition, exposure to androgens, growth hormones, and other factors during growth and development, as well as heredity, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk in several observational studies, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined this relationship in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. At baseline, 29,119 Finnish male smokers 50 to 69 years old had <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight measured by trained personnel, provided information on demographic, smoking, medical, and other characteristics, and completed an extensive diet history questionnaire. A total of 1,346 incident prostate cancer cases were identified during a follow-up period of up to 17.4 years (median, 14.1 years). In age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prostate cancer according to increasing quintiles of <span class="hlt">height</span> [<or=168, 169-171, 172-175, 176-178, and >178 cm] were 1.00 (reference), 1.11 (0.93-1.32), 1.11 (0.95-1.31), 1.30 (1.01-1.55), and 1.14 (0.96-1.35); P(trend) = 0.04. In analyses stratified by disease stage (available for 916 cases), a strong dose-response relationship was observed between greater <span class="hlt">height</span> and advanced, but not earlier-stage, disease [tumor-node-metastasis stage III-IV, hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for increasing quintiles of <span class="hlt">height</span>: 1.77 (1.18-2.65), 1.82 (1.25-2.65), 1.93 (1.29-2.90), and 2.02 (1.37-2.97); P(trend) = 0.0008, P(interaction) = 0.002]. Our study provides additional evidence that increased <span class="hlt">height</span> is a risk factor for prostate cancer and suggests that taller men are particularly susceptible to advanced disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B51I0124Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B51I0124Y"><span>Climate and Edaphic Controls on Humid Tropical Forest Tree <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Y.; Saatchi, S. S.; Xu, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Uncertainty in the magnitude and spatial variations of forest carbon density in tropical regions is due to under sampling of forest structure from inventory plots and the lack of regional allometry to estimate the carbon density from structure. Here we quantify the variation of tropical forest structure by using more than 2.5 million measurements of canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> from systematic sampling of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite observations between 2004 to 2008 and examine the climate and edaphic variables influencing the variations. We used top canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> of GLAS footprints (~ 0.25 ha) to grid the statistical mean and 90 percentile of samples at 0.5 degrees to capture the regional variability of large trees in tropics. GLAS <span class="hlt">heights</span> were also aggregated based on a stratification of tropical regions using soil, elevation, and forest types. Both approaches provided consistent patterns of statistically dominant large trees and the least heterogeneity, both as strong drivers of distribution of high biomass forests. Statistical models accounting for spatial autocorrelation suggest that climate, soil and spatial features together can explain more than 60% of the variations in observed tree <span class="hlt">height</span> information, while climate-only variables explains about one third of the first-order changes in tree <span class="hlt">height</span>. Soil basics, including physical compositions such as clay and sand contents, chemical properties such as PH values and cation-exchange capacity, as well as biological variables such as organic matters, all present independent but statistically significant relationships to tree <span class="hlt">height</span> variations. The results confirm other landscape and regional studies that soil fertility, geology and climate may jointly control a majority of the regional variations of forest structure in pan-tropics and influencing both biomass stocks and dynamics. Consequently, other factors such as biotic and disturbance regimes, not included in this study, may have less influence on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730004571','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730004571"><span>Correlation techniques and measurements of wave-<span class="hlt">height</span> statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guthart, H.; Taylor, W. C.; Graf, K. A.; Douglas, D. G.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Statistical measurements of wave <span class="hlt">height</span> fluctuations have been made in a wind wave tank. The power spectral density function of temporal wave <span class="hlt">height</span> fluctuations evidenced second-harmonic components and an f to the minus 5th power law decay beyond the second harmonic. The observations of second harmonic effects agreed very well with a theoretical prediction. From the wave statistics, surface drift currents were inferred and compared to experimental measurements with satisfactory agreement. Measurements were made of the two dimensional correlation coefficient at 15 deg increments in angle with respect to the wind vector. An estimate of the two-dimensional spatial power spectral density function was also made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007732&hterms=rosen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drosen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007732&hterms=rosen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drosen"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> Error Correction for the New SRTM Elevation Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neumann, Maxim; Simard, Marc; Buckley, Sean; Shimada, Joanne; Gurrola, Eric; Martin, Jan; Hensley, Scott; Rosen, Paul</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), carrying a single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar(SAR) instrument, collected a global elevation data set, which has been widely used in scientific, military and commercial communities. In the new proposed NASA SRTM reprocessing task, the SRTM elevation data is going to be processed at higher spatial resolution and with improved <span class="hlt">height</span> accuracy. Upon completion, the improved SRTM product will be freely available. This paper describes the calibration approaches for reduction of elevation ripple effects and <span class="hlt">height</span> accuracy improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0425.photos.340243p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0425.photos.340243p/"><span>5. VIEW EAST, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>5. VIEW EAST, <span class="hlt">height</span> finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematical+AND+analogy&pg=3&id=EJ737527','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematical+AND+analogy&pg=3&id=EJ737527"><span>Spatial Representation of Pitch <span class="hlt">Height</span>: The SMARC Effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch <span class="hlt">height</span> is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19482334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19482334"><span>Estimating canine tooth crown <span class="hlt">height</span> in early Australopithecus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown <span class="hlt">height</span> in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown <span class="hlt">height</span> from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown <span class="hlt">height</span> is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown <span class="hlt">heights</span> is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol4-sec73-511.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol4-sec73-511.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.511 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.511 Section 73.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.511 Power and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol4-sec73-511.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol4-sec73-511.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.511 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.511 Section 73.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.511 Power and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol4-sec73-511.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol4-sec73-511.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.511 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. 73.511 Section 73.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.511 Power and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A33H..04P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A33H..04P"><span>Wind shear at turbine rotor <span class="hlt">heights</span> from Doppler lidar measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pichugina, Y.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N.; Brewer, A.; Sandberg, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>As the capacity and size of modern wind turbines increase to take advantage of stronger winds at higher elevations, the confidence in wind resource assessment by “extrapolation method”, routinely used in the wind energy industry, decreases. Error in wind resource approximation at elevated <span class="hlt">heights</span> can lead to substantial uncertainty in power production and wind farm economics. Remote sensing measurements of wind and turbulence profiles through the entire layer of turbine rotor <span class="hlt">heights</span>, can provide accurate information on wind flow, thereby improving preliminary evaluation of turbine performance and power production. This paper presents lidar measurements of wind profiles during two experiments in the south-eastern part of the Great Plains and shows mean wind shear at turbine rotor <span class="hlt">heights</span> as being greater than predicted by the assumption of logarithmic wind profile or power law relation. In addition to the regional climatology over relatively flat terrain, frequent development of the nocturnal Low-Level Jet can lead to significant deviations of wind profile from theoretical extrapolations. Analysis of wind and turbulence characteristics over a wide range of <span class="hlt">heights</span>, variations of wind shear in time during strong and calm wind nights, along with examples of error in the actual and predicted wind resources will be given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950033144&hterms=Age+Distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAge%2BDistribution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950033144&hterms=Age+Distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAge%2BDistribution"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> and altitude distribution of large volcanoes on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keddie, S. T.; Head, J. W.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Magellan data reveal 156 large volcanoes on Venus (greater than 100 km in diameter) which range in <span class="hlt">height</span> from 300 m to 5.55 km, with an average <span class="hlt">height</span> of 1.42 km. On the basis of theory it has been predicted that the development of neutral buoyancy zones (NBZ) on Venus and thus the resulting volcanic deposits are strongly influenced by the altitude-controlled variations in surface pressure. The distribution and <span class="hlt">height</span> of these large volcanoes as a function of altitude was examined to begin to test these predications. Although large volcanoes are relatively uniformly distributed in altitude, there may be a slight paucity of volcanoes at the lowest elevations and a slight surplus at mid-altitudes. In addition, it is observed that the volcanoes at the highest altitudes tend to be the tallest. The observed distributions at low-mid altitudes is consistent with the prediction of NBZ theory. The high altitude distribution and <span class="hlt">heights</span>, however, emphasize the necessity of considering other factors, such as tectonic setting, edifice age, magma supply, and thermal gradient, in describing the location and development of large volcanoes on Venus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-14/pdf/2011-32017.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-14/pdf/2011-32017.pdf"><span>76 FR 77696 - Establishment of the Naches <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Viticultural Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-14</p> <p>... Naches <span class="hlt">Heights</span> plateau landform, according to the NRCS web soil survey, has generally deep loess soils... Cascades, deep beds of unique soils formed in the loess pockets on the plateau. The predominant soils on... Conservation Service, Web Soil Survey at http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/ ). According to the petition,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4027502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4027502"><span>Age, <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight of female Olympic finalists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khosla, T; McBroom, V C</p> <p>1985-06-01</p> <p>Age, <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight (<span class="hlt">height</span> 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001340','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001340"><span>NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New <span class="hlt">Heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Free, James M.; Jennings, Francis T.; Adanich, Emery; Del Rosario, Ruben; Felder, James L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Center Director Free is providing the Keynote at the Disruptive Propulsion Conference, sponsored by Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, England in November. Director Free will be presenting a PowerPoint presentation titled, NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New <span class="hlt">Heights</span> at both the conference and a meeting at the Royal Aeronautical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1128698.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1128698.pdf"><span>Playing Safe: The Writer behind the Text of "Wuthering <span class="hlt">Heights</span>"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dibavar, Sara Saei; Ahmadzadeh, Shideh</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In "Wuthering <span class="hlt">Heights</span>," Brontë provides us with the opportunity to meet two writing subjects; Emily Brontë herself and her character Catherine Earnshaw. Both these writers resist and challenge the authority of the patriarchal. Their different methods of interaction, though, cause one to fail and the other one to succeed. The objective of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5115896','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5115896"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> indicates hematopoietic capacity in elderly Japanese men</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Maeda, Takahiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Previously, we reported that <span class="hlt">height</span> is an indicator of the capacity of vascular repair in elderly men, especially hypertensive men. On the other hand, hemoglobin could act as a possible biochemical index of hypertension-induced vascular damage. However, no studies have clarified the correlation between <span class="hlt">height</span> and hematopoietic activity. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 249 men aged 65-69 undergoing a general health check-up. Reticulocyte was used to evaluate hematopoietic activity. Because hemoglobin concentration should influence hematopoietic activity, analyses stratified by hemoglobin level were performed. Independent of known cardiovascular risk factors and other hematological parameters (white blood cell count), a significant positive correlation was seen between <span class="hlt">height</span> and reticulocytes for total subjects and subjects with a high hemoglobin concentration (≥14.5 g/dL), but not in subjects with a low hemoglobin concentration (<14.5 g/dL). The standardized parameter estimates (β) were β=0.18, p=0.003 for total subjects, β=0.28, p=0.001 for subjects with a high hemoglobin concentration, and β=0.03, p=0.717 for subjects with low hemoglobin. Independently, <span class="hlt">height</span> is significantly positively correlated with reticulocyte in elderly Japanese men, particularly in men with a high hemoglobin concentration. These results indicate that subjects with a short stature might have lower hematopoietic capacity than those with a high stature. PMID:27705902</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023150','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023150"><span>The Effects of Microgravity on Seated <span class="hlt">Height</span> (Spinal Elongation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in <span class="hlt">height</span>. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated <span class="hlt">height</span> for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated <span class="hlt">height</span> may have a different effect than standing <span class="hlt">height</span> due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated <span class="hlt">height</span> was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated <span class="hlt">height</span> is necessary. Potential changes in seated <span class="hlt">height</span> that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=feature+AND+discrete&id=EJ883806','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=feature+AND+discrete&id=EJ883806"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> Differences in English Dialects: Consequences for Processing and Representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scharinger, Mathias; Lahiri, Aditi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the role of abstractness during the activation of a lexical representation. Abstractness and conflict are directly modeled in our approach by invoking lexical representations in terms of contrastive phonological features. In two priming experiments with English nouns differing only in vowel <span class="hlt">height</span> of their stem vowels (e.g.,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12500647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12500647"><span>A tribute to Dorothy <span class="hlt">Height</span>. Crusader for human rights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Halamandaris, Val J</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Dorothy <span class="hlt">Height</span>, is a legendary figure in the American civil rights movement and in the broader worldwide human rights movement. As President of the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), she worked tirelessly toward the enactment of civil rights and for equal rights in education, housing, and employment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... Section 73.211 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. (a) Minimum requirements. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(3) and (b)(2) of this section, FM...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol4-sec73-211.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... Section 73.211 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> requirements. (a) Minimum requirements. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(3) and (b)(2) of this section, FM...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015419','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015419"><span>Shuttle program: Computing atmospheric scale <span class="hlt">height</span> for refraction corrections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lear, W. M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Methods for computing the atmospheric scale <span class="hlt">height</span> to determine radio wave refraction were investigated for different atmospheres, and different angles of elevation. Tables of refractivity versus altitude are included. The equations used to compute the refraction corrections are given. It is concluded that very accurate corrections are determined with the assumption of an exponential atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0828.photos.367506p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0828.photos.367506p/"><span>DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL <span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL <span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE LAUNDRY AREA IN THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066931"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">height</span> in the sex difference in intelligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanazawa, Satoshi; Reyniers, Diane J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies conclude that men on average have higher intelligence than women by 3-5 IQ points. However, the ultimate evolutionary question of why men should have evolved to have higher intelligence than women remains. We suggest that men may have slightly higher intelligence than women through 4 mechanisms: (1) assortative mating of intelligent men and beautiful women, (2) assortative mating of tall men and beautiful women, (3) an extrinsic correlation between <span class="hlt">height</span> and intelligence produced by Mechanisms 1 and 2, and (4) a higher-than-expected offspring sex ratio (more sons) among tall (and hence intelligent) parents. Consistent with our suggestion, we show that men may have higher IQs than women because they are taller, and once we control for <span class="hlt">height</span> women have slightly higher IQs than men.The correlation between <span class="hlt">height</span> and IQ and the female advantage in intelligence persist even after we control for health as a measure of genetic quality, as well as physical attractiveness, age, race, education, and earnings. <span class="hlt">Height</span> is also strongly associated with intelligence within each sex.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol3-sec52-383.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol3-sec52-383.pdf"><span>40 CFR 52.383 - Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> review. 52.383 Section 52.383 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... submitted to EPA on February 21, 1986, and May 27, 1986....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol3-sec52-383.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol3-sec52-383.pdf"><span>40 CFR 52.383 - Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> review. 52.383 Section 52.383 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... submitted to EPA on February 21, 1986, and May 27, 1986....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol3-sec52-990.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol3-sec52-990.pdf"><span>40 CFR 52.990 - Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> regulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack <span class="hlt">height</span> regulations. 52.990 Section 52.990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Department of Environmental Quality, dated September 23, 1986, stated that: In specific, the State...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.3276O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.3276O"><span>ICESat-derived inland water surface spot <span class="hlt">heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Loughlin, Fiachra E.; Neal, Jeffrey; Yamazaki, Dai; Bates, Paul D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Accurate measurement of water surface <span class="hlt">height</span> is key to many fields in hydrology and limnology. Satellite radar and laser altimetry have been shown to be useful means of obtaining such data where no ground gauging stations exist, and the accuracy of different satellite instruments is now reasonably well understood. Past validation studies have shown water surface <span class="hlt">height</span> data from the ICESat instrument to have the highest vertical accuracy (mean absolute errors of ˜10 cm for ICESat, compared, for example, with ˜28 cm from Envisat), yet no freely available source of processed ICESat data currently exists for inland water bodies. Here we present a database of processed and quality checked ICESat-derived inland water surface <span class="hlt">heights</span> (IWSH) for water bodies greater than 3 arc sec (˜92 m at the equator) in width. Four automated methods for removing spurious observations or outliers were investigated, along with the impact of using different water masks. We find that the best performing method ensures that observations used are completely surrounded by water in the SRTM Water Body data. Using this method for removing spurious observations, we estimate transect-averaged water surface <span class="hlt">heights</span> at 587,292 unique locations from 2003 to 2009, with the number of locations proportional to the size of the river.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018914','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018914"><span>Stratocumulus cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> variations determined from surface and satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Davies, R.; Blaskovic, M.; Albrecht, Bruce A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Determination of cloud-top <span class="hlt">heights</span> from satellite-inferred cloud-top temperatures is a relatively straightforward procedure for a well-behaved troposphere. The assumption of a monotonically decreasing temperature with increasing altitude is commonly used to assign a <span class="hlt">height</span> to a given cloud-top temperature. In the hybrid bispectral threshold method, or HBTM, Minnis et al. (1987) assume that the lapse rate for the troposphere is -6.5/Kkm and that the surface temperature which calibrated this lapse rate is the 24 hour mean of the observed or modeled clear-sky, equivalent blackbody temperature. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) algorithm (Rossow et al., 1988) attempts a more realistic assignment of <span class="hlt">height</span> by utilizing interpolations of analyzed temperature fields from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) to determine the temperature at a given level over the region of interest. Neither these nor other techniques have been tested to any useful extent. The First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observations (IFO) provide an excellent opportunity to assess satellite-derived cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> results because of the availability of both direct and indirect cloud-top altitude data of known accuracy. The variations of cloud-top altitude during the Marine Stratocumulus IFO (MSIFO, June 29 to July 19, 1987) derived from surface, aircraft, and satellite data are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChOE...30..447W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChOE...30..447W"><span>Modified Rayleigh distribution of wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> in transitional water depths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ying-guang</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper concerns the calculation of wave <span class="hlt">height</span> exceedance probabilities for nonlinear irregular waves in transitional water depths, and a Transformed Rayleigh method is first proposed for carrying out the calculation. In the proposed Transformed Rayleigh method, the transformation model is chosen to be a monotonic exponential function, calibrated such that the first three moments of the transformed model match the moments of the true process. The proposed new method has been applied for calculating the wave <span class="hlt">height</span> exceedance probabilities of a sea state with the surface elevation data measured at the Poseidon platform. It is demonstrated in this case that the proposed new method can offer better predictions than those by using the conventional Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution model. The proposed new method has been further applied for calculating the total horizontal loads on a generic jacket, and its accuracy has once again been substantiated. The research findings gained from this study demonstrate that the proposed Transformed Rayleigh model can be utilized as a promising alternative to the well-established nonlinear wave <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20923046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20923046"><span>Body <span class="hlt">height</span> and occupational success for actors and actresses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stieger, Stefan; Burger, Christoph</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The association of body <span class="hlt">height</span> with occupational success has been frequently studied, with previous research mainly finding a positive effect among men and positive or null effects among women. Occupational success has almost exclusively been measured so far by short-term success variables (e.g., annual income). In the present study, the relationship of success and <span class="hlt">height</span> was examined in a group of actors and actresses using a large online database about movies (Internet Movie Database) where <span class="hlt">heights</span> of actors and actresses are stated. The number of roles played in movies and television series during each actor's lifetime was used as a measure of long-term occupational success. No <span class="hlt">height</span> effect was found for male actors but a significant negative effect was found for actresses, even after controlling for possible confounding influences (age and birth year). Compared to the general population, actors and actresses were significantly taller; however, actresses who were shorter than average were more likely to achieve greater occupational success, in terms of being featured in more movies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...803L..18O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...803L..18O"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> Variation of the Vector Magnetic Field in Solar Spicules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He i 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical <span class="hlt">height</span> of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles, whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss, and then it decreases rapidly with <span class="hlt">height</span> to about 30 gauss at a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid-inclinations (about 50°) above 2 Mm <span class="hlt">height</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518705','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518705"><span><span class="hlt">HEIGHT</span> VARIATION OF THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR SPICULES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suárez, D. Orozco; Ramos, A. Asensio; Bueno, J. Trujillo</p> <p>2015-04-20</p> <p>Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He i 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical <span class="hlt">height</span> of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles, whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss, and then it decreases rapidly with <span class="hlt">height</span> to about 30 gauss at a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid-inclinations (about 50°) above 2 Mm <span class="hlt">height</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=program+AND+evaluation&pg=4&id=ED570065','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=program+AND+evaluation&pg=4&id=ED570065"><span>Lifeskills Program Evaluation at Mammoth <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Elementary School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tanner, Emma Moss</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study is a program evaluation of the Life Skills Program at Mammoth <span class="hlt">Heights</span> Elementary in the Douglas County School District. The overall goal of the Life Skills Program is to increase students' independent and daily living skills through the teaching of communication, social-emotional skills and academic skills. Students in the Life Skills…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ936529.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ936529.pdf"><span>A Primary Classroom Inquiry: Estimating the <span class="hlt">Height</span> of a Tree</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Natalie; Watson, Jane; Wright, Suzie; Skalicky, Jane</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Measurement is one of the key areas of study in mathematics and features prominently in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (ACARA, 2010). In this set of investigations requiring students to estimate indirectly the <span class="hlt">height</span> of a tree they are encouraged to use the "power of mathematical reasoning" and "apply their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1478536','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1478536"><span>Age, <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight of female Olympic finalists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khosla, T; McBroom, V C</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Age, <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a <span class="hlt">height</span> of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight (<span class="hlt">height</span> 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. Images p96-a p96-b PMID:4027502</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..176M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..176M"><span>Precipitable water as a predictor of LCL <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murugavel, P.; Malap, N.; Balaji, B.; Mehajan, R. K.; Prabha, T. V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Based on the precipitable water observations easily available from in situ and remote sensing sensors, a simple approach to define the lifting condensation level (LCL) is proposed in this study. High-resolution radiosonde and microwave radiometer observations over peninsular Indian region during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment Integrated Ground Observational Campaign (CAIPEEX-IGOC) during the monsoon season of 2011 are used to illustrate the unique relationship. The inferences illustrate a linear relationship between the precipitable water (PW) and the LCL temperature. This relationship is especially valuable because PW is easily available as a derived parameter from various remote sensing and ground-based observations. Thus, it could be used to estimate the LCL <span class="hlt">height</span> and perhaps also the boundary layer <span class="hlt">height</span>. LCL <span class="hlt">height</span> and PW correlations are established from historical radiosonde data (1984-2012). This finding could be used to illustrate the boundary layer-cloud interactions during the monsoon and is important for parameterization of boundary layer clouds in numerical models. The relationships are illustrated to be robust and seem promising to get reasonable estimates of the LCL <span class="hlt">height</span> over other locations as well using satellite observations of PW.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714308B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714308B"><span>Wind <span class="hlt">height</span> distribution influence on offshore wind farm feasibility study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benassai, Guido; Della Morte, Renata; Matarazzo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Luca</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilization depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore as compared to sites on land. The higher wind speeds have to compensate the additional cost of offshore developments. However, not only the mean wind speed is different, but the whole flow regime, as can be seen in the vertical wind speed profile. The commonly used models to describe this profile have been developed mainly for land sites, so they have to be verified on the basis of field data. Monin-Obukhov theory is often used for the description of the wind speed profile at a different <span class="hlt">height</span> with respect to a measurement <span class="hlt">height</span>. Starting from the former, , the profile is predicted using two parameters, Obukhov length and sea surface roughness. For situations with near-neutral and stable atmospheric stratification and long (>30km) fetch, the wind speed increase with <span class="hlt">height</span> is larger than what is predicted from Monin-Obukhov theory. It is also found that this deviation occurs at wind speeds important for wind power utilization, mainly at 5-9 ms-1. In the present study the influence of these aspects on the potential site productivity of an offshore wind farm were investigated, namely the deviation from the theory of Monin-Obukhov due to atmospheric stability and the influence of the fetch length on the Charnock model. Both these physical effects were discussed and examined in view of a feasibility study of a site for offshore wind farm in Southern Italy. Available data consisted of time histories of wind speeds and directions collected by National Tidegauge Network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale) at the <span class="hlt">height</span> of 10m a.s.l. in ports. The theory of Monin-Obukhov was used to extrapolate the data to the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the wind blades, while the Charnock model was used to extend the wind speed on the sea surface from the friction velocity on the ground. The models described were used to perform calculations for a feasibility study of an offshore wind farm in Southern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5571..248S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5571..248S"><span>Determination of mixing layer <span class="hlt">heights</span> from ceilometer data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schafer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan M.; Rauch, Andreas; Munkel, Christoph; Vogt, Siegfried</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>The Vaisala ceilometer LD40 is an eye-safe commercial lidar. It is designed originally to detect cloud base <span class="hlt">heights</span> and vertical visibility for aviation safety purposes. The instrument was operated continuously at different measurement campaigns to detect mixing layer <span class="hlt">height</span> from aerosol backscatter profiles. First results with the CT25K ceilometer were presented last year in the paper SPIE 5235-64 from the environmental measuring campaign in the frame of the BMBF-funded project VALIUM in Hanover, Germany, investigating the air pollution in a street canyon and the surrounding with various sensors. A software for routine retrieval of mixing layer <span class="hlt">height</span> (MLH) from ceilometer data was developed. A comparison with mixing layer <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals from a SODAR and a wind-temperature-radar (WTR) operated in the urban region of Munich will be shown. The three instruments give information that partly agree and partly complement each other. The ceilometer gives information on the aerosol content of the air and the WTR provides a direct measurement of the vertical temperature distribution in the boundary layer. The WTR and the ceilometer add information on the moisture structure of the boundary layer that is not detected by the SODAR which gives information on the thermal structure. On the other hand this comparison validates known techniques by which the MLH is derived from SODAR data. In the absence of low clouds and precipitation ceilometers can estimate the mixing-layer-<span class="hlt">height</span> fairly well. The potential of the ceilometer, being the smallest instrument among the used ones as LIDAR, SODAR and WTR, will be discussed to be used in future MLH studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5022S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5022S"><span>Eruption column <span class="hlt">height</span>: a comparison between ground and satellite measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scollo, Simona; Prestifilippo, Michele; Pecora, Emilio; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Spata, Gaetano; Coltelli, Mauro</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The eruption column <span class="hlt">height</span> estimation is an essential parameter to evaluate the total mass eruption rate, the gas and aerosol plume dispersal and retrievals. The column <span class="hlt">height</span> may be estimated using different systems (e.g. satellite, aircraft and ground observations) which may present marked differences. In this work we use the calibrated images collected by the video-surveillance system of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, from the visible camera located in Catania, 27 km from the vent. The analysis is carried out on twenty lava fountains from the New South East Crater during the recent Etna explosive activity. Firstly, we calibrated the camera to estimate its intrinsic parameters and the full camera model. Furthermore, we selected the images which recorded the maximum phase of the eruptive activity. Hence, we applied an appropriate correction to take into account the wind effect. The column <span class="hlt">height</span> was also evaluated using SEVIRI and MODIS satellite images collected at the same time of the video camera measurements. The satellite column <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals is realized by comparing the 11 μm brightness temperature of the most opaque plume pixels with the atmospheric temperature profile measured at Trapani WMO Meteo station (the nearest WMO station to the Etnean area). The comparison between satellite and ground data show a good agreement and the column altitudes ranges between 7.5 and 9 km (upper limit of the camera system). For nine events we evaluated also the thickness of the volcanic plumes in the umbrella region (near the vent) which ranges between 2 and 3 km. The proposed approach help to quantitatively evaluate the column <span class="hlt">height</span> that may be used by volcanic ash dispersal and sedimentation models for improving forecasts and reducing risks to aviation during volcanic crisis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12552679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12552679"><span>[Deductive inference on the plate <span class="hlt">height</span> equation of electrochromatography].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, C Z</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, the dynamic process of electrochromatography has been studied. The differences between electrochromatography and high performance liquid chromatography have been compared. The author considers that because of the effects of electroendosmosis flow at the surface and interior of stationary phase particles, the plate <span class="hlt">height</span> increment due to axial dispersion of the eluite in the interstitial space and the intraparticular diffusion resistance to mass transfer will reduce, and the "film" resistance at the particle boundery will disappear. But when a current passes along the electrochromatographic column Ohmic heat releases and the tube will be heated up. The temperature difference between the center of tube and the tube wall will affect the plate <span class="hlt">height</span>. The plate <span class="hlt">height</span> contribution from this is quite significant and can seriously reduce the efficiency of column. Thus, a general plate <span class="hlt">height</span> equation has been derived to express the effect of axial dispersion in the electrochromatographic process, mass transfer resistances at the mobile phase, kinetic resistances associated with the reversible binding of eluite by the stationary phase and the temperature distribution effect. According to these theories, the plate <span class="hlt">height</span> equation of electrochromatography has been obtained as following: [formula: see text] It is suggested that there exist a lot of factors which influence the column efficiency of electrochromatography, such as axial dispersion in the interstitial space, mass transfer resistances at the mobile phase, kinetic resistances with the reversible binding of eluite by the stationary phase, and the temperature field in the column inside. The influence of temperature field is closely related with internal diameter of column.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212077"><span>[Method of determining body thickness from weight and <span class="hlt">height</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ogawa, Kenichi</p> <p>2009-01-20</p> <p>With attention given to the fact that information on weight and <span class="hlt">height</span> is available in advance from electronic medical charts, we devised a method for determining body thickness on the basis of a simple calculation. The formula is as follows: body thickness=weight(a) x <span class="hlt">height</span>(b) xf. In order to obtain body thickness from the above formula, it is necessary to determine optimal factors of a, b, and f. Therefore, the formula is modified to give f=body thickness/weight(a) x <span class="hlt">height</span>(b). Then, a multiplier of a with b is changed to determine a combination in which f is varied to the smallest extent. Every site of the body is checked to find that an optimal multiplier of a with b is weight(0.6) x <span class="hlt">height</span>(-0.8). This multiplier is applicable to all sites of the body. Then, f is given as a median of 15 to 74 cases in which calculation is made for each case based on the formula of weight(0.6) x <span class="hlt">height</span>(-0.8) and the body thickness. A difference between calculation values and measured values is equivalent to the variation of f in which the median is given as 100%. The variation of f at all sites of the body is 3% to 11% in terms of average absolute deviation. The calculation difference is obtained by the formula of body thickness x average absolute deviation. Where the calculation difference is within the above range, clinical practices will be influenced to a small extent. Thus, this study will provide an effective method for determining body thickness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4148313','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4148313"><span>Visual Exploration during Locomotion Limited by Fear of <span class="hlt">Heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kugler, Günter; Huppert, Doreen; Eckl, Maria; Schneider, Erich; Brandt, Thomas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Visual exploration of the surroundings during locomotion at <span class="hlt">heights</span> has not yet been investigated in subjects suffering from fear of <span class="hlt">heights</span>. Methods Eye and head movements were recorded separately in 16 subjects susceptible to fear of <span class="hlt">heights</span> and in 16 non-susceptible controls while walking on an emergency escape balcony 20 meters above ground level. Participants wore mobile infrared eye-tracking goggles with a head-fixed scene camera and integrated 6-degrees-of-freedom inertial sensors for recording head movements. Video recordings of the subjects were simultaneously made to correlate gaze and gait behavior. Results Susceptibles exhibited a limited visual exploration of the surroundings, particularly the depth. Head movements were significantly reduced in all three planes (yaw, pitch, and roll) with less vertical head oscillations, whereas total eye movements (saccade amplitudes, frequencies, fixation durations) did not differ from those of controls. However, there was an anisotropy, with a preference for the vertical as opposed to the horizontal direction of saccades. Comparison of eye and head movement histograms and the resulting gaze-in-space revealed a smaller total area of visual exploration, which was mainly directed straight ahead and covered vertically an area from the horizon to the ground in front of the feet. This gaze behavior was associated with a slow, cautious gait. Conclusions The visual exploration of the surroundings by susceptibles to fear of <span class="hlt">heights</span> differs during locomotion at <span class="hlt">heights</span> from the earlier investigated behavior of standing still and looking from a balcony. During locomotion, anisotropy of gaze-in-space shows a preference for the vertical as opposed to the horizontal direction during stance. Avoiding looking into the abyss may reduce anxiety in both conditions; exploration of the “vertical strip” in the heading direction is beneficial for visual control of balance and avoidance of obstacles during locomotion. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227194"><span>Effects of body <span class="hlt">height</span>, notebook computer size, and workstation <span class="hlt">height</span> on recommended adjustments for proper work posture when operating a notebook computer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Jalil, Sakib; Ammarapala, Veeris</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Factors which are likely to affect recommended workstation and notebook computer (NBC) adjustments to obtain ergonomic work posture during NBC operation are investigated. They are: (1) body <span class="hlt">height</span>, (2) NBC size, and (3) workstation <span class="hlt">height</span> (i.e., seat and work surface <span class="hlt">heights</span>). Six recommended adjustments which are evaluated include: (1) footrest <span class="hlt">height</span>, (2) seat support <span class="hlt">height</span>, (3) NBC base support <span class="hlt">height</span>, (4) distance between the user's body and NBC (or user-NBC distance), (5) tilt angle of NBC base, and (6) screen angle. It is found that body <span class="hlt">height</span> has a significant effect on footrest <span class="hlt">height</span> and user-NBC distance while NBC size has a significant effect on user-NBC distance, tilt angle of NBC base, and screen angle. Workstation <span class="hlt">height</span>, on the other hand, does not show any effect on the six recommended adjustments. However, the results suggest that there are interactions between body <span class="hlt">height</span> and NBC size, and between body <span class="hlt">height</span> and workstation <span class="hlt">height</span> when evaluating their effects on footrest <span class="hlt">height</span>, tilt angle of NBC base, and screen angle.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0589H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0589H"><span>Mapping forest <span class="hlt">height</span>, foliage <span class="hlt">height</span> profiles and disturbance characteristics with time series of gap-filled Landsat and ALI imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helmer, E.; Ruzycki, T. S.; Wunderle, J. M.; Kwit, C.; Ewert, D. N.; Voggesser, S. M.; Brandeis, T. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We mapped tropical dry forest <span class="hlt">height</span> (RMSE = 0.9 m, R2 = 0.84, range 0.6-7 m) and foliage <span class="hlt">height</span> profiles with a time series of gap-filled Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery for the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. We also mapped disturbance type and age with decision tree classification of the image time series. Having mapped these variables in the context of studies of wintering habitat of an endangered Nearctic-Neotropical migrant bird, the Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), we then illustrated relationships between forest vertical structure, disturbance type and counts of forage species important to the Kirtland's Warbler. The ALI imagery and the Landsat time series were both critical to the result for forest <span class="hlt">height</span>, which the strong relationship of forest <span class="hlt">height</span> with disturbance type and age facilitated. Also unique to this study was that seven of the eight image time steps were cloud-gap-filled images: mosaics of the clear parts of several cloudy scenes, in which cloud gaps in a reference scene for each time step are filled with image data from alternate scenes. We created each cloud-cleared image, including a virtually seamless ALI image mosaic, with regression tree normalization of the image data that filled cloud gaps. We also illustrated how viewing time series imagery as red-green-blue composites of tasseled cap wetness (RGB wetness composites) aids reference data collection for classifying tropical forest disturbance type and age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4549289','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4549289"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> at Late Adolescence and Incident Diabetes among Young Men</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Furer, Ariel; Afek, Arnon; Beer, Zivan; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Reichman, Brian; Twig, Gilad</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Short stature was suggested as a risk factor for diabetes onset among middle age individuals, but whether this is the case among young adults is unclear. Our goal was to assess the association between <span class="hlt">height</span> and incident diabetes among young men. Methods and Findings Incident diabetes was assessed among 32,055 men with no history of diabetes, from the prospectively followed young adults of the MELANY cohort. <span class="hlt">Height</span> was measured at two time points; at adolescence (mean age 17.4±0.3 years) and grouped according to the US-CDC percentiles and at young adulthood (mean age 31.0±5.6 years). Cox proportional hazards models were applied. There were 702 new cases of diabetes during a mean follow-up of 6.3±4.3 years. There was a significant increase in the crude diabetes incidence rate with decreasing adolescent <span class="hlt">height</span> percentile, from 4.23 cases/104 person-years in the <10th percentile group to 2.44 cases/104 person-years in the 75th≤ percentile group. These results persisted when clinical and biochemical diabetes risk factors were included in multivariable models. Compared to the 75th≤ percentile group, <span class="hlt">height</span> below the 10th percentile was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.64 (95%CI 1.09–2.46, p = 0.017) for incident diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, white blood cells count, socioeconomic status, country of origin, family history of diabetes, sleep quality and physical activity. At age 30 years, each 1-cm decrement in adult <span class="hlt">height</span> was associated with a 2.5% increase in diabetes adjusted risk (HR 1.025, 95%CI 1.01–1.04, p = 0.001). Conclusions Shorter <span class="hlt">height</span> at late adolescence or young adulthood was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes among young men, independent of BMI and other diabetes risk factors. PMID:26305680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10975264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10975264"><span>Reliability and interobserver variability in radiological patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> ratios.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seil, R; Müller, B; Georg, T; Kohn, D; Rupp, S</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluated the reliability and interobserver variability of five patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> ratios as measured by two examiners on standard radiographs: Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (MIS), Blackburne-Peel (BP), Caton-Deschamps (CD), and Labelle-Laurin (LL). Plain lateral radiographs with a knee flexion angle of 20 degrees for IS, MIS, BP, and CD ratios and 90 degrees for the LL method of 22 knees of 21 patients with varying pathological knee conditions were analyzed. Statistical results revealed a low interobserver variability with high correlation coefficients (0.86 for IS, 0.82 for MIS, 0.86 for BP, 0.92 for CD, and 0.81 for LL; P > 0.3) and low mean interobserver errors. However, regarding the reliability of the radiographic results of the different methods for patella alta, baja, or norma we found varying results in 68% of the patients. In two patients the patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> was classified as alta, norma, or baja depending on the ratio used. Regarding the definitions of patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> used by the authors of these methods, we found the lowest number of normal patellae with the IS ratio and no patella alta for the CD ratio. The LL method revealed the highest number of patella alta. The BP ratio showed intermediate results for both patella alta and baja, being the most moderate method. This study showed that there was a good interobserver reliability for the evaluation of patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> according to the common radiological ratios. However, the high frequency of differing results between the different radiographic ratios showed that patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> classification as "alta," "norma," or "baja" depends heavily on the chosen index. The differing results were due mainly to the normative patellar <span class="hlt">height</span> data and to anatomical differences. Based on these findings we recommend a ratio using the articular surface of the patella in relation to the joint line. We recommend the BP method because it revealed the lowest interobserver variability and discriminated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22744490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22744490"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span> velocity curves in female patients with idiopathic scoliosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chazono, Masaaki; Soshi, Sigeru; Kida, Yoshikuni; Hashimoto, Kurando; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yousuke; Shinohara, Akira; Marumo, Keishi; Kono, Katsuki; Suzuki, Nobumasa</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Following identification of peak <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity (PHV) by a recent study as a possible prognostic factor for curve progression in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), the aim of this study was to investigate PHV curves in Japanese female patients with IS. The study subjects were 20 skeletally immature IS patients who were followed until maturity. The mean age and the mean pubertal status at the initial visit were 9.8 years and 24 months before menarche, respectively, with a follow-up period of 5.2 years. <span class="hlt">Height</span> measurements were recorded at each visit, and HV was calculated as the change in <span class="hlt">height</span> (cm) divided by the time interval (yr.) between visits of 6 to 12 months. The PHV, age at PHV (APHV), <span class="hlt">height</span> at PHV (HPHV), and final <span class="hlt">height</span> (FH) were determined. Patient HV curves were plotted using their HV data, and growth periods (GPs) were calculated from the curves. PHVs and GPs of study patients were compared to standard data from unaffected girls. The median values and interquartile ranges in PHV, APHV, HPHV, and FH were 8.5 cm/yr. (7.9-9.7), 11.8 yr. (11.2-12.1), 153.2 cm (150.1-155.8), and 160.1 cm (157.4-162.4), respectively. The median GP was 27 months. The PHV and GP values in IS female patients were higher and shorter than those in unaffected girls. These findings indicate that the patterns of <span class="hlt">height</span> velocity curves in IS patients are different from those in unaffected girls, suggesting that curve progression in IS patients is associated with the magnitude of PHV and duration of GP. Recently, we have developed an HV reader to easily and quickly identify the present HV in patients with scoliosis, applicable for the clinical setting or school screening. We conclude that risk assessments of curve progression in patients with IS should include HV along with measures of skeletal maturity such as the Risser sign and/or digital skeletal age using hand X-rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2439C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2439C"><span>Tsunami Run-up <span class="hlt">Heights</span> at Imwon Port, Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Tsunami Run-up <span class="hlt">Heights</span> at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up <span class="hlt">height</span> and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up <span class="hlt">heights</span> at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up <span class="hlt">heights</span> in this region were filed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....13351W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....13351W"><span>Effects of climate change on wave <span class="hlt">height</span> at the coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, J.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>To make progress towards the ultimate objective of predicting coastal vulnerability to climate change, we need to predict the probability of extreme values of sea level and wave <span class="hlt">height</span>, and their likely variation with changing climate. There is evidence of changes in sea level and wave <span class="hlt">height</span> on various time-scales. For example, the North Atlantic Oscillation appears to be responsible for increasing wave <span class="hlt">height</span> in the North Atlantic over recent decades. The impact of changes in wave <span class="hlt">height</span> in the North Atlantic at the coastline in the North Sea, the Hebrides/Malin Shelf and the English Channel will be quite different. Three different, and contrasting areas are examined The effect of changing sea levels, due to global warming and changes in tides and surge <span class="hlt">height</span> and frequency, is combined with increases in offshore wave <span class="hlt">height</span>. Coastal wave modelling, using the WAM and SWAN wave models, provides a useful tool for examining the possible impacts of climate change at the coast. This study is part of a Tyndall Centre project which is examining the vulnerability of the UK coast to changing wave climate and sea level. These changes are likely to be especially important in low-lying areas with coastal wetlands such as the north Norfolk coast, which has been selected as a detailed case study area. In this area there are offshore shallow banks and extensive inter-tidal areas. There are transitions from upper marsh to freshwater grazing marshes, sand dunes, shingle beaches, mudflats and sandflats. Many internationally important and varied habitats are threatened by rising sea levels and changes in storminess due to potential climate change effects. Likely changes in overtopping of coastal embankments, inundation of intertidal areas, sediment transport and coastal erosion are examined. Changes in low water level may be important as well as high water. The second area of study is Christchurch Bay in the English Channel. The English Channel is exposed to swell from the North</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15925355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15925355"><span>Spatial representation of pitch <span class="hlt">height</span>: the SMARC effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L; Umiltà, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch <span class="hlt">height</span> is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch <span class="hlt">height</span> onto an internal representation of space, which in turn affects motor performance even when this perceptual attribute is irrelevant to the task, extends previous studies on auditory perception and suggests an interesting analogy between music perception and mathematical cognition. Both the basic elements of mathematical cognition (i.e. numbers) and the basic elements of musical cognition (i.e. pitches), appear to be mapped onto a mental spatial representation in a way that affects motor performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.740E.108B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.740E.108B"><span>Inland Water <span class="hlt">Height</span> Retrieval- From Cryosat2 to Sentinel3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berry, P. A. M.; Balmbra, R.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The new generation of SRAL satellite radar altimeters presents new opportunities and challenges, particularly for monitoring of river targets. This paper presents a global analysis of Cryosat2 [1] waveforms over river systems. For Cryosat2 data in both SAR and LRM modes, 50-80% of the echoes are found to be multi- target responses, a far higher percentage than from previous missions. However, a small number of well- behaved single-target responses are also found, well distributed throughout the river systems.Successfully retracking these echoes to retrieve river <span class="hlt">heights</span> is a complex problem. A new SAR waveform retracker has been developed; the results from first analysis and assessment of the retracking performance are presented here using Cryosat2 SAR mode river waveforms. Improvement in along-track RMS ranges from 10% to 50% compared to OCOG retracking. Combining all the analysis results, a system for Sentinel3 SAR mode echo characterization and <span class="hlt">height</span> retrieval is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3804889','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3804889"><span>Laser confocal feedback tomography and nano-step <span class="hlt">height</span> measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tan, Yidong; Wang, Weiping; Xu, Chunxin; Zhang, Shulian</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A promising method for tomography and step <span class="hlt">height</span> measurement is proposed, which combines the high sensitivity of the frequency-shifted feedback laser and the axial positioning ability of confocal microscopy. By demodulating the feedback-induced intensity modulation signals, the obtained amplitude and phase information are used to respectively determine the coarse and fine measurement of the samples. Imaging the micro devices and biological samples by the demodulated amplitude, this approach is proved to be able to achieve the cross-sectional image in highly scattered mediums. And then the successful <span class="hlt">height</span> measurement of nano-step on a glass-substrate grating by combination of both amplitude and phase information indicates its axial high resolution (better than 2 nm) in a non-ambiguous range of about ten microns. PMID:24145717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750032669&hterms=Peak+height+velocity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPeak%2Bheight%2Bvelocity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750032669&hterms=Peak+height+velocity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPeak%2Bheight%2Bvelocity"><span>Cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> variability of strong convective cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shenk, W. E.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> variability of cloud domes above the cirrostratus anvil was investigated for two severe local storm occurrences over Texas on May 12 and 13, 1972. Twenty-three domes were monitored and the average maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> was 1.6 km above the anvil. It was estimated that a dome would take a maximum of about 6 min to grow from the anvil level to peak altitude based on measurements over the last 2 min of the growth period when the upward vertical velocity averaged 4 m/sec. The extreme vertical growth rate was 27 m/sec for a 30-sec period. This vertical growth rate compared with a range of 11.4-19.4 m sec determined from a method of estimating vertical motions based on laboratory measurements. Average dome collapse was at the same rate as the average ascent for the first 90 sec after the maximum altitude was reached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.G13A..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.G13A..02S"><span>VLBI <span class="hlt">height</span> corrections due to gravitational deformation of antenna structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarti, P.; Negusini, M.; Abbondanza, C.; Petrov, L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>From an analysis of regional European VLBI data we evaluate the impact of a VLBI signal path correction model developed to account for gravitational deformations of the antenna structures. The model was derived from a combination of terrestrial surveying methods applied to telescopes at Medicina and Noto in Italy. We find that the model corrections shift the derived <span class="hlt">height</span> components of these VLBI telescopes' reference points downward by 14.5 and 12.2 mm, respectively. No other parameter estimates nor other station positions are affected. Such systematic <span class="hlt">height</span> errors are much larger than the formal VLBI random errors and imply the possibility of significant VLBI frame scale distortions, of major concern for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) and its applications. This demonstrates the urgent need to investigate gravitational deformations in other VLBI telescopes and eventually correct them in routine data analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1369M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1369M"><span>Bounds on the calving cliff <span class="hlt">height</span> of marine terminating glaciers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Yue; Tripathy, Cory S.; Bassis, Jeremy N.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Increased calving and rapid retreat of glaciers can contribute significantly to sea level rise, but the processes controlling glacier retreat remain poorly understood. We seek to improve our understanding of calving by investigating the stress field controlling tensile and shear failure using a 2-D full-Stokes finite element model. Using idealized rectangular geometries, we find that when rapidly sliding glaciers thin to near buoyancy, full thickness tensile failure occurs, similar to observations motivating <span class="hlt">height</span>-above-buoyancy calving laws. In contrast, when glaciers are frozen to their beds, basal crevasse penetration is suppressed and calving is minimal. We also find that shear stresses are largest when glaciers are thickest. Together, the tensile and shear failure criteria map out a stable envelope in an ice-thickness-water-depth diagram. The upper and lower bounds on cliff <span class="hlt">height</span> can be incorporated into numerical ice sheet models as boundary conditions, thus bracketing the magnitude of calving rates in marine-terminating glaciers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JGR...101.5157M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JGR...101.5157M"><span>Modeling study of equatorial ionospheric <span class="hlt">height</span> and spread F occurrence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maruyama, Takashi</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>In the ionospheric F region at equatorial latitudes, the strength of the zonal electric field in the evening hours is closely connected with the generation of equatorial spread F and plasma bubbles. Many researchers discuss the electric fields and dynamics of the ionosphere in terms of the time derivative of F layer virtual <span class="hlt">heights</span> (dh'F/dt) scaled on the ionograms, and this paper examines the accuracy of zonal electric fields derived by such a method. Although the effect of transequatorial thermospheric wind had been thought to be negligible, model calculations of ion concentration show that this wind significantly changes ionospheric <span class="hlt">height</span> in the evening hours. Further, the electric field strength is estimated based on observed dh'F/dt, considering the apparent vertical drift of the ionosphere due to the thermospheric wind effect. Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates calculated for those electric fields agree quantitatively with the spread F occurrence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6175170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6175170"><span>TOPEX ionospheric <span class="hlt">height</span> correction precision estimated from prelaunch test results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Monaldo, F. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Free electrons in the ionosphere will lengthen the electromagnetic path between the TOPEX/Poseidon altimeters and the ocean surface. The path delay is proportional to the total electron content of the ionosphere along the line-of-sight between the altimeter and the surface. Since these ionosphere delays are also inversely proportional to frequency squared, the nearly simultaneous use of both Ku-band (13.6 GHz) and C-band (5.3 GHz) TOPEX altimeters permits a first-order correction for ionospheric delays. Using results from prelaunch ground testing of the TOPEX satellite altimeters, the author presents here the residual <span class="hlt">height</span> tracking noise after application of the ionosphere correction algorithm. Results are presented as function of ocean significant wave <span class="hlt">height</span> and for both the 320 MHz and 100 MHz bandwidth of the C-band altimeter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274352"><span>Enhancement of <span class="hlt">height</span> resolution in direct laser lithography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Woo</p> <p>2012-01-02</p> <p>To address the requirements of multi-level semiconductors, we propose a new technique for overcoming the <span class="hlt">height</span> limitation of direct laser lithography. In the proposed system, an original source beam is fed into an interference generator that divides the input beam by 50: 50 into two output beams. After going through an imaging lens, these two beams make two focusing spots, which are slightly separated in the axial direction. In the overlapped region, these two spots generate a small interferogram that shortens the depth of focus. By using this phenomenon, we are able to overcome the <span class="hlt">height</span> limitation of direct laser lithography. The governing equations are also derived in this manuscript by using the Gaussian beam model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4514829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4514829"><span>Effect of Handrail <span class="hlt">Height</span> on Sit-To-Stand Movement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kinoshita, Satomi; Kiyama, Ryoji; Yoshimoto, Yoichi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Care-needing older adults and disabled individuals often require handrails for assistance of movements, such as sit-to-stand movements. Handrails must be set at the appropriate position; however, the effects of handrail <span class="hlt">height</span> on joint movement and center-of-gravity movements during sit-to-stand movement remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to clarify the effects of handrail <span class="hlt">height</span> on joint movement, center-of-gravity, and floor reaction force during sit-to-stand movement. Methods Subjects included 16 healthy young adults and 25 older adults who require long-term care. Kinetic and kinematic measurements during sit-to-stand movement of young adults were conducted using a 3-D motion analyzer and a force plate. Trunk forward tilt angle during sit-to-stand movement of older adults was measured using a still image from a video recording. Results Using low handrails, sit-to-stand movement resulted in an increased hip flexion angle, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and trunk forward tilt angle and a greater forward center-of-gravity shift than when not using handrails in young adults during seat-off. In contrast, using high handrails resulted in a smaller hip flexion angle and trunk forward tilt angle in young adults. The backward force on the floor was decreased in the low handrail condition, and was increased in the high handrail condition rather than that of sit-to-stand movement without handrails in young adults. The effect of handrail <span class="hlt">height</span> on trunk forward tilt angle was the same in both healthy young adults and care-needing older adults during seat-off. Conclusion Because handrail <span class="hlt">height</span> affects joint movement and shift in the center-of-gravity during sit-to-stand movement, handrail position should be selected to match the status of older adults with functional impairment. PMID:26207755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=smartphone&pg=4&id=EJ1057025','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=smartphone&pg=4&id=EJ1057025"><span>Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and <span class="hlt">Height</span> Using an Elevator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kinser, Jason M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to <span class="hlt">height</span> is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcASn..49..224K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcASn..49..224K"><span>Scale <span class="hlt">height</span> of the thin galactic disk in solar neighborhood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kong, D. L.; Zhu, Z.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Thanks to astrometric data of unprecedented accuracy from Hipparcos Catalogue (ESA 1997), it becomes possible to investigate, by directly counting stars, the scale <span class="hlt">height</span> of the thin Galactic disk in solar neighborhood defined by the perpendicular distribution of stellar populations. In order to trace out the evolution of scale <span class="hlt">height</span>, which is partly a measure of the dynamical evolution of the disk, main sequence (MS) and horizontal branch stars are divided into sub-samples on Hertzsprung-Russell diagram according to color index from Tycho Catalogue (ESA 1997), so that an age sequence is approximately constructed. As dim objects are hardly observed completely, not all the sub-samples meet the requirement of completeness in some distance. Finally, with the completeness checked carefully, reliable results are able to be derived only from O-B type MS and horizontal branch populations, both of which are luminous populations. Scale <span class="hlt">height</span> defined by O-B type MS sample is 103.1±3.0 pc and mean plane of the thin Galactic disk is 15.2±7.3 pc below the sun while scale <span class="hlt">height</span> defined by horizontal branch sample is144.0±10.0 pc and midplane of the thin Galactic disk is 3.5±5.4 pc below the sun. Additionally, a method of simulation is developed to obtain quantitative counting error distribution with respect to corresponding observed stellar distribution. Moreover, a model-dependent statistical method to derive qualitative error distribution is presented briefly as well. Qualitative results under the hypothesis of an exponential decay perpendicular distribution prove to be correspondent very well with ultimate quantitative results, which strongly implies the justification of the exponential decay model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA551512','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA551512"><span>Examination of a Critical Roughness <span class="hlt">Height</span> for Outer Layer Similarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>buffer layer can be perturbed or destroyed without transmitting anything to the outer flow except a change in skin friction.1 If so, what happens for...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 sical concept of the...use to accurately characterize the roughness <span class="hlt">height</span> is still an active area of research and may depend on additional parameters to account for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.635 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.635... and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The effective radiated power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> for base stations may not... justify power levels and antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> requested. (b) The maximum output power of the transmitter...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.635 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.635... and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The effective radiated power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> for base stations may not... justify power levels and antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> requested. (b) The maximum output power of the transmitter...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.635 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.635... and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The effective radiated power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> for base stations may not... justify power levels and antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> requested. (b) The maximum output power of the transmitter...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.635 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.635... and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The effective radiated power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> for base stations may not... justify power levels and antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> requested. (b) The maximum output power of the transmitter...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-635.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.635 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.635... and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The effective radiated power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> for base stations may not... justify power levels and antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> requested. (b) The maximum output power of the transmitter...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gender+AND+Wage+AND+Gap&pg=5&id=EJ696600','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gender+AND+Wage+AND+Gap&pg=5&id=EJ696600"><span>The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of <span class="hlt">Height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Persico, Nicola; Postlewaite, Andrew; Silverman, Dan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Taller workers receive a wage premium. Net of differences in family background, the disparity is similar in magnitude to the race and gender gaps. We exploit variation in an individual's <span class="hlt">height</span> over time to explore how <span class="hlt">height</span> affects wages. Controlling for teen <span class="hlt">height</span> essentially eliminates the effect of adult <span class="hlt">height</span> on wages for white men. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G11A0904H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G11A0904H"><span>Consistent <span class="hlt">height</span> transformations between geodetic and meteorologic reference systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobiger, T.; Boehm, J.; Boy, J.; Foster, J. H.; Gegout, P.; Haas, R.; Ichikawa, R.; MacMillan, D. S.; Ming, S.; Niell, A. E.; Nievinski, F. G.; Nordman, M.; Salstein, D. A.; Santos, M. C.; Schindelegger, M.; van Dam, T. M.; Vedel, H.; Wickert, J.; Zus, F.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Numerical weather models (NWMs) contain valuable information that is relevant for removing the environmental signal from geodetic data. Currently no clear documentation exists regarding how to deal with the coordinate systems when carrying out the calculations in a geodetic reference frame. A "conventional" transformation model (available also as source code) would enable geodesists to handle such data easily and allow them to use data from different meteorologic data-sets. In addition, geodetic products such as GNSS derived zenith total delays are being assimilated into NWMs. Thus, the transformations that convert the meteorological data into a geodetic reference frame should also support the use of geodetic data in meteorological models. The IAG Intercomission Committee on Theory - Special Study Group 12 "Coordinate systems in numerical weather models" has been set-up to 1) deal with the differences between geodetic and meteorologic reference systems and 2) provide consistent models for transforming between the two systems. We present the first product from this effort: a conventional <span class="hlt">height</span> transformation that transforms between ellipsoidal <span class="hlt">heights</span> and the various <span class="hlt">height</span> systems used in NWMs. We will discuss the choice of the gravity model, which is crucial for such a transformation, and we will present the final model that the study group believes best describes the transformation in an unambiguous and bi-directional sense.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16193394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16193394"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">height</span> on paclitaxel nerve damage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Openshaw, Harry; Beamon, Karen; Longmate, Jeffrey; Synold, Timothy; Slatkin, Neal E; Somlo, George</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Dying-back neuropathies result in sensory loss and motor signs in the distal distribution of the longest nerves of the body. It would be expected, therefore, that taller individuals with dying-back neuropathies would tend to have worse nerve damage than shorter individuals. This hypothesis was tested in patients receiving high dose paclitaxel. Nerve conductions and quantitative sensory tests were obtained in 21 breast cancer subjects, prior to and 20-40 days after 725 mg/m(2) paclitaxel administered intravenously over 24 h. Despite the uniform dose of paclitaxel, there was a wide variation in post minus pre-paclitaxel changes. Analysis by linear regression showed that decrease of peroneal nerve compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly greater in taller subjects (P=0.004), and increase in cold detection threshold was greater in taller subjects (P=0.02). No correlation with <span class="hlt">height</span> was found for paclitaxel drug clearance, maximum concentration, and area under the curve. Decrease in sural sensory nerve action potential amplitude and increase in vibration detection threshold did not correlate with <span class="hlt">height</span>. In summary, the wide variation of changes seen in neurophysiological tests suggests that multiple factors are involved in determining the severity of neuropathy. Nerve length is probably one of these factors. To determine whether the effect of <span class="hlt">height</span> is clinically important would require additional study with a larger number of subjects and longer clinical follow-up.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870414','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870414"><span>Process for preparing schottky diode contacts with predetermined barrier <span class="hlt">heights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Chang, Y. Austin; Jan, Chia-Hong; Chen, Chia-Ping</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A process is provided for producing a Schottky diode having a preselected barrier <span class="hlt">height</span> .phi..sub.Bn. The substrate is preferably n-GaAs, the metallic contact is derived from a starting alloy of the Formula [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ](Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x) wherein: .SIGMA.M is a moiety which consists of at least one M, and when more than one M is present, each M is different, M is a Group VIII metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, indium and platinum, .delta. is a stoichiometric coefficient whose total value in any given .SIGMA.M moiety is 1, and x is a positive number between 0 and 1 (that is, x ranges from greater than 0 to less than 1). Also, the starting alloy is capable of forming with the substrate a two phase equilibrium reciprocal system of the binary alloy mixture [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Ga-[.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Al-AlAs-GaAs. When members of an alloy subclass within this Formula are each preliminarily correlated with the barrier <span class="hlt">height</span> .phi..sub.Bn of a contact producable therewith, then Schottky diodes of predetermined barrier <span class="hlt">heights</span> are producable by sputtering and annealing. Further provided are the product Schottky diodes that are produced according to this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASPC..448.1399T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASPC..448.1399T"><span>Cool Dwarf Scale <span class="hlt">Heights</span> from the Deep Lens Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorman, P.; Loomba, D.; Boeshaar, P.; Ryan, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We have added 1.12 sq. deg. of survey J-band (1.2μm) deep imaging (J = 21.4, 5σ) from Palomar WIRC and 2.5 sq. deg. of targeted FLAMINGOS imaging (median depth J = 20.44, 5σ) to 4 sq. deg. of deep Rz' imaging from the Deep Lens Survey. Using color models derived from photometry and spectroscopy of known M, L, and T dwarfs, we assign a spectral type probability to each object, and calculate model likelihoods for sech2 and exponential disks of various scale <span class="hlt">heights</span> by comparing the predicted distance distribution to the estimated object distances. The best-fit exponential scale <span class="hlt">heights</span> for M9-L2 and L2-L5 dwarfs are ZS = 345 pc and 324 pc, respectively; however, the sech2 models show a possible decrease in the scale <span class="hlt">height</span> from Z0 = 575 pc to 175 pc between those two groups, which may indicate a weakness in the previously used exponential models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738051"><span>Dependence of gait parameters on <span class="hlt">height</span> in typically developing children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agostini, Valentina; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Knaflitz, Marco</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In clinical gait analysis is fundamental to have access to normative data, to be used as a reference in the interpretation of pathological walking. In a paediatric population this may be complicated by the dependence of gait parameters on child growth. The aim of this work is to provide the correlations of spatial-temporal gait parameters with children's <span class="hlt">height</span>. We obtained the regression lines of cadence, double support, and gait phases, with respect to <span class="hlt">height</span>, from a sample of 85 normally typically developing children aged 6 to 11. Our analysis of gait phases was not limited to the traditional analysis of stance and swing, but rather focused on the sub-phases of stance - heel contact, flat foot contact, push off - which proved to be an innovative approach to gait analysis. Heel contact decreased, flat foot contact increased and push off remained essentially unchanged with respect to children's <span class="hlt">height</span>. These results may be useful in the interpretation of gait data in developing children, and the regression lines obtained may be used to normalize their gait parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952597"><span>Physical <span class="hlt">height</span> in pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Blanchard, Ray</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Adult men's <span class="hlt">height</span> reflects, not only their genetic endowment, but also the conditions that were present during their development in utero and in childhood. We compared the adult <span class="hlt">heights</span> of men who committed one or more sexual offenses and who were erotically interested in prepubescent children (pedophilic sexual offenders; n=223), those who were erotically interested in pubescent children (hebephilic sexual offenders; n=615), and those who were erotically interested in adults (teleiophilic sexual offenders; n=187), as well as men who had no known sexual offenses and who were erotically interested in adults (teleiophilic nonoffender controls; n=156). The pedophilic and the hebephilic sexual offenders were significantly shorter than the teleiophilic nonoffender controls. The teleiophilic sexual offenders were intermediate in <span class="hlt">height</span> between the nonoffenders and the pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders and not significantly different from any of the other groups. This suggests that-regardless of whatever psychological sequelae might also have followed from the conditions present during early development-pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders were subject to conditions capable of affecting their physiological development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2246686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2246686"><span>Adult <span class="hlt">height</span> in boys and girls with untreated short stature and constitutional delay of growth and puberty: accuracy of five different methods of <span class="hlt">height</span> prediction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brämswig, J H; Fasse, M; Holthoff, M L; von Lengerke, H J; von Petrykowski, W; Schellong, G</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>To determine how accurately several methods of <span class="hlt">height</span> prediction estimate adult <span class="hlt">height</span>, we compared <span class="hlt">height</span> predictions calculated by the Bayley-Pinneau, Roche-Wainer-Thissen (RWT), target <span class="hlt">height</span>, and Tanner-Whitehouse Mark I (TW-MI), and Mark II (TW-MII) methods with final adult <span class="hlt">height</span> in 37 boys and 32 girls with short stature and constitutional delay of growth and puberty. They were first seen at a chronologic age (mean +/- SD) of 14.80 +/- 1.70 years (boys) and 12.87 +/- 2.56 years (girls). Adult <span class="hlt">height</span> at 23.14 +/- 1.95 years and 21.05 +/- 2.02 years was 170.4 +/- 5.4 cm (boys) and 157.8 +/- 4.2 cm (girls), respectively, and thus within the lower range of normal. <span class="hlt">Height</span> predictions were calculated for the total group and for patients with parents of normal (group 1) as well as short stature (group 2). For boys, the RWT method gave very accurate results, underestimating adult <span class="hlt">height</span> by -0.6 cm for the total group. The prediction errors for the other methods were -7.3 cm (TW-MI), -4.2 cm (TW-MII), and +3.1 cm (Bayley-Pinneau method) or +1.7 cm (target <span class="hlt">height</span>). For girls, no method was superior in estimating adult <span class="hlt">height</span>. The mean prediction error was -0.8 cm, -2.1 cm, and -1.8 cm with the Bayley-Pinneau, TW-MI, and TW-MII methods, respectively. In contrast, adult <span class="hlt">height</span> was overpredicted by +2.3 cm and +1.2 cm with the RWT and target <span class="hlt">height</span> methods. We conclude that patients with short stature and constitutional delay of growth and puberty reach an adult <span class="hlt">height</span> in the lower range of normal. <span class="hlt">Height</span> prediction methods differ with respect to their accuracy and their tendency to overestimate or underestimate adult <span class="hlt">height</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10735','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10735"><span>A procedure for the automatic estimation of mixed layer <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coulter, R. L.</p> <p>1998-04-15</p> <p>The daytime mixed layer results from mechanical and thermal turbulence processes driven by differences in air-surface temperature and moisture. As such, the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the mixed layer (z{sub i}) is a measure of the effectiveness of energy transfer from the sun to the earth's surface and, in turn, to the lower atmosphere (Stun, 1989). Maximum daytime values for z{sub i} in the region of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) vary from less than 100 m in cloudy, moist, calm, stable conditions to nearly 3 km in clear, dry, unstable conditions. The principal characteristic of the mixed layer is that scalar quantities such as moisture and temperature are mixed throughout. Thus, z{sub i} becomes one of the principal scaling parameters used to describe the structure of the lower planetary boundary layer. Normally, a stable layer (a potential temperature inversion) at the top of the mixed layer interfaces between processes in the lower atmosphere and in the free atmosphere above. The strength of this inversion limits the rate of growth of z{sub i} with time and the vertical transfer of energy and moisture. When and if z{sub i} reaches the condensation level, clouds can form; hence, cloud base <span class="hlt">height</span> (particularly for fair-weather cumulus clouds) often coincides with z{sub i} later in the day. Although the concept of the mixed layer <span class="hlt">height</span> is straightforward, its measurement can be relatively difficult, or at least awkward. The most reliable method is an analysis of potential temperature and mixing ratio profiles retrieved from balloon ascents. (The potential temperature changes from constant to increasing with <span class="hlt">height</span>; the mixing ratio changes from constant to decreasing with <span class="hlt">height</span>.) Often however, the profiles of temperature and moisture are ambiguous, with multiple inversions or none at all. In addition these profiles supply only a snapshot of the atmospheric structure that may well be unrepresentative of the average, either in time or space</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2975B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2975B"><span>Measuring orthometric water <span class="hlt">heights</span> from lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bandini, Filippo; Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Reyna-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A better quantitative understanding of hydrologic processes requires better observations of hydrological variables, such as surface water area, water surface level, its slope and its temporal change. However, ground-based measurements of water <span class="hlt">heights</span> are restricted to the in-situ measuring stations. Hence, the objective of remote sensing hydrology is to retrieve these hydraulic variables from spaceborne and airborne platforms. The forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will be able to acquire water <span class="hlt">heights</span> with an expected accuracy of 10 centimeters for rivers that are at least 100 m wide. Nevertheless, spaceborne missions will always face the limitations of: i) a low spatial resolution which makes it difficult to separate water from interfering surrounding areas and a tracking of the terrestrial water bodies not able to detect water <span class="hlt">heights</span> in small rivers or lakes; ii) a limited temporal resolution which limits the ability to determine rapid temporal changes, especially during extremes. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are one technology able to fill the gap between spaceborne and ground-based observations, ensuring 1) high spatial resolution; 2) tracking of the water bodies better than any satellite technology; 3) timing of the sampling which only depends on the operator 4) flexibility of the payload. Hence, this study focused on categorizing and testing sensors capable of measuring the range between the UAV and the water surface. The orthometric <span class="hlt">height</span> of the water surface is then retrieved by subtracting the <span class="hlt">height</span> above water measured by the sensors from the altitude above sea level retrieved by the onboard GPS. The following sensors were tested: a) a radar, b) a sonar c) a laser digital-camera based prototype developed at Technical University of Denmark. The tested sensors comply with the weight constraint of small UAVs (around 1.5 kg). The sensors were evaluated in terms of accuracy, maximum ranging distance and beam</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.1331W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.1331W"><span>Evaluation of SCIAMACHY Oxygen A band cloud <span class="hlt">heights</span> using Cloudnet measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, P.; Stammes, P.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Two SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) O2 A band cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> products are evaluated using ground-based radar/lidar measurements between January 2003 and December 2011. The products are the ESA (European Space Agency) Level 2 (L2) version 5.02 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> and the FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) version 6 cloud <span class="hlt">height</span>. The radar/lidar profiles are obtained at the Cloudnet sites of Cabauw and Lindenberg, and are averaged for 1 h centered at the SCIAMACHY overpass time. In total we have 217 cases of single-layer clouds and 204 cases of multilayer clouds. We find that the ESA L2 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> has a better agreement with the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> than the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span>. The ESA L2 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> is on average 0.4 km higher than the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span>, with a standard deviation of 3.1 km. The FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> is closer to the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span> than the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span>. The mean difference between the FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span> is -0.1 km with a standard deviation of 1.9 km. The ESA L2 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> is higher than the FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span>. The differences between the SCIAMACHY cloud (top) <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> are linked to cloud optical thickness. The SCIAMACHY cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> products are further compared to the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span> in 1 km bins. For single-layer clouds, the difference between the ESA L2 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 3-7 km. The difference between the FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span> is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 0-6 km. The results are similar for multilayer clouds, but the percentage of cases having a bias within 1 km is smaller than for single-layer clouds. We may conclude that the FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> is accurate for low and middle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AMTD....6.8603W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AMTD....6.8603W"><span>Validation of SCIAMACHY O2 A band cloud <span class="hlt">heights</span> using Cloudnet radar/lidar measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, P.; Stammes, P.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>For the first time two SCIAMACHY O2 A band cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> products are validated using ground-based radar/lidar measurements between January 2003 and December 2011. The products are the ESA Level 2 (L2) version 5.02 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> and the FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) version 6 cloud <span class="hlt">height</span>. The radar/lidar profiles are obtained at the Cloudnet sites of Cabauw and Lindenberg, and are averaged for one hour centered at the SCIAMACHY overpass time to achieve an optimal temporal and spatial match. In total we have about 220 cases of single layer clouds and 200 cases of multi-layer clouds. The FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> and ESA L2 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> are compared with the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> and Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span>. We find that the ESA L2 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> has a better agreement with the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> than the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span>. The ESA L2 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> is on average 0.44 km higher than the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span>, with a standard deviation of 3.07 km. The FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> is closer to the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span> than the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span>. The mean difference between the FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span> is -0.14 km with a standard deviation of 1.88 km. The SCIAMACHY cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> products are further compared to the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span> in 1 km bins. For single layer clouds, the difference between the ESA L2 cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 3-7 km, which is 24 % percent of the data. The difference between the FRESCO cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> and the Cloudnet cloud middle <span class="hlt">height</span> is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 0-6 km, which is 85 % percent of the data. The results are similar for multi-layer clouds, but the percentage of cases having a bias within 1 km is smaller than for single layer clouds. Since globally about 60 % of all clouds are low clouds and 42 % are single</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04367&hterms=grenada&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dgrenada','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04367&hterms=grenada&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dgrenada"><span>Cloud <span class="hlt">Height</span> Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captured these images and cloud-top <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals of Hurricane Frances on September 4, 2004, when the eye sat just off the coast of eastern Florida, and Hurricane Ivan on September 5th, after this cyclone had devastated Grenada and was heading toward the central and western Caribbean. Hurricane Frances made landfall in the early hours of September 5, and was downgraded to Tropical Storm status as it swept inland through the Florida panhandle and continued northward. On the heels of Frances is Hurricane Ivan, which is on record as the strongest tropical cyclone to form at such a low latitude in the Atlantic, and was the most powerful hurricane to have hit the Caribbean in nearly a decade. <p/> The ability of forecasters to predict the intensity and amount of rainfall associated with hurricanes still requires improvement, especially on the 24 to 48 hour timescale vital for disaster planning. To improve the operational models used to make hurricane forecasts, scientists need to better understand the multi-scale interactions at the cloud, mesoscale and synoptic scales that lead to hurricane intensification and dissipation, and the various physical processes that affect hurricane intensity and rainfall distributions. Because these uncertainties with regard to how to represent cloud processes still exist, it is vital that the model findings be evaluated against hurricane observations whenever possible. Two-dimensional maps of cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> such as those shown here offer an unprecedented opportunity for comparing simulated cloud fields against actual hurricane observations. <p/> The left-hand panel in each image pair is a natural color view from MISR's nadir camera. The right-hand panels are cloud-top <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals produced by automated computer recognition of the distinctive spatial features between images acquired at different view angles. These results indicate that at the time that these images were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........64T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........64T"><span>Spatial inhomogeneous barrier <span class="hlt">heights</span> at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tomer, Dushyant</p> <p></p> <p>Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier <span class="hlt">height</span>. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier <span class="hlt">height</span> and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22342192','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22342192"><span>Periodic analysis of solar activity and its link with the Arctic oscillation phenomenon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qu, Weizheng; Li, Chun; Du, Ling; Huang, Fei; Li, Yanfang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Based on spectrum analysis, we provide the arithmetic expressions of the quasi 11 yr cycle, 110 yr century cycle of relative sunspot numbers, and quasi 22 yr cycle of solar magnetic field polarity. Based on a comparative analysis of the monthly average <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">height</span>, <span class="hlt">geopotential</span> <span class="hlt">height</span> anomaly, and temperature anomaly of the northern hemisphere at locations with an air pressure of <span class="hlt">500</span> <span class="hlt">HPa</span> during the positive and negative phases of AO (Arctic Oscillation), one can see that the abnormal warming period in the Arctic region corresponds to the negative phase of AO, while the anomalous cold period corresponds to its positive phase. This shows that the abnormal change in the Arctic region is an important factor in determining the anomalies of AO. In accordance with the analysis performed using the successive filtering method, one can see that the AO phenomenon occurring in January shows a clear quasi 88 yr century cycle and quasi 22 yr decadal cycle, which are closely related to solar activities. The results of our comparative analysis show that there is a close inverse relationship between the solar activities (especially the solar magnetic field index changes) and the changes in the 22 yr cycle of the AO occurring in January, and that the two trends are basically opposite of each other. That is to say, in most cases after the solar magnetic index MI rises from the lowest value, the solar magnetic field turns from north to south, and the high-energy particle flow entering the Earth's magnetosphere increases to heat the polar atmosphere, thus causing the AO to drop from the highest value; after the solar magnetic index MI drops from the highest value, the solar magnetic field turns from south to north, and the solar high-energy particle flow passes through the top of the Earth's magnetosphere rather than entering it to heat the polar atmosphere. Thus the polar temperature drops, causing the AO to rise from the lowest value. In summary, the variance contribution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B42B..07F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B42B..07F"><span>Modeling Dynamic <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Crown Growth in Trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franklin, O.; Fransson, P.; Brännström, Å.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Previously we have shown how principles based on productivity maximization (e.g. maximization of net primary production, net growth maximization, or functional balance) can explain allocation responses to resources, such as nutrients and light (Franklin et al., 2012). However, the success of these approaches depend on how well they align with the ultimate driver of plant behavior, fitness, or life time reproductive success. Consequently, they may not fully explain how allocation changes during the life cycle of trees where not only growth but also survival and reproduction are important. In addition, maximizing instantaneous productivity does not account for path dependence of tree growth. For example, maximizing productivity during early growth in shade may delay emergence in the forest canopy and reduce lifetime fitness compared to a more <span class="hlt">height</span> oriented strategy. Here we present an approach to model how growth of stem diameter and leaf area in relation to stem <span class="hlt">height</span> dynamically responds to light conditions in a way that maximizes life-time fitness (rather than instantaneous growth). The model is able to predict growth of trees growing in different types of forests, including trees emerging under a closed canopy and seedlings planted in a clear-cut area. It can also predict the response to sudden changes in the light environment, due to disturbances or harvesting. We envisage two main applications of the model, (i) Modeling effects of forest management, including thinning and planting (ii) Elucidating <span class="hlt">height</span> growth strategies in trees and how they can be represented in vegetation models. ReferenceFranklin O, Johansson J, Dewar RC, Dieckmann U, McMurtrie RE, Brännström Å, Dybzinski R. 2012. Modeling carbon allocation in trees: a search for principles. Tree Physiology 32(6): 648-666.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSWSC...5A..27M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSWSC...5A..27M"><span>Modeling the plasmasphere to topside ionosphere scale <span class="hlt">height</span> ratio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marinov, Pencho; Kutiev, Ivan; Belehaki, Anna; Tsagouri, Ioanna</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A new model of plasmasphere to topside ionosphere scale <span class="hlt">heights</span> ratio is developed, based on topside electron density (Ne) profiles deduced from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS)-1 satellite measurements. The model is able to improve operational algorithms for space weather predictions. The topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric scale <span class="hlt">heights</span> are determined by the lowest and largest gradients of measured profiles, respectively, converted in dh/dlnNe units. The new model depends on four parameters: the month of the year (M), the local time (LT), the geomagnetic latitude (glat), and the ln(O+) density (zO) at the O+-H+ ion transition <span class="hlt">height</span>. It is designed to replace the old one-dimensional model of the ratio in the TaD (TSM-assisted Digisonde) profiler. The parameters M, LT, and glat are approximated by trigonometric basis functions, while zO is described by a polynomial. A series of models were produced with different number of coefficients (number of terms) of the basis functions. Comparison between models revealed that those with larger number of coefficients can produce unrealistic extremes of the model curves due to the non-uniform sampling of data along the axes. Further considered is the simplest model approximating M, LT, and glat by simple 24 sinusoidal functions and linearly depending on zO. The model description and its 54 coefficients are given in Appendix 1 and can be used by other users for reconstruction of plasmasphere density profiles. The main variation of the ratio along geomagnetic latitude at fixed values of the other model parameters is illustrated in a series of plots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26948573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26948573"><span>Major correlates of male <span class="hlt">height</span>: A study of 105 countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grasgruber, P; Sebera, M; Hrazdíra, E; Cacek, J; Kalina, T</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to explore the main correlates of male <span class="hlt">height</span> in 105 countries in Europe & overseas, Asia, North Africa and Oceania. Actual data on male <span class="hlt">height</span> are compared with the average consumption of 28 protein sources (FAOSTAT, 1993-2009) and seven socioeconomic indicators (according to the World Bank, the CIA World Factbook and the United Nations). This comparison identified three fundamental types of diets based on rice, wheat and milk, respectively. The consumption of rice dominates in tropical Asia, where it is accompanied by very low total protein and energy intake, and one of the shortest statures in the world (∼162-168cm). Wheat prevails in Muslim countries in North Africa and the Near East, which is where we also observe the highest plant protein consumption in the world and moderately tall statures that do not exceed 174cm. In taller nations, the intake of protein and energy no longer fundamentally rises, but the consumption of plant proteins markedly decreases at the expense of animal proteins, especially those from dairy. Their highest consumption rates can be found in Northern and Central Europe, with the global peak of male <span class="hlt">height</span> in the Netherlands (184cm). In general, when only the complete data from 72 countries were considered, the consumption of protein from the five most correlated foods (r=0.85) and the human development index (r=0.84) are most strongly associated with tall statures. A notable finding is the low consumption of the most correlated proteins in Muslim oil superpowers and highly developed countries of East Asia, which could explain their lagging behind Europe in terms of physical stature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25262317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25262317"><span>Visual <span class="hlt">height</span> intolerance and acrophobia: clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Fitz, Werner; Brandt, Thomas</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to estimate the general population lifetime and point prevalence of visual <span class="hlt">height</span> intolerance and acrophobia, to define their clinical characteristics, and to determine their anxious and depressive comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted within a German population-based cross-sectional telephone survey. A representative sample of 2,012 individuals aged 14 and above was selected. Defined neurological conditions (migraine, Menière's disease, motion sickness), symptom pattern, age of first manifestation, precipitating <span class="hlt">height</span> stimuli, course of illness, psychosocial impairment, and comorbidity patterns (anxiety conditions, depressive disorders according to DSM-IV-TR) for vHI and acrophobia were assessed. The lifetime prevalence of vHI was 28.5% (women 32.4%, men 24.5%). Initial attacks occurred predominantly (36%) in the second decade. A rapid generalization to other <span class="hlt">height</span> stimuli and a chronic course of illness with at least moderate impairment were observed. A total of 22.5% of individuals with vHI experienced the intensity of panic attacks. The lifetime prevalence of acrophobia was 6.4% (women 8.6%, men 4.1%), and point prevalence was 2.0% (women 2.8%; men 1.1%). VHI and even more acrophobia were associated with high rates of comorbid anxious and depressive conditions. Migraine was both a significant predictor of later acrophobia and a significant consequence of previous acrophobia. VHI affects nearly a third of the general population; in more than 20% of these persons, vHI occasionally develops into panic attacks and in 6.4%, it escalates to acrophobia. Symptoms and degree of social impairment form a continuum of mild to seriously distressing conditions in susceptible subjects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPRS..119..437L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPRS..119..437L"><span>Satellite images analysis for shadow detection and building <span class="hlt">height</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liasis, Gregoris; Stavrou, Stavros</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Satellite images can provide valuable information about the presented urban landscape scenes to remote sensing and telecommunication applications. Obtaining information from satellite images is difficult since all the objects and their surroundings are presented with feature complexity. The shadows cast by buildings in urban scenes can be processed and used for estimating building <span class="hlt">heights</span>. Thus, a robust and accurate building shadow detection process is important. Region-based active contour models can be used for satellite image segmentation. However, spectral heterogeneity that usually exists in satellite images and the feature similarity representing the shadow and several non-shadow regions makes building shadow detection challenging. In this work, a new automated method for delineating building shadows is proposed. Initially, spectral and spatial features of the satellite image are utilized for designing a custom filter to enhance shadows and reduce intensity heterogeneity. An effective iterative procedure using intensity differences is developed for tuning and subsequently selecting the most appropriate filter settings, able to highlight the building shadows. The response of the filter is then used for automatically estimating the radiometric property of the shadows. The customized filter and the radiometric feature are utilized to form an optimized active contour model where the contours are biased to delineate shadow regions. Post-processing morphological operations are also developed and applied for removing misleading artefacts. Finally, building <span class="hlt">heights</span> are approximated using shadow length and the predefined or estimated solar elevation angle. Qualitative and quantitative measures are used for evaluating the performance of the proposed method for both shadow detection and building <span class="hlt">height</span> estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22819232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22819232"><span><span class="hlt">Height</span>, socioeconomic status and marriage in Italy around 1900.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manfredini, Matteo; Breschi, Marco; Fornasin, Alessio; Seghieri, Chiara</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This study examines the role of <span class="hlt">height</span> in the process of mate selection in two Italian populations at the turn of the twentieth century, Alghero, in the province of Sassari, and Treppo Carnico, in the province of Udine. Based on a linkage between military registers and marriage certificates, this study reveals a negative selection of short men on marriage and a differential effect of tallness by population in the process of mate choice. These findings emerge once SES is taken into account in the risk models of marriage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129476','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129476"><span>Plant community composition and vegetation <span class="hlt">height</span>, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Sloan, Victoria; Norby, Richard; Siegrist, Julia; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Liebig, Jennifer; Wood, Sarah</p> <p>2014-04-25</p> <p>This dataset contains i) the results of field surveys of plant community composition and vegetation <span class="hlt">height</span> made between 17th and 29th July 2012 in 48, 1 x 1 m plots located in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska and ii) results of a mapping exercise undertaken in August 2013 using two perpendicular transects across each polygon containing vegetation plots to determine the boundaries of vegetation communities described in 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007407&hterms=floods&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfloods','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007407&hterms=floods&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfloods"><span>Assessing Eruption Column <span class="hlt">Height</span> in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume <span class="hlt">heights</span> of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume <span class="hlt">heights</span> of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar <span class="hlt">height</span> to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise <span class="hlt">height</span> to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ICRC....1...33B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ICRC....1...33B"><span>Muon Production <span class="hlt">Height</span> from the Muon Tracking Detector in KASCADE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Büttner, C.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Vardanyan, A.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The Muon Tracking Detector (MTD; Eµh =0.8 GeV) [5] of the KASCADEt Grande experiment enables the analysis of the longitudinal shower development by means of the Muon production <span class="hlt">Height</span> (MPH). The analysis employes radial and tangential angles of the muon track with respect to the shower direction, and the distance of the muon hit to the shower core. Comparing analysed MPH of distributions with Monte Carlo simulations (CORSIKA) [6] an increase of ln A d f the primary cosmic rays with lg(Nµr ) is observed. t</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/457315','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/457315"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">height</span> growth in frac pack completions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mullen, M.E.; Norman, W.D.; Wine-Dowell, J.D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>This is a study of <span class="hlt">height</span> growth in nine wells encompassing thirteen productive intervals that were completed as frac packs. The data used to evaluate these completions include bottom hole pressure recordings during treatment placement, multiple radioactive tracer logs, production spinner surveys, pulse neutron logs, and production history profiles. This study addresses concerns about fracture containment near water and barrier integrity. The study also involves limited aspects of fracture completions in laminated reservoirs. The completions studied include high pressured formations, depleted low pressured situations, as well as normal pressure zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA286832','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA286832"><span>Computing Optimum <span class="hlt">Heights</span> for Balloon-Borne Radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>ducting, a " radar hole" against other raytrace niodels (IREPS, could develop. Although the radar beam. EREPS) that are considered accurate. The may be...TD-1369, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, October 1985. ,quires, M.F., Caribbean Basin Radar Network Raytrace Study, USAPETAC/PR-91/005...IlI-AFETAC/PR-93IoO5 * AD-A286 832 COMPUTING OPTIMUM <span class="hlt">HEIGHTS</span> for BALLOON-BORNE RADAR by Michael F. Squires IjxEA NOVEMBER 1993 DTIC QUAI’ii E’T" 2T</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......300S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......300S"><span>QSAR of Tryptanthrin Analogs via Tunneling Barrier <span class="hlt">Height</span> Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sriraman, Krishnan</p> <p></p> <p>A new class of potential therapeutic agents, namely indolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-6,12- dione (tryptanthrin), and its analogues, have generated interest due to their broad spectrum of activity against a variety of pathogenic organisms. Little is known about the mechanism of action of tryptanthrins at the cellular and molecular levels. One method that has been employed to understand mechanisms of action and predict biological activities is quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). Since previous tryptanthrin studies could not clearly identify the pharmacophore, it was proposed to measure barrier <span class="hlt">height</span> (BH) energy values for preparing a QSAR vs. IC50 values from the literature. The BH energy values were measured using barrier <span class="hlt">height</span> spectroscopy which is performed using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Topography images (7 x 7 nm size) for tryptanthrin and three of its analogs namely 8-fluorotryptanthrin, 4-aza-8-fluorotryptanthrin, and 4-aza-8-chlorotryptanthrin were collected. Both HOMO and LUMO were collected at an applied bias of +/- 0.8 V and 0.1 nA. Excellent positive bias images (LUMO) of tryptanthrin were collected in which individual molecules and their lobes could be clearly recognized. A comparison with the density functional theory (DFT) calculated image of the LUMO resulted in an excellent match. An interesting outcome of the tryptanthrin LUMO imaging was the arrangement of molecules (parallel alignments) in the image which was explained by considering the intermolecular forces. Excellent BH images with sub-molecular resolution for 4-aza-8-fluorotryptanthrin were observed. BH values were calculated for each of the various lobes in the molecule from the BH image. Preliminary QSAR training sets were constructed using literature values of IC50 for W-2 and D-6 strains of Plasmodium falciparum as well as Leishmanai donovani versus average measured molecular barrier <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The correlations were found to be fair for all the three pathogens. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.457..263G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.457..263G"><span>Assessing eruption column <span class="hlt">height</span> in ancient flood basalt eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume <span class="hlt">heights</span> of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume <span class="hlt">heights</span> of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar <span class="hlt">height</span> to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at ∼ 45 ° N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the ∼ 180km of known Roza fissure length could have supported ∼36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise <span class="hlt">height</span> to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (∼ 66Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained flood basalt eruptions could have influenced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7253436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7253436"><span>A method for real <span class="hlt">height</span> analysis of oblique ionograms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reilly, M.H.; Kolesar, J.D. Mitre Corp., McLean, VA )</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p>A method is presented for the conversion of an HF oblique ionogram to an ionospheric density true <span class="hlt">height</span> profile, within the usual approximations of spherical symmetry and no magnetic field. It is a lamination method for inversion of the equations for group path delay and sounder range, which are treated on equal footing, similarly to an earlier method by Rao. A reentrant procedure has been added to alleviate the problem of valley ambiguity. Use of the method and its clear improvement over other methods, which invoke further approximations, are demonstrated by calculations on oblique ionograms from known, model daytime profiles. Future directions are indicated. 6 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvL.101o0601S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvL.101o0601S"><span>Exact Distribution of the Maximal <span class="hlt">Height</span> of p Vicious Walkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schehr, Grégory; Majumdar, Satya N.; Comtet, Alain; Randon-Furling, Julien</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Using path-integral techniques, we compute exactly the distribution of the maximal <span class="hlt">height</span> Hp of p nonintersecting Brownian walkers over a unit time interval in one dimension, both for excursions p watermelons with a wall, and bridges p watermelons without a wall, for all integer p≥1. For large p, we show that ⟨Hp⟩˜2p (excursions) whereas ⟨Hp⟩˜p (bridges). Our exact results prove that previous numerical experiments only measured the preasymptotic behaviors and not the correct asymptotic ones. In addition, our method establishes a physical connection between vicious walkers and random matrix theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A23D0261P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A23D0261P"><span>Parameterization of Fire Injection <span class="hlt">Height</span> in Large Scale Transport Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Atherton, J.; Val Martin, M.; Freitas, S.; Kaiser, J. W.; Schultz, M. G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The parameterization of fire injection <span class="hlt">height</span> in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection <span class="hlt">height</span> and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the Plume Rise Model (PRM) developed by Freitas et al (2007, 2010). This plume model is already used in different host models (e.g. WRF, BRAMS). In its original version, the fire is modeled by: a convective heat flux (CHF; pre-defined by the land cover and evaluated as a fixed part of the total heat released) and a plume radius (derived from the GOES Wildfire-ABBA product) which defines the fire extension where the CHF is homogeneously distributed. Here in our approach the Freitas model is modified, in particular we added (i) an equation for mass conservation, (ii) a scheme to parameterize horizontal entrainment/detrainment, and (iii) a new initialization module which estimates the sensible heat released by the fire on the basis of measured FRP rather than fuel cover type. FRP and Active Fire (AF) area necessary for the initialization of the model are directly derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD14 product. An optimization (using the simulating annealing method) of this new version of the PRM is then proposed based on fire plume characteristics derived from the official MISR plume <span class="hlt">height</span> project and atmospheric profiles extracted from the ECMWF analysis. The data set covers the main fire region (Africa, Siberia, Indonesia, and North and South America) and is set up to (i) retain fires where plume <span class="hlt">height</span> and FRP can be easily linked (i.e. avoid large fire cluster where individual plume might interact), (ii) keep fire which show decrease of FRP and AF area after MISR overpass (i.e. to minimize effect of the time period needed for the plume to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8366P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8366P"><span>Parameterization of Fire Injection <span class="hlt">Height</span> in Large Scale Transport Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paugam, r.; Wooster, m.; Freitas, s.; Gonzi, s.; Palmer, p.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The parameterization of fire injection <span class="hlt">height</span> in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection <span class="hlt">height</span> and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the Plume Rise Model (PRM) developed by Freitas et al (2007, 2010). This plume model is already used in different host models (e.g. WRF, BRAMS). In its original version, the fire is modelled by: a convective heat flux (CHF; pre-defined by the land cover and evaluated as a fixed part of the total heat released) and a plume radius (derived from the GOES Wildfire-ABBA product) which defines the fire extension where the CHF is homogeneously distributed. Here in our approach the Freitas model is modified. Major modifications are implemented in its initialisation module: (i) CHF and the Active Fire area are directly force from FRP data derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD12 product, (ii) and a new module of the buoyancy flux calculation is implemented instead of the original module based on the Morton Taylor and Turner equation. Furthermore the dynamical core of the plume model is also modified with a new entrainment scheme inspired from latest results from shallow convection parameterization. Optimization and validation of this new version of the Freitas PRM is based on fire plume characteristics derived from the official MISR plume <span class="hlt">height</span> project and atmospheric profile extracted from the ECMWF analysis. The data set is (i) build up to only keep fires where plume <span class="hlt">height</span> and FRP can be easily linked (i.e. avoid large fire cluster where individual plume might interact) and (ii) split per fire land cover type to optimize the constant of the buoyancy flux module and the entrainment scheme to different fire regime. Result shows that the new PRM is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21106302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21106302"><span>Body weight divided by squared knee <span class="hlt">height</span> as an alternative to body mass index.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Weight/<span class="hlt">height</span>(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. <span class="hlt">Height</span>, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with <span class="hlt">height</span> loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with <span class="hlt">height</span> loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal <span class="hlt">height</span> or <span class="hlt">height</span> at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two <span class="hlt">heights</span> has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate <span class="hlt">height</span> from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee <span class="hlt">height</span> (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated <span class="hlt">height</span>=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current <span class="hlt">height</span> by their equations. Maximal <span class="hlt">height</span> cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal <span class="hlt">height</span> does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-<span class="hlt">height</span> ratio; weight/<span class="hlt">height</span>(2); the Quetelet's index. <span class="hlt">Height</span> is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current <span class="hlt">height</span> could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with <span class="hlt">height</span> loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261721','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261721"><span>Studies of the 3D surface roughness <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the <span class="hlt">height</span> of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness <span class="hlt">height</span> and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10353095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10353095"><span>Diurnal variation of airborne pollen at two different <span class="hlt">heights</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alcázar, P; Galán, C; Cariñanos, P; Domínguez-Vilches, E</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The diurnal variation in airborne pollen concentrations in the air of Córdoba at two different <span class="hlt">heights</span> (1.5 m and 15 m) was studied during 2 consecutive years with the help of two Hirst volumetric samplers. According to pollen percentages obtained every hour, we determined whether every taxon studied presented a morning or an afternoon pattern, and whether this model was homogeneous (with a slight difference between the time of maximum and minimum reading) or heterogeneous (with a large difference between the two readings). We observed that the taxa that had many species in the area, such as Plantago, Poaceae, and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae showed a homogeneous model, while those taxa with few species present, such as Cupressaceae and Urticaceae showed a more heterogeneous model. Furthermore, the pattern of the plants with a large presence in the study area was more heterogeneous at 1.5 m because the pollen collected at this <span class="hlt">height</span> is released from anthers. In the sampler placed at 15 m we detected airborne pollen, found that the curves were smoother and also observed a slight time delay for the taxa that were highly present in the area of study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28267883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28267883"><span>Shearing interference microscope for step-<span class="hlt">height</span> measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trịnh, Hưng-Xuân; Lin, Shyh-Tsong; Chen, Liang-Chia; Yeh, Sheng-Lih; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Hoang, Hong-Hai</p> <p>2017-03-07</p> <p>A shearing interference microscope using a Savart prism as the shear plate is proposed for inspecting step-<span class="hlt">heights</span>. Where the light beam propagates through the Savart prism and microscopic system to illuminate the sample, it then turns back to re-pass through the Savart prism and microscopic system to generate a shearing interference pattern on the camera. Two measurement modes, phase-shifting and phase-scanning, can be utilized to determine the depths of the step-<span class="hlt">heights</span> on the sample. The first mode, which employs a narrowband source, is based on the five-step phase-shifting algorithm and has a measurement range of a quarter-wavelength. The second mode, which adopts a broadband source, is based on peak-intensity identification technology and has a measurement range up to a few micrometres. This paper is to introduce the configuration and measurement theory of this microscope, perform a setup used to implement it, and present the experimental results from the uses of the setup. The results not only verify the validity but also confirm the high measurement repeatability of the proposed microscope.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24817830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24817830"><span>The Organization of Wariness of <span class="hlt">Heights</span> in Experienced Crawlers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ueno, Mika; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Campos, Joseph J; Dahl, Audun; Anderson, David I</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Most infants with more than 6 weeks of crawling experience completely avoid the deep side of a visual cliff (Campos et al., 1992; Gibson & Walk, 1960). However, some experienced crawlers do move onto the transparent surface suspended several feet above the ground. An important question is whether these non-avoiders lack wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span> or whether they have a qualitatively different way of showing their wariness than do avoiders of the deep side. The current study addressed this question by measuring heart rate (HR) acceleration upon being lowered on the deep and shallow sides of the visual cliff, latency to crawl toward the mother, and tactile exploration of the cliff surface. Non-avoiders and avoiders had indistinguishable patterns of HR acceleration, showing greater HR acceleration when lowered onto the deep than when lowered onto the shallow side of the cliff. Non-avoiders also showed more tactile exploration and longer latencies than did a comparable group of infants tested on the shallow side. This study illustrates how the same emotion, wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span>, can be shown by qualitatively different behaviors, all serving the same function of protecting the individual from falling over a drop-off.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4014313','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4014313"><span>The Organization of Wariness of <span class="hlt">Heights</span> in Experienced Crawlers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ueno, Mika; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Campos, Joseph J.; Dahl, Audun; Anderson, David I.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Most infants with more than 6 weeks of crawling experience completely avoid the deep side of a visual cliff (Campos et al., 1992; Gibson & Walk, 1960). However, some experienced crawlers do move onto the transparent surface suspended several feet above the ground. An important question is whether these non-avoiders lack wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span> or whether they have a qualitatively different way of showing their wariness than do avoiders of the deep side. The current study addressed this question by measuring heart rate (HR) acceleration upon being lowered on the deep and shallow sides of the visual cliff, latency to crawl toward the mother, and tactile exploration of the cliff surface. Non-avoiders and avoiders had indistinguishable patterns of HR acceleration, showing greater HR acceleration when lowered onto the deep than when lowered onto the shallow side of the cliff. Non-avoiders also showed more tactile exploration and longer latencies than did a comparable group of infants tested on the shallow side. This study illustrates how the same emotion, wariness of <span class="hlt">heights</span>, can be shown by qualitatively different behaviors, all serving the same function of protecting the individual from falling over a drop-off. PMID:24817830</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730010947','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730010947"><span>Effect of parallactic refraction correction on station <span class="hlt">height</span> determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lerch, F. J.; Huston, H. A.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The effect of omitting the parallactic refraction correction for satellite optical observations in the determination of station coordinates is analyzed for a large satellite data distribution. A significant error effect is seen in station <span class="hlt">heights</span>. A geodetic satellite data distribution of 23 close earth satellites, containing 30,000 optical observations obtained by 13 principal Baker-Nunn camera sites, is employed. This distribution was used in a preliminary Goddard Earth Model (GEM 1) for the determination of the gravity field of the earth and geocentric tracking station locations. The parallactic refraction correction is modeled as an error on the above satellite data and a least squares adjustment for station locations is obtained for each of the 13 Baker-Nunn sites. Results show an average station <span class="hlt">height</span> shift of +8 meters with a dispersion of plus or minus 0.7 meters for individual sites. Station latitude and longitude shifts amounted to less than a meter. Similar results are obtained from a theoretical method employing a probability distribution for the satellite optical observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026238','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026238"><span>Global Positioning System Antenna Fixed <span class="hlt">Height</span> Tripod Adapter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dinardo, Steven J.; Smith, Mark A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An improved Global Positioning em antenna adaptor allows fixed antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> measurements by removably attaching an adaptor plate to a conventional surveyor's tripod. Antenna <span class="hlt">height</span> is controlled by an antenna boom which is a fixed length rod. The antenna is attached to one end of the boom. The opposite end of the boom tapers to a point sized to fit into a depression at the center of survey markers. The boom passes through the hollow center of a universal ball joint which is mounted at the center of the adaptor plate so that the point of the rod can be fixed in the marker's central depression. The mountains of the ball joint allow the joint to be moved horizontally in any direction relative to the tripod. When the ball joint is moved horizontally, the angle between the boom and the vertical changes because the boom's position is fixed at its lower end. A spirit level attached to the rod allows an operator to determine when the boom is plumb. The position of the ball joint is adjusted horizontally until the boom is plumb. At that time the antenna is positioned exactly over the center of the monument and the elevation of the antenna is precisely set by the length of the boom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26900515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26900515"><span>NIST Ionization Chamber "A" Sample-<span class="hlt">Height</span> Corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, Ryan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>For over 30 years scientists in the NIST radioactivity group have been using their pressurized ionization chamber "A" (PIC "A") to make measurements of radioactivity and radioactive half-lives. We now have evidence that some of those reported measurements were incorrect due to slippage of the source positioning ring over time. The temporal change in the holder caused an error in the source-<span class="hlt">height</span> within the chamber, which was thought to be invariant. This unaccounted-for <span class="hlt">height</span> change caused a change in the detector response and thus a relative error in measured activity on the order of 10(-5) to 10(-3) per year, depending on the radionuclide. The drifting detector response affected calibration factors and half-life determinations. After discovering the problem, we carried out historic research and new sensitivity tests. As a result, we have created a quantitative model of the effect and have used that model to estimate corrections to some of the past measurement results from PIC "A". In this paper we report the details and results of that model. Meanwhile, we have fixed the positioning ring and are recalibrating the detector using primary measurement methods and enhanced quality control measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NHESS..17..409S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NHESS..17..409S"><span>Assessment of reliability of extreme wave <span class="hlt">height</span> prediction models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samayam, Satish; Laface, Valentina; Sannasi Annamalaisamy, Sannasiraj; Arena, Felice; Vallam, Sundar; Vladislav Gavrilovich, Polnikov</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Extreme waves influence coastal engineering activities and have an immense geophysical implication. Therefore, their study, observation and extreme wave prediction are decisive for planning of mitigation measures against natural coastal hazards, ship routing, design of coastal and offshore structures. In this study, the estimates of design wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> associated with return period of 30 and 100 years are dealt with in detail. The design wave <span class="hlt">height</span> is estimated based on four different models to obtain a general and reliable model. Different locations are considered to perform the analysis: four sites in Indian waters (two each in Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea), one in the Mediterranean Sea and two in North America (one each in North Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Maine). For the Indian water domain, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim wave hindcast data covering a period of 36 years have been utilized for this purpose. For the locations in Mediterranean Sea and North America, both ERA-Interim wave hindcast and buoy data are considered. The reasons for the variation in return value estimates of the ERA-Interim data and the buoy data using different estimation models are assessed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5192652','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5192652"><span>Elevation of volcanoes and their edifice <span class="hlt">heights</span> at subduction zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ben-Avraham, Z.; Nur, A.</p> <p>1980-08-10</p> <p>The elevation above sea level of circum-Pacific volcanoes situated on continental crust varies greatly, not only between various chains but also within chains. Their edifice <span class="hlt">heights</span>, however, are essentially constant with each chain. This pattern is reversed for oceanic volcanoes: The elevation circum-Pacific volcanoes situated on oceanic curst is constant within arcs, while edifice <span class="hlt">heights</span> are greatly variable. In continents the depth to the root zones of volcanoes may be within the elastic part of the lithosphere, whereas in the oceans it may be well below the elastic part of the lithosphere. We suggest that melting, or the onset of the volcanic uprising, may be controlled in both cases primarily by pressure: in the continental lithosphere by the overburden pressure determined by depth below the local surface and in the oceanic lithosphere by the isostatically compensated pressure zone controlled by depth below sea level. The pattern seems to hold even in complex geological regions and may be used to identify the nature of the crust in such regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31C0088P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31C0088P"><span>Wildfire Emission, injection <span class="hlt">height</span>: Development, Optimization, and Large Scale Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Atherton, J.; Beevers, S.; Kitwiroon, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Remy, S.; Freitas, S. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Evaluation of wildfire emissions in global chemistry transport model is still a subject of debate in the atmospheric community, though some inventory like GFAS and GFED are already available. In particular none of those approaches are currently dealing with <span class="hlt">height</span> induced by buoyant plumes. In this work we aim to set-up a 3-dimensional wildfire emission inventory. Our approach is based on the Fire Radiative Power product (FRP) evaluated at a cluster level coupled with the plume rise model (PRM) originally developed by Saulo Freitas. PRM was developed to take into account effects of atmospheric stability and latent heat in plume updraft. Here, the original version is modified: (i) the input data of convective heat flux and Active Fire area are directly force from FRP data derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD12 product, (ii) and the dynamical core of the plume model is modified with a new entrainment scheme inspired from latest results in shallow convection parametrization. The new parameters introduced are then defined via an optimization procedure based on (i) fire plume characteristics of single fire events extracted from the official MISR plume <span class="hlt">height</span> project and (ii) atmospheric profile derived from the ECMWF analysis. Calibration of the new version of PRM is made for Europe and North America. For each geographic zone, fire events are selected out of the MISR data set. In particular, it is shown that the only information extracted from Terra overpass is not enough to guaranty that the injection <span class="hlt">height</span> of the plume is linked to the FRP measured at the same time. The plume is a dynamical system, and a time delay (related to the atmospheric state) is necessary to adjust change in FRP to the plume behaviour. Therefore, multiple overpasses of the same fire from Terra and Aqua are used here to determine fire and plume behaviours and system in a steady state at the time of MISR (central scan of Terra) overpass are selected for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715664U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715664U"><span>Waveform retracking for improving inland water <span class="hlt">heights</span> from altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uebbing, Bernd; Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>For more than two decades, satellite radar altimeters have been providing valuable information on level changes of seas and oceans. In recent years, the usage of satellite altimetry to monitor the water level changes of lakes and rivers, as well as in hydrology applications, has become a topic of rising interest. The altimeter emits a radar pulse, which is reflected at the nadir-surface and measures the two-way travel time, as well as the returned energy as a function of time, resulting in a return waveform. Over the open ocean the waveform shape corresponds to a theoretical model which can be used to infer information on range corrections, significant wave <span class="hlt">height</span> or wind speed. However, the waveforms over lakes and rivers show patterns which are significantly influenced by signals reflected from land present in the altimeter footprint. This results in a variety of different waveforms shapes ranging from waveforms similar to the theoretical ocean case to completely different ones such as those including only small leading edges and large peaks on the trailing edge. These peaks considerably influence the estimation of the parameters of interest, such as the time origin, connected to the range information, particularly if they are located very close to the leading edge. To mitigate this problem, we present a retracking approach, which combines the advantages of sub-waveform retracking with a flexible waveform model, that allows to model symmetric and asymmetric Gaussian peaks. Based on a preliminary waveform analysis step, a defined window is applied to the total waveform and the parameters are estimated by a flexible fitting procedure. We retracked Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 data over several lakes, including the African lakes Volta and Victoria. The inferred lake level <span class="hlt">heights</span> are evaluated by comparisons to water <span class="hlt">heights</span> from in situ gauge observations, the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitoring database, as well as those derived from applying conventional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4633271','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4633271"><span>Can <span class="hlt">height</span> categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if <span class="hlt">height</span> categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. <span class="hlt">Height</span> and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical <span class="hlt">height</span> categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by <span class="hlt">height</span>. There was a high correlation between <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of <span class="hlt">heights</span> seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by <span class="hlt">height</span>. When allocating athletes by <span class="hlt">height</span> categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by <span class="hlt">height</span> categories significantly reduced the range of <span class="hlt">heights</span> of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using <span class="hlt">height</span> categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26557193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26557193"><span>Can <span class="hlt">height</span> categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W</p> <p>2015-09-29</p> <p>In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if <span class="hlt">height</span> categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. <span class="hlt">Height</span> and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical <span class="hlt">height</span> categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by <span class="hlt">height</span>. There was a high correlation between <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of <span class="hlt">heights</span> seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by <span class="hlt">height</span>. When allocating athletes by <span class="hlt">height</span> categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by <span class="hlt">height</span> categories significantly reduced the range of <span class="hlt">heights</span> of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using <span class="hlt">height</span> categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RAA....16..116W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RAA....16..116W"><span>The influence of ionospheric thin shell <span class="hlt">height</span> on TEC retrieval from GPS observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiao-Lan; Wan, Qing-Tao; Ma, Guan-Yi; Li, Jing-Hua; Fan, Jiang-Tao</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the influence of assumed <span class="hlt">height</span> for the thin shell ionosphere model on the Total Electron Content (TEC) derived from a small scale Global Positioning System (GPS) network. TEC and instrumental bias are determined by applying a grid-based algorithm to the data on several geomagnetically quiet days covering a 10 month period in 2006. Comparisons of TEC and instrumental bias are made among assumed <span class="hlt">heights</span> from 250 km to 700 km with an interval of 10 km. While the TEC variations with time follow the same trend, TEC tends to increase with the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the thin shell. The difference in TEC between <span class="hlt">heights</span> 250 km and 700 km can be as large as ˜ 8 TECU in both daytime and nighttime. The times at which the TEC reaches its peak or valley do not vary much with the assumed <span class="hlt">heights</span>. The instrumental biases, especially bias from the satellite, can vary irregularly with assumed <span class="hlt">height</span>. Several satellites show a large deviation of ˜ 3 ns for <span class="hlt">heights</span> larger than 550 km. The goodness of fit for different assumed <span class="hlt">heights</span> is also examined. The data can be generally well-fitted for <span class="hlt">heights</span> from 350 km to 700 km. A large deviation happens at <span class="hlt">heights</span> lower than 350 km. Using the grid-based algorithm, there is no consensus on assumed <span class="hlt">height</span> as related to data fitting. A thin shell <span class="hlt">height</span> in the range 350 - 500 km can be a reasonable compromise between data fitting and peak <span class="hlt">height</span> of the ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814733S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814733S"><span>Mapping wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> in sea ice with Sentinel 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stopa, Justin; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Mouche, Alexis; Guitton, Gilles; Sutherland, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sea ice plays an important role in the Earth system by regulating air-sea fluxes. These fluxes can be enhanced by the breaking of ice into floes which critically depends on wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> propagating across the ice. Remote sensing with SAR provides a unique coverage of the polar regions but so far the measurement of wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> has been performed routinely only for open water. The presence of ice completely changes the mechanisms by which waves make patterns in radar images. Namely, in the open ocean, the constructed images appear blurred due to the fact that the high frequency waves are unresolved by the sensor. Instead, in ice-covered seas, high frequency waves have been dissipated or scattered away, and only the low-frequency swell components are observed. Two new algorithms have been proposed by Ardhuin et al. (2015). Refining these algorithms, we analyze the intricate wave patterns captured over sea ice by Sentinel 1-A, and measure both the wave <span class="hlt">heights</span> and directional spreading of the wave spectrum. The procedure is a two-step process which uses an estimation of the orbital vertical velocities that produce the observed image intensity. The first step is implemented when wiggly lines are present. Wiggly lines are created by the presence of two swell systems and are removed by estimating the wave orbital velocity that causes the amplitude in the wiggly line. The second step uses Fourier analysis to invert the straightened image into a velocity field. As a result we obtain a full non-linear inversion the mapping from the velocity field to the SAR intensity image. The inverted velocities can be used to obtain the wavenumber-direction spectrum. Our algorithm is applied to S1A images from the Arctic and Antarctic and discussions follow in terms of wave-ice interaction. These data will be validated using in situ measurements from the ONR Sea State DRI (Beaufort sea, 2016), and combined with numerical modeling using the WAVEWATCH III model to adjust parameterization</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5336196','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5336196"><span>Effects of different medial arch support <span class="hlt">heights</span> on rearfoot kinematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mayer, Frank; Baur, Heiner</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Foot orthoses are usually assumed to be effective by optimizing mechanically dynamic rearfoot configuration. However, the effect from a foot orthosis on kinematics that has been demonstrated scientifically has only been marginal. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different <span class="hlt">heights</span> in medial arch-supported foot orthoses on rear foot motion during gait. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic runners (36±11years, 180±5cm, 79±10kg; 41±22km/week) participated in the study. Trials were recorded at 3.1 mph (5 km/h) on a treadmill. Athletes walked barefoot and with 4 different not customized medial arch-supported foot orthoses of various arch <span class="hlt">heights</span> (N:0 mm, M:30 mm, H:35 mm, E:40mm). Six infrared cameras and the `Oxford Foot Model´ were used to capture motion. The average stride in each condition was calculated from 50 gait cycles per condition. Eversion excursion and internal tibia rotation were analyzed. Descriptive statistics included calculating the mean ± SD and 95% CIs. Group differences by condition were analyzed by one factor (foot orthoses) repeated measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). Results Eversion excursion revealed the lowest values for N and highest for H (B:4.6°±2.2°; 95% CI [3.1;6.2]/N:4.0°±1.7°; [2.9;5.2]/M:5.2°±2.6°; [3.6;6.8]/H:6.2°±3.3°; [4.0;8.5]/E:5.1°±3.5°; [2.8;7.5]) (p>0.05). Range of internal tibia rotation was lowest with orthosis H and highest with E (B:13.3°±3.2°; 95% CI [11.0;15.6]/N:14.5°±7.2°; [9.2;19.6]/M:13.8°±5.0°; [10.8;16.8]/H:12.3°±4.3°; [9.0;15.6]/E:14.9°±5.0°; [11.5;18.3]) (p>0.05). Differences between conditions were small and the intrasubject variation high. Conclusion Our results indicate that different arch support <span class="hlt">heights</span> have no systematic effect on eversion excursion or the range of internal tibia rotation and therefore might not exert a crucial influence on rear foot alignment during gait. PMID:28257426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03356&hterms=Leopard&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLeopard','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03356&hterms=Leopard&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLeopard"><span>Shaded Relief with <span class="hlt">Height</span> as Color, Mount Meru, Tanzania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in <span class="hlt">height</span> but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park. Its fertile slopes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in June. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue and white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258798"><span>Suspect <span class="hlt">Height</span> Estimation Using the Faro Focus(3D) Laser Scanner.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Monique; Liscio, Eugene</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>At present, very little research has been devoted to investigating the ability of laser scanning technology to accurately measure <span class="hlt">height</span> from surveillance video. The goal of this study was to test the accuracy of one particular laser scanner to estimate suspect <span class="hlt">height</span> from video footage. The known <span class="hlt">heights</span> of 10 individuals were measured using an anthropometer. The individuals were then recorded on video walking along a predetermined path in a simulated crime scene environment both with and without headwear. The difference between the known <span class="hlt">heights</span> and the estimated <span class="hlt">heights</span> obtained from the laser scanner software were compared using a one-way t-test. The <span class="hlt">height</span> estimates obtained from the software were not significantly different from the known <span class="hlt">heights</span> whether individuals were wearing headwear (p = 0.186) or not (p = 0.707). Thus, laser scanning is one technique that could potentially be used by investigators to determine suspect <span class="hlt">height</span> from video footage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28059760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28059760"><span>Volcanic tremor and plume <span class="hlt">height</span> hysteresis from Pavlof Volcano, Alaska.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fee, David; Haney, Matthew M; Matoza, Robin S; Eaton, Alexa R; Cervelli, Peter; Schneider, David J; Iezzi, Alexandra M</p> <p>2017-01-06</p> <p>The March 2016 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, produced an ash plume that caused the cancellation of more than 100 flights in North America. The eruption generated strong tremor that was recorded by seismic and remote low-frequency acoustic (infrasound) stations, including the EarthScope Transportable Array. The relationship between the tremor amplitudes and plume <span class="hlt">height</span> changes considerably between the waxing and waning portions of the eruption. Similar hysteresis has been observed between seismic river noise and discharge during storms, suggesting that flow and erosional processes in both rivers and volcanoes can produce irreversible structural changes that are detectable in geophysical data. We propose that the time-varying relationship at Pavlof arose from changes in the tremor source related to volcanic vent erosion. This relationship may improve estimates of volcanic emissions and characterization of eruption size and intensity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..33.1605Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..33.1605Y"><span>Interdecadal variability of the sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span> around Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yasuda, Tamaki; Sakurai, Keizo</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The variability of the sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span> (SSH) around Japan during 1960-2002 was investigated using an ocean general circulation model. The first EOF mode of the simulated SSH change has bidecadal variability and exhibits simultaneous variations around Japan that are in good agreement with the observed sea level changes along the Japanese coast. The variability is caused primarily by the meridional shift of the boundary between the subtropical and subpolar gyres due to shifting of the westerlies over the central North Pacific. The second mode of SSH change indicates a north-south dipole structure around Japan, that results from a change in the strength of the subtropical gyre due to a change in the magnitude of the westerlies. The rising (descending) trend of the sea level observed in the western (eastern) part of Japan in the past 40 years is determined by the increasing trend of the westerlies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6375K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6375K"><span>Fast algorithm for calculation of the moving tsunami wave <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivorotko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>One of the most urgent problems of mathematical tsunami modeling is estimation of a tsunami wave <span class="hlt">height</span> while a wave approaches to the coastal zone. There are two methods for solving this problem, namely, Airy-Green formula in one-dimensional case ° --- S(x) = S(0) 4 H(0)/H (x), and numerical solution of an initial-boundary value problem for linear shallow water equations ( { ηtt = div (gH (x,y)gradη), (x,y,t) ∈ ΩT := Ω ×(0,T); ( η|t=0 = q(x,y), ηt|t=0 = 0, (x,y ) ∈ Ω := (0,Lx)× (0,Ly ); (1) η|δΩT = 0. Here η(x,y,t) is the free water surface vertical displacement, H(x,y) is the depth at point (x,y), q(x,y) is the initial amplitude of a tsunami wave, S(x) is a moving tsunami wave <span class="hlt">height</span> at point x. The main difficulty problem of tsunami modeling is a very big size of the computational domain ΩT. The calculation of the function η(x,y,t) of three variables in ΩT requires large computing resources. We construct a new algorithm to solve numerically the problem of determining the moving tsunami wave <span class="hlt">height</span> which is based on kinematic-type approach and analytical representation of fundamental solution (2). The wave is supposed to be generated by the seismic fault of the bottom η(x,y,0) = g(y) ·θ(x), where θ(x) is a Heaviside theta-function. Let τ(x,y) be a solution of the eikonal equation 1 τ2x +τ2y = --, gH (x,y) satisfying initial conditions τ(0,y) = 0 and τx(0,y) = (gH (0,y))-1/2. Introducing new variables and new functions: ° -- z = τ(x,y), u(z,y,t) = ηt(x,y,t), b(z,y) = gH(x,y). We obtain an initial-boundary value problem in new variables from (1) ( 2 2 (2 bz- ) { utt = uzz + b uyy + 2b τyuzy + b(τxx + τyy) + 2b + 2bbyτy uz+ ( +2b(bzτy + by)uy, z,y- >2 0,t > 0,2 -1/2 u|t 0,t > 0. Then after some mathematical transformation we get the structure of the function u(x,y,t) in the form u(z,y,t) = S(z,y)·θ(t - z) + ˜u(z,y,t). (2) Here Å©(z,y,t) is a smooth function, S(z,y) is the solution of the problem: { S + b2τ S + (1b2(τ +</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MAR.H1213S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MAR.H1213S"><span>Physics - The Difference between Life and Death: III. Great <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaibani, Saami</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Although calculation of the maximum survivable <span class="hlt">height</span> from which a human can fall is problematic, it is reasonable to opine that the probability of non-fatality in a descent of some 500 feet from the roof of a building is exceptionally low. When two brothers simultaneously experienced such an event, one lived and the other did not. (Note: A nominally similar fall by another male also resulted in survival.) The general methodology for resolving such diverse outcomes is explained in other work [3,4], which provides some background for this study. Differentiation between the two subject adult males was limited by a lack of sufficient specificity in available data; however, it is still possible to consider the relevant physics principles and thereby examine the issues involved. Injury mechanisms are discussed and comparisons with other traumatic environments are made. The latter are included because their everyday nature provides a helpful illustration for learning.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22269572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22269572"><span>The physics and chemistry of the Schottky barrier <span class="hlt">height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tung, Raymond T.</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>The formation of the Schottky barrier <span class="hlt">height</span> (SBH) is a complex problem because of the dependence of the SBH on the atomic structure of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. Existing models of the SBH are too simple to realistically treat the chemistry exhibited at MS interfaces. This article points out, through examination of available experimental and theoretical results, that a comprehensive, quantum-mechanics-based picture of SBH formation can already be constructed, although no simple equations can emerge, which are applicable for all MS interfaces. Important concepts and principles in physics and chemistry that govern the formation of the SBH are described in detail, from which the experimental and theoretical results for individual MS interfaces can be understood. Strategies used and results obtained from recent investigations to systematically modify the SBH are also examined from the perspective of the physical and chemical principles of the MS interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JApMe..22..537M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JApMe..22..537M"><span>Predicting Daily Insolation with Hourly Cloud <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Coverage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyers, T. P.; Dale, R. F.</p> <p>1983-04-01</p> <p>Solar radiation information is used in crop growth, boundary layer, entomological and plant pathological models, and in determining the potential use of active and passive solar energy systems. Yet solar radiation is among the least measured meteorological variables.A semi-physical model based on standard meteorological data was developed to estimate solar radiation received at the earth's surface. The radiation model includes the effects of Rayleigh scattering, absorption by water vapor and permanent gases, and absorption and scattering by aerosols and clouds. Cloud attenuation is accounted for by assigning transmission coefficients based on cloud <span class="hlt">height</span> and amount. The cloud transmission coefficients for various <span class="hlt">heights</span> and coverages were derived empirically from hourly observations of solar radiation in conjunction with corresponding cloud observations at West Lafayette, Indiana. The model was tested with independent data from West Lafayette and Indianapolis, Madison, WI, Omaha, NE, Columbia, MO, Nashville, TN, Seattle, WA, Los Angeles, CA, Phoenix, AZ, Lake Charles, LA, Miami, FL, and Sterling, VA. For each of these locations a 16% random sample of days was drawn within each of the 12 months in a year for testing the model. Excellent agreement between predicted and observed radiation values was obtained for all stations tested. Mean absolute errors ranged from 1.05 to 1.80 MJ m2 day1 and root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.31 to 2.32 MJ m2 day1. The model's performance judged by relative error was found to be independent of season and cloud amount for all locations tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27383642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27383642"><span>Visual <span class="hlt">height</span> intolerance and acrophobia: distressing partners for life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Fitz, Werner; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The course of illness, the degree of social impairment, and the rate of help-seeking behavior was evaluated in a sample of individuals with visual <span class="hlt">height</span> intolerance (vHI) and acrophobia. On the basis of a previously described epidemiological sample representative of the German general population, 574 individuals with vHI were identified, 128 fulfilled the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of acrophobia. The illness of the majority of all susceptible individuals with vHI ran a year-long chronic course. Two thirds were in the category "persistent/worse", whereas only one third was in the category "improved/remitted". Subjects with acrophobia showed significantly more traumatic triggers of onset, more signs of generalization to other <span class="hlt">height</span> stimuli, higher rates of increasing intensity of symptom load, higher grades of social impairment, and greater overall negative impact on the quality of life than those with pure vHI. An unfavorable course of illness in pure vHI was predicted by major depression, agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress, initial traumatic trigger, and female sex; an unfavorable course in acrophobia was predicted by major depression, chronic fatigue, panic attacks, initial traumatic trigger, social phobia, other specific phobic fears, and female sex. Help-seeking behavior was astonishingly low in the overall sample of individuals with vHI. The consequences of therapeutic interventions if complied with at all were quite modest. In adults pure vHI and even more so acrophobia are by no means only transitionally distressing states. In contrast to their occurrence in children they are more often persisting and disabling conditions. Both the utilization of and adequacy of treatment of these illnesses pose major challenges within primary and secondary neurological and psychiatric medical care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015766&hterms=quantitative+qualitative+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dquantitative%2Bqualitative%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015766&hterms=quantitative+qualitative+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dquantitative%2Bqualitative%2Bdata"><span>Specifying <span class="hlt">heights</span> and velocities of cloud motion from geostationary sounding data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Menzel, P.; Stewart, T. R.; Smith, W. L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Data from the geostationary Visible Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) for assigning simultaneous <span class="hlt">heights</span> and velocities of cloud motion winds were processed. The following two techniques are discussed: The technique which delivers qualitative <span class="hlt">height</span> assignments from imagery; and which uses the radiometric information contained in the VAS data to calculate quantitative <span class="hlt">heights</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.729 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.729... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.729 Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The permissible effective radiated power (ERP) with respect to antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> for land mobile, paging, or fixed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.729 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.729... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.729 Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The permissible effective radiated power (ERP) with respect to antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> for land mobile, paging, or fixed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.729 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.729... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.729 Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The permissible effective radiated power (ERP) with respect to antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> for land mobile, paging, or fixed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.729 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.729... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.729 Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The permissible effective radiated power (ERP) with respect to antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> for land mobile, paging, or fixed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-729.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.729 - Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. 90.729... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.729 Limitations on power and antenna <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) The permissible effective radiated power (ERP) with respect to antenna <span class="hlt">heights</span> for land mobile, paging, or fixed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090010091','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090010091"><span>Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated <span class="hlt">Height</span> in a Microgravity Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: 1. To collect spinal elongation induced seated <span class="hlt">height</span> data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments. 2. To provide information relating to the seated <span class="hlt">height</span> rate of change over time for astronauts subjected to microgravity. We will collect: Seated <span class="hlt">Height</span> measurement (ground & flight) and digital still photograph (ground and flight).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915710','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915710"><span>A biomechanical evaluation of staircase riser <span class="hlt">heights</span> and tread depths during stair-climbing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mital, A; Fard, H F; Khaledi, H</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>Several different staircase riser <span class="hlt">heights</span> and tread depths were investigated in order to determine riser <span class="hlt">height</span> and tread depth that minimized moments acting at the ankle, knee, and hipjoints while walking upstairs. The results indicated that joint moments were minimized when the riser <span class="hlt">height</span> was 102 mm. For the tread depth, least moments were obtained when the depth was 305 mm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Actor&pg=6&id=EJ804702','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Actor&pg=6&id=EJ804702"><span>Tuning in to Another Person's Action Capabilities: Perceiving Maximal Jumping-Reach <span class="hlt">Height</span> from Walking Kinematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ramenzoni, Veronica; Riley, Michael A.; Davis, Tehran; Shockley, Kevin; Armstrong, Rachel</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Three experiments investigated the ability to perceive the maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> to which another actor could jump to reach an object. Experiment 1 determined the accuracy of estimates for another actor's maximal reach-with-jump <span class="hlt">height</span> and compared these estimates to estimates of the actor's standing maximal reaching <span class="hlt">height</span> and to estimates of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Body+AND+measurements&pg=5&id=EJ967139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Body+AND+measurements&pg=5&id=EJ967139"><span>Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from <span class="hlt">height</span> and weight quartile-specific, corrected…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf"><span>49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. 231.31... cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> of drawbars for freight cars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf"><span>49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. 231.31... cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> of drawbars for freight cars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf"><span>49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. 231.31... cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> of drawbars for freight cars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf"><span>49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. 231.31... cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> of drawbars for freight cars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol4-sec231-31.pdf"><span>49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. 231.31... cars; standard <span class="hlt">height</span>. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum <span class="hlt">height</span> of drawbars for freight cars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5336260','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5336260"><span>The association between adult attained <span class="hlt">height</span> and sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> with mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wark, Petra A.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María-Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; HM Peeters, Petra; T. van der Schouw, Yvonne; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; da Silva, Marisa; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; J. Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; J. Cross, Amanda</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for <span class="hlt">height</span> and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality but inverse associations for circulatory disease mortality. Sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> might be more strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, data on sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> and mortality is sparse. Using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a prospective cohort of 409,748 individuals, we examined adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. <span class="hlt">Height</span> was measured in the majority of participants; sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> was measured in ~253,000 participants. During an average of 12.5 years of follow-up, 29,810 deaths (11,931 from cancer and 7,346 from circulatory disease) were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for death were calculated using multivariable Cox regression within quintiles of <span class="hlt">height</span>. <span class="hlt">Height</span> was positively associated with cancer mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.00–1.24; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.07–1.28). In contrast, <span class="hlt">height</span> was inversely associated with circulatory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.56–0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.93). Although sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> was not associated with cancer mortality, it was inversely associated with circulatory disease (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.55–0.75; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.49–0.74) and respiratory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.28–0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.40–0.89). We observed opposing effects of <span class="hlt">height</span> on cancer and circulatory disease mortality. Sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> was inversely associated with circulatory disease and respiratory disease mortality. PMID:28257491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28257491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28257491"><span>The association between adult attained <span class="hlt">height</span> and sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> with mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sawada, Norie; Wark, Petra A; Merritt, Melissa A; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María-Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Hm Peeters, Petra; T van der Schouw, Yvonne; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; da Silva, Marisa; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; J Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; J Cross, Amanda</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for <span class="hlt">height</span> and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality but inverse associations for circulatory disease mortality. Sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> might be more strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, data on sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> and mortality is sparse. Using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a prospective cohort of 409,748 individuals, we examined adult <span class="hlt">height</span> and sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. <span class="hlt">Height</span> was measured in the majority of participants; sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> was measured in ~253,000 participants. During an average of 12.5 years of follow-up, 29,810 deaths (11,931 from cancer and 7,346 from circulatory disease) were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for death were calculated using multivariable Cox regression within quintiles of <span class="hlt">height</span>. <span class="hlt">Height</span> was positively associated with cancer mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.00-1.24; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.07-1.28). In contrast, <span class="hlt">height</span> was inversely associated with circulatory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.56-0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.93). Although sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> was not associated with cancer mortality, it was inversely associated with circulatory disease (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.55-0.75; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.49-0.74) and respiratory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.28-0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.40-0.89). We observed opposing effects of <span class="hlt">height</span> on cancer and circulatory disease mortality. Sitting <span class="hlt">height</span> was inversely associated with circulatory disease and respiratory disease mortality.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3311550','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3311550"><span>A Macroecological Analysis of SERA Derived Forest <span class="hlt">Heights</span> and Implications for Forest Volume Remote Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H.; Niklas, Karl J.; Hammond, Sean T.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, <span class="hlt">height</span> and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive <span class="hlt">heights</span>, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this <span class="hlt">height</span> is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum <span class="hlt">height</span>, mean, H100, and Lorey's <span class="hlt">height</span> are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum <span class="hlt">height</span>, and to a lesser extent H100 and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest <span class="hlt">height</span> to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using <span class="hlt">height</span> alone. SERA predicts mean <span class="hlt">height</span> to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the <span class="hlt">height</span> classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 102–106 plants/hectare and <span class="hlt">heights</span> 6–49 m. <span class="hlt">Height</span> classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's <span class="hlt">height</span> with its specific relationship to remote sensing physics is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JVGR..259..170E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JVGR..259..170E"><span>A multi-sensor plume <span class="hlt">height</span> analysis of the 2009 Redoubt eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ekstrand, Angela L.; Webley, Peter W.; Garay, Michael J.; Dehn, Jonathan; Prakash, Anupma; Nelson, David L.; Dean, Kenneson G.; Steensen, Torge</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>During an explosive volcanic eruption, accurately determining the <span class="hlt">height</span> of a volcanic plume or cloud is essential to accurately forecast its motion because volcanic ash transport and dispersion models require the initial plume <span class="hlt">height</span> as an input parameter. The direct use of satellite infrared temperatures for <span class="hlt">height</span> determination, one of the most commonly employed methods at the Alaska Volcano Observatory, often does not yield unique solutions for <span class="hlt">height</span>. This result is documented here for the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. Satellite temperature <span class="hlt">heights</span> consistently underestimated the <span class="hlt">height</span> of ash plumes in comparison to other methods such as ground-based radar and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) stereo <span class="hlt">heights</span>. For ash plumes below the tropopause, increasing transparency of a plume begins to affect the accuracy of simple temperature <span class="hlt">height</span> retrievals soon after eruption. With decreasing opacity, plume temperature <span class="hlt">heights</span> become increasingly inaccurate. Comparison with dispersion models and aircraft gas flight data confirms that radar and MISR stereo <span class="hlt">heights</span> are more accurate than basic satellite temperature <span class="hlt">heights</span>. Even in the cases in which satellite temperature results appeared to be relatively accurate (e.g., for plumes below the tropopause), a mixed signal of plume and ground radiation still presented an issue for almost every event studied. This was true regardless of the fact that a band differencing method was used to remove presumably translucent pixels. The data presented here make a strong case for the use of data fusion in volcano monitoring, as there is a need to confirm satellite temperature <span class="hlt">heights</span> with other <span class="hlt">height</span> data. If only basic satellite temperature <span class="hlt">heights</span> are available for a given eruption, then these <span class="hlt">heights</span> must be considered with a significant margin of error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457800"><span>A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest <span class="hlt">heights</span> and implications for forest volume remote sensing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, <span class="hlt">height</span> and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive <span class="hlt">heights</span>, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this <span class="hlt">height</span> is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy <span class="hlt">height</span> relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum <span class="hlt">height</span>, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's <span class="hlt">height</span> are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum <span class="hlt">height</span>, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest <span class="hlt">height</span> to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using <span class="hlt">height</span> alone. SERA predicts mean <span class="hlt">height</span> to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the <span class="hlt">height</span> classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and <span class="hlt">heights</span> 6-49 m. <span class="hlt">Height</span> classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's <span class="hlt">height</span> with its specific relationship to remote sensing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1019301','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1019301"><span>Absorber <span class="hlt">height</span> effects on SWA restrictions and 'Shadow' LER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick</p> <p>2011-02-21</p> <p>As extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) approaches introduction at the 22-nm half-pitch node, several key aspects of absorber <span class="hlt">height</span> effects remain unexplored. In particular, sidewall angle (SWA) restrictions based on the <span class="hlt">height</span> of the mask absorber has not yet been clearly defined. In addition, the effects of absorber <span class="hlt">height</span> on line-edge roughness (LER) from shadowing has not been examined. We make an initial investigation into how tight SWA constraints are and the extent to which shadow LER alters basic LER. Our approach to SWA aims to find SWA restrictions based on 10% of the total CD error budget (10% of CD). Thus, we allot the SWA budget a {+-}0.2nm tolerance for 22nm half-pitch. New with EUVL is the off-axis illumination system. One potential pitfall that must be carefully monitored is the effect of mask absorber <span class="hlt">height</span> blocking light from reaching, and therefore, correctly detecting, the base edge position of a feature. While mask features can correctly compensate sizing to target at the wafer, the effects of this shadowing on LER have not yet been investigated. Specifically, shadow LER may exacerbate or mitigate the inherent LER on the mask. Shadowing may also cause a difference in the observed LER on the right and left side of the features. We carefully probe this issue for a range of spatial frequencies. We do rigorous aerial image modeling of mask features with a nominal SWA of 80 degrees and correctly sized to target 22nm features measured at the top, 70nm TaN absorber on a 40 bilayer ML mirror with a 2.5nm Ru cap. Simulations were on a 4X system with an ideal pupil of NA = 0.32, illumination wavelength 13.4nm at 6{sup o} off-axis, and disk source shape with partial coherence factor of {sigma} = 0.50. We first implement a defocus offset to the aerial image so that best focus lies at a nominal zero defocus value. We then calculate the depth of focus (DOF) for which the image-log-slope (ILS) delivers a contrast is greater than 50%, an arbitrary standard</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972074','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972074"><span>Indium Growth and Island <span class="hlt">Height</span> Control on Si Submonolayer Phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Jizhou</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>) have a wave length of 13.4 nm so it can curve on the surface of an sample to make structure as small as the order of 10 nm. however, lithograph usually causes permanent damages to the surface and in many cases the QDs are damaged during the lithograph and therefore result in high percentage of defects. Quantum size effect has attracted more and more interests in surface science due to many of its effects. One of its effects is the <span class="hlt">height</span> preference in film growing and the resulting possibility of uniformly sized self-assemble nanostructure. The experiment of Pb islands on In 4x1 phase shows that both the <span class="hlt">height</span> and the width can be controlled by proper growth conditions, which expands the growth dimensions from 1 to 2. This discover leads us to study the In/Pb interface. In Ch.3, we found that the Pb islands growing on In 4x1-Si(111) surface which have uniform <span class="hlt">height</span> due to QSE and uniform width due to the constriction of In 4x1 lattice have unexpected stability. These islands are stable in even RT, unlike usual nanostructures on Pb/Si surface which are stable only at low temperature. Since similar structures are usually grown at low temperature, this discovery makes the grown structures closer to technological applications. It also shows the unusual of In/Pb interface. Then we studied the In islands grown on Pb-α-√3x√3-Si(111) phase in Ch.4. These islands have fcc structure in the first few layers, and then convert to bct structure. The In fcc islands have sharp <span class="hlt">height</span> preference due to QSE like Pb islands. However, the preferred <span class="hlt">height</span> is different (7 layer for Pb on Si 7x7 and 4 layer for Pb on In 4x1), due to the difference of interface. The In islands structure prefers to be bct than fcc with coverage increase. It is quantitatively supported by first-principle calculation. Unexpectedly, the In islands grown on various of In interfaces didn't show QSE effects and phase transition from fcc and bct structures as on the Pb-α interface (Ch.6). In g(s) curve there</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04958&hterms=Africa+rising&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAfrica%2Brising','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04958&hterms=Africa+rising&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAfrica%2Brising"><span>Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. <p/> Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. <p/> Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the <span class="hlt">height</span> to its present value. <p/> Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. <p/> Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JGR....8911152W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JGR....8911152W"><span>On geoid <span class="hlt">heights</span> and flexure of the lithosphere at seamounts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watts, A. B.; Ribe, N. M.</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>The sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span> has now been mapped to an accuracy of better than ±1 m by using radar altimeters on board orbiting satellites. The major influence on the mean sea surface <span class="hlt">height</span> is the marine geoid which is an equipotential surface. We have carried out preliminary studies of how oceanic volcanoes, which rise above the ocean floor as isolated seamounts and oceanic islands or linear ridges, contribute to the marine geoid. Simple one- and two-dimensional models have been constructed in which it is assumed that the oceanic lithosphere responds to volcanic loads as a thin elastic plate overlying a weak fluid substratum. Previous studies based on gravity and bathymetry data and uplift/subsidence patterns show that the effective flexural rigidity of oceanic lithosphere and the equivalent elastic thickness Te increase with the age of the lithosphere at the time of loading. The models predict that isolated seamounts emplaced on relatively young lithosphere on or near a mid-ocean ridge crest will be associated with relatively low amplitude geoid anomalies (about 0.4-0.5 m/km of <span class="hlt">height</span>), while seamounts formed on relatively old lithosphere, on ridge flanks, will be associated with much higher amplitude anomalies (1.4-1.5 m/km). Studies of the Seasat altimetric geoid prepared by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory support these model predictions; geoid amplitudes are relatively low over the Mid-Pacific Mountains and Line Islands, which formed on or near a mid-ocean ridge crest, and relatively high over the Magellan Seamounts and Wake Guyots, which formed off ridge. Direct modeling of the altimetric geoid over these features is complicated, however, by the wide spacing of the satellite tracks (which can exceed 100 km) and poor bathymetric control beneath individual satellite tracks. In regions where multibeam bathymetric surveys are available, models can be constructed that fit the altimetric geoid to better than ±1 m. Studies of geoid anomalies over the Emperor seamount</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04951&hterms=religion&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dreligion','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04951&hterms=religion&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dreligion"><span>Mts. Agung and Batur, Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/>This perspective view shows the major volcanic group of Bali, one 13,000 islands comprising the nation of Indonesia. The conical mountain to the left is Gunung Agung, at 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) the highest point on Bali and an object of great significance in Balinese religion and culture. Agung underwent a major eruption in 1963 after more than 100 years of dormancy, resulting in the loss of over 1,000 lives.<p/>In the center is the complex structure of Batur volcano, showing a caldera (volcanic crater) left over from a massive catastrophic eruption about 30,000 years ago. Judging from the total volume of the outer crater and the volcano, that once lay above it, approximately 140 cubic kilometers(33.4 cubic miles) of material must have been produced by this eruption, making it one of the largest known volcanic events on Earth. Batur is still active and has erupted at least 22 times since the 1800's.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A43A0192W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A43A0192W"><span>Estimation of Atmospheric Mixing Layer <span class="hlt">Height</span> from radiosonde data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, X.; Wang, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Mixing layer is the lowest layer of the troposphere where surface turbulence can reach during the daytime. Mixing layer <span class="hlt">height</span> (MLH) is an important parameter for understanding the transport process, air pollution, weather and climate change. MLH can be determined from the radiosonde profiles of relative humidity (RH), specific humidity (q), potential temperature (θ) and atmospheric refractivity (N) by searching for the strongest gradients of these parameters within a specific <span class="hlt">height</span> above the surface. However, substantially different MLHs have been found from different parameters. The occurrence of cloud impacts on MLHs derived in two ways: (1) clouds impact the measurements of θ and RH, resulting in spurious MLHs derived by θ and RH, (2) clouds may amplify or depress turbulence, that is MLH can be at cloud top or cloud base when it occurs. However, MLHs determined by existing methods can generally be at cloud top. To solve these problems, we propose a method to estimate MLH by integrating the information of θ, RH, q, N and discriminating different cloud impacts on MLH. We apply this method to high vertical resolution (~30 m) radiosonde data collected at the 79 stations over North America during the period of 1998 to 2008 released by the Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate Data Center. The results show good agreement with those from N as the information of temperature and humidity contained in N, however the impact of clouds including in the new method has increased the reliability of MLH. The new results show good agreement with independent MLH determined from Lidar observations. MLH over the North America is 1647×323 meter with a strong east-west gradient, higher MLH (generally greater than 1800 m) over the Midwest America and lower MLH (less than 1300 m) over Alaska and west coast of America. The scatter plot of climatological MLHnew with MLHθ, MLHRH, MLHq, MLHN and MLHint for the period of 1998 to 2008. Pattern of climatological MLH of our</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03395&hterms=green+world&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgreen%2Bworld','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03395&hterms=green+world&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgreen%2Bworld"><span>World in Mercator Projection, Shaded Relief and Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/>This image of the world was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) This image was created from that data set and shows the world between 60 degrees south and 60 degrees north latitude, covering 80% of the Earth's land mass. The image is in the Mercator Projection commonly used for maps of the world.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.<p/>Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03346&hterms=Floodplains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFloodplains','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03346&hterms=Floodplains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFloodplains"><span>Shaded Relief with Color as <span class="hlt">Height</span>, St. Louis, Missouri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><p/> The confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers are shown in this view of the St. Louis area from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The Mississippi flows from the upper left of the image and first meets the Illinois, flowing southward from the top right. It then joins the Missouri, flowing from the west across the center of the picture. The rivers themselves appear black here, and one can clearly see the green-colored floodplains in which they are contained. These floodplains are at particular risk during times of flooding. The Mississippi forms the state boundary between Illinois (to the right) and Missouri (to the left), with the city of St. Louis located on the Mississippi just below the point where it meets the Missouri. This location at the hub of the major American waterways helped establish St. Louis' reputation as the 'Gateway to the West.'<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03333&hterms=color+blue&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcolor%2Bblue','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03333&hterms=color+blue&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcolor%2Bblue"><span>Shaded Relief with Color as <span class="hlt">Height</span>, California Mosaic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><p/> The diversity of landforms that make up the state of California is evident in this new rendition of the 3-D topography of the state. The Central Valley, flanked on the east by the Sierra Nevada, dominates the scene with San Francisco and Monterey Bays clearly visible at left center. Other features of interest include Lake Tahoe at the edge to the right of San Francisco, Mono Lake below Lake Tahoe, and the Salton Sea at the lower right. The prominent sideways 'V' in the southern part of the state is the intersection of the Garlock and San Andreas Faults - to the east is the Mojave Desert. Offshore are the Channel Islands and to the right of them lies the city of Los Angeles.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817445D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817445D"><span>Global 30m <span class="hlt">Height</span> Above the Nearest Drainage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as <span class="hlt">height</span> maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is <span class="hlt">Height</span> Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V43B2888Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V43B2888Z"><span>Photogrammetric Retrieval of Etna's Plume <span class="hlt">Height</span> from SEVIRI and MODIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaksek, K.; Ganci, G.; Hort, M. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Even remote volcanoes can impact the modern society due to volcanic ash dispersion in the atmosphere. A lot of research is currently dedicated to minimizing the impact of volcanic ash on air traffic. But the ash transport in the atmosphere and its deposition on land and in the oceans may also significantly influence the climate through modifications of atmospheric CO2. The emphasis of this contribution is the retrieval of volcanic ash plume <span class="hlt">height</span>. This is important information for air traffic, to predict ash transport and to estimate the mass flux of the ejected material. The best way to monitor volcanic ash cloud top <span class="hlt">height</span> (ACTH) on the global level is using satellite remote sensing. The most commonly used method for satellite ACTH compares brightness temperature of the cloud with the atmospheric temperature profile. Because of well-known uncertainties of this method we propose photogrammetric methods based on the parallax between data retrieved from geostationary (SEVIRI, HRV band; 1000 m spatial resolution) and polar orbiting satellites (MODIS, band 1; 250 m spatial resolution). The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously butMODIS does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection in the atmosphere we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MODIS retrieval) and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MODIS retrieval. ACTH is then estimated by intersection of corresponding lines-of-view from MODIS and interpolated SEVIRI data. The proposed method has already been tested for the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This case study had almost perfect conditions as the plume was vast and stretching over a homogeneous background - ocean. Here we show results of ACTH estimation during lava fountaining activity of Mount Etna in years 2011-2013. This activity resulted in volcanic ash plumes that are much smaller than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03324&hterms=italy+history&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ditaly%2Bhistory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03324&hterms=italy+history&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ditaly%2Bhistory"><span>SRTM Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Shaded Relief: Near Zapala, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Topographic data provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission can provide many clues to geologic history and processes. This view of an area southwest of Zapala, Argentina, shows a wide diversity of geologic features. The highest peaks (left) appear to be massive (un-layered)crystalline rocks, perhaps granites. To their right (eastward) are tilted and eroded layered rocks, perhaps old lava flows, forming prominent ridges. Farther east and south, more subtle and curvilinear ridges show that the rock layers have not only been tilted but also folded. At the upper right, plateaus that cap the underlying geologic complexities are more recent lava flows - younger than the folding, but older than the current erosional pattern. Landforms in the southeast (lower right) and south-central areas appear partially wind sculpted.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color-coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03327&hterms=italy+history&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ditaly%2Bhistory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03327&hterms=italy+history&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ditaly%2Bhistory"><span>SRTM Colored <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Shaded Relief: Las Bayas, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The interplay of volcanism, stream erosion and landslides is evident in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains, southeast of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Older lava flows emanating from the Andes once covered much of this area. Younger, local volcanoes (seen here as small peaks) then covered parts of the area with fresh, erosion resistant flows (seen here as very smooth surfaces). Subsequent erosion has created fine patterns on the older surfaces (bottom of the image) and bolder, irregular patterns through and around the younger surfaces (upper center and right center). Meanwhile, where a large stream immediately borders the resistant plateau (center of the image), lateral erosion has undercut the resistant plateau causing slivers of it to fall into the stream channel. This scene well illustrate show topographic data alone can reveal some aspects of recent geologic history.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23462313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23462313"><span>Limits to the <span class="hlt">height</span> growth of Caragana korshinskii resprouts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Xiang-Wen; Turner, Neil C; Xu, Dang-Hui; Jin, Yi; He, Jin; Li, Feng-Min</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Predawn leaf water potential (LWP), the LWP between 09:00 and 10:30 h (termed minimum LWP), stem xylem hydraulic conductivity, foliar nitrogen, leaf gas exchange and leaf traits were measured on the same days in adults and 1-year-old to 7-year-old resprouts that had regrown after removing all the aboveground shoots. <span class="hlt">Height</span> growth and accumulation of aboveground biomass quickly decreased with resprout age and there was no difference between 7-year-old resprouts and the uncut adults. Predawn LWP showed no significant difference between resprouts and adults, but the minimum LWP decreased gradually from -2.0 MPa in 1-year-old resprouts to -3.0 MPa in 7-year-old resprouts. The decrease in minimum LWP was associated with increased hydraulic resistance, as indicated by the gradual decrease in leaf area-specific hydraulic conductivity (KL) and sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity (KS) and the associated increase in stem native percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity in older than 2-year-old resprouts. The leaf nitrogen content per unit area (Narea) also decreased steadily from 3.6 g m(-2) in 1-year-old resprouts to 1.7 g m(-2) in 7-year-old resprouts. With the decline in LWP and Narea, the rate of leaf photosynthesis per unit area (Aarea) decreased from 20 μ mol m(-2) s(-1) in 1-year-old resprouts to 11 μ mol m(-2) s(-1) in 7-year-old resprouts. In adults, although KS decreased further compared with 7-year-old resprouts, the minimum LWP, KL, Narea and the rate of photosynthesis increased by 0.3 MPa, 29, 34 and 23%, respectively. The results show that a progressive loss of stem hydraulic conductivity and a steady decrease in foliar nitrogen with age were associated with a decrease in the photosynthetic rate of Caragana korshinskii Kom. resprouts, possibly changing the allocation of photosynthetic assimilates and slowing resprout <span class="hlt">height</span> growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03383&hterms=national+parks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dnational%2Bparks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03383&hterms=national+parks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dnational%2Bparks"><span>Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with <span class="hlt">Height</span> as Color</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.<p/>Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic <span class="hlt">height</span>, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.<p/>Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905458"><span>Development and Evaluation of Models for the Relationship between Tree <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Diameter at Breast <span class="hlt">Height</span> for Chinese-Fir Plantations in Subtropical China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yan-qiong; Deng, Xiang-wen; Huang, Zhi-hong; Xiang, Wen-hua; Yan, Wen-de; Lei, Pi-feng; Zhou, Xiao-lu; Peng, Chang-hui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tree diameter at breast <span class="hlt">height</span> (dbh) and <span class="hlt">height</span> are the most important variables used in forest inventory and management as well as forest carbon-stock estimation. In order to identify the key stand variables that influence the tree <span class="hlt">height</span>-dbh relationship and to develop and validate a suit of models for predicting tree <span class="hlt">height</span>, data from 5961 tree samples aged from 6 years to 53 years and collected from 80 Chinese-fir plantation plots were used to fit 39 models, including 33 nonlinear models and 6 linear models, were developed and evaluated into two groups. The results showed that composite models performed better in <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate than one-independent-variable models. Nonlinear composite Model 34 and linear composite Model 6 were recommended for predicting tree <span class="hlt">height</span> in Chinese fir plantations with a dbh range between 4 cm and 40 cm when the dbh data for each tree and the quadratic mean dbh of the stand (Dq) and mean <span class="hlt">height</span> of the stand (Hm) were available. Moreover, Hm could be estimated by using the formula Hm = 11.707 × l n(Dq)-18.032. Clearly, Dq was the primary stand variable that influenced the <span class="hlt">height</span>-dbh relationship. The parameters of the models varied according to stand age and site. The inappropriate application of provincial or regional <span class="hlt">height</span>-dbh models for predicting small tree <span class="hlt">height</span> at local scale may result in larger uncertainties. The method and the recommended models developed in this study were statistically reliable for applications in growth and yield estimation for even-aged Chinese-fir plantation in Huitong and Changsha. The models could be extended to other regions and to other tree species only after verification in subtropical China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4408119','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4408119"><span>Development and Evaluation of Models for the Relationship between Tree <span class="hlt">Height</span> and Diameter at Breast <span class="hlt">Height</span> for Chinese-Fir Plantations in Subtropical China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Yan-qiong; Deng, Xiang-wen; Huang, Zhi-hong; Xiang, Wen-hua; Yan, Wen-de; Lei, Pi-feng; Zhou, Xiao-lu; Peng, Chang-hui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tree diameter at breast <span class="hlt">height</span> (dbh) and <span class="hlt">height</span> are the most important variables used in forest inventory and management as well as forest carbon-stock estimation. In order to identify the key stand variables that influence the tree <span class="hlt">height</span>-dbh relationship and to develop and validate a suit of models for predicting tree <span class="hlt">height</span>, data from 5961 tree samples aged from 6 years to 53 years and collected from 80 Chinese-fir plantation plots were used to fit 39 models, including 33 nonlinear models and 6 linear models, were developed and evaluated into two groups. The results showed that composite models performed better in <span class="hlt">height</span> estimate than one-independent-variable models. Nonlinear composite Model 34 and linear composite Model 6 were recommended for predicting tree <span class="hlt">height</span> in Chinese fir plantations with a dbh range between 4 cm and 40 cm when the dbh data for each tree and the quadratic mean dbh of the stand (Dq) and mean <span class="hlt">height</span> of the stand (Hm) were available. Moreover, Hm could be estimated by using the formula Hm=11.707×ln(Dq)-18.032. Clearly, Dq was the primary stand variable that influenced the <span class="hlt">height</span>-dbh relationship. The parameters of the models varied according to stand age and site. The inappropriate application of provincial or regional <span class="hlt">height</span>-dbh models for predicting small tree <span class="hlt">height</span> at local scale may result in larger uncertainties. The method and the recommended models developed in this study were statistically reliable for applications in growth and yield estimation for even-aged Chinese-fir plantation in Huitong and Changsha. The models could be extended to other regions and to other tree species only after verification in subtropical China. PMID:25905458</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // var lastDiv = ""; function showDiv(divName) { // hide last div if (lastDiv) { document.getElementById(lastDiv).className = "hiddenDiv"; } //if value of the box is not nothing and an object with that name exists, then change the class if (divName && document.getElementById(divName)) { document.getElementById(divName).className = "visibleDiv"; lastDiv = divName; } } //--> </script> <script> /** * Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Google Analytics. * This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string * as the event label. */ var trackOutboundLink = function(url,collectionCode) { try { h = window.open(url); setTimeout(function() { ga('send', 'event', 'topic-page-click-through', collectionCode, url); }, 1000); } catch(err){} }; </script> <!-- Google Analytics --> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-1122789-34', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <!-- End Google Analytics --> <script> showDiv('page_1') </script> </body> </html>