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Sample records for 500-mb geopotential heights

  1. Life cycles of persistent anomalies. I - Evolution of 500 mb height fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dole, Randall M.

    1989-01-01

    The life cycles of persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation are studied, focusing on the typical characteristics of the 500 mb height anomaly and flow patterns accompanying the development and breakdown of large-scale flow anomalies in the eastern North Atlantic and the northern Soviet Union. Following onset, anomaly centers develop and intensify in sequence downstream from the main center, forming a quasi-stationary wavetrain pattern. From development through decay, corresponding positive and negative patterns have similar evolutions.

  2. GCM simulated geopotential heights compared to GPS RO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodtsov, S.; Kirilenko, A.; Olsen, D.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate, high-quality, global coverage data is required for global climate monitoring. It also provides possibility of additional validation of the general circulation models (GCMs). GPS Radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements have potential of becoming a new benchmark in data acquisition, providing new high-quality profiles of the parameters of the atmosphere, such as the temperature, water vapor pressure, and geopotential heights. In our study we use GPS RO data with a purpose to test global circulation models (GCMs). We study how climate change signal emerges in the GPS RO data and how these signals are reflected in GCM simulations. We use temperature and geopotential height profiles from 2001-2006 CHAMP and 2006-2011 COMIC acquisitions to validate the output from twelve IPCC AR4 GCMs run under A1B SRES scenario. We found that the 2001-2011 trends of the temperature and geopotential height derived from the IPCC AR4 GCMs show the same pattern with trends derived from GPS RO data - warming of the upper troposphere (UT) and cooling of the lower stratosphere (LS). There is some discrepancy between trends in lower troposphere (LT) between models and GPS RO data: some GCMs show decreasing temperature and geopotential height trends while the GPS RO trends are positive. The statistical analysis of these trends will be reported.

  3. Establishing relationships with Artificial Neural Networks between geopotential height patterns and heavy rainfall events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Silas; Tymvios, Filippos

    2010-05-01

    Dynamically induced rainfall is strongly connected with synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns at the upper levels. This study investigates the relationship between days of high precipitation volume events in the eastern Mediterranean and the associated geopotential height patterns at 500hPa. To reduce the number of different patterns and to simplify the statistical processing, the input days were classified into clusters of synoptic cases having similar characteristics, by utilizing Kohonen' Self Organizing Maps (SOM) architecture. Using this architecture, synoptic patterns were grouped into 9, 18, 27 and 36 clusters which were subsequently used in the analysis. The classification performance was tested by applying the method to extreme rainfall events in the eastern Mediterranean. The relationship of the synoptic upper air patterns (500hPa geopotential height) and surface features (heavy rainfall events) was established. The 36 member classification was proven to be the most efficient system.

  4. Changes in the geopotential height at 500 hPa under the influence of external climatic forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.

    2015-12-01

    Apart from global scale surface warming, anthropogenic forcings also lead to warming and thermal expansion of the lower atmosphere. Here we investigate these effects using the geopotential height at 500 hPa, an indicator of the combined thermodynamic and dynamic climatic response to external forcings. We employ optimal fingerprinting, which uses information from reanalysis data sets and experiments with seven state-of-the-art climate models, to assess the role of anthropogenic and natural influences on changes in the geopotential height during the satellite era. A significant global increase in the annual and seasonal mean geopotential height due to human influence is detected, a result confirmed with four different reanalysis data sets. A more moderate increase in the annual mean associated with natural forcings is also detected. Our findings, consistent with previous detection and attribution studies of changes in temperature and sea level pressure, indicate the prominent role of human influence on some recent climatic changes.

  5. Description of data on the Nimbus 7 LIMS map archive tape: Temperature and geopotential height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, K. V.; Remsberg, E. E.; Grose, W. L.; Russell, J. M., III; Marshall, B. T.; Lingenfelser, G.

    1986-01-01

    The process by which the analysis of the Limb Infared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment data were used to produce estimates of synoptic maps of temperature and geopotential height is described. In addition to a detailed description of the analysis procedure, several interesting features in the data are discussed and these features are used to demonstrate how the analysis procedure produced the final maps and how one can estimate the uncertainties in the maps. In addition, features in the analysis are noted that would influence how one might use, or interpret, the results. These include subjects such as smoothing and the interpretation of wave components. While some suggestions are made for an improved analysis of the data, it is shown that, in general, the maps are an excellent estimation of the synoptic fields.

  6. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0 - 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Barnett, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A monthly mean climatology is presented of temperature, wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 S to 80 N) for 0 to 210 km, which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. The purpose is to provide a reference for various atmospheric research and analysis activities. Data sources and methods of computation are described; in general, hydrostatic and thermal wind balance are maintained at all levels and latitudes. As observed in a series of cross-sectional plots, this climatology accurately reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as equatorial wind and the general structure of the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause. A series of zonal wind profiles is also represented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The temperature and zonal wind climatology at stratospheric levels is compared with corresponding data from the National Meteorological Center, and general agreement is observed between the two data sets. Tables of the climatological values as a function of latitude and height for each month are contained in Appendix B, and are also available in floppy disk.

  7. The Evaluation of Winds from Geopotential Height Data in the Stratosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randel, William J.

    1987-10-01

    Several methods of obtaining horizontal wind fields in the extratropical stratosphere from geopotential height data are evaluated and compared to geostrophic estimates, with focus on the poleward fluxes of momentum and heat and on the resulting Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux divergence estimates. Winds derived from a coupled iterative solution of the zonal and meridional momentum equations (`balance' winds) are proposed and tested, in addition to winds derived from linearizing these equations about the zonal mean flow (`linen' winds). Comparison of the different analysis methods are made for a general circulation model simulation of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter stratosphere, and for NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH) winter observational data.The balance and linear wind estimates of poleward momentum flux are similar and substantially smaller than geostrophic values in the high-latitude stratosphere; neglect of local curvature effects is the primary cause of the geostrophic overestimate. The relative errors are larger in the southern winter stratosphere due to the stronger polar night jet. Poleward beat flux estimates are not substantially changed. Use of the improved wind fluxes results in a sizable reduction in the EP flux divergence in the high-latitude stratosphere.Comparison with model winds suggests that the balance method is the superior analysis technique for evaluating local winds, particularly in the NH winter where local nonlinear effects can be important. Based on observed balance winds, estimates are made of the relative importance of rotational versus divergent motions in the winter stratosphere.

  8. Correlating Polar Stratospheric Cloud Occurrence at the South Pole with Transport and Polar Geopotential Height Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Sassen, K.

    2007-12-01

    In a recent paper, we describe the macrophysical and thermodynamic properties of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) at the South Pole based on continuous eye-safe lidar measurements made over five seasons (2000, 2003-2006). In this paper, we describe the relationship between PSC occurrence and the propensity for transport within the austral polar vortex. The southern lower-stratospheric polar airmass may be approximated as a closed system from May to September. Saturation vapor pressures for background concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid and water vapor are reached either through radiational cooling or isentropic lift. Once nucleated, PSC acquire fall-velocities that remove these compounds from these heights. Satellite measurements (e.g., MLS) depict the widening proximity of the depleted airmass through the polar night. Yet, our measurements show that PSC occurrence can occur up to 20 km late in the season, which suggests replenishment of these species in air originating near the edges of the vortex. We examine 120-h back-trajectories during July and August and temperature histories to identify conditions and circumstances favorable to this occurring. Furthermore, we describe geopotential height anomalies averaged along 60° - 90° S, and compared to a twenty-year mean, as a proxy for the dynamic character of the polar vortex. Negative/positive anomalies indicate a strong/weak and deep/shallow vortex where its circulation inhibits/promotes meridional transport, replenishment and the likelihood of PSC at South Pole. We test this hypothesis using our dataset and reach conclusions on the influence of the polar vortex on total PSC observed each season, which, in turn, may influence the severity of annual ozone losses.

  9. Decomposing variations of geopotential height in the troposphere and stratosphere into stationary and travelling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, Vladimir; Eliseev, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    The ERA-Interim geopotential height in the Northern Hemisphere from November to March, 1992-2015 in the layer from between pressure levels 1000 mb and 1 mb is expanded into stationary and travelling zonal waves with zonal wavenumbers, k, from 1 to 10, and with periods, T, from 2 to 156 days (the so called Hayashi spectra). Among the studied waves, the largest amplitude is attained by the stationary and travelling waves with zonal wavenumber k=1 and with periods from 3 to 4 weeks in the upper stratosphere over the latitudinal belt 60-70oN. The stationary waves with k from 1 to 3 and with T from 2 to 3 weeks are most pronounced in the stratosphere. In turn, the largest amplitudes of the travelling waves with zonal wavenumbers k ≥ 5 are found in the troposphere. The dominant periods of the latter waves are about 1 week or slightly higher, and this dominant period basically decrease with increasing wavenumber. In the upper stratosphere, the eastward travelling waves generally dominate over westward ones. The only exception is the longest zonal mode with k=1, for which the amplitude of the westward travelling wave is larger than that for the eastward one. The period of the travelling waves dominating in the upper stratosphere is close to 3 weeks. In the upper troposphere, the amplitudes of the eastward waves with k from 4 to 10 is several-fold larger than those for their westward counterparts. The latter is reflected in the larger average wavenumber of the eastward travelling wave in comparison to that of the westarward one. The period of the gravest of the dominant travelling waves in the upper troposphere is close to one week, and it decreases to 2-4 days for the dominant travelling waves with k=8-10.

  10. Quasi-decadal variations in total ozone content, wind velocity, temperature, and geopotential height over the Arosa station (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visheratin, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the phase relationships between the quasi-decadal variations (QDVs) (in the range from 8 to 13 years) in the total ozone content (TOC) at the Arosa station for 1932-2012 and a number of meteorological parameters: monthly mean values of temperature, meridional and zonal components of wind velocity, and geopotential heights for isobaric surfaces in the layer of 10-925 hPa over the Arosa station using the Fourier methods and composite and cross-wavelet analysis. It has been shown that the phase relationships of the QDVs in the TOC and meteorological parameters with an 11-year cycle of solar activity change in time and height; starting with cycle 24 of solar activity (2008-2010), the variations in the TOC and a number of meteorological parameters occur in almost counter phase with the variations in solar activity. The periods of the maximum growth rate of the temperature at isobaric surfaces 50-100 hPa nearly correspond to the TOC's maximum periods, and the periods of the maximum temperature correspond the periods of the decrease of the peak TOC rate. The highest correlation coefficients between the meridional wind velocity and temperature are observed at 50 hPa at positive and negative delays of ~27 months. The times of the maxima (minima) of the QDVs in the meridional wind velocity nearly correspond to the periods of the maximum amplification (attenuation) rate of the temperature of the QDVs. The QDVs in the geopotential heights of isobaric surfaces fall behind the variations in the TOC by an average of 1.5 years everywhere except in the lower troposphere. In general, the periods of variations in the TOC and meteorological parameters in the range of 8-13 years are smaller than the period of variations in the level of solar activity.

  11. Solar-wind-driven changes to the ionospheric electric potential lead to changes in tropospheric temperature and geopotential height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Mai Mai; Chisham, Gareth; Freeman, Mervyn P.

    2015-04-01

    There are a large number of responses, on the day-to-day timescale, of the dynamics of the troposphere to regional changes in the downward current of the global atmospheric electric circuit (GEC). They provide compelling evidence that, via the GEC, the solar wind plays a role in influencing surface weather and climate. We use reanalysis data to estimate the altitude and time lag dependence of one such response - the Mansurov effect. This effect was first observed as a correlation between the duskward component By of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and surface pressure anomalies in Antarctica. Additionally, we have more recently shown that the polar Mansurov effect can affect mid-latitude atmospheric planetary waves, the amplitude of the effect being comparable to typical initial analysis uncertainties in ensemble numerical weather prediction. Here we shed light on the origins of the polar surface effect by examining the correlation between IMF By and geopotential height anomalies throughout the Antarctic troposphere and lower stratosphere. We find that the correlation is highly statistically significant within the troposphere, and not so in the stratosphere. The peak in the correlation occurs at greater time lags at the tropopause (~ 6 - 8 days) and in the mid troposphere (~ 4 days) than in the lower troposphere (~ 1 day). This supports a mechanism involving the action on lower tropospheric clouds of the GEC, modified by variations in the solar wind (through modulations of the spatial variation in ionospheric potential). The increase in time lag with increasing altitude is consistent with the upward propagation by conventional atmospheric processes of the solar wind-induced variability in the lower troposphere. This is in contrast to the downward propagation of atmospheric effects to the lower troposphere from the stratosphere due to solar variability-driven mechanisms involving ultraviolet radiation or energetic particle precipitation. We also find a

  12. Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Geopotential Height Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Lambert, A.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Livesey, N. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Ao, C. O.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Cofield, R. E.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Fetzer, E. J.; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Jiang, J. H.; Jiang, Y. B.; Knosp, B. W.; Krueger, K.; Li, J.-L. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Pawson, S.; Russell, J. M., III; Santee, M. L.; Snyder, W. V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the retrievals algorithm used to determine temperature and height from radiance measurements by the Microwave Limb Sounder on EOS Aura. MLS is a "limbscanning" instrument, meaning that it views the atmosphere along paths that do not intersect the surface - it actually looks forwards from the Aura satellite. This means that the temperature retrievals are for a "profile" of the atmosphere somewhat ahead of the satellite. Because of the need to view a finite sample of the atmosphere, the sample spans a box about 1.5km deep and several tens of kilometers in width; the optical characteristics of the atmosphere mean that the sample is representative of a tube about 200-300km long in the direction of view. The retrievals use temperature analyses from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system as a priori states. The temperature retrievals are somewhat deperrdezt on these a priori states, especially in the lower stratosphere. An important part of the validation of any new dataset involves comparison with other, independent datasets. A large part of this study is concerned with such comparisons, using a number of independent space-based measurements obtained using different techniques, and with meteorological analyses. The MLS temperature data are shown to have biases that vary with height, but also depend on the validation dataset. MLS data are apparently biased slightly cold relative to correlative data in the upper troposphere and slightly warm in the middle stratosphere. A warm MLS bias in the upper stratosphere may be due to a cold bias in GEOS-5 temperatures.

  13. The Simulation of Stationary and Transient Geopotential-Height Eddies in January and July with a Spectral General Circulation Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Robert C.; Pitcher, Eric J.; Blackmon, Maurice L.; Puri, Kamal; Bourke, William

    1984-04-01

    We examine the characteristics of stationary and transient eddies in the geopotential-height field as simulated by a spectral general circulation model. The model possesses a realistic distribution of continents and oceans and realistic, but smoothed, topography. Two simulations with perpetual January and July forcing by climatological sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and insulation were extended to 1200 days, of which the final 600 days were used for the results in this study.We find that the stationary waves are well simulated in both seasons in the Northern Hemisphere, where strong forcing by orography and land-sea thermal contrasts exists. However, in the Southern Hemisphere, where no continents are present in midlatitudes, the stationary waves have smaller amplitude than that observed in both seasons.In both hemispheres, the transient eddies are well simulated in the winter season but are too weak in the summer season. The model fails to generate a sufficiently intense summertime midlatitude jet in either hemisphere, and this results in a low level of transient activity. The variance in the tropical troposphere is very well simulated. We examine the geographical distribution and vertical structure of the transient eddies. Fourier analysis in zonal wavenumber and temporal filtering am used to display the wavelength and frequency characteristics of the eddies.

  14. Evaluation of MLS mesospheric geopotential height profiles and improved altitude registration of the OMPS Limb Profiler measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, L.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chen, Z.; DeLand, M. T.; Jaross, G. R.; Kelly, T. J.; Kramarova, N. A.; Loughman, R. P.; Taha, G.; Xu, P.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a method of evaluating the mesospheric geopotential height (GPH) profiles provided by Aura MLS using Suomi OMPS Limb Profiler (LP) measurements at 350 nm. Our results indicate that the error in MLS GPH profiles increases with altitude. We compare our results with the errors calculated by the MLS team based on internal error analysis. Their error estimates have never been independently verified. This evaluation has, in turn, helped us to develop a more accurate altitude registration method of the OMPS LP measurements, with an estimated accuracy of +/- 100 m. Prior to launch of the Suomi NPP spacecraft in October 2011, there were concerns that flexing of its structure could cause large pitch angle errors at the OMPS instrument location, leading to altitude registration errors. While Suomi NPP contains an accurate star tracker, it is located near the VIIRS instrument on the opposite end of the spacecraft. Our results indicate that the variation in Suomi NPP pitch angle along the orbit at the location of the OMPS LP instrument is less than 20 arc-second (corresponding to 300 m in altitude registration at the limb). We also find that the variation of the pitch error along the orbit is highly repeatable from day to day, and has not varied significantly over the past 3 years since launch. Finally, our results confirm and improve upon previous estimates of ~2 arc-minute pitch error (2 km at the limb) in mounting the OMPS LP instrument on the NPP spacecraft.

  15. Estimation of the zero-height geopotential level W {/o LVD} in a local vertical datum from inversion of co-located GPS, leveling and geoid heights: a case study in the Hellenic islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsakis, C.; Katsambalos, K.; Ampatzidis, D.

    2012-06-01

    The estimation of the zero-height geopotential level of a local vertical datum (LVD) is a key task towards the connection of isolated physical height frames and their unification into a common vertical reference system. Such an estimate resolves, in principle, the `ambiguity' of a traditional crust-fixed LVD by linking it with a particular equipotential surface of Earth's gravity field under the presence of an external geopotential model. The aim of this paper is to study the estimation scheme that can be followed for solving the aforementioned problem based on the joint inversion of co-located GPS and leveling heights in conjunction with a fixed Earth gravity field model. Several case studies with real data are also presented that provide, for the first time, precise estimates of the LVD offsets for a number of Hellenic islands across the Aegean and Ionian Sea.

  16. Flood variability over 1871-2012 in Northern Québec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree-rings and on geopotential height field reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, Pierre; Brissette, François; Caya, Daniel; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Kuentz, Anna; Mathevet, Thibault; Gailhard, Joël

    2015-04-01

    For the next couple of decades, the impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes are likely to be masked by climate natural variability. Thus, a better understanding and quantification of natural climate variability on hydrological extremes would be helpful for short-term adaptation. However, studying natural variability requires long instrumental records, which are inexistant in remote regions such as Northern Québec. Different methods have been proposed to extend observed hydroclimatic time-series, based on other data sources such as tree rings or sedimentological datasets. For example, tree ring multi-proxies have been studied for the Caniapiscau Reservoir in Northern Québec (Canada), leading to the reconstruction of spring flood series (Boucher et al., 2011) and of annual and seasonal mean flow series (Nicault et al., 2014), for the last 150 years. Here, we apply a different reconstruction method on the same catchment, using historical reanalysis of geopotential height fields, to compare the flood series obtained and study the observed flood variability over the 1871-2012 period. The applied method, named ANATEM (Kuentz et al., 2013), aims firstly at producing climatic time series (temperature and precipitation) which are then used as inputs to one or several hydrological model previously calibrated in order to obtain streamflow time series. The climatic reconstruction is based on the analog method, using the link between atmospheric pressure situations and local climatic variables and thus requires (i) a geopotential height field reanalysis (here the NOAA reanalysis, available over the 1871-2012 period (Compo et al., 2011)), and (ii) the available observed temperature and precipitation time series (here available over the 1960-2012 period). The hypothesis of the analog method is that two different days having similar atmospheric circulations are expected to produce similar temperature and precipitation patterns. Using this hypothesis, the method

  17. Geopotential Research Mission (GRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) is a satellite system proposed to determine variations in the gravitational and magnetic fields to a resolution of about 100 kilometers. Knowledge and interpretations of the potential fields on scales of 100 kilometers and greater, to clarify the needs for better data in this range of wavelengths were reviewed. The potential contribution of these data to the determination, by satellite altimetry, of a more accurate geoidal reference was discussed.

  18. Unified height systems after GOCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  19. An atlas of Rapp's 180-th order geopotential.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, P. J.

    1986-08-01

    Deprit's 1979 approach to the summation of the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential has been modified to spherical components and normalized Legendre polynomials. An algorithm has been developed which produces ten fields at the users option: the undulations of the geoid, three anomalous components of the gravity vector, or six components of the Hessian of the geopotential (gravity gradient). The algorithm is stable to high orders in single precision and does not treat the polar regions as a special case. Eleven contour maps of components of the anomalous geopotential on the surface of the ellipsoid are presented to validate the algorithm.

  20. Geopotential Error Analysis from Satellite Gradiometer and Global Positioning System Observables on Parallel Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.; Baker, Gregory A.

    1997-01-01

    The recovery of a high resolution geopotential from satellite gradiometer observations motivates the examination of high performance computational techniques. The primary subject matter addresses specifically the use of satellite gradiometer and GPS observations to form and invert the normal matrix associated with a large degree and order geopotential solution. Memory resident and out-of-core parallel linear algebra techniques along with data parallel batch algorithms form the foundation of the least squares application structure. A secondary topic includes the adoption of object oriented programming techniques to enhance modularity and reusability of code. Applications implementing the parallel and object oriented methods successfully calculate the degree variance for a degree and order 110 geopotential solution on 32 processors of the Cray T3E. The memory resident gradiometer application exhibits an overall application performance of 5.4 Gflops, and the out-of-core linear solver exhibits an overall performance of 2.4 Gflops. The combination solution derived from a sun synchronous gradiometer orbit produce average geoid height variances of 17 millimeters.

  1. Recent advances in the determination of a high spatial resolution geopotential model using chronometric geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Guillaume; Guerlin, Christine; Bize, Sébastien; Wolf, Peter; Delva, Pacôme; Panet, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Current methods to determine the geopotential are mainly based on indirect approaches using gravimetric, gradiometric and topographic data. Satellite missions (GRACE, GOCE) have contributed significantly to improve the knowledge of the Earth's gravity field with a spatial resolution of about 90 km, but it is not enough to access, for example, to the geoid variation in hilly regions. While airborne and ground-based gravimeters provide the high resolution, the problem of these technics is that the accuracy is hampered by the heterogeneous coverage of gravity data (ground and offshore). Recent technological advances in atomic clocks are opening new perspectives in the determination of the geopotential. To date, the best of them reach a stability of 1.6×10‑18 (NIST, RIKEN + Univ. Tokyo) in just 7 hours of integration, an accuracy of 2.0×10‑18 (JILA). Using the relation of the relativistic gravitational redshift, this corresponds to a determination of geopotential differences at the 0.1 m²/s² level (or 1 cm in geoid height). In this context, the present work aims at evaluating the contribution of optical atomic clocks for the determination of the geopotential at high spatial resolution. To do that, we have studied a test area surrounding the Massif Central in the middle of southern of France. This region, consists in low mountain ranges and plateaus, is interesting because, the gravitational field strength varies greatly from place to place at high resolution due to the relief. Here, we present the synthetic tests methodology: generation of synthetic gravity and potential data, then estimation of the potential from these data using the least-squares collocation and assessment of the clocks contribution. We shall see how the coverage of the data points (realistic or not) can affect the results, and discuss how to quantify the trade-off between the noise level and the number of data points used.

  2. New investigation on the choice of the tailored geopotential model for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daho, S. A. Benahmed; Fairhead, J. D.; Zeggai, A.; Ghezali, B.; Derkaoui, A.; Gourine, B.; Khelifa, S.

    2008-03-01

    The choice of the best geopotential model to reduce geodetic data is one of the critical steps in computing the geoid. Several studies have shown that the geopotential models tailored to regional or local gravity data are best suited for high precision geoid computations. Since 2000 a number of geoid models for Algeria have been produced by Geodetic Laboratory of the National Centre of Space Techniques. In particular 5' × 5' geoid models were generated in 2000, [ Benahmed Daho, S. A., 2000. The new gravimetric geoid in Algeria. IGeS Bulletin No. 10 of the International Geoid Service (IGeS). ISSN 1128-3955. pp. 78-84.] and in 2004 [ Benahmed Daho, S.A., Fairhead, J.D., 2004. A new quasigeoid computation from gravity and GPS data in Algeria. Newton's Bulletin No. 2. A Joint Bulletin of the Bureau Gravimétrique International and of the International Geoid Service. ISSN 1810-8547. pp. 52-59.] using different data sets and techniques. Although these results were satisfactory and internally consistent they do no have the required accuracy to be able to transform a GPS ellipsoidal height to an orthometric height. During the same time and with the recent satellite missions CHAMP and GRACE several new global gravity models were released. These lead to substantial improvements of our knowledge of the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field, and thereby of the long-wavelengths of the geoid. For the computation of a new gravimetric geoid model for Algeria we need a new investigation on the choice of the best and optimal geopotential model for the combined solution with local gravimetric and topographic data using the remove-restore technique. In this paper, an analysis was carried out to define the geopotential model, which fits best the local gravity field in Algeria. Six global geopotential models are used in this study: The new GRACE satellite-only and combined models EIGEN-GRACE02S and GGM02C, combined CHAMP and GRACE model EIGEN-CG01C, combined CHAMP and

  3. Evaluation of advanced geopotential models for operational orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radomski, M. S.; Davis, B. E.; Samii, M. V.; Engel, C. J.; Doll, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    To meet future orbit determination accuracy requirements for different NASA projects, analyses are performed using Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking measurements and orbit determination improvements in areas such as the modeling of the Earth's gravitational field. Current operational requirements are satisfied using the Goddard Earth Model-9 (GEM-9) geopotential model with the harmonic expansion truncated at order and degree 21 (21-by-21). This study evaluates the performance of 36-by-36 geopotential models, such as the GEM-10B and Preliminary Goddard Solution-3117 (PGS-3117) models. The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and LANDSAT-5 are the spacecraft considered in this study.

  4. Accuracy of the GEM-T2 geopotential from Geosat and ERS 1 crossover altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C. A.; Klokočník, J.

    1994-05-01

    Extensive analyses of altimetrically determined sea height differences at crossovers have been used to assess the accuracy of the GEM-T2 geopotential. The orbits used were determined with GEM-T2 for Geosat in its 17-day Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) in 1986-1989 and ERS 1 in both its 3-day ERM in 1991-1992 and its 35-day ERM in 1992. The data examined are completely independent of the data used in GEM-T2's development though GEM-T2 had considerable use of Doppler tracking information on Geosat. The test of the radial accuracy of the ERS 1 orbit (98.5° inclination) is especially significant because it is not ``close'' to any other orbit well represented in GEM-T2. The assessment consists of a comparison of observed mean height differences at thousands of distinct geographic locations with error projections from the GEM-T2 covariance matrix which was estimated from other data sources. This first comprehensive, independent test of the purely radial accuracy of an orbit-geopotential model clearly shows that the covariant predictions for GEM-T2 are broadly reliable for this purpose. Thus, the agreement of crossover predictions and observations suggests that the total radial errors for these ERMs, due to only to GEM-T2 (but excluding the effects of initial state error) are about 23 cm for Geosat and 115 cm (rms) for ERS 1. However, there is little detailed agreement of measurements and predictions for ERS 1 and only partial agreement in detail for Geosat. Our 30,000 mean crossover discrepancies for Geosat (derived from ERM cycles 1-44) are also shown to reduce substantially the crossover height differences in cycles 45-61, almost exactly as predicted if these are the true GEM-T2 errors for this orbit.

  5. Formulation of geopotential difference determination using optical-atomic clocks onboard satellites and on ground based on Doppler cancellation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi

    2016-06-01

    In this study we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancelation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits respectively two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 {m^2/s^2} based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s/s) level. Since optical-atomic clocks with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimeter level accuracy in the near future.

  6. Formulation of geopotential difference determination using optical-atomic clocks onboard satellites and on ground based on Doppler cancellation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancellation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks (OACs) and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits, respectively, two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 m2 s- 2 based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s s-1) level. Since OACs with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimetre level accuracy in the near future.

  7. Geopotential research mission, science, engineering and program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, T. (Editor); Taylor, P. (Editor); Kahn, W. (Editor); Lerch, F. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is based upon the accumulated scientific and engineering studies pertaining to the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The scientific need and justification for the measurement of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon the studies and conclusions of scientific organizations and NASA advisory groups. The engineering design and investigations performed over the last 4 years are described, and a spacecraft design capable of fulfilling all scientific objectives is presented. In addition, critical features of the scientific requirements and state-of-the-art limitations of spacecraft design, mission flight performance, and data processing are discussed.

  8. Simulation and analysis of a geopotential research mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Lisa K.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for the determination of the initial conditions for the two satellites that will satisfy Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) requirements are investigated. For certain gravitational recovery techniques, the satellites must remain close to a specified separation distance and their groundtracks must repeat after a specified interval of time. Since the objective of the GRM mission is to improve the gravity model, any pre-mission orbit predicted using existing gravity models will be in error. A technique has been developed to eliminate the drift between the two satellites caused by gravitational modeling errors and return them to repeating groundtracks. The concept of frozen orbits, which minimize altitude variations over given latitudes, was investigated. Finally, the effects of temporal perturbations on the relative range-rate signal were studied. At the proposed altitude of 160 km, the range-rate signal produced by perturbations other than the static geopotential field are dominated by the luni-solar effect. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of all the temporal perturbations does not prevent the orbit from being frozen or the satellites from obtaining a repeating groundtrack to within a specified closure distance.

  9. Modelling of the Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, C.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    Lateral density and topography variations yield in and important contribution to the lithospheric stress field. The leading quantity is the Geopotential Energy, the integrated lithostatic pressure in a rock column. The horizontal gradient of this quantity is related to horizontal stresses through the Equations of equilibrium of stresses. The Geopotential Energy furthermore can be linearly related to the Geoid under assumption of local isostasy. Satellite Geoid measurements contain, however, also non-isostatic deeper mantle responses of long wavelength. Unfortunately, high-pass filtering of the Geoid does not suppress only the deeper sources. The age-dependent signal of the oceanic lithosphere, for instance, is of long wave length and a prominent representative of in-plane stress, derived from the horizontal gradient of isostatic Geoid anomalies and responsible for the ridge push effect. Therefore a global lithospheric density model is required in order to isolate the shallow Geoid signal and calculate the stress pattern from isostatically compensated lithospheric sources. We use a linearized inverse method to fit a lithospheric reference model to observations such as topography and surface heat flow in the presence of local isostasy and a steady state geotherm. Subsequently we use a FEM code to solve the Equations of equilibrium of stresses for a three dimensional elastic shell. The modelled results are shown and compared with the global stress field and other publications.

  10. The accuracy of geopotential solutions from resonant satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Tracking data from a significant number of strongly resonant satellites have not yet been incorporated into recent comprehensive geopotential solutions. This data furnishes excellent comparative and absolute tests of these solutions for resonant coefficients of order (m) 2, 3, 4, 9 and 14. Tracking arcs of from 1 month to 6 years are examined on seven satellites of 1 rev/day, three of 2 revs/day, and one each of 9 and 14 revs/day. Current values for these fully normalized resonant coefficients as judged by this independent and sensitive data, range in accuracy from 2 x 10 to the minus 8th power to 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power. This represents an increase in accuracy by a factor from 3 to 5 over solutions current in the mid 1960's.

  11. Synoptic Scale Meteorological Conditions of Dust Events over the Southwestern Border Region of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenta, R. B.; DuBois, D. W.; Bleiweiss, M. P.; Novlan, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Dust storms affect the environment, health and economics of a region. For these reasons it is important to understand the main causes and sources of windblown dust in the southwestern border region of the US. To help us understand the causes of the dust storms in our region, we are attempting to determine the synoptic scale meteorological conditions present at the time of approximately 60 dust storm events (from about 600 dust events over a 15 year period). From that, we will develop a "synoptic scale climatology" for dust events in the border region. To develop this climatology, we are using the NARR 500mb geopotential height patterns at 18GMT (approximate time of initial dust emission) to investigate whether our "observational" experience agrees with our hypothesis that a 500mb geopotential height low pressure pattern exists in the vicinity of the NM/CO border (latitudinal extent) and, depending on the timing of the event and other influences, somewhere from UT to TX (longitudinal extent). In our analysis we are comparing individual 500mb geopotential height patterns to a mean 500mb geopotential height pattern. Our preliminary results indicate that our observations are valid. Our goal is to develop a tool for forecasting these types of events.

  12. Study of geopotential error models used in orbit determination error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, C.; Kelbel, D.; Lee, T.; Samii, M. V.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The uncertainty in the geopotential model is currently one of the major error sources in the orbit determination of low-altitude Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The results of an investigation of different geopotential error models and modeling approaches currently used for operational orbit error analysis support at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are presented, with emphasis placed on sequential orbit error analysis using a Kalman filtering algorithm. Several geopotential models, known as the Goddard Earth Models (GEMs), were developed and used at GSFC for orbit determination. The errors in the geopotential models arise from the truncation errors that result from the omission of higher order terms (omission errors) and the errors in the spherical harmonic coefficients themselves (commission errors). At GSFC, two error modeling approaches were operationally used to analyze the effects of geopotential uncertainties on the accuracy of spacecraft orbit determination - the lumped error modeling and uncorrelated error modeling. The lumped error modeling approach computes the orbit determination errors on the basis of either the calibrated standard deviations of a geopotential model's coefficients or the weighted difference between two independently derived geopotential models. The uncorrelated error modeling approach treats the errors in the individual spherical harmonic components as uncorrelated error sources and computes the aggregate effect using a combination of individual coefficient effects. This study assesses the reasonableness of the two error modeling approaches in terms of global error distribution characteristics and orbit error analysis results. Specifically, this study presents the global distribution of geopotential acceleration errors for several gravity error models and assesses the orbit determination errors resulting from these error models for three types of spacecraft - the Gamma Ray Observatory, the Ocean Topography Experiment, and the Cosmic

  13. Effect of Varying Crustal Thickness on CHAMP Geopotential Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, P. T.; Kis, K. I.; vonFrese, R. R. B.; Korhonen, J. V.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, H. R.; Potts, L. V.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of crustal thickness variation on satellite-altitude geopotential anomalies we compared two regions of Europe with vastly different values, Central/Southern Finland and the Pannonian Basin. Crustal thickness exceeds 62 km in Finland and is less than 26 km in the Pannonian Basin. Heat-flow maps indicate that the thinner and more active crust of the Pannonian Basin has a value nearly three times that of the Finnish Svecofennian Province. Ground based gravity mapping in Hungary shows that the free-air gravity anomalies across the Pannonian Basin are near 0 to +20 mGal with shorter wavelength anomalies from +40 to less than +60 mGal and some 0 to greater than -20 mGal. Larger anomalies are detected in the mountainous areas. The minor value anomalies can indicate the isostatic equilibrium for Hungary (the central part of the Pannonian Basin). Gravity data over Finland are complicated by de-glaciation. CHAMP gravity data (400 km) indicates a west-east positive gradient of greater than 4 mGal across Central/Southern Finland and an ovoid positive anomaly (approximately 4 mGal) quasi-coincidental with the magnetic anomaly traversing the Pannonian Basin. CHAMP magnetic data (425 km) reveal elongated semicircular negative anomalies for both regions with South-Central Finland having larger amplitude (less than -6 nT) than that over the Pannonian Basin, Hungary (less than -5 nT). In both regions subducted oceanic lithosphere has been proposed as the anomalous body.

  14. Effect of Varying Crustal Thickness on CHAMP Geopotential Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Kis, Karoly I.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Korhonen, Juha V.; Wittmann, Geza; Kim, Hyung Rae; Potts, Larmie V.

    2003-01-01

    Tn determine the effect of crustal thickness variation on satellite-altitude geopotential anomalies we compared two regions of Europe with vastly different values, South and Central Finland and the Pannonian Basin. In our study regions, crustal thickness exceeds 44 km in Finland and is less than 26 km in the Pannonian Basin. Heat-flow data indicate that the thinner and more active crust of the Pannonian Basin has a value nearly three times that of the Finnish Svecofennian Province. An ovoid positive CHAMP gravity anomaly (-4 mGal) is quasi-coincidental with the CHAMP magnetic anomaly traverses the Pannonian Basin while ground based gravity mapping in Hungary shows that the free-air gravity anomalies across the Pannonian Basin are near 0 to +20 mGal with shorter wavelength anomalies from +40 to less than +60 mGal and some 0 to greater than -20 mGal. Larger anomalies are detected in the mountainous areas. The minor value anomalies can indicate the isostatic equilibrium for Hungary (the central part of the Pannonian Basin). Gravity data over Finland bear overprint of de-glaciation. CHAMP gravity data indicates a west-east positive gradient of less than 4 mGal across South and Central Finland. CHAMP magnetic data (400 km) reveal elongated semi-circular negative anomalies for both regions with South-Central Finland having larger amplitude (less than -6 nT) than that over the Pannonian Basin, Hungary (less than -5 nT). In the latter subducted oceanic lithosphere has been proposed as the anomalous body.

  15. Estimation of geopotential differences over intercontinental locations using satellite and terrestrial measurements. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1991-01-01

    An error analysis study was conducted in order to assess the current accuracies and the future anticipated improvements in the estimation of geopotential differences over intercontinental locations. An observation/estimation scheme was proposed and studied, whereby gravity disturbance measurements on the Earth's surface, in caps surrounding the estimation points, are combined with corresponding data in caps directly over these points at the altitude of a low orbiting satellite, for the estimation of the geopotential difference between the terrestrial stations. The mathematical modeling required to relate the primary observables to the parameters to be estimated, was studied for the terrestrial data and the data at altitude. Emphasis was placed on the examination of systematic effects and on the corresponding reductions that need to be applied to the measurements to avoid systematic errors. The error estimation for the geopotential differences was performed using both truncation theory and least squares collocation with ring averages, in case observations on the Earth's surface only are used. The error analysis indicated that with the currently available global geopotential model OSU89B and with gravity disturbance data in 2 deg caps surrounding the estimation points, the error of the geopotential difference arising from errors in the reference model and the cap data is about 23 kgal cm, for 30 deg station separation.

  16. On ozone correlation with meteofields in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadygrova, Tatiana V.; Fioletov, Vitali E.

    1994-01-01

    The correlation coefficients of temperature and geopotential heights at various levels with total ozone and its vertical distribution have been analyzed, using the ground based and ozone sounding data. Two independent groups of factors affect total ozone. The first group - the geopotential values of the troposphere - stratosphere border (100-500 mb) manifest themselves most of all in the middle latitudes. Pertaining to this group is the total ozone correlation with the tropopause height and temperature at 500 mb. The correlation coefficients are negative (-0.55 -0.65) and little depend on the season. Related to this factor is a high (up to 0.8) correlation of ozone partial pressure with the temperature in the lower stratosphere. The second group is the geopotential and temperature values at the 10-30 mb coefficients (up to 0.6) are observed in winter in the subpolar latitudes. In summer they are substantially lower - about 0.1.

  17. Constrained Regional Recovery of Continental Water Mass Time-variations from GRACE-based Geopotential Anomalies over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G. L.; Seoane, L.; Frappart, F.; Biancale, R.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.; Bourgogne, S.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a "constrained" least-squares approach to estimate regional maps of equivalent-water heights by inverting GRACE-based potential anomalies at satellite altitude. According to the energy integral method, the anomalies of difference of geopotential between the two GRACE vehicles are derived from along-track K-Band Range-Rate (KBRR) residuals that correspond mainly to the continental water storage changes, once a priori known accelerations (i.e. static field, polar movements, atmosphere and ocean masses including tides) are removed during the orbit adjustment process. Newton's first law merely enables the Difference of Potential Anomalies from accurate KBRR data and the equivalent-water heights to be recovered. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between elementary surface tiles are introduced to stabilize the linear system to cancel the effects of the north-south striping. Unlike the "mascons" approach, no basis of orthogonal functions (e.g., spherical harmonics) is used, so that the proposed regional method does not suffer from drawbacks related to any spectrum truncation. Time series of 10-day regional maps over South America for 2006-2009 also prove to be consistent with independent data sets, namely the outputs of hydrological models, "mascons" and global GRACE solutions.

  18. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  19. HEIGHTS PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTER, LOUIS A.

    THE "HEIGHTS" PROGRAM, AS PART OF THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, IS BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT MUCH CAN BE DONE TO CHANGE THE PATTERNS OF ASPIRATION, ACHIEVEMENT, AND ADJUSTMENT WHICH CULTURALLY DEPRIVED YOUTH TEND TO FOLLOW. TRADITIONAL GOALS OF EDUCATION WILL BE FOLLOWED, BUT THE TEACHERS AND STAFF WILL HAVE AT THEIR DISPOSAL A GROUP…

  20. Evaluation of the Recent GOCE-based Global Geopotential Models in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sideris, M. G.; Amjadiparvar, B.; Rangelova, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) dedicated satellite gravity field mission was launched on March 17, 2009. The GOCE came to an end in October 21, 2013. Five generations of global geopotential models (GGMs) have been computed and released based on the data collected by GOCE so far. The models are available via IAG's International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM, http://icgem.gfz-potsdam.de/ICGEM/). The first generation models were computed from the first two months of the data, but the final generation models have been recently computed based on approximately 42 months of GOCE observations. Evaluation of these models in North America is important in view of the availability of high quality geodetic data in Canada and USA and the upcoming redefinition of the North American vertical datum through a continental geoid model based on a GOCE GGM. In this study, the performance of the models, developed by ESA's High-level Processing Facility (HPF), is evaluated by degree variances and also by comparing to the GNSS-levelling geoid undulations as independent control values. The GNSS-leveling stations in Canada, USA, Alaska and Mexico are used in this study. The results provide evidence that the signal of the Earth's gravitational field has been obtained solely from GOCE measurements up to degree and order (DO) 220, which corresponds to the spatial resolution of approximately 91 km. The cumulative global geoid error of TIM5 and DIR5 models up to DO 220 are 3.6 and 1.2 cm, respectively. The evaluation of the models by the North American GNSS-leveling stations in different spectral bands showed that the TIM5 and DIR5 models have slightly better performance than the EGM2008 model in the spectral band between DO 100 and 210 in Canada and the USA. The improvement brought by GOCE to Alaska and Mexico is more significant. In Alaska, the TIM5 and DIR5 models improve the geoid signal in the spectral band between DO 100 and 250. In Mexico

  1. Refinement of the geopotential scale factor R(sub 0) on the satellite altimetry basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorny, David; Sima, Zdislav

    1994-01-01

    Altimetric measurements of the GEOSAT satellite were used for the determination of geopotential scale factor R(sub 0). The geopotential value W(sub 0) on the geoid surface was then computed (W(sub 0) = GM/R(sub 0)). The GEOSAT Geophysical Data Records (GDR's) covering an initial period of the Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) were filtered and processed. The necessary corrections were made in order to allow a precise detection of the sea surface. Gravitational geopotential, rotation and permanent tides were taken into account and the equipotential surface which is the best approximation of the sea surface was found. The determination of the potential value W(sub 0) on the mean geoid surface in this way is very promising. An associated value with W(sub 0) -- the geopotential scale factor R(sub 0) -- seems to be a very good Earth dimension defining quantity. Moreover, there are many possible applications of W(sub 0) (R(sub 0)) in modern geophysics. The incorporation of one of these parameters -- we now recommend R(sub 0) -- into the set of the Primary Geodetic Parameters (PGP) is discussed and suggested.

  2. Geopotential coefficient determination and the gravimetric boundary value problem: A new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjoeberg, Lars E.

    1989-01-01

    New integral formulas to determine geopotential coefficients from terrestrial gravity and satellite altimetry data are given. The formulas are based on the integration of data over the non-spherical surface of the Earth. The effect of the topography to low degrees and orders of coefficients is estimated numerically. Formulas for the solution of the gravimetric boundary value problem are derived.

  3. Dynamic Heights in the Great Lakes using OPUS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. will be implementing new geometric and vertical reference frames in 2022 to replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), respectively. Less emphasized is the fact that a new dynamic height datum will also be defined about the same time to replace the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85). IGLD 85 was defined concurrent with NAVD 88 and used the same geopotential values. This paper focuses on the use of an existing tool for determining geometric coordinates and a developing geopotential model as a means of determining dynamic heights. The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) Projects (OP) is an online tool available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) for use in developing geometric coordinates from simultaneous observations at multiple sites during multiple occupations. With observations performed at the water level gauges throughout the Great Lakes, the geometric coordinates of the mean water level surface can be determined. NGS has also developed the xGEOID15B model from satellite, airborne and surface gravity data. Using the input geometric coordinates determined through OP, the geopotential values for the water surface at the water level stations around the Great Lakes were determined using the xGEOID15B model. Comparisons were made between water level sites for each Lake as well as to existing IGLD 85 heights. A principal advantage to this approach is the ability to generate new water level control stations using OP, while maintaining the consistency between orthometric and dynamic heights by using the same gravity field model. Such a process may provide a means for determining dynamic heights for a future Great Lakes Datum.

  4. Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.

  5. Report of the panel on geopotential fields: Gravity field, section 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Kaula, William M.; Lazarewics, Andrew R.; Lefebvre, Michel; Phillips, Roger J.; Rapp, Richard H.; Rummel, Reinhard F.; Smith, David E.; Tapley, Byron D.; Zlotnick, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Geopotential Panel was to develop a program of data acquisition and model development for the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields that meet the basic science requirements of the solid Earth and ocean studies. Presented here are the requirements for gravity information and models through the end of the century, the present status of our knowledge, data acquisition techniques, and an outline of a program to meet the requirements.

  6. Geopotential Stress: A global approach with focus on the North-Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Christian; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2013-04-01

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth's lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth's Stress Field. In theory the GPE is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid measurements. However, this approach depresses signals from long-wavelength lateral density variations within the lithosphere (e.g. the oceanic lithosphere and large scale geological provinces) while deeper situated wavelength contributions might still be included. Existing global density models are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral pressure variations at the base of the lithosphere. From this density model we calculate global Geopotential Stresses by solving the equations of stress equilibrium using a finite element code with triangular thick shell elements with 15 degrees of freedom each. We present global results and focus more detailed on the North Atlantic state of stress and its significance for the unique geodynamical setting including a spreading system, the Icelandic magmatic anomaly and surrounding passive margins. The results show excellent agreement with the present observed stress directions.

  7. Preliminary Goddard geopotential using optical tracking data and a comparison with SAO models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Putney, B. H.; Nickerson, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geopotential and center of mass station coordinate solution was obtained from satellite orbital data using numerical integration theory. This geodetic solution is a prelude to a more general solution which will combine the 1971 International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) laser data with the present data being employed. The present GSFC geopotential solution consists of the spherical harmonic coefficients through degree and order eight with higher order satellite resonant coefficients. The solution represents a first iteration result from 17 satellites with approximately 150 weekly orbital arcs containing some 40,000 optical observations. The GSFC preliminary result is compared with final results from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) solutions including the 1969 SAO Standard Earth II solution. One aspect of interest for the comparison is that SAO uses an analytic theory for the orbital solution whereas GSFC uses a numerical integration theory. The comparison of geopotential results shows that good agreement exists in general but that there are some areas of minor differences.

  8. Spherical harmonic analysis of a synoptic climatology generated with a global general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christidis, Z. D.; Spar, J.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical harmonic analysis was used to analyze the observed climatological (C) fields of temperature at 850 mb, geopotential height at 500 mb, and sea level pressure. The spherical harmonic method was also applied to the corresponding "model climatological" fields (M) generated by a general circulation model, the "GISS climate model." The climate model was initialized with observed data for the first of December 1976 at 00. GMT and allowed to generate five years of meteorological history. Monthly means of the above fields for the five years were computed and subjected to spherical harmonic analysis. It was found from the comparison of the spectral components of both sets, M and C, that the climate model generated reasonable 500 mb geopotential heights. The model temperature field at 850 mb exhibited a generally correct structure. However, the meridional temperature gradient was overestimated and overheating of the continents was observed in summer.

  9. A comparative study of spherical and flat-Earth geopotential modeling at satellite elevations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, M. H.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Flat-Earth and spherical-Earth geopotential modeling of crustal anomaly sources at satellite elevations are compared by computing gravity and scalar magnetic anomalies perpendicular to the strike of variably dimensioned rectangular prisms at altitudes of 150, 300, and 450 km. Results indicate that the error caused by the flat-Earth approximation is less than 10% in most geometric conditions. Generally, error increase with larger and wider anomaly sources at higher altitudes. For most crustal source modeling applications at conventional satellite altitudes, flat-Earth modeling can be justified and is numerically efficient.

  10. Evaluation of geopotential and luni-solar perturbations by a recursive algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.

    1975-01-01

    The disturbing functions due to the geopotential and Luni-solar attractions are linear and bilinear forms in spherical harmonics. Making use of recurrence relations for the solid spherical harmonics and their derivatives, recurrence formulas are obtained for high degree terms as function of lower degree for any term of those disturbing functions and their derivative with respect to any element. The equations obtained are effective when a numerical integration of the equations of motion is appropriate. In analytical theories, they provide a fast way of obtaining high degree terms starting from initial very simple functions.

  11. The development and analysis of geopotential coefficient models to spherical harmonic degree 360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1990-12-01

    Two new geopotential coefficient models to spherical harmonic degree 360 are developed using recent advances made in theoretical modeling methods, satellite gravitational models, and expanded and improved terrestrial data. The new models are based on the combination of a satellite potential coefficient model (GEM-T2) to degree 50 with 30-arc mean gravity anomalies, yielding an adjusted set of coefficients and gravity anomalies, which were then harmonically analyzed to yield a set of potential coefficients to degree 360. The models were verified in several ways including satellite orbit residual analysis, demonstrating a substantial improvement over previous high-degree expansions.

  12. The development and analysis of geopotential coefficient models to spherical harmonic degree 360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1990-01-01

    Two new geopotential coefficient models to spherical harmonic degree 360 are developed using recent advances made in theoretical modeling methods, satellite gravitational models, and expanded and improved terrestrial data. The new models are based on the combination of a satellite potential coefficient model (GEM-T2) to degree 50 with 30-arc mean gravity anomalies, yielding an adjusted set of coefficients and gravity anomalies, which were then harmonically analyzed to yield a set of potential coefficients to degree 360. The models were verified in several ways including satellite orbit residual analysis, demonstrating a substantial improvement over previous high-degree expansions.

  13. Unification of height systems in the frame of GGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Most of the existing vertical reference systems do not fulfil the accuracy requirements of modern Geodesy. They refer to local sea surface levels, are stationary (do not consider variations in time), realize different physical height types (orthometric, normal, normal-orthometric, etc.), and their combination in a global frame presents uncertainties at the metre level. To provide a precise geodetic infrastructure for monitoring the Earth system, the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), promotes the standardization of the height systems worldwide. The main purpose is to establish a global gravity field-related vertical reference system that (1) supports a highly-precise (at cm-level) combination of physical and geometric heights worldwide, (2) allows the unification of all existing local height datums, and (3) guarantees vertical coordinates with global consistency (the same accuracy everywhere) and long-term stability (the same order of accuracy at any time). Under this umbrella, the present contribution concentrates on the definition and realization of a conventional global vertical reference system; the standardization of the geodetic data referring to the existing height systems; and the formulation of appropriate strategies for the precise transformation of the local height datums into the global vertical reference system. The proposed vertical reference system is based on two components: a geometric component consisting of ellipsoidal heights as coordinates and a level ellipsoid as the reference surface, and a physical component comprising geopotential numbers as coordinates and an equipotential surface defined by a conventional W0 value as the reference surface. The definition of the physical component is based on potential parameters in order to provide reference to any type of physical heights (normal, orthometric, etc.). The conversion of geopotential numbers into metric heights and the modelling of the

  14. The Ohio State 1991 geopotential and sea surface topography harmonic coefficient models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Wang, Yan Ming; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1991-01-01

    The computation is described of a geopotential model to deg 360, a sea surface topography model to deg 10/15, and adjusted Geosat orbits for the first year of the exact repeat mission (ERM). This study started from the GEM-T2 potential coefficient model and it's error covariance matrix and Geosat orbits (for 22 ERMs) computed by Haines et al. using the GEM-T2 model. The first step followed the general procedures which use a radial orbit error theory originally developed by English. The Geosat data was processed to find corrections to the a priori geopotential model, corrections to a radial orbit error model for 76 Geosat arcs, and coefficients of a harmonic representation of the sea surface topography. The second stage of the analysis took place by doing a combination of the GEM-T2 coefficients with 30 deg gravity data derived from surface gravity data and anomalies obtained from altimeter data. The analysis has shown how a high degree spherical harmonic model can be determined combining the best aspects of two different analysis techniques. The error analysis was described that has led to the accuracy estimates for all the coefficients to deg 360. Significant work is needed to improve the modeling effort.

  15. The unified ideal model of mean motion resonance of artificial satellites due to geopotential perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, MingJiang; Zhao, ChangYin; Xiong, YongQing; Sun, RongYu; Zhu, TingLei

    2013-04-01

    From Kaula's Earth gravitational potential written in classical orbital elements, the unified ideal model of mean motion resonance of artificial satellites due to geopotential perturbations is developed in this paper first, through a suitable sequence of canonical transformations constructed by implicit functions. This unified ideal orbital resonance model is valid for all the commensurabilities between the rotational angular velocity of the Earth and the angular velocities of mean orbital motion of artificial satellites with arbitrary inclination and small eccentricity, and can be also transformed into Garfinkel's general expression of ideal resonance problem. Then 1/1 resonance of the 24-hour satellite with arbitrary inclination and small eccentricity is analyzed under the effect of harmonics of J 2 and J 22 of the geopotential, based on the unified ideal model of mean motion resonance. The analytical expressions of the libration period and libration half width of the 1/1 resonance of the 24-hour satellite with arbitrary inclination and small eccentricity are presented.

  16. The effects of geopotential resonance on orbit determination for Landsat-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, S. L.; Casteel, D. O.; Phenneger, M. C.; Smith, E. A.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis is presented demonstrating improved performance for Landsat-4 orbit determination using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System with an adjusted Goddard Earth Model-9 (GEM-9) for geopotential coefficients of the 15th degree and order. The orbital state is estimated along with the sine and cosine coefficients of degree and order 15, (C, S) sub 15,15. The estimates are made for two 5-day intervals of range and doppler data, primarily from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, during a period of low solar activity in January 1987. The average values of the estimated coefficients (C, S) sub 15,15 are used to modify the GEM-9 model, and orbit determination performance is tested on 17 consecutive 34-hour operational tracking data arcs in January 1987. Significant reductions in the mean values and standard deviations of the along-track position difference and the drag model scaling parameter from solution to solution are observed. The approach is guided by the shallow resonance theory of geopotential orbit perturbations.

  17. Assessment and Improvement of GOCE based Global Geopotential Models Using Wavelet Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Serdar; Erol, Bihter; Serkan Isik, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of recent Earth gravity field satellite missions, specifically GOCE mission, leads significant improvement in quality of gravity field models in both accuracy and resolution manners. However the performance and quality of each released model vary not only depending on the spatial location of the Earth but also the different bands of the spectral expansion. Therefore the assessment of the global model performances with validations using in situ-data in varying territories on the Earth is essential for clarifying their exact performances in local. Beside of this, their spectral evaluation and quality assessment of the signal in each part of the spherical harmonic expansion spectrum is essential to have a clear decision for the commission error content of the model and determining its optimal degree, revealed the best results, as well. The later analyses provide also a perspective and comparison on the global behavior of the models and opportunity to report the sequential improvement of the models depending on the mission developments and hence the contribution of the new data of missions. In this study a review on spectral assessment results of the recently released GOCE based global geopotential models DIR-R5, TIM-R5 with the enhancement using EGM2008, as reference model, in Turkey, versus the terrestrial data is provided. Beside of reporting the GOCE mission contribution to the models in Turkish territory, the possible improvement in the spectral quality of these models, via decomposition that are highly contaminated by noise, is purposed. In the analyses the motivation is on achieving an optimal amount of improvement that rely on conserving the useful component of the GOCE signal as much as possible, while fusing the filtered GOCE based models with EGM2008 in the appropriate spectral bands. The investigation also contain the assessment of the coherence and the correlation between the Earth gravity field parameters (free-air gravity anomalies and

  18. Accuracy assessment of GOCE-based geopotential models and their use for modelling the gravimetric quasigeoid - A case study for Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godah, Walyeldeen; Szelachowska, Malgorzata; Krynski, Jan

    2014-06-01

    The GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) has significantly upgraded the knowledge on the Earth gravity field. In this contribution the accuracy of height anomalies determined from Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) based on approximately 27 months GOCE satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) data have been assessed over Poland using three sets of precise GNSS/levelling data. The fits of height anomalies obtained from 4th release GOCE-based GGMs to GNSS/levelling data were discussed and compared with the respective ones of 3rd release GOCE-based GGMs and the EGM08. Furthermore, two highly accurate gravimetric quasigeoid models were developed over the area of Poland using high resolution Faye gravity anomalies. In the first, the GOCE-based GGM was used as a reference geopotential model, and in the second - the EGM08. They were evaluated with GNSS/levelling data and their accuracy performance was assessed. The use of GOCE-based GGMs for recovering the long-wavelength gravity signal in gravimetric quasigeoid modelling was discussed. Misja GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) przyczyniła się do znacznego poprawienia znajomości pola siły ciężkości Ziemi. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki oszacowania dokładności anomalii wysokości, wyznaczonych z globalnych modeli geopotencjału opracowanych na podstawie blisko 27 miesięcy pomiarów z satelitarnej misji gradiometrycznej GOCE. Do oszacowania wykorzystano trzy zbiory dokładnych danych satelitarno-niwelacyjnych z obszaru Polski. Omówiono wyniki wpasowania wartości anomalii wysokości otrzymanych z czwartej wersji globalnych modeli geopotencjału wyznaczonych na podstawie danych misji GOCE do danych satelitarno-niwelacyjnych oraz porównano je z wynikami odpowiedniego wpasowania trzeciej wersji globalnych modeli geopotencjału otrzymanych z GOCE oraz z modelu EGM08. Ponadto, wykorzystując wysokorozdzielczy zbiór grawimetrycznych anomalii Faye'a, wyznaczono dla

  19. Time variations of geopotential coefficients in the structure of the oscillatory process of the Earth's pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Yu. G.; Perepelkin, V. V.; Krylov, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    A numerical-analytical model of the oscillatory motion of the Earth's pole is proposed with allowance for effects of time variations in geopotential coefficients. The model is a natural refinement of the earlier developed main model of pole oscillations (of Chandler and annual components) by use of celestial mechanics methods and observation data of the gravitational field of the Earth. Based on amplitude-frequency analysis and numerical simulation of the pole motion, the model allows one to offer a qualitative explanation of observed irregular phenomena in the oscillatory process and improve the forecasting accuracy for the trajectory of the pole motion. The results of numerical simulation of oscillations of the pole coordinates are presented in comparison with observation and measurement data of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS).

  20. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  1. Effects of height acceleration on Geosat heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, David W., III; Brooks, Ronald L.; Lockwood, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    A radar altimeter tracking loop, such as that utilized by Geosat, produces height errors in the presence of persistent height acceleration h(a). The correction factor for the height error is a function of both the loop feedback parameters and the height acceleration. The correction, in meters, to the sea-surface height (SSH) derived from Geosat is -0.16 h(a), where h(a) is in m/sec per sec. The errors induced by accelerations are produced primarily by changes in along-track geoid slopes. The nearly circular Geosat orbit and dynamic ocean topography produce small h(a) values. One area studied in detail encompasses the Marianas Trench and the Challenger Deep in the west central Pacific Ocean. Histograms of SSH corrections due to range accelerations have also been determined from 24-hour segments of Geosat global data. The findings are that 20 percent of the Geosat measurements have acceleration-induced errors of 2 cm or more, while 8 percent have errors of 3 cm or more.

  2. Height of warm core in very severe cyclonic storms Phailin: INSAT-3D perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, S. Indira; Prasad, V. S.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Basu, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Warm core is the characteristic that distinguishes tropical cyclones from its extra tropical counter parts, where the center of the cyclone is warmer than its environment. Two of the most common variables used to characterize the warm core are its strength and height. The strength is given by the magnitude of maximum perturbation temperature and the height is the level where the maximum perturbation temperature occurs. INSAT-3D, India's advanced weather satellite, is the first geostationary sounder over India and the surrounding Oceanic regions. INSAT-3D has 18 channel sounder with a resolution of 10 km to profile the atmospheric temperature and humidity. Brightness Temperatures (Tbs) from INSAT-3D sounder channels are used to analyze the warm core structure of Tropical cyclone Phailin (8-14 October 2013) over the North Indian Ocean. Only when the system becomes very severe cyclonic system, when the eye of the cyclone is clearer (fully cloud free), the sounder channel Tbs showed multiple maxima, with strong primary maximum in the middle level (600-500 mb) and the secondary maximum in the upper level (300-250 mb), unlike the conventional belief suggested warm core existence at 250 mb. Due to the high resolution of (10 km) INSAT-3D sounder channels, compared to the Micro wave channels (AMSU-A of 50 km resolution), the warm core structure below 10 km of the atmosphere is well resolved.

  3. On the effects of each term of the geopotential perturbation along the time I: Quasi-circular orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Diogo M.; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides a useful new method to determine minimum and maximum range of values for the degree and order of the geopotential coefficients required for simulations of orbits of satellites around the Earth. The method consists in a time integration of the perturbing acceleration coming from each harmonic of the geopotential during a time interval T. More precisely, this integral represents the total velocity contribution of a specific harmonic during the period T. Therefore, for a pre-fixed minimum contribution, for instance 1×10-8 m/s during the period of time T, any harmonic whose contribution is below this value can, safely, be neglected. This fact includes some constraints in the degree and order of the terms which are present in the geopotential formula, saving computational efforts compared to the integration of the full model. The advantage of this method is the consideration of other perturbations in the dynamics (we consider the perturbations of the Sun, the Moon, and the direct solar radiation pressure with eclipses), since these forces affect the value of the perturbation of the geopotential, because these perturbations depend on the trajectory of the spacecraft, that is dependent on the dynamical model used. In this paper, we work with quasi-circular orbits and we present several simulations showing the bounds for the maximum degree and order (M) that should be used in the geopotential for different situations, e. g., for a satellite near 500 km of altitude (like the GRACE satellites at the beginning of their mission) we found 35⩽M⩽198 for T=1 day. We analyzed the individual contribution of the second order harmonic (J2) and we use its behavior as a parameter to determine the lower limit of the number of terms of the geopotential model. In order to test the accuracy of our truncated model, we calculate the mean squared error between this truncated model and the “full” model, using the CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite

  4. Implementation of the Distributed Parallel Program for Geoid Heights Computation Using MPI and Openmp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Jung, Y.; Choi, J.; Choi, C.

    2012-07-01

    Much research have been carried out using optimization algorithms for developing high-performance program, under the parallel computing environment with the evolution of the computer hardware technology such as dual-core processor and so on. Then, the studies by the parallel computing in geodesy and surveying fields are not so many. The present study aims to reduce running time for the geoid heights computation and carrying out least-squares collocation to improve its accuracy using distributed parallel technology. A distributed parallel program was developed in which a multi-core CPU-based PC cluster was adopted using MPI and OpenMP library. Geoid heights were calculated by the spherical harmonic analysis using the earth geopotential model of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency(2008). The geoid heights around the Korean Peninsula were calculated and tested in diskless-based PC cluster environment. As results, for the computing geoid heights by a earth geopotential model, the distributed parallel program was confirmed more effective to reduce the computational time compared to the sequential program.

  5. Modeling and estimation of a low degree geopotential model from terrestrial gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1988-01-01

    The development of appropriate modeling and adjustment procedures for the estimation of harmonic coefficients of the geopotential, from surface gravity data was studied, in order to provide an optimum way of utilizing the terrestrial gravity information in combination solutions currently developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission. The mathematical modeling was based on the fundamental boundary condition of the linearized Molodensky boundary value problem. Atmospheric and ellipsoidal corrections were applied to the surface anomalies. Terrestrial gravity solutions were found to be in good agreement with the satellite ones over areas which are well surveyed (gravimetrically), such as North America or Australia. However, systematic differences between the terrestrial only models and GEMT1, over extended regions in Africa, the Soviet Union, and China were found. In Africa, gravity anomaly differences on the order of 20 mgals and undulation differences on the order of 15 meters, over regions extending 2000 km in diameter, occur. Comparisons of the GEMT1 implied undulations with 32 well distributed Doppler derived undulations gave an RMS difference of 2.6 m, while corresponding comparison with undulations implied by the terrestrial solution gave RMS difference on the order of 15 m, which implies that the terrestrial data in that region are substantially in error.

  6. Estimation of geopotential from satellite-to-satellite range rate data: Numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thobe, Glenn E.; Bose, Sam C.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for high-resolution geopotential field estimation by recovering the harmonic coefficients from satellite-to-satellite range rate data is presented and tested against both a controlled analytical simulation of a one-day satellite mission (maximum degree and order 8) and then against a Cowell method simulation of a 32-day mission (maximum degree and order 180). Innovations include: (1) a new frequency-domain observation equation based on kinetic energy perturbations which avoids much of the complication of the usual Keplerian element perturbation approaches; (2) a new method for computing the normalized inclination functions which unlike previous methods is both efficient and numerically stable even for large harmonic degrees and orders; (3) the application of a mass storage FFT to the entire mission range rate history; (4) the exploitation of newly discovered symmetries in the block diagonal observation matrix which reduce each block to the product of (a) a real diagonal matrix factor, (b) a real trapezoidal factor with half the number of rows as before, and (c) a complex diagonal factor; (5) a block-by-block least-squares solution of the observation equation by means of a custom-designed Givens orthogonal rotation method which is both numerically stable and tailored to the trapezoidal matrix structure for fast execution.

  7. SLR-determined Low-Degree Geopotential Harmonics and their use With GRACE Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. C.; Cheng, M.; Bettadpur, S.; Chambers, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    GRACE provides estimates of the temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field with extraordinary precision, but as with any non-synoptic measurement system, the problem of aliasing of high- frequency signals errors is an important concern. In the case of GRACE, errors in the models for the diurnal and semi-diurnal (solid earth and ocean) tides will alias into long-period variations in the low-degree geopotential harmonics. This issue is particularly apparent for the degree-2 zonal harmonic, C20. In addition, after removing the tidal aliases, the GRACE C20 series is still noisier than SLR by about a factor of 3. As a consequence, GRACE data product users typically replace the C20 estimates from GRACE with estimates derived independently (but using consistent modeling) from SLR tracking of several geodetic satellites. For the other low degree harmonics, the GRACE estimates do not appear to suffer from significant tidal aliasing or excessive noise. In this paper, we will discuss the characteristics of the GRACE and SLR time series for the low-degree harmonics. In particular, we discuss the SLR and GRACE estimates for the harmonic terms describing the orientation of the Earth's principal figure axis, C21 and S21, and compare them to the conventional model for the long-term evolution of these terms.

  8. Structural characterization of the Nigerian sector of Benin Basin using geopotential field attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladele, S.; Ayolabi, E. A.; Dublin-Green, C. O.

    2016-09-01

    The structural dispositions of the Nigerian sector of the Benin Basin have been investigated using attributes of geomagnetic and gravimetric fields. Aeromagnetic anomalies were reduced to the equator to improve the correspondence of the anomalies with the causative bodies. The residual, upward continued, tilt and horizontal derivatives, and pseudogravity attributes and forward models of both geomagnetic and gravimetric anomalies were computed to accentuate geological features including shallow and regional faults, fracture network, basement block pattern and depth to magnetic basement. Three generations of sinistral faults were identified. The oldest generation of faults (F1) is the NE-SW trend corresponding to the oceanic fracture zones trend. The F1 is truncated by the second generation of faults (F2) with E-W trends. The third generation of faults (F3) assumes NW-SE trend and is offset by F2. Shallow and deep regional faults and fractures envisaged to play major role in migration and entrapment of hydrocarbons and localization of mineral resources in this area were imaged. The coastline, Lagos and Lekki Lagoons surface geometry showed high degree of similarity with their underlying basement block pattern, thus implying that these surface features are structurally controlled. The basement morphology is not flat but of horst and graben architecture in which sediment thickness attained about 4 km within the graben. Hence, the graben has significant hydrocarbon potential. This study has shown the capabilities of geopotential field attributes in providing information about the structural architecture of frontier basin. Such knowledge will aid the understanding of the geology of the basin and its resources.

  9. Determination of stratospheric temperature and height gradients from Nimbus 3 radiation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, G. W.; Hovland, D. N.; Belmont, A. D.

    1973-01-01

    To improve the specification of stratospheric, horizontal, temperature and geopotential height fields needed for high-flying aircraft, we derived a technique to estimate data between satellite tracks using interpolated infrared interferometer spectrometer 15-micron radiation data from Nimbus 3. The interpolation is based on the observed gradients of the medium resolution infrared 15-micron radiances between subsatellite tracks. The technique was verified with radiosonde data taken within 6 hr of the satellite data. Comparison indicates that the technique developed here produces analyses that are in general agreement with those from radiosonde data. In addition, this technique provides details over areas of sparse data not shown by conventional techniques.

  10. A computer-based atlas of global instrumental climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.S.; Ahern, L.G.; Keimig, F.T. )

    1994-01-01

    This article describes color-shaded contoured images of global gridded instrumental data which have been produced as a computer-based atlas, available to the climate community through Internet. Each image simultaneously depicts anomaly maps of surface temperature, sea level pressure, 500-mb geopotential heights, and percentages of reference period precipitation. Monthly, seasonal, and annual composites are available, in either cylindrical equidistant or Northern and Southern Hemisphere polar projections. Temperature maps are available from 1854 to 1991, precipitation maps from 1851 to 1989, sea level pressure maps from 1899 to 1991, and 500-mb height maps from 1946 to 1991. All images exist as GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) files (1024 [times] 822 pixels, 256 color) and can be displaced on many different computer platforms. A Compact Disc Read-Only Memory version of the atlas is also available. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Height, health, and development

    PubMed Central

    Deaton, Angus

    2007-01-01

    Adult height is determined by genetic potential and by net nutrition, the balance between food intake and the demands on it, including the demands of disease, most importantly during early childhood. Historians have made effective use of recorded heights to indicate living standards, in both health and income, for periods where there are few other data. Understanding the determinants of height is also important for understanding health; taller people earn more on average, do better on cognitive tests, and live longer. This paper investigates the environmental determinants of height across 43 developing countries. Unlike in rich countries, where adult height is well predicted by mortality in infancy, there is no consistent relationship across and within countries between adult height on the one hand and childhood mortality or living conditions on the other. In particular, adult African women are taller than is warranted by their low incomes and high childhood mortality, not to mention their mothers' educational level and reported nutrition. High childhood mortality in Africa is associated with taller adults, which suggests that mortality selection dominates scarring, the opposite of what is found in the rest of the world. The relationship between population heights and income is inconsistent and unreliable, as is the relationship between income and health more generally. PMID:17686991

  12. Mid-troposphere variables and their association with daily local precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, N. E.; Vargas, W. M.; Ciappesoni, H. H.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes the meteorological variables directly affecting precipitation in the southern region of South America. Results show the relationships between daily precipitation at Ezeiza, Buenos Aires, and 500 mb dynamic variables (e. g. geopotential heights, relative geostrophic vorticity and its advection, vorticity tendency and zonal and meridional geostrophic wind components) using regional synoptic analyses from the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional of Argentina for 1986. The distribution of significant biserial correlation coefficients reveals the preferred positions for the anomalous wind components which favour the occurrence of rainfall at Ezeiza. In the same way, spatial distributions and temporal lag relations of 500 mb relative vorticity anomalies in relation to precipitation show the positions and relative movement of centres of anomalously cyclonic and anticyclonic vorticity which increase the probability of precipitation at Buenos Aires. Vorticity advection does not yield higher correlations, at least in a daily temporal scale. The geographical distribution of temporal means and standard deviations of geopotential heights and zonal and meridional wind components at the 500 mb level are also shown.

  13. An orbit simulation study of a geopotential research mission including satellite-to-satellite tracking and disturbance compensation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, Peter G.

    1988-01-01

    Two orbit simulations, one representing the actual Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) orbit and the other representing the orbit estimated from orbit determination techniques, are presented. A computer algorithm was created to simulate GRM's drag compensation mechanism so the fuel expenditure and proof mass trajectories relative to the spacecraft centroid could be calculated for the mission. The results of the GRM DISCOS simulation demonstrated that the spacecraft can essentially be drag-free. The results showed that the centroid of the spacecraft can be controlled so that it will not deviate more than 1.0 mm in any direction from the centroid of the proof mass.

  14. Reducing On-Board Computer Propagation Errors Due to Omitted Geopotential Terms by Judicious Selection of Uploaded State Vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greatorex, Scott (Editor); Beckman, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Several future, and some current missions, use an on-board computer (OBC) force model that is very limited. The OBC geopotential force model typically includes only the J(2), J(3), J(4), C(2,2) and S(2,2) terms to model non-spherical Earth gravitational effects. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Wide-field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), and X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) all plan to use this geopotential force model on-board. The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) is already flying this geopotential force model. Past analysis has shown that one of the leading sources of error in the OBC propagated ephemeris is the omission of the higher order geopotential terms. However, these same analyses have shown a wide range of accuracies for the OBC ephemerides. Analysis was performed using EUVE state vectors that showed the EUVE four day OBC propagated ephemerides varied in accuracy from 200 m. to 45 km. depending on the initial vector used to start the propagation. The vectors used in the study were from a single EUVE orbit at one minute intervals in the ephemeris. Since each vector propagated practically the same path as the others, the differences seen had to be due to differences in the inital state vector only. An algorithm was developed that will optimize the epoch of the uploaded state vector. Proper selection can reduce the previous errors of anywhere from 200 m. to 45 km. to generally less than one km. over four days of propagation. This would enable flight projects to minimize state vector uploads to the spacecraft. Additionally, this method is superior to other methods in that no additional orbit estimates need be done. The definitive ephemeris generated on the ground can be used as long as the proper epoch is chosen. This algorithm can be easily coded in software that would pick the epoch within a specified time range that would

  15. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  16. Analysis of new position and height transformation models in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrasik, Ewa; Ryczywolski, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    In January 2014 Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography, Polish authority for geodesy and cartography, has released transformation models for position and height. The appearance of the models is related to changes in legal acts concerning the introduction of new reference system and frames used in Poland. The transformation models link old reference frames PL-ETRF89-GRS80h (also called EUREF-89) and PL-KRON86-NH with new realizations PL-ETRF2000- GRS80h and PL-EVRS2007-NH. The reference frame for position is expressed in the same reference system ETRS89. In case of height system Poland is currently switching form Kronstadt normal height system to EVRS - European height system referred to the Normaal Amsterdams Peil. The transformation models are based on grids covering territory of Poland with node spacing of 0.01 of degree. Model for transformation between previous and current ETRS89 realizations is based on the results of GNSS calibration campaign conducted between 2008 and 2011, covering over 500 points (permanent reference stations and 1st order ground control points) regularly distributed over interest area. Above transformation model has been analyzed in the context of differences to previous frames realizations and to the approach based on parameter transformation. In the context of implementation of EVRF2007 the new local quasi-geoid model PL-geoid-2011 has been compared to the latest geopotential model, European quasi-geoid models EGG and local quasi-geoid models used so far. In addition the new model has been confronted with undulations based on the existing satellite levelling data, including the results of the fourth leveling campaign.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  18. The Ørsted Satellite in the International Decade of Geopotential Field Research (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.

    2009-04-01

    The launch of the Danish satellite Ørsted on 23 February, 1999 marked the beginning of the "Decade of Geopotential Field Research", an international effort to promote and coordinate a continuous monitoring of the geopotential (magnetic and gravity) field variability in the near-Earth environment. Already the first years of Ørsted magnetic field observations showed that dramatic changes had taken place, in particular in the South Atlantic / South African continent during the 20 years that had elapsed without satellite data after the NASA MAGSAT satellite mapping of the Earth's magnetic field. Although only designed with a life time of 14 months, the Ørsted satellite has still been providing valuable data, 10 years after launch, and has during this time been accompanied by two other geomagnetic satellite missions, the German CHAMP and the Argentinean SAC-C, both with similar instrumentation as the Ørsted satellite. This long period of continuous satellite observations of the magnetic field brought a number of scientific results including the detection of rapidly changing flows at the top of the core and crucial contribution to the derivation of the first World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. Furthermore, the high quality of the observations made it possible to identify completely new satellite magnetic signatures related to oceanic tides, ionospheric pressure gradient currents, and magnetic signatures of plasma bubbles. As often in science, new observations trigger new questions, which need to be answered with even more sophisticated measurements. This challenge was taken up by ESA by its selection of Swarm as the 5th mission in the Earth Explorer Programme. The three satellite constellation mission Swarm will be launched in 2010-11 with the objective to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution in order to improve our understanding of the Earth's interior and the Geospace environment including the Sun-Earth connection

  19. Modelling and Estimation of Dynamic Ocean Topography Within Global Geopotential Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Pavlis, Nikolaos; Wang, Y. M.; Cox, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    In this poster, we will present a report on the ongoing investigation "Improved Gravitational and Dynamic Height Models Through the use of Oceanographic Data." we have used a two year mean (1993-1994) of the Dynamic ocean Topography (DOT) field implied by the Semtner and Chervin POCM_4B model, and developed normal equations in surface spherical harmonics to degree and order 30. These normal equations, were combined with normal equations derived from TOPEX and ERS-1 altimeter data over the same time period. Combination solutions (based on satellite tracking data, altimeter data, surface gravity data and OCM data) were were developed Test solutions were obtained estimating the DOT field to 2Ox2O and 3ox3O. These solutions were tested with independent DOT values computed over 38 WOCE hydrographic sections, which contained a total of 3072 stations and represented 216000 km of travelled lines. The weighted standard deviation of the differences between the DOT obtained from the hydrographic data and and the field estimated from the joint combination solutions was computed for each of the test models, the weighted standard deviation for the baseline combination solution excluding the POCM4_B data was 9.7 cm for a DOT solution to 30x30, where introducing the POCM4_B data into the combination model reduced the standard deviation to 9.2 cm, indicating the the introduction of oceanographic information benefits the solution for the dynamic ocean topography. We will discuss the weighting schemes applied and the method of solution. Another aspect of our investigation involves testing alternate parametric representations of the dynamic height field. We looked at the alternative representations in terms of the Proudman functions (PF), and compared these to the use of spherical harmonics (SH) to represent the dynamic ocean topography, using once again the 1993 and 1994 output of the POCM4_B OCM as the reference model. A significant advantage of PF's over SH's is that the former

  20. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  1. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  2. The RHESSI Microflare Height Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christe, P.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first in-depth statistical survey of flare source heights observed by RHESSI. Flares were found using a flare-finding algorithm designed to search the 6-10 keV count-rate when RHESSI's full sensitivity was available in order to find the smallest events (Christe et al., 2008). Between March 2002 and March 2007, a total of 25,006 events were found. Source locations were determined in the 4-10 keV, 10-15 keV, and 15-30 keV energy ranges for each event. In order to extract the height distribution from the observed projected source positions, a forward-fit model was developed with an assumed source height distribution where height is measured from the photosphere. We find that the best flare height distribution is given by g (h) oc exp(-h/lambda) where lambda = 6.1 plus or minus 0.3 Mm is the scale height. A power law height distribution with a negative power law index, gamma = 3.1 plus or minus 0.3 is also consistent with the data. Interpreted as thermal loop top sources, these heights are compared to loops generated by a potential field model (PFSS). The measured flare heights distribution are found to be much steeper than the potential field loop height distribution which may be a signature of the flare energization process.

  3. Height System Unification in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sideris, Michael; Amjadiparvar, Babak

    2015-04-01

    GOCE has contributed important gravity information towards the definition and realization of the new North American height reference system. In addition to the new gravimetric geoid models based on GOCE, offsets of the classical levelling-based vertical datums in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico, can be computed with respect to a global equipotential surface defined by means of a GOCE-based geoid. Although the two datums will eventually be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum (and in fact the new Canadian height datum established in 2013 is already geoid based), their connection and unification is of great interest to the scientific and user communities. This study investigates the practical implementation of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach as a rigorous method for unifying classical levelling-based vertical datums. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the data errors on the datum unification are of great importance for the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge (TG) stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in geoid computation. This is significant because the omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the geoid computations as well as the linear system of equations for the estimation of datum offsets. Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along Canadian and US coastal areas instead of over the whole North American land mass. The effect of the omission error on the datum offsets decreases significantly in areas with good

  4. Spectral characteristics of the Hellenic vertical network - Validation over Central and Northern Greece using GOCE/GRACE global geopotential models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andritsanos, Vassilios D.; Vergos, George S.; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N.; Pagounis, Vassilios; Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2014-05-01

    The Elevation project, funded by the action "Archimedes III - Funding of research groups in T.E.I.", co-financed by the E.U. (European Social Fund) and national funds under the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning 2007-2013" aims mainly to the validation of the Hellenic vertical datum. This validation is carried out over two areas under study, one in Central and another in Northern Greece. During the first stage of the validation process, satellite-only as well as combined satellite-terrestrial models of the Earth's geopotential are used. GOCE and GRACE satellite information is compared against recently measured GPS/Levelling observations at specific benchmarks of the vertical network in Attiki (Central Greece) and Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). A spectral enhancement approach is followed where, given the GOCE/GRACE GGM truncation degree, EGM2008 is used to fill-in the medium and high-frequency content along with RTM effects for the high and ultra high part. The second stage is based on the localization of possible blunders of the vertical network using the spectral information derived previously. The undoubted accuracy of the contemporary global models at the low frequency band leads to some initial conclusions about the consistency of the Hellenic vertical datum.

  5. A Variable-Height Wheelchair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variable-height wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair height by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)

  6. Determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of the geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E.; Kaiser, G.

    2003-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites at the Kourovka Astronomical Observatory. The calculated corrections Delta C_{22} and Delta S_{22} for the geopotential model JGM-3 are equal to Delta C_{22}=(-2.6 ± 1.4) * 10(-10) , Delta S_{22}=(-3.1 ± 0.9) * 10(-10) . From ads Wed Jan 12 06:25:03 2005 Return-Path: Received: (from ads@localhost) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) id j0CBP3DC007102; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:25:03 -0500 (EST) Received: from cfa.harvard.edu (cfa.harvard.edu [131.142.10.1]) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) with ESMTP id j0CBOeKD007030 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:41 -0500 (EST) Received: from uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (mao.gluk.org [194.183.183.193]) by cfa.harvard.edu (8.12.9-20030924/8.12.9/cfunix Mast-Sol 1.0) with ESMTP id j0CBOXgu026863 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:35 -0500 (EST) Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (root@maoling.mao.kiev.ua [194.44.216.101]) by uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (8.11.6/8.11.6) with ESMTP id j0CBOVv08377 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:31 +0200 Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (gallaz@localhost [127.0.0.1]) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) with ESMTP id j0CBOTPb014668 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Received: (from gallaz@localhost) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) id j0CBOTgq014666 for ads@cfa.harvard.edu; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Date: Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 From: "Galina A. Lazorenko" Message-Id: <200501121124.j0CBOTgq014666@maoling.mao.kiev.ua> To: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Virus-Scanned: ClamAV 0.80/650/Mon Jan 3 05:00:02 2005 clamav-milter version 0.80j on maoling.mao.kiev.ua X-Virus-Status: Clean X-Loop: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Loop: ads@head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Checker-Version: SpamAssassin 2.64 (2004-01-11) on head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Level: * X

  7. Arctic sea surface height variability and change from satellite radar altimetry and GRACE, 2003-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Bacon, Sheldon; Ridout, Andy L.; Thomas, Sam F.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Wingham, Duncan J.

    2016-06-01

    Arctic sea surface height (SSH) is poorly observed by radar altimeters due to the poor coverage of the polar oceans provided by conventional altimeter missions and because large areas are perpetually covered by sea ice, requiring specialized data processing. We utilize SSH estimates from both the ice-covered and ice-free ocean to present monthly estimates of Arctic Dynamic Ocean Topography (DOT) from radar altimetry south of 81.5°N and combine this with GRACE ocean mass to estimate steric height. Our SSH and steric height estimates show good agreement with tide gauge records and geopotential height derived from Ice-Tethered Profilers. The large seasonal cycle of Arctic SSH (amplitude ˜5 cm) is dominated by seasonal steric height variation associated with seasonal freshwater fluxes, and peaks in October-November. Overall, the annual mean steric height increased by 2.2 ± 1.4 cm between 2003 and 2012 before falling to circa 2003 levels between 2012 and 2014 due to large reductions on the Siberian shelf seas. The total secular change in SSH between 2003 and 2014 is then dominated by a 2.1 ± 0.7 cm increase in ocean mass. We estimate that by 2010, the Beaufort Gyre had accumulated 4600 km3 of freshwater relative to the 2003-2006 mean. Doming of Arctic DOT in the Beaufort Sea is revealed by Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis to be concurrent with regional reductions in the Siberian Arctic. We estimate that the Siberian shelf seas lost ˜180 km3 of freshwater between 2003 and 2014, associated with an increase in annual mean salinity of 0.15 psu yr-1. Finally, ocean storage flux estimates from altimetry agree well with high-resolution model results, demonstrating the potential for altimetry to elucidate the Arctic hydrological cycle.

  8. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  9. Taking America To New Heights

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is taking America to new heights with its Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) partners. In 2011, NASA entered into funded Space Act Agreements (SAAs) w...

  10. Boundary Layer Heights from CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, R.; Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Roubert, L.

    2012-12-01

    This work is focused on the development of a planetary boundary layer (PBL) height retrieval algorithm for CALIOP and validation studies. Our current approach uses a wavelet covariance transform analysis technique to find the top of the boundary layer. We use the methodology similar to that found in Davis et. al. 2000, ours has been developed to work with the lower SNR data provided by CALIOP, and is intended to work autonomously. Concurrently developed with the CALIOP algorithm we will show results from a PBL height retrieval algorithm from profiles of potential temperature, these are derived from Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay (AMDAR) observations. Results from 5 years of collocated AMDAR - CALIOP retrievals near O'Hare airport demonstrate good agreement between the CALIOP - AMDAR retrievals. In addition, because we are able to make daily retrievals from the AMDAR measurements, we are able to observe the seasonal and annual variation in the PBL height at airports that have sufficient instrumented-aircraft traffic. Also, a comparison has been done between the CALIOP retrievals and the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) PBL height retrievals acquired during the GoMACCS experiment. Results of this comparison, like the AMDAR comparison are favorable. Our current work also involves the analysis and verification of the CALIOP PBL height retrieval from the 6 year CALIOP global data set. Results from this analysis will also be presented.

  11. A methodology study to define pathways and heights to calculate backtrajectories at near coastal Continental Antarctica station (Belgrano)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, J. A.; Yela, M.; Navarro, M.; Parrondo, M. C.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the VIOLIN (Extended Vertical Investigation of the Ozone Layer In ANtarctica) project, different atmospheric components are measured in the Antarctica station of Belgrano (77.87S, 34.62W) such as surface ozone. In order to investigate the origin of the observed chemical species, a study to identify the features and variability of air masses impacting the area has been carried out. The pathways of the air masses are determined through back trajectories calculated with the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. As a first step of this study it is necessary to define duration and heights for which the back trajectories will be obtained. The NCEP-GDAS meteorological data with a 1°x1° spatial resolution and 14 vertical levels from surface to 500 mb have been used as input. The years 2009 and 2010 have been used to perform this study which will be expanded in the future. To determinate the optimal duration of the back trajectories daily back trajectories starting at 12:00 UTC for starting altitudes of 500 and 1500 m, with durations of 120, 168, 240 and 360 hours. A cluster methodology has been used to group the back trajectories. An optimal cluster number between 4 and 6 has been obtained. The back trajectories corresponding to 120 and 168 hours show pathways covering half of the Antarctic continent while the ones obtained with 240 and 360 hours travel across all continent. The back trajectories lasting168 hours have been selected as optimal. To study optimum heights and using duration of 168 hours we calculated daily back trajectories starting at 100, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, and 4000 m. The typologies and path of air masses increase with height. The results obtained in this work identify five groups that represent the lowest 4000 m which are the back trajectories of 100, 500, 1000-1500, 2000-2500 and 3500-4000 m. As conclusion, to perform a study of air masses origin in Belgrano which will help

  12. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section... heights. (a) Every habitable room and bathroom shall have a minimum ceiling height of not less than 7 feet... with a minimum height of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum height under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section... heights. (a) Every habitable room and bathroom shall have a minimum ceiling height of not less than 7 feet... with a minimum height of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum height under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section... heights. (a) Every habitable room and bathroom shall have a minimum ceiling height of not less than 7 feet... with a minimum height of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum height under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section... heights. (a) Every habitable room and bathroom shall have a minimum ceiling height of not less than 7 feet... with a minimum height of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum height under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section... heights. (a) Every habitable room and bathroom shall have a minimum ceiling height of not less than 7 feet... with a minimum height of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum height under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be...

  17. The height premium in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey for the year 2007, this paper estimates that a 10 cm increase in physical stature is associated with an increase in earnings of 7.5% for men and 13.0% for women, even after controlling for an extensive set of productivity variables. When the height premium is estimated by sector, it is 12.3% for self-employed men and 18.0% for self-employed women; a height premium of 11.1% is also estimated for women in the private sector. In the public sector, however, the height premium estimate is not statistically significant for either men or women. This paper provides further evidence of discrimination based on customers' preferences for tall workers. PMID:24480546

  18. Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.

  19. Observations of orographic Cloud Base Heights from satellite and in-situ measurements at the Monteverde Cloud Mist Forest Reserve, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefi, S.; Zeng, J.; Han, Q.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.; Nair, U. S.; Ray, D.; McCarty, W. R.; Jedlovec, G.

    2005-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud mist forests are among the most biologically rich and diverse ecosystems, providing habitats for many of the world's endangered species. Survival of these habitats depends strongly on regular and frequent immersion in orographic clouds. At the Monteverde Cloud Mist Forest Reserve in Costa Rica, the bases of the clouds have shifted upslope, leading to anuran population crashes, an increase in the upper elevation of bird ranges on the Pacific slope, and longer dry season mist-free intervals. Satellite remote sensing techniques have been developed to determine the orographic cloud base heights; these are tested for the dry season month of March 2003 over the Monteverde cloud forests. The approach derives MODIS cloud top pressures and then converts them to cloud top heights using geopotential height profiles. The NCAR Land Use and Cloud Interaction Experiment (LUCIE), consisting of paired mobile radiosonde systems deployed in Costa Rica, provided the means for validating the retrievals. Results show that the four MODIS CO2 slicing channels do not provide sufficiently accurate cloud top height values, although some of the differences are due to a mismatch in the observational periods. In order to improve the results, two alternative approaches are examined. Simulated geopotential height profiles from the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) initialized with soundings provided superior results. Another approach investigated the utility of multiple combinations of channels in the CO2 slicing technique using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data for cloud height assignment. Using AIRS a more accurate determination of cloud top height is achieved. Cloud thicknesses are estimated using three different approaches: 1) constant liquid water content (CLWC); 2) an empirical relationship; and 3) an adiabatic model. The CLWC approach provided the most consistent results. Cloud base heights are computed from subtracting cloud thickness from cloud

  20. Fear of heights in infants?

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874

  1. Epigenetic heredity of human height

    PubMed Central

    Simeone, Pasquale; Alberti, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Genome‐wide SNP analyses have identified genomic variants associated with adult human height. However, these only explain a fraction of human height variation, suggesting that significant information might have been systematically missed by SNP sequencing analysis. A candidate for such non‐SNP‐linked information is DNA methylation. Regulation by DNA methylation requires the presence of CpG islands in the promoter region of candidate genes. Seventy two of 87 (82.8%), height‐associated genes were indeed found to contain CpG islands upstream of the transcription start site (USC CpG island searcher; validation: UCSC Genome Browser), which were shown to correlate with gene regulation. Consistent with this, DNA hypermethylation modules were detected in 42 height‐associated genes, versus 1.5% of control genes (P = 8.0199e−17), as were dynamic methylation changes and gene imprinting. Epigenetic heredity thus appears to be a determinant of adult human height. Major findings in mouse models and in human genetic diseases support this model. Modulation of DNA methylation are candidate to mediate environmental influence on epigenetic traits. This may help to explain progressive height changes over multiple generations, through trans‐generational heredity of progressive DNA methylation patterns. PMID:24963031

  2. Adult Height and Childhood Disease

    PubMed Central

    BOZZOLI, CARLOS; DEATON, ANGUS; QUINTANA-DOMEQUE, CLIMENT

    2009-01-01

    Taller populations are typically richer populations, and taller individuals live longer and earn more. In consequence, adult height has recently become a focus in understanding the relationship between health and wealth. We investigate the childhood determinants of population adult height, focusing on the respective roles of income and of disease. Across a range of European countries and the United States, we find a strong inverse relationship between postneonatal (ages 1 month to 1 year) mortality, interpreted as a measure of the disease and nutritional burden in childhood, and the mean height of those children as adults. Consistent with these findings, we develop a model of selection and stunting in which the early-life burden of undernutrition and disease not only is responsible for mortality in childhood but also leaves a residue of long-term health risks for survivors, risks that express themselves in adult height and in late-life disease. The model predicts that at sufficiently high mortality levels, selection can dominate scarring, leaving a taller population of survivors. We find evidence of this effect in the poorest and highest-mortality countries of the world, supplementing recent findings on the effects of the Great Chinese Famine. PMID:20084823

  3. Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

  4. Height and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Harris, Ross; Gunnell, David; Oliver, Steven; Lane, Jane Athene; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Neal, David; Hamdy, Freddie; Beynon, Rebecca; Savovic, Jelena; Martin, Richard Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Height, a marker of childhood environmental exposures, is positively associated with prostate cancer risk, perhaps through the insulin-like growth factor system. We investigated the relationship of prostate cancer with height and its components (leg and trunk length) in a nested case-control study and with height in a dose-response meta-analysis. Methods We nested a case-control study within a population-based randomized controlled trial evaluating treatments for localized prostate cancer in British men ages 50 to 69 years, including 1,357 cases detected through prostate-specific antigen testing and 7,990 controls (matched on age, general practice, assessment date). Nine bibliographic databases were searched systematically for studies on the height-prostate cancer association that were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results Based on the nested case-control, the odds ratio (OR) of prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer per 10 cm increase in height was 1.06 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.97-1.16; ptrend = 0.2]. There was stronger evidence of an association of height with high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06-1.43), mainly due to the leg component, but not with low-grade disease (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.90-1.10). In general, associations with leg or trunk length were similar. A meta-analysis of 58 studies found evidence that height is positively associated with prostate cancer (random-effects OR per 10 cm: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.09), with a stronger effect for prospective studies of more advanced/aggressive cancers (random-effects OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05-1.19). Conclusion These data indicate a limited role for childhood environmental exposures—as indexed by adult height—on prostate cancer incidence, while suggesting a greater role for progression, through mechanisms requiring further investigation. PMID:18768501

  5. Determination of stratospheric temperature and height gradients from nimbus 3 radiation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, G. W.; Hovland, D. N.; Belmont, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    To improve the specification of stratospheric horizontal temperature and geopotential height fields from satellite radiation data, needed for high flying aircraft, a technique was derived to estimate data between satellite tracks using interpolated IRIS 15-micron data from Nimbus III. The interpolation is based on the observed gradients of the MRIR 15-micron radiances between subsatellite tracks. The technique was verified with radiosonde data taken within 6 hours of the satellite data. The sample varied from 1126 pairs at low levels to 383 pairs at 10 mb using northern hemisphere data for June 15 to July 20, 1969. The data were separated into five latitude bands. The Rms temperature differences were generally from 2 to 5 C for all levels above 300 mb. From 500 to 300 mb RMS differences vary from 4 to 9C except at high latitudes which show values near 3C. The RMS differences between radiosonde heights and those calculated hydrostatically from the surface were from 30 to 280 meters increasing from the surface to 10 mb. Integration starting at 100 mb reduced the RMS difference in the stratosphere to 20 to 120 meters from 70 to 10 mb. From a comparison with actual operational maps at 50 and 10 mb, it appears the techniques developed produce analyses in general agreement with those from radiosonde data. In addition, they are able to indicate details over areas of sparse data not shown by conventional techniques.

  6. GOCE-based height system unification between Greece and Turkey. First considerations over marine and land areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergos, Georgios S.; Erol, Bihter; Natsiopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N.; Serkan Işık, Mustafa; Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2016-04-01

    The unification of local vertical Datums (LVDs) at a country-wide scale has gained significant attention lately, due to the availability of GOCE-based Global Geopotential Models (GGMs). The latter, offer unprecedented geoid height accuracies at the 1-1.5 cm level for spherical harmonic expansions to d/o 225-230. Within a single country, several LVDs may be used, especially in the event of islandic nations, therefore the unification of all of them to a single nation-wide LVD is of utmost importance. The same holds for neighboring countries, where the unification of their vertical datums is necessary as a tool of engineering, cross-border collaboration and environmental and risk management projects. The aforementioned set the main scope of the work carried out in the frame of the present study, which referred to the use of GOCE and GOCE/GRACE GGMs in order to unify the LVDs of Greece and Turkey. It is well-known that the two countries share common borders and are a path for large-scale engineering projects in the energy sector. Therefore, the availability of a common reference for orthometric heights in both countries and/or the determination of the relative offset of their individual zero-level geopotential value poses an emerging issue. The determination of the geopotential value Wo(LVD) for the Greek and Turkish LVDs was first carried out separately for each region performing as well different estimates for the marine area of the Aegean Sea and the terrestrial border-region along eastern Thrace. From that, possible biases of the Hellenic and Turkish LVDs themselves have been drawn and analyzed to determine spatial correlations. Then, the relative offset between the two LVDs was determined employing GPS/Levelling data for both areas and the latest GO-DIR-R5, GO-TIM-R5 and GOCO05s models as well as EGM2008. The estimation of the mean offset was used to provide as well a direct link between the Greek and Turkish LVDs with the IAG conventional value recently proposed

  7. The letter height superiority illusion.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  8. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment....

  9. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment....

  10. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment....

  11. A computer program to calculate zeroes, extrema, and interval integrals for the associated Legendre functions. [for estimation of bounds of truncation error in spherical harmonic expansion of geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described for the calculation of the zeroes of the associated Legendre functions, Pnm, and their derivatives, for the calculation of the extrema of Pnm and also the integral between pairs of successive zeroes. The program has been run for all n,m from (0,0) to (20,20) and selected cases beyond that for n up to 40. Up to (20,20), the program (written in double precision) retains nearly full accuracy, and indications are that up to (40,40) there is still sufficient precision (4-5 decimal digits for a 54-bit mantissa) for estimation of various bounds and errors involved in geopotential modelling, the purpose for which the program was written.

  12. MULTICHANNEL PULSE-HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1958-01-21

    This patent deals with electronic computing circuits and more particularly to pulse-height analyzers used for classifying variable amplitude pulses into groups of different amplitudes. The device accomplishes this pulse allocation by by converting the pulses into frequencies corresponding to the amplitudes of the pulses, which frequencies are filtered in channels individually pretuned to a particular frequency and then detected and recorded in the responsive channel. This circuit substantially overcomes the disadvantages of prior annlyzers incorporating discriminators pre-set to respond to certain voltage levels, since small variation in component values is not as critical to satisfactory circuit operation.

  13. HRS Pulse Height Analysis - 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapik, Joe

    1991-07-01

    This test performs a pulse height analysis to determine individual diode response as a function of threshold for HRS detector 2. Based on this evaluation new thresholds may be determined for optimal HRS operation. Command blocks ZCTFLIT1 and ZCTFLIT2 will be updated accordingly. This test will run once during the year. Also included is one ion test which is a PHA of twice normal threshold to look for ion events (which accelerate back up the 22 kV potential of the tube, liberate electrons from the phocathode, and produce events of twice normal energy (this should be a very low, stable rate).

  14. Judgments of others' heights are biased toward the height of the perceiver.

    PubMed

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2015-04-01

    We examined how observers use one aspect of their own morphology, height, when judging the physical characteristics of other people. To address this, participants judged the heights of people as they walked past. We tested the hypothesis that differences between participant and target height account for systematic patterns of variability and bias in height estimation. Height estimate error and error variability increased as the difference between participant height and target height increased, suggesting that estimates are scaled to observers' heights. Furthermore, participants' height estimates were biased toward two standards, demonstrating classic category effects. First, estimates were biased toward participants' own heights. Second, participants biased height estimates toward the average height of the target distribution. These results support past research on using both the body and categorical information to estimate target properties but extend to real-world situations involving interactions with moving people, such as height judgments provided during eyewitness testimony. PMID:25028087

  15. Intercomparison of Satellite Derived Gravity Time Series with Inferred Gravity Time Series from TOPEX/POSEIDON Sea Surface Heights and Climatological Model Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, C.; Au, A.; Klosko, S.; Chao, B.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The upcoming GRACE mission promises to open a window on details of the global mass budget that will have remarkable clarity, but it will not directly answer the question of what the state of the Earth's mass budget is over the critical last quarter of the 20th century. To address that problem we must draw upon existing technologies such as SLR, DORIS, and GPS, and climate modeling runs in order to improve our understanding. Analysis of long-period geopotential changes based on SLR and DORIS tracking has shown that addition of post 1996 satellite tracking data has a significant impact on the recovered zonal rates and long-period tides. Interannual effects such as those causing the post 1996 anomalies must be better characterized before refined estimates of the decadal period changes in the geopotential can be derived from the historical database of satellite tracking. A possible cause of this anomaly is variations in ocean mass distribution, perhaps associated with the recent large El Nino/La Nina. In this study, a low-degree spherical harmonic gravity time series derived from satellite tracking is compared with a TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived sea surface height time series. Corrections for atmospheric mass effects, continental hydrology, snowfall accumulation, and ocean steric model predictions will be considered.

  16. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall...

  17. The genetic architecture of maize height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formida...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall...

  19. Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2013-07-16

    Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.

  20. Two Alternative Methods for Height Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin

    2008-03-01

    Geodesists have always been dealing with coordinate transformations. There exist various kinds of transformations, like three-dimensional (spatial datum) transformations, two-dimensional (horizontal datum) transformations and one-dimensional (eg, height) transformations. In this article we discuss height transformations. Height data is usually obtained by levelling. The problematic side of levelling is that this technique is very labour intensive and costly. Nowadays as well GPS measurements can be used, which are much faster and cheaper, but in order to use GPS measurements for height determination, we need a precise geoid model to transform GPS heights to heights above sea level. In this article two different approaches to this transformation are presented. At first, the affine transformation is discussed. The method is by nature linear, and employs the barycentric coordinates of the point, the height of which is going to be computed. Secondly, the method of fuzzy modelling is used. By these methods, the transformation surface is determined and the heights of desired points can be determined. As the input data, height information from the precise levelling campaign in Estonia is used. The computed values are tested against height information, gathered from the reference geoid model. The objectives of this research are acquiring insight into using alternative methods for height transformation as well as to statistically characterise the suitability of the proposed methods.

  1. Orbit determination modelling analysis using GPS including perturbations due to geopotential coefficients of high degree and order, solar radiation pressure and luni-solar attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Cristiane Pardal, Paula; Koiti Kuga, Helio

    The problem of orbit determination consists essentially of estimating parameter values that completely specify the body trajectory in the space, processing a set of information (measure-ments) from this body. Such observations can be collected through a conventional tracking network on Earth or through sensors like GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful and low cost way to allow the computation of orbits for artificial Earth satellites. The Topex/Poseidon satellite is normally used as a reference for analyzing this system for space positioning. The orbit determination of artificial satellites is a nonlinear problem in which the disturbing forces are not easily modeled, like geopotential and direct solar radiation pressure. Through an onboard GPS receiver it is possible to obtain measurements (pseudo-range and phase) that can be used to estimate the state of the orbit. One intends to analyze the modeling of the orbit of an artificial satellite, using signals of the GPS constellation and least squares algorithms as a method of estimation, with the aim of analyzing the performance of the orbit estimation process. Accuracy is not the main goal; one pursues to verify how differences of modeling can affect the final accuracy of the orbit determination. To accomplish that, the following effects were considered: perturbations up to high degree and order for the geopoten-tial coefficients; direct solar radiation pressure, Sun attraction, and Moon attraction. It was also considered the position of the GPS antenna on the satellite body that, lately, consists of the influence of the satellite attitude motion in the orbit determination process. Although not presenting the ultimate accuracy, pseudo-range measurements corrected from ionospheric effects were considered enough to such analysis. The measurements were used to feed the batch least squares orbit determination process, in order to yield conclusive results about the orbit modeling issue. An application

  2. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C.P.; Hamby, S.E.; Saleheen, D.; Hopewell, J.C.; Zeng, L.; Assimes, T.L.; Kanoni, S.; Willenborg, C.; Burgess, S.; Amouyel, P.; Anand, S.; Blankenberg, S.; Boehm, B.O.; Clarke, R.J.; Collins, R.; Dedoussis, G.; Farrall, M.; Franks, P.W.; Groop, L.; Hall, A.S.; Hamsten, A.; Hengstenberg, C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, E.; Kathiresan, S.; Kee, F.; König, I.R.; Kooner, J.; Lehtimäki, T.; März, W.; McPherson, R.; Metspalu, A.; Nieminen, M.S.; O’Donnell, C.J.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Peters, A.; Perola, M.; Reilly, M.P.; Ripatti, S.; Roberts, R.; Salomaa, V.; Shah, S.H.; Schreiber, S.; Siegbahn, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Veronesi, G.; Wareham, N.; Willer, C.J.; Zalloua, P.A.; Erdmann, J.; Deloukas, P.; Watkins, H.; Schunkert, H.; Danesh, J.; Thompson, J.R.; Samani, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested the association between a change in genetically determined height of 1 SD (6.5 cm) with the risk of CAD in 65,066 cases and 128,383 controls. Using individual-level genotype data from 18,249 persons, we also examined the risk of CAD associated with the presence of various numbers of height-associated alleles. To identify putative mechanisms, we analyzed whether genetically determined height was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors and performed a pathway analysis of the height-associated genes. RESULTS We observed a relative increase of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4 to 22.1; P<0.001) in the risk of CAD per 1-SD decrease in genetically determined height. There was a graded relationship between the presence of an increased number of height-raising variants and a reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio for height quartile 4 versus quartile 1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84; P<0.001). Of the 12 risk factors that we studied, we observed significant associations only with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (accounting for approximately 30% of the association). We identified several overlapping pathways involving genes associated with both development and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS There is a primary association between a genetically determined shorter height and an increased risk of CAD, a link that is partly explained by the association between shorter height and an adverse lipid profile. Shared biologic processes that determine achieved height and the development of atherosclerosis may explain some of the association. PMID:25853659

  3. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  4. Uncertainties in derived temperature-height profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Nomographs were developed for relating uncertainty in temperature T to uncertainty in the observed height profiles of both pressure p and density rho. The relative uncertainty delta T/T is seen to depend not only upon the relative uncertainties delta P/P or delta rho/rho, and to a small extent upon the value of T or H, but primarily upon the sampling-height increment Delta h, the height increment between successive observations of p or delta. For a fixed value of delta p/p, the value of delta T/T varies inversely with Delta h. No limit exists in the fineness of usable height resolution of T which may be derived from densities, while a fine height resolution in pressure-height data leads to temperatures with unacceptably large uncertainties.

  5. Height and calories in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. PMID:26656205

  6. Gravity Field Solution Derived from Recent Releases of GOCE-Based Geopotential Models and Terrestrial Gravity Observations over The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Elsaka, Basem

    2015-03-01

    The free air gravity anomalies over Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been estimated from the final releases of GOCE-based global geopotential models (GGMs) compared with the terrestrial gravity anomalies of 3554 sites. Two GGMs; EGM08 and Eigen-6C3 have been applied. The free-air anomalies from GOCE-based, ΔgGGM, have been calculated over the 3554 stations in the medium and short spectrum of gravity wavelength of d/o 100, …, 250 (with 10 step). The short spectrum has been compensated once from d/o 101, …, 251 to 2190 and 1949 using EGM08 and Eigen-6C3 (i.e. ΔgGGM), respectively. The very short component was determined using residual terrain modelling approach. Our findings show firstly that the EGM08 is more reliable than Eigen-6C3. Second, the GOCE-based GGMs provide similar results within the spectral wavelength band from d/o 100 to d/o 180. Beyond d/o 180 till d/o 250, we found that GOCE-based TIM model releases provide substantial improvements within the spectral band from d/o 220 to d/o 250 with respect to the DIR releases. Third, the TIM_r5 model provides the least standard deviations (st. dev.) in terms of gravity anomalies.

  7. An oblate ellipsoidal approach to update a high-resolution geopotential model over the oceans: Study case of EGM2008 and DTU10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebera, Josef; Bezděk, Aleš; Kostelecký, Jan; Pešek, Ivan; Shum, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The most important high-resolution geopotential models such as EGM96 and EGM2008 have been released approximately once per decade. In light of the ability of modern satellite, airborne or terrestrial techniques to provide new data sets every year (e.g., in polar and ocean areas), these data can be readily included in existing models without waiting for a new release. In this article, we present a novel ellipsoidal approach for updating high-resolution models over the oceans with new gridded data. The problem is demonstrated using the EGM2008 model updated with DTU10 geoid and gravity grids that provide additional signal over the Arctic oceans. The result of the procedure are the ellipsoidal and the spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 4320 and 4400, respectively. These coefficients represent the input data set to within 0.08 mGal globally, with the largest differences located at the land-ocean boundaries, which is two orders of magnitude less than real accuracy of gravity data from satellite altimetry. Along with the harmonic coefficients a detailed map of the second vertical derivative of the anomalous potential (or vertical gravitational gradient) on 1 arc-min grid is anticipated to improve or complement the original DTU10 geoid model. Finally, an optimized set of Jekeli's functions is provided as they allow for computing oblate ellipsoidal harmonics up to a very high degree and order (>10,000) in terms of the hypergeometric formulation.

  8. Spine Height and Disc Height Changes As the Effect of Hyperextension Using Stadiometry and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kourtis, Dimitrios; Magnusson, Marianne L; Smith, Francis; Hadjipavlou, Alex; Pope, Malcolm H

    2004-01-01

    Study Design. In vivo biomechanical design using stadiometry and MRI to measure the height change due to (hyper)extension. Summary of Background Data. Spine height is decreased under loads such as lifting, whole body vibration and sitting. Extension including increased lumbar lordosis reduces the load on the spine. Methods. The aim was to assess the effects of a supine hyperextended posture as a means of restoring the intervertebral disc height after loading and allowing rehydration of the discs. Ten healthy male subjects were tested. A hyperextension intervention was achieved by the means of an inflatable cushion placed under the lumbar spine. The spine height was measured using a stadiometer and MRI was used to assess disc height changes. Results. The spine height gain after 10 minutes of a supine hyperextended posture differed significantly between individuals but everybody gained height. MRI images of the lumbar spine were used to measure the disc height. All but one subjects gained height during the hyperextension. Images of the spine during hyperextended posture showed increased lumbar curve and an increased anterior height of each disc compared with the dimensions of the disc with the spine in neutral posture. Conclusions. All subjects lost height during sitting. Both methods demonstrated a recovery of height due to hyperextension. Hyperextension could be considered as a prophylaxis against the height loss in occupational loading. PMID:15296209

  9. Agreement between Actual Height and Estimated Height Using Segmental Limb Lengths for Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Heidi; Peterson, Mark D.; Daunter, Alecia; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between actual height or segmental length, and estimated height from segmental measures among individuals cerebral palsy (CP). Design A convenience sample of 137 children and young adults with CP (age 2–25 years) was recruited from a tertiary care center. Height, body mass, recumbent length, knee height, tibia length and ulna length were measured. Estimated height was calculated using several common prediction equations. Agreement between measured and estimated height was determined using the Bland-Altman method. Results Limits of agreement were wide for all equations, usually in the range of ± 10 cm. Repeatability of the individual measures was high, with a coefficient of variation of 1–2% for all measures. The equation using knee height demonstrated a non-uniform difference where height estimation worsened as overall height increased. Conclusions Accurate measurement of height is important, but very difficult in individuals with CP. Segmental measures are highly repeatable, and thus may be used on their own to monitor growth. However, when an accurate measure of height is needed to monitor nutritional status (i.e. for body mass index calculation), caution is warranted as there is only fair to poor agreement between actual height and estimated height. PMID:25299521

  10. Height and Weight of Children: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Peter V. V.; And Others

    This report contains national estimates based on findings from the Health Examination Survey in 1963-65 on height and weight measurements of children 6- to 11-years-old. A nationwide probability sample of 7,119 children was selected to represent the noninstitutionalized children (about 24 million) in this age group. Height was obtained in stocking…

  11. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  12. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  13. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  14. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  15. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  16. Genetic analysis of plant height in wheat.

    PubMed

    Halloran, G M

    1974-01-01

    Genetic studies of plant height were made of 8 wheats and the 28 crosses between them using the diallel method of analysis. The inheritance of plant height in a glasshouse-grown F1 diallel set in which vernalization and photoperiodic responses had been removed, indicated close to complete dominance in its expression. A similar F1 set of crosses in the field environment indicated non-allelic interaction in its expression, attributable mainly to the cultivar Chile 1B generally in its crosses with the other 7 wheats. Its removal gave close to complete average dominance in the inheritance of plant height.In the F2 generation in the field its inheritance was again subject to non-allelic interaction, attributed mainly to Chile 1B which, on removal, gave a situation of average partial dominance in height expression.Standardized deviations of Yr and (Wr + Vr) for plant height for the diallels indicated a resonably close association of tallness with dominance and shortness with recessiveness.Frequency distributions of plant height in the F1 and F2 of two crosses from the diallel confirmed certain findings of the diallel analysis.At least two groups of dominant genes were found to influence plant height expression in the crosses of the diallel ; this number must be regarded as a minimal estimate of the number of genes influencing plant height in wheat. PMID:24419549

  17. 30 CFR 56.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Headframe height. 56.19036 Section 56.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Headframe height. 57.19036 Section 57.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Headframe height. 57.19036 Section 57.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  20. 27 CFR 9.222 - Naches Heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Naches Heights. 9.222... Naches Heights. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Naches Heights”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Naches Heights” is a term of viticultural significance....

  1. 30 CFR 56.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Headframe height. 56.19036 Section 56.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Headframe height. 56.19036 Section 56.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Headframe height. 56.19036 Section 56.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  4. 27 CFR 9.222 - Naches Heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Naches Heights. 9.222... Naches Heights. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Naches Heights”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Naches Heights” is a term of viticultural significance....

  5. 30 CFR 57.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Headframe height. 57.19036 Section 57.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headframe height. 57.19036 Section 57.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Headframe height. 57.19036 Section 57.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19036 - Headframe height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headframe height. 56.19036 Section 56.19036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19036 Headframe height. Headframes shall be high enough to provide clearance...

  9. 27 CFR 9.222 - Naches Heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Naches Heights. 9.222... Naches Heights. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Naches Heights”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Naches Heights” is a term of viticultural significance....

  10. Crop height determination with UAS point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2014-11-01

    The accurate determination of the height of agricultural crops helps to predict yield, biomass etc. These relationships are of great importance not only for crop production but also in grassland management, because the available biomass and food quality are valuable information. However there is no cost efficient and automatic system for the determination of the crop height available. 3D-point clouds generated from high resolution UAS imagery offer a new alternative. Two different approaches for crop height determination are presented. The "difference method" were the canopy height is determined by taking the difference between a current UAS-surface model and an existing digital terrain model (DTM) is the most suited and most accurate method. In situ measurements, vegetation indices and yield observations correlate well with the determined UAS crop heights.

  11. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  12. Intralocus sexual conflict over human height

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Kuijper, Bram; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) occurs when a trait under selection in one sex constrains the other sex from achieving its sex-specific fitness optimum. Selection pressures on body size often differ between the sexes across many species, including humans: among men individuals of average height enjoy the highest reproductive success, while shorter women have the highest reproductive success. Given its high heritability, IASC over human height is likely. Using data from sibling pairs from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we present evidence for IASC over height: in shorter sibling pairs (relatively) more reproductive success (number of children) was obtained through the sister than through the brother of the sibling pair. By contrast, in average height sibling pairs most reproductive success was obtained through the brother relative to the sister. In conclusion, we show that IASC over a heritable, sexually dimorphic physical trait (human height) affects Darwinian fitness in a contemporary human population. PMID:22875819

  13. Dynamics and mechanisms of decadal variability of the Pacific-South America mode over the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Hao; Wu, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, decadal variability of the Pacific-South America (PSA) mode is examined from year 1871 to 2008 based on the newly developed ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products. The PSA mode, mirroring the Pacific-North America mode in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as the second EOF mode of 500 mb geopotential height anomalies. The mode displays substantial interannual-decadal variability with distinct timescales between 3-8 and 10-18 years, respectively. The decadal variability of the PSA mode is found to be associated with the coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction over the subtropical South and tropical Pacific. The subduction of the subtropical temperature anomalies in the South Pacific in conjunction with the tropical-subtropical atmospheric teleconnection plays important role in the decadal variability of the PSA mode.

  14. Dynamics and mechanisms of decadal variability of the Pacific-South America mode over the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Hao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, decadal variability of the Pacific-South America (PSA) mode is examined from year 1871 to 2008 based on the newly developed ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products. The PSA mode, mirroring the Pacific-North America mode in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as the second EOF mode of 500 mb geopotential height anomalies. The mode displays substantial interannual-decadal variability with distinct timescales between 3-8 and 10-18 years, respectively. The decadal variability of the PSA mode is found to be associated with the coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction over the subtropical South and tropical Pacific. The subduction of the subtropical temperature anomalies in the South Pacific in conjunction with the tropical-subtropical atmospheric teleconnection plays important role in the decadal variability of the PSA mode.

  15. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  16. Raman Lidar Retrievals of Mixed Layer Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Clayton, M.; Turner, D. D.; Newsom, R. K.; Goldsmith, J.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate determination of the atmospheric mixing layer (ML) height is important for modeling the transport of aerosols and aerosol precursors and forecasting air quality. Aerosol and water vapor profiles measured by the DOE ARM SGP and the new TWP (Darwin) ground based Raman lidars provide direct measurements of the vertical structure of ML. We have developed automated algorithms to identify sharp gradients in aerosols and water vapor at the top of the ML and have used these algorithms to derive ML heights for extended periods over the last few years. During the afternoon, these ML heights generally compare favorably with ML heights derived from potential temperature profiles derived from coincident radiosondes. However, retrieving ML heights via lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol gradients is problematic in the presence of elevated aerosol and water vapor layers which are often observed, especially at night. Consequently, we take advantage of recent modifications to these lidars that permit continuous temperature profiling, and compute ML heights using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measurements. The resulting ML heights agree well with ML heights derived from radiosondes and provide a more realistic representation of the diurnal ML behavior. We use the Raman lidar aerosol and water vapor profiles and ML heights to derive the fractions of total column precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical thickness within and above the ML and show how the ML heights and these fractions vary with time of day and season. The SGP Raman lidar measurements show that the fraction of the aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor above the ML increases from 30-60% during the day to 60-80% at night. The Darwin Raman lidar measurements reveal a shallow, moist cloud-topped ML with little diurnal variability during the austral summer and deeper ML with more diurnal variability during

  17. The genetic overlap between schizophrenia and height

    PubMed Central

    Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Chen, Xianging; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that height and schizophrenia risk are inversely correlated. These findings might arise because i) height and schizophrenia share genetic variants and ii) the effects of these shared variants are in opposite direction for the two traits. We use genome wide association data to empirically evaluate these hypotheses. We find that variants which impact on height and risk for schizophrenia are distributed across several genomic regions and the directions of effect vary, some consistent and others inconsistent with the direction expected from the phenotypic data. Moreover, signals that were in and not in accord with the phenotypic data aggregated in distinct biological pathways. PMID:24239283

  18. Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.

  19. HEIGHT, PARTNERS AND OFFSPRING: EVIDENCE FROM TAIWAN.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hung-Lin; Yin, Ching-Chen

    2016-09-01

    Using Taiwanese data, this study finds that tall males are more successful in mate selection and reproduction, but the results are weakly significant. Height is not helpful for females' reproductive success. Specifically, tall males are more likely to have a partner at present or in the past, have at least one child, have more children, have a shorter period of celibacy and have a longer time duration of living with a partner in their lifetime. Using mediation analysis, the study shows that tall males' reproductive success is not due to their achievements in the labour market (earnings), but is simply due to their height per se. Finally, a college student data set is used to explore the relation between height and dating hours. Tall male students have more dating hours, but no relation is found between females' height and dating hours. PMID:26449270

  20. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  1. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  2. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation.

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    2016-02-01

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive, systematic fashion. Here, we present a synthetic review of the literature on human height from an explicit evolutionary perspective, addressing its phylogenetic history, development, and environmental and genetic influences on growth and stature. In addition to presenting evidence to suggest the past action of natural selection on human height, we also assess the evidence that natural and sexual selection continues to act on height in contemporary populations. Although there is clear evidence to suggest that selection acts on height, mainly through life-history processes but perhaps also directly, it is also apparent that methodological factors reduce the confidence with which such inferences can be drawn, and there remain surprising gaps in our knowledge. The inability to draw firm conclusions about the adaptiveness of such a highly visible and easily measured trait suggests we should show an appropriate degree of caution when dealing with other human traits in evolutionary perspective. PMID:25530478

  3. Severe summer heat waves over Georgia: trends, patterns and driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keggenhoff, I.; Elizbarashvili, M.; King, L.

    2015-11-01

    During the last 50 years Georgia experienced a rising number of severe summer heat waves causing increasing heat-health impacts. In this study, the 10 most severe heat waves between 1961 and 2010 and recent changes in heat wave characteristics have been detected from 22 homogenized temperature minimum and maximum series using the Excess Heat Factor (EHF). A composite and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) have been performed to study summer heat wave patterns and their relationships to the selected predictors: mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Geopotential Height at 500 mb (Z500), Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Zonal (u-wind500) and Meridional Wind at 500 mb (v-wind500), Vertical Velocity at 500 mb (O500), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Relative Humidity (RH500), Precipitation (RR) and Soil Moisture (SM). Most severe heat events during the last 50 years are identified in 2007, 2006 and 1998. Largest significant trend magnitudes for the number, intensity and duration of low and high-impact heat waves have been found during the last 30 years. Significant changes in the heat wave predictors reveal that all relevant surface and atmospheric patterns contributing to heat waves have been intensified between 1961 and 2010. Composite anomalies and CCA patterns provide evidence of a large anticyclonic blocking pattern over the southern Ural Mountains, which attracts warm air masses from the Southwest, enhances subsidence and surface heating, shifts the African Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) northwards, and causes a northward shift of the subtropical jet. Moreover, pronounced precipitation and soil moisture deficiency throughout Georgia contribute to the heat wave formation and persistence over Georgia. Due to different large- to mesoscale circulation patterns and the local terrain, heat wave effects over Eastern Georgia are dominated by subsidence and surface heating, while convective rainfall and cooling are observed in the West.

  4. Associations of mortality with own height using son's height as an instrumental variable

    PubMed Central

    Carslake, David; Fraser, Abigail; Davey Smith, George; May, Margaret; Palmer, Tom; Sterne, Jonathan; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Height is associated with mortality from many diseases, but it remains unclear whether the association is causal or due to confounding by social factors, genetic pleiotropy,1 or existing ill-health. The authors investigated whether the association of height with mortality is causal by using a son's height as an instrumental variable (IV) for parents’ height among the parents of a cohort of 1,036,963 Swedish men born between 1951 and 1980 who had their height measured at military conscription, aged around 18, between 1969 and 2001. In a two-sample IV analysis adjusting for son's age at examination and secular trends in height, as well as parental age, and socioeconomic position, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause paternal mortality per standard deviation (SD, 6.49 cm) of height was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.96). The results of IV analyses of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, cancer, external causes and suicide were comparable to those obtained using son's height as a simple proxy for own height and to conventional analyses of own height in the present data and elsewhere, suggesting that such conventional analyses are not substantially confounded by existing ill-health. PMID:22560304

  5. Associations of mortality with own height using son's height as an instrumental variable.

    PubMed

    Carslake, David; Fraser, Abigail; Davey Smith, George; May, Margaret; Palmer, Tom; Sterne, Jonathan; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Lawlor, Debbie A; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-07-01

    Height is associated with mortality from many diseases, but it remains unclear whether the association is causal or due to confounding by social factors, genetic pleiotropy,(1) or existing ill-health. The authors investigated whether the association of height with mortality is causal by using a son's height as an instrumental variable (IV) for parents' height among the parents of a cohort of 1,036,963 Swedish men born between 1951 and 1980 who had their height measured at military conscription, aged around 18, between 1969 and 2001. In a two-sample IV analysis adjusting for son's age at examination and secular trends in height, as well as parental age, and socioeconomic position, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause paternal mortality per standard deviation (SD, 6.49cm) of height was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.96). The results of IV analyses of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, cancer, external causes and suicide were comparable to those obtained using son's height as a simple proxy for own height and to conventional analyses of own height in the present data and elsewhere, suggesting that such conventional analyses are not substantially confounded by existing ill-health. PMID:22560304

  6. Evaluation of proper height for squatting stool.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2008-05-01

    Many jobs and activities in people's daily lives have them in squatting postures. Jobs such as housekeeping, farming and welding require various squatting activities. It is speculated that prolonged squatting without any type of supporting stool would gradually and eventually impose musculoskeletal injuries on workers. This study aims to examine the proper height of the stool according to the position of working materials for the squatting worker. A total of 40 male and female college students and 10 female farmers participated in the experiment to find the proper stool height. Student participants were asked to sit and work in three different positions: floor level of 50 mm; ankle level of 200 mm; and knee level of 400 mm. They were then provided with stools of various heights and asked to maintain a squatting work posture. For each working position, they were asked to write down their thoughts on a preferred stool height. A Likert summated rating method as well as pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate user preference for provided stools under conditions of different working positions. Under a similar experimental procedure, female farmers were asked to indicate their body part discomfort (BPD) on a body chart before and after performing the work. Statistical analysis showed that comparable results were found from both evaluation measures. When working position is below 50 mm, the proper stool height is 100 or should not be higher than 150 mm. When working position is 200 mm, the proper stool height is 150 mm. When working position is 400 mm, the proper stool height is 200 mm. Thus, it is strongly recommended to use proper height of stools with corresponding working position. Moreover, a wearable chair prototype was designed so that workers in a squatting posture do not have to carry and move the stool from one place to another. This stool should ultimately help to relieve physical stress and hence promote the health of squatting workers. This study sought

  7. Duck!: Scaling the height of a horizontal barrier to body height

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Geuss, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research shows that the body is used to scale environmental extents. We question whether the body is used to scale heights as measured by real actions (Experiments 1 and 2), or judgments about action and extent made from a single viewpoint (Experiments 3 and 4). First, participants walked under barriers either naturally or when wearing shoes or a helmet. Participants required a larger margin of safety (ducked at shorter heights) when they were made taller. In follow-up experiments, participants visually matched barrier heights and judged whether they could walk under them when wearing shoes or a helmet. Only the helmet decreased visually matched estimates; action judgments were no different when taller. The final experiment suggested that the change in matched estimates may have been due to lack of experience wearing the helmet. Overall, the results suggest that perceived height is scaled to the body and that when body height is altered, experience may moderate the rescaling of height. PMID:20601715

  8. Retrieval of Aerosol Height with TROPOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, A. F. J.; de Haan, J. F.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), to be launched in 2015, will feature a new aerosol product providing the height of aerosol layers. Aerosol Layer Height will be one of two aerosol products, the other one being the Absorbing Aerosol Index. TROPOMI is a UV-VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer with daily global coverage. It will be part of ESA's Sentinel-5 Precursor mission. Algorithm development for the aerosol height product is currently underway at KNMI. In this presentation we will introduce the algorithm, highlight some of the development issues and discuss possible applications and example aerosol cases. Aerosol height observations from the near-infrared wavelength range will improve retrieval of other aerosol properties, particularly retrieval of absorption optical thickness. An increase in absorption in the ultraviolet wavelength range can be due to a higher imaginary part of the refractive index or to the aerosol layer being at a higher altitude. Independent height observations will therefore further constrain retrieval of the single scattering albedo. Furthermore, aerosol profile information is an important parameter when estimating radiative forcings and climate impacts of aerosol, it is a significant source of uncertainty in trace gas retrieval and it helps in understanding atmospheric transport mechanisms. Finally, timely available, global observations of aerosol height will be of interest to aviation safety agencies. The retrieval algorithm for aerosol height will be based on absorption by oxygen in the A-band (759-770 nm). Aerosols are assumed to be contained in a single layer. A spectral fit of reflectance (resolution 0.5 nm) across the absorption band provides layer height. The retrieval method will be optimal estimation to ensure a proper error analysis. Sensitivity studies have indicated that accuracy and precision of retrieved height for cloud-free scenes will be well below the TROPOMI science requirements (1 km). They have also shown that

  9. Solar activity and Perseid meteor heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buček, M.; Porubčan, V.; Zigo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Photographic meteor heights of the Perseid meteoroid stream compiled in the IAU Meteor Data Center catalogue observed in 1939-1992, covering five solar activity cycles, are analyzed and their potential variation within a solar activity cycle is investigated and discussed. Of the 673 Perseids selected from the catalogue, the variations of the heights for three independent sets: 524 Perseids with known information on both heights, 397 with known brightness and 279 with the geocentric velocity within a one sigma limit, were investigated. The observed beginning and endpoint heights of the Perseids, normalized for the geocentric velocity and the absolute photographic magnitude correlated with the solar activity represented by the relative sunspot number R, do not exhibit a variation consistent with the solar activity cycle. The result, confirmed also by the correlation analysis, is derived for the mass ranges of larger meteoroids observed by photographic techniques. However, a possible variation of meteor heights controlled by solar activity for smaller meteoroids detected by television and radio techniques remains still open and has to be verified.

  10. Approach for a Global Height Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihde, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Hermann Drewes, Christoph Foerste, Thomas Gruber, Gunter Liebsch, Roland Pail, Laura Sanchez For Earth system monitoring the heights are main parameters for global changes. Physical heights are potential differences of the outer Earth gravity field at different positions. Long term monitoring of the vertical component of the Earth surface needs a standardized defined and realized global reference relating the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth. In the last two decades, in several working groups of the International Association of Geodesy were different concepts for definition and realization of global height reference system discussed. Furthermore, the satellite gravity missions have the Earth gravity field data basis general extended. So far, it is possible to develop the present local and regional height reference systems concepts to a global approach. The presented proposal has to be understood as a model that consider the present possibilities and actual needs for the realization of a global height reference system. It includes aspects for the combination of observations and products representing the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth.

  11. The height of watermelons with wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15-22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067-83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions.

  12. The height limit of a siphon

    PubMed Central

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-01-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323

  13. The height limit of a siphon.

    PubMed

    Boatwright, A; Hughes, S; Barry, J

    2015-01-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure-about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323

  14. The height limit of a siphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-12-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion.

  15. Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human Height

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, Ruth; Eklund, Niina; Pirastu, Nicola; Kuningas, Maris; McEvoy, Brian P.; Esko, Tõnu; Corre, Tanguy; Davies, Gail; Kaakinen, Marika; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Kristiansson, Kati; Havulinna, Aki S.; Gögele, Martin; Vitart, Veronique; Tenesa, Albert; Aulchenko, Yurii; Hayward, Caroline; Johansson, Åsa; Boban, Mladen; Ulivi, Sheila; Robino, Antonietta; Boraska, Vesna; Igl, Wilmar; Wild, Sarah H.; Zgaga, Lina; Amin, Najaf; Theodoratou, Evropi; Polašek, Ozren; Girotto, Giorgia; Lopez, Lorna M.; Sala, Cinzia; Lahti, Jari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Prokopenko, Inga; Kals, Mart; Viikari, Jorma; Yang, Jian; Pouta, Anneli; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kähönen, Mika; Milani, Lili; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Räikkönen, Katri; Masciullo, Corrado; Starr, John M.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Esposito, Laura; Kolčić, Ivana; Farrington, Susan M.; Oostra, Ben; Zemunik, Tatijana; Campbell, Harry; Kirin, Mirna; Pehlic, Marina; Faletra, Flavio; Porteous, David; Pistis, Giorgio; Widén, Elisabeth; Salomaa, Veikko; Koskinen, Seppo; Fischer, Krista; Lehtimäki, Terho; Heath, Andrew; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Madden, Pamela A. F.; d'Adamo, Pio; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Dunlop, Malcolm; Rudan, Igor; Gasparini, Paolo; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Deary, Ian J.; Toniolo, Daniela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli T.; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Uitterlinden, André; Visscher, Peter M.; Wilson, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%–90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2×10−20). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance. PMID:22829771

  16. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  17. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  18. 75 FR 22691 - Death of Dorothy Height

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-10248 Filed 4-29-10; 8:45 am... memory of Dorothy Height, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the...

  19. Height and cognitive achievement among Indian children.

    PubMed

    Spears, Dean

    2012-03-01

    Taller children perform better on average on tests of cognitive achievement, in part because of differences in early-life health and net nutrition. Recent research documenting this height-achievement slope has primarily focused on rich countries. Using the India Human Development Survey, a representative sample of 40,000 households which matches anthropometric data to learning tests, this paper documents a height-achievement slope among Indian children. The height-achievement slope in India is more than twice as steep as in the U.S. An earlier survey interviewed some IHDS children's households eleven years before. Including matched early-life control variables reduces the apparent effect of height, but does not eliminate it; water, sanitation, and hygiene may be particularly important for children's outcomes. Being one standard deviation taller is associated with being 5 percentage points more likely to be able to write, a slope that falls only to 3.4 percentage points controlling for a long list of contemporary and early-life conditions. PMID:21907646

  20. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  1. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  2. CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection height and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection height is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume height was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection height estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection height using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection height evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge

  3. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V. E-mail: brc@iac.e

    2010-09-10

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  4. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  5. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Hughes, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU) by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter) information, geodetic (GPS and levelling) data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL) varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  6. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  7. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  8. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  9. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  10. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  11. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  12. DETERMINATION OF EARLY STAGE CORN PLANT HEIGHT USING STEREO VISION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to map crop height and changes in crop height over time in agricultural fields would be a useful diagnostic tool to identify where and when crop stress is occurring. Additionally, plant height or rate of plant height change could be used to evaluate spatial crop response to inputs of fe...

  13. 46 CFR 42.20-70 - Minimum bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum bow height. 42.20-70 Section 42.20-70 Shipping... Freeboards § 42.20-70 Minimum bow height. (a) The bow height defined as the vertical distance at the forward....68. (b) Where the bow height required in paragraph (a) of this section is obtained by sheer,...

  14. 46 CFR 42.20-40 - Standard height of superstructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard height of superstructure. 42.20-40 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-40 Standard height of superstructure. (a) The standard height of a superstructure shall be as given in table 42.20-40(a): Table 42.20-40(a) Standard Heights (in...

  15. 46 CFR 42.20-70 - Minimum bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum bow height. 42.20-70 Section 42.20-70 Shipping... Freeboards § 42.20-70 Minimum bow height. (a) The bow height defined as the vertical distance at the forward....68. (b) Where the bow height required in paragraph (a) of this section is obtained by sheer,...

  16. 46 CFR 42.20-40 - Standard height of superstructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard height of superstructure. 42.20-40 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-40 Standard height of superstructure. (a) The standard height of a superstructure shall be as given in Table 42.20-40(a): Table 42.20-40(a) Standard Heights (in...

  17. 46 CFR 42.20-40 - Standard height of superstructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard height of superstructure. 42.20-40 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-40 Standard height of superstructure. (a) The standard height of a superstructure shall be as given in table 42.20-40(a): Table 42.20-40(a) Standard Heights (in...

  18. 46 CFR 42.20-40 - Standard height of superstructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard height of superstructure. 42.20-40 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-40 Standard height of superstructure. (a) The standard height of a superstructure shall be as given in Table 42.20-40(a): Table 42.20-40(a) Standard Heights (in...

  19. 46 CFR 42.20-70 - Minimum bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum bow height. 42.20-70 Section 42.20-70 Shipping... Freeboards § 42.20-70 Minimum bow height. (a) The bow height defined as the vertical distance at the forward....68. (b) Where the bow height required in paragraph (a) of this section is obtained by sheer,...

  20. 46 CFR 42.20-70 - Minimum bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum bow height. 42.20-70 Section 42.20-70 Shipping... Freeboards § 42.20-70 Minimum bow height. (a) The bow height defined as the vertical distance at the forward....68. (b) Where the bow height required in paragraph (a) of this section is obtained by sheer,...

  1. 46 CFR 42.20-40 - Standard height of superstructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard height of superstructure. 42.20-40 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-40 Standard height of superstructure. (a) The standard height of a superstructure shall be as given in Table 42.20-40(a): Table 42.20-40(a) Standard Heights (in...

  2. 46 CFR 42.20-70 - Minimum bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum bow height. 42.20-70 Section 42.20-70 Shipping... Freeboards § 42.20-70 Minimum bow height. (a) The bow height defined as the vertical distance at the forward....68. (b) Where the bow height required in paragraph (a) of this section is obtained by sheer,...

  3. Statistical Sampling of Tide Heights Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine if it was possible to reduce the cost of verifying computational models of tidal waves and currents. Statistical techniques were used to determine the least number of samples required, in a given situation, to remain statistically significant, and thereby reduce overall project costs. Commercial, academic, and Federal agencies could benefit by applying these techniques, without the need to 'touch' every item in the population. For example, the requirement of this project was to measure the heights and times of high and low tides at 8,000 locations for verification of computational models of tidal waves and currents. The application of the statistical techniques began with observations to determine the correctness of submitted measurement data, followed by some assumptions based on the observations. Among the assumptions were that the data were representative of data-collection techniques used at the measurement locations, that time measurements could be ignored (that is, height measurements alone would suffice), and that the height measurements were from a statistically normal distribution. Sample means and standard deviations were determined for all locations. Interval limits were determined for confidence levels of 95, 98, and 99 percent. It was found that the numbers of measurement locations needed to attain these confidence levels were 55, 78, and 96, respectively.

  4. Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe

    2016-01-21

    By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures. PMID:26551155

  5. MULTI-CHANNEL PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-11-25

    An improved multi-channel pulse height analyzer of the type where the device translates the amplitude of each pulse into a time duration electrical quantity which is utilized to control the length of a train of pulses forwarded to a scaler is described. The final state of the scaler for any one train of pulses selects the appropriate channel in a magnetic memory in which an additional count of one is placed. The improvement consists of a storage feature for storing a signal pulse so that in many instances when two signal pulses occur in rapid succession, the second pulse is preserved and processed at a later time.

  6. Reaching new heights: Comparing interpretation bias modification to exposure therapy for extreme height fear

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Shari A.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive models of anxiety disorders posit that biases in interpretation maintain, and potentially cause, anxiety. This study tested whether it is possible to decrease height fear symptoms through cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I). Additionally, the clinical utility of CBM-I was tested by comparing it to an already established treatment: exposure therapy. Method Extremely height fearful (N = 110) individuals participated in the study. Acrophobic symptoms were measured before and after two sessions of CBM-I, and compared to the standard treatment for acrophobia (exposure therapy), a combination of CBM-I and exposure therapy, and a Control condition. Results In line with hypotheses, participants in the three active conditions showed greater response to treatment than the Control condition in height-relevant interpretation bias, symptoms, and behavioral avoidance on a height stressor, with few differences between the active conditions. Further, symptom change was mediated by change in interpretation bias. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that different pathways to fear reduction (exposure vs. shifting interpretations) can lead to similar reductions in height fear. This study provides the first evidence that directly shifting cognitive processing, even with no therapist involvement, can reduce symptoms as effectively as the gold standard, therapist-directed exposure therapy. PMID:24588406

  7. Rain height statistics for satellite communication in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeep, J. S.

    2008-09-01

    The calculation of fade margin required for 99.99% of the time availability of satellite link requires the knowledge of rain height. There is a shortage of results on rain height over Malaysian equatorial stations. The results on rain height in relation to 0 °C isotherm height (Hi) over four stations are presented. The variations of 0 °C isotherm heights for two monsoon seasons have been studied based on an analysis of radiosonde. The exceedence probability statistics of rain height are compared between the two seasons.

  8. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  9. Meniscus height controlled convective self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Satyan; Crosby, Alfred

    Convective self-assembly techniques based on the 'coffee-ring effect' allow for the fabrication of materials with structural hierarchy and multi-functionality across a wide range of length scales. The coffee-ring effect describes deposition of non-volatiles at the edge of droplet due to capillary flow and pattern formations due to pinning and de-pinning of meniscus with the solvent evaporation. We demonstrate a novel convective self-assembly method which uses a piezo-actuated bending motion for driving the de-pinning step. In this method, a dilute solution of nanoparticles or polymers is trapped by capillary forces between a blade and substrate. As the blade oscillates with a fixed frequency and amplitude and the substrate translates at a fixed velocity, the height of the capillary meniscus oscillates. The meniscus height controls the contact angle of three phase contact line and at a critical angle de-pinning occurs. The combination of convective flux and continuously changing contact angle drives the assembly of the solute and subsequent de-pinning step, providing a direct means for producing linear assemblies. We demonstrate a new method for convective self-assembly at an accelerated rate when compared to other techniques, with control over deposit dimensions. Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0185).

  10. Torch height control helps fabricator raise productivity

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    For high-speed, high-quality plate cutting with oxyfuel, several control factors are widely recognized to affect cut quality. Flame type and flame adjustment are critical factors. Matching the correct torch tip size and oxygen pressure setting to the precise material composition and exact thickness of the steel plate are essential. Control settings for preheating the fuel and for torch travel speed are equally important. A high-performance drive system is another essential part of the equation. Precisely matched to the exact size, weight and configuration of the gantry or cantilever machine, the right motor and drive combination can provide smoother x-y axis movement for cleaner cuts, less slag and less overall scrap. With the advent of the torch height control sensor for cantilever and gantry machines, there is a new element to consider in the quality equation. These torch-mounted sensor systems are helping some fabricators improve cut quality by making it easier for machine operators to maintain an optimum and consistent distance between the torch tip and the steel plate. Used by many fabricators in Europe for well over a decade, torch height control sensors are beginning to show their value in the United States.

  11. Using infrasound to constrain ash plume height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Airborne volcanic ash advisories are currently based on analyses of satellite imagery with relatively low temporal resolution, and numerical simulations of atmospheric plume dispersion. These simulations rely on key input parameters such as the maximum height of eruption plumes and the mass eruption rate at the vent, which remain loosely constrained. In this study, we present a proof-of-concept workflow that incorporates the analysis of volcanic infrasound with numerical modelling of volcanic plume rise in a realistic atmosphere. We analyse acoustic infrasound records from two explosions during the 2009 eruption of Mt. Redoubt, USA, that produced plumes reaching heights of 12-14 km. We model the infrasonic radiation at the source under the assumptions of linear acoustic theory and calculate variations in mass ejection velocity at the vent. The estimated eruption velocities serve as the input for numerical models of plume rise. The encouraging results highlight the potential for infrasound measurements to be incorporated into numerical modelling of ash dispersion, and confirm their value for volcano monitoring operations.

  12. 32. Moving draw span from Ship Canal to University Heights ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Moving draw span from Ship Canal to University Heights Bridge. June 14, 1906 artist rendering - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  13. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9...

  14. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9...

  15. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9...

  16. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9...

  17. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9...

  18. Sea surface height and steric height increases in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-06-01

    Sea surface height has increased by 3 millimeters per year, globally averaged, since 1993. Some fraction of sea surface height change is due to added water from melting glaciers, for instance, and some is due to increasing heat and salinity changes (steric effects). Focusing on the Southern Hemisphere, Sutton and Roemmich analyzed temperature and salinity data from the Argo float array in relation to earlier data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) to estimate the steric changes. These were compared with the total sea surface height changes over the same period seen in satellite altimetric data. They found that on decadal time scales, about half of the rise in sea surface height in the Southern Ocean is due to steric effects, with the proportion increasing southward. The accompanying increase in ocean heat content south of 30°S can account for most of the global heat content change during this period. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL046802, 2011)

  19. Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi

    2015-02-01

    With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation. PMID:25462036

  20. ON A p-ADIC ANALOGUE OF TATE HEIGHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzin'sh, A. A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the Tate height of an elliptic curve and its p-adic analogue. The main result is a series of explicit formulas for computing the local archimedean part of the Tate height. These results are used to obtain a new method for constructing the p-adic Tate height. Bibliography: 5 titles.

  1. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  2. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  3. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  4. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  5. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  6. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  7. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  8. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  9. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  10. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  11. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  12. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  13. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  14. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  15. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  16. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  17. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  18. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  19. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  20. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  1. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  2. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  3. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  4. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  5. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  6. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  7. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  8. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  9. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  10. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  11. 40 CFR 52.345 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.345... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.345 Stack height regulations. The State of Colorado has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA complete rulemaking...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1388 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.1388... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1388 Stack height regulations. The State of Montana has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  13. 40 CFR 51.118 - Stack height provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height provisions. 51.118 Section... height provisions. (a) The plan must provide that the degree of emission limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2633 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2633... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wyoming § 52.2633 Stack height..., Administrator of The Air Quality Division, the State committed to conduct stack height evaluations in...

  15. 40 CFR 52.345 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.345... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.345 Stack height regulations. The State of Colorado has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA complete rulemaking...

  16. 40 CFR 51.164 - Stack height procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height procedures. 51.164 Section... Modifications § 51.164 Stack height procedures. Such procedures must provide that the degree of emission... source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1034 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1034 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1034 Stack height review. The... affected by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  18. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  20. 40 CFR 52.383 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.383 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.383 Stack height review. The State of... by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  1. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2534 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2534 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2534 Stack height review... emission limits, other than those for the Kammer power plant, have been affected by stack height...

  3. 40 CFR 52.383 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.383 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.383 Stack height review. The State of... by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1034 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1034 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1034 Stack height review. The... affected by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  5. 40 CFR 52.383 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.383 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.383 Stack height review. The State of... by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  6. 40 CFR 52.990 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.990... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.990 Stack height regulations... emission limitation for a specific source exceeds the height allowed by Section 921(A) “Good...

  7. 40 CFR 52.990 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.990... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.990 Stack height regulations... emission limitation for a specific source exceeds the height allowed by Section 921(A) “Good...

  8. 33 CFR 401.82 - Reporting mast height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting mast height. 401.82... mast height. A vessel, any part of which extends more than 33.5 m above water level, shall not transit any part of the Seaway until precise information concerning the height of the vessel has...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2633 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2633... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wyoming § 52.2633 Stack height..., Administrator of The Air Quality Division, the State committed to conduct stack height evaluations in...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2633 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2633... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wyoming § 52.2633 Stack height..., Administrator of The Air Quality Division, the State committed to conduct stack height evaluations in...

  11. 40 CFR 51.118 - Stack height provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height provisions. 51.118 Section... height provisions. (a) The plan must provide that the degree of emission limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height...

  12. 33 CFR 401.82 - Reporting mast height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting mast height. 401.82... mast height. A vessel, any part of which extends more than 33.5 m above water level, shall not transit any part of the Seaway until precise information concerning the height of the vessel has...

  13. 40 CFR 52.990 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.990... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.990 Stack height regulations... emission limitation for a specific source exceeds the height allowed by Section 921(A) “Good...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2633 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2633... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wyoming § 52.2633 Stack height..., Administrator of The Air Quality Division, the State committed to conduct stack height evaluations in...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2347 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2347... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2347 Stack height regulations. The State of Utah has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  16. 40 CFR 52.383 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.383 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.383 Stack height review. The State of... by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1832 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.1832... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Dakota § 52.1832 Stack height regulations. The State of North Dakota has committed to revise its stack height regulations should...

  18. 40 CFR 52.345 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.345... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.345 Stack height regulations. The State of Colorado has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA complete rulemaking...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1388 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.1388... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1388 Stack height regulations. The State of Montana has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  1. Don't Look down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…

  2. 40 CFR 51.164 - Stack height procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height procedures. 51.164 Section... Modifications § 51.164 Stack height procedures. Such procedures must provide that the degree of emission... source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique,...

  3. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140... Requirements § 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined from nominal design specifications, as provided in this section. Round the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1034 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1034 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1034 Stack height review. The... affected by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2534 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2534 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2534 Stack height review... emission limits, other than those for the Kammer power plant, have been affected by stack height...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1388 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.1388... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1388 Stack height regulations. The State of Montana has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  7. 40 CFR 51.118 - Stack height provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height provisions. 51.118 Section... height provisions. (a) The plan must provide that the degree of emission limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1388 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.1388... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1388 Stack height regulations. The State of Montana has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  9. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140... Requirements § 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined from nominal design specifications, as provided in this section. Round the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.383 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.383 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.383 Stack height review. The State of... by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2534 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2534 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2534 Stack height review... emission limits, other than those for the Kammer power plant, have been affected by stack height...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2534 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2534 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2534 Stack height review... emission limits, other than those for the Kammer power plant, have been affected by stack height...

  13. 33 CFR 401.82 - Reporting mast height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting mast height. 401.82... mast height. A vessel, any part of which extends more than 33.5 m above water level, shall not transit any part of the Seaway until precise information concerning the height of the vessel has...

  14. 33 CFR 401.82 - Reporting mast height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting mast height. 401.82... mast height. A vessel, any part of which extends more than 33.5 m above water level, shall not transit any part of the Seaway until precise information concerning the height of the vessel has...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2347 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2347... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2347 Stack height regulations. The State of Utah has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  16. 33 CFR 401.82 - Reporting mast height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting mast height. 401.82... mast height. A vessel, any part of which extends more than 33.5 m above water level, shall not transit any part of the Seaway until precise information concerning the height of the vessel has...

  17. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140... Requirements § 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined from nominal design specifications, as provided in this section. Round the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2347 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2347... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2347 Stack height regulations. The State of Utah has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2633 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2633... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wyoming § 52.2633 Stack height..., Administrator of The Air Quality Division, the State committed to conduct stack height evaluations in...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1034 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1034 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1034 Stack height review. The... affected by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  2. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  3. 40 CFR 52.345 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.345... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.345 Stack height regulations. The State of Colorado has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA complete rulemaking...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1034 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1034 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1034 Stack height review. The... affected by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited...

  5. 40 CFR 52.345 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.345... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.345 Stack height regulations. The State of Colorado has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA complete rulemaking...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2347 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2347... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2347 Stack height regulations. The State of Utah has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  7. 40 CFR 51.164 - Stack height procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height procedures. 51.164 Section... Modifications § 51.164 Stack height procedures. Such procedures must provide that the degree of emission... source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2347 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2347... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2347 Stack height regulations. The State of Utah has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1388 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.1388... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1388 Stack height regulations. The State of Montana has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA...

  10. Effect of fence height on joint angles of agility dogs.

    PubMed

    Birch, Emily; Leśniak, Kirsty

    2013-12-01

    The Kennel Club (KC) and United Kingdom Agility (UKA) govern major dog agility competitions in the UK. Dogs are categorised into different jump heights depending on their height at the withers, with fence heights ranging from 300 to 650 mm for both organisations. Dogs fall into one of three height categories when competing under KC rules and one of four height categories under UKA rules. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an additional height category for agility dogs measuring over 430 mm at the withers. Jump heights were selected that related to the percentage of body height that dogs of 430 mm (7% lower) and 431 mm (51% higher) height at the withers would be encouraged to jump under UKA regulations without the addition of their fourth ('standard height') category. Joint angles were determined from anatomical markers placed on the forelimb and hind limb joints, and at six points along the vertebral column. As fence height increased, flexion of the scapulohumeral joint increased significantly for both the take-off and bascule (arc) phases of the jump. The increase in flexion as a consequence of the increase in fence height is likely to result in intensified stretching of the biceps brachii and supraspinatus muscles. In addition, increasing fence high resulted in an increase in the sacroiliac joint angle during take-off. PMID:24360736

  11. The Perceptual Distortion of Height in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.; Angoli, Marilyn

    Both balance and reinforcement theories were used in an examination of the perceptual distortion of height among 146 college debaters. Balance theory predicted that losers would distort winners' heights upward; reinforcement theory predicted that winners would distort losers' heights upward. The results confirmed both predictions. The possibility…

  12. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29.87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height...

  13. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward speed (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made under...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  16. Final height of girls with Turner's syndrome: correlation with karyotype and parental height.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Kauli, R; Pertzelan, A; Lavagetto, A; Roitmano, Y; Romano, C; Laron, Z

    1995-05-01

    Final height of 75 adults with Turner's syndrome (45 Israeli, 30 Italian), never treated with GH, was examined to see if a relationship with karyotype patterns and parental height existed. Patients were divided into five groups according to their chromosome pattern, as follows: group A = 45, X karyotype (34 patients); group B = mosaicism (11 with karyotype 45,X/46,XX and 7 with karyotype 45,X/46,XY); group C = deletion of all or part of Xp (19 patients); subgroup C1 = 6 with complete deletion of Xp; subgroup C2 = 9 with mosaicism 45,X/46,X,i(Xq); subgroup C3 = 4 with 45,X/46,X,ring(X); group D = deletion of Xq (4 patients); pure gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) group = 9 patients with pure 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis. No statistical difference was noted between the mean height of the two national populations studied (Italian 142.2 +/- 5.7 and Israeli 143.0 +/- 7.2 cm). The mean heights of group D (148.9 cm; range 147-166.2) and the PGD group (156.0 cm; 141-171.5) were found to be significantly higher than those observed in groups A, B and C (p < 0.03, p < 0.02 and p < 0.02, respectively), even though gonadal distinction existed in all five groups. Subgroup C1, where a deletion of the entire Xp segment [46,X,i(Xq)] was present, was found to be the shortest group (median height 134.5; range 131.9-138 cm).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7633152

  17. Geopotential models of the Earth from satellite tracking, altimeter and surface gravity observations: GEM-T3 and GEM-T3S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Williamson, R. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Chan, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Improved models of the Earth's gravitational field have been developed from conventional tracking data and from a combination of satellite tracking, satellite altimeter and surface gravimetric data. This combination model represents a significant improvement in the modeling of the gravity field at half-wavelengths of 300 km and longer. Both models are complete to degree and order 50. The Goddard Earth Model-T3 (GEM-T3) provides more accurate computation of satellite orbital effects as well as giving superior geoidal representation from that achieved in any previous GEM. A description of the models, their development and an assessment of their accuracy is presented. The GEM-T3 model used altimeter data from previous satellite missions in estimating the orbits, geoid, and dynamic height fields. Other satellite tracking data are largely the same as was used to develop GEM-T2, but contain certain important improvements in data treatment and expanded laser tracking coverage. Over 1300 arcs of tracking data from 31 different satellites have been used in the solution. Reliable estimates of the model uncertainties via error calibration and optimal data weighting techniques are discussed.

  18. Modeling loblolly pine dominant height using airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceyka, Andy

    The dominant height of 73 georeferenced field sample plots were modeled from various canopy height metrics derived by means of a small-footprint laser scanning technology, known as light detection and ranging (or just LiDAR), over young and mature forest stands using regression analysis. LiDAR plot metrics were regressed against field measured dominant height using Best Subsets Regression to reduce the number of models. From those models, regression assumptions were evaluated to determine which model was actually the best. The best model included the 1st and 90th height percentiles as predictors and explained 95% of the variance in average dominant height.

  19. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  20. Extra-seasonal prediction of summer 500-hPa height field in the area of cold vortices over East Asia with a dynamical-statistical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-Hu; Yang, Liu; Hou, Wei; Liu, Gang; Zeng, Yu-Xing

    2015-05-01

    The cold vortex is a major high impact weather system in northeast China during the warm season, its frequent activities also affect the short-term climate throughout eastern China. How to objectively and quantitatively predict the intensity trend of the cold vortex is an urgent and difficult problem for current short-term climate prediction. Based on the dynamical-statistical combining principle, the predicted results of the Beijing Climate Center’s global atmosphere-ocean coupled model and rich historical data are used for dynamic-statistical extra-seasonal prediction testing and actual prediction of the summer 500-hPa geopotential height over the cold vortex activity area. The results show that this method can significantly reduce the model’s prediction error over the cold vortex activity area, and improve the prediction skills. Furthermore, the results of the sensitivity test reveal that the predicted results are highly dependent on the quantity of similar factors and the number of similar years. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41375078), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB955902 and 2013CB430204), and the Special Scientific Research Fund of Public Welfare Profession of China (Grant No. GYHY201306021).

  1. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.

    The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  2. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  3. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial

  4. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.

    Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  5. Facial height in Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Fabiano Paiva; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Janson, Guilherme; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata Carvalho; Henriques, Rafael Pinelli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the standards of facial height in 30 young (14-year-old) Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and assess whether sexual dimorphism is evident. METHODS: The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses by Wylie-Johnson, Siriwat-Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield and Horn. RESULTS: Results showed dimorphism for total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), anterior facial height (AFH), total posterior facial height (TPFH) and upper posterior facial height (UPFH) measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The standards of facial heights in young Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion were observed. Sexual dimorphism was identified in five out of thirteen evaluated variables at this age range. PMID:25715717

  6. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Author provides theory and computations for building inflatable space towers up to a hundred km in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, earth's surface, weather, top atmosphere, as well as for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the earth's surface. The transport system for this tower consists a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanism in case of a damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in subsequent publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  7. Height Fluctuations for the Stationary KPZ Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Ferrari, Patrik; Vető, Bálint

    2015-12-01

    We compute the one-point probability distribution for the stationary KPZ equation (i.e. initial data , for B( X) a two-sided standard Brownian motion) and show that as time T goes to infinity, the fluctuations of the height function grow like T 1/3 and converge to those previously encountered in the study of the stationary totally asymmetric simple exclusion process, polynuclear growth model and last passage percolation. The starting point for this work is our derivation of a Fredholm determinant formula for Macdonald processes which degenerates to a corresponding formula for Whittaker processes. We relate this to a polymer model which mixes the semi-discrete and log-gamma random polymers. A special case of this model has a limit to the KPZ equation with initial data given by a two-sided Brownian motion with drift ß to the left of the origin and b to the right of the origin. The Fredholm determinant has a limit for ß > b, and the case where ß = b (corresponding to the stationary initial data) follows from an analytic continuation argument.

  8. Seasat altimeter height calibration. [related to sea surface heights near bermuda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, R.; Martin, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The Seasat altimeter was calibrated for height bias using four overflight passes of Bermuda which were supported by the Bermuda laser. The altimeter data was corrected for: tides, using recorded tide gauge data; propagation effects, using meteorological data taken around the time of each pass; acceleration lag; and sea state bias, including both surface effects and instrumental effects. Altimeter data for each of the four passes was smoothed and extrapolated across the island. Interpolation between passes then produced an equivalent altimeter measurement to the geoid at the laser site, so that the altimeter bias could be estimated without the use of a geoid model. The estimated height bias was 0.0 + or - 0.07.

  9. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.

    To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.

    Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  10. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  11. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  12. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    : shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  13. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    inspiration for Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  14. Subexponential estimates in Shirshov's theorem on height

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Aleksei Ya; Kharitonov, Mikhail I

    2012-04-30

    Suppose that F{sub 2,m} is a free 2-generated associative ring with the identity x{sup m}=0. In 1993 Zelmanov put the following question: is it true that the nilpotency degree of F{sub 2,m} has exponential growth? We give the definitive answer to Zelmanov's question by showing that the nilpotency class of an l-generated associative algebra with the identity x{sup d}=0 is smaller than {Psi}(d,d,l), where {Psi}(n,d,l)=2{sup 18}l(nd){sup 3log}{sub 3}{sup (nd)+13}d{sup 2}. This result is a consequence of the following fact based on combinatorics of words. Let l, n and d{>=}n be positive integers. Then all words over an alphabet of cardinality l whose length is not less than {Psi}(n,d,l) are either n-divisible or contain x{sup d}; a word W is n-divisible if it can be represented in the form W=W{sub 0}W{sub 1} Horizontal-Ellipsis W{sub n} so that W{sub 1},...,W{sub n} are placed in lexicographically decreasing order. Our proof uses Dilworth's theorem (according to V.N. Latyshev's idea). We show that the set of not n-divisible words over an alphabet of cardinality l has height h<{Phi}(n,l) over the set of words of degree {<=}n-1, where {Phi}(n,l)=2{sup 87}l{center_dot}n{sup 12log}{sub 3}{sup n+48}. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  15. Maintaining the Accuracy of a Sea Surface Height Climate Data Record from Multi-mission Altimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Yang, X.; Mitchum, G. T.; Ricko, M.; Desai, S.; Brown, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The determination of the rate of change of mean sea level (MSL) has undeniable societal significance. The measurement of geocentric sea level change from satellite altimetry requires an extreme stability of the altimeter measurement system since the signal being measured is at the level of a few mm/yr. Many of the obstacles previously impeding the measurement and validation of estimates of GMSL from satellite altimetry have been overcome (Fu and Haines, 2012). Nonetheless, measuring sea level rates at the precision required for climate science continues to be challenging for at least two reasons: (1) the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) realizations are determined using space geodetic data over finite time spans, and must be periodically updated; (2) the dynamic nature of the Earth engenders global and regional variations in the geopotential which if not properly modeled ultimately cause errors in the computed sea level. Recent developments in Precise Orbit Determinations (POD) due to in particular to revisions to the terrestrial reference frame (i.e. updates to ITRF2008, and the expected availability of ITRF2013) and the development of improved time variable gravity (TVG) models continue to provide improvements to the accuracy and stability of the POD that directly affect mean sea level estimates. Long-term and reliable MSL estimates that rely on data from multiple altimeter missions require the highest possible orbit accuracy and consistency in the use of applied geophysical models in POD computations. The stringent GMSL accuracy requirements are particularly essential for closure of the mass budget over the relative short time period where measurements from Jason-1&2, GRACE, and Argo are coincident. In this presentation we describe the development, utility, and the accuracy maintenance of the MEaSURE's TPJAOS V3.0 sea surface height Climate Data Record (http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/dataset/MERGED_TP_J1_OSTM_OST_ALL). We provide an assessment of recent

  16. Mendelian randomization study of height and risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thrift, Aaron P; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Slattery, Martha L; Chan, Andrew T; Esko, Tonu; Wood, Andrew R; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Gustafsson, Stefan; Pers, Tune H; Baron, John A; Bezieau, Stéphane; Küry, Sébastien; Ogino, Shuji; Berndt, Sonja I; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Du, Mengmeng; Harrison, Tabitha A; Thornquist, Mark; Duggan, David J; Le Marchand, Loic; Lemire, Mathieu; Lindor, Noralane M; Seminara, Daniela; Song, Mingyang; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Newcomb, Polly A; Schoen, Robert E; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann; White, Emily; Hsu, Li; Campbell, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Background: For men and women, taller height is associated with increased risk of all cancers combined. For colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unclear whether the differential association of height by sex is real or is due to confounding or bias inherent in observational studies. We performed a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between height and CRC risk. Methods: To minimize confounding and bias, we derived a weighted genetic risk score predicting height (using 696 genetic variants associated with height) in 10 226 CRC cases and 10 286 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between height, genetically predicted height and CRC. Results: Using conventional methods, increased height (per 10-cm increment) was associated with increased CRC risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02–1.15). In sex-specific analyses, height was associated with CRC risk for women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05–1.26), but not men (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92–1.05). Consistent with these results, carrying greater numbers of (weighted) height-increasing alleles (per 1-unit increase) was associated with higher CRC risk for women and men combined (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01–1.14) and for women (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01–1.19). There was weaker evidence of an association for men (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.96–1.15). Conclusion: We provide evidence for a causal association between height and CRC for women. The CRC-height association for men remains unclear and warrants further investigation in other large studies. PMID:25997436

  17. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping... § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must be.../1640) inches—actual bow height (2) For vessels having a length greater than 550 feet, (341.6—0.227...

  18. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping... § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must be.../1640) inches—actual bow height (2) For vessels having a length greater than 550 feet, (341.6—0.227...

  19. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping... § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must be.../1640) inches—actual bow height (2) For vessels having a length greater than 550 feet, (341.6—0.227...

  20. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping... § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must be.../1640) inches—actual bow height (2) For vessels having a length greater than 550 feet, (341.6—0.227...

  1. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping... § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must be.../1640) inches—actual bow height (2) For vessels having a length greater than 550 feet, (341.6—0.227...

  2. Stereographic cloud heights from SMS/goes imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Shenk, W. E.; Teagle, R. D.; Steranka, J.

    1977-01-01

    Stereographic pairs of SMS/GOES images, generated simultaneously by the spin-scan cameras of each of two geostationary satellites (SMS 1 and SMS2), separated by 32 degrees of longitude on February 1, 1975, were analyzed photogrametrically to yield cloud heights with a two-sigma uncertainty of 500 meters. These cloud heights compare favorably with heights of the same clouds measured by radar and IR methods. The same SMS image pairs were used to measure mountaintop heights with a mean deviation of 0.24 km from cartographic values.

  3. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.

    To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.

    Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  4. Genetic Variants Related to Height and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael A.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Siscovick, David S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased height is a known independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether genetic determinants of height influence risk is uncertain. In this candidate gene study, we examined the association of 209 height-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with incident AF in 3,309 persons of European descent from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a prospective cohort study of older adults (aged ≥65 years) enrolled in 1989–1990. After a median follow-up period of 13.2 years, 879 participants developed incident AF. The height-associated SNPs together explained approximately 10% of the variation in height (P = 6.0 × 10−8). Using an unweighted genetic height score, we found a nonsignificant association with risk of AF (per allele, hazard ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.02; P = 0.06). In weighted analyses, we found that genetically predicted height was strongly associated with AF risk (per 10 cm, hazard ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.64; P = 0.03). Importantly, for all models, the inclusion of actual height completely attenuated the genetic height effect. Finally, we identified 1 nonsynonymous SNP (rs1046934) that was independently associated with AF and may warrant future study. In conclusion, we found that genetic determinants of height appear to increase the risk of AF, primarily via height itself. This approach of examining SNPs associated with an intermediate phenotype should be considered as a method for identifying novel genetic targets. PMID:24944287

  5. Height and cognitive function at older ages: is height a useful summary measure of early childhood experiences?

    PubMed

    Guven, Cahit; Lee, Wang Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Previous research using US data suggests that height, as a marker for early investments in health, is associated with better cognitive functioning in later life, but this association disappears once education is controlled for. Using an English cohort of men and women older than 50 years, we find that the association between height and cognitive outcomes remains significant after controlling for education suggesting that height affects cognitive functioning not simply via higher educational attainment. Furthermore, the significant association between height and cognitive function remains even after controls for early life indicators have been included. PMID:22231981

  6. Tsunami focusing and leading wave height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku

    2016-04-01

    and Synolakis, 1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112) with a finite crest length, which is most common tsunami initial waveform. We fit earthquake initial waveform calculated through Okada (1985, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 75, 1135-1040) to the N-wave form presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994). First, we investigate focusing phenomena as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015) and compare our results with their non-dispersive and dispersive linear analytical solutions. We confirm focusing phenomena, which amplify the wave height in the leading depression side. We then study sequencing of an N-wave profile with a finite crest length. Our preliminary results show that sequencing is more pronounced on the leading depression side. We perform parametric study to understand sequencing in terms of N-wave, hence earthquake, parameters. We then discuss the results both in terms of tsunami focusing and leading wave amplitude. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe).

  7. Mississippi Delta, Radar Image with Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    About the animation: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Lake Pontchartrain and the New Orleans area was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Although it is protected by levees and sea walls against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, much of the city is below sea level, and flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes is a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments.

    About the image: The geography of the New Orleans and Mississippi delta region is well shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. In this image, bright areas show regions of high radar reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    New Orleans is situated along the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the large, roughly circular lake near the center of the image. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest over water highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern.

    Data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  8. Reducing discrepancies in ground and satellite-observed eruption heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupper, Andrew; Wunderman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The plume height represents a crucial piece of evidence about an eruption, feeding later assessment of its size, character, and potential impact, and feeding real-time warnings for aviation and ground-based populations. There have been many observed discrepancies between different observations of maximum plume height for the same eruption. A comparison of maximum daily height estimates of volcanic clouds over Indonesia and Papua New Guinea during 1982-2005 shows marked differences between ground and satellite estimates, and a general tendency towards lower height estimates from the ground. Without improvements in the quality of these estimates, reconciled among all available methods, warning systems will be less effective than they should be and the world's record of global volcanism will remain hard to quantify. Examination of particular cases suggests many possible reasons for the discrepancies. Consideration of the satellite and radar cloud observations for the 1991 Pinatubo eruptions shows that marked differences can exist even with apparently good observations. The problem can be understood largely as a sampling issue, as the most widely reported parameter, the maximum cloud height, is highly sensitive to the frequency of observation. Satellite and radar cloud heights also show a pronounced clumping near the height of the tropopause and relative lack of eruptions reaching only the mid-troposphere, reinforcing the importance of the tropopause in determining the eruption height in convectively unstable environments. To reduce the discrepancies between ground and satellite estimates, a number of formal collaboration measures between vulcanological, meteorological and aviation agencies are suggested.

  9. Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a height compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic height variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, height compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A height compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The height value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The height compass shows intuitive display of the height distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in height value at the sites of the fractures.

  10. Limiting Step Bunch Height During Crystal Growth from Flowing Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, N. A.; Chernov, A. A.; Vekilov, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    High precision interferometric studies of step bunching on KDP crystal surface growing from solution moving at rates up to 1 d s . It is shown that the bunch height is limited as the bunch propagates over the surface. An hypothesis is put forward describing why the bunch height decreases as the solution flow rate increases.

  11. Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...

  12. Variation in height and BMI of adult Indians.

    PubMed

    Som, Suparna; Ulijaszek, Stanley; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Susmita; Bharati, Premananda

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that height and weight are interrelated, and that both are related to socioeconomic variables. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of socioeconomic variables on the heights and weights of different groups of people, formed according to different levels of heights and weights, and to see whether there are sex differences in the variations in heights and weights. Data for adults aged 15-49 years were taken from the India National Family Health Survey-3 and descriptive studies and multiple linear regression analyses carried out. A clear positive association was found for height and BMI with economic level (except for overweight females in the case of BMI). In the case of BMI, it is age that seems to be the most influential factor. Surprisingly, the observed changes in height and BMI are not as expected for short and tall or underweight and overweight people; these sometimes behave in the opposite directions to that of normal height and weight people. The basic assumption of multivariate normality is not valid due to changing relations at different height and BMI levels. PMID:23534499

  13. Estimation of Dental and Facial Proportions Using Height as Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade, Sumit Shivaji; Shinde, Sagar Kundlik; Pawar, Renuka Lalit; Gupta, Aditi; Kale, Vishwajeet Tulshidas; Janrao, Kunal Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ideal dental restoration is one which not only restores optimal functions but also confirm to standard dental and facial relations. This is important to achieve long term patient satisfaction both with regard to esthetics as well as functions. Objective was to find a credible relationship between dental and facial proportions using height of individuals as the criteria in a specific group of population. To determine a regression equation for determination of various dental and facial proportions using height. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-four (n = 144) students, of which 91 were males (n = 91) and 53 were females (n = 53) of the dental college participated in this study. Height of the individual, the lower facial height, inter-incisal and inter-canine and inter-commissural width was measured as per protocol and resulting data was analyzed using SPSS 17 (SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 17.0. Chicago SPSS Inc. Released 2008) version software regression equations were obtained. Results: The study included 144 college students significant correlations were found between height of the individuals, inter-canine distance and lower facial height using Pearson correlation coefficient. The calculated values of t-test were significant. Regression equations were determined for determination of various parameters using height as the sole criteria. Conclusion: There exists a definite relationship between height of the individual and their dental and facial parameters in this group of population and values of maxillary anterior teeth can be determined using regression equations. PMID:25214728

  14. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  15. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  16. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  17. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  18. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  19. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  20. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  1. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  2. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  3. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  4. The Height and Range of Watermelons without Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    We determine the weak limit of the distribution of the random variables "height" and "range" on the set of p-watermelons without wall restriction as the number of steps tends to infinity. Additionally, we provide asymptotics for the moments of the random variable "height".

  5. 16 CFR 1509.3 - Crib-side height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crib-side height. 1509.3 Section 1509.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.3 Crib-side height. (a) With the mattress support in...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2180 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2180 Stack height regulations. The State of South Dakota has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA... modified requirements. The State of South Dakota agrees to make the appropriate changes.”...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2180 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2180 Stack height regulations. The State of South Dakota has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA... modified requirements. The State of South Dakota agrees to make the appropriate changes.”...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2180 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2180 Stack height regulations. The State of South Dakota has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA... modified requirements. The State of South Dakota agrees to make the appropriate changes.”...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2180 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height regulations. 52.2180 Section 52.2180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2180 Stack height regulations. The State of South Dakota...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2180 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2180 Stack height regulations. The State of South Dakota has committed to revise its stack height regulations should EPA... modified requirements. The State of South Dakota agrees to make the appropriate changes.”...

  11. Socioeconomic development and secular trend in height in China.

    PubMed

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Wu, Hua-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic development on secular trend in height among children and adolescents in China. Body height and spermarcheal/menarcheal ages were obtained from two periodic large-scale national representative surveys in China between 1975 and 2010. Chinese socioeconomic development indicators were obtained from the United Nations world population prospects. The effects of plausible determinants were assessed by partial least-squares regression. The average height of children and adolescents improved in tandem with socioeconomic development, without any tendency to plateau. The increment of height trend presented larger around puberty than earlier or later ages. The partial least-squares regressions with gross national income, life expectancy and spermarcheal/menarcheal age accounted for increment of height trend from 88.3% to 98.3% for males and from 82.9% to 97.3% for females in adolescence. Further, through the analysis of the variable importance for projection, the contributions of gross national income and life expectancy on height increment were confirmed to be significant in childhood and adolescence, and the contribution of spermarcheal/menarcheal age was superior to both of them in adolescence. We concluded that positive secular trend in height in China was significantly associated with socioeconomic status (GNI as indicator) and medical and health conditions (life expectancy as indicator). Earlier onset of spermarche and menarche proved to be an important role in larger increment of the trend over time of height at puberty for a population. PMID:26452198

  12. 16 CFR 1509.3 - Crib-side height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crib-side height. 1509.3 Section 1509.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.3 Crib-side height. (a) With the mattress support in...

  13. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  14. Tree height growth indicating drought and nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, Krisztina; Berki, Imre

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have been reported the increasing trends of forest growth in Europe in the last decades. Sites, where the water is not limiting factor, the increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and high nitrogen deposition influenced accelerated tree height growth. However few researches show that the drying climate conditions and water deficit cause slow/not definite trend of tree height growth in forests. The aim of our study presents the effects of drying climate and surplus nitrogen on height growth of sessile oak (Quercus petraea). Almost 50 sessile oak stands (with zonal site condition) have been measured along a humid-arid climatic transect in Hungary. Top heights of the trees are the best dendrometric parameter for indicating the changing site conditions. Observed top heights dates were compared with 50-years climate condition along the humid-arid climatic transect. Tree height growth in the dry and mesic section of climatic gradient slowed at the last 4 decades, because of the increasing frequency of dry periods. Accelerated height growth were measured in the mesic and humid section of transect, where the nitrogen deposition due to local air pollution were higher than the background deposition. These results draw attention to the importance of the drying climate and surplus nitrogen in the global changes. Keywords: climate change impacts, drought periods, surplus deposition, tree height growth Acknowledgements: Research is supported by the "Agroclimate.2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) EU-national joint funded research project.

  15. PASSIVE SMOKING AND HEIGHT GROWTH OF PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attained height and height growth of 9273 children participating in a longitudinal study of the health effects of air pollutants were analyzed to assess the association between passive exposure to cigarette smoke and physical growth between 6 and 11 years of age. Children wer...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1169 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FR 27892).” Thus, the Commonwealth has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1169 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1169 Stack height...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1532 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...).” Thus, New Hampshire has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1532 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1532 Stack height...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1532 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...).” Thus, New Hampshire has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1532 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1532 Stack height...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2085 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....” Thus, Rhode Island has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2085 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2085 Stack height...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2085 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....” Thus, Rhode Island has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2085 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2085 Stack height...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2085 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....” Thus, Rhode Island has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2085 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2085 Stack height...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1532 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...).” Thus, New Hampshire has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1532 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1532 Stack height...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1169 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FR 27892).” Thus, the Commonwealth has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1169 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1169 Stack height...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1169 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FR 27892).” Thus, the Commonwealth has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1169 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1169 Stack height...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2384 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2384 Stack height review....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1532 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...).” Thus, New Hampshire has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1532 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1532 Stack height...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1532 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...).” Thus, New Hampshire has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1532 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1532 Stack height...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1169 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FR 27892).” Thus, the Commonwealth has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1169 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1169 Stack height...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2085 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....” Thus, Rhode Island has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2085 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2085 Stack height...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2384 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2384 Stack height review....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2085 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....” Thus, Rhode Island has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2085 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2085 Stack height...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2384 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2384 Stack height review....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1169 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FR 27892).” Thus, the Commonwealth has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.1169 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1169 Stack height...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2384 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2384 Stack height review....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2384 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... has satisfactorily demonstrated that its regulations meet 40 CFR 51.118 and 51.164. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack height review. 52.2384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2384 Stack height review....

  16. Research on ionospheric tomography based on variable pixel height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dunyong; Li, Peiqing; He, Jie; Hu, Wusheng; Li, Chaokui

    2016-05-01

    A novel ionospheric tomography technique based on variable pixel height was developed for the tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The method considers the height of each pixel as an unknown variable, which is retrieved during the inversion process together with the electron density values. In contrast to conventional computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT), which parameterizes the model with a fixed pixel height, the variable-pixel-height computerized ionospheric tomography (VHCIT) model applies a disturbance to the height of each pixel. In comparison with conventional CIT models, the VHCIT technique achieved superior results in a numerical simulation. A careful validation of the reliability and superiority of VHCIT was performed. According to the results of the statistical analysis of the average root mean square errors, the proposed model offers an improvement by 15% compared with conventional CIT models.

  17. The value of male height in the marriage market.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-07-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2007, this paper estimates the value of relative height (relative to the spouse's height) in the marriage market of a developing country. The results indicate that the value of a 1cm reduction in the husband's height relative to his wife's height is about 3% of his earnings. 3% of the mean of yearly earnings amounts to Rp. 492,000 or US$54 in 2007. That value is reduced to 1% when earnings-generating attributes are controlled for. This difference of 2% points can be considered the value that women attach to their husbands' earnings-generating attributes; meanwhile, the remaining 1% suggests that there are still other attributes that women look for in male height. PMID:26051039

  18. Representation of videokeratoscopic height data with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiegerling, Jim; Greivenkamp, John E.; Miller, Joseph M.

    1995-10-01

    Videokeratoscopic data are generally displayed as a color-coded map of corneal refractive power, corneal curvature, or surface height. Although the merits of the refractive power and curvature methods have been extensively debated, the display of corneal surface height demands further investigation. A significant drawback to viewing corneal surface height is that the spherical and cylindrical components of the cornea obscure small variations in the surface. To overcome this drawback, a methodology for decomposing corneal height data into a unique set of Zernike polynomials is presented. Repeatedly removing the low-order Zernike terms reveals the hidden height variations. Examples of the decomposition-and-display technique are shown for cases of astigmatism, keratoconus, and radial keratotomy. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  19. SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands.

    Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain which widens out in Mozambique in the southeast.

    Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications.

    In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a

  20. SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands.

    Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain which widens out in Mozambique in the southeast.

    Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications.

    In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a

  1. Estimation of Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's 55° forward and nadir views, and thus the corresponding height. Besides the stereo view, AATSR provides another advantage compared to other satellite based instruments. With AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 µm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. In addition, it is possible to study the effect of using different wavelengths in the height estimate, ranging from visible (555 nm) to thermal infrared (12 µm). The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015. Accurate information on the volcanic ash position is important for air traffic safety. The ACM algorithm can provide valuable data of both horizontal and vertical ash dispersion. These data may be useful for comparisons with existing volcanic ash dispersion models and retrieval methods. We present ACM plume top height estimate results for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, and comparisons against available ground based and satellite observations.

  2. Height and skeletal morphology in relation to modern life style.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane; Groth, Detlef; Aßmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Height and skeletal morphology strongly relate to life style. Parallel to the decrease in physical activity and locomotion, modern people are slimmer in skeletal proportions. In German children and adolescents, elbow breadth and particularly relative pelvic breadth (50th centile of bicristal distance divided by body height) have significantly decreased in recent years. Even more evident than the changes in pelvic morphology are the rapid changes in body height in most modern countries since the end-19th and particularly since the mid-20th century. Modern Japanese mature earlier; the age at take-off (ATO, the age at which the adolescent growth spurt starts) decreases, and they are taller at all ages. Preece-Baines modelling of six national samples of Japanese children and adolescents, surveyed between 1955 and 2000, shows that this gain in height is largely an adolescent trend, whereas height at take-off (HTO) increased by less than 3 cm since 1955; adolescent growth (height gain between ATO and adult age) increased by 6 cm. The effect of globalization on the modern post-war Japanese society ("community effect in height") on adolescent growth is discussed. PMID:26642759

  3. Early life mortality and height in Indian states.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Diane

    2015-04-01

    Height is a marker for health, cognitive ability and economic productivity. Recent research on the determinants of height suggests that postneonatal mortality predicts height because it is a measure of the early life disease environment to which a cohort is exposed. This article advances the literature on the determinants of height by examining the role of early life mortality, including neonatal mortality, in India, a large developing country with a very short population. It uses state level variation in neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and pre-adult mortality to predict the heights of adults born between 1970 and 1983, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality to predict the heights of children born between 1995 and 2005. In contrast to what is found in the literature on developed countries, I find that state level variation in neonatal mortality is a strong predictor of adult and child heights. This may be due to state level variation in, and overall poor levels of, pre-natal nutrition in India. PMID:25499239

  4. Is height a risk factor for colorectal adenoma?

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Jeung Hui; Hong, Sung Noh; Min, Byung-Hoon; Chang, Dong Kyung; Son, Hee Jung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Although it is generally known that the risk for all types of cancer increases with adult height, combined and for several common site-specific cancers (including colon and rectal), evidence is limited for adenomas, which are precursors to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the association between height and risk of colorectal adenoma at various stages of the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using data from patients who had undergone a complete colonoscopy as part of a health examination at the Health Promotion Center of Samsung Medical Center between October 13, 2009 and December 31, 2011. A total of 1,347 male subjects were included in our study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between height and colorectal adenoma. Results: Each 5-cm increase in height was associated with 1.6% and 5.3% higher risks of advanced colorectal adenoma and high-risk colorectal adenoma, respectively, but associations were not significant after adjusting for age, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, alcohol intake, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, and regular aspirin use (p = 0.840 and p = 0.472, respectively). Conclusions: No clear association was found between colorectal adenoma risk and height. Unlike other site-specific tumors reported to have a consistent relationship with height, the association between colorectal tumor and height remains controversial. PMID:26701232

  5. Early life mortality and height in Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Height is a marker for health, cognitive ability and economic productivity. Recent research on the determinants of height suggests that postneonatal mortality predicts height because it is a measure of the early life disease environment to which a cohort is exposed. This article advances the literature on the determinants of height by examining the role of early life mortality, including neonatal mortality, in India, a large developing country with a very short population. It uses state level variation in neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and pre-adult mortality to predict the heights of adults born between 1970 and 1983, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality to predict the heights of children born between 1995 and 2005. In contrast to what is found in the literature on developed countries, I find that state level variation in neonatal mortality is a strong predictor of adult and child heights. This may be due to state level variation in, and overall poor levels of, pre-natal nutrition in India. PMID:25499239

  6. Estimation of cirrus and stratus cloud heights using landsat imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Inomata, Yasushi; Feind, R.E.; Welch, R.M.

    1996-03-01

    A new method based upon high-spatial-resolution imagery is presented that matches cloud and shadow regions to estimate cirrus and stratus cloud heights. The distance between the cloud and the matching shadow pattern is accomplished using the 2D cross-correlation function from which the cloud height is derived. The distance between the matching cloud-shadow patterns is verified manually. The derived heights also are validated through comparison with a temperature-based retrieval of cloud height. It is also demonstrated that an estimate of cloud thickness can be retrieved if both the sunside and antisunside of the cloud-shadow pair are apparent. The technique requires some interpretation to determine the cloud height level retrieved (i.e., the top, base, or mid-level). It is concluded that the method is accurate to within several pixels, equivalent to cloud height variations of about {plus_minus}250 m. The results show that precise placement of the templates is unnecessary, so that the development of a semiautomated procedure is possible. Cloud templates of about 64 pixels on a side or larger produce consistent results. The procedure was repeated for imagery degraded to simulate lower spatial resolutions. The results suggest that spatial resolution of 150-200 m or better is necessary in order to obtain stable cloud height retrievals. 22 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Estimation of Cirrus and Stratus Cloud Heights Using Landsat Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inomata, Yasushi; Feind, R. E.; Welch, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    A new method based upon high-spatial-resolution imagery is presented that matches cloud and shadow regions to estimate cirrus and stratus cloud heights. The distance between the cloud and the matching shadow pattern is accomplished using the 2D cross-correlation function from which the cloud height is derived. The distance between the matching cloud-shadow patterns is verified manually. The derived heights also are validated through comparison with a temperature-based retrieval of cloud height. It is also demonstrated that an estimate of cloud thickness can be retrieved if both the sunside and anti-sunside of the cloud-shadow pair are apparent. The technique requires some intepretation to determine the cloud height level retrieved (i.e., the top, base, or mid-level). It is concluded that the method is accurate to within several pixels, equivalent to cloud height variations of about +/- 250 m. The results show that precise placement of the templates is unnecessary, so that the development of a semi-automated procedure is possible. Cloud templates of about 64 pixels on a side or larger produce consistent results. The procedure was repeated for imagery degraded to simulate lower spatial resolutions. The results suggest that spatial resolution of 150-200 m or better is necessary in order to obtain stable cloud height retrievals.

  8. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  9. Optoelectronic System for Measuring Heights Above a Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Davis, Chris; Polk, Jimmy; Burns, Brad; Haskell, William; Opalka, Tim; McClure, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic system has been developed for measuring heights, above a floor, of designated points on a large object. In the original application for which the system was conceived, the large object is a space shuttle and the designated points are two front and two rear points for the attachment of jacks for positioning the shuttle at the height and horizontal pitch specified for maintenance operations. The front and rear jacking points are required to be raised to heights of 198 1/4 in. (502.9 0.6 cm) and 120.6 1/4 in. (306.4 0.6 cm), respectively.

  10. Determination of the evaporation duct height from standard meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. K.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Levadnyi, Yu. V.

    2007-02-01

    Four models used for evaluating the height of the evaporation duct from measured atmospheric pressure, water and air temperatures, and air humidity are considered.The calculated results are compared with the duct heights measured during two oceanographic expeditions in the tropical zone of the Atlantic Ocean and the equatorial zone of the Indian Ocean. The sensitivity of models to the errors in the meteorological parameters is investigated. It is shown that, in the case of unstable stratification, the heights of ducts in the 5 20-m range can be evaluated with an error of about 2.5 m. Recommendations for selection of optimal models are given.

  11. Efficient height measurement method of surveillance camera image.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong; Lee, Eung-Dae; Tark, Hyun-Oh; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-05-01

    As surveillance cameras are increasingly installed, their films are often submitted as evidence of crime, but very scant detailed information such as features and clothes is obtained due to the limited camera performance. Height, however, is relatively not significantly influenced by the camera performance. This paper studied the height measurement method using images from a CCTV. The information on the height was obtained via photogrammetry, including the reference points in the photographed area and the calculation of the relationship between a 3D space and a 2D image through linear and nonlinear calibration. Using this correlation, this paper suggested the height measurement method, which projects a 3D virtual ruler onto the image. This method has been proven to offer more stable values within the range of data convergence than those of other existing methods. PMID:18096339

  12. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. 20 FEET. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 40 CFR 52.2534 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2534 Stack height review. The State of West Virginia has declared to the satisfaction of EPA that no State Implementation...

  14. 40 CFR 51.164 - Stack height procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.990 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique. In reference to this requirement, the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.990 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique. In reference to this requirement, the...

  17. 40 CFR 51.164 - Stack height procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique,...

  18. A Mathematical Model for the Height of a Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoemke, Sharon S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes a real-world-problem situation using sine law and cosine law. Angles of elevation from two tracking stations located in the plane of the equator determine height of a satellite. Calculators or computers can be used. (LDR)

  19. Multi-height spectroscopy for probing the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, A.; Roth, M.; Staiger, J.

    We present preliminary results from multi-height observations, taken with the HELLRIDE (HELioseismic Large Region Interferometric DEvice) instrument at the VTT (Vacuum Tower Telescope) in Izaña, Tenerife. The goal of this work is to study solar oscillations at different atmospheric heights. The data was obtained in May 2014 for 10 different wavelengths with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution. In this paper we discuss the results from quiet sun measurements. The region was selected in such a way to be near to the disk center. Using spectral and cross-spectral analysis methods we derive phase differences of waves propagating between the atmospheric layers. The formation heights of the photospheric spectral lines were calculated by τ^c_{5000} = 1 in agreement with an LTE approximation and chromospheric lines with an NLTE method, respectively. We find that the acoustic cut-off frequency is a function of height in the solar atmosphere.

  20. Ionospheric scale height from the refraction of satellite signals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heron, M. L.; Titheridge, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Accurate observations of the elevation angle of arrival of 20 MHz signals from the polar orbiting satellite Beacon-B for a 20 month period have provided transmission ionograms which may be reduced to give Hp the scale height at the peak of the ionosphere. Noon seasonal averages of Hp are 1.35 (in winter) to 1.55 (in summer) times greater than the scale height obtained from bottom-side ionograms. A comparison of scale height at the peak with routine measurements of total content and peak electron density indicates that the O+/H+ transition level is above 1000 km during the day but comes down to about 630 km on winter nights. A predawn peak in the overall scale height is caused by a lowering of the layer to a region of increased recombination and is magnified in winter by low O+/H+ transition levels.

  1. Stereographic cloud heights from imagery of SMS/GOES satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Shenk, W. E.; Teagle, R. D.; Steranka, J.

    1978-01-01

    Stereographic pairs of SMS/GOES images, generated simultaneously by the spin-scan cameras of each of two geostationary satellites (SMS 1 and SMS 2, separated by 32 degrees of longitude on February 17, 1975), have been analyzed photogrammetrically to yield cloud heights with a two-sigma uncertainty of 500 meters. The 32-degree angle between the image plane of the two satellites, plus the distortions involved in transferring the image of a nearly full hemisphere of the earth onto a plane, required the development of a special instrument to permit stereographic compilation. Cloud heights measured stereographically compared favorably with heights of the same clouds measured by radar and IR methods. The same SMS image pairs were used to measure mountain-top heights with a mean deviation of 0.24 km from cartographic values.

  2. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  3. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  4. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... landing cannot be made after failure of the critical engine and with the remaining engines...

  5. 79. VIEW OF SPILLWAY THAT AUTOMATICALLY REGULATES HEIGHT OF WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW OF SPILLWAY THAT AUTOMATICALLY REGULATES HEIGHT OF WATER IN RESERVOIR, 'BACKWATER OVERFLOW,' Print No. 233, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  6. The conditional risk probability-based seawall height design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xing; Hu, Xiaodong; Li, Zhiqing

    2015-11-01

    The determination of the required seawall height is usually based on the combination of wind speed (or wave height) and still water level according to a specified return period, e.g., 50-year return period wind speed and 50-year return period still water level. In reality, the two variables are be partially correlated. This may be lead to over-design (costs) of seawall structures. The above-mentioned return period for the design of a seawall depends on economy, society and natural environment in the region. This means a specified risk level of overtopping or damage of a seawall structure is usually allowed. The aim of this paper is to present a conditional risk probability-based seawall height design method which incorporates the correlation of the two variables. For purposes of demonstration, the wind speeds and water levels collected from Jiangsu of China are analyzed. The results show this method can improve seawall height design accuracy.

  7. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye height (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during a complete gait cycle. The influence of head tilt on the EH was investigated in 20 healthy men. Markers were attached to the face and the subjects were instructed to stand relaxed, tilt their head to the right, to the left, forward and backward. The marker data for the right eye were used to calculate the EH. The respective deviation and SD from the relaxed standing EH and the EH in the Frankfurt plane, left tilted, right tilted, forward tilted and backward tilted, in addition to the corresponding head tilt angles were calculated. There was no correlation between the height of the subject and the maximum vertical displacement of the EH throughout the gait cycle nor between height of the subjects and the variation of the EH throughout the gait cycle. The average maximum vertical displacement for the test subject group was 4.76 cm (± 1.56 cm). The average EH was lower when the subjects were standing in the relaxed position than in the Frankfurt plane. The average EH was higher in the relaxed position than when the subjects tilted their heads, except when they tilted their heads backwards. The subjects had a slightly larger range of motion to the right than to the left, which was not significant. The results of this study provide a range for eye height estimates and may be readily implemented in forensic case work. It can be used as a reference in height estimates in cases with height

  8. MISR Interactive Explorer (MINX) : Production Digitizing to Retrieve Smoke Plume Heights and Validating Heights Against Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunst, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The height at which smoke from a wildfire is injected into the atmosphere is an important parameter for climatology, because it determines how far the smoke can be transported. Using the MINX program to analyze MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) data, I digitized wildfire smoke plumes to add to an existing database of these heights for use by scientists studying smoke transport and plume dynamics. In addition to using MINX to do production digitizing of heights, I assisted in gathering lidar data for an ongoing validation of MINX and helped evaluate those data.

  9. Improving terrain height estimates from RADARSAT interferometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Eichel, P.H.; Calloway, T.M.

    1998-03-01

    The authors describe two methods of combining two-pass RADAR-SAT interferometric phase maps with existing DTED (digital terrain elevation data) to produce improved terrain height estimates. The first is a least-squares estimation procedure that fits the unwrapped phase data to a phase map computed from the DTED. The second is a filtering technique that combines the interferometric height map with the DTED map based on spatial frequency content. Both methods preserve the high fidelity of the interferometric data.

  10. Origin of intraplate volcanoes from guyot heights and oceanic paleodepth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; Duennebier, Fred; Ito, Garrett

    2000-02-01

    The height of a guyot as measured from the surrounding regional sea floor to the volcano's slope break records the water depth at the time the guyot submerged. Thus guyot heights may be used as indicators of the paleodepth of the surrounding ocean floor. We compile data on the heights of 68 intraplate guyots and atolls in the Pacific Ocean as well as 46 volcanic islands in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. We find that guyot heights generally increase with the age of the lithosphere upon which they were emplaced, although there is a large amount of scatter. In nearly all cases, seamount height, and thus seafloor paleodepth, is less than expected of normal seafloor. These results suggest that most of the volcanoes in this study formed on anomalously shallow seafloor, consistent with formation at hotspots. To characterize thermal anomalies associated with these hotspot swells, we model guyot heights by calculating the isostatic uplift predicted for normal lithosphere that has been partly reheated and is underlain by anomalously hot mantle. This model is able to explain the anomalous water depth at most of the seamounts with hotspot thermal anomalies of 100°-300°C. The heights of a few volcanic chains, however, are not anomalously low, suggesting that these volcanoes are not associated with hotspots. In addition, the observed trend of Hawaiian-Emperor guyot heights as well as the subdued morphology and gravity signature of the oldest Emperor seamounts supports our hypothesis that Cretaceous age Meiji seamount may have formed on or near a spreading center.

  11. Stereoscopic Height Estimation from Multiple Aspect Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    SciTech Connect

    DELAURENTIS,JOHN M.; DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2001-08-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is a two-dimensional projection of the radar reflectivity from a 3-dimensional object or scene. Stereoscopic SAR employs two SAR images from distinct flight paths that can be processed together to extract information of the third collapsed dimension (typically height) with some degree of accuracy. However, more than two SAR images of the same scene can similarly be processed to further improve height accuracy, and hence 3-dimensional position accuracy. This report shows how.

  12. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  13. Determination of ILS category 2 decision height window requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Hoh, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A method for determining the appropriate longitudinal and lateral decision height dispersion limits for any airplane/control system combination during an instrument landing approach is presented. An example is worked out to clarify the steps required. It is shown that the current longitudinal decision height dispersion limits are well suited for a DC-8 with the example control system, but that the lateral limits are too loose to guarantee acceptable touchdowns with the example system subjected to recommended wind and shear disturbances.

  14. Don’t Look Down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2012-01-01

    In a series of experiments we found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or non-arousing images before estimating the height of a two-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target size more than those who viewed non-arousing images. However, in Experiment 2, estimates of horizontal distances were not influenced by emotional arousal. In Experiment 3, we manipulated both valence and arousal cues and observed that arousal, but not valence, moderated height perception. In Experiment 4, participants either up-regulated or down-regulated their emotional experience while viewing emotionally arousing images, and a control group simply viewed the arousing images. Those participants who up-regulated their emotional experience overestimated height more than the control or down-regulated participants. In sum, emotional arousal influences estimates of height and this influence can be moderated by emotion regulation strategies. PMID:19203173

  15. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  16. Urban atmospheric boundary layer height by aerosol lidar and ceilometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. H.; Park, M. S.; Park, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of urban atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height on January, April, July and October 2014 using the gradient method by a ceilometer with a wavelength of 910 nm and an aerosol lidar with a wavelength of 532 and 1064 nm installed at two urban sites (Gwanghwamun and Jungnang) in Korea are analyzed. The Gwanghwamun site located at urban commercial area is 10 km apart from the Jungnang site located at urban residential area. The ABL height is determined by a height with a strong gradient of vertical backscatter intensity. It is found that the ABL height at both sites show a similar pattern and has a strong diurnal variation with a steep increase at 09-12 KST with a maximum in the late afternoon. And it is not determined clearly and the correlation between the ABL height by a ceilometer and that by an aerosol lidar is relatively low in case of high PM10 concentration such as Asian dust, haze and smog. Uncertainty of ABL height is also found to be strongly affected by the weather phenomena such as rain, haze or fog.

  17. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. PMID:27458798

  18. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  19. Lumbar spinal loads vary with body height and weight.

    PubMed

    Han, Kap-Soo; Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Taylor, William R

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge about spinal loading is required for designing and preclinical testing of spinal implants. It is assumed that loading of the spine depends upon body weight and height, as well as on the spine level, but a direct measurement of the loading conditions throughout the spine is not yet possible. Here, computer models can allow an estimation of the forces and moments acting in the spine. The objective of the present study was to calculate spinal loads for different postures and activities at several levels of the thoracolumbar spine for various combinations of body height and weight. A validated musculoskeletal model, together with commercially available software (AnyBody Technology), were used to calculate the segmental loads acting on the centre of the upper endplate of the vertebrae T12 to L5. The body height was varied between 150 and 200 cm and the weight between 50 and 120 kg. The loads were determined for five standard static postures and three lifting tasks. The resultant forces and moments increased approximately linearly with increasing body weight. The body height had a nearly linear effect on the spinal loads, but in almost all loading cases, the effect on spinal loads was stronger for variation of body weight than of body height. Spinal loads generally increased from cranial to caudal. The presented data now allow the estimation of the spinal load during activities of daily living on a subject specific basis, if body height and weight are known. PMID:23040051

  20. Forest Canopy Height Estimation from Calipso Lidar Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Lucker, Patricia L.; Trepte, Charles

    2016-06-01

    The canopy height is an important parameter in aboveground biomass estimation. Lidar remote sensing from airborne or satellite platforms, has a unique capability for forestry applications. This study introduces an innovative concept to estimate canopy height using CALIOP two wavelengths lidar measurements. One main advantage is that the concept proposed here is dependent on the penetration depths at two wavelengths without making assumption about the last peak of waveform as the ground location, and it does not require the ancillary Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data in order to obtain the slope information of terrain. Canopy penetration depths at two wavelengths indicate moderately strong relationships for estimating the canopy height. Results show that the CALIOP-derived canopy heights were highly correlated with the ICESat/GLAS-derived values with a mean RMSE of 3.4 m and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.89. Our findings present a relationship between the penetration difference and canopy height, which can be used as another metrics for canopy height estimation, except the full waveforms.

  1. High and mighty: height increases authority in professional refereeing.

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P; Verhulst, Simon; Pollet, Thomas V

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, larger males are more likely to attain social dominance. Several lines of evidence suggest that this relationship extends to humans, as height is positively related to dominance, status and authority. We hypothesized that height is also a determinant of authority in professional refereeing. According to the International Football Association Board, FIFA, football ("soccer") referees have full authority to enforce the laws of the game and should use their body language to show authority and to help control the match. We show that height is indeed positively related to authority status: referees were taller than their assistants (who merely have an advisory role) in both a national (French League) and an international (World Cup 2010) tournament. Furthermore, using data from the German League, we found that height was positively associated with authoritative behavior. Taller referees were better able to maintain control of the game by giving fewer fouls, thereby increasing the "flow of the game". Referee height was also positively associated with perceived referee competence, as taller referees were assigned to matches in which the visiting team had a higher ranking. Thus, height appears to be positively related to authority in professional refereeing. PMID:22947680

  2. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  3. Spectral analyses of satellite geopotential missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Peter J.

    1989-06-01

    A new, geometrical, first order, nonresonant, frozen orbit theory was developed based on Orlov's uniformly rotating plane of constant inclination. Perturbation spectra generated from a 90th order subset of OSU86F are shown for the ill-fated 1984 JHU/APL SAGE proposal for a pair of TRANSIT satellites at 400 km altitude with a 93.5 deg inclination.

  4. Comparing Icesat/glas Based Elevation Heights with Photogrammetric Terrain Heights from Uav-Imagery on the East Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßle, F.; Fritz, A.; Koch, B.

    2015-08-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) and height measurements are broadly used in environmental studies. Two common elevation sources are the Ice Cloud and land elevation Satellite (ICESat), which acquired laser range measurements with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) across the globe and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Current developments of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide the opportunity to collect aerial images of remote areas at a high spatial resolution. These can be further processed to digital surface models by stereophotogrammetry and provide a reliable data source to evaluate coarse scale Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). This study compares ICESat/GLAS and SRTM90 elevation data against photogrammetric terrain heights within GLAS footprints on high altitudes on the East Tibetan Plateau. Without vegetation-bias, we were able to examine height differences under different topographic conditions and of different acquisition dates. Several resampling techniques were applied to SRTM90 data and averaged height within each footprint was calculated. ICESat/GLAS heights (n = 148) are most similar to UAV data based elevations with an averaged difference of -0.8m ±3.1m. Results furthermore indicate the validity of ICESat/GLAS heights, which are usually removed from analyses by applying different quality flags. Smallest difference of SRTM90 to UAV based heights could be observed by a natural neighbour resampling technique (averaged 3.6m ±14m), whereat other techniques achieved quite similar results. It can be confirmed that within a range of 3,800-4,200m above mean sea level the ICESat/GLAS heights are a precise source to determine elevation at footprint geolocation.

  5. Gradients of meteorological parameters in convective and nonconvective areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccown, M. S.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Horizontal gradients of geopotential height, temperature, and wind speed were computed at the 850-, 700-, 500-, and 200-mb levels. Mixing ratio gradients also were computed, but only for the 850-, 700-, and 500-mb levels. Rawinsonde data was provided at 3- to 6-h intervals. Cumulative frequency distributions and statistical parameters showed that the variability and magnitude of the gradients decreased as the gradients were computed over progressively longer distances. Most frequency distributions were positively skewed, and the standard deviations of the gradient distributions were roughly half as large as the means. An examination of the differences of gradients observed in convective and nonconvective areas was made after convective areas were determined objectively using Manually Digitized Radar data. The gradients of height, wind speed, and mixing ratio at 850 mb were larger in convective than nonconvective areas. No general relationship held for the meteorological variables at other levels. Intensive examination of the gradients observed near squall lines revealed typical gradient patterns and trends in the magnitudes of the gradients associated with convective systems.

  6. Comparison of spinal anesthesia dosage based on height and weight versus height alone in patients undergoing elective cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Khalid Maudood; Ullah, Hameed

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, typically used for elective and emergency cesarean section, is associated with a significant incidence of hypotension resulting from sympathetic blockade. A variety of dosing regimens have been used to administer spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension following two different fixed dosing regimens. Methods This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial with a two-sided design, 5% significance level and 80% power. After approval of the hospital ethics review committee, 60 patients were divided randomly into two groups. In one group, the local anesthetic dose was adjusted according to height and weight, and in the other, the dose was adjusted according to height only. Results Sixty women with a singleton pregnancy were included. Of the factors that could affect dose and blood pressure, including age, weight, height, and dose, only height differed between the groups. Mean heart rate was similar between the groups. Hypotension was significantly more frequent with dosage based on height alone than with two-factor dose calculation (56.7% vs. 26.7%; P = 0.018). Conclusions Adjusting the dose of isobaric bupivacaine to a patient's height and weight provides adequate anesthesia for elective cesarean section and is associated with a decreased incidence and severity of maternal hypotension and less use of ephedrine. PMID:27066205

  7. Predicting human height by Victorian and genomic methods.

    PubMed

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Struchalin, Maksim V; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I; Weedon, Michael N; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Kayser, Manfred; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Borodin, Pavel M

    2009-08-01

    In the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that 'when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average height of the two parents, ... is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54 loci showing strong statistical evidence for association to human height were described, providing us with potential genomic means of human height prediction. In a population-based study of 5748 people, we find that a 54-loci genomic profile explained 4-6% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and had limited ability to discriminate tall/short people, as characterized by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). In a family-based study of 550 people, with both parents having height measurements, we find that the Galtonian mid-parental prediction method explained 40% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and showed high discriminative accuracy. We have also explored how much variance a genomic profile should explain to reach certain AUC values. For highly heritable traits such as height, we conclude that in applications in which parental phenotypic information is available (eg, medicine), the Victorian Galton's method will long stay unsurpassed, in terms of both discriminative accuracy and costs. For less heritable traits, and in situations in which parental information is not available (eg, forensics), genomic methods may provide an alternative, given that the variants determining an essential proportion of the trait's variation can be identified. PMID:19223933

  8. Predicting human height by Victorian and genomic methods

    PubMed Central

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Struchalin, Maksim V; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I; Weedon, Michael N; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Kayser, Manfred; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Borodin, Pavel M

    2009-01-01

    In the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that ‘when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average height of the two parents, … is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54 loci showing strong statistical evidence for association to human height were described, providing us with potential genomic means of human height prediction. In a population-based study of 5748 people, we find that a 54-loci genomic profile explained 4–6% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and had limited ability to discriminate tall/short people, as characterized by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). In a family-based study of 550 people, with both parents having height measurements, we find that the Galtonian mid-parental prediction method explained 40% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and showed high discriminative accuracy. We have also explored how much variance a genomic profile should explain to reach certain AUC values. For highly heritable traits such as height, we conclude that in applications in which parental phenotypic information is available (eg, medicine), the Victorian Galton's method will long stay unsurpassed, in terms of both discriminative accuracy and costs. For less heritable traits, and in situations in which parental information is not available (eg, forensics), genomic methods may provide an alternative, given that the variants determining an essential proportion of the trait's variation can be identified. PMID:19223933

  9. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Microgravity on Seated Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond will be highly dependent on the seat layout. A primary concern with the seat layout design of the new vehicle is the amount of seated height growth that occurs in space; this could cause a major accommodation issue. The design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation are all critically affected due to the increase in height that occurs in microgravity. The increase in height due to spinal elongation caused by the absence of gravity could lead to inadequate clearances that would have implications for the ability of crewmembers to return safely or to conduct nominal operations during the mission. This study was designed to reduce the risk of inadequate design of the vehicle, environment, tools, equipment, etc. (SHFE risk 2.3.1.1) and safely return crewmembers to earth from low-earth orbit travel, ISS, and beyond. In order to safely return the crewmembers, the design requirements must anticipate microgravity growth, elongation of the spine, bone and muscle loss, fluid shifts, etc. Thus, this study is to determine the amount of torso growth (spinal elongation) for a seated posture during Shuttle and ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to quantify the amount of growth that occurred as a result of microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement which allows for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that , during flight, seated height increases by a range of approximately 2-6 percent compared to pre-launch seated height.

  10. Behaviour of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroni, I.; Argentini, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Antarctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer presents characteristics which are substantially different from the mid-latitudes ABLs. On the Antarctic plateau two different extreme situations are observed. During the summer a mixing height develops during the warmer hours of the day although the sensible heat flux is reduced compared to that at mid-latitudes. During the winter a long lived stable boundary layer is continuously present, the residual layer is never observed, consequently the inversion layer is connected at the free atmosphere. To understand the stable ABL process the STABLEDC (Study of the STAble Boundary Layer Environmental at Dome C) experimental field was held at Concordia, the French Italian plateau station at Dome C, during 2005. In the same period the RMO (Routine Measurements Observations) started. The data included turbulence data at the surface, temperature profiles by a microwave profiler (MTP-5P), a mini-sodar and radio-soundings. In this work we will show the results of a comparison of the ABL height at Concordia (3233 m a.s.l) during the summer and the winter using direct measurements and parameterization. The winter ABL height was estimated directly using experimental data (radio-soundings and radiometer temperature and wind velocity profiles) and different methods proposed in literature. The stable ABL height was also estimated using the formulation proposed by Zilitinkevich et al. (2007) for the long-lived stable boundary layer. The correlation of ABL height with the temperature and wind speed is also shown. The summer mixing height was instead estimated by mini-sodar data and compared with the height given by the model suggested by Batchvarova and Gryning (1991) which use as input the turbulence data.

  11. Forest Height Retrieval Algorithm Using a Complex Visibility Function Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T.; Zebker, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation structure and biomass on earth's terrestrial surface are critical parameters that influences global carbon cycle, habitat, climate, and resources of economic value. Space-borne and air-borne remote sensing instruments are the most practical means of obtaining information such as tree height and biomass on a large scale. SAR (Synthetic aperture radars) especially InSAR (Interferometric SAR) has been utilized in the recent years to quantify vegetation parameters such as height and biomass. However methods used to quantify global vegetation has yet to produce accurate results. It is the goal of this study to develop a signal-processing algorithm through simulation to determine vegetation heights that would lead to accurate height and biomass retrievals. A standard SAR image represents a projection of the 3D distributed backscatter onto a 2D plane. InSAR is capable of determining topography or the height of vegetation. Vegetation height is determined from the mean scattering phase center of all scatterers within a resolution cell. InSAR is capable of generating a 3D height surface, but the distribution of scatters in height is under-determined and cannot be resolved by a single-baseline measurement. One interferogram therefore is insufficient to uniquely determine vertical characteristics of even a simple 3D forest. An aperture synthesis technique in the height or vertical dimension would enable improved resolution capability to distinguish scatterers of different location in the vertical dimension. Repeat pass observations allow us differential interferometry to populate the frequency domain from which we can use the Fourier transform relation to get to the brightness or backscatter domain. Ryle and Hewish first introduced this technique of aperture synthesis in the 1960's for large radio telescope arrays. This technique would allow us to focus the antenna beam pattern in the vertical direction and increase vertical resolving power. It enable us to

  12. The AUSGeoid09 model of the Australian Height Datum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherstone, W. E.; Kirby, J. F.; Hirt, C.; Filmer, M. S.; Claessens, S. J.; Brown, N. J.; Hu, G.; Johnston, G. M.

    2011-03-01

    AUSGeoid09 is the new Australia-wide gravimetric quasigeoid model that has been a posteriori fitted to the Australian Height Datum (AHD) so as to provide a product that is practically useful for the more direct determination of AHD heights from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This approach is necessary because the AHD is predominantly a third-order vertical datum that contains a ~1 m north-south tilt and ~0.5 m regional distortions with respect to the quasigeoid, meaning that GNSS-gravimetric-quasigeoid and AHD heights are inconsistent. Because the AHD remains the official vertical datum in Australia, it is necessary to provide GNSS users with effective means of recovering AHD heights. The gravimetric component of the quasigeoid model was computed using a hybrid of the remove-compute-restore technique with a degree-40 deterministically modified kernel over a one-degree spherical cap, which is superior to the remove-compute-restore technique alone in Australia (with or without a cap). This is because the modified kernel and cap combine to filter long-wavelength errors from the terrestrial gravity anomalies. The zero-tide EGM2008 global gravitational model to degree 2,190 was used as the reference field. Other input data are ~1.4 million land gravity anomalies from Geoscience Australia, 1' × 1' DNSC2008GRA altimeter-derived gravity anomalies offshore, the 9'' × 9'' GEODATA-DEM9S Australian digital elevation model, and a readjustment of Australian National Levelling Network (ANLN) constrained to the CARS2006 mean dynamic ocean topography model. To determine the numerical integration parameters for the modified kernel, the gravimetric component of AUSGeoid09 was compared with 911 GNSS-observed ellipsoidal heights at benchmarks. The standard deviation of fit to the GNSS-AHD heights is ±222 mm, which dropped to ±134 mm for the readjusted GNSS-ANLN heights showing that careful consideration now needs to be given to the quality of the levelling data used to

  13. Analysis and Correction of Systematic Height Model Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    The geometry of digital height models (DHM) determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC). Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP), but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital surface model (DSM) or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS PRISM images, are

  14. A Note on the Height of Auroras by Leonhard Euler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    In former times, mostly before the end of the 19th century, many speculations were made about the height of the Earth's atmosphere. Scientists also discussed the height of the auroras, which were often observed in middle Europe. Mostly, people thought the auroras were manifestations of the lower Earth's atmosphere, and that they formed a circle inside of it. Only a few speculations were devoted to the exact height and nature of these phenomena. They were thought to be signs from God, until the appearance of the aurora on 17 March 1716 (for detail, see Schröder [2001]). An interesting letter written by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), a Swiss mathematician and member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, to the theologian and scholar Johann Esaias Silberschlag (1716-1791)-also a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences- gives some insight into the discussion that took place in the 18th century. Euler wrote in his letter that the auroras, similar to the great meteors or fireballs, must be placed in the high atmosphere, mostly above the height of the meteors. For Euler, it was clear that meteors, fireballs, and auroras were all objects associated with the Earth's atmosphere. In those days, the idea that the auroral phenomena were caused in the atmosphere and were part of its constitution was new. Following the 17 March 1716 event, scientists of the day concluded that the height of the aurora was above that of the normally observed clouds.

  15. Rapid height growth after liver transplantation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Szili, Balázs; Görög, Dénes; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Győri, Gabriella; Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István

    2016-08-01

    Glycogen storage disease Ib is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder caused by glucose-6-phosphatase translocase deficiency. Its main symptoms are hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, neutropenia, hepatomegaly, liver adenomas and short stature. The exact mechanism of short stature in this disease is unclear, the most feasible possibility is that it is caused by impairment of growth-hormone and insulin-like growth factor I axis. Here we report the case of a patient who showed typical symptoms of glycogen storage disease Ib since his infancy, his height being under 1 percentile since then. Later-developed hypothyroidism and hypogonadism have also contributed to his short stature. Hypothyroidism was treated but sexual steroid substitution was not started because of an increased risk of hepatic adenomas. Because he developed hepatic adenoma at the age of 23, he had to undergo orthotopic liver transplantation. At the time of the transplantation his height was 128cm. The transplantation was followed by rapid height growth; our patient's height reached 160.3cm 62months after transplantation. We observed that while his IGF-I level increased, his GH level remained unchanged. During the post-transplantation period we ensured adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, leaving hormonal substitution unchanged. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of a rapid height growth as big as 32cm, of an individual over the age of 20, not related to endocrine treatment but liver transplantation. PMID:27041087

  16. Drumlin height variability in the New York State drumlin field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Hess, Dale P.; Clark, Chris D.

    2010-05-01

    Although drumlins are among the most common landforms found in formerly glaciated terrain and have been studied for centuries, we still lack a general agreement on their genesis. No one theory of formation can be accepted, though, unless it is capable of explaining the shape of drumlins observed in nature. Most scientists will agree that drumlins have a characteristic shape, but what are the exact figures? While many studies have focused on drumlin length, width and elongation, there is a relatively lack of work on bedform height. In the few exceptions that can be found in the literature, drumlin height has been usually quantified in terms of altitudinal range, with biases related to topography, and from studies of a relatively small number of drumlins. In this work, the height of over 6000 drumlins mapped in New York State, south of Lake Ontario, is analyzed. Specific GIS techniques are applied to effectively quantify drumlin height rather than the once typically measured altitudinal range. Results are discussed statistically and in respect to those reported in the literature as well as those recently emerged from a study of the British Isles. The spatial distribution of drumlin height across the New York State field varies systematically. This paper explores the potential influence of topography, bedrock and glacial history on this variation through spatial analysis. The correlation to other morphometric properties, i.e. length, width and elongation, has also revealed interesting trends.

  17. AATSR Based Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundstrom, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-06-01

    The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's nadir and 55° forward views, and thus the corresponding height. AATSR provides an advantage compared to other stereo-view satellite instruments: with AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 μm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. Besides ash plumes, the algorithm can be applied to any elevated feature with sufficient contrast to the background, such as smoke and dust plumes and clouds. The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015.

  18. How does the edge height of curb ramps obstruct bicycles?

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to recommend revisions, based on empirical data, to the current curb ramp standards for keeping bicyclists safe. Four types of curb ramps were tested: (1) concrete with a 50 mm edge height, (2) concrete reinforced by a metal plate with a 50 mm edge height, (3) plastic with a 20 mm edge height, and (4) recycled rubber with a 10 mm edge height. Twenty subjects aged 20-60 years ascended the curbs on a bicycle under various conditions. The angles of approach were 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, 75 degrees and 90 degrees. Experiments were executed under both wet and dry conditions. We found that when approaching from an angle of 45 degrees or more, all subjects could ascend all ramps under both conditions. From a 15 degrees approach under wet conditions, no subjects ascended the concrete ramps. Some could not ascend at a 15 degrees approach on the concrete ramps in dry conditions, and some could not ascend from a 30 degrees approach on the reinforced concrete ramp in wet conditions. Bicyclists riding on roadways cannot easily ascend a curb ramp with a 50 mm edge, even in dry conditions. We thus recommend that curb ramp edge heights be lower than 50 mm. Keywords: friction coefficient; approach angle PMID:25665200

  19. Anomalous variations of tropopause height in low latitude regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramkumar, T. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    Successful attempts have been made in early 1990s to link the possible influence of equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial-oscillation QBO on tropopause dynamics at longer period scales leading ultimately to the evolution of strong El Nino events of global economic importance Gray et al 1992 GRL JMSJ As a result of this influence it is possible that the tropopause height may be increasing instead of decreasing with latitude from the equator in tropical regions during particular phase of QBO say westerly phase over the equator In the present work we report such observations using radiosonde data obtained from fourteen different tropical 30 N to 30 S radio-sounding stations located in the wide longitudinal zone of South East Asia South Pacific and Africa in the year 2004 The daily tropopause height determined at 00 00 and 12 00 hrs GMT is averaged for each month separately The tropopause height Cold Point Tropopause CPT is determined by noting the height of minimum temperature between 12 and 20 km It is observed further that the latitude variation of tropopause height in southern Hemisphere is much less when compared to that in the Northern Hemisphere The reason for this asymmetric characteristic of tropopause about the equator may be that greater fraction of the northern hemisphere is covered with land and it is ocean in the southern hemisphere Because of large variations in topography of the land and the associated thermal conductivity it is possible that convection activities of the

  20. Creation of Data Pattern for High Accuracy Flying Height Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yawshing; Lee, Sung-Chang; Suk, Mike

    A common technique for measuring flying height is using the ratio of the 1st and the 3rd harmonic of a periodic data pattern. Since the 3rd harmonic is typically smaller than the 1st, and the recording channel usually rolls off at higher harmonics, the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic dominates the signal to noise ratio of the measured flying height. Therefore it is desirable to create a data pattern that has a large 3rd harmonic component for flying height measurement. This paper describes a method to create data patterns with a high frequency component larger than the 1st harmonic. The method multiplies a high frequency signal to a basic periodic signal to create a high frequency component and a low frequency component. The high frequency signal may be the 3rd harmonic and can be larger than the low frequency one. In addition, newly created data pattern was applied to real hard disk drive, and the accuracy of measured flying height was demonstrated in comparison with measured flying height based on conventional data pattern.

  1. Determination of the height of the "meteoric explosion"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, V. V.; Popova, O. P.; Svettsov, V. V.; Trubetskaya, I. A.; Glazachev, D. O.

    2016-01-01

    When cosmic bodies of asteroidal and cometary origin, with a size from 20 to approximately 100 m, enter dense atmospheric layers, they are destroyed with a large probability under the action of aerodynamic forces and decelerated with the transfer of their energy to the air at heights from 20-30 to several kilometers. The forming shock wave reaches the Earth's surface and can cause considerable damage at great distances from the entry path similar to the action of a high-altitude explosion. We have performed a numerical simulation of the disruption (with allowance for evaporation of fragments) and deceleration of meteoroids having the aforesaid dimensions and entering the Earth's atmosphere at different angles and determined the height of the equivalent explosion point generating the same shock wave as the fall of a cosmic body with the given parameters. It turns out that this height does not depend on the velocity of the body and is approximately equal to the height at which this velocity is reduced by half. The obtained results were successfully approximated by a simple analytical formula allowing one to easily determine the height of an equivalent explosion depending on the dimensions of the body, its density, and angle of entry into the atmosphere. A comparison of the obtained results with well-known approximate analytical (pancake) models is presented and an application of the obtained formula to specific events, in particular, to the fall of the Chelyabinsk meteorite on February 15, 2013, and Tunguska event of 1908, is discussed.

  2. Fear of heights freezes gaze to the horizon.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Günter; Huppert, Doreen; Schneider, Erich; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fear of heights is elicited by a glance into an abyss. However, the visual exploration behavior of fearful subjects at height has not been analyzed yet. We investigated eye- and head movements, i.e. visual exploration behavior, of subjects susceptible to fear of heights during exposure to a visual cliff. The movements of eyes and head were recorded in 19 subjects susceptible to fear of heights and 18 controls while standing still on an emergency balcony 20 meters above ground level for periods of 30 seconds. Participants wore mobile, infrared eye-tracking goggles with inertial sensors for recording head movements. Susceptibles exhibited fewer and smaller-amplitude eye-in-head saccades with fixations of longer duration. Spontaneous head movements were reduced by 49% in susceptibles with a significantly lower mean absolute angular velocity (5.3°/s vs. 10.4°/s), and all three dimensions (yaw, pitch and roll) were equally affected. Gaze-in-space--which indicates exploration by coordinated eye-head movements--covered a smaller total area of the visual scene (explored horizontal angle: 19° vs. 32°, vertical: 9° vs. 17°). We hypothesize that the susceptibles suppress eye and head movements to alleviate fear of heights. However, this behavior has the potential disadvantage of impairing the visual stabilization of postural balance. PMID:25564086

  3. The Interannual Variability of Biomass Burning in North America using MODIS Data: Observations and Meteorological Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D.; Wang, J.; Remer, L.; Ichoku, C.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorological impacts on the interannual variability of wildfires in North America including Alaska are investigated using six years of the MODIS fire and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products, the meteorological data from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), and the lightning data collected by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The relationships of MODIS fire counts, fire radiative power, and AOD with over 13 meteorological variables were investigated in four sub-regions of the North American continent (Alaska, western U.S., Québec, and the rest of Canada). Atmospheric instability and anomalies in the 500 hPa geopotential height field explain more than 60% of the interannual variability in wildfires in Alaska and Quebec; while in the western Unites States, pre-season precipitation is a dominant factor. Lightning strike data show little correlation with fire counts in the western United States, suggesting the importance of anthropogenic cause of fires in this region. Relationships between fire occurrence, atmospheric instability, and smoke production were also investigated. It is revealed that although the Haines Index is widely used for fire forecasting, it is not sufficient to interpret the interannual variability of fires in Boreal North America, but its performance improves when used with 500mb geopotential height anomalies. Continuing work will focus on the meteorological impact and interannual variability of smoke production and subsequent transport between regions. In addition, analysis using lightning strike data may also be preformed for the Canada and Alaska regions via Environment Canada and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) respectively.

  4. Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait.

    PubMed

    Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R

    1986-05-01

    Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean height of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory height to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct height is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations. PMID:23906357

  5. Geoid height versus topography for oceanic plateaus and swells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Mackenzie, Kevin R.

    1989-01-01

    Gridded geoid height data (Marsh et al.l, 1986) and gridded bathymetry data (Van Wykhouse, 1973) are used to estimate the average compensation depths of 53 oceanic swells and plateaus. The relationship between geoid height and topography is examined using Airy and thermal compensation models. It is shown that geoid height is linearly related to topography between wavelengths of 400 and 4000 m as predicted by isostatic compensation models. The geoid/topography ratio is dependent on the average depth of compensation. The intermediate geoid/topography ratios of most thermal swells are interpreted as a linear combination of the decaying thermal swell signature and that of the persisting Airy-compensated volcanic edifice.

  6. Trends and Periodicities In Nighttime Lf Radio Wave Reflection Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürschner, D.; Jacobi, Ch.

    The nighttime reflection height of low-frequency (LF) radio waves at oblique inci- dence is measured at Collm Observatory using 1.8 kHz sideband phase comparisons of the sky-wave and the ground wave of a commercial 177 kHz LF transmitter. The measurements have been carried out continuously since 1983, now allowing the anal- ysis of trends and regular variations of the reflection height. In the time series is found a) a long-term negative trend and b) a solar cycle dependence, both confirming ear- lier measurements and theoretical estimations. Moreover, a significant oscillation of quasi-biennial period is visible in LF reflection heights, indicating a reaction of the midlatitude mesosphere/lower thermosphere region on the equatorial QBO.

  7. Optimization of satellite altimeter and wave height measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, R. P.; Brooks, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Two techniques for simultaneously estimating altitude, ocean wave height, and signal-to-noise ratio from the GEOS-C satellite altimeter data are described. One technique was based on maximum likelihood estimation, MLE, and the other on minimum mean square error estimation, MMSE. Performance was determined by comparing the variance and bias of each technique with the variance and bias of the smoothed output from the Geos altimeter tracker. Ocean wave height tracking performance for the MLE and MMSE algorithms was measured by comparing the variance and bias of the wave height estimates with that of the expression for the return waveform obtained by a fit to the average output of the 16 waveform sampling gates.

  8. Dual frequency scatterometer measurement of ocean wave height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. W.; Jones, W. L.; Swift, C. T.; Grantham, W. L.; Weissman, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for remotely measuring wave height averaged over an area of the sea surface was developed and verified with a series of aircraft flight experiments. The measurement concept involves the cross correlation of the amplitude fluctuations of two monochromatic reflected signals with variable frequency separation. The signal reflected by the randomly distributed specular points on the surface is observed in the backscatter direction at nadir incidence angle. The measured correlation coefficient is equal to the square of the magnitude of the characteristic function of the specular point height from which RMS wave height can be determined. The flight scatterometer operates at 13.9 GHz and 13.9 - delta f GHz with a maximum delta f of 40 MHz. Measurements were conducted for low and moderate sea states at altitudes of 2, 5, and 10 thousand feet. The experimental results agree with the predicted decorrelation with frequency separation and with off-nadir incidence angle.

  9. Height-based Indices of Pubertal Timing in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khairullah, Ammar; May, Margaret T.; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D.; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    It is important to account for timing of puberty when studying the adolescent brain and cognition. The use of classical methods for assessing pubertal status may not be feasible in some studies, especially in male adolescents. Using data from a sample of 478 males from a longitudinal birth cohort, we describe the calculations of three independent height-based markers of pubertal timing: Age at Peak Height Velocity (APHV), Height Difference in Standard Deviations (HDSDS), and Percent Achieved of Adult Stature (PAAS). These markers correlate well with each other. In a separate cross-sectional study, we show that the PAAS marker correlates well with testosterone levels and self-reported pubertal-stage scores. We conclude by discussing key considerations for investigators when drawing upon these methods of assessing pubertal timing. PMID:26052478

  10. Electronic measurement of microchannel plate pulse height distributionsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2010-10-01

    Microchannel plates are a central component of the x-ray framing cameras used as analog imagers in many plasma experiment diagnostic systems. The microchannel plate serves as an amplifying element, increasing the electronic signal from incident radiation by factors of 103-105, with a broad pulse-height distribution. Seeking to optimize the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and noise distribution of x-ray cameras, we will characterize the pulse-height distribution of the electron output from a single microchannel plate. Replacing the framing camera's phosphor-coated fiber optic screen with a charge-collection plate and coupling to a low-noise multichannel analyzer, we quantified the distribution in the total charge generated per photon event. The electronically measured pulse height distribution is used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of radiographic images from framing cameras.

  11. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-04-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time1, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v (t ) =∫ a (t ) d t (1) and x (t ) =∫ v (t ) dt. Mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets have accelerometers that capture slowly evolving acceleration with respect to time and can deliver those measurements as a CSV file. A recent example measured the oscillations of the elevator as it starts its motion.2 In the application presented here the mobile device is used to estimate the height of the elevator ride. By estimating the functional form of the acceleration of an elevator ride, it is possible to estimate the height of the ride through Eqs. (1) and (2).

  12. ADHD stimulants and their effect on height in children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION Many more children today are diagnosed and treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Parents frequently ask me if the stimulant medications their children receive might affect their height as adults. What should I tell them? ANSWER Stimulant medications, including methylphenidate and amphetamine, are safe and effective in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Research on the issue of growth suppression is lacking, mostly owing to insufficient follow-up on patients’ final heights. In general, the rate of height loss seems relatively small and is likely reversible with withdrawal of treatment. Clinical presentation and academic achievements should be the key to determining which drug to prescribe, the preparation, and the dose. PMID:20154245

  13. Capacitive measurement of mercury column heights in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Frey, Sarah; Richert, Ranko

    2010-03-01

    The detection of changes in volume, e.g., in expansivity or aging measurements, are often translated into mercury column height within a glass capillary. We propose a capacitive technique for measuring the meniscus position using a cylindrical capacitor with mercury as the inner electrode, the capillary material as the dielectric, and a metal coat covering the outside surface of the capillary as the second electrode. The measured capacitance changes linearly with meniscus height, as long as the top mercury level remains within the range of the outer electrode. With the demonstrated noise level of 48 nm for our preliminary setup, meniscus height changes beyond 100 nm can be observed via the capacitance. PMID:20370203

  14. Climate and Edaphic Controls on Humid Tropical Forest Tree Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Saatchi, S. S.; Xu, L.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty in the magnitude and spatial variations of forest carbon density in tropical regions is due to under sampling of forest structure from inventory plots and the lack of regional allometry to estimate the carbon density from structure. Here we quantify the variation of tropical forest structure by using more than 2.5 million measurements of canopy height from systematic sampling of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite observations between 2004 to 2008 and examine the climate and edaphic variables influencing the variations. We used top canopy height of GLAS footprints (~ 0.25 ha) to grid the statistical mean and 90 percentile of samples at 0.5 degrees to capture the regional variability of large trees in tropics. GLAS heights were also aggregated based on a stratification of tropical regions using soil, elevation, and forest types. Both approaches provided consistent patterns of statistically dominant large trees and the least heterogeneity, both as strong drivers of distribution of high biomass forests. Statistical models accounting for spatial autocorrelation suggest that climate, soil and spatial features together can explain more than 60% of the variations in observed tree height information, while climate-only variables explains about one third of the first-order changes in tree height. Soil basics, including physical compositions such as clay and sand contents, chemical properties such as PH values and cation-exchange capacity, as well as biological variables such as organic matters, all present independent but statistically significant relationships to tree height variations. The results confirm other landscape and regional studies that soil fertility, geology and climate may jointly control a majority of the regional variations of forest structure in pan-tropics and influencing both biomass stocks and dynamics. Consequently, other factors such as biotic and disturbance regimes, not included in this study, may have less influence on

  15. Prediction of Limit Strains in Limiting Dome Height Formability Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadpoor, Amir A.; Sinke, Jos; Benedictus, Rinze

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the Marciniak-Kunczynski (MK) method is combined with the Storen-Rice analysis in order to improve accuracy of the predicted limit strains in Limiting Dome Height (LDH) test. FEM simulation is carried out by means of a commercial FEM code (ABAQUS) and FEM results are postprocessed by using an improved MK code. It has been shown that while original MK method considerably misspredicts the limit strains, a combination of MK method and Storen-Rice analysis can predict the dome height with a very good accuracy.

  16. Variation of Meteor Heights and Solar-Cycle Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubcan, Vladimír; Bucek, Marek; Cevolani, Giordano; Zigo, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    Photographic meteor observations of the Perseid meteoroid stream compiled from the IAU Meteor Data Center catalogue are analyzed from the viewpoint of possible long-term variation of meteor heights with the solar-cycle activity, which was previously reported from radio observations. The observed beginning and end-point heights of the Perseids, normalized for the geocentric velocity and the absolute photographic magnitude, do not show a variation consistent with the solar-cycle activity. This result is valid for the mass range of larger meteoroids observed by photographic techniques, and must be still verified also for the range of smaller meteoroids observed by TV and radio methods.

  17. Correlation techniques and measurements of wave-height statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthart, H.; Taylor, W. C.; Graf, K. A.; Douglas, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    Statistical measurements of wave height fluctuations have been made in a wind wave tank. The power spectral density function of temporal wave height fluctuations evidenced second-harmonic components and an f to the minus 5th power law decay beyond the second harmonic. The observations of second harmonic effects agreed very well with a theoretical prediction. From the wave statistics, surface drift currents were inferred and compared to experimental measurements with satisfactory agreement. Measurements were made of the two dimensional correlation coefficient at 15 deg increments in angle with respect to the wind vector. An estimate of the two-dimensional spatial power spectral density function was also made.

  18. Height, weight and skinfold thickness of Michigan adults.

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, R J; Sady, S P; Owen, G M

    1980-01-01

    Height, weight, and selected skinfold measurements were taken on 544 Michigan males and 557 females age 18 and over. Mean body weight showed a tendency to increase with age for both sexes up to age 64 while mean height progressively decreased from its maximum at age 18-24 years. Between ages 18 and 64 years, mean triceps skinfold thickness of men increased 10 per cent, female triceps skinfolds 50 per cent. Mean subscapular skinfold values rose consistently with age for both sexes. Comparison of these findings with those from earlier national studies suggest that Michigan adults are heavier and fatter but no taller than other US adults. PMID:7435748

  19. Height Error Correction for the New SRTM Elevation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Simard, Marc; Buckley, Sean; Shimada, Joanne; Gurrola, Eric; Martin, Jan; Hensley, Scott; Rosen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), carrying a single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar(SAR) instrument, collected a global elevation data set, which has been widely used in scientific, military and commercial communities. In the new proposed NASA SRTM reprocessing task, the SRTM elevation data is going to be processed at higher spatial resolution and with improved height accuracy. Upon completion, the improved SRTM product will be freely available. This paper describes the calibration approaches for reduction of elevation ripple effects and height accuracy improvements.

  20. Laboratory and field evaluation of an underwater sand height gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. J. P.; Mcgrath, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    An underwater sand height gage was investigated. This instrument consisted of two transducers, one screened and one unscreened. Laboratory experimentation included static and dynamic tests with three test sands--fine, medium, and coarse. Field tests were conducted at Rudee Inlet, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Test results showed a linear response to up to 10 inches of sand loading. Deviation observed in identical tests appeared to be due to variation in the density of sand. Density differences reflected varying packing styles which, in turn, were a consequence of grain size and flow regime. Further evaluations of the sand height gage reflect this instrument's potential.

  1. Nomogram for the Height of the Daytime Mixed Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyrén, Kenneth; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    A method to construct a nomogram of the daytime mixed-layer-height evolution is presented. The nomogram will be specific for a given location and land surface type and is intended to be an easy tool to achieve a general understanding of mixed-layer behaviour. Also it is a pedagogical graphical one-pager that displays the bulk of data that controls the evolution of the mixed layer. Nomograms from northern, central and southern Europe are presented and discussed. Comparison with data from two sites shows good agreement although the nomograms overestimated the mixing height when it was low.

  2. Program Merges SAR Data on Terrain and Vegetation Heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siqueira, Paul; Hensley, Scott; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Simard, Marc

    2007-01-01

    X/P Merge is a computer program that estimates ground-surface elevations and vegetation heights from multiple sets of data acquired by the GeoSAR instrument [a terrain-mapping synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system that operates in the X and bands]. X/P Merge software combines data from X- and P-band digital elevation models, SAR backscatter magnitudes, and interferometric correlation magnitudes into a simplified set of output topographical maps of ground-surface elevation and tree height.

  3. Height Differences in English Dialects: Consequences for Processing and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharinger, Mathias; Lahiri, Aditi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of abstractness during the activation of a lexical representation. Abstractness and conflict are directly modeled in our approach by invoking lexical representations in terms of contrastive phonological features. In two priming experiments with English nouns differing only in vowel height of their stem vowels (e.g.,…

  4. ICESat-derived inland water surface spot heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra E.; Neal, Jeffrey; Yamazaki, Dai; Bates, Paul D.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate measurement of water surface height is key to many fields in hydrology and limnology. Satellite radar and laser altimetry have been shown to be useful means of obtaining such data where no ground gauging stations exist, and the accuracy of different satellite instruments is now reasonably well understood. Past validation studies have shown water surface height data from the ICESat instrument to have the highest vertical accuracy (mean absolute errors of ˜10 cm for ICESat, compared, for example, with ˜28 cm from Envisat), yet no freely available source of processed ICESat data currently exists for inland water bodies. Here we present a database of processed and quality checked ICESat-derived inland water surface heights (IWSH) for water bodies greater than 3 arc sec (˜92 m at the equator) in width. Four automated methods for removing spurious observations or outliers were investigated, along with the impact of using different water masks. We find that the best performing method ensures that observations used are completely surrounded by water in the SRTM Water Body data. Using this method for removing spurious observations, we estimate transect-averaged water surface heights at 587,292 unique locations from 2003 to 2009, with the number of locations proportional to the size of the river.

  5. A Primary Classroom Inquiry: Estimating the Height of a Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Natalie; Watson, Jane; Wright, Suzie; Skalicky, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Measurement is one of the key areas of study in mathematics and features prominently in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (ACARA, 2010). In this set of investigations requiring students to estimate indirectly the height of a tree they are encouraged to use the "power of mathematical reasoning" and "apply their mathematical understanding…

  6. Shuttle program: Computing atmospheric scale height for refraction corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for computing the atmospheric scale height to determine radio wave refraction were investigated for different atmospheres, and different angles of elevation. Tables of refractivity versus altitude are included. The equations used to compute the refraction corrections are given. It is concluded that very accurate corrections are determined with the assumption of an exponential atmosphere.

  7. NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Jennings, Francis T.; Adanich, Emery; Del Rosario, Ruben; Felder, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Center Director Free is providing the Keynote at the Disruptive Propulsion Conference, sponsored by Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, England in November. Director Free will be presenting a PowerPoint presentation titled, NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights at both the conference and a meeting at the Royal Aeronautical Society.

  8. Estimating Tree Height-Diameter Models with the Bayesian Method

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo; Xiang, Congwei

    2014-01-01

    Six candidate height-diameter models were used to analyze the height-diameter relationships. The common methods for estimating the height-diameter models have taken the classical (frequentist) approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability, for example, the nonlinear least squares method (NLS) and the maximum likelihood method (ML). The Bayesian method has an exclusive advantage compared with classical method that the parameters to be estimated are regarded as random variables. In this study, the classical and Bayesian methods were used to estimate six height-diameter models, respectively. Both the classical method and Bayesian method showed that the Weibull model was the “best” model using data1. In addition, based on the Weibull model, data2 was used for comparing Bayesian method with informative priors with uninformative priors and classical method. The results showed that the improvement in prediction accuracy with Bayesian method led to narrower confidence bands of predicted value in comparison to that for the classical method, and the credible bands of parameters with informative priors were also narrower than uninformative priors and classical method. The estimated posterior distributions for parameters can be set as new priors in estimating the parameters using data2. PMID:24711733

  9. Spatial Representation of Pitch Height: The SMARC Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…

  10. The role of height in the sex difference in intelligence.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Reyniers, Diane J

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies conclude that men on average have higher intelligence than women by 3-5 IQ points. However, the ultimate evolutionary question of why men should have evolved to have higher intelligence than women remains. We suggest that men may have slightly higher intelligence than women through 4 mechanisms: (1) assortative mating of intelligent men and beautiful women, (2) assortative mating of tall men and beautiful women, (3) an extrinsic correlation between height and intelligence produced by Mechanisms 1 and 2, and (4) a higher-than-expected offspring sex ratio (more sons) among tall (and hence intelligent) parents. Consistent with our suggestion, we show that men may have higher IQs than women because they are taller, and once we control for height women have slightly higher IQs than men.The correlation between height and IQ and the female advantage in intelligence persist even after we control for health as a measure of genetic quality, as well as physical attractiveness, age, race, education, and earnings. Height is also strongly associated with intelligence within each sex. PMID:20066931

  11. Stratocumulus cloud height variations determined from surface and satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Davies, R.; Blaskovic, M.; Albrecht, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of cloud-top heights from satellite-inferred cloud-top temperatures is a relatively straightforward procedure for a well-behaved troposphere. The assumption of a monotonically decreasing temperature with increasing altitude is commonly used to assign a height to a given cloud-top temperature. In the hybrid bispectral threshold method, or HBTM, Minnis et al. (1987) assume that the lapse rate for the troposphere is -6.5/Kkm and that the surface temperature which calibrated this lapse rate is the 24 hour mean of the observed or modeled clear-sky, equivalent blackbody temperature. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) algorithm (Rossow et al., 1988) attempts a more realistic assignment of height by utilizing interpolations of analyzed temperature fields from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) to determine the temperature at a given level over the region of interest. Neither these nor other techniques have been tested to any useful extent. The First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observations (IFO) provide an excellent opportunity to assess satellite-derived cloud height results because of the availability of both direct and indirect cloud-top altitude data of known accuracy. The variations of cloud-top altitude during the Marine Stratocumulus IFO (MSIFO, June 29 to July 19, 1987) derived from surface, aircraft, and satellite data are examined.

  12. 36 CFR 910.61 - Height of development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Height of development. 910.61 Section 910.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  13. 40 CFR 51.118 - Stack height provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique, except as provided in § 51.118(b... in existence, or dispersion techniques implemented on or before December 31, 1970, except...

  14. 40 CFR 51.118 - Stack height provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height that exceeds good engineering practice or by any other dispersion technique, except as provided in § 51.118(b... in existence, or dispersion techniques implemented on or before December 31, 1970, except...

  15. Multichannel pulse height analyzer is inexpensive, features low power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewald, C. J.; Sarkady, A. A.

    1967-01-01

    Consumption multichannel pulse height analyzer performs balloon and rocket investigations of solar neutrons with energies greater than 10 MeV. The lightweight unit can operate in a temperature range of minus 30 degrees to plus 70 degrees C and withstand storage temperatures from minus 50 degrees to plus 90 degrees C.

  16. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  17. 76 FR 77696 - Establishment of the Naches Heights Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Valley viticultural area was established by T.D. ATF-190, published in the Federal Register (49 FR 44895... the Federal Register (76 FR 30060) on May 24, 2011. In that notice, TTB requested comments from all.... Also, a general Internet search for ``Naches Heights'' produced many hits relating to the...

  18. 47 CFR 73.511 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.511 Section 73.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.511 Power and...

  19. 47 CFR 73.511 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.511 Section 73.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.511 Power and...

  20. 47 CFR 73.511 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.511 Section 73.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.511 Power and...