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Sample records for 500-mg combination tablet

  1. Effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of gemigliptin/metformin sustained-release 50/1,000 mg (25/500 mg x 2 tablets) fixeddose combination tablet in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Youn; Noh, Yook-Hwan; Kim, Yo Han; Kim, Mi Jo; Lee, Shi Hyang; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Kim, Bogyeong; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Bae, Kyun-Seop

    2014-05-01

    For patient convenience, a gemigliptin/metformin sustainedrelease fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet was developed. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of food on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the FDC tablets. This was an open-label, randomized, single dose, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study in 24 healthy male volunteers. The FDC tablets (25/500 mg × 2 tablets) were administered in high-fat fed and fasted states on separate occasions, and each subject was randomly allocated to each sequence with a 7-day washout period. PK blood samplings were conducted from predose to 48 hours after dosing. Tolerability assessments were performed throughout the study. Nine adverse events (AEs) of mild intensity were reported from 8 subjects after study drug administration, and the AE frequency was similar between treatments. No serious AEs were reported. The PK parameters of gemigliptin and metformin were compared between fasting and fed states. For gemigliptin, the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (fed : fasted state) of the Cmax and AUClast were 0.886 (90% confidence interval (CI) 0.781 - 1.006) and 1.021 (90% CI 0.949 - 1.099), respectively. For metformin, the GMRs of the Cmax and AUClast were 0.811 (90% CI 0.712 - 0.923) and 1.144 (90% CI 1.013 - 1.291), respectively. A prolonged tmax for metformin was observed. These results are similar to the effects of food on each component. The FDC tablet may have a similar PK profile as that of individual drugs and is generally tolerable when administered with food. These results indicate that the FDC tablet can be administered in the same dosing regimen as each component, especially that of metformin sustained-release.

  2. Comparative bioavailability study of cefuroxime axetil (equivalent to 500 mg cefuroxime/tablet) tablets (Zednad® versus Zinnat®) in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Y A; Al-Hadiya, B M; Kadi, A A; Al-Khamis, K I; Mowafy, H A; El-Sayed, Y M

    2011-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the bioequivalence of cefuroxime axetil tablets between a generic test product (A) Zednad® Tablet (500 mg cefuroxime/ tablet, Diamond Pharma, Syria), and the Reference Product (B) Zinnat® Tablet (500 mg cefuroxime/tablet, GlaxoSmithKline, Saudi Arabia). The bioavailability study was carried out for 24 healthy male volunteers. The subjects received 1 Zednad® Tablet (500 mg/ tablet) and 1 Zinnat® Tablet (500 mg/tablet) in a randomized, two-way crossover design fashion on 2 treatment days, after an overnight fast of at least 10 h, with a washout period of 7 days. 24 volunteers plus 2 alternatives completed the crossover. The bioanalysis of clinical plasma samples was accomplished by HPLC method, which was developed and validated in accordance with international guidelines. Pharmacokinetic parameters, determined by standard non-compartmental methods, and ANOVA statistics were calculated using SAS Statistical Software. The significance of a sequence effect was tested using the subjects nested in sequence as the error term. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio between the test and reference product pharmacokinetic parameters of AUC0→t, AUC0→∞, and Cmax were calculated and found to be within the confidence limits of 80.00 - 125.00% for AUC0→t, AUC0→∞ and Cmax. The study demonstrated that the test product (A) was found bioequivalent to the reference product (B) following an oral dose of 500 mg tablet. Therefore, the two formulations were considered to be bioequivalent.

  3. Bioequivalence evaluation of two brands of metformin 500 mg tablets (Dialon & Glucophage)--in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Najib, Naji; Idkaidek, Nasir; Beshtawi, M; Bader, Mohammed; Admour, Isra'; Alam, S Mahmood; Zaman, Q; Dham, Ruwayda

    2002-10-01

    A randomized, two-way, crossover study was conducted in 24 fasting, healthy, male volunteers to compare the bioavailability of two brands of metformin 500 mg tablets; Dialon (Julphar, UAE) as test and Glucophage (Lipha Pharmaceutical Industries, France) as reference product. The study was performed at the International Pharmaceutical Research Centre (IPRC), in joint venture with Al-Mowasah Hospital, Amman, Jordan. The drug was administered with 240 ml of water after a 10-h overnight fasting on two treatment days separated by 1-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 30 h. Plasma harvested from blood was analyzed for metformin by validated HPLC method with UV-visible detector capable to detect metformin in the range of 0.05-5.0 microg/ml with limit of quantitation of 0.05 microg/ml. Various pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC(0-t), AUC(0-proportional to), C(max), T(max), T(1/2), and lambda(Z) were determined from plasma concentrations of both formulations and found to be in good agreement with reported values. AUC(0-t), AUC(0-proportional to) and C(max) were tested for bioequivalence after log-transformation of data. No significant difference was found based on ANOVA; 90% confidence interval (97.9-110.8% for AUC(0-t), 97.4-110.7% for AUC(0-proportional to); 95.3-110.5% for C(max)) of test/reference ratio for these parameters were found within bioequivalence acceptance range of 80-125%. Based on these statistical inferences, it was concluded that Dialon is bioequivalent to Glucophage. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A multicentric, open label, randomised, postmarketing efficacy study comparing multidose of lincomycin hydrochloride capsule 500 mg with multidose cefpodoxime proxetil tablet 200 mg in patients with tonsillitis, sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kothadiya, Ajay

    2012-08-01

    Tonsillitis causes considerable short and medium term morbidity, and can be recurrent. Sinusitis can be acute (less than 4 weeks), subacute (4-8 weeks) or chronic (8 weeks or more). To study the comparative efficacy and safety of multidose treatments of lincomycin hydrochloride 500 mg capsules against cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg tablets on its outcome in the Indian scenario are the aims and objective of the study. A total of 41 tonsillitis, sinusitis cases of either gender aged above 18 years were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of sonsillitis, sinusitis was made based on examination of symptoms and throat swab. A randomised treatment of either lincomycin hydrochloride 500 mg capsules or cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg tablets twice daily for five days alongwith other concomitant medications depending on related symptoms was given to 40 patients. At the end of study, all patients were re-evaluated and the response rate was assessed. The most common clinical symptoms were body temperature, headache, throat pain, postnasal discharge, mucopus, odynophagia, sinus tenderness, nasal congestion, pharyngeal congestion and tonsillar congestion. The overall response rate of lincomycin hydrochloride in all the symptoms except headache was more effective than cefpodoxime proxetil. Out of 100% (n = 20) patients in each group, 67.89% in lincomycin and 52.27% in cefpodoxime patients achieved complete relief, in all the clinical symptoms. The study suggests that lincomycin hydrochloride capsules, a conventional antibiotic indicates effective treatment for relief from tonsillitis and sinusitis, as compared to new third generation antibiotic.

  5. Optimization of metformin HCl 500 mg sustained release matrix tablets using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP) model.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Uttam; Gowda, Veeran; Ghosh, Animesh; Bose, Anirbandeep; Bhaumik, Uttam; Chatterjee, Bappaditya; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply the simultaneous optimization method incorporating Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) model to the development of a metformin HCl 500 mg sustained release matrix tablets with an optimized in vitro release profile. The amounts of HPMC K15M and PVP K30 at three levels (-1, 0, +1) for each were selected as casual factors. In vitro dissolution time profiles at four different sampling times (1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 8 h) were chosen as output variables. 13 kinds of metformin matrix tablets were prepared according to a 2(3) factorial design (central composite) with five extra center points, and their dissolution tests were performed. Commercially available STATISTICA Neural Network software (Stat Soft, Inc., Tulsa, OK, U.S.A.) was used throughout the study. The training process of MLP was completed until a satisfactory value of root square mean (RSM) for the test data was obtained using feed forward back propagation method. The root mean square value for the trained network was 0.000097, which indicated that the optimal MLP model was reached. The optimal tablet formulation based on some predetermined release criteria predicted by MLP was 336 mg of HPMC K15M and 130 mg of PVP K30. Calculated difference (f(1) 2.19) and similarity (f(2) 89.79) factors indicated that there was no difference between predicted and experimentally observed drug release profiles for the optimal formulation. This work illustrates the potential for an artificial neural network with MLP, to assist in development of sustained release dosage forms.

  6. Clinical efficacy and safety of a new 1000-mg suspension versus twice-daily 500-mg tablets of MPFF in patients with symptomatic chronic venous disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Patrick; van Bellen, Bonno; Karetova, Debora; Hanafiah, Harunarashid; Enriquez-Vega, Elizabeth; Kirienko, Alexander; Dzupina, Andrej; Sabovic, Miso; Reina Gutierrez, Lourdes; Subwongcharoen, Somboom; Tüzün, Hasan; Maggioli, Arnaud

    2017-10-01

    Chronic venous disorders (CVD) is estimated to affect 30% to 50% of women and 10% to 30% of men. The most widely prescribed treatment for CVD worldwide is micronized purified flavonoid fraction 500 mg (MPFF). The aim of this clinical trial was to develop a new once daily 1000-mg oral suspension of MPFF. In an international, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, symptomatic individuals classified CEAP C0s to C4s were randomized in either treatment arm and treated for 8 weeks. Lower limb symptoms (discomfort, pain and heaviness) were assessed using Visual Analog Scales (VAS), and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the CIVIQ-20 Questionnaire. A total of 1139 patients were included in the study. Both MPFF treatment regimens were well tolerated and associated with a significant reduction in lower limb symptoms. A non-inferiority of MPFF 1000-mg oral suspension once daily compared to MPFF 500-mg tablet twice daily (P<0.0001) was found for lower limb discomfort (-3.33 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.37 cm for MPFF 500 mg), leg pain (-3.27 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.31 cm for MPFF 500 mg) and leg heaviness (-3.41 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.46 cm for MPFF 500 mg). The patients' QoL was improved by about 20 points on the CIVIQ scale in both groups (19.33 points for MPFF 1000 mg and 20.28 points for MPFF 500 mg). MPFF 1000-mg oral suspension and MPFF 500-mg tablets treatments were associated with similar reductions in lower limb symptoms and QoL improvement. The new once daily MPFF1000-mg oral suspension has a similar safety profile to two tablets of MPFF 500 mg, with the advantage of one daily intake, potentially associated with improved patient adherence and easier CVD management.

  7. A Phase III Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Acarmet (Metformin HCl 500 mg Plus Acarbose 50 mg Tablets) Versus Acarbose Alone in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-19

    The Objectives of the Study is to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Acarmet (Metformin HCl 500 mg; Plus Acarbose 50 mg Tablets) Thrice Daily Versus Acarbose 50 mg Thrice Daily Over 16 Weeks in; Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

  8. Comparison of the absorption of micronized (Daflon 500 mg) and nonmicronized 14C-diosmin tablets after oral administration to healthy volunteers by accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Garner, R C; Garner, J V; Gregory, S; Whattam, M; Calam, A; Leong, D

    2002-01-01

    Daflon 500 mg, is a micronized purified flavonoid fraction, containing 90% w/w diosmin and 10% w/w of flavonoids expressed as hesperidin, used clinically in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and hemorrhoidal disease. This study was designed to investigate the influence of particle size on the overall absorption of diosmin after oral administration of micronized (mean particle size = 1.79 microm, with 80% of particles having a size lower than 3.45 microm) and nonmicronized diosmin (mean particle size = 36.5 microm, with 80% of particles comprised between 19.9 and 159 microm). In a double blinded, cross-over study design, 500 mg tablets containing trace amounts (approximately 25 nCi) of (14)C-diosmin were administered to 12 healthy male volunteers as a single oral dose. Accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting were used for the measurement of (14)C-diosmin in urine and feces. Absorption of (14)C-diosmin from the gastrointestinal tract, measured by the urinary excretion of total radioactivity, was significantly improved with the micronized (57.9 +/- 20.2%) compared with the nonmicronized material (32.7 +/- 18.8%). Statistical comparison of the urinary excretion of the two pharmaceutical formulations showed this difference to be highly significant (p = 0.0004, analysis of variance). The overall excretion of the radiolabeled dose was 100% with mean +/- SD of 109 +/- 23% and 113 +/- 20% for the micronized and nonmicronized forms, respectively. The results of this study show: 1. the impact of a reduction of particle size on the extent of absorption of diosmin, giving a pharmacokinetic explanation to the better clinical efficacy observed with the micronized formulation, and 2. the use of accelerator mass spectrometry in conjunction with liquid scintillation counting in measurement of bioavailability in a human cross-over study comparing two drug formulations containing trace amounts of radioactivity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Pharmacokinetic comparison study of a combination containing 500 mg of Naproxen and 20 mg of Esomeprazole: a randomized, single-dose, 2-way crossover, open-label study in healthy Korean men.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Gyu; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kwak, Seong-Shin; Kim, Hyunil; Jin, Changyun; Im, Yong-Jin; Kim, Eun-Young; Wang, Hye Min; Kim, Yunjeong; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Min-Gul

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been used for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects, but they carry a risk of major gastrointestinal damage. This risk can be greatly reduced by the coadministration of inhibitors of gastric acid secretion, such as proton pump inhibitors. This study was performed for the subsequent marketing of a combination drug that contained 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole in Korea. We evaluated the comparative bioavailability and tolerability of the test and reference formulations in healthy men. A total of 60 healthy men were enrolled in this single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study. During each period, men received a combination of 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole for test or reference, and between each period, there was a 1-week washout period. Blood samples were obtained 21 times throughout each period before dosing and 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after oral administration. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters, including Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Tmax, were measured, and all treatment-emergent adverse events and their associations with the study medications were recorded throughout the entire study. A total of 59 men completed the study. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of AEs between the 2 formulations. In addition, there were no serious or unexpected AEs during the study. Both formulations had very similar Cmax, AUC, and t½ values, but the Tmax of naproxen appeared earlier in the test formulation than in the reference formulation and that of esomeprazole appeared later in the test formulation than in the reference formulation. This study suggests that the test and reference formulations of a combination of 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole are bioequivalent in the extent of absorption and peak concentration

  10. A randomised, five-parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and tolerability of analgesic combinations including a novel single-tablet combination of ibuprofen/paracetamol for postoperative dental pain.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen E; Goulder, Michael A; Aspley, Sue; Reader, Sandie

    2011-03-01

    Combination analgesia is often recommended for the relief of severe pain. This was a double-blind, 5-arm, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, randomised, single-dose study designed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of a novel single-tablet combination of ibuprofen and paracetamol with that of an ibuprofen/codeine combination, and a paracetamol/codeine combination, using the dental impaction pain model. Subjects with at least 3 impacted third molars and experiencing moderate to severe postoperative pain were randomised to receive: 1 or 2 tablets of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200mg/paracetamol 500mg; 2 tablets of ibuprofen 200 mg/codeine 12.8mg; 2 tablets of paracetamol 500mg/codeine 15mg; or placebo. Results for the primary endpoint, the sum of the mean scores of pain relief combined with pain intensity differences over 12hours, demonstrated that 1 and 2 tablets of the single-tablet combination of ibuprofen/paracetamol were statistically significantly more efficacious than 2 tablets of placebo (P<0.0001) and paracetamol/codeine (P⩽0.0001); furthermore, 2 tablets offered significantly superior pain relief to ibuprofen/codeine (P=0.0001), and 1 tablet was found noninferior to this combination. Adverse events were uncommon during this study and treatment emergent adverse events were statistically significantly less frequent in the groups taking the ibuprofen/paracetamol combination compared with codeine combinations. In conclusion, 1 or 2 tablets of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200mg/paracetamol 500mg provided highly effective analgesia that was comparable with, or superior to, other combination analgesics currently indicated for strong pain. A single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200mg/paracetamol 500mg provides highly effective analgesia, comparable or superior to other combination analgesics indicated for strong pain. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Bioequivalence of saxagliptin/metformin immediate release (IR) fixed-dose combination tablets and single-component saxagliptin and metformin IR tablets in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Vijay V; Keung, Chi-Fung; Boulton, David W; Chang, Ming; Li, Li; Tang, Angela; Hsiang, Bonnie C; Quamina-Edghill, Donette; Frevert, Ernst U; Lacreta, Frank P

    2013-05-01

    As compared with individual tablets, saxagliptin/metformin immediate release (IR) fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets offer the potential for increased convenience, compliance, and adherence for patients requiring combination therapy. Two bioequivalence studies assessed the fed-state and the fasted-state bioequivalence of saxagliptin/metformin IR 2.5 mg/500 mg FDC (study 1) and saxagliptin/metformin IR 2.5 mg/1,000 mg FDC (study 2) relative to the same dosage strengths of the individual component tablets [saxagliptin (Onglyza™) and metformin IR (Glucophage(®))] administered concurrently. These were randomized, open-label, single-dose, four-period, four-treatment, crossover studies in healthy subjects (n = 24 in each study). The treatments in study 1 were a saxagliptin/metformin IR 2.5 mg/500 mg FDC tablet in the fed and fasted states on separate occasions, and saxagliptin 2.5 mg and metformin IR 500 mg tablets co-administered in the fed state and fasted states on separate occasions. The treatments in study 2 were a saxagliptin/metformin IR 2.5 mg/1,000 mg FDC tablet in the fed and fasted states on separate occasions, and saxagliptin 2.5 mg and metformin IR 1,000 mg co-administered in the fed state and fasted states on separate occasions. The pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of each treatment were evaluated. For both studies, saxagliptin and metformin in the FDCs were bioequivalent to the individual components in both the fed and the fasted states as the limits of the 90 % confidence interval of the ratio of adjusted geometric means for all key pharmacokinetic parameters were contained within the predefined 0.800 to 1.250 bioequivalence criteria. Co-administration of saxagliptin and metformin IR was generally safe and well tolerated as the FDCs or as individual tablets. Saxagliptin/metformin IR 2.5 mg/500 mg and saxagliptin/metformin IR 2.5 mg/1,000 mg FDCs were bioequivalent to individual tablets of saxagliptin and metformin of the same strengths in

  12. Treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis with three pulses of terbinafine (500 mg day for a week).

    PubMed

    Takahata, Y; Hiruma, M; Shiraki, Y; Tokuhisa, Y; Sugita, T; Muto, M

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the safety and efficacy of pulse therapy with terbinafine tablets in 55 patients with dermatophytic onychomycosis. One pulse consisted of oral terbinafine tablets (500 mg day(-1)) given for 1 week usually followed by a 3-week interval. This regimen was repeated twice. Topical 1% terbinafine cream was applied daily. Efficacy was assessed based on both clinical and mycological examinations 1 year after treatment initiation. We observed a complete cure in 41 patients (74.5%), marked improved in three patients (5.6%), slight improvement in three patients (5.6%) and drop out in six patients (10.7%). Two patients (3.6%) discontinued terbinafine because of gastrointestinal disturbance (one patient) and drug-induced eruption (one patient). No patient had abnormal laboratory findings, including liver function tests. In summary, a regimen of three pulses of terbinafine therapy given daily for 1 week in combination with topical application of terbinafine cream appears to be safe and effective in treating dermatophytic onychomycosis and offers advantages in convenience and cost-effectiveness compared with continuous dosing.

  13. A double-blind, randomised, crossover study of two doses of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen/paracetamol and placebo for primary dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Ronald; Holbrook, Amanda; Jawad, Martez

    2010-11-01

    Efficacy of pain relief may potentially be enhanced by combining two or more analgesics with different mechanisms of action. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a novel single-tablet combination of ibuprofen and paracetamol compared with placebo in females experiencing moderate-to-severe pain due to primary dysmenorrhoea, a prevalent, recurrent condition characterised by pain at the time of menses. This was a phase II/III, double-blind, randomised, cross-over, single-dose study in 94 women with moderate-to-severe dysmenorrhoea, examining the efficacy and tolerability of one or two tablets of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg compared with placebo. ISRCTN42521357 Total pain relief over 6 hours post-dose (TOTPAR(0-6h)) was significantly greater following administration of two tablets of the single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg compared with placebo (LS means: 2.35, 1.85, respectively; p = 0.0001) and approached significance for one tablet (LS mean: 2.10; p = 0.054). Statistically superior pain relief and reductions in pain intensity were achieved from 2 hours and 90 minutes post-dose, respectively, with the higher dose combination, and from 4 hours with the lower dose combination compared with placebo. Overall effectiveness (sum of pain intensity difference and pain relief score [SPRID] over 6 hours) were statistically superior to placebo for both one and two tablets of the ibuprofen/paracetamol combination (p = 0.0011 and p = 0.03, respectively). Both dose combinations were well-tolerated. Adverse events were minor and their frequency and nature did not differ with either treatment compared with placebo. One or two tablets of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg is well-tolerated and provides superior analgesic efficacy to placebo in patients with primary dysmenorrhoea.

  14. A fixed-dose combination tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release has comparable pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability profiles to separate tablets in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Howard; Oh, Jaeseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Jung, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combination (FDC) can provide the complementary benefits of correction of multiple pathophysiologic defects such as dysfunctions in glycemic or metabolic control while improving compliance compared with separate tablets taken together. The objective of the study reported here was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and extended-release metformin (metformin XR) between FDC and separate tablets. Methods A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 28 healthy male volunteers. Two FDC tablets of gemigliptin/metformin 25/500 mg or separate tablets of gemigliptin (50 mg ×1) and metformin XR (500 mg ×2) were orally administered in each period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours post-dose to determine dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) activity using spectrophotometric assay and concentrations of gemigliptin and metformin using tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of FDC to separate tablet formulations and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the PD and PK parameters between the two formulations. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results The plasma DPP-4 activity–time curves of the FDC and the separate tablets almost overlapped, leading to a GMR (90% CI) of the FDC to separate tablets for the plasma DPP-4 activity and its maximum inhibition of 1.00 (0.97–1.04) and 0.92 (0.82–1.05), respectively. Likewise, all of the GMRs (90% CIs) of FDC to separate tablets for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and maximum plasma concentration of gemigliptin and metformin fell entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.80–1.25. Both the FDC and separate tablets were well tolerated. Conclusion The PD, PK, and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and metformin XR in FDC and separate tablets were found to be comparable

  15. A fixed-dose combination tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release has comparable pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability profiles to separate tablets in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Howard; Oh, Jaeseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Jung, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combination (FDC) can provide the complementary benefits of correction of multiple pathophysiologic defects such as dysfunctions in glycemic or metabolic control while improving compliance compared with separate tablets taken together. The objective of the study reported here was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and extended-release metformin (metformin XR) between FDC and separate tablets. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 28 healthy male volunteers. Two FDC tablets of gemigliptin/metformin 25/500 mg or separate tablets of gemigliptin (50 mg ×1) and metformin XR (500 mg ×2) were orally administered in each period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours post-dose to determine dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) activity using spectrophotometric assay and concentrations of gemigliptin and metformin using tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of FDC to separate tablet formulations and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the PD and PK parameters between the two formulations. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. The plasma DPP-4 activity-time curves of the FDC and the separate tablets almost overlapped, leading to a GMR (90% CI) of the FDC to separate tablets for the plasma DPP-4 activity and its maximum inhibition of 1.00 (0.97-1.04) and 0.92 (0.82-1.05), respectively. Likewise, all of the GMRs (90% CIs) of FDC to separate tablets for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and maximum plasma concentration of gemigliptin and metformin fell entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.80-1.25. Both the FDC and separate tablets were well tolerated. The PD, PK, and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and metformin XR in FDC and separate tablets were found to be comparable. The FDC tablet of gemigliptin and metformin

  16. Four treatment failures of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with ceftriaxone (500 mg) or cefotaxime (500 mg), Sweden, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Ohlsson, Ak; Janson, H; Lidbrink, P; Richtner, T; Ekelund, O; Fredlund, H; Unemo, M

    2014-07-31

    We describe four cases in Sweden of verified treatment failures of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with ceftriaxone (500 mg; n=3) or cefotaxime (500 mg; n=1) monotherapy. All the ceftriaxone treatment failures were caused by the internationally spreading multidrug-resistant gonococcal NG-MAST genogroup 1407 clone. Increased awareness of treatment failures is crucial particularly when antimicrobial monotherapy is used. Frequent test of cure and appropriate verification/falsification of suspected treatment failures, as well as implementation of recommended dual antimicrobial therapy are imperative.

  17. Fulvestrant revisited: efficacy and safety of the 500-mg dose.

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony; Sapunar, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer are candidates for endocrine therapy. As the disease will eventually progress in most patients, it is important to investigate agents with novel modes of action to reduce the likelihood of treatment cross-resistance. Fulvestrant is an estrogen receptor antagonist with no known agonist effects that has been shown to be as effective as anastrozole following failure on tamoxifen, at the approved dose of 250 mg/mo. However, pharmacokinetic modelling and evidence of clinical efficacy in early trials, together with the favorable tolerability profile of fulvestrant 250 mg, led to suggestions that increasing the fulvestrant dose would lead to an improved benefit-risk profile. This review describes the rationale behind the development of a 500 mg/mo higher dose of fulvestrant and details relevant clinical trials, including the pivotal phase III COmparisoN of Faslodex In Recurrent or Metastatic breast cancer (CONFIRM) study. CONFIRM demonstrated a significant improvement in progression-free survival for fulvestrant 500 mg versus 250 mg in postmenopausal patients who had progressed on previous endocrine therapy. Here, we present and discuss a pooled safety analysis of CONFIRM and three further clinical studies demonstrating fulvestrant 500 mg to be well-tolerated with no evidence of dose-related adverse events. Overall, these data indicate an improved benefit-risk profile for fulvestrant 500 mg versus 250 mg following failure on prior endocrine therapy, and suggest that fulvestrant 500 mg may be considered in future as initial endocrine treatment for advanced breast cancer.

  18. Clinical trial: evaluation of gastric acid suppression with three doses of immediate-release esomeprazole in the fixed-dose combination of PN 400 (naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium) compared with naproxen 500 mg and enteric-coated esomeprazole 20 mg: a randomized, open-label, Phase I study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Miner, P; Plachetka, J; Orlemans, E; Fort, J G; Sostek, M

    2010-08-01

    PN 400 is a fixed-dose combination formulated to provide sequential delivery of immediate-release (IR) esomeprazole and enteric-coated (EC) naproxen. To evaluate gastric acid suppression with three doses of esomeprazole in PN 400 compared with EC esomeprazole 20 mg. In this Phase I, randomized, open-label study, 28 healthy adults received PN 400 b.d. (naproxen 500 mg plus esomeprazole 10, 20 and 30 mg) and non-EC naproxen 500 mg b.d. plus EC esomeprazole 20 mg o.d., each for 9 days in a crossover fashion. The primary endpoint was percentage of time on day 9 that intragastric pH was >4.0; secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetics and safety. Day 9 percentage of time where intragastric pH was >4.0 was 76.5%, 71.4%, 40.9% and 56.9% [corrected] for PN 400 containing 30, 20 and 10 mg esomeprazole, and naproxen plus esomeprazole 20 mg respectively. This was significantly greater for PN 400 containing 30 and 20 mg esomeprazole vs. naproxen plus esomeprazole 20 mg (95% CI: 13.0-26.0 and 7.8-20.7 respectively). The pharmacokinetics of PN 400 were consistent with its formulation. No serious adverse events occurred. PN 400 containing 20 mg esomeprazole was the lowest dose to achieve gastric acid suppression comparable to EC esomeprazole 20 mg and was selected for further evaluation.

  19. Brand versus generic dispensing trend for ciprofloxacin 500 mg, levofloxacin 500 mg, and moxifloxacin 400 mg (oral dosage forms) among pharmacies of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zehra, Fatima; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Tasneem, Sumbul; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz; Shamsi, Adnan Zia; Asghar, Naqiya Ali; Khan, Ghufran Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan spends 0.7% of its gross domestic product on health. The public sector health-care system provides services to 22% of population thus paving the way for a dominant private sector. Patients in Pakistan mostly pay their medical expenses directly, and 64% of the health expenditures are borne by the household. Expenditure on medicine constitutes 43% of the total household expenditure. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan, for a month. It was aimed at gathering response from different pharmacies to understand the brand versus generic dispensing trend of ciprofloxacin 500 mg, levofloxacin 500 mg, and moxifloxacin 400 mg oral dosage forms. The study employed convenience sampling and used a survey checklist. The data gathered was entered in SPSS version 22. The mean price per tablet for ciprofloxacin brand and generic was reported at Pakistani Rupees (PKR) 48.44 and PKR 26.85, respectively. The trend for dispensing ciprofloxacin highlighted a split in the market between brand (51%) and generic (49%). For levofloxacin brand and generic, the price per tablet was reported at PKR 36.50 and PKR 36.15 respectively, and despite same price, the market was dominated by generic levofloxacin (92%). Due to a price difference between brand and generic moxifloxacin, i.e., PKR 129.44 and PKR 71.91, respectively, the market was mostly occupied by the generic form (75%). Pricing mechanism must be revisited, and the authorities should take stern actions against any illegitimate price hike. The surging burden of drug expenditure on poorer sections of the society must be addressed by the government on an urgent basis.

  20. Brand versus generic dispensing trend for ciprofloxacin 500 mg, levofloxacin 500 mg, and moxifloxacin 400 mg (oral dosage forms) among pharmacies of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zehra, Fatima; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Tasneem, Sumbul; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz; Shamsi, Adnan Zia; Asghar, Naqiya Ali; Khan, Ghufran Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pakistan spends 0.7% of its gross domestic product on health. The public sector health-care system provides services to 22% of population thus paving the way for a dominant private sector. Patients in Pakistan mostly pay their medical expenses directly, and 64% of the health expenditures are borne by the household. Expenditure on medicine constitutes 43% of the total household expenditure. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan, for a month. It was aimed at gathering response from different pharmacies to understand the brand versus generic dispensing trend of ciprofloxacin 500 mg, levofloxacin 500 mg, and moxifloxacin 400 mg oral dosage forms. The study employed convenience sampling and used a survey checklist. The data gathered was entered in SPSS version 22. Results: The mean price per tablet for ciprofloxacin brand and generic was reported at Pakistani Rupees (PKR) 48.44 and PKR 26.85, respectively. The trend for dispensing ciprofloxacin highlighted a split in the market between brand (51%) and generic (49%). For levofloxacin brand and generic, the price per tablet was reported at PKR 36.50 and PKR 36.15 respectively, and despite same price, the market was dominated by generic levofloxacin (92%). Due to a price difference between brand and generic moxifloxacin, i.e., PKR 129.44 and PKR 71.91, respectively, the market was mostly occupied by the generic form (75%). Conclusion: Pricing mechanism must be revisited, and the authorities should take stern actions against any illegitimate price hike. The surging burden of drug expenditure on poorer sections of the society must be addressed by the government on an urgent basis. PMID:28929048

  1. The pharmacokinetic profile of a novel fixed-dose combination tablet of ibuprofen and paracetamol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ibuprofen and paracetamol differ in their mode of action and related therapeutic effects, suggesting that combined administration may offer improved analgesia. Reported here are the results of two studies on the pharmacokinetic properties of a novel ibuprofen (200 mg) and paracetamol (500 mg) fixed-dose combination tablet. Methods Both studies were open-label, randomised studies in healthy volunteers: Study 1 was a four-way crossover, single-dose study; Study 2 was a two-way cross-over, repeat-dose study. Results Pharmacokinetic parameters for ibuprofen and paracetamol were similar for the combination and monotherapy tablets (values falling within the 80% to 125% acceptable bioequivalence range) except for the rate of absorption of paracetamol from the combination (tmax), which was significantly faster compared with monotherapy (median difference 10 minutes; p < 0.05). Mean plasma concentrations of both drugs were higher, earlier, following administration of the combination tablet compared with monotherapy. Mean plasma levels at 10 and 20 minutes were 6.64 μg.mL-1 and 16.81 μg.mL-1, respectively, for ibuprofen from the combination, compared with 0.58 μg.mL-1 and 9.00 μg.mL-1, respectively, for monotherapy. For paracetamol, mean plasma levels at 10 and 20 minutes were 5.43 μg.mL-1 and 14.54 μg.mL-1, respectively, for the combination compared with 0.33 μg.mL-1 and 9.19 μg.mL-1, respectively, for monotherapy. The rate of absorption of both ibuprofen and paracetamol was significantly delayed when the combination tablet was administered in the fed versus fasted state; median delay was 25 minutes for ibuprofen (p > 0.05) and 55 minutes for paracetamol (p < 0.001). The pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable irrespective of whether the combination tablet was given twice or three times daily; systemic exposure was, however, approximately 1.4 times greater for both drugs when given three times daily. Conclusions Administration of ibuprofen and

  2. [High expectation for combination tablets for diabetes treatment].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Daigaku

    2012-09-01

    Recently, a combination therapy of several oral agents has been more common for antihyperglycemic therapy and four kinds of combination tablets are available in Japan. Any combination tablet is not allowed for the initial treatment but very useful for a numbers of patients who are already taking two-drug combinations and in stable condition to reduce the number of tablets. Additionally, a combination tablet is also beneficial for patients who are in inadequate glycemic control with a single agent to gain the better glucose lowing effectiveness with a single tablet of dual agents. For a favorable treatment outcome of chronic diseases, it is very important for physicians to enhance drug adherence rate of patients and utilize combination tablets more.

  3. A randomised controlled trial of ibuprofen, paracetamol or a combination tablet of ibuprofen/paracetamol in community-derived people with knee pain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael; Hawkey, Chris; Goulder, Michael; Gibb, Iain; Hill, Nicola; Aspley, Sue; Reader, Sandie

    2011-09-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of single versus combination non-prescription oral analgesics in community-derived people aged 40 years and older with chronic knee pain. A randomised, double-blind, four-arm, parallel-group, active controlled trial investigating short-term (day 10) and long-term (week 13) benefits and side-effects of four regimens, each taken three times a day: ibuprofen (400 mg); paracetamol (1000 mg); one fixed-dose combination tablet (ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg); two fixed-dose combination tablets (ibuprofen 400 mg/paracetamol 1000 mg). There were 892 participants (mean age 60.6, range 40-84 years); 63% had radiographic knee osteoarthritis and 85% fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria for osteoarthritis. At day 10, two combination tablets were superior to paracetamol (p<0.01) for pain relief (determined by mean change from baseline in WOMAC pain; n=786). At 13 weeks, significantly more participants taking one or two combination tablets rated their treatment as excellent/good compared with paracetamol (p=0.015, p=0.0002, respectively; n=615). The frequency of adverse events was comparable between groups. However, by 13 weeks, decreases in haemoglobin (≥1 g/dl) were observed in some participants in all groups. Twice as many participants taking two combination tablets had this decrease compared with those on monotherapy (p<0.001; paracetamol, 20.3%; ibuprofen, 19.6%; one or two combination tablets, 24.1%, 38.4%, respectively). Ibuprofen/paracetamol combination analgesia, at non-prescription doses, confers modest short-term benefits for knee pain/osteoarthritis. However, in this population, paracetamol 3 g/day may cause similar degrees of blood loss as ibuprofen 1200 mg/day, and the combination of the two appears to be additive. Study no ISRCTN77199439.

  4. Post marketing surveillance of sublingual buprenorphine naloxone combination tablets.

    PubMed

    Ray, Rajat; Vaswani, Meera; Deb, Koushik Sinha; Sethi, Hem; Chopra, Anita; Kishore, Nand; Goyal, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    A combination of buprenorphine-naloxone (Addnok-N) tablets has been recently introduced in India as treatment for Opioid dependence. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse consequences following use of the buprenorphine-naloxone tablets through post marketing surveillance. National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC), AIIMS, India, monitored all patients receiving buprenorphine-naloxone combination tablets from the centre over a period of two and half years. Evaluation included subjective and objective side effect checklist, physical examination, and laboratory investigation. Data was obtained from 1132 observations among 158 patients. Commonly reported medication effects, like muscle aches (44.0%), sleepiness (44.0%), relief from pain (41.3%), etc; are expected in opioid substitution treatment. Laboratory investigations were mostly normal except for liver enzyme abnormalities (52.2% of cases). Eight adverse events were reported in the study. No dangerous event or mortality was reported during the study.

  5. 77 FR 12309 - Determination That PHENURONE (Phenacemide) Tablet, 500 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... PHENURONE (phenacemide) Tablet, 500 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or... phenacemide tablet, 500 mg, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... refer to a listed drug. PHENURONE (phenacemide) Tablet, 500 mg, is the subject of NDA 007707, held...

  6. Properties of gastroretentive sustained release tablets prepared by combination of melt/sublimation actions of L-menthol and penetration of molten polymers into tablets.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Mamoru; Goto, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    A novel floating sustained release tablet having a cavity in the center was developed by utilizing the physicochemical properties of L-menthol and the penetration of molten hydrophobic polymer into tablets. A dry-coated tablet containing famotidine as a model drug in outer layer was prepared with a L-menthol core by direct compression. The tablet was placed in an oven at 80°C to remove the L-menthol core from tablet. The resulting tablet was then immersed in the molten hydrophobic polymers at 90°C. The buoyancy and drug release properties of tablets were investigated using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 32 Apparatus 2 (paddle 100 rpm) and 900 ml of 0.01 N HCl. The L-menthol core in tablets disappeared completely through pathways in the outer layer with no drug outflows when placed in an oven for 90 min, resulting in a formation of a hollow tablet. The hollow tablets floated on the dissolution media for a short time and the drug release was rapid due to the disintegration of tablet. When the hollow tablets were immersed in molten hydrophobic polymers for 1 min, the rapid drug release was drastically retarded due to a formation of wax matrices within the shell of tablets and the tablets floated on the media for at least 6 h. When Lubri wax® was used as a polymer, the tablets showed the slowest sustained release. On the other hand, faster sustained release properties were obtained by using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) due to its low hydrophobic nature. The results obtained in this study suggested that the drug release rate from floating tablets could be controlled by both the choice of hydrophobic polymer and the combined use of hydrophobic polymers.

  7. Bioequivalence of saxagliptin/dapagliflozin fixed-dose combination tablets compared with coadministration of the individual tablets to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vakkalagadda, Blisse; Vetter, Marion L; Rana, Jignasa; Smith, Charles H; Huang, Jian; Karkas, Jennifer; Boulton, David W; LaCreta, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Saxagliptin and dapagliflozin are individually indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The bioequivalence of saxagliptin/dapagliflozin 2.5/5 mg and 5/10 mg fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets compared with coadministration of the individual tablets and the food effect on both strengths of saxagliptin/dapagliflozin FDCs were evaluated in this open-label, randomized, single-dose crossover study. Healthy subjects were randomized to saxagliptin 2.5 mg + dapagliflozin 5 mg fasted, 2.5/5 mg FDC fasted, 2.5/5 mg FDC fed (Cohort 1) or saxagliptin 5 mg + dapagliflozin 10 mg fasted, 5/10 mg FDC fasted, 5/10 mg FDC fed (Cohort 2). Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and dapagliflozin were obtained predose and up to 60 h postdose. Bioequivalence of FDC tablets versus individual components was concluded if the 90% CIs for FDC to individual component geometric mean ratios of C max, AUC 0-T, and AUC inf of both analytes were between 0.80 and 1.25. Seventy-two subjects were randomized; 71 (98.6%) completed the study. Saxagliptin/dapagliflozin 2.5/5 mg and 5/10 mg FDC tablets were bioequivalent to the individual tablets administered concomitantly. Food had no clinically meaningful effect on saxagliptin or dapagliflozin overall systemic exposure. Saxagliptin/dapagliflozin FDC tablets were bioequivalent to coadministration of the individual components in healthy subjects under fasted conditions and food had no clinically meaningful effect on bioavailability.

  8. 75 FR 39025 - Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...) Tablets, 75 mg, is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in men, and Paget's disease... carbonate (copackaged)) Tablets, 35/ 500 mg, is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal...

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous levofloxacin 500 mg/day dosage in infected patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Li-Qin; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Xuequn; Yang, Wenjie; Ji, Shuangmin; Sun, Liying

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the population pharmacokinetic features of levofloxacin in Chinese infected patients. A total of 27 Chinese adult infected patients were treated with intravenous levofloxacin (500 mg/day). In total, 49 plasma samples of levofloxacin were collected immediately after intravenous dripping and before administration on the 3rd, 4th or 5th day. A nonlinear mixed effect model was used to model the population pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of levofloxacin. The final population pharmacokinetic models were validated using the bootstrap method. Some covariates, including demographic characteristics and hematological and biological indicators, were analyzed. A structural model was developed based on a one-compartment model with intravenous infusion and first-order elimination. The typical population values for pharmacokinetic parameters of apparent clearance (CL) and apparent distribution volume (V) were 5.84 L/h and 43.3L, respectively. The inter-individual variabilities of CL and V were 7.75% and 6.4%, respectively, while the intra-individual variability of observed concentrations was 0.06 microg/mL. The covariates of age and AST influenced the CL and V values determined by the final model. The present study developed population pharmacokinetic models for levofloxacin in infected Chinese patients. The results detailed here could provide a reference for individualized levofloxacin therapy in the clinical setting.

  10. A new high-absorption-rate Paracetamol 500-mg formulation: a comparative bioavailability study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Portolés, Antonio; Puerro, Miguel; Terleira, Ana; Rodríguez, Angel; Caturla, Maria-Cruz; Fernández, Nieves; Vargas, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol is often the analgesic or antipyretic of choice, especially for patients for whom salicylates or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are contraindicated. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the absorption rate of a new tablet formulation of paracetamol (500 mg) with a reference formulation of paracetamol at the same dose. Methods: This was a single-center, Phase I, open-label, randomized, 2-period, crossover, single-dose, comparative bioavailability clinical trial. During both study periods, healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of a more hydrophilic test formulation of paracetamol, or a reference formulation. Fifteen plasma samples were obtained to determine paracetamol concentrations and to calculate kinetic parameters. Results: The study participants comprised 24 healthy volunteers (12 men, 12 women; mean [SD] age, 22.8 [1.5] years). The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated for the test versus the reference formulation were as follows: median time to maximum concentration (Tmax), 0.42 versus 0.75 hour; mean (SD) maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax), 9.85 (2.40) μg/mL versus 8.33 (2.22) μg/mL; and mean (SD) area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞), 30.16 (8.87) μg·h/mL versus 28.49 (8.57) μg · h/mL. The 90% CIs of the ratios were as follows: base e logarithm (Ln)-transformed Cmax, 105.08% to 137.59%; Ln-AUC0–∞, 102.02% to 110.43%; and the difference in Tmax, −0.375 to −0.085 hours. Conclusions: The speed of release and absorption was statistically significantly higher with the test formulation compared with the reference one (evaluated using Tmax, Cmax, and Cmax/AUC parameters). This speed is especially important for a rapid analgesic or antipyretic effect. PMID:24944391

  11. Efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin XR 1000 mg once daily versus ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Mirone, V; Fusco, F; Taglialatela, D; Verze, P; Di Vito, C; Lotti, T; Imbimbo, C

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of extended-release ciprofloxacin (CIPRO XR) versus the immediate-release formulation (CIPRO IR) in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). 212 patients were randomized to CIPRO XR 1,000 mg tablet once daily or CIPROXIN IR 500 mg tablet twice daily. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by bacteriological outcome. Safety was measured by recording adverse events. The rate of bacteriological eradication was 83% in the CIPRO XR group and 75% in the CIPRO IR. the overall incidence of adverse events reported was higher in the CIPRO IR group. The authors conclude that CIPRO XR is a safe and effective treatment for complicated UTIs. Although the limited data available do not consent to support a statistically superior efficacy or safety compared to CIPRO IR, a trend in favor of CIPRO XR is clearly evident in all efficacy and safety variables. CIPRO XR is associated with reduced frequencies of drug-related adverse events compared to CIPRO IR.

  12. Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Meredith R.; Peet, M. Melissa; Davis, Sarah; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg), emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg), and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each) under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL) and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite) were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg) in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form. PMID:25494201

  13. Effect of anluohuaxian tablet combined with gamma-IFN on schistosomal liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaquan; Huang, Haiyan; Jiao, Yuntao; Ai, Guo; Huang, Tiejun; Li, Lan; Yu, Haijing; Ma, Ke; Xiao, Fei

    2009-02-01

    The therapeutic effects of anluohuaxian tablet combined with gamma-IFN on schistosomal liver fibrosis and its mechanism were studied in a murine model and clinical cases of schistosomal liver fibrosis. Fifty Kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group, infection control group, anluohuaxian tablet-treated group, gamma-IFN-treated group and combined treatment (anluohuaian tablet+gamma-IFN) group. Pathologic changes in liver, including hepatic pigmentation and the size of schistosomal egg granuloma, were observed by HE staining after treatment for 8 weeks. The expression of the type I and collagen III, and TIMP-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. TGF-beta1 mRNA expression was examined by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Sixty patients with schistosomal liver fibrosis were divided into treatment group and control group. The patients in treatment group were treated with anluohuaxian tablet in combination with gamma-IFN for 6 months. Before and after treatment, the changes of symptoms and signs, liver function, serum liver fibrosis indexes and imaging indexes were observed. The results showed that as compared with infection control group, all forms of treatments relieved the hepatic pathological injury with apparently diminished size of schistosomal egg nodules and decreased percentage of pigmentation (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of collagen I and III, TIMP-1, and TGF-beta1 mRNA in combined treatment group was significantly decreased as compared with anluohuaxian tablet-treated and gamma-IFN-treated groups (P<0.05). In the clinical observation, the serum liver fibrosis indexes, the portal vein width as well as the spleen thickness was significantly reduced in treatment group as compared with control group (P<0.05). It was concluded that the combined use of anluohuaxian tablet with gamma-IFN in schistosomal liver fibrosis could protect liver function, alleviate liver fibrosis, and could be used as a choice in treating

  14. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling.

  15. Investigation of Formulation and Process of Lyophilised Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT) Using Novel Amino Acid Combination

    PubMed Central

    AlHusban, Farhan; ElShaer, Amr M.; Kansara, Jiteen H.; Smith, Alan M.; Grover, Liam M.; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2010-01-01

    Lyophilised orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have achieved a great success in overcoming dysphagia associated with conventional solid dosage forms. However, the extensive use of saccharides within the formulation limits their use in treatment of chronic illnesses. The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using combination of proline and serine to formulate zero sacharide ODTs and investigates the effect of freezing protocol on sublimation rate and tablets characteristics. The results showed that inclusion of proline and serine improved ODT properties when compared to individual counterparts. Additionally, annealing the ODTs facilitated the sublimation process and shortened the disintegration time. PMID:27721339

  16. Mini-tablet combination for sustained release of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide: Preparation and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bohui; Wang, Yubin; Zhu, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    Mini-tablets are increasingly gaining attention in solid dosage form design as multiple-unit systems combining different active compounds and providing a single or combined pattern of modified release for polypharmacy or combined treatments. A combination therapy of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide achieves effective blood pressure control and reduction in adverse effects. However, the combination formulation of immediate release must be taken several times a day, which causes noticeable fluctuation of blood pressure and inconveniences to the patients. The present study was performed to develop a mini-tablet combination for sustained release of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide independently, in which the two drugs and fraction doses were formulated into separate mini-tablets with different release patterns. The mini-tablets were prepared by a direct compression method followed by filling into capsules and the factors that affected drug release were addressed. Further, studies of the pharmacokinetics were performed in beagle dogs. Finally, in vivo-in vitro correlations of the sustained release systems and bioequivalence with conventional preparations were evaluated. The mini-tablet combination released the two drugs over 24h in vivo with a steady plasma concentration, a markedly lower Cmax, extended Tmax and better bioavailability. In conclusion, sustained releases of the two drugs were obtained with this mini-tablet combination, which offers a feasible formulation and promising development value for hypertensive patients who need long-term therapy.

  17. Safety and benefits of a tablet combining losartan and hydrochlorothiazide in Japanese diabetic patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Sakoda, Mariyo; Kurauchi-Mito, Asako; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of a tablet combining losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (L/HCTZ) in comparison with losartan alone in Japanese diabetic patients with hypertension. Thirty consecutive Japanese diabetic patients with hypertension were randomly assigned to group A, receiving losartan alone for the first 3 months, then L/HCTZ for the next 3 months, or group B, receiving L/HCTZ for the first 3 months, then losartan alone for the next 3 months. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before, and 3 and 6 months after the start of this study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) during treatment with L/HCTZ were significantly greater than in treatment with losartan alone. Both treatments significantly and similarly decreased urinary albumin excretion, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and augmentation index (AI). There was no significant difference in metabolic change during both the mono- and combination pharmacotherapies. The tablet combining L/HCTZ significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BP compared with the losartan monotherapy, and offered benefits similar to losartan monotherapy for albuminuria, arterial stiffness assessed by the CAVI and AI, and metabolic effects. Thus, the L/HCTZ tablet could be a useful drug for Japanese diabetic patients with hypertension.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis for the assay of fixed-dose combination tablets of artesunate and amodiaquine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality control of drugs in formulations is still a major challenge in developing countries. For the quality control of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets in fixed-dose combination, only liquid chromatographic methods have been proposed in the literature. There are no capillary electrophoretic methods reported for the determination of these active substances, although this technique presents several advantages over liquid chromatography (long lifetime, low price of the capillary, low volumes of electrolyte consumption) in addition to simplicity. In this paper, a reliable capillary electrophoresis method has been developed and validated for the quality control of these drugs in commercial fixed-dose combination tablets. Methods Artesunate and amodiaquine hydrochloride in bilayer tablets were determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). Analytes were extracted from tablets by sonication with a solvent mixture phosphate buffer pH 7.0-acetonitrile containing benzoic acid as internal standard. Separation was carried out on Beckman capillary electrophoresis system equipped with fused silica capillary, 30 cm long (20 cm to detector) × 50 μm internal diameter, using a 25 mM borate buffer pH 9.2 containing 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as background electrolyte, a 500 V cm−1 electric field and a detection wavelength of 214 nm. Results Artesunate, amodiaquine and benzoic acid were separated in 6 min. The method was found to be reliable with respect to specificity,linearity of the calibration line (r2 > 0.995), recovery from synthetic tablets (in the range 98–102%), repeatability (RSD 2–3%, n = 7 analytical procedures). Application to four batches of commercial formulations with different dosages gave content in good agreement with the declared content. Conclusion The MEKC method proposed is reliable for the determination of artesunate and amodiaquine hydrochloride in fixed-dose combination tablets. The

  19. Bioequivalence of a dolutegravir, abacavir, and lamivudine fixed-dose combination tablet and the effect of food.

    PubMed

    Weller, Stephen; Chen, Shuguang; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul; Wynne, Brian; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2014-08-01

    The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir and nucleoside analogues abacavir and lamivudine are once-daily treatment options for HIV. This study (NCT01622790) evaluated, first, the bioequivalence (BE) of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing dolutegravir 50 mg, abacavir 600 mg, and lamivudine 300 mg (dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine FDC) vs coadministered dolutegravir 50 mg and abacavir/lamivudine combination tablets (Epzicom) and, second, the effect of food on the dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine FDC tablet. Study part A (66 healthy subjects) was a single-dose, open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study to evaluate the BE of the dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine FDC tablet and dolutegravir + abacavir/lamivudine tablets in the fasted state. In study part B, 12 subjects from part A received the dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine FDC tablet with a high-fat meal. BE and food effect were assessed by analysis of variance to determine the ratio of geometric least squares means and associated 90% confidence intervals for key pharmacokinetic parameters for each of dolutegravir, abacavir, and lamivudine. Sixty-two subjects completed part A. The dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine tablet was bioequivalent to the dolutegravir + abacavir/lamivudine tablets; 90% confidence intervals for the geometric least squares mean ratios fell within the 0.8-1.25 BE criteria. The effect of food on the dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine FDC tablet was similar to previous food effects observed with the separate formulations. The safety profile was comparable between treatments, with no observed serious or grade 3/4 adverse events. The BE of the dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine FDC tablet was demonstrated; it may be administered without regard to meals.

  20. Bioequivalence of Alendronate and Vitamin D3 in a Combination Tablet Versus Corresponding-Dose Individual Tablets in Healthy Taiwanese Volunteers, Determined Using a Novel Plasma Alendronate Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. Hamish; Mols, Ramon; Brown, Kevin R; Yeh, Geng-Chang; Woolf, Eric; Hickey, Lisa; Zajic, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to demonstrate that alendronate (ALN)/vitamin D3 combination tablets (ALN/D5600) are bioequivalent to corresponding doses of ALN and vitamin D3 as individual tablets in healthy Taiwanese volunteers. Methods In this open-label, randomized, 2-period, crossover study, 68 volunteers were randomized to a single ALN/D5600 combination tablet or corresponding doses of 70 mg ALN + 5600 IU vitamin D3 (2 × 2800 IU), followed by a 12-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Plasma ALN levels were measured using a newly developed assay. Geometric mean ratios of ALN AUC0–last, AUC0–∞, and Cmax, and unadjusted vitamin D3 AUC0–80h and Cmax were compared and considered bioequivalent if the 90% CI was within 0.8 to 1.25. Results The geometric mean ratios were: AUC0–last, 1.084 (90% CI, 0.937–1.253); AUC0–∞, 1.081 (90% CI, 0.935–1.249); and Cmax, 1.112 (90% CI, 0.959–1.289) for ALN, and AUC0–80h 0.953 (90% CI, 0.827–1.098) and Cmax, 0.982 (90% CI, 0.854–1.130) for vitamin D3 unadjusted for endogenous levels. Conclusions The combination tablet was considered bioequivalent to coadministration based on ALN AUC0–∞ and unadjusted vitamin D3 parameters. Slight differences for ALN AUC0–last and Cmax (upper 90% CIs outside the bounds) were not considered clinically significant. The combination tablet was well tolerated. No serious adverse experiences were reported. © 2015. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:26843897

  1. Application of the combinative particle size reduction technology H 42 to produce fast dissolving glibenclamide tablets.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Jaime; Müller, Rainer H; Möschwitzer, Jan P

    2013-07-16

    Standard particle size reduction techniques such as high pressure homogenization or wet bead milling are frequently used in the production of nanosuspensions. The need for micronized starting material and long process times are their evident disadvantages. Combinative particle size reduction technologies have been developed to overcome the drawbacks of the standard techniques. The H 42 combinative technology consists of a drug pre-treatment by means of spray-drying followed by standard high pressure homogenization. In the present paper, spray-drying process parameters influencing the diminution effectiveness, such as drug and surfactant concentration, were systematically analyzed. Subsequently, the untreated and pre-treated drug powders were homogenized for 20 cycles at 1500 bar. For untreated, micronized glibenclamide, the particle size analysis revealed a mean particle size of 772 nm and volume-based size distribution values of 2.686 μm (d50%) and 14.423 μm (d90%). The use of pre-treated material (10:1 glibenclamide/docusate sodium salt ratio spray-dried as ethanolic solution) resulted in a mean particle size of 236 nm and volume-based size distribution values of 0.131 μm (d50%) and 0.285 μm (d90%). These results were markedly improved compared to the standard process. The nanosuspensions were further transferred into tablet formulations. Wet granulation, freeze-drying and spray-drying were investigated as downstream methods to produce dry intermediates. Regarding the dissolution rate, the rank order of the downstream processes was as follows: Spray-drying>freeze-drying>wet granulation. The best drug release (90% within 10 min) was obtained for tablets produced with spray-dried nanosuspension containing 2% mannitol as matrix former. In comparison, the tablets processed with micronized glibenclamide showed a drug release of only 26% after 10 min. The H 42 combinative technology could be successfully applied in the production of small drug nanocrystals. A

  2. Comparison of cost-effectiveness of regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet for treating advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Go, Makiko; Teramachi, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimens are standard third-line or later treatments for advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer with no significant difference in efficacy. The present study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of using regorafenib vs. the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet. The expected cost was calculated based on data from patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer who were treated with regorafenib or trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet. The median survival time (MST) from the CORRECT and the RECOURSE study was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the regimens. The cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated from the expected cost and MST for the two regimens. The expected cost per patient for the regorafenib and the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimen was ¥705,330.3 and ¥371,198.7, respectively, and the cost-effectiveness ratio was ¥110,207.9/MST and ¥52,281.5/MST, respectively. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimen is more cost-effective compared with the regorafenib regimen. PMID:27900102

  3. Comparison of cost-effectiveness of regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet for treating advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Go, Makiko; Teramachi, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-11-01

    Regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimens are standard third-line or later treatments for advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer with no significant difference in efficacy. The present study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of using regorafenib vs. the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet. The expected cost was calculated based on data from patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer who were treated with regorafenib or trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet. The median survival time (MST) from the CORRECT and the RECOURSE study was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the regimens. The cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated from the expected cost and MST for the two regimens. The expected cost per patient for the regorafenib and the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimen was ¥705,330.3 and ¥371,198.7, respectively, and the cost-effectiveness ratio was ¥110,207.9/MST and ¥52,281.5/MST, respectively. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that the trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet regimen is more cost-effective compared with the regorafenib regimen.

  4. Development of fixed dose combination tablets of aripiprazole plus divalproex sodium and their simultaneous determination using HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zia; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Saba; Abdur Rasheed, Qazi; Ahmed, Sagheer; Shahid, Muhammad; Farooq, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    A vast majority of psychiatric patients are effectively treated with combination of drugs to improve efficacy and adherence, but due to limited research and development in fixed dose combination (FDC) in psychiatry, these products are not commonly available. The aim of this study is to prepare cost effective FDC tablets containing aripiprazole and divalproex sodium. Two batches of fixed dose combination tablets, FDC1 and FDC2, were successfully prepared using wet granulation technique. Furthermore, aripiprazole tablets A1 and A2 and divalproex tablets D1 were also formulated as reference to compare the in vitro availability profile. An accurate and simple isocratic HPLC method was established and validated for the simultaneous quantification of aripiprazole and valproic acid in the FDC tablets. A reversed-phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm) column in isocratic mode was used. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.32% KH2PO4 (60:40, v/v), flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the detection was performed at 210 nm. Average percent recoveries of aripiprazole and valproic acid were 96.0 and 95.5%, respectively, meeting the official requirements. The newly developed FDC product may be used for the better therapeutic outcomes of combined use of aripiprazole and valproic acid, which may improve patient adherence.

  5. Fulvestrant 500 mg vs 250 mg in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind registrational trial in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Shao, Zhimin; Shen, Kunwei; Li, Li; Feng, Jifeng; Tong, Zhongsheng; Gu, Kangsheng; Wang, Xiaojia; Xu, Binghe; Sun, Guofang; Chen, Huifang; Rukazenkov, Yuri; Jiang, Zefei

    2016-08-30

    The international CONFIRM study showed that fulvestrant 500 mg improved progression-free survival (PFS) vs fulvestrant 250 mg in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer (LA/MBC). In this randomized, double-blind study, postmenopausal Chinese women with ER-positive LA/MBC and progression after endocrine therapy received fulvestrant 500 mg (days 0, 14, 28, and every 28 days thereafter) or fulvestrant 250 mg (every 28 days). Consistency with the international study was assumed if the hazard ratio (HR) for comparison of PFS (primary endpoint) was < 1 (stratified log-rank test). The study was not powered to assess between-group differences.In total, 221 patients were randomized (fulvestrant 500 mg: n = 111; fulvestrant 250 mg: n = 110). Baseline characteristics were balanced. Median PFS was 8.0 months with fulvestrant 500 mg vs 4.0 months with 250 mg (HR = 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.03; P = 0.078). PFS (HR; 95% CI) favored fulvestrant 500 mg in post-antiestrogen (0.86; 0.54-1.37) and post-aromatase inhibitor (0.65; 0.42-1.03) settings. No new safety considerations were observed. These results are consistent with the international CONFIRM study, supporting the superior clinical benefit of fulvestrant 500 mg in women with ER-positive LA/MBC experiencing progression following prior endocrine therapy.

  6. Absorbance correction method for estimation of telmisartan and metoprolol succinate in combined tablet dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Komal; Patel, Amit; Dave, Jayant; Patel, Chaganbhai

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Background: The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of telmisartan and metoprolol succinate in combined tablet dosage form. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the absorbance correction equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Telmisartan has absorbance maxima at 296 nm and metoprolol succinate has absorbance maxima at 223 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-16 μg/ ml and 3-24 μg/ml for telmisartan and metoprolol succinate, respectively. The concentrations of the drugs were determined by using absorbance correction method at both the wavelengths. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical dosage form because no interference from the tablet excipients was found. The suitability of this method for the quantitative determination of telmisartan and metoprolol succinate was proved by validation. The proposed method was found to be simple and sensitive for the quality control application of telmisartan and metoprolol succinate in pharmaceutical dosage form. Result: The result of analysis has been validated statistically and by recovery studies. Recoveries were found in the range of 98.08-100.55% of telmisartan and 98.41-101.87% of metoprolol succinate. PMID:23781489

  7. One confirmed and one suspected case of pharyngeal gonorrhoea treatment failure following 500mg ceftriaxone in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, Phillip J; Limnios, E Athena; McNulty, Anna; Whiley, David; Lahra, Monica M

    2013-11-01

    Emerging antimicrobial resistance within Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is a significant global public health threat. Detection and investigation of treatment failures is a crucial component of the World Health Organisation's response to this challenge. We report the cases of two homosexual men, both treated for pharyngeal NG with 500mg intramuscular ceftriaxone, in whom a test of cure 1 week after treatment showed persisting infection. Both men denied further sexual activity. In the first case, treatment failure was confirmed, since the isolates before and after treatment were identical by auxotype, antibiogram, multilocus sequence type (MLST) and multi-antigen sequence type (NG-MAST). In the second case, the MLSTs before and after treatment were identical, but NG-MAST results were similar but not indistinguishable. These cases underline the importance of test-of-cure and molecular investigations in identifying treatment failure, but also highlight the complexity of distinguishing treatment failure from reinfection when relying on highly variable molecular targets that may be subject to drug pressure.

  8. [Efficacy observation of treating diabetic nephropathy by shenshuaining granule combined telmisartan tablet].

    PubMed

    Li, Bai-yun; Peng, Hui; Xiong, Dong-lin; Yi, Jing; Chen, Huan

    2015-02-01

    To observe the effect of Shenshuaining Granule (SG) combined telmisartan on serum creatinine (SCr) levels and urinary albumin contents in diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients, and to explore its efficacy. Totally 204 DN patients were recruited, and further assigned to 3 groups, i.e., the early DN group, the clinical stage of DN with normal renal function group, the clinical stage of DN with insufficient renal function group. Patients in the same group were randomly allocated to the telmisartan treatment group, the SG treatment group, and the combination of SG and telmisartan treatment group, 68 in each group. Patients in the telmisartan treatment group took telmisartan tablet, 80 mg per day, once daily. Those in the SG treatment group took SG, 5 g each time, 3 times per day. Those in the combination of SG and telmisartan treatment group took telmisartan tablet (80 mg per day, once daily) and SG (5 g each time, 3 times per day). The therapeutic course for all was 3 successive months. SCr levels, serum urea nitrogen (BUN),24 h urine microalbumin (24 h U-MA) were detected before and after treatment. Results In three different treatment groups, 24 h U-MA decreased after treatment in the telmisartan treatment group; SCr and BUN decreased after treatment in the SG treatment group; and 24 h U-MA, SCr and BUN decreased after treatment in the combination of SG and telmisartan treatment group (P<0.05). In the clinical stage of DN with insufficient renal function group, SCr obviously increased after treatment in the telmisartan treatment group (P <0. 05). In the 3 DN stages, SCr and 24 h U-MA obviously decreased in the combination of SG and telmisartan treatment group, when compared with the telmisartan treatment group and the SG treatment group (P<0.05). Compared with the telmisartan treatment group, SCr and BUN obviously decreased in the SG treatment group, but 24 h U-MA quantitation obviously increased (P<0.05). BUN obviously decreased in the combination of SG and

  9. Tablets of functionalized polystyrene beads alone and in combination with solid reagents or catalysts. Preparation and applications in parallel solution and solid phase synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Thomas; Holm, Per; Andersen, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Pretreatment of polystyrene beads with a nonpolar organic solvent is the key for the generation of mechanically robust tablets consisting of neat functionalized polystyrene beads, both alone and in combination with solid reagents or catalysts. The novel dosing methodology provides accurately preweighed tablets in virtually any shape and size and with excellent disintegration properties, speeding up parallel solution and solid phase synthesis. The use of tablets is demonstrated in parallel Mitsunobu and acylation reactions.

  10. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of colchicines and naproxen sodium sustain release tablets in combination for treatment of gout.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Yasir; Riaz, Humayun; Yousaf, Hammad; Raza, Syed Atif; Mahmood, Rana Khalid; Khan, Zia Mohy-Ud-Din; Saleem, Noviara

    2016-09-01

    Present investigation concern with combination of two drugs for the treatment of gout. One of these drug (naproxen sodium) is pain killer which is sustain their action within the body for 12 hours and the other drug (colchicine) is anti-gout, which release as conventional dosage. After oral administration naproxen will act as sustain release dosage and increase patient compliance about six batches of tablet were developed and evaluate .For the sustain release action polymers Methocel K4M and HPMCK15were used. These polymers were used in combination used with other inactive ingredients. Two methods were used for proration of final tablets. In 1st method only naproxen sodium granules were prepared which are sustained released. In second method these granules were mixed with colchicines powder and other all inactive ingredients. This method is easy and cost effective characterization of pallets and final tablets were performed. Final tablets were evaluated for all tests like appearance, friability, dissolution, hardness, assay, weight variation and in-vitro release study performed. The results obtained were satisfactory and complies with USP specification. Formulation containing combination of Methocel K4M and HPMC K15 showed good sustain release profile for 12 hours.

  11. Pharmacokinetic comparison using two tablets of an evogliptin/metformin XR 2.5/500 mg fixed dose combination vs. 1 tablet each of evogliptin 5 mg and metformin XR 1,000 mg
.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sumin; Rhee, Su-Jin; Park, Sang-In; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of evogliptin and metformin following the administration of 2 evogliptin/metformin extended-release (XR) 2.5/500 mg FDC tablets with the coadministration of separate evogliptin 5-mg and metformin XR 1,000-mg tablets (separate formulations). A randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 2 FDC tablets or the individual tablets, followed by a 14-day washout period and the administration of the alternate treatment. Blood samples were collected predose and up to 72 hours postdose for each period. PK parameters including Cmax and AUClast were calculated. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) between FDC and the separate formulations were calculated for the Cmax and AUClast of evogliptin and metformin. 33 subjects completed the study. The GMR (90% CI) values of Cmax and AUClast for evogliptin were 1.011 (0.959 - 1.066) and 1.010 (0.977 - 1.043), respectively. The GMR (90% CI) values of Cmax and AUClast for metformin were 0.892 (0.827 - 0.963) and 0.893 (0.841 - 0.947), respectively. There was no significant difference between the FDC and separate formulations regarding the occurrence of adverse events. All drug-related adverse events were considered to be mild and resolved without any treatment. Two FDC tablets of evogliptin/metformin XR 2.5/500 mg showed a similar PK profile to the separate formulations of evogliptin 5 mg and metformin XR 1,000 mg. All of the 90% CIs of GMR satisfied the regulatory bioequivalence criteria of 0.800 - 1.250.
.

  12. Novel levocetirizine HCl tablets with enhanced palatability: synergistic effect of combining taste modifiers and effervescence technique

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Gihan S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Levocetirizine HCl, a second-generation piperazine derivative and H1-selective antihistaminic agent, possesses few side effects. The first objective of the study was to compare and evaluate the taste-masking effect of different ratios of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and mannitol on levocetirizine HCl using an inclusion complex and solid dispersion, respectively. The second objective was to study the possibility of preparing and evaluating effervescent tablets from the best-chosen taste-masked blends for the purpose of their use either as orodispersible tablets or as water-soluble effervescent tablets, according to patients’ will. Materials and methods Prepared taste-masked blends were prepared and subjected to palatability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Tablets containing different percentages of effervescent mixtures were prepared by direct compression on the selected taste-modified blends. Evaluation tests were conducted, including flowability and compressibility on the precompressed blends and hardness, friability, wetting time, effervescent time, in vitro, in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution study on the compressed tablets. Formulated tablets were evaluated and compared to marketed orodispersible tablets for mouth feel and palatability. Results All prepared tablets showed convenient physical and palatability properties compared to the selected brand. The in vitro drug-release study revealed fast release of levocetirizine HCl within 5 minutes from all prepared tablets. Conclusion Levocetirizine HCl effervescent tablets are likely to increase patient compliance with drug administration. Moreover, the use of these effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form. PMID:26379426

  13. Combination effect of physical and gustatory taste masking for propiverine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets on palatability.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Rakan; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing propiverine hydrochloride (which is extremely bitter and leaves a feeling of numbness in the mouth) were prepared with a combined use of physical and organoleptic taste masking. Propiverine-loaded masking particles (PLMPs) were prepared with different amounts of gastric-soluble coatings as physical masking. ODTs without organoleptic masking were prepared by mixing each group of PLMPs with Ludiflash®, crospovidone, and magnesium stearate. ODTs with organoleptic masking were also prepared by addition of L-menthol, aspartame, thaumatin, and cinnamon. Fifteen-minute dissolution of propiverine in solutions with pH 1.2 was ≥ 85% for all ODTs, whereas that in pH 6.8 solutions was ≤ 85% and increased with physical masking. A single blind randomized crossover trial was conducted. Ten healthy volunteers were asked to quantify the bitterness, numbness, and overall palatability using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) at the period of disintegration as well as 1 and 5 min later. VAS scores of bitterness, numbness, and overall palatability improved along with increasing amounts of physical masking, and the effects persisted for 5 min. VAS scores for numbness increased over time regardless of the amount of physical masking. Bitterness, numbness, and overall palatability were significantly improved by organoleptic masking if the amount of physical masking was small. Combined use of physical and organoleptic masking is useful for improving palatability of ODTs containing propiverine.

  14. The combined effects of capsaicin, green tea extract and chicken essence tablets on human autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ki Ok; Moritani, Toshio

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether combined capsaicin, green tea, and chicken essence tablets (CCGC) enhance human autonomic nervous activities (ANS) associated with thermogenic sympathetic activity without any adverse effect on the cardiac depolarization-repolarization period. Six healthy males (25.2 +/-1.7 y) volunteered for this experiment. Autonomic nervous activities were examined 5-min at rest per 30-min for total 1.5 h after consuming chicken or CCGC or placebo tablets at random on separate days. Using heart rate variability power spectral analysis, we assessed human autonomic nervous activities. In comparison to chicken essence or placebo tablets, it was observed that the consumption of CCGC significantly increased human autonomic nervous activities [Total power representing over-all ANS activity; CCGC trial 160.2 (50.0) vs. placebo 92.8 (53.3)%, p < 0.05; VLF, very low-frequency power associated with thermogenic sympathetic activity: CCGC trial 235.5 (101.7) vs. chicken 130.5 (52.9)%, p < 0.05; LF, low frequency power representing combined sympatho-vagal activity: CCGC trial 199.8 (59.8) vs. placebo 120.6 (49.2)%, p < 0.05] at 60-min and 90-min. There were no significant differences in heart rate corrected cardiac recovery time (RTc) or QT interval (QTc). In conclusion, the consumption of CCGC enhances thermogenic sympathetic activity compared to that of chicken essence or placebo tablets. Therefore, these results suggest that combined capsaicin, green tea, and chicken essence tablets may be a beneficial food ingredient improving human autonomic nervous activities, particularly thermogenic sympathetic activity as a modulator of energy metabolism without any adverse effects on cardiac electrical stability.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of meloxicam oral disintegrating tablet with dissolution enhanced by combination of cyclodextrin and ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-06-01

    The bitter taste of drug is masked by the exchange of ionized drugs with counter ions of ion exchange resin, forming "resinate". Cyclodextrin reduces the unpleasant taste and enhances the drug solubility by encapsulating drug molecules into its central cavity. Oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using the combination of ion exchange resin and cyclodextrin was developed, to mask the bitter taste and enhance drug dissolution. Meloxicam (MX) was selected as a model drug. Formulations containing various forms of MX (free drug, MX-loaded resin or resinate, complexes of MX and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) or MX/HPβCD complexes, and a mixture of resinate and MX/HPβCD complexes) were made by direct compression. The ODTs were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, MX content, MX release, degree of bitter taste and stability. The tablet hardness was ∼3 kg/in(2), and the friability was <1%. Tablets formulated with resinate and the mixture of resinate and MX/HPβCD complexes disintegrated rapidly within 60 s, which is the acceptable limit for ODTs. These results were corresponded to the in vivo disintegration and wetting times. However, only tablets containing the mixture of resinate and MX/HPβCD complexes provided complete MX dissolution and successfully masked the bitter taste. In addition, this tablet was stable at least 6 months. The combination of ion exchange resin and cyclodextrin could be used in ODTs to mask the bitter taste and enhance the dissolution of drugs that are weakly soluble in water.

  16. Fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer: follow-up analysis from the randomized 'FIRST' study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John F R; Lindemann, Justin P O; Llombart-Cussac, Antonio; Rolski, Janusz; Feltl, David; Dewar, John; Emerson, Laura; Dean, Andrew; Ellis, Matthew J

    2012-11-01

    Fulvestrant fIRst-line Study comparing endocrine Treatments is a phase II, randomized, open-label study comparing fulvestrant 500 mg with anastrozole 1 mg as first-line endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer. At data cut-off, only 36 % of patients had progressed and the median time to progression (TTP) had not been reached for fulvestrant. Here, we report follow-up data for TTP for fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg. Key inclusion criteria were postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer and no prior endocrine therapy. Key exclusion criteria were presence of life-threatening metastases and prior treatment with a non-approved drug. Fulvestrant was administered 500 mg/month plus 500 mg on day 14 of month 1; anastrozole was administered 1 mg/day. TTP was defined by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.0 before data cut-off for the primary analysis, and investigator opinion after data cut-off. Best overall response to subsequent therapy and serious adverse events are also reported. In total, 205 patients received fulvestrant 500 mg (n = 102) or anastrozole (n = 103). Follow-up analysis was performed when 79.5 % of patients had discontinued study treatment. Median TTP was 23.4 months for fulvestrant versus 13.1 months for anastrozole; a 34 % reduction in risk of progression (hazard ratio 0.66; 95 % confidence interval: 0.47, 0.92; P = 0.01). Best overall response to subsequent therapy and clinical benefit rate for subsequent endocrine therapy was similar between the treatment groups. No new safety concerns for fulvestrant 500 mg were documented. These longer-term, follow-up results confirm efficacy benefit for fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole as first-line endocrine therapy for HR+ advanced breast cancer in terms of TTP, and, importantly, show similar best overall response rates to

  17. Clinical and economic benefits observed when follow-up triglyceride levels are less than 500 mg/dL in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Christian, Jennifer B; Arondekar, Bhakti; Buysman, Erin K; Johnson, Susan L; Seeger, John D; Jacobson, Terry A

    2012-01-01

    Increased levels of triglycerides are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis. In this study we investigated the association between patients with severely increased triglycerides whose follow-up triglyceride levels were <500 mg/dL and reduction of important clinical events and associated health care costs. By using two large U.S. health care claims databases, we identified an initial cohort of 41,210 patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia between June 2001 and September 2010 who had a follow-up laboratory test result 6 to <24 weeks after the initial severe hypertriglyceridemia laboratory value. Of these, 8493 patients' follow-up triglyceride levels remained elevated (≥500 mg/dL) whereas 32,717 were <500 mg/dL. After their qualifying follow-up triglyceride level, patients' cardiovascular events, diabetes-related events, pancreatitis episodes, kidney disease, and related costs were identified. Adjusted incidence rate ratios with the use of Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each outcome. Patients whose triglycerides remained ≥500 mg/dL had a greater rate of pancreatitis episodes (hazard ratio [HR]1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-2.18), cardiovascular events (HR1.19; 95% CI 1.10-1.28), diabetes-related events (HR1.42; 95% CI 1.27-1.59), and kidney disease (HR1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) compared with patients whose follow-up triglycerides were <500 mg/dL, after we adjusted for important confounders. Adjusted all-cause total and cardiovascular-related costs were significantly lower in the first 3 years in patients whose follow-up triglyceride levels were <500 mg/dL compared with those whose triglyceride levels remained increased. When follow-up triglyceride levels were <500 mg/dL, we observed an associated reduction in the risk of clinical events and decrease in health care resource use and costs. Copyright © 2012 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fast Disintegrating Combination Tablet of Taste Masked Levocetrizine Dihydrochloride and Montelukast Sodium: Formulation Design, Development, and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, M. M.; Gupta, Niraj; Chauhan, Bhupendra S.; Pandey, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare fast disintegrating combination tablet of taste masked Levocetrizine dihydrochloride and Montelukast sodium by using direct compression method. To prevent bitter taste and unacceptable odour of the Levocetrizine dihydrochloride drug, the drug was taste masked with ion exchange resins like Kyron-T-104 and Tulsion-412. Among the two resins, Kyron-T-104 was selected for further studies because of high drug loading capacity, low cost, and better drug release profile. An ion exchange resin complex was prepared by the batch technique and various parameters; namely, resin activation, drug: resin ratio, pH, temperature, and stirring time, and swelling time were optimized to successfully formulate the tasteless drug resin complex (DRC). The tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) PH 102 as diluent along with crospovidone (CP), croscarmellose sodium (CCM), and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) as a superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time (DT), and dissolution study and it was concluded that the tablet formulation prepared with 2% SSG + CCS showed better disintegration time in comparison with other formulation and good drug release. The stability studies were carried out for the optimized batch for three months and it showed acceptable results. PMID:26556198

  19. HPTLC determination of cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole in combined tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Ranjane, Poonam N; Gandhi, Santosh V; Kadukar, Sayali S; Bothara, Kailash G

    2010-01-01

    A new simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for determination of cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole in combined tablet dosage form is developed and validated. Cefuroxime axetil is second-generation cephalosporin used to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. Ornidazole is used to cure protozoan infections. The separation is carried out on Merck precoated silica gel aluminium plate 60 F(254) using toluene-n-butanol-triethylamine (8.5:2:0.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Quantitative determination of drugs is carried out by densitometric scanning of plates at 285 nm. The retention factor for ornidazole and cefuroxime axetil is found to be 0.51 +/- 0.007 and 0.67 +/- 0.009, respectively. The method is validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Response found to be linear in the concentration range of 100-500 ng/band for both cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole. The method has been successfully applied for the analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical formulation. The % assay is found to be 102.36 +/- 0.775 and 101.00 +/- 1.192 for cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole, respectively.

  20. A pilot study of buprenorphine-naloxone combination tablet (Suboxone) in treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Bell, James; Byron, Gaye; Gibson, Amy; Morris, Amanda

    2004-09-01

    In Australia, maintenance treatment for opioid dependence involves supervised daily administration of a dose of methadone or buprenorphine. A sublingual tablet combining buprenorphine and naloxone in a 4:1 ratio (Suboxone) has been developed, designed to deter diversion and intravenous misuse, and may be suitable for unsupervised administration. The aim of this study was to investigate the tolerability of Suboxone, and investigate whether unsupervised administration can be effective in stabilized patients. Employed patients on buprenorphine maintenance, who had ceased heroin use, were switched to Suboxone and provided with weekly supplies of medication to take without supervised administration. Subjects were monitored closely with weekly clinical reviews, and research interviews at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Only 11% of people receiving buprenorphine met eligibility criteria. Seventeen subjects were recruited. Fifteen were retained for the full 6 months. No subject appeared destabilized by unsupervised dosing. Suboxone was well tolerated. The current trial demonstrated that unsupervised administration with regular clinical monitoring can be effective in selected patients. However, using access to unsupervised dosing to promote abstinence from heroin probably limits the potential benefits of unsupervised administration to a very small proportion of patients.

  1. A Chewable Pediatric Fixed-dose Combination Tablet of Stavudine, Lamivudine, and Nevirapine

    PubMed Central

    Vanprapar, Nirun; Cressey, Tim R.; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Muresan, Petronella; Plipat, Nottasorn; Sirisanthana, Virat; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Hongsiriwan, Suchat; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Eksaengsri, Achara; Toye, MariPat; Smith, Mary Elizabeth; McIntosh, Kenneth; Capparelli, Edmund; Yogev, Ram

    2010-01-01

    Background Pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) are needed to facilitate antiretroviral therapy in children. We evaluated the relative bioavailability, safety, and therapeutic adequacy of a novel chewable pediatric FDC tablet of stavudine (7 mg), lamivudine (30 mg), and nevirapine (50 mg), referred to as GPO-VIR S7, and compared it with the individual original brand-name liquid formulations in human immunode-ficiency virus-infected Thai children. Methods The International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials group (IMPAACT) P1056 study was a phase I/II, 2-arm, randomized, open-label, multidose pharmacokinetic cross-over study. Children ≥6 to ≤30 kg receiving nevirapine-based HAART for at least 4 weeks were randomized to receive GPO-VIR S7 chewable tablets or the equivalent liquid formulations. Children were stratified by weight and dosing was weight-based. Intensive 12-hour blood sampling was performed on day 28, and subjects then crossed-over to the alternate formulation at equal doses with identical 12-hour sampling on day 56. Pharmacokinetic indices were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Results Thirty-four children completed the study. While taking Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO)-VIR S7 the geometric mean (90% CI) area under the curve was 1.54 μg · hr/mL (1.42–1.67) for stavudine, 6.39 (5.82–7.00) for lamivudine, and 74.06 (65.62–83.60) for nevirapine. Nevirapine drug exposure for GPO-VIR S7 was therapeutically adequate. Geometric mean area under the curve ratios (90% CI) of GPO-VIR S7/liquid formulation for stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine were 0.97 (0.92–1.02), 1.41 (1.30–1.53), and 1.08 (1.04–1.13), respectively. No serious drug-related toxicity was reported. Conclusions The chewable FDC was safe and provided therapeutically adequate plasma drug exposures in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Substituting the FDC for liquid formulations can simplify antiretroviral therapy. PMID

  2. The rationale for recommending fixed-dose combination tablets for treatment of tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, B.; Spinaci, S.; Fourie, B.; Laing, R.

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable exigency to take all necessary steps to cure tuberculosis cases and prevent further emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The most important of these steps is to ensure that the treatment, particularly of sputum smear-positive cases, is adequate and that patients adhere to their treatment by supervised, direct observation of drug-taking according to the standardized regimens. Use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of tablets against tuberculosis is now being recommended by WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) as an additional step to ensuring proper treatment. FDCs simplify the prescription of drugs and the management of drug supply, and may also limit the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis arising as a result of inappropriate drug selection and monotherapy. Only FDCs of proven quality and proven rifampicin bioavailability should be purchased and used. In most situations, blood levels of the drugs are inadequate because of poor drug quality rather than poor absorption. This is true irrespective of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status of the tuberculosis patients (other than those with overt acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, with CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3). Currently, WHO, IUATLD and their partners are developing strategies for ensuring that only quality FDCs are used in tuberculosis programmes. A simplified and effective protocol for assessment of rifampicin bioavailability has been developed, and laboratories are being recruited to form a supranational network for quality assurance of FDCs. Standardization of FDC drug formulations has been proposed, which limits rifampicin-containing preparations to nine (including a four-drug FDC and three paediatric FDCs). PMID:11217670

  3. HPTLC-Densitometric Determination of Cetirizine and Montelukast Analysis in Combined Tablet Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Saeed; Shapouri, Mahmoud Reza; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Afruzi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    A simple, accurate and rapid high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)- densitometric method was developed for separation and determination of cetirizine (CET) as a long acting antihistamine and montelukast (MON) as an antileukotriene in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The compounds were separated on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates using a mixture of ethyl acetate : methanol : ammonia solution (25%) (14 : 3 : 2 v/v/v) as mobile phase. The plates were developed vertically up to a distance of 80 mm. Compact spots of both cetirizine (Rf = 0.30 ± 0.01) and montelukast (Rf = 0.52 ± 0.02) were obtained. UV detection was performed at 230 nm. Quantitative analysis was performed by absorbance densitometry using peak area. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The calibration curves were linear in the range of 40-2000 ng spot-1 for cetirizine and 120-1000 ng spot-1 for montelukast. For MON, recovery varied in range of 99.20-100.88% with RSD ranging from 1.02 to 1.90% and for CET, recovery varied in range of 98.13-100.05% with RSD ranging from 1.57 to 1.85%. The LODs were found to be 3.94 and 2.08 ng spot-1 for CET and MON, respectively. It was observed that the proposed HPTLC method could be used for efficient analysis and monitoring of the CET and MON in combined tablet dosage forms, more convenient with better precision and accuracy than HPLC method. PMID:24250604

  4. Stability-indicating Simultaneous HPTLC Method for Olanzapine and Fluoxetine in Combined Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Shah, C. R.; Suhagia, B. N.; Shah, N. J.; Patel, D. R.; Patel, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    A rapid, selective and stability-indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combined tablet dosage form. Olanzapine and fluoxetine were chromatographed on silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate using methanol:toluene (4:2 v/v) as the mobile phase and spectrodensitometric scanning-integration was performed at a wavelength of 233 nm using a Camag TLC Scanner III. This system was found to give compact spots for both olanzapine (Rf value of 0.63±0.01) and fluoxetine (Rf value of 0.31±0.01). The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.9995 in the concentration range of 100-800 ng/spot for olanzapine and 1000-8000 ng/spot for fluoxetine with r2=0.9991. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and specificity. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for the olanzapine were found to be 30 and 100 ng/spot, respectively and for fluoxetine 300 and 1000 ng/spot, respectively. Olanzapine and fluoxetine were degraded under acidic, basic and oxidation degradation conditions which showed all the peaks of degraded product were well resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Both drugs were not further degraded after thermal and photochemical degradation. The method was found to be reproducible and selective for the simultaneous estimation of olanzapine and fluoxetine. As the method could effectively separate the drugs from their degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating method. PMID:20046726

  5. Combined acetaminophen and ibuprofen for pain relief after oral surgery in adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Merry, A. F.; Gibbs, R. D.; Edwards, J.; Ting, G. S.; Frampton, C.; Davies, E.; Anderson, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen is often used with a non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drug for acute pain. Hitherto, these drugs have had to be given separately, typically at different time intervals. Maxigesic® tablets combine acetaminophen and ibuprofen in clinically appropriate doses to simplify administration and dosage regimen. We compared this combination with each of the constituent drugs for the relief of pain after extraction of third molar teeth. Methods Adults (more than 16 yr) having one or more wisdom teeth removed under general or local anaesthesia were instructed to take two tablets before operation, then two tablets every 6 h for up to 48 h of: (i) a combination of acetaminophen 500 mg and ibuprofen 150 mg per tablet (Maxigesic®); (ii) acetaminophen 500 mg per tablet alone; or (iii) ibuprofen 150 mg per tablet alone. The primary outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) of the 100 mm visual analogue scale pain measurements taken for up to 48 h after surgery, divided by time, at rest and on activity. Pharmacokinetic data were collected in a subset of patients. Results The mean (sem) time-corrected AUC on rest and activity, respectively, were: combination group 22.3 (3.2) and 28.4 (3.4); acetaminophen group 33.0 (3.1) and 40.4 (3.3); and ibuprofen group 34.8 (3.2) and 40.2 (3.4); P<0.01 for each of the four comparisons of combination vs constituent drug. There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between acetaminophen and ibuprofen administered together. Conclusions Maxigesic® tablets provide superior pain relief after oral surgery to acetaminophen or ibuprofen alone. PMID:20007794

  6. The advantages of combination therapy on hypertension: development of immediate release perindopril-indapamide tablet and assessment of bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Ölçer, A; Ölçer, M; İnce, I; Karasulu, E

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension has a major associated risk for organ damage and mortality, which is further heightened in patients with prior cardiovascular events, comorbid diabetes mellitus, microalbuminuria and renal impairment. Convers Plus tablet including perindopril erbumine (PE), which is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and indapamide, which is diuretic, was designed as a combined tablet to succes in the treatment of hypertension. Physico-pharmaceutical properties and characterization studies were evaluated in vitro conditions. Later on in vivo study was planned as a cross-designed, randomized, open-labeled, single-dose, single-center study via peroral route in 24 healthy male subjects. In this study, bioequivalence with primary pharmacokinetical target parameters reference (Bipreterax 4/1.25 mg Tablet-S.A.Servier Benelux N.V.) and test (Convers Plus 4/1.25 mg Tablet-ARGESAN Pharmaceutical Company) tablets have been found bioequivalent. The results of pharmacokinetic parameters for perindopril, perindoprilat and indapamide were found as Cmax = 23.179 µg/mL, tmax = 0.729 h, t1/2 = 1.429 h; AUC0-t = 26.998 µgs/mL, AUC0-inf = 27.117 µgs/mL; Cmax = 1.834 µg/mL, tmax = 8.792 h, t1/2 = 40.699 h; AUC0-t = 54.828 µgs/mL, AUC0-inf = 77.113 µgs/mL; Cmax = 18.994 µg/mL, tmax = 3.417 h, t1/2 = 16.626 h and AUC0-t = 385.829 µgs/mL, AUC0-inf = 410.728 µgs/mL respectively. In conclusion, physico-pharmaceutical properties and results of clinical trials show that Convers Plus tablets have been found as bioequivalent for perindopril, perindoprilat and indapamide in terms of AUC and Cmax, in 90% confidence limits.

  7. Investigation of an active film coating to prepare new fixed-dose combination tablets for treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kuk, Yun-Mo; Park, Chun-Woong; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Oh, Tack-Oon; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Park, Eun-Seok

    2012-05-10

    The aim of the present study was to formulate new fixed-dose combination tablets (FCTs) by coating a glimepiride (GLM) immediate-release (IR) layer on a metformin hydrochloride (MTF) extended-release (ER) core tablet using perforated film coating equipment. Composition of GLM-IR coating suspension for homogeneity was studied and application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to determine the end-point of the coating process was also investigated. The final product was administered to healthy male volunteers and its pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed. GLM-IR coating suspension was prepared with a ratio of SLS to GLM at 0.75 for homogeneity. An inert mid-layer was introduced to prevent contact between MTF-ER core tablet and GLM-IR layer, which led to an increased release rate of GLM in pH 7.8 medium. The proportional correlation was confirmed between analytical results of GLM determined by NIRS and those by HPLC-UV. Thus, the end-point of the GLM coating process was determined by NIRS, the fast and non-destructive method. New FCTs were confirmed to be bioequivalent to the marketed product. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Floating tablets for controlled release of ofloxacin via compression coating of hydroxypropyl cellulose combined with effervescent agent.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Chen, Haiyan; Rui, Yao; Yang, Fengjiao; Ma, Ning; Wu, Zhenghong

    2015-07-15

    To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within gastrointestinal trace until all drug released at desired rate was one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery system. Herein, we developed a fine floating tablet via compression coating of hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropyl cellulose) combined with effervescent agent (sodium bicarbonate) to achieve simultaneous control of release rate and location of ofloxacin. Sodium alginate was also added in the coating layer to regulate the drug release rate. The effects of the weight ratio of drug and the viscosity of HPC on the release profile were investigated. The optimized formulations were found to immediately float within 30s and remain lastingly buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) without pepsin, indicating a satisfactory floating and zero-order drug release profile. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment in New Zealand rabbits showed that, the relative bioavailability of the ofloxacin after administrated of floating tablets was 172.19%, compared to marketed common release tablets TaiLiBiTuo(®). These results demonstrated that those controlled-released floating tables would be a promising gastro-retentive delivery system for drugs acting in stomach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Disintegrants combination: development and optimization of a cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablet.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Najia; Naqvi, Syed Baqir-Shyum; Bibi, Rehana; Iffat, Wajiha; Shakeel, Sadia; Muhammad, Iyad Naeem

    2014-09-01

    Fast Disintegrating Tablets (FDTs) is a rapidly growing dosage form preferred for special population (pediatric, geriatric and psychotic patients). It is also developed with the aim of improving bioavailability and patient compliance. During the present study, cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablets formulations (n=9) were designed and optimized by central composite design with two independent variables (croscarmellose and crospovidone) using design expert® software. The effects of independent variables on formulation properties such as friability, hardness, in vitro dispersion and disintegration were assessed by drawing response surface graphs with design expert® software. Tablets were assessed for pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial parameters to ensure the quality of compressed tablets. Among all formulations, F3, F8 and F9 have shown better results. The formulation F9 containing 15mg croscarmellose and 33.075mg crospovidone showed good pharmacotechnical attributes as well as shelf life. F 9 showed improved dissolution with t90% of> 2 min and will lead to better bioavailability.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a fixed-dose combination of enteric-coated naproxen and non-enteric-coated esomeprazole magnesium.

    PubMed

    Wang-Smith, Laurene; Fort, John; Zhang, Ying; Sostek, Mark

    2012-05-01

    This randomized, 4-way crossover study assessed the single-dose pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of naproxen and esomeprazole after administration of a fixed-dose combination tablet of enteric-coated (EC) naproxen 500 mg and non-EC esomeprazole magnesium 20 mg (NAP/ESO tablet). Equivalent doses of an EC naproxen tablet plus an EC esomeprazole magnesium capsule taken concomitantly, an EC naproxen tablet alone, or an EC esomeprazole magnesium capsule alone were used as comparators. Forty healthy adults were randomized to receive 4 study treatments with a washout interval ≥12 days. Naproxen plasma profiles were similar between the NAP/ESO tablet and EC naproxen, although median t(max) was longest for the NAP/ESO tablet (5.3 vs 3.5-4.0 hours). Naproxen C(max), AUC(0-∞), and AUC(0-t) showed bioequivalence between naproxen formulations. The NAP/ESO tablet produced much shorter esomeprazole t(max) than the EC esomeprazole formulation (0.45 vs 2.5 hours). Esomeprazole C(max) and AUCs were comparable between the EC esomeprazole formulation administered with or without EC naproxen but were lower with the NAP/ESO tablet. In conclusion, there are no pharmacokinetic drug interactions between naproxen and esomeprazole. The NAP/ESO tablet is bioequivalent to EC naproxen, and as expected, the bioavailability of non-EC esomeprazole from the NAP/ESO tablet is lower than the EC esomeprazole formulation.

  11. Effect of combination tablets containing amlodipine 10 mg and irbesartan 100 mg on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Shusuke; Takashima, Akira; Mitsugi, Minoru; Wada, Toshihiro; Hotchi, Junko; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Hara, Tomoya; Ishida, Masayoshi; Fukuda, Daiju; Ise, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Tobiume, Takeshi; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Akaike, Masashi; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and mortality. Patients who receive insufficient doses of antihypertensive agents or who are poorly adherent to multidrug treatment regimens often fail to achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and calcium channel blocker (CCB) combination tablet containing a regular dose of irbesartan (100 mg) and a high dose of amlodipine (10 mg) with regard to lowering BP and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Methods We retrospectively evaluated data from 68 patients with essential hypertension whose treatment regimen was changed either from combination treatment with an independent ARB and a low-dose or regular-dose CCB or from a combination tablet of ARB and a low-dose or regular-dose CCB to a combination tablet containing amlodipine 10 mg and irbesartan 100 mg, because of incomplete BP control. Previous treatments did not include irbesartan as the ARB. Results The combination tablet decreased systolic and diastolic BP. In addition, it significantly decreased serum uric acid, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, independent of the BP-lowering effect. Treatment with the combination tablet did not affect serum triglycerides, plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum potassium or creatinine levels, or the urinary albumin excretion rate. Conclusion The combination tablet containing amlodipine 10 mg and irbesartan 100 mg had a greater BP-lowering effect than an ARB and a low-dose or regular-dose CCB. In addition, the combination tablet had more favorable effects on serum uric acid, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with hypertension. PMID:25624765

  12. COMPARATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF A FIXED-DOSE COMBINATION TABLET OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL/HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN HEALTHY KOREAN VOLUNTEERS.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Renhua; Hwang, Ho Min; Kim, Bo-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy with diuretics and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist is frequently recommended for the control of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. This study was targeted to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of a new generic fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet of olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide 20/12.5 mg and a reference formulation of Olmetec Plus 20/12.5 mg tablets in healthy volunteers. The study design was a randomized sequence and two-way crossover study in healthy subjects. They were to be randomly assigned to either one of the two sequence groups; each subject sequentially received a single oral dose of reference and test tablet with 7-day washout period. Blood sample was collected at pre-dose and at 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.33, 1.67, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post-dose. The blood concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Both of the 90% CI for the treatment ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC(last) were to be in the range of 0.800-1.250 with regards to olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide; the geometric mean ratios (test/reference) for olmesartan C(max) and AUC(last) were 0.979 (90% CI, 0.934-1.027) and 0.992 (0.946-1.041), respectively, and those for hydrochlorothiazide C(max) and AUC(last) were 0.966 (0.975-1.110) and 0.999 (0.963-1.038), respectively. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. The generic formulation of olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide 20/12.5 mg tablet was bioequivalent with the reference formulation of Olmetec Plus 20/12.5 mg tablet in regards to the pharmacokinetic parameters of olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide. Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) Registration Number: KCT0001025. (https://cris.nih.go.kr/ Mar 18, 2014)

  13. Bioequivalence of fixed-dose combinations of dapagliflozin and metformin with single-component tablets in healthy subjects and the effect of food on bioavailability.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Tjerk W A; Reele, Stots; Hamer-Maansson, Jennifer E; Parikh, Shamik; Tang, Weifeng

    2016-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of dapagliflozin and metformin administered as fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets (2.5 mg dapagliflozin/850 mg metformin or 5 mg dapagliflozin/1000 mg metformin) or as separate tablets in healthy subjects were evaluated in 2 separate studies. Study 1 evaluated PK by measuring mean ratios of area under the plasma concentration-time curve (time zero to infinity [AUCinf ]), AUC from zero to time of last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ), and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax ) for single-component or FDC tablets following a non-high-fat meal. Mean ratios of AUCinf , AUC0-t , and Cmax for FDC or single-component dapagliflozin and metformin tablets were close to unity. In study 2, AUCinf , AUC0-t , and Cmax for the FDC tablet were obtained fasting and after a high-fat meal. Dapagliflozin 5 mg and metformin 1000 mg geometric mean Cmax was increased in the fasted versus fed state (61.9 vs 43.9 and 1600 vs 1330 ng/mL, respectively), but AUC0-t was similar (267 and 265 and 11 000 and 10 600 ng · h/mL, respectively). In summary, FDC tablets were bioequivalent to single-component tablets, and total absorption (AUC) was similar for non-high-fat and high-fat meals.

  14. Screen capture on the fly: Combining molecular visualization and a tablet PC in the biochemistry lecture*.

    PubMed

    Cox, James R

    2006-01-01

    The biochemistry lecture is often the place where students receive the greatest exposure to the structural nature of biomolecules. The use of molecular visualization software and web-based animated tutorials has enhanced the way instructors teach this important area of structural biology. Using the software and tutorials in class is an excellent way to teach the diverse structural motifs found in biomolecules; however, integrating the computer-based molecular renderings shown in class into lecture notes is challenging. This report describes how incorporating a tablet PC into the biochemistry lecture can be used in conjunction with molecular visualization software to create a rich set of lecture notes. The pedagogical tools associated with a tablet PC make it an attractive addition to the biochemistry lecture, which usually has significant audio and visual learning components.

  15. Comparison of vaginal flora after treatment with a clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal pessary or a fluconazole 150 mg capsule for vaginal candidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Boag, F C; Houang, E T; Westrom, R; McCormack, S M; Lawrence, A G

    1991-01-01

    The effect of antifungal therapy on the vaginal microbial flora was studied in 23 patients suffering from culture-positive, symptomatic vaginal candidosis. They were randomly allocated to receive either a 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal pessary or a 150 mg fluconazole capsule. Quantitative microbiological examination was carried out on samples of vaginal secretions obtained prior, and at intervals up to 10 days after, treatment. No significant difference was found in the vaginal flora before or after therapy in individual patients or between the treatment groups. In patients with C glabrata or C krusei, the yeasts persisted longer in the vagina with poorer response to either of the medications. PMID:2071126

  16. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic determination of etoricoxib and thiocolchicoside in combined tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Rajmane, Vivek S; Gandhi, Santosh V; Patil, Upasana P; Sengar, Mahima R

    2010-01-01

    A new, simple HPTLC method for determination of etoricoxib (ETO) and thiocolchicoside (THIO) in combined tablet dosage form has been developed and validated. The pharmaceutical dosage form used in this study was Nucoxia-MR tablets. Sample solutions were prepared at concentrations of 25 and 20 microg/mL for ETO and THIO, respectively. The separation was carried out on 20 x 10 cm Merck aluminum sheets precoated with a 250 microm layer of silica gel 60F254 using ethyl acetate-methanol (8 + 2, v/v) as the mobile phase. The calibration curve was linear over a range of 50-250 and 100-500 ng/band for ETO and THIO, respectively. Quantitative determination was done by densitometric scanning of bands at 290 nm. LOD and LOQ values were 10.993 and 33.314 ng/band, respectively, for ETO and 25.133 and 76.161 ng/band, respectively, for THIO. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of drugs in the pharmaceutical formulation.

  17. [Panlongqi tablet (Chinese characters) combined with lumbar facet joint release for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis of Fengshi Bizu (Chinese characters)].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao-chuan; Yang, Ao-fei; He, Cheng-jian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of Panlongqi tablet (Chinese characters) combined with lumbar facet joint release for lumbar spinal stenosis of type Fengshi Bizu (Chinese characters). Since February 2012 to February 2013, 120 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis of Fengshi Bizu (Chinese characters) syndrome were retrospectively studied. According to different treatment methods, 120 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were divided into Panlongqi tablet (Chinese characters)group and control groups, respectively. In Panlongqi tablet (Chinese characters)group, 60 patients were treated by Panlongqi tablet (Chinese characters) combined with lumbar facet joints release solution including 26 males and 34 females with an average age of (60.40±3.36) years old ranging from 46 to 65 ; the course of the disease was 2 to 15 years (averaged 7.6 years). In control group the other 60 patients were treated with lumbar facet joint release including 24 males and 36 females with an average age of (61.20±2.47) years old ranging from 48 to 63; the course was 3 to 14 years (averaged 6.9 years). The clinical effect of patients were evaluated by JOA and ODI score before treatment, at 4 weeks and 3 months after treatment. All patients were followed up for 4 to 7 months (means 5.6 months). After 3 months,7 cases in control group recurrenced symptoms,only 1 case in Panlongqi tablet (Chinese characters) group recurrenced. At 4 weeks and 3 months of follow-up, ODI score and JOA score of Panlongqi tablet group were much better than those of the control group. For lumbar spinal stenosis of type Fengshi Bizu (Chinese characters),which were treated with lumbar facet joint release with Panlongqi tablet(Chinese characters), supplemented by back muscle exercise, in relieving waist and low back pain symptoms and improving functional status of lower lumbar spine, can obtain satisfactory clinical outcome, is a good method of conservative treatment for such diseases.

  18. Micellar liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of Levofloxacin and Ambroxol in combined tablets: Application to biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Levofloxacin hemihydrate (LEV) and ambroxol HCl (AMB) are available for the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. A survey of the literature reveals that two reversed phase HPLC methods were e reported for the simultaneous determination of LEV and AMB in pharmaceutical preparations. However the reported methods suffers from the low sensitivity, no application of the method in the combined tablets and no application to biological fluids. Also the toxic effects of the used solvents which are harmful to human beings. For this reason, our target was to develop a simple sensitive, less hazardous micellar HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of LEV and AMB in their combined dosage forms and plasma. Results The method showed good linearity over the ranges of 1–44 μg/mL and 1–20 μg/mL with limits of detection 0.26 and 0.07 μg/mL and limits of quantification 0.80 and 0.20 μg/mL for LEV and AMB, respectively. The method was further extended to the determination of LEV in spiked human plasma with mean percentage recoveries of 100.10% ± 1.14 as well as determination of LEV in real human plasma without prior extraction. Statistical evaluation of the data was performed according to ICH Guidelines. Conclusion The suggested method was successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the studied drugs in their co-formulated tablets and human plasma. The mean percentage recoveries in combined tablets were 100.20 ± 1.64 and 100.72 ± 1.11 for LEV and AMB, respectively and 100.10 ± 1.14 for LEV in spiked human plasma. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the comparison method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between the two methods respectively. PMID:24079576

  19. Bioequivalence study of a fixed dose combination tablet containing rabeprazole and diclofenac sodium in healthy Indian subjects.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Jayanti; Das, Ayan; Chakrabarty, Uday S; Sahoo, Bijay; Sengupta, Pinaki; Chatterjee, Bappaditya; Roy, Bikash; Pal, Tapan K

    2010-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole (CAS 117976-89-3) and diclofenac sodium (CAS 15307-79-6) has been extensively evaluated in adult human volunteers individually after oral administration of tablet formulation. However, no published data is available regarding the combined pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of this particular fixed dose combination. In light of the above, a clinical study was designed to evaluate the bioequivalence of two fixed dose combination (FDC) products (reference and test) of two manufacturers containing rabeprazole 20 mg and diclofenac sodium 100 mg slow release (SR) tablet in healthy Indian male volunteers. Each subject received a test FDC and a reference FDC in a randomized, single dose, fasting state, two period, and crossover study design with a one-week washout period between the doses. Extraction of the drugs from the plasma was carried out by the precipitation method. Analysis of rabeprazole and diclofenac sodium from plasma samples was done by a simple and sensitive HPLC method using a UV detector. An analysis of variance was performed on the pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, tmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity), using general linear model (GLM) procedures in which sources of variation were subject, formulation and period. The results of this study indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the logarithmically transformed AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax values of the two preparations. The 90% confidence interval for the ratio of logarithmically transformed AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax were within the bioequivalence limit of 0.80-1.25 and the relative bioavailability of rabeprazole and diclofenac sodium were found to be 98.6% and 98.9% respectively in the test product. Thus, these findings clearly indicated that the two products are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of drug absorption.

  20. Combination treatment in the management of type 2 diabetes: focus on vildagliptin and metformin as a single tablet

    PubMed Central

    Halimi, Serge; Schweizer, Anja; Minic, Biljana; Foley, James; Dejager, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    Vildagliptin is a potent and selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4), orally active, that improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) primarily by enhancing pancreatic (α and β) islet function. Thus vildagliptin has been shown both to improve insulin secretion and to suppress the inappropriate glucagon secretion seen in patients with T2DM. Vildagliptin reduces HbA1c when given as monotherapy, without weight gain and with minimal hypoglycemia, or in combination with the most commonly prescribed classes of oral hypoglycemic drugs: metformin, a sulfonylurea, a thiazolidinedione, or insulin. Metformin, with a different mode of action not addressing β-cell dysfunction, has been used for about 50 years and still represents the universal first line therapy of all guidelines. However, given the multiple pathophysiological abnormalities in T2DM and the progressive nature of the disease, intensification of therapy with combinations is typically required over time. Recent guidelines imply that patients will require pharmacologic combinations much earlier to attain and sustain the increasingly stringent glycemic targets, with careful drug selection to avoid unwanted adverse events, especially hypoglycemia. The combination of metformin and vildagliptin offers advantages when compared to currently used combinations with additive efficacy and complimentary mechanisms of action, since it does not increase the risk of hypoglycemia and does not promote weight gain. Therefore, by specifically combining these agents in a single tablet, there is considerable potential to achieve better blood glucose control and to improve compliance to therapy. PMID:18827867

  1. [A new water-soluble lubricant of tablets-L-leucine combined with PEG6000].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Kai; Rao, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Shasha; Luo, Xiaojian

    2011-08-01

    To prepare an effective and water-soluble lubricant. Co-sprayed lubricant (L-leucine and polyethylene glycol 6000 co-sprayed according to a certain proportion) and mixed lubricant (the physical mixture of spayed L-leucine and crushed polyethylene glycol 6000) were prepared and polyethylene glycol 6000, L-leucine, magnesium stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate and sodium chloride are crushed and sieved, respectively. Residual force, appearance of solution and disintegration time were considered as response variables of the lubrication effect to evaluate different lubricants. The changes of the co-sprayed lubricant were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, fourier infrared, electronic scanning microscope and X-ray diffraction. The efficacy of co-sprayed lubricant is better than other lubricants. Efficacy is improved by external form change without inner components and crystal changes. Co-sprayed lubricant is a good water soluble tablet lubricant which has good efficacy.

  2. Effect of bovine somatotropin (500 mg) administered at ten-day intervals on ovulatory responses, expression of estrus, and fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rivera, F; Narciso, C; Oliveira, R; Cerri, R L A; Correa-Calderón, A; Chebel, R C; Santos, J E P

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of administering 500 mg of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) every 10 d on ovulatory responses, estrous behavior, and fertility of lactating Holstein cows. Lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a control with no administration of bST (73 primiparous and 120 multiparous cows) or 6 consecutive administrations of 500 mg of bST (83 primiparous and 123 multiparous cows) given subcutaneously at 10-d intervals starting 61+/-3 d postpartum (study d 0), concurrent with the initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were collected thrice weekly from 61+/-3 to 124+/-3 d in milk (DIM), and plasma samples were analyzed for concentrations of estradiol, glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and progesterone. The estrous cycle of cows was presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF(2alpha) at 37+/-3 and 51+/-3 DIM, and the Ovsynch timed AI protocol was initiated at 61+/-3 DIM. Ovaries were scanned to determine ovulatory responses during the Ovsynch protocol. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 33 and 66 d after AI. Body condition was scored on study d 0, 10, 42, and 76. Sixty-four cows were fitted with a pressure mounting sensor with radiotelemetric transmitters to monitor estrous behavior. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with 500 mg of bST at 10-d intervals increased yields of milk and milk components in the first 2 mo after treatment. Body condition of bST-treated cows remained unaltered, whereas control cows gained BCS. Treatment with bST increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 chronically, but concentrations of insulin and glucose increased only transiently in the first 7 d after the first injection of bST. Concentrations of progesterone during and after the Ovsynch protocol remained unaltered after treatment with bST; likewise, ovulatory responses during the Ovsynch protocol were mostly unaltered by treatment. Concentration of estradiol tended to be

  3. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics of a combination tablet of niacin extended-release/simvastatin in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-lin; Liu, Man; Yang, Man; Zhang, Ya-nan; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Li-na; Han, Jing; Liu, Hui-chen

    2014-12-01

    The gender differences in pharmacokinetics of a combination tablet of niacin extended-release/simvastatin were evaluated in healthy Chinese volunteers. Thirty-six healthy male and female volunteers were enrolled in the study receiving a single oral dose of niacin extended-release/simvastatin 1,000/20 mg. The results indicated that the systemic exposure of simvastatin hydroxy acid and the total urine excretion of niacin were significantly higher for females compared with those for males, and the T max of niacin in plasma was significantly shorter for males than that for females. There were no significant differences in the systemic exposure of simvastatin, niacin, and NUA in plasma between males and females.

  4. A new tablet brittleness index.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-06-01

    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Subcoating with Kollidon VA 64 as water barrier in a new combined native dextran/HPMC-cetyl alcohol controlled release tablet.

    PubMed

    Castellanos Gil, Eddy; Iraizoz Colarte, Antonio; Lara Sampedro, José Lizardo; Bataille, Bernard

    2008-05-01

    A novel oral controlled delivery system for propranolol hydrochloride (PPL) was developed and optimized using wet granulation process. We are studying the ability of subcoating with Kollidon VA 64 as a barrier to water penetration in matrix cores combined hydrophilic (native dextran-HPMC)/hydrophobic (cetyl alcohol) prior to film coating with Opradry II-YS-30-18056. The copovidone (i.e., Kollidon VA 64) not only increases the mechanical properties of tablets (less friability) but also reduces the amount of absorbed water from the air in tropical stability condition (25 degrees C and 75% relative humidity). The in vitro dissolution profiles of coated sustained-release matrix tablets of racemic PPL were determined and compared with uncoated tablet cores according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Tolerance Specifications for Propranolol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules. A comparative kinetic study of the present matrix tablets (coated and uncoated cores) and commercial SUMIAL RETARD capsules (reference formulation (R) (Spain) was established). The values for the similarity factor (f2=61.756, f2=72.326 and f2=88.509 for initial time, one year and two years, respectively (uncoated cores vs. capsule) and f2=63.904, f2=69.502 and f2=76.348 (coated tablets vs. capsule) for initial time, one year and 2 two years, respectively) suggested that the dissolution profiles of the present three sustained-release oral dosage forms are similar and stable during two years under stability condition.

  6. Study of the effect of formulation variables on the characteristics of combination tablets containing enalapril maleate and indapamide as active substances using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán-István; Székely-Szentmiklósi, Blanka; Deák, Boglárka; Székely-Szentmiklósi, István; Kovács, Béla; Zöldi, Katalin; Sipos, Emese

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of different variables on tablet formulations containing enalapril maleate and indapamide as active substances, two separate experimental designs were employed: one for evaluating powder properties and the other for tablet characteristics. Because of the low active pharmaceutical ingredient content, it was hypothesized that both powder and tablet properties could be determined only by the characteristics of excipients. In order to test this assumption, both experimental designs were done with placebo mixtures. The optimized formulation was then evaluated both with and without APIs. Results indicated that filler and lubricant percentage, along with compression force, were the most important variables during the formulation study. The optimized formulation showed similar characteristics in both cases for all responses, except for angle of repose and friability where only minor differences were observed. The combination of the applied approaches (using placebo composition and fractional experimental design) proved to be efficient, cost effective and time saving.

  7. HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Estimation of Febuxostat and Diclofenac Potassium in Their Combined Tablets.

    PubMed

    El-Yazbi, Fawzi A; Amin, Omayma A; El-Kimary, Eman I; Khamis, Essam F; Younis, Sameh E

    2016-08-01

    An accurate, precise, rapid, specific and economic high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of febuxostat (FEB) and diclofenac potassium (DIC). The chromatographic separation was performed on precoated silica gel 60 GF254 plates with chloroform-methanol 7:3 (v/v) as the mobile phase. The developed plates were scanned and quantified at 289 nm. Experimental conditions including band size, mobile phase composition and chamber-saturation time were critically studied, and the optimum conditions were selected. A satisfactory resolution (Rs = 2.67) with RF 0.48 and 0.69 and high sensitivity with limits of detection of 4 and 7 ng/band for FEB and DIC, respectively, were obtained. In addition, derivative ratio and ratio difference spectrophotometric methods were established for the analysis of such a mixture. All methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines. In the HPTLC method, the calibration plots were linear between 0.01-0.55 and 0.02-0.60 µg/band, for FEB and DIC, respectively. For the spectrophotometric methods, the calibration graphs were linear between 2-14 and 4-18 µg/mL for FEB and DIC, respectively. The simplicity and specificity of the proposed methods suggest their application in quality control analysis of FEB and DIC in their raw materials and tablets. A comparison of the proposed methods with the existing methods is presented.

  8. Untargeted serum metabolomics reveals Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet and its optimal combination improve an impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Chen, Xi; Cai, Hao; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Chai, Chuan; Di, Liuqing; Shi, Liyun; Hu, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet, a six-herb preparation, was proved to show beneficial effects on type II diabetes patients in clinical. This study aims to optimize the component proportion of the six-herb preparation and explore the serum metabolic signatures of type II diabetes rats after treatment with Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet and its optimal combination. The component proportion of the preparation was optimized using uniform experimental design and machine learning techniques. Untargeted GC-MS metabolomic experiments were carried out with serum samples from model group and treatment groups. Data were normalized, multivariate and univariate statistical analysis performed and metabolites of interest putatively identified. 23 metabolites were significantly changed by Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet treatment and the majority of these were decreased, including various carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose, allose and gluconic acid), unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid), alanine, valine, propanoic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrate, along with pyrimidine and cholesterol. Increased concentrations of oxalic acid, leucine, glycine, serine, threonine, proline, lysine and citrate were observed. In the optimal combination-fed group, 21 metabolites were significantly affected and strikingly, the magnitudes of changes here were generally much greater than that of Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet treated rats. 18 metabolites affected in both groups included various carbohydrates (mannose, glucose, allose, fructose and gluconic acid), unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, oleic acid and arachidonic acid), short-chain fatty acids (oxalic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrate), and amino acids (alanine, valine, leucine, glycine, proline and lysine), as well as pyrimidine. Metabolites exclusively affected in optimal combination treated rat included succinic acid, cysteine and phenylalanine, whilst four metabolites (propanoic acid, citrate

  9. Gamma scintigraphic evaluation of floating gastroretentive tablets of metformin HCl using a combination of three natural polymers in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Mahboubeh; Karimian, Hamed; Yeong, Chai Hong; Chung, Lip Yong; Nyamathulla, Shaik; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed at formulating a metformin HCl sustained-release formulation from a combination of polymers, using the wet granulation technique. A total of 16 formulations (F1–F16) were produced using different combinations of the gel-forming polymers: tamarind kernel powder, salep (palmate tubers of Orchis morio), and xanthan. Post-compression studies showed that there were no interactions between the active drug and the polymers. Results of in vitro drug-release studies indicated that the F10 formulation which contained 5 mg of tamarind kernel powder, 33.33 mg of xanthan, and 61.67 mg of salep could sustain a 95% release in 12 hours. The results also showed that F2 had a 55% similarity factor with the commercial formulation (C-ER), and the release kinetics were explained with zero order and Higuchi models. The in vivo study was performed in New Zealand White rabbits by gamma scintigraphy; the F10 formulation was radiolabeled using samarium (III) oxide (153Sm2O3) to trace transit of the tablets in the gastrointestinal tract. The in vivo data supported the retention of F10 formulation in the gastric region for 12 hours. In conclusion, the use of a combination of polymers in this study helped to develop an optimal gastroretentive drug-delivery system with improved bioavailability, swelling, and floating characteristics. PMID:26273196

  10. Simultaneous And Extended Delivery Of Stavudine, Lamivudine And Nevirapine In Fixed Dose Combination Using Sandwiched Osmotic Tablets For Hiv Therapy.

    PubMed

    Priya, M Ranga; Rajendran, N N

    2015-01-01

    Current HIV-therapy recommends combination of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Stavudine and lamivudine are administered as fixed combination while nevirapine as separate dosage form which often results in poor compliance and adherence to therapy by patients and therefore, there is a need to develop dosage forms that can overcome the problems of currently available dosage forms for treatment of HIV infection. The present study developed a single unit osmotic system for simultaneous and extended delivery of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine that can ensure patients compliance and adherence to HIV-therapy. Sandwich osmotic pump tablets (SOPTs) of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine in fixed dose combination were designed and evaluated for the effect of variables such as PEO (polymer), KCl (osmogen), and orifice diameter on the physicochemical characteristics and the release behavior of the drugs. A 24 h zero order release of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine from the formulations was observed and the release rate of the drugs was found to be affected by PEO, KCl, and orifice diameter. The in vitro release data of SOPT correlated with in vivo predictions by super - position method. The results of the study propose that a single unit osmotic system (SOPT) of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine is beneficial to overcome the disadvantages of currently available dosage forms for effective control of HIV infection.

  11. Gamma scintigraphic evaluation of floating gastroretentive tablets of metformin HCl using a combination of three natural polymers in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Mahboubeh; Karimian, Hamed; Yeong, Chai Hong; Chung, Lip Yong; Nyamathulla, Shaik; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed at formulating a metformin HCl sustained-release formulation from a combination of polymers, using the wet granulation technique. A total of 16 formulations (F1-F16) were produced using different combinations of the gel-forming polymers: tamarind kernel powder, salep (palmate tubers of Orchis morio), and xanthan. Post-compression studies showed that there were no interactions between the active drug and the polymers. Results of in vitro drug-release studies indicated that the F10 formulation which contained 5 mg of tamarind kernel powder, 33.33 mg of xanthan, and 61.67 mg of salep could sustain a 95% release in 12 hours. The results also showed that F2 had a 55% similarity factor with the commercial formulation (C-ER), and the release kinetics were explained with zero order and Higuchi models. The in vivo study was performed in New Zealand White rabbits by gamma scintigraphy; the F10 formulation was radiolabeled using samarium (III) oxide ((153)Sm2O3) to trace transit of the tablets in the gastrointestinal tract. The in vivo data supported the retention of F10 formulation in the gastric region for 12 hours. In conclusion, the use of a combination of polymers in this study helped to develop an optimal gastroretentive drug-delivery system with improved bioavailability, swelling, and floating characteristics.

  12. The final report for CCM.M-K7: key comparison of 5 kg, 100 g, 10 g, 5 g and 500 mg stainless steel mass standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjun; Borys, Michael; Abbott, Patrick; Becerra, Luis Omar; Eltawil, Alaaeldin A.; Jian, Wang; Malengo, Andrea; Medina, Nieves; Snegov, Victor; Wüthrich, Christian; Scholz, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In order to show equivalence in mass standards calibration among National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of member countries of the "Comité international des poids et mesures" (CIPM), key comparisons (KC) of mass standards have been carried out under the auspices of the "Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les Grandeurs Apparentées" (CCM). This key comparison of 5 kg, 100 g, 10 g, 5 g and 500 mg stainless steel mass standards was based on the decision of the CCM during the 12th meeting held in 2010 at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). KRISS (Republic of Korea) and PTB (Germany) acted as pilot laboratory and co-pilot laboratory, respectively. The results were evaluated with the Monte Carlo method using measurement values based on participants' reference standards calculated following the recent BIPM amendments in 2015. Regarding participant results, VNIIM (100 g and 5 g) were not consistent with the key comparison reference values within their expanded uncertainties with the coverage factor, k = 2. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. An observational study to monitor the efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El Meliegy, Amr Ismail; Torky, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic prostatitis is a common urological problem in men <50-year-old. Untypical uropathogens and an intact blood prostate barrier cause difficulty in using antibiotics to treat the infection. Patients and Methods: In this open-label, observational study, levofloxacin 500 mg was given once daily for 28 days for treatment of chronic prostatitis. The primary efficacy measurement was the disappearance of all pre-treatment symptoms. Efficacy analysis is based on the per protocol population (PPP), all other analyses use the intent to treat (ITT) population. Results: The ITT included 154 men and the PPP included 151 (results are for the ITT unless otherwise indicated). Mean age was 42 ± 9 years, common concomitant conditions were diabetes mellitus (7%) and hypertension (5%). All symptoms decreased at day 28. Notably, the rate of dysuria decreased from 86.1% to 10.6%, painful ejaculation from 71% to 2.6% and perineal discomfort from 60.3% to 7.3%. A cure of condition was identified in 58.9%. No treatment failures were reported. Physician-reported adherence to study medication was 96.8%. Conclusion: Levofloxacin appears to be an effective antibiotic for treating symptoms of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Levofloxacin was well-tolerated in this population. PMID:25657549

  14. Evaluation of the palatabilities in 10 different famotidine orally disintegrating tablets by combination of disintegration device and taste sensor.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Miyako; Hazekawa, Mai; Haraguchi, Tamami; Uchida, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the palatabilities of the original and nine generic versions of famotidine orally disintegrating tablets (FODTs) by means of disintegration times and bitterness intensities determined using in combination disintegration device and taste sensor comparison of human gustatory sensation tests. The disintegration times were determined using a new disintegration testing equipment for ODTs, the OD-mate and bitterness intensities were determined using the SA501C taste-sensing system. The disintegration time and bitterness of each FODT was evaluated in gustatory sensation tests. There was a good correlation between the disintegration times of 10 FODTs estimated in human gustatory testing and those found using the OD-mate. The bitterness intensities of FODTs at 10, 20 and 30 s after starting the disintegration using the OD-mate and the values determined by the taste sensor were highly correlated with the bitterness intensities determined in gustatory sensation testing. A combination of the OD-mate and the SA501C was capable of predicting the palatabilities, disintegration properties and bitterness intensity of FODTs.

  15. Derivative emission spectrofluorimetry: Application to the analysis of newly approved FDA combination of ibuprofen and famotidine in tablets.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Marwa A A; El-Kimary, Eman I

    2015-09-01

    A new combination of ibuprofen (NSAID) and famotidine (H2 receptor antagonist) was recently approved by the FDA. It was formulated to relief pain while decreasing the risk of ulceration, which is a common problem for patients receiving NSAID. A rapid and simple derivative emission spectrofluorimetric method is proposed for the simultaneous analysis of this combination in their pharmaceutical preparation. The method is based upon measurement of the native fluorescence intensity of the two drugs at λex = 233 nm in acetonitrile. The emission data were differentiated using the first (D1) derivative technique. The plots of derivative fluorescence intensity versus concentration were rectilinear over a range of 2-35 and 0.4-8 µg/mL for both ibuprofen (IBU) and famotidine (FAM), respectively. The method was sensitive as the limits of detection were 0.51 and 0.12 µg/mL and limits of quantitation were 1.70 and 0.39 µg/mL, for IBU and FAM respectively. The proposed derivative emission spectrofluorimetric method was successfully applied for the determination of the two drugs in their synthetic mixtures and tablets with good accuracy and precision. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines.

  16. Biocidal Efficacy of a Flocculating Emergency Water Purification Tablet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    to iodine tablets when murky, turbid water encoun- Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:1803-1811. tered in the field must be clarified to make it drinkable ...Wis.), 1,500 mg of sea salt (Instant Ocean; Aquar- a dehydrated clay blend to I liter of deionized water . Test ium Systems, Mentor, Ohio), and 62 mg...cloth filter further reduced the viable in the floc after more than 60 min. Surviving E. coil cells water turbidity to only I NTU. The cloth filter

  17. Design of fixed dose combination and physicochemical characterization of enteric-coated bilayer tablet with circadian rhythmic variations containing telmisartan and pravastatin sodium.

    PubMed

    Luo, Daoqi; Kim, Joo Hee; Park, Chulhun; Oh, Euichaul; Park, Jun-Bom; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate a fixed dose combination (FDC) of telmisartan (TEL) and pravastatin sodium (PRA) in enteric-coated bilayer tablets, which was designed for once-daily bedtime dose in order to match circadian rhythmic variations of hypertension and cholesterol synthesis and optimize the patient friendly dosing treatment. Due to the poor aqueous solubility of TEL, ternary solid dispersions (SD) consisting of TEL, polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and magnesium oxide (MgO) were designed to enhance its dissolution rate in intestinal fluid. MgO was added as an effective alkalizer to maintain the high microenvironmental pH of the saturated solution in the immediate vicinity of TEL particles because TEL is known to be ionizable but poorly soluble in intestinal fluid. In contrast, PRA is known to be very unstable in low pH conditions. In the SD system, TEL was present in an amorphous structure and formed an intermolecular hydrogen bonding with MgO, giving complete drug release without precipitation in intestinal fluid. In addition, the amount of hydrophilic carrier (PEG 6000) was also a factor. In the design of tablet formulation, the diluents and superdisintegrants could play a key role in release profiles. Then, to fulfill the unmet needs of the two model drugs and match circadian rhythmic variations of hypertension and cholesterol synthesis, enteric-coated bilayer tablet consisting of TEL SD and PRA was finally prepared using Acryl-EZE(®) as an enteric coating material. Prior to enteric coating, a seal coating layer (Opadry(®), 2% weight gains) was firstly introduced to separate the core bilayer tablet from the acidic enteric coating polymers to avoid premature degradation. Dissolution profiles of finished tablets revealed that enteric-coated bilayer tablets with 6% weight gains remained intact in acidic media (pH 1.0) for 2h and then released drugs completely within 45min after switching to the intestinal media (pH 6.8). It was observed that

  18. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir fixed-dose combination tablet in Taiwanese patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wan-Long; Chien, Rong-Nan; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Lo, Gin-Ho; Sheen, I-Shyan; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Chen, Jyh-Jou; Yang, Jenny C; Knox, Steven J; Gao, Bing; Garrison, Kimberly L; Mo, Hongmei; Pang, Phillip S; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chu, Chi-Jen; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-07-01

    Pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin is the current standard-of-care regimen for treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Taiwan; however, interferon-based regimens can be poorly tolerated. The interferon-free, two-drug, fixed-dose combination tablet ledipasvir/sofosbuvir is approved in Europe, the USA, and Japan for treating chronic genotype 1 HCV infection. Little is known about its efficacy/safety in Taiwanese patients. In this multicenter, open-label, phase 3b (NCT02021656) study, 85 Taiwanese patients (n = 42, treatment-naïve; n = 43, treatment-experienced) with chronic genotype 1 HCV infection (±compensated cirrhosis) received 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir fixed-dose combination tablet. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients with sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation (SVR12). Safety and pharmacokinetic data were collected. The overall SVR12 rate was 98% (83/85), with 100% (42/42) and 95% (41/43) of treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients, respectively, achieving SVR12. There were no on-treatment virologic failures. One patient relapsed after treatment discontinuation; one patient withdrew consent on day 2. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event (AE) was headache (14%, 12/85). There was one grade 3 AE (small cell lung cancer unrelated to ledipasvir/sofosbuvir), no grade 4 AEs, and four grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities. Only the patient with small cell lung cancer prematurely discontinued treatment. Two patients reported three serious AEs; none was considered related to ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Data from this phase 3b study suggest that 12 weeks of once-daily treatment with the interferon-free, ribavirin-free regimen ledipasvir/sofosbuvir is effective and well-tolerated in Taiwanese patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV infection, irrespective of treatment history. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons

  19. Double-blind trial to find dose range using a fixed combination of mefloquine, sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine in falciparum malaria: a field study on adults in Burma.

    PubMed

    Tin, F; Nyunt Hlaing; Lim, M A; Win, S; Lasserre, R

    1987-01-01

    In a field study conducted in Burma, 60 semi-immune adults were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups. The first (mean parasite count, 12717/mm3) received a single dose of a fixed combination of 500 mg mefloquine base, 1000 mg sulfadoxine and 50 mg pyrimethamine (2 tablets of 'Fansimef') plus 1 tablet placebo. The second group (mean parasite count, 11 863/mm3) were given 3 tablets of the same medication. The study was double-blind. Parasite count was checked daily for the first week and weekly for a further 3 weeks. Average times for parasite clearance were 1.47 d in patients receiving 2 tablets, and 1.87 d in those given 3 tablets. Asexual parasites reappeared on day 28 in one patient in each group, although they had been free of parasites during the previous 4 weeks; this could be due to reinfection. The drugs were generally well tolerated, though mild and transient giddiness was seen in 80% of patients in the first group and 96% in the second. Nausea was reported by 33% and 43% of patients respectively. No vomiting occurred in the first group but 8 patients vomited in the second (P less than 0.01). In conclusion it seems possible to treat falciparum malaria in semi-immune adults, weighing less than 60 kg, with a single dose of 500 mg mefloquine base, 1000 mg sulfadoxine and 50 mg pyrimethamine (2 tablets), instead of the higher dose (3 tablets) currently recommended. This reduces treatment cost and improves tolerance of the drugs.

  20. Safety of an oral anticancer agent (trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet) in patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Go, M; Iwai, M; Ito, D; Asano, H; Usami, E; Teramachi, H; Yoshimura, T

    2016-04-01

    We retrospectively studied the safety of trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet (TAS-102) monotherapy in patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer. Adverse events to TAS-102 monotherapy were observed in 22 out of 23 cases (95.7%). The most frequent adverse events were neutropenia (69.6%), nausea (53.2%), and malaise (30.4%). Treatment was postponed in 54 (59.3%) out of 91 courses, and in 34 (66.7%) of these 54 courses, the delay in treatment was due to bone marrow suppression. Seven patients with peritoneal metastases suffered from nausea, whilst none of the patients without peritoneal metastases had nausea (p = 0.0139). Nausea and vomiting during a previous chemotherapy cycle was significantly associated with nausea after TAS-102 treatment (p = 0.0007), and the treatment cycles were significantly longer in patients with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (p = 0.0061). Our results suggest that the incidence of nausea was higher in patients treated with TAS-102. Therefore, it is important to inform patients of the risk of these toxicities and to provide enhanced supportive care. Moreover, we recommend that, for patients with repeated treatment postponement due to neutropenia, the dosage should be fixed based on therapeutic efficacy and prognosis.

  1. RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine, and efavirenz in combined tablet dosage form

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Dhara S.; Patel, Bhavini N.; Patel, Chhaganbhai N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A simple, precise, accurate, and rapid reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV-Visible detector has been developed and subsequently validated for the simultaneous determination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), lamivudine (LAMI), and efavirenz (EFV) in their combined tablet dosage form. Materials and Methods: The separation was based on the use of a Kromasil C18 analytical column (150 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 70 volumes of methanol and 30 volumes of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 5.0). The separation was carried out at 40°C temperature with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Results: Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 254 nm, with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges of 1–6 μg/ml for TDF and LAMI and 2–12 μg/ml for EFV. The recoveries obtained were 99.46–101.36% for LAMI, 99.57–101.42% for TDF, and 99.96–100.87 for EFV. Conclusion: The method was validated according to International conference of harmonisation guidelines in terms of accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, limits of detection and quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation. PMID:23781482

  2. Does tablet formulation alone improve adherence and persistence: a comparison of ezetimibe fixed dose combination versus ezetimibe separate pill combination?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Louise E; Pratt, Nicole; Roughead, Elizabeth E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare adherence and persistence in patients who add ezetimibe to statin therapy as a separate pill combination (SPC) or fixed dose combination (FDC). This is a retrospective cohort study of prescription data conducted in an Australian health dataset. Two cohorts were identified: those dispensed statins and subsequently ezetimibe as either SPC or FDC. We compared adherence to combination therapy using the medication possession ratio (MPR), multivariate linear and logistic regression. Persistence to initial combination medicines and any lipid-lowering therapies were analysed using Kaplan Meyer survival and Cox proportional hazards models. A total of 3651 people initiated ezetimibe SPC and 5740 ezetimibe FDC. There was no significant difference in adherence with mean MPRs: ezetimibe SPC = 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.98-1.01) and FDC = 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99). One year persistence rates to initial combination medicines were ezetimibe SPC 49.1% vs. FDC 62.4%; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81 (95% CI 1.76-1.90). However, persistence to any lipid-lowering therapy was higher in those initiating ezetimibe SPC = 84.9% vs. FDC = 76%; HR = 0.62 (95% CI 0.55-0.72). One year persistence rates to any two lipid-lowering medicines were similar: ezetimibe SPC 65.2% and FDC 65%. In this study FDCs have little impact on either adherence or persistence to combination lipid-lowering therapy in people who have been taking statins. The benefit of higher persistence to FDCs in first episode of treatment with initial medicines is debatable as persistence to dual therapy was similar in both cohorts. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth in healthy volunteers after oral administration of compound tablets containing a combination of metronidazole, tetracycline hydrochloride and bismuth oxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Ding, L; Huang, N-Y; Wen, A-D; Liu, B; Li, W-B

    2015-02-01

    To eradicate Helicobacter pylori in human pylorus and to heal duodenal ulcers, recently, a new formulation of combination tablets containing metronidazole 125 mg, tetracycline hydrochloride 125 mg and bismuth oxide 40 mg has been developed. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of the test formulation. A one-sequence, 3-period study was conducted in 12 Chinese healthy volunteers (6 male, 6 female). Volunteers each received single low dose (1 tablet) under fed condition in period 1, single high dose (3 tablets) under fasted condition in period 2, and single high dose (3 tablets) and multiple doses (3 tablets at once, 4 times daily for 7 consecutive days) under fed condition in period 3. Blood samples were collected and determined over 48 h in every period. After single high dose administration under fed condition, the C max of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth were 6.833 ± 0.742 μg/mL, 0.8513 ± 0.1253 μg/mL and 3.32 ± 1.89 ng/mL, respectively. The C max and AUC 0-48 of metronidazole increased in proportion to the doses within the tested dose range, but tetracycline and bismuth did not. Food caused 10% and 80% decrease of the C max for metronidazole and bismuth, respectively, but did not affect tetracycline. No gender effect was found on the pharmacokinetics of the 3 ingredients. In the steady state, the C av of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth were 20.75 ± 3.52 μg/mL, 1.900 ± 0.243 μg/mL and 5.61 ± 1.34 ng/mL, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Enteric-coated tablet of risedronate sodium in combination with phytic acid, a natural chelating agent, for improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong S; Jang, Sun W; Son, Miwon; Kim, Byoung M; Kang, Myung J

    2016-01-20

    The oral bioavailability (BA) of risedronate sodium (RS), an antiresorptive agent, is less than 1% due to its low membrane permeability as well as the formation of non-absorbable complexes with multivalent cations such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)) in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, to increase oral BA of the bisphosphonate, a novel enteric-coated tablet (ECT) dosage form of RS in combination with phytic acid (IP6), a natural chelating agent recognized as safe, was formulated. The chelating behavior of IP6 against Ca(2+), including a stability constant for complex formulation was characterized using the continuous variation method. Subsequently, in vitro dissolution profile and in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the novel ECT were evaluated comparatively with that of the marketed product (Altevia, Sanofi, US), an ECT containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a chelating agent, in beagle dogs. The logarithm of stability constant for Ca(2+)-IP6 complex, an equilibrium constant approximating the strength of the interaction between two chemicals to form complex, was 19.05, which was 3.9-fold (p<0.05) and 1.7-fold (p<0.05) higher than those of Ca(2+)-RS and Ca(2+)-EDTA complexes. The release profile of RS from both enteric-coated dosage forms was equivalent, regardless of the type of chelating agent. An in vivo absorption study in beagle dogs revealed that the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of RS after oral administration of IP6-containing ECT were approximately 7.9- (p<0.05) and 5.0-fold (p<0.05) higher than those of the marketed product at the same dose (35mg as RS). Therefore, our study demonstrates the potential usefulness of the ECT system in combination with IP6 for an oral therapy with the bisphosphonate for improved BA.

  5. Clinical effects of perazine ferulate tablets combined with eucalyptol limonene pinene enteric soft capsules for treatment of children with IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZHIZHEN; PAN, JINGMEI; SUN, CHUNLEI; ZHOU, JUAN; LI, NA

    2016-01-01

    The clinical effects of piperazine ferulate tablets combined with eucalyptol limonene pinene enteric soft capsules for treatment of children with IgA nephropathy were investigated. Sixty children with IgA nephropathy were included in the study and were randomly divided into the control (n=30) and observation (n=30) groups. The patients in the control group were treated with conservative or hormone therapy while patients in the observation group were treated with piperazine ferulate tablets combined with eucalyptol-limonene-pinene enteric soft capsules. Clinical effects were observed and compared. The total effective rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, while the incidence of complications was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05). Serum IgA and fibronectin levels of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group, while the level of C3 was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, piperazine ferulate tablets combined with eucalyptus enteric soft capsule constituted a safe and effective for the treatment of children with IgA nephropathy. The treatment was superior to conservative or hormone therapy, and thus worthy of clinical promotion. PMID:27347034

  6. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir, a Fixed-Dose Combination Tablet for the Treatment of Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    German, Polina; Mathias, Anita; Brainard, Diana; Kearney, Brian P

    2016-11-01

    Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (Harvoni(®)), a fixed-dose combination tablet of an NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and an NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, is approved in the US, European Union, Canada, and other regions for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in adults. Following absorption, ledipasvir reaches maximum plasma concentrations (T max) 4-4.5 h post-dose and is eliminated with a terminal half-life (t 1/2) of 47 h. Sofosbuvir undergoes intracellular activation to an active triphosphate GS-461203 (not detected in plasma) and ultimately to GS-331007, a predominant circulating metabolite, which is the primary analyte of interest in clinical pharmacology studies. Sofosbuvir is rapidly absorbed and eliminated from plasma (T max: 0.8-1 h; t 1/2: 0.5 h). The peak plasma concentrations for GS-331007 are achieved between 3.5 and 4 h post-dose; the elimination t 1/2 for GS-331007 is 27 h. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir exhibits a favorable clinical pharmacology profile; it can be administered once daily without regard to food and does not require dose modification in hepatitis C virus-infected patients with any degree of hepatic impairment or mild to moderate renal impairment. The pharmacokinetic profiles of ledipasvir, sofosbuvir, and GS-331007 (predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir) are not significantly affected by demographic variables; pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses reveal no exposure-response relationships for efficacy or safety. The review summarizes the clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses for ledipasvir/sofosbuvir.

  7. Use of weight-for-age-data to optimize tablet strength and dosing regimens for a new fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine combination for treating falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Walter R. J.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Olliaro, Piero L.; White, Nicholas J.; Brasseur, Philippe; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a novel methodology to define age-based dosing regimens for the treatment of malaria with a new, user-friendly, blister-packaged fixed-dose combination of artesunate and amodiaquine. METHODS: A weight-for-age reference database of 88 054 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa was compiled using data from Demographic Health Surveys, observational and intervention studies, and standardized for sex, age and malaria risk. We then determined the optimal tablet strength (milligram (mg) per tablet) and age-dose categories for the combination of artesunate and amodiaquine. The proportions of patients predicted to receive doses within newly defined therapeutic ranges for amodiaquine (7-15 mg/kg/day) and artesunate (2-10 mg/kg/day), were estimated for different age categories and mg tablet strengths using models based on the weight-for-age reference database. FINDINGS: The optimal paediatric (p) and adult (a) strength tablets contained 25/67.5 and 100/270 mg artesunate/amodiaquine, respectively. A regimen with five age categories: 0-1 months (1/2 p), 2-11 months (1 p), 1-5 years (2 p), 6-13 years (1 a), and > 14 years (2 a) had an overall dosing accuracy of 83.4% and 99.9% for amodiaquine and artesunate, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed method to use weight-for-age reference data from countries where malaria is endemic is a useful tool for designing age-based dosing regimens for antimalarial drugs for drug registration and field use. PMID:17242831

  8. [The relative bioavailability of paracetamol in suppositories in comparison to tablets].

    PubMed

    Blume, H; Ali, S L; Elze, M; Krämer, J; Scholz, M E

    1996-10-01

    Relative Bioavailability Studies on Paracetamol in Suppositories as Compared to Tablets. Relative bioavailabilities of 250 mg paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) in ben-u-ron 125 mg and ben-u-ron 250 mg suppositories were determined in comparison with that of cut-in-half Benuron tablets 500 mg in an open intraindividual 3-period-changeover-study in 18 healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations of paracetamol were analyzed by means of a specific and sensitive HPLC-method with UV-detection. For the assessment of the bioavailability AUC, Cmax, tmax and HVD (half value duration) were used as pharmacokinetic characteristics. Relative bioavailability of paracetamol was 102% for 125 mg and 93% for 250 mg suppositories, compared with that of cut-in-half 500 mg tablets. Mean maximum paracetamol plasma concentrations (Cmax) were determined as 2.1 micrograms/ml (CV = 31%; (CV = Coefficient of Variation), 2.0 micrograms/ml (CV = 27%) and 3.5 micrograms/ml (CV = 27%) after administration of 125 mg and 250 mg suppositories and 500 mg cut-in-half tablets, respectively. These maximum concentrations were achieved 2.2 +/- 0.7, 1.8 +/- 0.7 and 0.6 +/- 0.3 h (tmax) after administration of the respective preparations. The corresponding HVD-values were 3.8 +/- 1.0, 3.5 +/- 0.9 and 1.8 +/- 0.8 h, respectively. Extent of bioavailability of paracetamol (dose: 250 mg) following administration of 125 mg as well as 250 mg suppositories in comparison with 500 mg tablets was shown to be equivalent. The results obtained in this study confirm the adequate bioavailability of both suppositories compared with tablets. On the other hand both suppository preparations were assessed as being bioequivalent concerning AUC and Cmax.

  9. A Comparison of the Lidocaine Patch 5% vs Naproxen 500 mg Twice Daily for the Relief of Pain Associated With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A 6-Week, Randomized, Parallel-Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Nalamachu, Srinivas; Crockett, R.S.; Gammaitoni, Arnold R.; Gould, Errol M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy caused by median nerve compression. This pilot clinical trial was designed to compare the safety and effectiveness of the lidocaine patch 5% to that of naproxen 500 mg twice daily for the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with CTS. Methods In this 6-week, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, multicenter study, participants from 2 practice sites, aged 18 to 75 years with clinical/electrodiagnostic evidence of CTS, were randomized to receive up to 3 lidocaine 5% patches every 24 hours or naproxen 500 mg twice daily for 6 weeks. Outcome assessments included mean changes between baseline and Week 6 average pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]: Question 5, Average Pain Intensity [API]), an Investigator Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) over the course of the treatment period and a comparison of patient satisfaction (Clinical Global Assessment of Treatment [CGAT]). Results One hundred patients were randomized in this study, 52 in the lidocaine patch 5% group and 48 in the naproxen 500 mg twice daily group. Significant reductions in API scores were observed between baseline and Week 6 for both lidocaine patch 5% (P < .0001) and naproxen 500 mg twice daily (P = .0004); however, there were no statistically significant differences between treatments (P = .083). There was a significant (P = .016) difference in the CGI-I for lidocaine patch 5% (51.1%) compared with naproxen 500 mg twice daily (24.3%). Whereas 71.8% of the lidocaine patch 5% patients reported being “satisfied” to “very satisfied” with the treatment, only 63.2% of naproxen 500 mg twice daily patients reported likewise, although the difference was not statistically significant. Both treatments were well tolerated. Two patients reported treatment-related adverse events in the lidocaine patch 5% group and 6 in the naproxen 500 mg twice daily group, all of which were considered mild or moderate in

  10. The accuracy, precision and sustainability of different techniques for tablet subdivision: breaking by hand and the use of tablet splitters or a kitchen knife.

    PubMed

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Doeve, Myrthe E; Nicia, Agnes E; Teerenstra, Steven; Notenboom, Kim; Hekster, Yechiel A; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2014-05-15

    Tablets are frequently subdivided to lower the dose, to facilitate swallowing by e.g. children or older people or to save costs. Splitting devices are commonly used when hand breaking is difficult or painful. Three techniques for tablet subdivision were investigated: hand breaking, tablet splitter, kitchen knife. A best case drug (paracetamol), tablet (round, flat, uncoated, 500 mg) and operator (24-year student) were applied. Hundred tablets were subdivided by hand and by three devices of each of the following types: Fit & Healthy, Health Care Logistics, Lifetime, PillAid, PillTool, Pilomat tablet splitter; Blokker kitchen knife. The intra and inter device accuracy, precision and sustainability were investigated. The compliance to (adapted) regulatory requirements was investigated also. The accuracy and precision of hand broken tablets was 104/97% resp. 2.8/3.2% (one part per tablet considered; parts right/left side operator). The right/left accuracies of the splitting devices varied between 60 and 133%; the precisions 4.0 and 29.6%. The devices did not deteriorate over 100-fold use. Only hand broken tablets complied with all regulatory requirements. Health care professionals should realize that tablet splitting may result in inaccurate dosing. Authorities should undertake appropriate measures to assure good function of tablet splitters and, where feasible, to reduce the need for their use. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Formulation development, optimization, and evaluation of sustained release tablet of valacyclovir hydrochloride by combined approach of floating and swelling for better gastric retention.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Pratik; Nayak, Kunal; Patel, Kaushika; Patel, Jaymin; Shah, Shreeraj; Deshpande, Jayant

    2014-12-01

    The present study is intended to enhance gastric retention of sustained release tablet of valacyclovir hydrochloride by combined approach of floating and swelling. The tablets are prepared by direct compression method. Polyethylene oxide (Polyox WSR 303) is selected as the swelling matrix agent. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) is used as swelling enhancer, and sodium bicarbonate is used as an effervescent agent for floating. A 3(2) full factorial design is applied to systematically optimize the formulation. The concentration of Polyox WSR 303 (X 1) and concentration of SSG (X 2) are selected as independent variables. The percentage drug release at 12 h, floating lag time, and maximum percentage swelling are selected as dependent variables. Formulations are evaluated for hardness, friability, floating lag time, total floating time, percentage swelling, in vitro drug release, and in vivo floating study. The results indicated that X 1 and X 2 significantly affected the drug release properties, floating lag times, and maximum percentage swelling. Release rate decreases as the concentration of Polyox increased. Regression analysis and numerical optimization are performed to identify the best formulation. Formulation F5 prepared with Polyox WSR 303 (15 %) and SSG (10 %) is found to be the best formulation. F5 followed zero-order release mechanism. Swelling and floating gastroretentive tablets of valacyclovir HCl are successfully formulated with controlled delivery to stomach with an aim of increasing the mean residence time in the upper part of GIT where the drug has its absorption window.

  12. Single dose sublingual testosterone and oral sildenafil vs. a dual route/dual release fixed dose combination tablet: a pharmacokinetic comparison

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Kim; de Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Koppeschaar, Hans P. F.; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of two formulations of a combination drug product containing 0.5 mg testosterone and 50 mg sildenafil for female sexual interest/arousal disorder. The prototype (formulation 1) consists of a testosterone solution for sublingual administration and a sildenafil tablet that is administered 2.5 h later. The dual route/dual release fixed dose combination tablet (formulation 2) employs a sublingual and an oral route for systemic uptake. This tablet has an inner core of sildenafil with a polymeric time delay coating and an outer polymeric coating containing testosterone. It was designed to increase dosing practicality and decrease potential temporal non‐adherence through circumventing the relatively complex temporal dosing scheme. Methods Twelve healthy premenopausal subjects received both formulations randomly on separate days. Blood was sampled frequently to determine the pharmacokinetics of free testosterone, total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, sildenafil and N‐desmethyl‐sildenafil. Results Formulation 2 had a higher maximum concentration (C max) for testosterone, 8.06 ng ml–1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.84, 9.28) and higher area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC), 7.69 ng ml–1 h (95% CI 6.22, 9.16) than formulation 1, 5.66 ng ml–1 (95% CI 4.63, 6.69) and 5.12 ng ml–1 h (95% CI 4.51, 5.73), respectively. Formulation 2 had a lower C max for sildenafil, 173 ng ml–1 (95% CI 126, 220) and a lower AUC, 476 ng ml–1 h (95% CI 401, 551) than formulation 1, 268 ng ml–1 (95% CI 188, 348) and 577 ng ml–1 h (95% CI 462, 692), respectively. Formulation 2 released sildenafil after 2.75 h (95% CI 2.40, 3.10). Conclusions The dual route/dual release fixed dose combination tablet fulfilled its design criteria and is considered suitable for further clinical testing. What is Already Known about this Subject Female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) is a

  13. Tablet Weaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  14. [Relative bioavailability of paracetamol in suppositories preparations in comparison to tablets].

    PubMed

    Blume, H; Ali, S L; Elze, M; Krämer, J; Wendt, G; Scholz, M E

    1994-12-01

    Relative Bioavailability of Paracetamol as Suppositories Compared to Tablets. The relative bioavailability of paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) in ben-u-ron 500 mg and ben-u-ron 1000 mg suppositories (test formulations) was compared with that of Benuron tablets 500 mg (reference product) in an open, intraindividual, 3-period-changeover-study in 18 healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of paracetamol were determined using a specific and sensitive HPLC method with UV detection. For the assessment of bioavailability AUC, Cmax, tmax and HVD were used as pharmacokinetic characteristics. Bioequivalence of the rectal formulations was tested by calculating 90% confidence intervals using the Two-one-sided-t-tests-procedure and log-transformed data of AUC and Cmax. For AUC the confidence intervals were required to be in the 80 and 125% range, for Cmax between 70 and 143% (inclusion rule). Data from 17 subjects could be evaluated. Bioavailability of paracetamol was 89 and 90% for the 500 and 1000 mg suppositories, respectively compared with that of the 500 mg reference tablets. Mean maximum paracetamol plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 3.55 and 6.02 or 7.16 mg/l after administration of the 500 and 1000 mg suppositories or the 500 mg tablets, respectively. These maximum concentrations were achieved 2.0, 2.7 and 0.6 h (tmax) after administration of the respective preparations. The corresponding HVD values were 4.3, 5.2 and 2.0 h, respectively. After dose adjustment of the results for the 1000 mg suppositories relative bioavailabilities of paracetamol from both rectal formulations exceeded 80% of that from the tablets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Quantitative analysis combined with chromatographic fingerprint and antioxidant activities for the comprehensive evaluation of Compound Danshen Tablets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiao; Gao, Jiayue; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-03-01

    The composition of traditional Chinese medicine is extremely complex, so it is difficult to ensure quality consistency. We took Compound Danshen Tablets as the object of the study, by using high-performance liquid chromatography to establish multiwavelength fusion fingerprints. Characteristic fingerprints of 30 batches of samples were generated at four wavelengths and evaluated by systematic quantified fingerprint method. An on-line antioxidant determination method was used for the determination of the antioxidant components in Compound Danshen Tablets. The fingerprint analysis of the marker compounds can reflect the content of the marker compounds, which were determined by using the external standard method. This study elucidated that multiwavelength fusion fingerprint profiles and multiple markers compound analysis in conjunction with the assay of antioxidant activity offered a reliable and efficient approach to quantitatively evaluate the quality consistency of the traditional Chinese medicine and herbal preparations.

  16. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lb: use the appropriate combination of tablets. (2) Indications for use. Prevents canine heartworm... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lb: use the appropriate combination of tablets. (2) Indications for use. Prevents canine heartworm... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1)...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lb: use the appropriate combination of tablets. (2) Indications for use. Prevents canine heartworm... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1)...

  19. Food effect: The combined effect of media pH and viscosity on the gastrointestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin tablet.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Jaradat, Nidal; Odeh, Yousef

    2017-04-01

    The clinical implications of food-drug interactions may have to be taken seriously into account with oral drugs administration in order to minimize variations in drug bioavailability. Food intake may alter physiological changes in the pH and viscosity of the gastrointestinal lumen, which could affect the oral absorption of drugs. The aim of the present study was to have an insight on the effect of media parameters: viscosity and pHon the oral absorption of ciprofloxacin HCl from solid formulations using a model food: Corchorus olitorius (Jute) Soup. In vitro disintegration and dissolution rates of ciprofloxacin tablet were evaluated using compendia buffer media in the presence/absence of C. olitorius leaves. These in vitro data were then input to GastroPlus™ to predict ciprofloxacin absorption profiles under fasted and fed states. The present study demonstrated the significance of luminal pH and viscosity on the dissolution and disintegration of solid formulations following postprandial ingestion of the viscous soup. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in this soup, which could be attributed to the postprandial elevation in media viscosity and reduced solubility at elevated gastricpH. The predicted model under fed state showed no impact on AUC but prolonged Tmax and a decrease in Cmax. Concomitant intake of C. olitorius soup with ciprofloxacin might have negative effect on the rate of drug release from conventional immediate release tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal Dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. for Average Adults has A Significant Anti-Cancer Effect, While Widely Used 2000 I.U. or Higher Promotes Cancer: Marked Reduction of Taurine & 1α, 25(OH)2D3 Was Found In Various Cancer Tissues and Oral Intake of Optimal Dose of Taurine 175mg for Average Adults, Rather Than 500mg, Was Found to Be A New Potentially Safe and More Effective Method of Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Yapor, Dario; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the author had found that the optimal dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has safe & effective anticancer effects, while commonly used 2000-5000 I.U. of Vit. D3 often creates a 2-3 time increase in cancer markers. We examined the concentration of Taurine in normal internal organs and in cancer using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. We found that Taurine levels in normal tissue are 4-6ng. But, the amount of Taurine of average normal value of 5.0-5.25ng was strikingly reduced to 0.0025-0.0028ng in this study of several examples in adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, prostate, and lung, as well as breast cancer. The lowest Taurine levels of 0.0002-0.0005ng were found in so called Zika virus infected babies from Brazil with microcephaly. While Vitamin D3 receptor stimulant 1α, 25 (OH)2D3 in normal tissues was 0.45-0.53ng, they were reduced to 0.025-0.006ng in cancers (1/100th-1/200th of normal value), particularly in various adenocarcinomas. All of these adenocarcinomas had about 1500ng HPV-16 viral infection. In 500 breast cancers, about 97% had HPV-16. The optimal dose of Taurine for average adult has been found to be about 175mg, rather than the widely used 500mg. In addition, since Taurine is markedly reduced to close to 1/1000th-1/2000th of its normal value in these cancer tissues, we examined the effect of the optimal dose of Taurine on cancer patients. Optimal dose of Taurine produced a very significant decrease in cancer-associated parameters, such as Oncogene C-fosAb2 & Integrin α5β1 being reduced to less than 1/1,000th, and 8-OH-dG (which increases in the presence of DNA mutation) reduced to less than 1/10th. The optimal dose of Taurine 175mg for average adult various cancer patient 3 times a day alone provide beneficial effects with very significant anti-cancer effects with strikingly increased urinary excretion of bacteria, viruses, & funguses, asbestos, toxic metals & other toxic substances. However, optimal doses of

  1. Clinical study of Shengxuening tablet combined with rHuEPO for the treatment of renal anemia of maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIN; YU, GUOJUN; HU, JIANGPING; XU, XUEFENG; LUO, FANG; SHEN, PING; ZHANG, GUOSHENG; YANG, NING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effects of Shengxuening tablet (silkworm excrement) combined with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) for the treatment of renal anemia of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Seventy-two MHD patients with renal anemia were included in the study and randomly divided into the control (n=34) and observation (n=38) groups. Patients in the control group were treated by hypodermic injection of 100–150 U/(kg·w) rHuEPO and patients in the observation group were treated by rHuEPO + 1.0 g t.i.d. p.o. Shengxuening tablet. The two groups were assisted by conventional treatments including iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and L-carnitine. After 3 and 6 months, improvement of anemia was compared. After 3 months, the hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation levels of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). In addition, C-reactive protein and superoxide dismutase levels of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). After 6 months, indices of the observation group were ameliorated while the improvement of control group was not obvious, and indices of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). Consumption of rHuEPO in the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group, and the total effective rate was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, Shengxuening tablet combined with rHuEPO was safe and effective for the treatment of renal anemia of MHD patients. PMID:27347032

  2. Clinical study of Shengxuening tablet combined with rHuEPO for the treatment of renal anemia of maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Yu, Guojun; Hu, Jiangping; Xu, Xuefeng; Luo, Fang; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Guosheng; Yang, Ning

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effects of Shengxuening tablet (silkworm excrement) combined with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) for the treatment of renal anemia of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Seventy-two MHD patients with renal anemia were included in the study and randomly divided into the control (n=34) and observation (n=38) groups. Patients in the control group were treated by hypodermic injection of 100-150 U/(kg·w) rHuEPO and patients in the observation group were treated by rHuEPO + 1.0 g t.i.d. p.o. Shengxuening tablet. The two groups were assisted by conventional treatments including iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and L-carnitine. After 3 and 6 months, improvement of anemia was compared. After 3 months, the hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation levels of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). In addition, C-reactive protein and superoxide dismutase levels of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). After 6 months, indices of the observation group were ameliorated while the improvement of control group was not obvious, and indices of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). Consumption of rHuEPO in the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group, and the total effective rate was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, Shengxuening tablet combined with rHuEPO was safe and effective for the treatment of renal anemia of MHD patients.

  3. Formulation development and evaluation of fast disintegrating tablets of salbutamol sulphate, cetirizine hydrochloride in combined pharmaceutical dosage form: a new era in novel drug delivery for pediatrics and geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mankaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics.

  4. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form: A New Era in Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mankaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics. PMID:25810924

  5. Analgesic efficacy and tolerability of oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg compared with those of oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg and hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg in patients with moderate to severe postoperative pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, parallel-group study in a dental pain model.

    PubMed

    Litkowski, Leonard J; Christensen, Steven E; Adamson, Dennis N; Van Dyke, Thomas; Han, Seung-Ho; Newman, Kenneth B

    2005-04-01

    Combination therapy has been widely used for the clinical management of acute pain. By combining 2 drugs with different mechanisms of action, such therapy provides additive analgesic effects while reducing the risk for adverse effects. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg with those of oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg, and placebo in a dental pain model. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, parallel-group, single-dose study in patients experiencing moderate to severe pain after surgical removal of > or = 2 ipsilateral impacted third molars. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg, oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg, or placebo. The primary outcome measures were total pain relief through 6 hours after dosing (TOTPAR6), sum of pain intensity differences through 6 hours (SPID6), and adverse events. Secondary efficacy measures included SPID3 and TOTPAR3, peak pain relief, peak pain intensity difference, time to onset of pain relief, time to use of rescue medication, proportion of patients reporting pain half gone, and the patient's global evaluation. Two hundred forty-nine patients (43.5% male; 87.5% white; mean age, 19.1 years; mean body weight, 153.6 pounds) were randomized to treatment as follows: 62 to oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg, 61 to oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, 63 to hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg, and 63 to placebo. Oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg provided significantly greater analgesia compared with oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg, and placebo (mean [SD] TOTPAR6, 14.98 [5.37], 9.53 [6.77], 8.36 [6.68], and 5.05 [6.49], respectively; P < 0.001, oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg vs all other treatments). SPID6 values also differed significantly for oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg

  6. Colorimetric determination of disulfiram in tablets: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, E J; Hanus, J P; Johnson, R H; Lazar, A; Olsen, R E; Newton, J M; Petzinger, G; Ristich, R; Robinette, M L

    1981-05-01

    The colorimetric reaction of cuprous iodide and disulfiram has been collaboratively studied in 8 laboratories to determine the drug in tablet form at 2 dosage levels. The disulfiram was extracted from the tablet matrix with methylene chloride. After a basic wash with 1 M NaOH, an aliquot of the methylene chloride solution was reacted with solid cuprous iodide, and the absorbance of the resulting color was measured. Single assays on 2 synthetic preparations of known disulfiram content were performed with average recoveries of 98.4 and 99.2% for 93.3 and 105.3 mg, respectively. Duplicate determinations on 2 commercial tablet preparations declared at 250 and 500 mg gave mean and standard deviation values of 246.6 +/- 6.40 and 493.6 +/- 12.0 mg, respectively. The results agreed closely with those obtained by the author using the NF iodometric titration procedure. The method has been adopted official first action.

  7. Pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine fixed-dose combination tablets: a parallel-design study in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Kanyin E; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Hai-Chen; Song, Yun-Xiao; Pu, Hua-Hua; Lu, Chuan; Liu, Gang-Yi; Jia, Jing-Ying; Zheng, Qing-Si; Zhu, Jian-Min; Yu, Chen

    2012-11-01

    Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet is the long-acting portion of the antimalaria product Artecospe(®), coblister containing artesunate tablets plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine FDC tablets. This study was conducted to support the efficacy and tolerability of the sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine FDC tablet in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Prequalification of Medicines Programme, as well as to obtain marketing authorization in China. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles between a new generic and the branded reference formulation of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine FDC tablets, and to assess the bioequivalence of the 2 products in healthy Chinese volunteers. This single-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in healthy Chinese male volunteers who were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a single 1500/75-mg dose (3 × 500/25-mg tablets) of either the test or reference formulation after a 12-hour overnight fast. Seventeen blood samples were obtained over a 168-hour interval, and plasma concentrations of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine were determined by 2 separate validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry methods. Pharmacokinetic properties (C(max), AUC(0-72), AUC(0-168), and T(max)) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC(0-72) were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%, in accordance with the guidelines of WHO and China's Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study by vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, and subject interviews on adverse events (AEs). Forty-six healthy subjects completed the study. The mean values of sulfadoxine C(max) (183.07 and 165.15 mg/L), AUC(0-72) (11,036.52 and 10,536.78 mg/L/h), and AUC(0-168) (22,247.05 and 21,761.02 mg

  8. A randomized two-way crossover bioequivalence study in healthy adult volunteers of paediatric zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine fast-disintegrating fixed-dose combination tablet.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anjali; Gbadero, Daniel; Esseku, Fredrick; Adesanya, Olufikayo J; Adeyeye, Moji C

    2017-04-01

    The bioequivalence study was conducted to compare the developed paediatric fixed-dose combination (FDC) zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (60/30/50 mg) tablet - the test formulation - with the combined mixture of single-entity innovator products (reference product). A single-dose open-label randomized two-way crossover study was conducted in healthy adult African volunteers after an informed consent was obtained. The 24 volunteers, divided into two groups, were administered the products after an overnight fast on two treatment days with 14 days of washout period. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and analysed using a validated RP-HPLC-UV assay method. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters (non-compartmental model) were assessed with WinNonlin(®) software. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and FDA bioequivalence statistical criterion of 90% CI or 80% to 125% range (set at P < 0.05) of least square geometric means (LSGM) ratios of test: reference product for Cmax , AUC0-t , and AUC0-∞ were determined. ANOVA indicated that the period, sequence and formulation had no significant effect on the PK parameters (P > 0.05). The 90% CIs for all the drugs were within the 80% to 125% range. The developed FDC tablet is bioequivalent to the reference product. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Glycaemic control and cost analysis when changing from gliclazide co-administered with metformin to pre-combined glibenclamide-metformin tablets in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lim, P C; Lim, S L; Oiyammaal, C

    2012-02-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients who were on gliclazide co-administered with metformin were changed to pre-combined glibenclamide-metformin tablets in the Endocrine Clinic, Penang Hospital. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the differences in glycaemic control and treatment cost following the change. Eighty patients (60% females) with a mean age of 55 years old were studied. Mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbAlc) reduction was -0.92% (p<0.01) and -0.83% (p<0.01) after three and six months respectively. Patients with baseline HbA1c > or =8% had greater reduction in mean HbA1c (-1.36%) after six months. The treatment cost per month was reduced by 45% at 3 months (p<0.01)) and 44% at 6 months (p<0.01). The change to pre-combined glibenclamide-metformin tablets resulted in significant improvement in glycaemia and reduction in treatment cost

  10. Review of bilayer tablet technology.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Admassu; Akseli, Ilgaz; Sprockel, Omar; Kottala, Niranjan; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2014-01-30

    Therapeutic strategies based on oral delivery of bilayer (and multilayer) tablets are gaining more acceptance among brand and generic products due to a confluence of factors including advanced delivery strategies, patient compliance and combination therapy. Successful manufacturing of these ever more complex systems needs to overcome a series of challenges from formulation design to tablet press monitoring and control. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of bilayer tablet technology, highlighting the main benefits of this type of oral dosage forms while providing a description of current challenges and advances toward improving manufacturing practices and product quality. Several aspects relevant to bilayer tablet manufacturing are addressed including material properties, lubrication, layer ordering, layer thickness, layer weight control, as well as first and final compression forces. A section is also devoted to bilayer tablet characterization that present additional complexities associated with interfaces between layers. The available features of the manufacturing equipment for bilayer tablet production are also described indicating the different strategies for sensing and controls offered by bilayer tablet press manufacturers. Finally, a roadmap for bilayer tablet manufacturing is advanced as a guideline to formulation design and selection of process parameters and equipment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin/metformin (150/1,000 mg) immediate-release fixed-dose combination tablet in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Joseph; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa; Devineni, Damayanthi

    2015-03-01

    To assess the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of canagliflozin and metformin following administration of a canagliflozin/metformin (150/1,000 mg) immediate-release (IR) fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet. A randomized, open-label, singlecenter, single-dose, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy participants. Participants were randomized to 2 sequences of fasted and fed (or vice versa) administration of one 150/1,000 mg canagliflozin/metformin IR FDC, with 10-14 day washout between treatments PK parameters (AUC, Cmax, tmax, t1/2) were assessed for canagliflozin and metformin. Safety was evaluated. When comparing the IR FDC tablet administered with and without food, PK parameters of canagliflozin were bioequivalent as the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for log-transformed AUClast, AUC∞, and Cmax were within the bioequivalence limits of 80-125%. For metformin, overall exposure was similar under fed and fasted conditions as geometric mean ratios for AUC and associated 90% CI were contained within the bioequivalence limits, but geometric mean Cmax decreased by 16% in the fed compared to fasted state. Both treatments were well tolerated with similar adverse events and most common were gastrointestinal events, generally attributed to metformin. Food did not affect canagliflozin bioavailability parameters (Cmax and AUCs) or AUCs of metformin. The Cmax of metformin was decreased by 16%, which is not considered clinically meaningful. The canagliflozin/metformin FDC tablet is recommended to be taken with meals to reduce the symptoms of gastrointestinal intolerability associated with metformin.

  12. [Local combined therapy of vaginal infections by nifuratel-nistatin].

    PubMed

    Jahić, Mahira; Balić, Adem; Nurkić, Mahmud; Dragović, Jasmina; Adzajlić, Amela; Habibović, Amra; Mesalić, Lejla; Zigić, Aza

    2010-02-01

    A test included 40 women in the reproductive age with clinical symptoms of vaginitis and microbiological examination. They were treated by combined therapy of vaginal tablets of nifuratel, 500 mg and nistatin 200 000 i. u. during six days, after which they underwent gynaecological reexamination and repeated microbiological examination of vaginal and cervical smears. An analiysis of vaginal secretion found bacterial flora in 34 smears (65%), fungus (Candida albicans) in 15 (24%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in 7 (11%). Local vaginal therapy in vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis was successfull in all 7 patients, vaginitis caused by Candida albicans was successly treated in 14 (93%) patients. Bacterial vaginitis was cured in 29 (71%) patients during this tharapy. Local vaginal combined therapy of nifuratel and nistatin is eficient in patients with vaginitis caused by fungi and Trichomonas vaginalis too.

  13. [Optimization of the formulation of ranolazine hydrochloride sustained-release tablet and its pharmacokinetics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-jun; Yu, Yan-ling; Yang, Qing-min; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yu-hong; Wang, Jing-yi

    2010-09-01

    Ranolazine hydrochloride sustained-release tablet (RH-ST) was prepared and its release behavior in vitro was studied. The pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability in six Beagle dogs after oral administration of RH-ST and ranolazine hydrochloride common tablets (RH-CT) as reference were compared. Three kinds of matrix, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K4M), ethylcellulose (EC 100cp) and acrylic resins (Eudragit RL100) were selected as functional excipients to keep ranolazine hydrochloride (RH) release for 12 hours. Through orthogonal designs, the polymers were quantified and the optimized cumulative release profile was obtained. The single oral dose of RH-ST 500 mg and RH-CT 333.3 mg was given to six dogs using a two way crossover design. Plasma levels were determined by LC-MS and the absorption fractions were calculated according to Loo-Riegelman formula. The steady-state concentration of RH in plasma of six dogs and its pharmacokinetics behaviors after continuous oral administration of RH-ST and RH-CT at different time intervals were studied by LC-MS. The steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters were computed by software program BAPP2.0. With the increase of the amount of the matrix, the drug release was decreased. The most important factor influencing drug release is the quantity of HPMC K4M. Drug release within the period (from 0 h to 12 h) fitted well into Higuchi model. The correlation coefficient (r) between the dissolution in vitro in release media of the distilled water and the absorptin fraction in vivo was 0.9550. To compare with RH-CT, RH-ST in vivo has a steady and slow release behavior, Tmax was obviously delayed (3.00 +/- 0.50) h and the relative bioavailability was over 80 percentage. The combined use of multiple polymers can decrease the tablet weight effectively, and the drug release rate can be decreased both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Helicobacter pylori: treatment with combinations of pivampicillin and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Weil, J; Bell, G D; Powell, K; Morden, A; Harrison, G; Gant, P W; Trowell, J E; Burridge, S

    1991-10-01

    Fifty Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori) positive patients entered an open study and were assigned to one of four treatment regimens comprising: pivampicillin (500 mg b.d.) for 2 weeks +/- tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (tablet or liquid form) for one month. The 14C-urea breath test was used to evaluate clearance (negative at the end of treatment) and eradication (negative at 1 month post-treatment) of H. pylori. Clearance rates were 20% (2/10) after pivampicillin alone, 86% (12/14) after tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate tablets (240 mg b.d.) plus pivampicillin, 67% (6/9) after tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate tablets (120 mg q.d.s.) plus pivampicillin, and 100% (13/13) after tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate liquid (120 mg in 5 ml q.d.s) plus pivampicillin. The eradication rates were 0% (0/10), 13% (2/15), 0% (0/11) and 54% (7/13), respectively. Combination of the results from the 2 tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate tablet/pivampicillin groups gave an eradication rate of 7.7% (2/26) which was significantly lower than the 53.9% (7/13) obtained with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate liquid/pivampicillin (P less than 0.02). In conclusion, a liquid tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate pivampicillin combination may be of special use in the treatment of H. pylori-positive patients when triple therapy is contraindicated (e.g. patient sensitivity/allergy to metronidazole) or when the H. pylori isolate is resistant to metronidazole.

  15. Confirmation of the efficacy of a combination tablet of spinosad and milbemycin oxime against naturally acquired infections of canine intestinal nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Beate; Hayes, Brad; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2012-03-23

    Four separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination to dogs for the treatment and control of naturally acquired infections of adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) and ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina). Dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment quantitative nematode egg counts of each species of interest to one of two treatment groups of 10 or 11 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, was given orally to dogs using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A corresponding vehicle control group was treated similarly in each individual study. Dogs were necropsied post-treatment on Day 7/8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract collected at necropsy were identified and counted by species and stage. The spinosad and MO combination group demonstrated significantly different adult intestinal nematode efficacy in each individual study as compared to the vehicle control group. Efficacy values for whipworm, hookworm, T. canis and T. leonina were 100%, 99.8%, 100%, 93.3%, respectively. Minor non-serious adverse events were observed in a small number of control and treated dogs that were attributed primarily to the natural nematode infections. In summary, flavored spinosad and MO combination tablets administered orally to dogs were both safe and highly efficacious delivering >93% up to 100% adult intestinal nematode control in naturally infected dogs.

  16. The pharmacokinetics of the effervescent vs. conventional tramadol/paracetamol fixed-dose combination tablet in patients after total gastric resection.

    PubMed

    Szałek, Edyta; Karbownik, Agnieszka; Murawa, Dawid; Połom, Karol; Urbaniak, Bartosz; Grabowski, Tomasz; Wolc, Anna; Więckiewicz, Aleksandra; Grześkowiak, Edmund; Kokot, Zenon J; Murawa, Paweł; Burchardt, Paweł; Cieśla, Sławomir

    2014-02-01

    Tramadol/paracetamol is a fixed-dose combination prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain. The combination acts synergistically and guarantees the rapid onset of paracetamol and the prolonged analgesic effect of tramadol with good tolerability. These drugs are often used in various formulations in the treatment of patients with postoperative pain, e.g. after stomach resection. Gastrectomy leads to pathophysiological changes within the alimentary tract, which may affect the process of drug absorption. The aim of the research was an analysis of the pharmacokinetics of tramadol/paracetamol from effervescent and conventional tablets in patients after total gastrectomy. The research was carried out on patients after gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The patients received two tramadol/paracetamol fixed-dose combination tablets in a single orally administered dose of 75/650 mg (2 × 37.5/325 mg). The patients were subjected to one of the two study drug group with: I. effervescent tablet (ET) (n = 14; mean [SD] age, 63.4 [10.1] years; weight, 75.5 [15.3]kg; and BMI, 26.0 [4.6]kg/m(2)) and II. conventional tablet (CT) (n = 12; mean [SD] age, 66.8 [7.7] years; weight, 79.8 [17.8]kg; and BMI, 27.4 [5.3]kg/m(2)). Blood samples were collected within 10 h after the drug administration. The plasma concentrations of tramadol and paracetamol were measured with validated HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) method with UV detection. The comparison of the paracetamol and tramadol C(max) ratio for the ET group with that of the CT group gave ratios of 1.16 [90% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 1.27] and 0.86 (90% CI 0.72, 1.02), respectively. The comparison of the paracetamol and tramadol AUC(0-t) ratio for the ET group with that of the CT group showed ratios of 0.99 (90% CI 0.88, 1.10) and 1.00 (90% CI 0.82, 1.22), respectively. The comparison of the difference for the effervescent and conventional formulation gave an estimated decrease in t(max) of 0.5 h

  17. Prospective, randomised trial of the time dependent antiplatelet effects of 500 mg and 250 mg acetylsalicylic acid i. v. and 300 mg p. o. in ACS (ACUTE).

    PubMed

    Zeymer, Uwe; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Vom Dahl, Jürgen; Erbel, Raimund; Münzel, Thomas; Zahn, Ralf; Roitenberg, Alexander; Breitenstein, Stefanie; Pap, Ákos Ferenc; Trenk, Dietmar

    2017-02-28

    Little is known about the onset of action after intravenous or oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The aim of the study was to compare intravenous 250 or 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) with oral 300 mg in ASA naïve patients with ACS concerning the onset of antiplatelet effects measured by time dependent thromboxane inhibition. A total of 270 patients with ACS < 24 hours were randomised into one of three treatment arms comprising administration of a single dose of ASA as soon as possible after admission. The primary endpoint was platelet inhibition assessed by measurement of arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet thromboxane release (TXB2) 5 minutes (min) after study drug administration. Both 250 mg and 500 mg ASA i. v. inhibited TXB2 formation nearly completely (geometric means: from 581.7 and 573.9 ng/ml at baseline to 3.9 and 3.1 ng/ml at 5 min, respectively) compared to 300 mg oral ASA (geometric means: from 652.0 to 223.7 ng/ml) (p-value, ANCOVA: < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained for inhibition of AA-induced platelet aggregation (Multiplate ASPItest; from means 86.41 and 85.72 U to 23.04 and 20.57 U at 5 min, respectively) compared to 300 mg oral ASA from mean 87.18 to 75.56 U (p-value, ANCOVA: <0.0001). The rate of bleedings was low and comparable between the groups. In summary, the administration of a single dose of 250 or 500 mg ASA IV compared to 300 mg orally is associated with a faster and more complete inhibition of thromboxane generation and platelet aggregation. Bleeding complications were comparable between the groups.

  18. Column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of rabeprazole sodium and domperidone in combined tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Sabnis, Shweta Sadanand; Dnvandev, Dhavale Nilesh; Jadhav, Vijay Yeshawantrao; Gandhi, Santosh Vilashchand

    2008-01-01

    A new, simple column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of rabeprazole sodium (RAB) and domperidone (DOM) in a combined tablet dosage form has been developed and validated. Determination was performed using a Jasco HPLC system with a HiQ SiL octadecylsilane (C18) column (250 x 4.6 mm id), acetonitrile-0.1 M ammonium acetate (50 + 50, v/v) mobile phase, and paracetamol as an internal standard. The detection was performed using a UV detector set at 280 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1.0-10.0 and 0.5-5.0 microg/mL for RAB and DOM, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the analysis of drugs in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  19. Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Single and Multi-Tablet Fixed Dose Combination HIV Treatment Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Clay, P.G.; Nag, S.; Graham, C.M.; Narayanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Availability of a single source review of once-daily fixed-dose single tablet regimen (STR) and multiple tablet fixed-dose regimen (MTR) would optimally inform healthcare providers and policy makers involved in the management of population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to compare patient adherence, clinical, and cost outcomes of STR to MTR. Published literature in English between 2005 and 2014 was searched using Embase, PubMed (Medline in-process), and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases. Two-level screening was undertaken by 2 independent researchers to finalize articles for evidence synthesis. Adherence, efficacy, safety, tolerability, healthcare resource use (HRU), and costs were assessed comparing STR to MTR. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and heterogeneity examined using meta-regression. Thirty-five articles were identified for qualitative evidence synthesis, of which 9 had quantifiable data for meta-analysis (4 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational studies). Patients on STR were significantly more adherent when compared to patients on MTR of any frequency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.37 [95% CI: 1.68, 3.35], P < 0.001; 4 studies), twice-daily MTR (OR: 2.53 [95% CI: 1.13, 5.66], P = 0.02; 2 studies), and once-daily MTR (OR: 1.81 [95% CI: 1.15, 2.84], P = 0.01; 2 studies). The relative risk (RR) for viral load suppression at 48 weeks was higher (RR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], P = .0003; 3 studies) while RR of grade 3 to 4 laboratory abnormalities was lower among patients on STR (RR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.49, 0.94], P = 0.02; 2 studies). Changes in CD4 count at 48 weeks, any severe adverse events (SAEs), grade 3 to 4 AEs, mortality, and tolerability were found comparable between STR and MTR. Several studies reported significant reduction in HRU and costs among STR group versus MTR. Study depicted comparable tolerability, safety (All-SAE and Grade 3–4 AE), and

  20. The safety and efficacy of a single dose (500 mg or 1 g) of intravenous magnesium sulfate in neuropathic pain poorly responsive to strong opioid analgesics in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Crosby, V; Wilcock, A; Corcoran, R

    2000-01-01

    Neuropathic pain may respond poorly to morphine and is often difficult to relieve. Recent attention has been drawn to the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the potentiation of neuropathic pain. Magnesium is known to block the NMDA receptor. It reduces the neuropathic pain response in animals, and attenuates postoperative pain and migraine in humans. We have examined the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of two intravenous doses of magnesium sulfate in 12 patients with neuropathic pain due to malignant infiltration of the brachial or lumbosacral plexus. The first six patients received 500 mg, the remainder 1 g. Apart from a mild feeling of warmth at the time of the injection, both doses were well tolerated. After receiving 500 mg, three patients experienced complete pain relief and two experienced partial pain relief for up to 4 hours duration; pain was unchanged in one patient. After receiving 1 g, one patient experienced complete relief and four experienced partial pain relief of similar duration; pain was unchanged in one patient. Intravenous magnesium sulfate in these doses appears to be safe and well tolerated. A useful analgesic effect may be obtained in some patients and further evaluation is warranted.

  1. Tablet telerounding.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Bartosz F; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig G

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of remote rounding using commercially available standard tablets with videoconferencing system and assess patient satisfaction. Thirty-two patients with at least 2 postoperative days of hospital stay after robotic urologic procedures were included in the study. On the first postoperative day, the physician-patient encounter was performed as telerounding with videoconferencing due to the physician's duties scheduled in another affiliated hospital. On the second day, the personal bedside encounter took place. The tablet we used was an iPad2 (Apple, iOS 5.1; Apple, Cupertino, CA) with a videoconferencing application. A telerounding satisfaction survey was fulfilled by all patients on the touchscreen of the tablet. Average time of telerounding encounter was 4.5 minutes (range, 1.0-13.5 minutes), average age of the patient was 57.7 years (range, 19-80 years), and 19 were men (59%). Patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with 91% of patients stating that their care was better using telerounding and 97% of patients stating that telerounding should be a regular part of patient care in the hospital. Additionally, 94% of patients stated that they could easily communicate with their doctor over the telerounding system, 84% of patients agreed that they would feel comfortable with telerounding daily if they were hospitalized again and 81% of patients would prefer telerounding communication with their doctor than be directly seen by another doctor. Tablet telerounding using videoconferencing can be a strong supplementing tool in doctor-patient communication. It is convenient for the physician and increases the patient's hospital stay satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined Effect of Synthetic and Natural Polymers in Preparation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets: Optimization by Central Composite Design

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to employ experimental design to formulate and optimize cetirizine hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) by direct compression technique, using the mutual effect of synthetic croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and natural Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage (HRM) as disintegrants in the formulation. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the influence of three levels each of CCS (X 1) and HRM (X 2) concentrations (independent variables) for investigated responses: disintegration time (DT) (Y 1), % friability (F) (Y 2), and % cumulative drug release (DR) (Y 3) (dependent variables). This face-centered second-order model's reliability was verified by the probability and adequate precision values from the analysis of variance, while the significant factor effects influencing the studied responses were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Perturbation and response surface plots were interpreted to evaluate the responses' sensitivity towards the variables. During optimization, the concentrations of the processed factors were evaluated, and the resulting values were in good agreement with predicted estimates endorsing the validity. Spectral study by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermograms from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated the drug-excipients compatibility of the optimized formulation. The optimized formulation has concentrations of 9.05 mg and 16.04 mg of CCS and HRM each, respectively, and the model predicted DT of 13.271 sec, F of 0.498, and DR of 99.768%. PMID:28154771

  3. Evaluation of Matrix Tablets Based on Eudragit®E100/Carbopol®971P Combinations for Controlled Release and Improved Compaction Properties of Water Soluble Model Drug Paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Wasfy M; Nokhodchi, Ali; Alkhatib, Hatim

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of Eudragit®E100 polymer in modifying the release rates and compaction properties of water soluble model drug paracetamol from Carbopol®971P NF polymer matrix tablets prepared by direct compression. The effects of the ratio of the two polymers, the total polymeric content, and the tablets mechanical strength on paracetamol release rates were investigated. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP XX Π rotating paddle apparatus at 50 rpm and 37°C at three different stages (pH 1.2, 4.8, and 6.8). Results showed that the polymers combination improved significantly the compaction properties of paracetamol tablets as evident by the higher crushing strengths (8.3 ± 0.4 Kp) compared to polymer-free tablets (3.4 ± 0.2 Kp) at intermediate compression pressure of 490 MPa. When combined with Carbopol®971P NF, Eudragit®E100 was found to be capable of extending paracetamol release for more than 12 h compared to 1 h for polymers-free tablets. The combined polymers were able to control paracetamol release in a pH independent pattern. The f2 (similarity factor) analysis showed that the ratio between the polymers and the total polymer concentration exhibited significant impact on drug release rates. In conclusion, Eudragit®E100 when combined with Carbopol®971P NF was capable of improving the compaction and sustained release properties of paracetamol. Korsmeyer-Peppas model was found to be the most suitable for fitting drug release data. The polymer combinations can potentially be used to control the release rates of highly water soluble drugs.

  4. Bioavailability of syrup and tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil.

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, M P; Edwards, D J; McNamara, P J; Stoeckel, K

    1993-01-01

    Two studies examining the bioavailability of cefetamet pivoxil in healthy male subjects were conducted. In the first, the bioavailabilities of the 250-mg (M250) and M500 tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil to be marketed were compared with that of a tablet used in clinical trials. All products were given with food at a dose of 500 mg. In the second study, the bioavailability of the syrup formulation was evaluated under both fasting and nonfasting conditions and compared with that of the M500 tablet formulation given with food. The absolute bioavailabilities of the M500 and M250 tablets (55.0% +/- 8.0% and 55.7% +/- 7.0%, respectively) were not significantly different from that of the clinical-trial formulation (49.8% +/- 8.5%). The newer tablet formulations exhibited faster absorption as evidenced by higher peak concentrations (3.8 [M500] and 3.9 [M250] mg/liter compared with 3.2 mg/liter for the clinical-trial formulation), a shorter time to peak concentration, and a shorter mean absorption time. The syrup formulation was found to have significantly lower absolute bioavailability (37.9% +/- 6.0%) compared with that of the M500 tablet (58.4% +/- 9.0%) when both were given with food. Food had no significant effect on the bioavailability of the syrup, which averaged 34.0% +/- 8.6% under fasting conditions, although absorption was delayed by food (mean absorption time increased from 2.2 to 3.9 h). This contrasts with the results of previous studies documenting significant increases in tablet bioavailability with food. Despite the lower bioavailability of the syrup, unbound-cefetamet concentrations are expected to remain above the MICs for 90% of the strains tested for susceptible organisms for approximately 10 h of the usual 12-h dosing interval with both syrup and tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil given with food. PMID:8109939

  5. A new, rapid, stability-indicating UPLC method for separation and determination of impurities in amlodipine besylate, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in their combined tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Jiří; Jedlička, Aleš; Coufal, Pavel; Janečková, Lucie

    2015-05-10

    A new rapid stability-indicating UPLC method for separation and determination of impurities in amlodipine besylate, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in their combined tablet dosage form was developed. The separation of Ph. Eur. related substances of amlodipine besylate (A, B, D, E, F, G), hydrochlorothiazide (A, B, C), valsartan (B, C), two other valsartan impurities (S)-2-(N-{[2'-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl]methyl}pentanamido)-3-methylbutanoic acid and (S)-3-methyl-2-{[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methylamino}butanoic acid and several unknown impurities was achieved by reversed phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The detection wavelengths were set as follows: 225nm for valsartan, its impurities and for the impurity D of amlodipine, 271nm for hydrochlorothiazide and its impurities and 360nm for amlodipine and its impurities except for impurity D. Zorbax Eclipse C8 RRHD (100mm×3.0mm, 1.8μm) was used as a separation column and the analytes were eluted within 11min by a programmed gradient mixture of 0.01M phosphate buffer pH 2.5 and acetonitrile. The method was successfully validated in accordance to the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for amlodipine besylate and its impurity D, valsartan and its impurity C and hydrochlorothiazide and its impurities A, B and C. The triple-combined tablets were exposed to thermal, higher humidity, acid, alkaline, oxidative and photolytic stress conditions. Stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. All the significant degradation products and impurities were satisfactory separated from each other and from the principal peaks of drug substances. The peak purity test complied for peaks of amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in all the stressed samples and indicated no co-elution of degradation products. The method was found to be precise, linear, accurate, sensitive, specific, robust and stability-indicating and could be used as a routine purity test method for amlodipine

  6. Development of two step liquid-liquid extraction tandem UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of Ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma: Application to the pharmacokinetic study of the combination of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets and Nimodipine tablets.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Pei; Liu, Ran; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive, reliable and accurate UHPLC-MS/MS method has been firstly established and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets, Nimodipine tablets and the combination of the both, respectively. The plasma samples were extracted by two step liquid-liquid extraction, nimodipine was extracted by hexane-ether (3:1, v/v) at the first step, after that ginkgo flavonoids and terpene lactones were extracted by ethyl acetate. Then the analytes were successfully separated by running gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on a UHPLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the negative ion and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curves for the determination of all the analytes showed good linearity (R(2)>0.99), and the lower limits of quantification were 0.50-4.00ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in the range of 3.6%-9.2% and 3.2%-13.1% for all the analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of the analytes were within 69.82%-103.5% and the matrix were within 82.8%-110.0%. The validated method had been successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets, Nimodipine tablets with the combination of the both. There were no statistically significant differences on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of all the analytes between the combined and single administration groups. Results showed that the combination of the two agents may avoid dosage adjustments in clinic and the combination is more convenient as well as efficient on different pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia.

  7. Optimization and Assessment of Three Different High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Systems for the Combinative Fingerprint Analysis and Multi-Ingredients Quantification of Sangju Ganmao Tablet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng-Zhe; Han, Jie; He, Dan-Dan; Zou, Jia-Hui; Li, Zheng; Du, Yan; Tang, Dao-Quan

    2017-03-01

    Chromatographic separation is still a critical subject for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, three different high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) systems employing commercially available columns packed with 1.8, 3.5 and 5.0 μm particles were respectively developed and optimized for the combinative fingerprint analysis and multi-ingredients quantification of Sangju Ganmao tablet (SGT). Chromatographic parameters including the repeatability of retention time and peak area, symmetry factor, resolution, number of theoretical plates and peak capacity were used to assess the chromatographic performance of different HPLC systems. The optimal chromatographic system using Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm) as stationary phase was respectively coupled with diode array detector or mass spectrometry detector for the chromatographic fingerprint analysis and simultaneous quantification or identification of nine compounds of SGT. All the validation data conformed to the acceptable requirements. For the fingerprint analysis, 31 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of SGT from 10 different manufacturers using heatmap, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results demonstrated that the combinations of the quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analysis offer an efficient way to evaluate the quality consistency of SGT.

  8. Tablet Use within Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  9. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  10. Fixed-dose combination orally disintegrating tablets to treat cardiovascular disease: formulation, in vitro characterization and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to assess bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Thomas J; Smith, Julian C; Badhan, Raj K; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among men and women worldwide. In CVD, hypertension and dyslipidemia commonly coexist and are managed through coadministration of amlodipine and atorvastatin, respectively. The case for fixed-dose combination (FDC) oral dosage forms and orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) technology to enhance outcomes and compliance is strong. This work follows the development and characterization of single and FDC ODTs containing amlodipine and atorvastatin, followed by bioequivalence comparison between these single and FDC formulations, using in vitro dissolution and Caco-2 apparent permeability (Papp) and in silico physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. ODTs containing amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (10 mg) either alone or in combination rapidly disintegrated (<30 s) while displaying a radial crushing strength in excess of 100 N and friability ≤1%. In vitro dissolution test was performed in fasted and fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Dissolution profiles for single and FDC ODTs were compared using US FDA recommended difference (f1) and similarity (f2) factor testing for bioequivalence. In all cases, there was no difference in active pharmaceutical ingredient dissolution between single or FDC ODTs, with the exception of amlodipine in FeSSIF. Pharmacokinetic clinical trial simulations were conducted using Simcyp (Version 14), incorporating Papp and dissolution data. Simulated clinical trials in healthy volunteers showed no difference in bioavailability based on pharmacokinetic parameters between single and combination doses with either active pharmaceutical ingredient. An increase in Cmax and AUC for atorvastatin in fed subjects was attributed to extended transit along the gut lumen and reduced atorvastatin metabolism due to lower CYP3A4 expression at more distal small intestine absorption sites. The results demonstrated

  11. Fixed-dose combination orally disintegrating tablets to treat cardiovascular disease: formulation, in vitro characterization and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to assess bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Thomas J; Smith, Julian C; Badhan, Raj K; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among men and women worldwide. In CVD, hypertension and dyslipidemia commonly coexist and are managed through coadministration of amlodipine and atorvastatin, respectively. The case for fixed-dose combination (FDC) oral dosage forms and orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) technology to enhance outcomes and compliance is strong. This work follows the development and characterization of single and FDC ODTs containing amlodipine and atorvastatin, followed by bioequivalence comparison between these single and FDC formulations, using in vitro dissolution and Caco-2 apparent permeability (Papp) and in silico physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. ODTs containing amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (10 mg) either alone or in combination rapidly disintegrated (<30 s) while displaying a radial crushing strength in excess of 100 N and friability ≤1%. In vitro dissolution test was performed in fasted and fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Dissolution profiles for single and FDC ODTs were compared using US FDA recommended difference (f1) and similarity (f2) factor testing for bioequivalence. In all cases, there was no difference in active pharmaceutical ingredient dissolution between single or FDC ODTs, with the exception of amlodipine in FeSSIF. Pharmacokinetic clinical trial simulations were conducted using Simcyp (Version 14), incorporating Papp and dissolution data. Simulated clinical trials in healthy volunteers showed no difference in bioavailability based on pharmacokinetic parameters between single and combination doses with either active pharmaceutical ingredient. An increase in Cmax and AUC for atorvastatin in fed subjects was attributed to extended transit along the gut lumen and reduced atorvastatin metabolism due to lower CYP3A4 expression at more distal small intestine absorption sites. The results demonstrated

  12. [Effect of Magnesium Sulfate, Nifedipine Tablet Combined Salvia Injection on ET-1/NO, TXA2/PGI2 and Hemorheology of Preeclampsia Patients].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-ying; Yao, Jing; Zhu, Jia-mei; Li, Mei; Qiu, Shu-qiong; Zhu, Zhao-xia; Zhang, Ming

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of magnesium sulfate, Nifedipine Tablet (NT) combined Salvia Injection (SI) on endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO), thromboxane A2(TXA2), prostacyclin I2(PG2), and hemorheology of preeclampsia patients. Totally 704 preeclampsia patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 352 cases in each group. All patients were treated with magnesium sulfate combined NT (on the first day: slow intravenous injection of magnesium sulfate 5 g + intravenous dripping of magnesium sulfate injection 10 g + oral administration of NT 30 mg; on the second and third day, intravenous dripping of magnesium sulfate injection 10 g + oral administration of NT 30 mg), while those in the treatment group were dripped with SI additionally at 20 mL per day for 3 consecutive days. Before and after treatment plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO), TXA2, PGi2, and hemorheology indicators [such as high blood viscosity (HBV), low blood viscosity (LBV), plasma viscosity (PV), erythrocyte rigidity index (ERI), fibrinogen (FIB)] of two groups were detected. Compared with the same group before treatment, serum levels of ET-1, TXA2, HBV, LBV, PV, ERI, and FIB decreased in the two groups after treatment (P <0. 05), but levels of NO and PG2 increased (P <0. 05). Compared with the control group in the same period, levels of ET-1, TXA2, HBV, LBV, PV, ERI, and FIB decreased in the treatment group after treatment (P <0. 05), but levels of NO and PGI2 increased (P <0. 05). Magnesium sulfate, NT combined SI could effectively regulate the balance of ET-1/NO and TXA2/PGI2, and improve hemorheology of preeclampsia patients.

  13. Spectrophotometric and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for simultaneous determination of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam in combined tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Santosh Vilashchand; Dhavale, Nilesh Dnyandev; Jadhav, Vijay Yeshawantrao; Sabnis, Shweta Sadanand

    2008-01-01

    Simple, accurate, precise, and sensitive ultraviolet spectrophotometric and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) methods for simultaneous estimation of escitalopram oxalate (ESC) and clonazepam (CLO) in combined tablet dosage form have been developed and validated. The spectroscopic method employs an absorbance correction method using 238.6 and 308 nm as 2 wavelengths for estimation with methanol and water as solvents. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 10.0-50.0 and 0.5-3.0 micro/mL for ESC and CLO, respectively. The RP-HPLC method uses a Jasco HPLC system with HiQ SiL C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id) acetonitrile-0.005 M tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate (55 + 45, v/v) as the mobile phase, and satranidazole as an internal standard. The detection was carried out using an ultraviolet detector set at 287 nm. For the HPLC method, Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 10.0-60.0 and 0.5-3.0 microg/mL for ESC and CLO, respectively. Both methods have been successfully applied for the analysis of the drugs in a pharmaceutical formulation. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  14. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Fixed-Dose Combination of Bilayer Gastroretentive Matrix Tablet Containing Atorvastatin as Fast-Release and Atenolol as Sustained-Release

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanjay; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Mazumder, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop bilayer tablets of atorvastatin and atenolol that are characterized by initial fast-release of atorvastatin in the stomach and comply with the release requirements of sustained-release of atenolol. An amorphous, solvent evaporation inclusion complex of atorvastatin with β-cyclodextrin, present in 1 : 3 (drug/cyclodextrin) molar ratio, was employed in the fast-release layer to enhance the dissolution of atorvastatin. Xanthan gum and guar gum were integrated in the sustained-release layer. Bilayer tablets composed of sustained-release layer (10% w/w of xanthan gum and guar gum) and fast-release layer [1 : 3 (drug/cyclodextrin)] showed the desired release profile. The atorvastatin contained in the fast-release layer showed an initial fast-release of more than 60% of its drug content within 2 h, followed by sustained release of the atenolol for a period of 12 h. The pharmacokinetic study illustrated that the fast absorption and increased oral bioavailability of atorvastatin as well as therapeutic concentration of atenolol in blood were made available through adoption of formulation strategy of bilayer tablets. It can be concluded that the bilayer tablets of atorvastatin and atenolol can be successfully employed for the treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia together through oral administration of single tablet. PMID:24527446

  16. Pharmacokinetics of niacin, simvastatin and their metabolites in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple doses of a fixed dose combination tablet of niacin extended release/simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Wang, X L; Zhang, D; Yang, M; Han, J; Zhang, Y N; Wang, Z L; Liu, H C

    2014-06-01

    A fixed dose combination tablet of niacin extended release (ER)/simvastatin was recently developed in China. This study was designed to assess and compare the pharmacokinetics of niacin, simvastatin and their metabolites in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple doses administration. From day 1 to day 7, 12 Chinese subjects were given a tablet every day at approximately 10 p.m. Serial blood samples were collected. Niacin and nicotinuric acid (NUA) in plasma, niacin, NUA, N-methylnicotinamide (MNA) and N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY) in urine, simvastatin and simvastatin acid in plasma were determined by LC/MS/MS methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters on days 1 and 7 were compared. The main pharmacokinetic parameters for the single and multiple doses were as -follows: Niacin: Tmax were 3.8±1.5 h and 3.9±2.0 h; Cmax were 2 091±1 315 ng/ml and 2 323±1 542 ng/ml; AUC0-t were 4 123.88±3 138.48 ng ∙ h/ml and 4 385.98±3 127.05 ng ∙ h/ml. NUA: Tmax were 4.7±1.7 h and 3.8±1.5 h; Cmax were 1 057±549 ng/ml and 1 087±470 ng/ml; AUC0-t were 4 012.49±2 168.68 ng ∙ h/ml and 4 040.45±1 886.57 ng ∙ h/ml. Simvastatin: Tmax were 1.8±1.0 h and 2.5±2.5 h; Cmax were 3.15±1.67 ng/ml and 4.87±4.11 ng/ml; AUC0-t were 9.03±5.10 ng ∙ h/ml and 17.63±13.93 ng ∙ h/ml. Simvastatin acid: Tmax were 5.8±1.7 h and 6.5±1.4 h; Cmax were 4.22±2.10 ng/ml and 9.30±8.09 ng/ml; AUC0-t were 34.65±16.89 ng ∙ h/ml and 61.62±46.41 ng ∙ h/ml. Urine Recovery rate of total niacin: (40.55±7.38)% and (62.87±12.04)%. Compared with those after a single dose, pharmacokinetics of niacin and NUA was similar; total urine recovery of niacin was higher; exposure to simvastatin and simvastatin acid were higher following multiple doses. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The efficacy and safety of clotrimazole vaginal tablet vs. oral fluconazole in treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofang; Li, Ting; Fan, Shangrong; Zhu, Yuxia; Liu, Xiaoping; Guo, Xuedong; Liang, Yiheng

    2016-07-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of two doses of clotrimazole vaginal tablet 500 mg with two doses of oral fluconazole 150 mg in treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (SVVC), 240 consecutive patients with SVVC were studied at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital between June 2014, and September 2015. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive treatment with either two doses of clotrimazole vaginal tablet or two doses of oral fluconazole. The clinical cure rates in the clotrimazole group and the fluconazole group at days 7-14 follow-up were 88.7% (102/115) and 89.1% (98/110) respectively; the clinical cure rates at days 30-35 in the two groups were 71.9% (82/114) and 78.0% (85/109) respectively. The mycological cure rates at days 7-14 follow-up in the two groups were 78.3% (90/115) and 73.6% (81/110) respectively. The mycological cure rates of the patients at days 30-35 in the two groups were 54.4% (62/114) and 56.0% (61/109) respectively (P > 0.05). The adverse events of clotrimazole were mainly local. This study demonstrated that two doses of clotrimazole vaginal tablet 500 mg were as effective as two doses of oral fluconazole 150 mg in the treatment of patients with SVVC and could be an appropriate treatment for this disorder.

  18. A double-blind, randomized comparison of levofloxacin 750 mg once-daily for five days with ciprofloxacin 400/500 mg twice-daily for 10 days for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Janet; Kaul, Simrati; Khashab, Mohammed; Fisher, Alan C; Kahn, James B

    2008-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days to ciprofloxacin twice daily for 10 days for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) or acute pyelonephritis (AP). A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, noninferiority study enrolled subjects with AP or cUTI. Subjects received either levofloxacin 750 mg intravenously or orally once daily for 5 days or ciprofloxacin 400 mg intravenously and/or ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days and were evaluated at end of therapy, posttherapy, and poststudy for microbiologic eradication and clinical outcome. A total of 1109 subjects were enrolled; 619 with confirmed diagnosis of AP or cUTI and a study entry uropathogen with a colony count 10(5) CFU/mL or greater and were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. Five hundred six subjects met all criteria for inclusion and were included in the microbiologically evaluable population. At end of therapy, eradication rates in the modified intent-to-treat population were 79.8% for levofloxacin and 77.5% for ciprofloxacin-treated subjects (95% CI, -8.8% to 4.1%). In the microbiologically evaluable population, eradication rates were 88.3% for levofloxacin and 86.7% for ciprofloxacin-treated subjects (95% CI, -7.4% to 4.2%). Outcomes were comparable for the 2 treatments at posttherapy and poststudy. This study demonstrates that both drug regimens are safe and effective and that a 5-day course of therapy with levofloxacin, administered at a dose of 750 mg once daily, is noninferior to a 10-day course of therapy with ciprofloxacin for the treatment of AP and cUTI.

  19. Integrated evaluation of HPLC and UV fingerprints for the quality control of Danshen tablet by systematic quantified fingerprint method combined with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-03-20

    Danshen tablet, which consists of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Borneolum syntheticum, has been widely used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive evaluation methods for the quality control of Danshen tablet. First, five-wavelength fusion fingerprint was established to avoid one-sidedness of a single wavelength. Then, the ultraviolet spectrum fingerprint was applied to reflect the information of unsaturated bond and conjugated system of chemical substances in Danshen tablet. The similarity analyses of these two fingerprints were performed by systematic quantified fingerprint method in terms of qualitative and quantitative aspects. After that, the evaluation results of high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet fingerprints were integrated by the mean algorithm, which could reduce the error caused by single method. The integrated evaluation results showed that 30 batches of samples were classified into seven grades. Finally, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship was established using an on-line antioxidant system and partial least squares model to explore the connection between chemical components and antioxidant activities. The methods established in this paper had proven to be suitable for the analysis of Danshen tablet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. A new formulation of fenofibrate: suprabioavailable tablets.

    PubMed

    Guichard, J P; Blouquin, P; Qing, Y

    2000-01-01

    The rationale for, and development of, a new suprabioavailable fenofibrate tablet formulation is described. The new suprabioavailable tablet formulation combines well-established micronisation technology with a new micro-coating process. The new formulation provides more predictable and reliable drug absorption. Owing to the strong relationship between the fenofibrate dissolution performance and its oral bioavailability, equivalent plasma levels of active principal are achieved at a lower dose, with less inter-subject variability and a reduced food effect. The new suprabioavailable tablet may, therefore, be a more efficient and better tolerated formulation.

  1. Objective color classification of ecstasy tablets by hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda; Lopatka, Martin; Aalders, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    The general procedure followed in the examination of ecstasy tablets for profiling purposes includes a color description, which depends highly on the observers' perception. This study aims to provide objective quantitative color information using visible hyperspectral imaging. Both self-manufactured and illicit tablets, created with different amounts of known colorants were analyzed. We derived reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images of these tablets, and successfully determined the most likely colorant used in the production of all self-manufactured tablets and four of five illicit tablets studied. Upon classification, the concentration of the colorant was estimated using a photon propagation model and a single reference measurement of a tablet of known concentration. The estimated concentrations showed a high correlation with the actual values (R(2) = 0.9374). The achieved color information, combined with other physical and chemical characteristics, can provide a powerful tool for the comparison of tablet seizures, which may reveal their origin.

  2. Punch geometry and formulation considerations in reducing tablet friability and their effect on in vitro dissolution.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, Z T; Amaro, A A; Ong, J T

    1992-03-01

    The tablet friability resulting from formulation variations was studied under controlled granulation moisture content and tablet crushing strength. Tablets made with lactose were more friable than tablets made with microcrystalline cellulose. Replacement of 0.5% magnesium stearate with 0.5% stearic acid in the formula reduced tablet friability, whereas the combination of 0.5% stearic acid and up to 0.25% magnesium stearate did not increase tablet friability, decrease drug dissolution rate, or increase tablet-to-tablet variability in dissolution. Tablets compressed with extra deep concave punches resulted in lower friability compared with tablets compressed with standard concave or deep concave punches. The friabilities of the standard convex and deep convex tablets were similar, indicating that a critical level of punch tip curvature was important in reducing tablet friability. The dissolution rate was not affected by the punch tip geometry, but the tablet-to-tablet dissolution variability at the 0.5% stearic acid level for the extra deep convex tablets was higher compared with the standard convex tablets.

  3. Optimization of Fast Dissolving Etoricoxib Tablets Prepared by Sublimation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D. M.; Patel, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q30) and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE30). From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent. PMID:20390084

  4. A trial of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days versus ciprofloxacin 400 mg and/or 500 mg twice daily for 10 days in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Howard A; Brown, Patricia; Peterson, Janet; Kaul, Simrati; Khashab, Mohammed; Fisher, Alan C; Kahn, James B

    2007-11-01

    A double-blind, noninferiority trial was conducted to establish the safety and efficacy of a once-daily, 5-day course of levofloxacin 750 mg compared to a twice-daily, 10-day course of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and acute pyelonephritis (AP). This report focuses on subjects with AP. Adult male and female subjects with clinical signs and symptoms of AP and laboratory confirmation of their diagnosis were randomized to receive one dose of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily intravenously (i.v.) or orally and one dose of placebo for 5 days, followed by placebo; or ciprofloxacin 400 mg i.v. and/or 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days. The primary, prospectively defined end point was microbiologic eradication at post-therapy (study days 15-22). Secondary outcomes included clinical response and safety and tolerability. In the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population (levofloxacin 94, ciprofloxacin 98), 83% of levofloxacin-treated and 79.6% of ciprofloxacin-treated subjects achieved microbiological eradication (difference -3.4, 95% CI -14.4%, 7.6%). In the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population (levofloxacin 80, ciprofloxacin 76), 92.5% of levofloxacin-treated vs. 93.4% of ciprofloxacin-treated subjects (difference -0.9, 95% CI -7.1%, 8.9%) achieved microbiologic eradication. Clinical success was achieved in 86.2% vs. 80.6% (mITT) and in 92.5% vs. 89.5% (ME) of levofloxacin-treated and ciprofloxacin-treated subjects, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated uropathogen. Few (2.1%) of the pathogens were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Adverse events (AEs) were similar to those seen previously with both agents. Potential limitations are that this analysis is based on a subset of subjects from a larger study and, because of different durations of therapy, the results may be biased against levofloxacin. High-dose, short-course therapy with levofloxacin in subjects with AP is at least as effective as standard 10-day therapy

  5. [Clinical trial of pregnancy terminations in 353 patients where amenorrhea was present for less than 49 days by 600 mg of RU 486 (administered orally) and 500 mg of sulprostone (Nalador) administered intramuscularly].

    PubMed

    Aubeny, E; Bureau, A; Gabeaud, P; Heard, I; Eucher, M; Husson, T; Meng, L; Riotte, S

    1989-04-01

    354 women seeking abortions were treated at a hospital in Paris between February-September 1988 with 600 mg of RU 486 taken orally in 1 dose and an injection of 500 mg sulprostone 48 hours later. The women all had amenorrhea of less than 49 days. 1/3 were 18-25 years old, 1/2 were 25-35, and 16% were over 35. 206 were nulliparas. 110 were married and the rest were separated, widowed, divorced, or single. Sulprostone was injected early in the morning in the hospital and the women were discharged after expulsion of the products of conception, which occurred usually 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 hours later. If expulsion did not occur, the woman returned in 3 days for a sonogram to confirm uterine vacuity. 13 of the 354 women had RU 486 only. 2 refused the sulprostone and underwent aspiration and 11 experienced spontaneous expulsions in the 48 hours following RU 486 administration. 338 of the women had spontaneous expulsions. 2 pregnancies were terminated but not expelled and aspiration was required. 285 of the women expelled in the hospital within 4 hours of sulprostone administration and the other 55 did so at home 6 or more hours later. RU 486 was very well tolerated. Secondary effects were more common with sulprostone but generally subsided within 3 hours. 70 patients required treatment for uterine pain after sulprostone administration. 150 complained of nausea but only 6 required treatment. 5 women required aspiration of curettage for hemorrhage but none required transfusion. In 3 cases the hemorrhages were due to histologically proven retention. 1 patient developed endometritis 3 days after expulsion and another, who had a history of extrauterine pregnancy, developed salpingitis 15 days after expulsion. Both patients were treated with antibiotics. The method appears to be safe and effective. Its major disadvantages are that it prolongs the amount of time required for abortion and it frequently causes pelvic pain. The responsibility of the patient is also increased.

  6. On-line identification of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in tablets using a combination of a sweeping technique and micellar electrokinetic chromatography/77 K fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ching; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2003-03-01

    This work describes a novel method for the accurate determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in tablets. A technique involving sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was used for the initial on-line concentration and separation, after which a cryogenic molecular fluorescence experiment was performed at 77 K. Using this approach, not only the separation of LSD from the tablet extract was achieved, but on-line spectra were readily distinguishable and could be unambiguously assigned. The results are in agreement with analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thus, this method, which was found to be accurate, sensitive and rapid, has the potential for use as a reliable complementary method to GC-MS in such analyses.

  7. Influence of tablet splitting on content uniformity of lisinopril/hydrochlorthiazide tablets.

    PubMed

    Vranić, Edina; Uzunović, Alija

    2007-11-01

    Dose-related adverse effects of medications are a major problem in modern medical practice. The "correct" dose, based on drug company guidelines in package inserts, may not be correct for many patients. Tablet splitting or dividing has been an accepted practice for many years as a means of obtaining the prescribed dose of medication. As model tablets for this investigation, two batches of lisinopril- hydrochlorothiazide scored tablets labeled to contain 20/12.5 mg were used. The aim of this study was to establish possible influence of tablet splitting on content uniformity of lisinopril/hydrochlorthiazide tablets. Determination of the content uniformity of lisinopril and hydrochlorthiazide in our batches, was carried out by HPLC method. The results of content uniformity studies for halves of tablets containing combination of lisinopril-hydrochlorthiazide (supposed to contain 50% of stated 20/12.5 mg in the whole tablet) were: 49.60 +/-3.29% and 49.29+/-0.60 % (lisinopril); 50.33+/-3.50% and 50.69+/-1.95% (hydrochlorthiazide) for batch I and II, respectively. We can conclude that the results obtained in this study support an option of tablet splitting, which is very important for obtaining the required dosage when a dosage form of the required strength is unavailable, and for better individualization of the therapy.

  8. The Trouble with Tablets.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    The biggest recommendation is to get your tablet screen up. This can be done by using a case or a tablet stand. Avoid using the tablet on your lap because posture follows vision. If you must use it on your lap, try placing it on a pillow to raise its height and reduce dangerous neck flexion. Whenever possible, set the tablet on a table rather than holding it with your hands because hands and forearms fatigue quickly. Consider finding an external keyboard that can be separated from the tablet screen. This way, you can set the tablet on a higher surface to elevate the screen and have a lower keyboard to eliminate some of the wrist extension when keying.

  9. Spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Emtricitabine in combined tablet dosage form by ratio derivative, first order derivative and absorbance corrected methods and its application to dissolution study.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Vishnu P; Ingale, Snehal; Gite, Sacchidanand R; Tajane, Dipali D; Modak, Vikram G; Ambekar, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Three simple, economical, precise, and accurate methods are described for the simultaneous determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TE) and Emtricitabine (EM) in combined tablet dosage form. The first method is ratio derivative spectra, second is first-order derivative spectrophotometry and third is absorption corrected method. The amplitudes at 271.07 and 302.17 nm in the ratio derivative method, 224.38 and 306.88 nm in the first order derivative method were selected to determine Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TE) and Emtricitabine (EM), respectively, in combined formulation. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 3-21 μg/ml for TE and 2-14 μg/ml for EM for first two methods and range for third method was 6-30 μg/ml of TE and 4-20 μg/ml of EM. The percent assay for commercial formulation was found to be in the range 98.91%-101.72% for both the analytes by the proposed three methods. Absorption corrected method was successfully applied to carry out dissolution study of commercial tablet formulation by using USP II dissolution test apparatus. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, and accuracy. Recoveries by proposed methods were found in the range of 99.06 %-101.34 % for both the analytes.

  10. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil *

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; da Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health-rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months-involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (≥ 18 years of age) treated with the basic regimen at either of two primary health care facilities in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 40 tuberculosis patients. The rate of cure was 67.5%, the rate of treatment abandonment was 17.5%, and there were no cases of treatment failure. Of the 40 patients in the sample, 19 (47%) reported adverse reactions, which were mild and moderate, respectively, in 87% and 13% of the cases. It was not necessary to alter the regimen or discontinue the treatment in any of the cases evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cure obtained with the self-administered, fixed-dose combination tablet form of the new basic regimen was similar to the historical rates of cure obtained with the previous basic regimen. The rate of treatment abandonment in our sample was much higher than that considered appropriate (up to 5%). PMID:23503489

  11. Spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Emtricitabine in combined tablet dosage form by ratio derivative, first order derivative and absorbance corrected methods and its application to dissolution study

    PubMed Central

    Choudhari, Vishnu P.; Ingale, Snehal; Gite, Sacchidanand R.; Tajane, Dipali D.; Modak, Vikram G.; Ambekar, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Three simple, economical, precise, and accurate methods are described for the simultaneous determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TE) and Emtricitabine (EM) in combined tablet dosage form. The first method is ratio derivative spectra, second is first-order derivative spectrophotometry and third is absorption corrected method. The amplitudes at 271.07 and 302.17 nm in the ratio derivative method, 224.38 and 306.88 nm in the first order derivative method were selected to determine Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TE) and Emtricitabine (EM), respectively, in combined formulation. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 3-21 μg/ml for TE and 2-14 μg/ml for EM for first two methods and range for third method was 6-30 μg/ml of TE and 4-20 μg/ml of EM. The percent assay for commercial formulation was found to be in the range 98.91%–101.72% for both the analytes by the proposed three methods. Absorption corrected method was successfully applied to carry out dissolution study of commercial tablet formulation by using USP II dissolution test apparatus. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, and accuracy. Recoveries by proposed methods were found in the range of 99.06 %-101.34 % for both the analytes. PMID:23781430

  12. Absolute bioavailability and absorption characteristics of divalproex sodium extended-release tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sandeep; Reed, Ronald C; Cavanaugh, John H

    2004-07-01

    Conventional delayed-release, enteric-coated divalproex sodium tablet has an absolute bioavailability of approximately 100%. Divalproex sodium extended-release (ER) tablet is a novel formulation of valproic acid (VPA) designed to release the drug slowly at a constant zero-order rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the absolute bioavailability and absorption characteristics of divalproex ER. Healthy adult volunteers (n = 16) received divalproex ER and intravenous VPA in crossover fashion. Absolute bioavailability was calculated as the divalproex ER/intravenous VPA ratio of area under the curve extrapolated to infinity. The duration and rate of absorption of VPA from divalproex ER tablets were determined by deconvolution analysis. The geometric mean absolute bioavailability of divalproex ER was 0.896. The mean (coefficient of variation) duration of drug absorption from divalproex ER was 21.8 (17%) hours, and the zero-order absorption rate was 21.6 (24%) mg/h for a 500-mg tablet. Divalproex ER has a lower absolute bioavailability than conventional divalproex tablets but exhibits good extended-release characteristics without any dose dumping.

  13. [A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market].

    PubMed

    Franco-Ospina, Luis A; Matiz-Melo, Germán E; Pájaro-Bolívar, Indira B

    2012-08-01

    Determining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). Twelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia's four major cities. They were submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and comparing the products' dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. Comparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. 11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products' bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

  14. Graphics Tablet Technology in Second Year Thermal Engineering Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo, Antonio; Cejudo, José Manuel; Domínguez, Fernando; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but it has not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a…

  15. Monitoring the quality consistency of Weibizhi tablets by micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprints combined with multivariate statistical analyses, the simple quantified ratio fingerprint method, and the fingerprint-efficacy relationship.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingchun; Sun, Guoxiang; Wang, Yan; Yang, Lanping; Yang, Fangliang

    2015-06-01

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprinting combined with quantification was successfully developed and applied to monitor the quality consistency of Weibizhi tablets, which is a classical compound preparation used to treat gastric ulcers. A background electrolyte composed of 57 mmol/L sodium borate, 21 mmol/L sodium dodecylsulfate and 100 mmol/L sodium hydroxide was used to separate compounds. To optimize capillary electrophoresis conditions, multivariate statistical analyses were applied. First, the most important factors influencing sample electrophoretic behavior were identified as background electrolyte concentrations. Then, a Box-Benhnken design response surface strategy using resolution index RF as an integrated response was set up to correlate factors with response. RF reflects the effective signal amount, resolution, and signal homogenization in an electropherogram, thus, it was regarded as an excellent indicator. In fingerprint assessments, simple quantified ratio fingerprint method was established for comprehensive quality discrimination of traditional Chinese medicines/herbal medicines from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the quality of 27 samples from the same manufacturer were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between fingerprints and antioxidant activities was established using partial least squares regression, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered an efficient means for monitoring Weibizhi tablet quality consistency.

  16. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  17. Gravimetric Analysis of Bismuth in Bismuth Subsalicylate Tablets: A Versatile Quantitative Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Eric; Cheung, Ken; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan; Roth, Elijah; Zalewski, Nicole; Veldhuizen, Christopher; Coeler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, lower- and upper-division students dissolved bismuth subsalicylate tablets in acid and precipitated the resultant Bi[superscript 3+] in solution with sodium phosphate for a gravimetric determination of bismuth subsalicylate in the tablets. With a labeled concentration of 262 mg/tablet, the combined data from three…

  18. Gravimetric Analysis of Bismuth in Bismuth Subsalicylate Tablets: A Versatile Quantitative Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Eric; Cheung, Ken; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan; Roth, Elijah; Zalewski, Nicole; Veldhuizen, Christopher; Coeler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, lower- and upper-division students dissolved bismuth subsalicylate tablets in acid and precipitated the resultant Bi[superscript 3+] in solution with sodium phosphate for a gravimetric determination of bismuth subsalicylate in the tablets. With a labeled concentration of 262 mg/tablet, the combined data from three…

  19. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  20. Calcification prevention tablets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  1. A phase IIIb study of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir fixed-dose combination tablet in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced Korean patients chronically infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young-Suk; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwan Sik; Paik, Seung Woon; Lee, Youn-Jae; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Yoon, Seung Kew; Yim, Hyung Joon; Tak, Won Young; Han, Sang-Young; Yang, Jenny C; Mo, Hongmei; Garrison, Kimberly L; Gao, Bing; Knox, Steven J; Pang, Phillip S; Kim, Yoon Jun; Byun, Kwan-Soo; Kim, Young Seok; Heo, Jeong; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2016-11-01

    The standard-of-care regimen for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Korea, pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin, is poorly tolerated. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir is a two-drug, fixed-dose combination tablet approved in the USA, European Union, and Japan for chronic genotype 1 HCV infection. This single-arm, phase IIIb study (NCT02021656) investigated the efficacy and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir fixed-dose combination tablet for 12 weeks in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced Korean patients chronically infected with genotype 1 HCV with or without compensated cirrhosis. The proportion of patients with sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation (SVR12) was 99 % (92/93), with rates of 100 % (46/46) and 98 % (46/47) in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients, respectively. There were no on-treatment failures. One patient relapsed after the end of treatment. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were headache (8 %, 7/93) and fatigue (6 %, 6/93). There were no grade 3 or 4 adverse events, seven grade 3 laboratory abnormalities, and one premature discontinuation of study treatment (due to nonserious mouth ulceration). None of the three reported serious adverse events were related to treatment. These data suggest that 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir is effective and well tolerated in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced Korean patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV infection.

  2. Quantification of paracetamol in intact tablets using near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eustaquio, A; Graham, P; Jee, R D; Moffatt, A C; Trafford, A D

    1998-11-01

    Production batch samples of paracetamol tablets and specially prepared out-of-specification batches covering the range 90-110% of the stated amount (500 mg) were analysed by the BP official UV assay and by NIR transmittance spectroscopy. NIR measurements were made on 20 intact tablets from each batch, scanned five times each (10 min measurement time per batch) over the spectral range 6000-11,520 cm-1. An average spectrum was calculated for each batch. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were set up using a calibration set (20 batches) between the NIR response and the reference tablet paracetamol content (UV). Various pre-treatments of the spectra were examined; the smallest relative standard error of prediction (0.73%) was obtained using the first derivative of the absorbance over the full spectrum. Only two principal components were required for the PLS model to give a good relationship between the spectral information and paracetamol content. Applying this model to the validation set (15 batches) gave a mean bias of -0.08% and a mean accuracy of 0.59% with relative standard deviations of 0.75 and 0.44%, respectively. The proposed method is non-destructive and therefore lends itself to on-line/at-line production control purposes. The method is easy to use and does not require a knowledge of the mass of the tablets.

  3. A randomized, open, multicenter clinical study on the short course of intravenous infusion of 750 mg of levofloxacin and the sequential standard course of intravenous infusion/oral administration of 500 mg of levofloxacin for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tiemei; Chen, Liang-An; Wang, Ping; Tian, Guizhen; Ye, Feng; Zhu, Huili; He, Bei; Zhang, Baiying; Shao, Changzhou; Jie, Zhijun; Gao, Xiwen; Wang, Dongxia; Song, Weidong; Pan, Zhijie; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Xingyi; Gao, Zhancheng; Chen, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare 5-day regimen of levofloxacin 750 mg IV daily with 7–14-day conventional regimen of levofloxacin 500 mg intravenous to oral (IV/PO) daily for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Chinese population. Methods This was a non-inferiority study to assess the difference of clinical efficacy at the end of treatment (EOT) between two regimens. Adult CAP patients with CURB-65 score 0–2 were enrolled from 17 hospitals in China from November 2012 to July 2014. The subjects were randomized into levofloxacin 750 or 500 mg group and the clinical data were collected. Sputum and blood specimens were sent for bacterial culture. The urinary antigen of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was detected as well. At EOT, the clinical efficacy (primary endpoint), microbiological efficacy and safety were evaluated. Results A total of 457 patients were enrolled. Intent-to-treat (ITT) for primary endpoint analysis and per-protocol set (PPS) populations were 448 and 427 patients respectively. The therapeutic durations were 4.86 and 10.35 days and the mean drug exposure was 3,641.4 and 5,169.6 mg in 750 and 500 mg groups respectively. The clinical efficacy rate was 91.40% (202/221) in 750 mg group and 94.27% (214/227) in 500 mg group (ITT, P=0.2449). The difference in clinical efficacy rate was −2.87 (95% CI: −7.64, 1.90) between the two groups. The non-inferiority hypothesis of two groups was tenable (Δ=10%). The bacterial eradication rate was 100.00% in both groups. The most common drug-related clinical adverse events were injection site and gastrointestinal reactions. The most common drug-related laboratory abnormalities were WBC decrease and ALT/AST elevation. No statistical difference was found between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusions The 5-day regimen of levofloxacin 750 mg daily is non-inferior to 7–14-day conventional regimen of 500 mg daily in clinical efficacy for treatment of mild to moderate Chinese CAP population. The short

  4. Novel approach of aceclofenac fast dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Dave, Vivek; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil; Vishwakarma, Pushpendra; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a hastily growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orally for the treatment of bone and connective tissue disorder and thus the formulation of the same resulted in development of several FDT technologies. The present aim is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action: analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action. Besides, the conventional tablets also show poor patient compliance an attempt had been made to formulate for FDT of aceclofenac by using various super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crosspovidone (polyplasdone XL) and PEG 6000 followed by novel technique. The tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies and drug content studies. It was concluded that the batch which was prepared by using combination of crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrant shows excellent disintegration time, enhance dissolution rate, taste masking and hence lead to improve efficacy and bioavailability of drug.

  5. Supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with postcolumn compensation and one-step acetone protein precipitation to evaluate the bioavailability of probucol solid dispersion tablet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bei; Pei, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaoting; Zhu, Meng; Zhao, Longshan; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-10-01

    Solid dispersion technology was used to improve the bioavailability of probucol due to its low hydrophilicity and high lipophilicity. In this study, a highly rapid and sensitive supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was optimized and validated for the determination of probucol in beagle dog plasma with diazepam as an internal standard. The analyte and internal standard were extracted by acetone and then separated on a polar 2-ethylpyridine phase column (100 mm × 3 mm, 1.7 μm) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min using CO2 (≥99.99%) and methanol (95:5, v/v) as the mobile phase. The mass transition ion-pair was m/z 515.6→236.2 and 285.2→193.1 for probucol and internal standard, respectively. Excellent linearity was observed over the concentration range of 5-5000 ng/mL (r(2) ≥ 0.9999) with a lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for all quality control samples were within ±15%. The proposed method was accurate, rapid and reproducible, which was successfully applied to a bioavailabilty evaluation of probucol solid dispersion tablets.

  6. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of tablet solubility and hygroscopicity on disintegrant efficiency in direct compression tablets in terms of dissolution.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M S; Chowhan, Z T

    1987-12-01

    The effect of tablet composite solubility and hygroscopicity on the dissolution efficiency of three "super disintegrants", sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone, and croscarmellose sodium, was investigated. Lactose, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, and sorbitol, alone or in combination, provided varying degrees of solubility and hygroscopicity to the direct compression tablet formulations. To monitor in vitro dissolution, 1% p-aminobenzoic acid was added to the formulation as a tracer. The results indicate that hygroscopic ingredients decrease the effectiveness of super disintegrants in promoting in vitro dissolution. The greater the overall hygroscopicity of the tablet formulation, the larger the decrease in the efficiency of the super disintegrant. Composite tablet solubility did not influence the effectiveness of the super disintegrants. Super disintegrants that complied with the same compendial specifications, but were manufactured by different companies, behaved similarly in promoting tablet dissolution.

  8. Axial strength test for round flat faced versus capsule shaped bilayer tablets.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jason; Abebe, Admassu; Keluskar, Rekha; Martin, Kyle; Majumdar, Antara; Kottala, Niranjan; Stamato, Howard

    2015-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy. Multi-layer tablets are a popular choice among various technologies to deliver FDCs. In most cases, round flat faced tooling is used in testing tablets as they have the simplest geometry. However, shaped tooling is more common for commercial products and may have an effect on bilayer tablet strength. Capsule shaped bilayer tablets, similar to a commercial image, and holders conforming to the tablet topology, were compared with similar round flat faced bilayer tablets and their corresponding holders. Bilayer tablets were subjected to an axial test device, until fracture and the quantitative breaking force value was recorded. As the second layer compression force increases, regardless of holder design, an increase in breaking force occurs as expected. This consistent trend provides insight regarding the breaking force of capsule shaped bilayer tablets. The results of this study show that at lower second layer compression forces, tablet geometry does not significantly impact the results. However, at higher compression forces, a significant difference in breaking force between tablet geometries exists. Therefore, using a test geometry close to the final commercial tablet image is recommended to have the most accurate prediction for tablet breakage.

  9. A two-step strategy to design high bioavailable controlled-release nimodipine tablets: the push-pull osmotic pump in combination with the micronization/solid dispersion techniques.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Shang; Chai, Liqing; Zhang, Dong; Sun, Yinghua; Xu, Lu; Sun, Jin

    2014-01-30

    In order to decrease the fluctuation of blood concentration and to increase the oral bioavailability of nimodipine (NMD), a two-step strategy including the push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) method in combination with micronization and solid dispersion techniques, was used to prepare the controlled-release high-bioavailability solid dosages. The optimization of formulation and process was conducted by comparing effects of different solubilization methods on release behavior of NMD. The in vitro dissolution studies indicated that both the two strategies were able to deliver NMD in the predetermined zero-order manner from 2 to 12h, regardless of effects of release media and agitation rates. Although the Cmax values of two PPOP tablets were lower than that of the reference formulation, both the Tmax values were prolonged, demonstrating the prominent controlled release performance. In comparison with the commercial reference tables, the relative bioavailability of the two formulations was 67.0% and 121.1%, respectively, indicating the solid dispersion technique was more efficient than the micronization technique in terms of solubilization capability and absorption enhancement. In summary, the two-step strategy, combining the push-pull osmotic pump method with the solid dispersion technique, is a very effective method to prepare high bioavailable controlled-release formulations of the poorly soluble drugs, i.e. NMD, taking into account the therapeutical efficiency and safety.

  10. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and noncompartmental analysis demonstrated bioequivalence between metformin component of metformin/vildagliptin fixed-dose combination products and metformin immediate-release tablet sourced from various countries.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Shripad D; Han, Yi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Mita, Sachiko; Zhao, Rong; Sunkara, Gangadhar; Kulmatycki, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is the first-line pharmacotherapy choice for treating type-2 diabetes mellitus, alone or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs. During the development of immediate-release (IR) metformin containing novel fixed-dose combination (FDC) products, several health-authorities require sponsors to demonstrate bioequivalence between FDC products and the country-sourced metformin for market approval. Eight bioequivalence studies that compared metformin/vildagliptin FDC product (test) to metformin IR tablet sourced from various countries (reference) were conducted. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis of pooled metformin concentration-time data was performed to evaluate whether country-sourced metformin is a significant covariate. The PPK analysis demonstrated that there was no clinically relevant effect of metformin source or race/ethnicity on metformin pharmacokinetics. Also, noncompartmental analysis conducted showed that 90%CI of geometric mean ratios of test to reference metformin formulations, calculated for maximum-concentration and exposure parameters, were within the 80%-125% criteria, indicating comparable metformin exposure regardless of the country-sourced metformin IR formulation. These results are consistent with the biopharmaceutics properties of metformin and provide scientific evidence that after assessing in vitro dissolution of novel FDC formulation, additional bioequivalence studies with multiple countries' reference products may not be required once bioequivalence is established with 1 country-sourced IR metformin formulation.

  11. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    PubMed

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  12. Acute toxicity and analgesic action of a combination of buclizine, codeine and paracetamol ('Migraleve') in tablet and suppository form in rats.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, W A; Cserepes, J

    1985-01-01

    Studies in rats were carried out to determine the acute toxicity and analgesic effect of a combination preparation ('Migraleve') containing codeine and paracetamol and the individual analgesics when given orally or by rectal administration. The results showed that the combination was no more toxic than paracetamol alone and, on the basis of the LD50:ED50 ratio, was less toxic by the oral than by the rectal route. In the rat-tail test, the combination induced a well-defined dose-dependent analgesic response which was greater after rectal administration. Codeine and paracetamol tested individually were effective only at relatively high dosage and, like the combination, their analgesic effects were greater after rectal administration and more clearly dose-dependent than after oral administration. Comparison of the area under the time-effect curves for the combination and the individual components confirmed the synergism between codeine and paracetamol.

  13. Efficacy and safety of fixed dose combination of arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate dispersible tablets in paediatric patients with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a phase II, multicentric, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Toure, Offianan Andre; Rulisa, Stephen; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Rao, Ballamudi S; Mishra, Pitabas; Jalali, Rajinder K; Arora, Sudershan; Roy, Arjun; Saha, Nilanjan; Iyer, Sunil S; Sharma, Pradeep; Valecha, Neena

    2015-11-25

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The present study investigated the efficacy and safety of fixed dose combination (FDC) of arterolane maleate 37.5 mg and piperaquine phosphate (PQP) 187.5 mg dispersible tablets in paediatric patients aged 6 months to 12 years. Male and female patients aged 6 months to 12 years who were confirmed cases of P. falciparum mono-infection with fever or documented history of fever in the previous 24 h were included. The patients were administered FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP as single daily doses for three consecutive days based on their age. The primary efficacy outcome was proportion of patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 28. Safety was analysed based on adverse events (AE), laboratory abnormalities and abnormalities on electrocardiograph. A total of 141 eligible paediatric patients received FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP in a 42-day follow-up study. All the enrolled patients (141) were included in intention to treat (ITT) and safety analyses, and 126 patients were considered in per protocol (PP) population. The PCR-corrected ACPR on day 28 was achieved in all patients (100 %; 95 % CI 97.11-100) included in PP population. The median parasite clearance time (PCT) and fever clearance time (FCT) were 24 h (95 % CI 18.0-24.0) and 10 h (95 % CI 4.0-18.0), respectively. The most frequently reported clinical AE was vomiting. Majority of the AEs were mild to moderate in severity and resolved without sequelae. No patient was discontinued for any QTc (corrected QT interval) prolongation. No deaths or serious AEs were reported during the study. The findings from this study showed that FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP effectively cures P. falciparum malaria and attains acceptable level of cure by day 28 in paediatric patients. The efficacy and

  14. Authentication of gold nanoparticle encoded pharmaceutical tablets using polarimetric signatures.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Arteaga, Oriol; Suñé-Negre, Josep M; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-10-01

    The counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products represents concerns for both industry and the safety of the general public. Falsification produces losses to companies and poses health risks for patients. In order to detect fake pharmaceutical tablets, we propose producing film-coated tablets with gold nanoparticle encoding. These coated tablets contain unique polarimetric signatures. We present experiments to show that ellipsometric optical techniques, in combination with machine learning algorithms, can be used to distinguish genuine and fake samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using gold nanoparticles encoded with optical polarimetric classifiers to prevent the counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products.

  15. Effect of moisture and crushing strength on tablet friability and in vitro dissolution.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, Z T; Yang, I C; Amaro, A A; Chi, L H

    1982-12-01

    The friability and dissolution of a formulation of compressed tablets were studied by varying the granulation moisture and tablet crushing strength. A general quadratic response surface model was used to analyze the data. The response surface contour plots of tablet friability consisted of a series of ellipsoidal curves. The optimum friability corresponding to a granulation moisture content and a tablet crushing strength was a simple minimum. The in vitro dissolution contour plots showed a stationary ridge system. Along the ridge, a large number of combinations of tablet crushing strength and granulation moisture represented 100% drug dissolution. The contour overlays of friability and dissolution contour plots showed a region where both the friability and dissolution requirement could be met. The analysis of the data by means of multiple linear regression was helpful in understanding the role of granulation moisture and tablet crushing strength on tablet friability and in vitro dissolution.

  16. Diclofenac systemic bioavailability of a topical 1% diclofenac + 3% menthol combination gel vs. an oral diclofenac tablet in healthy volunteers: a randomized, open-label, crossover study
.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sebastian A; Liu, D Jeffery

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate systemic exposure with repeated topical application of a fixed-combination topical gel product containing 1% diclofenac sodium and 3% menthol in either of 2 formulation packages relative to oral administration. In this phase 1, single-center, 4-way crossover study, healthy volunteers aged 18 - 50 years underwent consecutive 3-day treatment regimens in a randomly assigned sequence with each of 4 treatment groups: 4 g of topical 1% diclofenac + 3% menthol gel administered via an aluminum tube or roll-on device applied 4 times daily; 4 g of topical 1% diclofenac sodium gel (Voltaren Gel) applied 4 times daily; and oral diclofenac sodium tablets 50 mg 3 times daily. Treatment regimens were separated by 2-day washout periods. A total of 18 subjects enrolled and completed the study. Relative to oral administration, area under the concentration time curve from 48 to 72 hours (AUC48-72) with topical administration of 1% diclofenac + 3% menthol gel from a tube or roll-on device was 16.1% (90% CI: 12.2 - 21.1%) and 14.4% (90% CI: 11.0 - 19.0%), respectively. The diclofenac/menthol combination delivered significantly higher exposures of diclofenac compared with Voltaren Gel. A higher number of adverse events (AEs) occurred with the topical diclofenac/menthol combination (61%) vs. Voltaren Gel (22%) or oral diclofenac (6%); most were local skin reactions. No difference in systemic AEs was observed among the groups. As expected, systemic exposure was significantly lower with the topical diclofenac/menthol treatment regimens compared with oral diclofenac. Local skin AEs were increased with the topical combination product, but the risk of systemic AEs was low.
.

  17. [Sanhuang tablets research].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-zhe; Chen, Da-wei

    2007-09-01

    Sanhuang tablets is one of common traditional Chinese patent preparation, it has effects of clear fever, detoxifcation, dispel inflammation, purgation. It was contained in the ministerial standards of Ministry of Health in 1997, and was contained in Chinese pharmacopoeia version 1 of 2000 and 2005. Its improvement of dosage form, preparation technique, quality analysis, pharmacology and clinical usage were reviewed in this paper.

  18. CES 2011: Tablet Crazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David

    2011-01-01

    Ereaders are so last year. Tablets were the watchword at this year's annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, January 6-9. This year, the show set new records, with some 2700 companies from around the world exhibiting at the multiple exhibition halls and 30,000 attendees gawking at the products. What did they see? There were still some…

  19. CES 2011: Tablet Crazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David

    2011-01-01

    Ereaders are so last year. Tablets were the watchword at this year's annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, January 6-9. This year, the show set new records, with some 2700 companies from around the world exhibiting at the multiple exhibition halls and 30,000 attendees gawking at the products. What did they see? There were still some…

  20. The relative bioavailability of paracetamol and codeine after oral administration of a combination of buclizine, paracetamol and codeine, with or without docusate, and of paracetamol alone in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Persaud, N; Johnson, E S; Merrington, D; Oliver, W

    1985-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, crossover study was carried out in 10 healthy volunteers to investigate whether the inclusion of the wetting agent docusate sodium (10 mg) in a combined oral formulation ('Migraleve') with buclizine hydrochloride (6.25 mg), codeine phosphate (8 mg) and paracetamol (500 mg) had any effect on the bioavailability of the analgesics. On 3 occasions at weekly intervals, the subjects were given 2 tablets of the standard formulation, the combination without docusate or 500 mg paracetamol alone. Blood samples were taken before and at fixed times during the 4 hours after administration of each preparation for estimation of plasma concentrations of paracetamol, by gas-liquid chromatography, and of codeine, by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the mean paracetamol concentrations achieved after administration of each of the 3 preparations at any of the time points. Peak paracetamol plasma concentrations were 11.25 +/- 1.74 micrograms/ml at 0.5 hours, 9.6 +/- 1.04 micrograms/ml at 0.75 hours, and 9.53 +/- 1.66 micrograms/ml at 0.5 hours, respectively, after the standard formulation, the combination without docusate, and paracetamol alone. Mean elimination half-lives for paracetamol were 2.83 +/- 0.51, 1.92 +/- 0.20 and 2.49 +/- 0.46 hours, respectively, and the differences were not significant. The difference between mean plasma concentrations of codeine after the two preparations including this analgesic bordered on significance at 3 hours and was significant at 4 hours, but the areas under the curve were not significantly different. Peak codeine plasma concentrations after the standard formulation were 42.1 +/- 9.4 ng/ml at 0.75 hours compared with 36.9 +/- 3.4 ng/ml at 1.5 hours after the combination without docusate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Feasibility of mini-tablets as a flexible drug delivery tool.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Biplob; Chang, Jessica; Wu, Sy-Juen; Wolfe, Chad N; Ternik, Robert L; Gunter, Thomas Z; Victor, Michael C

    2017-06-15

    Mini-tablets have potential applications as a flexible drug delivery tool in addition to their generally perceived use as multi-particulates. That is, mini-tablets could provide flexibility in dose finding studies and/or allow for combination therapies in the clinic. Moreover, mini-tablets with well controlled quality attributes could be a prudent choice for administering solid dosage forms as a single unit or composite of multiple mini-tablets in patient populations with swallowing difficulties (e.g., pediatric and geriatric populations). This work demonstrated drug substance particle size and concentration ranges that achieve acceptable mini-tablet quality attributes for use as a single or composite dosage unit. Immediate release and orally disintegrating mini-tablet formulations with 30μm to 350μm (particle size d90) acetaminophen and Compap™ L (90% acetaminophen) at concentrations equivalent to 6.7% and 26.7% acetaminophen were evaluated. Mini-tablets achieved acceptable weight variability, tensile strength, friability, and disintegration time at a reasonable solid fraction for each formulation. The content uniformity was acceptable for mini-tablets of 6.7% formulations with ≤170μm drug substance, mini-tablets of all 26.7% formulations, and composite dosage units containing five or more mini-tablets of any formulation. Results supported the manufacturing feasibility of quality mini-tablets, and their applicability as a flexible drug delivery tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring and Evaluating the Quality Consistency of Compound Bismuth Aluminate Tablets by a Simple Quantified Ratio Fingerprint Method Combined with Simultaneous Determination of Five Compounds and Correlated with Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Guoxiang; Wang, Yan; Ling, Junhong; Gao, Jiayue; Huang, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    A combination method of multi-wavelength fingerprinting and multi-component quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) was developed and validated to monitor and evaluate the quality consistency of herbal medicines (HM) in the classical preparation Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets (CBAT). The validation results demonstrated that our method met the requirements of fingerprint analysis and quantification analysis with suitable linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). In the fingerprint assessments, rather than using conventional qualitative “Similarity” as a criterion, the simple quantified ratio fingerprint method (SQRFM) was recommended, which has an important quantified fingerprint advantage over the “Similarity” approach. SQRFM qualitatively and quantitatively offers the scientific criteria for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM)/HM quality pyramid and warning gate in terms of three parameters. In order to combine the comprehensive characterization of multi-wavelength fingerprints, an integrated fingerprint assessment strategy based on information entropy was set up involving a super-information characteristic digitized parameter of fingerprints, which reveals the total entropy value and absolute information amount about the fingerprints and, thus, offers an excellent method for fingerprint integration. The correlation results between quantified fingerprints and quantitative determination of 5 marker compounds, including glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), liquiritin (LQ), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritin apioside (ILA), indicated that multi-component quantification could be replaced by quantified fingerprints. The Fenton reaction was employed to determine the antioxidant activities of CBAT samples in vitro, and they were correlated with HPLC fingerprint components using the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method

  3. Monitoring and evaluating the quality consistency of Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets by a simple quantified ratio fingerprint method combined with simultaneous determination of five compounds and correlated with antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Guoxiang; Wang, Yan; Ling, Junhong; Gao, Jiayue; Huang, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    A combination method of multi-wavelength fingerprinting and multi-component quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) was developed and validated to monitor and evaluate the quality consistency of herbal medicines (HM) in the classical preparation Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets (CBAT). The validation results demonstrated that our method met the requirements of fingerprint analysis and quantification analysis with suitable linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). In the fingerprint assessments, rather than using conventional qualitative "Similarity" as a criterion, the simple quantified ratio fingerprint method (SQRFM) was recommended, which has an important quantified fingerprint advantage over the "Similarity" approach. SQRFM qualitatively and quantitatively offers the scientific criteria for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM)/HM quality pyramid and warning gate in terms of three parameters. In order to combine the comprehensive characterization of multi-wavelength fingerprints, an integrated fingerprint assessment strategy based on information entropy was set up involving a super-information characteristic digitized parameter of fingerprints, which reveals the total entropy value and absolute information amount about the fingerprints and, thus, offers an excellent method for fingerprint integration. The correlation results between quantified fingerprints and quantitative determination of 5 marker compounds, including glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), liquiritin (LQ), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritin apioside (ILA), indicated that multi-component quantification could be replaced by quantified fingerprints. The Fenton reaction was employed to determine the antioxidant activities of CBAT samples in vitro, and they were correlated with HPLC fingerprint components using the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. In

  4. A chewable pediatric fixed-dose combination tablet of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine: pharmacokinetics and safety compared with the individual liquid formulations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vanprapar, Nirun; Cressey, Tim R; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Muresan, Petronella; Plipat, Nottasorn; Sirisanthana, Virat; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Hongsiriwan, Suchat; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Eksaengsri, Achara; Toye, MariPat; Smith, Mary Elizabeth; McIntosh, Kenneth; Capparelli, Edmund; Yogev, Ram

    2010-10-01

    Pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) are needed to facilitate antiretroviral therapy in children. We evaluated the relative bioavailability, safety, and therapeutic adequacy of a novel chewable pediatric FDC tablet of stavudine (7 mg), lamivudine (30 mg), and nevirapine (50 mg), referred to as GPO-VIR S7, and compared it with the individual original brand-name liquid formulations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai children. The International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials group (IMPAACT) P1056 study was a phase I/II, 2-arm, randomized, open-label, multidose pharmacokinetic cross-over study. Children ≥6 to ≤30 kg receiving nevirapine-based HAART for at least 4 weeks were randomized to receive GPO-VIR S7 chewable tablets or the equivalent liquid formulations. Children were stratified by weight and dosing was weight-based. Intensive 12-hour blood sampling was performed on day 28, and subjects then crossed-over to the alternate formulation at equal doses with identical 12-hour sampling on day 56. Pharmacokinetic indices were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Thirty-four children completed the study. While taking Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO)-VIR S7 the geometric mean (90% CI) area under the curve was 1.54 μg·hr/mL (1.42-1.67) for stavudine, 6.39 (5.82-7.00) for lamivudine, and 74.06 (65.62-83.60) for nevirapine. Nevirapine drug exposure for GPO-VIR S7 was therapeutically adequate. Geometric mean area under the curve ratios (90% CI) of GPO-VIR S7/liquid formulation for stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine were 0.97 (0.92-1.02), 1.41 (1.30-1.53), and 1.08 (1.04-1.13), respectively. No serious drug-related toxicity was reported. The chewable FDC was safe and provided therapeutically adequate plasma drug exposures in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Substituting the FDC for liquid formulations can simplify antiretroviral therapy.

  5. Taste masking microspheres for orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianchen; Bovet, Li Li; Zhao, Kang

    2008-07-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of microspheres for taste masking when incorporated into orally disintegrating tablets. The microspheres were produced by spray drying a mixture of the model compound (famotidine) with taste masking material. The spray process was optimized using a central composite design for two variables to obtain microspheres with desirable characteristics. Then the microspheres were mixed with other excipients to form orally disintegrating tablets. The optimal spray-drying process parameters were 34mg/ml for solid concentration and 7ml/min for feed rate. The drug encapsulation efficiency of the spray-dried microspheres ranges from of 37.59 to 61.56%, with a mean diameter of less than 10microm size and low moisture content (less than 4%). Results from an evaluation by a panel of six human volunteers demonstrated that the orally disintegrating tablets with taste masking microspheres improved the taste significantly. Furthermore, an in vivo study in rats showed that the microspheres neither decrease the bioavailability nor retard the release of famotidine significantly. In conclusion, spray-dried microspheres can effectively mask the bitter taste of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in combination with the orally disintegrating tablets.

  6. Practical limitations of tableting indices.

    PubMed

    Kuppuswamy, R; Anderson, S R; Hoag, S W; Augsburger, L L

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize tableting indices to distinguish between materials with varying degrees of compactibility by establishing a quantitative relationship between indices and compactibility. Compactibility in this study is restricted to tablet strength and friability alone. Nine mixtures with varying degrees of compactibility were tableted and the tensile strength and friability of the tablets were determined. The tableting indices of these mixtures were determined using an Instron Universal testing machine. An artificial neural network program was used to establish a quantitative relationship between indices and tablet strength and friability. Six new powders were used to validate the models describing the relationship between indices and tablet strength and friability. These powders were compressed into tablets and their strength and friability were determined. Their indices were also determined. The established models were used to predict tablet strength and friability from index values. The predicted values were compared with the experimentally determined values. There was little correlation between the predicted and experimentally determined values for tablet strength and friability. It was also found that materials or mixtures having almost similar indices had remarkably different compactibilities. It was concluded that models created to predict compactibility using one set of materials may not be able to successfully predict the compactibility of a new material. This calls into question the practicality of indices.

  7. The efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets (Ultracet®) as add-on and maintenance therapy in knee osteoarthritis pain inadequately controlled by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Su; Choi, Jin-Jung; Kim, Wan-Uk; Min, June-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Chul-Soo

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablets (tramadol/APAP) with that of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as maintenance therapy following tramadol/APAP and NSAID combination therapy in knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain which was inadequately controlled by NSAIDs. Subjects with knee OA for over 1 year and moderate pain (numerical rating scale [NRS] ≥5) despite at least 4 weeks' NSAID therapy (meloxicam 7.5 mg or 15 mg qd or aceclofenac 100 mg bid) received tramadol/APAP add-on (combination with NSAID) for 4 weeks. Thereafter, subjects with significant pain improvement (NRS <4) were randomized to receive either tramadol/APAP or NSAID for 8 weeks. On days 29 and 57, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) OA index score was measured. Secondary measures included pain intensity (NRS), pain relief score, and subjects' and investigators' overall medication assessments. Of 143 subjects enrolled, 112 completed the 4-week tramadol/APAP and NSAID combination phase and 97 (67.8%) experienced significant pain improvement. Of the 97 subjects randomized, 36 in tramadol/APAP group and 47 in NSAID group completed the 8-week comparator study. On days 29 and 57, WOMAC scores and pain intensities did not increase in both groups compared to measurements immediately after the combination therapy. At these two time points, there were no significant differences in WOMAC scores, pain intensities, and other secondary measures between the two groups. Overall adverse event rates were similar in both groups. Tramadol/APAP add-on significantly improved knee OA pain which had been inadequately controlled by NSAIDs. In those subjects who showed favorable response to tramadol/APAP and NSAID combination therapy, both tramadol/APAP and NSAIDs were effective at maintaining the pain-reduced state and there was no significant difference in efficacy between tramadol/APAP and NSAIDs.

  8. Patients compliance in hypertension--the importance of number of tablets.

    PubMed Central

    Asplund, J; Danielson, M; Ohman, P

    1984-01-01

    The importance of number of tablets for patient compliance was investigated in 160 patients with mild-moderate essential hypertension treated with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker and a thiazide diuretic. Mean BP at entry 146 +/- 16/92 +/- 8 mm Hg. All patients were given pindolol 10 mg and clopamide 5 mg in one combination tablet or in separate tablets for 4 months respectively. Approximately 90% of the patients took greater than 90% of the prescribed dose throughout the study. Mean BP decreased progressively and heart rate increased slightly. Side effects were more frequently reported during the first month of the study than previously, and 30 patients discontinued the treatment. No differences in this respect were seen between 1 and 2 tablets daily. Approximately 75% of the patients preferred 1 tablet daily, but combining two drugs in one tablet had no effect upon compliance. PMID:6375710

  9. Formulation and Taste Masking of Ranitidine Orally Disintegrating Tablet.

    PubMed

    Hesari, Zahra; Shafiee, Akram; Hooshfar, Shirin; Mobarra, Naser; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODT) have the advantages of both solid dosage form specially the stability and ease of handling and liquid dosage forms including ease of swallowing and pre-gastric absorption. We focused on taste masking and formulation of ranitidine ODT which disintegrates rapidly in the mouth within 60 sec using super-disintegrants, special polymers, water soluble and even insoluble excipients, sweeteners and essence. Various formulations were designed and made in four series. The amount of ranitidine in each formulation was 150 mg, and the final weight of tablets was around 500 mg. Prepared formulations were evaluated in terms of several physicochemical tests including powder/granule flowability, appearance, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Several taste masking techniques were investigated in each series of formulation, in order to cover the bitter taste of wranitidine. These included the addition of sweetener, granulation, solid dispersion with soluble and insoluble agents and complex formation with cellulose derivatives. The best formulation(s) in each group was/were chosen for taste evaluations with the help of 10 volunteers. Finally, formulation F14 was selected as the ultimate formulation, based on its better taste and shorter disintegration time (around 5 seconds). Formulation F14 contained Na CMC, avicel, Na starch glycolate, xylitol, saccharin, Na benzoate and menthol. The chosen formulation successfully passed the complementary evaluations such as assay of active ingredient and dissolution time. Na CMC was found to be acceptable in terms of decreasing disintegration time and enhanced taste masking potential and can be used in further ODT formulations.

  10. Formulation and Taste Masking of Ranitidine Orally Disintegrating Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Hesari, Zahra; Shafiee, Akram; Hooshfar, Shirin; Mobarra, Naser; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODT) have the advantages of both solid dosage form specially the stability and ease of handling and liquid dosage forms including ease of swallowing and pre-gastric absorption. We focused on taste masking and formulation of ranitidine ODT which disintegrates rapidly in the mouth within 60 sec using super-disintegrants, special polymers, water soluble and even insoluble excipients, sweeteners and essence. Various formulations were designed and made in four series. The amount of ranitidine in each formulation was 150 mg, and the final weight of tablets was around 500 mg. Prepared formulations were evaluated in terms of several physicochemical tests including powder/granule flowability, appearance, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Several taste masking techniques were investigated in each series of formulation, in order to cover the bitter taste of wranitidine. These included the addition of sweetener, granulation, solid dispersion with soluble and insoluble agents and complex formation with cellulose derivatives. The best formulation(s) in each group was/were chosen for taste evaluations with the help of 10 volunteers. Finally, formulation F14 was selected as the ultimate formulation, based on its better taste and shorter disintegration time (around 5 seconds). Formulation F14 contained Na CMC, avicel, Na starch glycolate, xylitol, saccharin, Na benzoate and menthol. The chosen formulation successfully passed the complementary evaluations such as assay of active ingredient and dissolution time. Na CMC was found to be acceptable in terms of decreasing disintegration time and enhanced taste masking potential and can be used in further ODT formulations. PMID:28243264

  11. Bioequivalence of ciprofloxacin tablet formulations assessed in Indonesian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harahap, Y; Prasaja, B; Indriati, E; Lusthom, W; Lipin

    2007-06-01

    Determination of the bioequivalence of two ciprofloxacin tablet formulations (test formulation manufactured by Novell Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Indonesia, reference formulation from Quimica Farmaceutica Bayer, Spain). 24 healthy volunteers received each of the two ciprofloxacin formulations at a dose of 500 mg in a 2-way crossover design. Blood samples were obtained prior to dosing and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and24h after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography over a period of 24 h after administration. The pharmacokinetics parameter AUC0-24h, AUC0-infinity and Cmax were tested for bioequivalence after log-transformation of data and ratios of tmax were evaluated non-parametrically. The point estimates and 90% confidence intervals for AUC0-24h, AUC0-infinity and Cmax were 97.55% (92.71 - 102.6%), 97.63% (92.90 - 102.59%) and 95.84% (89.95 - 102.10%), respectively, satisfying the bioequivalence criteria of the European Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products and the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. These results indicate that two medications of ciprofloxacin are bioequivalent and, thus, may be prescribed interchangeably.

  12. Developing a mapping tool for tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

  13. Bioequivalence evaluation of two brands of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 250/125 mg combination tablets in healthy human volunteers: use of replicate design approach.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Nasir M; Al-Ghazawi, Ahmad; Najib, Naji M

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a replicate design approach to a bioequivalence study of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination following a 250/125 mg oral dose to 23 subjects, and to compare the analysis of individual bioequivalence with average bioequivalence. This was conducted as a 2-treatment 2-sequence 4-period crossover study. Average bioequivalence was shown, while the results from the individual bioequivalence approach had no success in showing bioequivalence. In conclusion, the individual bioequivalence approach is a strong statistical tool to test for intra-subject variances and also subject-by-formulation interaction variance compared with the average bioequivalence approach.

  14. Effect of powder characteristics on oral tablet disintegration.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fujii, Makiko; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Tsukamoto, Masashi; Shibata, Yusuke; Kondoh, Masuo; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-05

    This report describes an investigation of the factors affecting disintegration time in the mouth (DTM) of rapidly disintegrating tablets. The relation between DTM and stationary time of upper punch displacement (STP) was examined using a tableting process analyzer (TabAll). Results indicated that the bulk density of mixed excipient powder used for tablet preparation affects both DTM and STP. As the value of bulk density increased, STP became longer and DTM shorter. The results of a combination of granules and powder with or without a drug showed liner relation between apparent volume (reciprocal of bulk density) and DTM (r(2)=0.7332). For a DTM less than 60 s, a formulation with a bulk density greater 0.5 g/mL should be chosen with a compression force of 5 kN. The hardness of tablets could be greater than 3 kg if at least one high-compressibility excipient was used in the formulation.

  15. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Ataollahi, Maryam; Oshvandi, Khodayar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women, which includes a group of psychological and physical symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of combined use of calcium and vitamin B6 on premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled was carried out on 76 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated to two groups. (38 people in each group). Student in intervention groups received calcium tablet (500mg) and vitamin B6 (40 mg) and student in intervention groups received only vitamin B6 twice a day for two consecutive months. The symptoms were assessed by Beck depression inventory (BDI) and daily symptom records (DSR) questionnaires. Analyses were carried out by test-retest method, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Independent t-test, and paired t-test using SPSS software ver.13. Results The result showed that although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, but this reduction was more significant in the combined calcium and vitamin B6 group. Conclusion: According to the result, using of combination of calcium and vitamin B6 leads to better controlling of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Therefore it is recommended for women who suffer from these syndromes. PMID:26989667

  16. Investigation into classification/sourcing of suspect counterfeit Heptodintrade mark tablets by near infrared chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta B; Wolff, Jean-Claude

    2009-02-02

    Near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) analysis was performed on 55 counterfeit Heptodin tablets obtained from a market survey and an additional 11 authentic Heptodin tablets for comparison. The aim of the study was to investigate whether NIR-CI can be used to detect the counterfeit tablets and to classify/source them so as to understand the possible number of origins to aid investigators and authorities to shut down counterfeiting operations. NIR-CI combined with multivariate analysis is particularly suited to compare chemical and physical properties of samples, since it is a quick and non-destructive method of analysis. Counterfeit tablets were easily distinguished from the authentic ones. Principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering were performed on the data set. The results from both analyses grouped the counterfeit tablets in 13 main groups. The main groups found with both methods were quite consistent. Out of the 55 tablets only 18% contained the correct active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), i.e., the anti-viral drug lamivudine. The remaining 82% of counterfeit tablets contained talc and starch as main excipients. The API containing tablets classified into three main groups, based mainly on the amount of lamivudine present in the tablet. The group which had close to the correct amount of lamivudine sub-classified into three groups. From the analysis carried out, it is likely that the counterfeit tablets originate from as many as 15 different sources.

  17. Recent development of single preparations and fixed-dose combination tablets for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus : A comprehensive summary for antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwen; Lian, He

    2016-06-01

    As a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) has become a major threat to human health. Because of the heterogeneous and progressive disorders induced by insulin resistance and pancreatic b-cell dysfunction, the treatment of NIDDM is still challenging. Although antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action have been used clinically, different degrees of undesirable glucose control and the incidences of a variety of side effects, including hypoglycemia, cardiovascular complications and weight gain require the better treatment options. This article has overviewed the current literature about commercially available antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action in the treatment of NIDDM, and summarized the published data regarding the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of currently available single preparations and fixed-dose combinations, aiming to provide important information for the development and application of antidiabetic drugs in the future. The literature search from 1989 to 2015 was conducted by PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, American Diabetes Association, and U.S. FDA Drugs databases.

  18. Benefits of combined preventive therapy with co-trimoxazole and isoniazid in adults living with HIV: time to consider a fixed-dose, single tablet coformulation.

    PubMed

    Harries, Anthony D; Lawn, Stephen D; Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben

    2015-12-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the main intervention needed to reduce morbidity and mortality and to prevent tuberculosis in adults living with HIV. However, in most resource-limited countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, ART is started too late to have an effect with substantial early morbidity and mortality, and in high tuberculosis burden settings ART does not reduce the tuberculosis risk to that reported in individuals not infected with HIV. Co-trimoxazole preventive therapy started before or with ART, irrespective of CD4 cell count, reduces morbidity and mortality with benefits that continue indefinitely. Isoniazid preventive therapy as an adjunct to ART prevents tuberculosis in high-exposure settings, with long-term treatment likely to be needed to sustain this benefit. Unfortunately, both preventive therapies are underused in low-income and high-burden settings. ART development has benefited from patient-centred simplification with several effective regimens now available as a one per day pill. We argue that co-trimoxazole and isoniazid should also be combined into a single fixed-dose pill, along with pyridoxine (vitamin B6), that would be taken once per day to help with individual uptake and national scale-up of therapies.

  19. Application of face centred central composite design to optimise compression force and tablet diameter for the formulation of mechanically strong and fast disintegrating orodispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Pabari, Ritesh M; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2012-07-01

    A two factor, three level (3(2)) face centred, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of tablet diameter and compression force (CF) on hardness, disintegration time (DT) and porosity of mannitol based orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Tablet diameters of 10, 13 and 15 mm, and CF of 10, 15 and 20 kN were studied. Results of multiple linear regression analysis show that both the tablet diameter and CF influence tablet characteristics. A negative value of regression coefficient for tablet diameter showed an inverse relationship with hardness and DT. A positive value of regression coefficient for CF indicated an increase in hardness and DT with increasing CF as a result of the decrease in tablet porosity. Interestingly, at the larger tablet diameter of 15 mm, while hardness increased and porosity decreased with an increase in CF, the DT was resistant to change. The optimised combination was a tablet of 15 mm diameter compressed at 15 kN showing a rapid DT of 37.7s and high hardness of 71.4N. Using these parameters, ODTs containing ibuprofen showed no significant change in DT (ANOVA; p>0.05) irrespective of the hydrophobicity of the ibuprofen.

  20. Bioequivalence Study of a New Fixed-dose Combination Tablet Containing S-Amlodipine Nicotinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Oh, Mi Jin; Hwang, Hyun Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Geun Hyeog; Cho, Yun-Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kang, Soo Yeon; Cho, Kyung Hee; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Yun Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2017-07-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety profile and the bioequivalence of two different FDC formulations [amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg (reference product) and S-amlodipine nicotinate/olmesartan medoxomil 5/40 mg (test product)]. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-way, and 2-period crossover study, including a 3-week washout period, was performed in 32 healthy Korean male volunteers. To analyze the concentration of S-amlodipine or olmesartan, plasma samples were collected up to 144 hours after the dose for S-amlodipine and 48 hours after the dose for olmesartan. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the Cmax and the area under the curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last) for the time versus concentration plot, were calculated. Analysis of variance for bioequivalence was conducted using Cmax and AUC0-last converted to log scale, and the mean ratios and 90% CIs were determined. Safety data included analysis of adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory test, and 12-lead ECGs. Of the 32 enrolled participants, 29 healthy volunteers completed the study. For both S-amlodipine and olmesartan, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were all within the acceptable range for regulatory bioequivalence. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of Cmax and AUC0-last were 0.8766 to 0.9760 and 0.8288 to 0.9224, respectively, for S-amlodipine and 0.9097 to 1.1229 and 0.8904 to 1

  1. Tablet PCs: The Write Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

  2. Assessing Student Writing on Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Orr, Aline; Kong, Xiaojing; Lin, Chow-Hong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing expectation that schools should be able to use tablets for a range of instructional and assessment purposes. This article considers the comparability of student writing on tablets and laptops to ensure that writing assessment is conducted in a way that is fair to all students. Data were collected from a sample of 826 students…

  3. Assessing Student Writing on Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Orr, Aline; Kong, Xiaojing; Lin, Chow-Hong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing expectation that schools should be able to use tablets for a range of instructional and assessment purposes. This article considers the comparability of student writing on tablets and laptops to ensure that writing assessment is conducted in a way that is fair to all students. Data were collected from a sample of 826 students…

  4. Tablet PCs: The Write Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

  5. Nanoscale toughening mechanism of nacre tablet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Shengfeng; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Yu; Chen, Youping

    2016-01-01

    Nacre has attracted widespread interest because its unique hierarchical structure, which is assembled by 95 wt% brittle aragonite and 5 wt% soft organic materials, leads to several orders of improvement in fracture toughness. Apart from the well proposed toughening mechanisms such as mineral bridges and tablets interlocks, the organic materials including biopolymers between tablets and proteins exist within a tablet can also potentially improve the toughness. In this work, we employ a novel approach combining steered molecular dynamics (SMD) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) to build a model of mineral-protein composite to mimic nacre tablet. The critical role of protein in improving the fracture toughness of nacre is investigated for the first time. MD simulations of single crystalline aragonite, polycrystalline aragonite and mineral-protein composite under uniaxial tensile loading are performed, and the obtained constitutive responses are compared with experimental measurements of nacre under tension. It is shown that the fracture toughness of mineral-protein composite is significantly larger than that of single crystalline or polycrystalline aragonite. Detailed atomic configuration analyses reveal that the fracture of individual computer model is governed by its unique failure mechanisms. Dislocation motion and phase transformation are observed during the failure of single crystalline aragonite. Polycrystalline aragonite fails by the inter-granular cleavage, as well as phase transformation within grain. It is surprisingly noted that other than the stretching of protein chains on grain boundaries, intra-granular fracture is triggered in mineral-protein composites. Proteins serve as strong glue between the inorganic nanograins. It is believed that the strong electrostatic interaction between protein and aragonite nanograins, combined with the remarkable plastic ductility of protein lead to the intra-granular failure, which consequently enhance the fracture

  6. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon) and (strawberry - raspberry) had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates. PMID:24312839

  7. Multispectral UV Imaging for Determination of the Tablet Coating Thickness.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens M; Zeitler, J Axel; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2017-06-01

    The applicability of off-line multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis was investigated to determine the coating thickness and its distribution on the tablet surface during lab-scale coating. The UV imaging results were compared with the weight gain measured for each individual tablet and the corresponding coating thickness and its distribution measured by terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Three different tablet formulations were investigated, 2 of which contained UV-active tablet cores. Three coating formulations were applied: Aquacoat® ECD (a mainly translucent coating) and Eudragit® NE (a turbid coating containing solid particles). It was shown that UV imaging is a fast and nondestructive method to predict individual tablet weight gain as well as coating thickness. The coating thickness distribution profiles determined by UV imaging correlated to the results of the TPI measurements. UV imaging appears to hold a significant potential as a process analytical technology tool for determination of the tablet coating thickness and its distribution resulting from its high measurement speed, high molar absorptivity, and a high scattering coefficient, in addition to relatively low costs. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

  9. Formulation Development and Optimization of Matrix Tablet of Tramadol Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Deb, Pulak; Singha, Jubaraj; Chanda, Indranil; Chakraborty, Prithviraj

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to formulate and optimize oral sustained release matrix tablet of highly water soluble drug Tramadol HCl and to evaluate the effect of varying concentration of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer on drug release, based on a survey done on the recent patents of Tramadol HCl (US7374781, CA 2479252) and sustained release matrix tablets. The tablets were prepared by double granulation process, by melt granulation and wet granulation technique using Carnauba wax (CW) and HPMC K100 as release retardant. Pre and post compression factors were evaluated and all the parameters were found within the limit. The drug release data were subjected to different models in order to evaluate release kinetics and mechanism of drug release. The prepared formulations showed drug release in the range 100±2% in 6hrs, 7hrs, 8hrs and 9hrs and upto 12 hrs respectively. The optimized tablet having 25% CW and 20% HPMC showed sustained drug release pattern. Hydrophilic matrix of HPMC alone could not control the Tramadol release effectively for 12 h whereas when combined with CW could slow down the release of drug and can be successfully employed for formulating sustained-release matrix tablets. Similarity factor, f2 shows the test and reference profile are identical. Double granulation technique with CW and HPMC K100 proved as a better technique for sustaining the drug release from the matrix tablet. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Managing lower-extremity osteomyelitis locally with surgical debridement and synthetic calcium sulfate antibiotic tablets.

    PubMed

    Gauland, Christopher

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if the use of locally implanted, synthetic calcium sulfate tablets, impregnated with antibiotics, can heal lower-extremity osteomyelitis, without the use of oral and/or intravenous antibiotics or wound complications associated with similarly used mined or refined calcium sulfate. Over a 5-year period, 354 patients with clinically confirmed osteomyelitis of the lower extremity were evaluated, and 337 met the inclusion criteria; 14 were lost to follow-up. Devitalized or infected bone was debrided to the level of healthy cancellous and cortical bone. Compromised soft tissue was resected. At the onset of each operative encounter, the synthetic calcium sulfate tablets were mixed with a standard antibiotic mixture: 500 mg of powdered vancomycin mixed into 240 mg of gentamicin (normally supplied as a liquid in a concentration of 80 mg/2 mL). Vancomycin and gentamicin were chosen because they cover a broad spectrum of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A total of 279 of 323 patents (86.4%) clinically healed without the use of intravenous antibiotics following surgical debridement and tablet implantation. In addition, 24/323 (7.4%) required the use of intravenous antibiotics, but still healed; 20/323 (6.2%) required amputation, of which, 12 (3.7%) were digital amputations, 2 (0.6%) were ray amputations, and 6 (1.9%) were below-knee amputations. The use of locally implanted antibiotic-impregnated, synthetic calcium sulfate tablets in the surgical debridement site for bone infections of the lower extremity, without the concurrent use of intravenous antibiotics, has shown encouraging results.

  11. Compression physics in the formulation development of tablets.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarsvatkumar; Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2006-01-01

    pharmaceuticals. Various indices of tableting performance such as the bonding index, brittle fracture index, and strain index can be used to predict compaction related problems. Compaction related physico-technical properties of commonly used tableting excipients have been reviewed with emphasis on selecting suitable combination to minimize tableting problems. Specialized tools such as co-processing of API and excipients can be used to improve their functionality.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the extended-release tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination tablet for the treatment of chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Chong-Suh

    2013-11-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. The combination of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in an extended-release formulation has been shown to provide rapid and long-lasting analgesic effects resulting from the synergistic activity of these 2 active ingredients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-release tramadol hydrochloride 75-mg/acetaminophen 650-mg fixed-dose combination tablets (TA-ER) for the treatment of chronic low back pain. This Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled 245 patients with moderate to severe (≥4 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale) chronic (≥3 months') low back pain insufficiently controlled by previous NSAIDs or cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors and randomly assigned them to receive 4 weeks of either TA-ER or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% from baseline to final evaluation. Secondary end points included quality of life (Korean Short Form-36), functionality (Korean Oswestry Disability Index), and adverse events. The percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the TA-ER group than in the placebo group for both the full analysis set and the per-protocol population. Pain relief success rate from baseline was significantly higher with TA-ER versus placebo at days 8 and 15 but not at the final visit. Patients in the TA-ER group had significant improvements versus placebo in role-physical, general health, and reported health transition domains of the Korean Short Form-36 and significantly higher functional improvements in the personal care section of the Korean Oswestry Disability Index. Patient assessment of overall pain control as "very good" was also significantly higher with TA-ER than with placebo. Adverse events were reported more frequently with TA-ER than with placebo; the

  13. Vardenafil orodispersible tablet.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Vardenafil orodispersible tablet (ODT) is a supralingual formulation of vardenafil that is available for the on-demand treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of vardenafil ODT are not equivalent to those of the vardenafil film-coated tablet in that the ODT formulation provides consistently greater vardenafil systemic exposure. Therefore, the two formulations are not interchangeable. The efficacy of on-demand vardenafil ODT 10 mg was established in the POTENT I and II studies, which were 6-week, randomized, double-blind, multinational trials in men with erectile dysfunction of at least 6 months duration. In both trials, vardenafil ODT improved erectile function significantly more than placebo, as indicated by International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function subscale scores at week 12 and overall erection success rates during treatment according to responses to questions 2 and 3 of the Sexual Encounter Profile (coprimary endpoints). In a pooled analysis of both trials, vardenafil ODT improved erectile function regardless of age, severity of erectile dysfunction at baseline or the presence or absence of underlying medical conditions. Vardenafil ODT was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, including in men aged ≥65 years, and adverse events were mostly mild or moderate in severity.

  14. Wrist and shoulder posture and muscle activity during touch-screen tablet use: effects of usage configuration, tablet type, and interacting hand.

    PubMed

    Young, Justin G; Trudeau, Matthieu B; Odell, Dan; Marinelli, Kim; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-01-01

    Due to its rapid growth in popularity, there is an imminent need for ergonomic evaluation of the touch-screen tablet computing form-factor. The aim of this study was to assess postures of the shoulders and wrists and their associated muscle activity during touch-screen tablet use. Fifteen experienced adult tablet users completed a set of simulated software tasks on two media tablets in a total of seven user configurations. Configurations consisted of a combination of a support condition (held with one hand, two hands or in a case), a location (on the lap or table surface), and a software task (web browsing, email, and game). Shoulder postures were measured by using an infra-red LED marker based motion analysis system, wrist postures by electro-goniometry, and shoulder (upper trapezius and anterior deltoid) and forearm (flexor carpi radialis, flexor carp ulnaris, and extensor radialis) muscle activity by surface electromyography. Postures and muscle activity for the wrist significantly varied across configurations and between hands, but not across the two tablets tested. Wrist extension was high for all configurations and particularly for the dominant hand when a tablet was placed on the lap (mean=38°). Software tasks involving the virtual keyboard (e-mailing) corresponded to higher wrist extensor muscle activity (50th percentile=9.5% MVC) and wrist flexion/extension acceleration (mean=322°/s2). High levels of wrist radial deviation were observed for the non-dominant hand when it was used to tilt and hold the tablet (mean=13°). Observed differences in posture and muscle activity of the shoulder were driven by tablet location. Touch-screen tablet users are exposed to extreme wrist postures that are less neutral than other computing technologies and may be at greater risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. Tablets should be placed in cases or stands that adjust the tilt of the screen rather than supporting and tilting the tablet with only one hand.

  15. Formulation and optimization of orodispersible tablets of flutamide.

    PubMed

    Elkhodairy, Kadria A; Hassan, Maha A; Afifi, Samar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of flutamide (FTM) to increase its bioavailability. Orodispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using three different approaches namely; super-disintegration, effervescence and sublimation. Different combined approaches were proposed and evaluated to optimize tablet characteristics. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was used as the superdisintegrant. The prepared powder mixtures were subjected to both pre and post compression evaluation parameters including; IR spectroscopy, micromeritics properties, tablet hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. IR studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the excipients used except Ludipress. The results of micromeritics studies revealed that all formulations were of acceptable to good flowability. Tablet hardness and friability indicated good mechanical strength. Wetting and dispersion times decreased from 46 to 38 s by increasing the SSG concentration from 3.33 to 6.66% w/w in tablets prepared by superdisintegration method. The F8 formulation which was prepared by combined approaches of effervescence and superdisintegrant addition gave promising results for tablet disintegration and wetting times but failed to give faster dissolution rate. The incorporation of 1:5 solid dispersion of FTM: PEG 6000 instead of the pure drug in the same formulation increased the drug release rate from 73.12 to 96.99% after 15 min. This increase in the dissolution rate may be due to the amorphization of the drug during the solid dispersion preparation. The presence of the amorphous form of the drug was shown in the IR spectra.

  16. Formulation and optimization of orodispersible tablets of flutamide

    PubMed Central

    Elkhodairy, Kadria A.; Hassan, Maha A.; Afifi, Samar A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of flutamide (FTM) to increase its bioavailability. Orodispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using three different approaches namely; super-disintegration, effervescence and sublimation. Different combined approaches were proposed and evaluated to optimize tablet characteristics. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was used as the superdisintegrant. The prepared powder mixtures were subjected to both pre and post compression evaluation parameters including; IR spectroscopy, micromeritics properties, tablet hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. IR studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the excipients used except Ludipress. The results of micromeritics studies revealed that all formulations were of acceptable to good flowability. Tablet hardness and friability indicated good mechanical strength. Wetting and dispersion times decreased from 46 to 38 s by increasing the SSG concentration from 3.33 to 6.66% w/w in tablets prepared by superdisintegration method. The F8 formulation which was prepared by combined approaches of effervescence and superdisintegrant addition gave promising results for tablet disintegration and wetting times but failed to give faster dissolution rate. The incorporation of 1:5 solid dispersion of FTM: PEG 6000 instead of the pure drug in the same formulation increased the drug release rate from 73.12 to 96.99% after 15 min. This increase in the dissolution rate may be due to the amorphization of the drug during the solid dispersion preparation. The presence of the amorphous form of the drug was shown in the IR spectra. PMID:24493974

  17. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel. (b... section. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount. 5 pounds (lb) and under, 1/2 tablet (17 mg); 6 to 10 lb, 1 tablet (34 mg); 11 to 15 lb, 1 1/2 tablets (51 mg); 16 to 30 lb, 2 tablets (68 mg); 31 to 45...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel. (b... section. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount. 5 pounds (lb) and under, 1/2 tablet (17 mg); 6 to 10 lb, 1 tablet (34 mg); 11 to 15 lb, 1 1/2 tablets (51 mg); 16 to 30 lb, 2 tablets (68 mg); 31 to 45...

  19. Multispectral UV imaging for fast and non-destructive quality control of chemical and physical tablet attributes.

    PubMed

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X; Rantanen, Jukka; Carstensen, Jens M; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-07-30

    Monitoring of tablet quality attributes in direct vicinity of the production process requires analytical techniques that allow fast, non-destructive, and accurate tablet characterization. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of multispectral UV imaging as a reliable, rapid technique for estimation of the tablet API content and tablet hardness, as well as determination of tablet intactness and the tablet surface density profile. One of the aims was to establish an image analysis approach based on multivariate image analysis and pattern recognition to evaluate the potential of UV imaging for automatized quality control of tablets with respect to their intactness and surface density profile. Various tablets of different composition and different quality regarding their API content, radial tensile strength, intactness, and surface density profile were prepared using an eccentric as well as a rotary tablet press at compression pressures from 20MPa up to 410MPa. It was found, that UV imaging can provide both, relevant information on chemical and physical tablet attributes. The tablet API content and radial tensile strength could be estimated by UV imaging combined with partial least squares analysis. Furthermore, an image analysis routine was developed and successfully applied to the UV images that provided qualitative information on physical tablet surface properties such as intactness and surface density profiles, as well as quantitative information on variations in the surface density. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that UV imaging combined with image analysis is an effective and non-destructive method to determine chemical and physical quality attributes of tablets and is a promising approach for (near) real-time monitoring of the tablet compaction process and formulation optimization purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

    2007-12-14

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a superdisintegrant (Ac-Di-sol) was used to enhance the swellability of the bioadhesive tablet. The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as an antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus acidophilus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. From the ex vivo retention study it was found that the bioadhesive polymers hold the tablet for more than 24 hours inside the vaginal tube. The hardness of the acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was optimized, at 4 to 5 kg hardness the swelling was found to be good and the cumulative release profile of the developed tablet was matched with a marketed conventional tablet (Infa-V). The in vitro spreadability of the swelled tablet was comparable to the marketed gel. In the in vitro antimicrobial study it was found that the acid-buffering bioadhesive tablet produces better antimicrobial action than marketed intravaginal drug delivery systems (Infa-V, Candid-V and Canesten 1).

  1. Enhanced oral bioavailability of felodipine by novel solid self-microemulsifying tablets.

    PubMed

    Jing, Boyu; Wang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Rui; Zheng, Xia; Zhao, Jia; Tang, Si; He, Zhonggui

    2016-01-01

    The novel self-microemulsifying (SME) tablets were developed to enhance the oral bioavailability of a poor water-soluble drug felodipine (FDP). Firstly, FDP was dissolved in the optimized liquid self-microemusifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing Miglyol® 812, Cremophor® RH 40, Tween 80 and Transcutol® P, and the mixture was solidified with porous silicon dioxide and crospovidone as adsorbents. Then after combining the solidified powders with other excipients, the solid SME tablets were prepared by wet granulation-compression method. The prepared tablets possessed satisfactory characterization; the droplet size of the SME tablets following self-emulsification in water was nearly equivalent to the liquid SMEDDS (68.4 ± 14.0 and 64.4 ± 12.0 nm); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) analysis demonstrated that FDP in SME tablets had undergone a polymorphism transition from a crystal form to an amorphous state, which was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A similar dissolution performance of SME tablets and liquid SMEDDS was also obtained under the sink condition (85% within 10 min), both significantly higher than commercial tablets. The oral bioavailability was evaluated for the SME tablets, liquid SMEDDS and commercial conventional tablets in the fasted beagle dogs. The AUC of FDP from the SME tablets was about 2-fold greater than that of conventional tablets, but no significant difference was found when compared with the liquid SMEDDS. Accordingly, these preliminary results suggest that this formulation approach offers a useful large-scale producing method to prepare the solid SME tablets from the liquid SMEDDS for oral bioavailability equivalent enhancement of poorly soluble FDP.

  2. Bioequivalence studies for 2 different strengths of irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in healthy volunteers: 300/25 mg and 300/12.5 mg film-coated tablets.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, M; Cabré, F; Polonio, F

    2014-05-01

    Two bioequivalence studies of irbesartan (CAS 138402-11-6) and hydrochlorothiazide (CAS 58-93-5) combination at 300/12.5 mg and 300/25 mg strengths were carried out in order to assess the bioequivalence of these film-coated tablet formulations in comparison with the marketed reference formulations.Both studies were performed with 30 healthy volunteers according to an open label, randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover, single dose and fasting conditions design. In each study, test and reference formulations were administered in 2 treatment days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. Blood samples were drawn up to 72 h following drug administration in case of irbesartan and up to 24 h in case of hydrochlorothiazide. Plasma concentrations of both analytes were obtained by a validated HPLC method using MS/MS detection. Log-transformed AUC0-t and Cmax values were tested for bioequivalence based on the ratios of the geometric LSmeans (test/reference).For both studies, the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric LSmean values for the test/reference ratios for AUC0-t [(irbesartan: 300/12.5 mgstrength: 95.33-111.74%. 300/25 mg strength: 91.27-103.93%) (hydrochlorothiazide: 300/12.5 mg strength: 99.63-107.50%. 300/25 mg strength: 95.72-102.24%)] and Cmax [(irbesartan: 300/12.5 mg strength: 98.73-115.03%. 300/25 mg strength: 97.27-112.12%) (hydrochlorothiazide: 300/12.5 mg strength: 97.34-112.06%. 300/25 mg strength: 93.29-106.38%)] were within the bio-equivalence acceptance range of 80-125%.According to the European Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence it may be therefore concluded that both test formulations are bioequivalent to the corresponding reference formulations. Overall, it was judged that both studies were conducted with a good tolerance of the subjects to study drugs.

  3. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  4. Insulin availability from mucoadhesive tablets.

    PubMed

    Pluta, J; Haznar, D; Suszka-Switek, A; Ryszka, F

    2008-09-01

    The widespread implementation of peptides as drugs encounters numerous obstacles, the main being invasive and inconvenient parenteral administration. Oral transmucosal administration is one of the possible alternatives, valuable for its noninvasiveness and easy accessibility. The aim of our study was to determine the implementation possibilities of mucoadhesive tablets prepared on a methylcellulose and sodium alginate basis with an addition of absorption-modifying hyaluronic acid, as carriers for peptides destined for oral transmucosal administration. Two series of 50 mg tablets containing 5mg of insulin were prepared for the study. The first series contained methylcellulose, hyaluronic acid and mannitol, while the second series' formulation included sodium alginate, hyaluronic acid and mannitol. Carried out study confirmed that insulin administration in the form of mucoadhesive tablets lowers blood glucose levels in rabbits. Better effects were reached in vivo in the case of MC-based tablets, for which stronger and longer glycemia lowering was achieved.

  5. Neuroleptic bioequivalency: tablet versus concentrate.

    PubMed

    Fann, W E; Moreira, A F

    1985-01-01

    Two forms of the antipsychotic neuroleptic molindone were administered to newly admitted psychotic patients. A coated tablet was administered for ten days, followed by administration of liquid concentrate in equivalent doses for four days. Plasma was analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture for the parent compound following each dosing phase. Our data suggest that oral doses of the tablet and concentrate forms of this neuroleptic are equivalent in clinical bioavailability.

  6. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Biswajit; Bagadiya, Abhishek; Makwana, Sagar; Vipul, Vora; Batt, Devraj; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS) were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT), and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9) was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm2, wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes. PMID:22247895

  7. The In vitro/vivo Evaluation of Prepared Gastric Floating Tablets of Berberine Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun; He, Xin; Yang, Xiao-Lin; Du, Wen-Juan; Cui, Cheng-Long; Wang, Ling; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Guo, Chang-Run

    2017-08-01

    Currently available antiulcer drugs suffered from serious side effects which limited their uses and prompted the need for a safe and efficient new antiulcer agent. The objective of this project work was to retain the drug in the stomach for better antiulcer activity and less side effects. Hence, the aim of our present work was to prepare a gastric floating tablet of Berberine hydrochloride (Ber) with suitable in vitro/vivo properties. In this study, different Ber gastric floating tablets were prepared by simple direct compression using various amounts of HPMCK15M and Carbopol 971PNF combined with other tablet excipients. The properties of the tablets including hardness, buoyancy, swelling ability, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacokinetic study were evaluated. The obtained results disclosed that hardness, floating, swelling, and in vitro drug release of the Ber tablets depended mainly on the ratio of polymer combinations. Moreover, among six formulations, F3 exhibited desirable floating, swelling, and extended drug release. In addition, in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggested that prepared gastric floating tablets had significantly sustained-releasing effects compared with market tablets. Therefore, the developed gastric floating tablets of Ber could be an alternative dosage form for treatment of gastrointestinal disease.

  8. Multispectral UV imaging for surface analysis of MUPS tablets with special focus on the pellet distribution.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens M; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Prof Dr Claudia S

    2016-12-30

    In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well as pellet distribution, and influence of the coating material and tablet thickness on the predictive model. Different formulations consisting of coated drug pellets with two coating polymers (Aquacoat(®) ECD and Eudragit(®) NE 30 D) at three coating levels each were compressed to MUPS tablets with various amounts of coated pellets and different tablet thicknesses. The coated drug pellets were clearly distinguishable from the excipients matrix using a partial least squares approach regardless of the coating layer thickness and coating material used. Furthermore, the number of the detected drug pellets on the tablet surface allowed an estimation of the true drug content in the respective MUPS tablet. In addition, the pellet distribution in the MUPS formulations could be estimated by UV image analysis of the tablet surface. In conclusion, this study revealed that UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis is a promising approach for the automatic quality control of MUPS tablets during the manufacturing process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material.

    PubMed

    Basu, Biswajit; Bagadiya, Abhishek; Makwana, Sagar; Vipul, Vora; Batt, Devraj; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS) were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT), and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9) was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm(2), wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes.

  10. Engaging or Distracting: Children's Tablet Computer Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Rhonda N.; Dubé, Adam K.

    2015-01-01

    Communications studies and psychology offer analytical and methodological tools that when combined have the potential to bring novel perspectives on human interaction with technologies. In this study of children using simple and complex mathematics applications on tablet computers, cognitive load theory is used to answer the question: how…

  11. Engaging or Distracting: Children's Tablet Computer Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Rhonda N.; Dubé, Adam K.

    2015-01-01

    Communications studies and psychology offer analytical and methodological tools that when combined have the potential to bring novel perspectives on human interaction with technologies. In this study of children using simple and complex mathematics applications on tablet computers, cognitive load theory is used to answer the question: how…

  12. Tablet splitting and weight uniformity of half-tablets of 4 medications in pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Tahaineh, Linda M; Gharaibeh, Shadi F

    2012-08-01

    Tablet splitting is a common practice for multiple reasons including cost savings; however, it does not necessarily result in weight-uniform half-tablets. To determine weight uniformity of half-tablets resulting from splitting 4 products available in the Jordanian market and investigate the effect of tablet characteristics on weight uniformity of half-tablets. Ten random tablets each of warfarin 5 mg, digoxin 0.25 mg, phenobarbital 30 mg, and prednisolone 5 mg were weighed and split by 6 PharmD students using a knife. The resulting half-tablets were weighed and evaluated for weight uniformity. Other relevant physical characteristics of the 4 products were measured. The average tablet hardness of the sampled tablets ranged from 40.3 N to 68.9 N. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone half-tablets failed the weight uniformity test; however, warfarin half-tablets passed. Digoxin, warfarin, and phenobarbital tablets had a score line and warfarin tablets had the deepest score line of 0.81 mm. Splitting warfarin tablets produces weight-uniform half-tablets that may possibly be attributed to the hardness and the presence of a deep score line. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone tablet splitting produces highly weight variable half-tablets. This can be of clinical significance in the case of the narrow therapeutic index medication digoxin.

  13. How do tablet properties influence swallowing behaviours?

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Hideaki; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural performance of tablet swallowing was evaluated with different tablet conditions in terms of size, number and surface coating. Four different types of tablets were prepared: small or large, and with or without a surface coating. Fourteen normal male adults were instructed to swallow the prepared tablets with 15 ml of water. The number of tablets in one trial was changed from one to three. To evaluate swallowing and tablet transport, electromyographic activity was recorded in the left suprahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were examined. All tablet conditions (size, number and surface coating) affected the swallowing performance in terms of total number of swallows, electromyographic burst patterns and location of remaining tablets. Increases in the size and number of tablets increased the number of swallows and electromyographic burst area and duration. In addition, all of these parameters increased while swallowing tablets without a coating compared with tablets with a coating. Location of the remaining tablets was mainly within the mouth. This study only clarified the normal pattern of tablet swallowing under several conditions in healthy subjects, but the results may facilitate comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning in terms of administering medication to dysphagic patients. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Dose uniformity of scored and unscored tablets: Application of the FDA Tablet Scoring Guidance for Industry.

    PubMed

    Ciavarella, Anthony; Khan, Mansoor; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick

    2016-06-20

    This FDA laboratory study examines the impact of tablet splitting, the effect of tablet splitters, and the presence of a tablet score on the dose uniformity of two model drugs. Whole tablets were purchased from five manufacturers for amlodipine and six for gabapentin. Two splitters were used for each drug product and the gabapentin tablets were also split by hand. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for content uniformity following the general chapter of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Uniformity of Dosage Units <905>, which is a requirement of the new FDA Guidance for Industry on tablet scoring. The USP weight variation method was used for gabapentin split tablets based on the recommendation of the guidance. All whole tablets met the USP acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units. Variation in whole tablet content ranged from 0.5-2.1 standard deviation (SD) of the % label claim. Splitting the unscored amlodipine tablets resulted in a significant increase in dose variability of 6.5-25.4 SD when compared to whole tablets. Split tablets from all amlodipine drug products did not meet the USP acceptance criteria for content uniformity. Variation in the weight for gabapentin split tablets was greater than the whole tablets, ranging from 1.3-9.3 SD. All fully scored gabapentin products met the USP acceptance criteria for weight variation. Size, shape, and the presence or absence of a tablet score can affect the content uniformity and weight variation of amlodipine and gabapentin tablets. Tablet splitting produced higher variability. Differences in dose variability and fragmentation were observed between tablet splitters and hand splitting. These results are consistent with the FDA's concerns that tablet splitting "can affect how much drug is present in the split tablet and available for absorption" as stated in the guidance (1). Copyright © 2016, Parenteral Drug Association.

  15. Quality by design development of brivanib alaninate tablets: degradant and moisture control strategy.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Sherif I F; Lin, Judy; Gokhale, Madhushree; Desai, Sachin; Nesarikar, Vishwas V; LaMarche, Keirnan R; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar A; Narang, Ajit S

    2014-07-20

    A quality by design approach was applied to the development of brivanib alaninate tablets. Brivanib alaninate, an ester pro-drug, undergoes hydrolysis to its parent compound, BMS-540215. The shelf-life of the tablets is determined by the rate of the hydrolysis reaction. Hydrolysis kinetics in the tablets was studied to understand its dependence on temperature and humidity. The BMS-540215 amount versus time profile was simulated using a kinetic model for the formation of BMS-540215 as function of relative humidity in the environment and a sorption-desorptiom moisture transfer model for the relative humidity inside the package. The combined model was used to study the effect of initial tablet water content on the rate of degradation and to identify a limit for initial tablet water content that results in acceptable level of the degradant at the end of shelf-life. A strategy was established for the moisture and degradant control in the tablet based on the understanding of its stability behavior and mathematical models. The control strategy includes a specification limit on the tablet water content and manufacturing process controls that achieve this limit at the time of tablet release testing.

  16. [Effect of release of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose on single and bilayer sustained-release matrix tablets].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-peng; Wang, Meng-yuan; Chang, Jun-biao; Guo, Min-tong

    2013-04-18

    To study the influence of HPMC as hydrophilic matrix materials and controlled-layer components on the drug release of sustained-release matrix tablets and bilayer tablets. Diltiazem hydrochloride was chosen as the water-soluble model drug to prepare different kinds of matrix tablets and double layer tablets with different formulations, and evaluate how the levels and grades of HPMC affect the drug release in sustained-release tablets and bilayer tablets. HPMC with high viscosity and the amount of 20%-40% could delay the drug release to certain degree, but it was difficult to further slow down the drug release up to 24 h, especially for a water soluble drug. Combining HPMC with 5%-20% of CMC-Na was proven to be an effective way to achieve the 24 h release profile with the water soluble drug. HPMC was also investigated as a component in the double layer tablet as base layer. Drug release was complicated compared with EC as the base layer in the double layer tablet due to the great swelling ability of HPMC. HPMC's larger swilling let it form a big cap to retard the drug release, which could significantly affect the drug release with a large ratio of the base layer to the drug layer; furthermore increasing the quality of 10%-40% of the base layer and the proportion of HPMC could reduce the initial burst release. The grade/level of HPMC and combinations with other matrix materials had a big impact on the drug release. HPMC could be used in the base layer of the double tablet to alternate the drug release profile, and reduce the initial burst release of the double-layer matrix tablet, and potentially change the drug mechanism.

  17. Characterization of omega-3 tablets.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Omega-3 nutraceuticals are extensively used as health supplements worldwide. Various administration forms for delivery of omega-3 are available. However, the niche omega-3 tablets have so far remained unexplored. In this work tablets containing 25-40% (w/w) omega-3 oil as triglycerides or ethyl esters were prepared utilizing a direct compaction grade powder with β-cyclodextrin as encapsulating agent. It was found that powders with up to 35% (w/w) triglyceride oil and 30% (w/w) ethyl ester oil, respectively, can be directly compressed into tablets of excellent quality. Physical properties of omega-3 containing powders and tablets are described. The powder X-ray diffractograms of the powders and crushed tablets show evidence of the formation of new crystalline phases not present in β-cyclodextrin. In addition, (1)H NMR data suggest that the ethyl esters form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. Compaction of other, commercially available, omega-3 powders was performed as a comparison and deemed unsuccessful.

  18. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  19. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a.... Dogs—(1) Amount. Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight...

  20. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a.... Dogs—(1) Amount. Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight...

  1. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a.... Dogs—(1) Amount. Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight...

  2. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a.... Dogs(1) Amount. Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight. (2...

  3. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a.... Dogs—(1) Amount. Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene) for each 10 pounds of body weight...

  4. [The use of natural and synthetic hydrophilic polymers in the formulation of metformin hydrochloride tablets with different profile release].

    PubMed

    Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof; Kołodziejska, Justyna; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2012-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride after buformin and phenformin belongs to the group of biguanid derivatives used as oral anti-diabetic drugs. The object of the study is the technological analysis and the potential effect of biodegradable macromolecular polymers on the technological and therapeutic parameters of oral anti-diabetic medicinal products with metformin hydrochloride: Siofor, Formetic, Glucophage, Metformax in doses of 500mg and 1000mg and Glucophage XR in a dose of 500 mg of modified release. Market therapeutic products containing 500 and 1000 mg of metformin hydrochloride in a normal formulation and 500 mg of metformin hydrochloride in a formulation of modified release were analyzed. Following research methods were used: technological analysis of tablets, study of disintegration time of tablets, evaluation of pharmaceutical availability of metformin hydrochloride from tested therapeutic products, mathematical and kinetic analysis of release profiles of metformin hydrochloride, statistical analysis of mean differences of release coefficients. The percentage of excipients in the XR formulation is higher and constitutes 50.5% of a tablet mass. However, in standard formulations the percentage is lower, between 5.5% and 12.76%. On the basis of the results of disintegration time studies, the analysed therapeutic products can be divided into two groups, regardless the dose. The first one are preparations with faster (not fast!) disintegration: Glucophage i Metformax. The second group are preparations with slower disintegration, more balanced in the aspect of a high dose of the biologically active substance: Formetic and Siofor. Products with a lower content of excipients (Metformax, Glucophage) disintegrate in a faster way. The disintegration rate of the products with a higher content of excipients (Formetic, Siofor) is slower. The appearance of metformin hydrochloride concentration in the gastrointestinal contents, balanced in time, caused by a slower disintegration

  5. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  6. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  7. Scaffolding Equals Success in Teaching Tablet PCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Jeremy; Williams, Scott; Browning, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of using the mouse and keyboard as the primary means of computer input, people are seeing a strong surge into a new generation of input technologies such as tablet PCs. As more professionals adopt tablet PCs for use in the workplace, there is a subsequent increased demand for tablet PC instruction in the classroom. Examples of…

  8. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... information. (5) Conditions of use—(i) Swine—(a) Amount. 1 tablet (400 milligrams) per gallon of drinking... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... information. (5) Conditions of use—(i) Swine—(a) Amount. 1 tablet (400 milligrams) per gallon of drinking... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  11. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 milligrams of epsiprantel. (b) Sponsor. See...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(c) of this chapter for use of 250 milligram tablets; see No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 50 and 250 milligram tablets. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Twenty-five... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...(c) of this chapter for use of 250 milligram tablets; see No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 50 and 250 milligram tablets. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Twenty-five... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900...

  14. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 milligrams of epsiprantel. (b) Sponsor. See...

  15. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 milligrams of epsiprantel. (b) Sponsor. See...

  16. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin....

  18. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  19. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  20. Tablet Analysis Using Gravimetric Dilutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, Larry A.

    2001-10-01

    This experiment introduces the concept of gravimetric dilutions in the context of tablet analysis. Caffeine tablets are analyzed by absorbance at 274 nm with reference to a standard calibration graph and tested for compliance with the USP criterion. All samples and standards are prepared using gravimetric dilutions without reference to volume or density. This experiment is appropriate for high school and college freshman chemistry courses and may be useful at higher levels. It is only necessary that students have had exposure to Beer's law.

  1. Disintegration of chemotherapy tablets for oral administration in patients with swallowing difficulties.

    PubMed

    Siden, Rivka; Wolf, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    The administration of oral chemotherapeutic drugs can be problematic in patients with swallowing difficulties. Inability to swallow solid dosage forms can compromise compliance and may lead to poor clinical outcome. The current technique of tablet crushing to aid in administration is considered an unsafe practice. By developing a technique to disintegrate tablets in an oral syringe, the risk associated with tablet crushing can be avoided. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using disintegration in an oral syringe for the administration of oral chemotherapeutic tablets. Eight commonly used oral chemotherapeutic drugs were tested. Tablets were placed in an oral syringe and allowed to disintegrate in tap water. Various volumes and temperatures were tested to identify which combination allows for complete disintegration of the tablet in the shortest amount of time. The oral syringe disintegration method was considered feasible if disintegration occurred in ≤15 min and in ≤20 mL of water and the dispersion passed through an oral syringe tip. The following tablets were shown to disintegrate within 15 min and in <20 mL of water: busulfan, cyclophosphamide 50 mg, dasatinib, imatinib, methotrexate, and thioguanine. For these drugs, drug-specific information pamphlets can be prepared for patient or caregiver use. Mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide 25 mg, and mitotane tablets did not pass the disintegration test. Disintegrating oral chemotherapeutic tablets in a syringe provides a closed system to administer hazardous drugs and allows for the safe administration of oral chemotherapeutic drugs in a tablet form to patients with swallowing difficulties.

  2. Fast-disintegrating sublingual epinephrine tablets: effect of tablet dimensions on tablet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem M; Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing dimensions on the hardness (H), disintegration time (DT), and wetting time (WT) of fast-disintegrating epinephrine tablets for sublingual administration as potential first aid treatment for anaphylaxis. Tablet formulations I and II, containing 0% and 10% epinephrine bitartrate, respectively, and weighing 150 mg were prepared by direct compression. Formulations were compressed at a range of forces using an 8/32'' die with concave punches (CP); a 10/32'' and an 11/32'' die with CP and flat punches (FP). Tablet weight variation, content uniformity, thickness, H, DT, and WT were measured. The 8/32'', 10/32'', and 11/32'' dies resulted in tablet thickness of ranges 0.25-0.19'', 0.17-0.1'', and 0.16-0.08'', respectively. The DT and WT using the 8/32'' die weretablets. The 11/32'' and 10/32'' dies resulted in more ideal tablet dimensions for sublingual administration, but H must be maintained<4 kg to ensure rapid DT and WT.

  3. Release kinetics of salbutamol sulphate from wax coated microcapsules and tableted microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Raghuvanshi, R S; Tripathi, K P; Jayaswal, S B; Singh, J

    1992-01-01

    Microcapsules of salbutamol sulphate were prepared using beeswax and carnauba wax as coating materials. In vitro release kinetics were studied following the zero order, first order and Higuchi equations. Beeswax alone was not effective but beeswax and carnauba wax combinations were suitable in controlling the in vitro release of the drug. Microcapsules were compressed into tablets to get a controlled release oral dosage form. Release from tableted microcapsules was significantly more prolonged than the respective batches of the microcapsules. Best data fit with the highest correlation coefficient for the tableted microcapsules was obtained for first order.

  4. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  5. Learning, Tablet, Culture-Coherence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norqvist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer…

  6. Glyburide/metformin tablets: a new therapeutic option for the management of Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dailey, George E

    2003-08-01

    Oral antidiabetic combination therapy is a proven means of establishing glycaemic control in the hyperglycaemic, Type 2 diabetic patient, but co-administering two oral antidiabetic agents separately may hinder compliance with therapy. A new single-tablet of glyburide/metformin combination therapy (Glucovance), Bristol-Myers Squibb, Inc.) has recently been developed, which addresses the primary defects of Type 2 diabetes: beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. The glyburide/metformin tablet, taken with meals, is designed to optimise the absorption of glyburide and to address the postprandial glucose rise. Glyburide/metformin tablets are more effective in controlling fasting and postprandial glycaemia than its component monotherapies, at lower doses of metformin and glyburide compared with monotherapy because of the synergy between its glyburide and metformin components. Moreover, a double-blind study showed that glyburide/metformin tablets are more effective than a free combination of glyburide co-administered with metformin in controlling postprandial glucose. Retrospective analyses suggested that glyburide/metformin tablets control glycated haemoglobin (A1C) more effectively than a free combination of glyburide co-administered with metformin, at lower mean doses of glyburide and metformin. The incidence of side effects is lower than separate component therapy for any given A1C. Glyburide/metformin tablets are an effective option for optimising the control of blood glucose in Type 2 diabetic patients and appear to enhance adherence to therapy.

  7. Efficacy of a single dose of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel combination tablets, Milpro(®), against adult Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and both adult and immature E. multilocularis in young cats.

    PubMed

    Cvejic, Dejan; Schneider, Claudia; Fourie, Josephus; de Vos, Christa; Bonneau, Stephane; Bernachon, Natalia; Hellmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two single-site, laboratory, negatively controlled, masked, randomised dose confirmation studies were performed: one in dogs, the other in cats. After a period of acclimatisation, both the dogs and cats were orally infected with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. In the dog study, 10 dogs received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 18 days post-infection and 10 dogs received no treatment. In the cat study, 10 cats received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 7 days post-infection, 10 cats received a single dose of the treatment 18 days post-infection and 10 cats remained untreated. In both studies, intestinal worm counts were performed 23 days post-infection at necropsy. No worms were retrieved from any of the 30 treated animals. Nine of 10 control dogs had multiple worms (geometric mean 91, arithmetic mean 304) and all 10 control cats had multiple worms (geometric mean 216, arithmetic mean 481). The difference in worm counts between all three treated groups and their controls was highly significant (ANOVA p values of log transformed data <0.0001). Efficacy of 100 % was demonstrated for the elimination of adult E. multilocularis in dogs and cats as well as for elimination of immature E. multilocularis in cats as evidenced by the effectiveness of treatment 7 days post-infection. The treatments were well accepted and tolerated, and there were no adverse drug reactions observed.

  8. Controlled release tablet formulation containing natural Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Punyamurthula, Nagendra S; Hingorani, Tushar; Adelli, Goutham; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids are increasingly being used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) because of their action on the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The currently marketed capsule formulations (sesame oil based and crystalline powder) are required to be administered frequently to maintain therapeutic levels, which leads to non-compliance. In the present study, oral controlled release tablet formulations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were prepared using the lipids Precirol® and Compritol®. Release profiles using THC-lipid matrices and/or with the lipids in the external phase (blend) were evaluated. The effect of directly compressible diluents lactose mixture (Ludipress®), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (Emcompress®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® 102) on tablet characteristics and in vitro drug release was also investigated. Further, in vitro THC release in the presence of a lipase inhibitor, Pluronic® F68, was also studied. A 24 h zero-order THC release profile was obtained with a combination of Precirol® and Compritol® in the compression blend. Addition of Pluronic® F68 did not alter THC release in vitro. These optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable for 3 months, the last time point tested, at 25 °C/60% RH. The overall results demonstrate the feasibility of preparing oral THC tablets for once a day administration which can improve CINV management.

  9. Tablet mechanics depend on nano and micro scale adhesion, lubrication and structure.

    PubMed

    Badal Tejedor, Maria; Nordgren, Niklas; Schuleit, Michael; Rutland, Mark W; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Tablets are the most convenient form for drug administration. However, despite the ease of manufacturing problems such as powder adhesion occur during the production process. This study presents surface and structural characterization of tablets formulated with commonly used excipients (microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose, mannitol, magnesium (Mg) stearate) pressed under different compaction conditions. Tablet surface analyses were performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated with a tablet hardness test. Local adhesion detected by AFM decreased when Mg stearate was present in the formulation. Moreover, the tablet strength of plastically deformable excipients such as MCC was significantly decreased after addition of Mg stearate. Combined these facts indicate that Mg stearate affects the particle-particle bonding and thus elastic recovery. The MCC excipient also displayed the highest hardness which is characteristic for a highly cohesive material. This is discussed in the view of the relatively high adhesion found between MCC and a hydrophilic probe at the nanoscale using AFM. In contrast, the tablet strength of brittle materials like lactose and mannitol is unaffected by Mg stearate. Thus fracture occurs within the excipient particles and not at particle boundaries, creating new surfaces not previously exposed to Mg stearate. Such uncoated surfaces may well promote adhesive interactions with tools during manufacture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. De-risking pharmaceutical tablet manufacture through process understanding, latent variable modeling, and optimization technologies.

    PubMed

    Muteki, Koji; Swaminathan, Vidya; Sekulic, Sonja S; Reid, George L

    2011-12-01

    In pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing processes, a major source of disturbance affecting drug product quality is the (lot-to-lot) variability of the incoming raw materials. A novel modeling and process optimization strategy that compensates for raw material variability is presented. The approach involves building partial least squares models that combine raw material attributes and tablet process parameters and relate these to final tablet attributes. The resulting models are used in an optimization framework to then find optimal process parameters which can satisfy all the desired requirements for the final tablet attributes, subject to the incoming raw material lots. In order to de-risk the potential (lot-to-lot) variability of raw materials on the drug product quality, the effect of raw material lot variability on the final tablet attributes was investigated using a raw material database containing a large number of lots. In this way, the raw material variability, optimal process parameter space and tablet attributes are correlated with each other and offer the opportunity of simulating a variety of changes in silico without actually performing experiments. The connectivity obtained between the three sources of variability (materials, parameters, attributes) can be considered a design space consistent with Quality by Design principles, which is defined by the ICH-Q8 guidance (USDA 2006). The effectiveness of the methodologies is illustrated through a common industrial tablet manufacturing case study.

  11. Process analytical technology to understand the disintegration behavior of alendronate sodium tablets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-05-01

    Various adverse events including esophagus irritations have been reported with the use of alendronate tablets, likely attributed to the rapid tablet disintegration in the mouth or esophagus. Accordingly, the disintegration of six alendronate tablet drug products was studied using a newly developed testing device equipped with in-line sensors, in addition to the official compendial procedure for measuring the disintegration time. The in-line sensors were used to monitor the particle count and solution pH change to assess the onset and duration of disintegration. A relatively large variation was observed in the disintegration time of the tested drug products using the compendial method. The data collected using the in-line sensors suggested that all tested drug products exhibited almost instantaneous onset of disintegration, under 2 s, and a sharp drop in solution pH. The drop in pH was slower for tablets with slower disintegration. The in-house prepared alendronate test tablets also showed similar trends suggesting rapid solubilization of the drug contributed to the fast tablet disintegration. This research highlights the usefulness of the newly developed in-line analytical method in combination with the compendial method in providing a better understanding of the disintegration and the accompanying drug solubilization processes for fast disintegrating tablet drug products.

  12. Novel mesalamine-loaded beads in tablets for delayed release of drug to the colon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chien; Christensen, J Mark; Ayres, James W

    2012-01-01

    Novel 'beads-in-a-tablet' formulations (total weight ∼740-780 mg) have been prepared that meet USP 31 requirements for Delayed Release of mesalamine. Several methods are presented that overcome breakage of beads during tablet compaction were explored. Bead formulations comprise a combination of extrusion and spheronization to produce a relatively high drug load (80%), followed by coating (25%) with a colonic-targeted drug release polymer (polymethacrylates, Eudragit(®) S100), overcoated (3%) with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Opadry(®)) to improve bead binding and compactability, and using 20% coat of lactose/sodium starch glycolate (Explotab(®)) as binder/disintegrant/cushioning agent, thus allowing a sufficiently thick coating to be uniform and without being broken during tablet compaction. Then, the aforementioned beads were compressed into tablets at 1500 pounds of pressure containing 400 mg of mesalamine, and finally coating the compressed tablets with Surelease(®) (ethylcellulose):Opadry(®) = 1:0.5 ranging from 1.5-2.5% weight gain; the resulting tablets met USP 31 dissolution requirements for delayed release tablets.

  13. A comparison of trehalose dihydrate and mannitol as stabilizing agents for dicalcium phosphate dihydrate based tablets.

    PubMed

    Landín, M; Fontao, M J; Martínez-Pacheco, R

    2005-03-01

    This study investigated the possible utility of trehalose dihydrate (TD) as a tablet stabilizing agent. Acetylsalicylic acid was used as the model hydrolyzable drug and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) as the base excipient, because it is well documented that ASA/DCPD tablets are unstable during storage at low temperature and high relative humidity; DCPD is usually combined with mannitol in order to improve tablet stability. Tablets comprising DCPD, 10% ASA, and 0%, 10%, or 20% w/w of TD were prepared by direct compression and stored at 35 degrees C and 82.9% relative humidity for 6 months. Additionally, control tablets with DCPD and ASA, only, or with DCPD, ASA and 20% mannitol, were also evaluated. At predetermined time intervals, formulations were tested for drug content, mechanical, microstructural, and drug dissolution properties. Additionally, thermal analyses and ASA solution stability studies were carried out. Results reveal that both TD and mannitol significantly reduce degradation of ASA included in DCPD-based tablets, but neither effectively protects against the marked decline in tablet mechanical properties on aging. The ASA stabilization effects of TD and mannitol were also observed in solution, indicating an interaction between these sugars and ASA.

  14. Profiling of Ecstasy Tablets Seized in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khajeamiri, Ali Reza; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Mostashari, Gelareh

    2011-01-01

    In this study 50 samples of ecstasy tablets seized in Iran during the period of 2007 through 2008 were examined and their physical characteristics (appearance, marking, scored/not scored, color, weight, diameter, thickness) were determined. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of these tablets, color tests (Marquis test, Simon’s test, Chen’s test and Gallic acid test), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), anion test, residual solvents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were carried out on the tablets. The range of tablets weight was 96–308 mg and the range of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride content in these tablets was 60–180 mg. No good correlation was found between the tablets weight and their MDMA contents. All of the tablets containing MDMA had this compound in hydrochloride form. Ketamine, phenmetrazine and ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) were found in some of the tablets along with MDMA. No MDMA was found in 20% of the tablets. Some of these tablets contained compounds such as caffeine or tramadol as their active ingredient. PMID:24250345

  15. Dose Uniformity of Scored and Unscored Tablets: Application of the FDA Tablet Scoring Guidance for Industry.

    PubMed

    Ciavarella, Anthony B; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick J

    This U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laboratory study examines the impact of tablet splitting, the effect of tablet splitters, and the presence of a tablet score on the dose uniformity of two model drugs. Whole tablets were purchased from five manufacturers for amlodipine and six for gabapentin. Two splitters were used for each drug product, and the gabapentin tablets were also split by hand. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for content uniformity following the general chapter of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Uniformity of Dosage Units <905>, which is a requirement of the new FDA Guidance for Industry on tablet scoring. The USP weight variation method was used for gabapentin split tablets based on the recommendation of the guidance. All whole tablets met the USP acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units. Variation in whole tablet content ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 standard deviation (SD) of the percent label claim. Splitting the unscored amlodipine tablets resulted in a significant increase in dose variability of 6.5-25.4 SD when compared to whole tablets. Split tablets from all amlodipine drug products did not meet the USP acceptance criteria for content uniformity. Variation in the weight for gabapentin split tablets was greater than the whole tablets, ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 SD. All fully scored gabapentin products met the USP acceptance criteria for weight variation. Size, shape, and the presence or absence of a tablet score can affect the content uniformity and weight variation of amlodipine and gabapentin tablets. Tablet splitting produced higher variability. Differences in dose variability and fragmentation were observed between tablet splitters and hand splitting. These results are consistent with the FDA's concerns that tablet splitting can have an effect on the amount of drug present in a split tablet and available for absorption. Tablet splitting has become a very common practice in the United States and throughout

  16. A design and evaluation of layered matrix tablet formulations of metoprolol tartrate.

    PubMed

    Baloğlu, Esra; Senyiğit, Taner

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the performance of different swellable polymers in the form of layered matrix tablets to provide controlled therapeutic effect of metoprolol tartrate for twice daily administration. Seven different swellable polymers (carrageenan, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, pectin, guar gum, xanthan gum, chitosan, and ethyl cellulose) were evaluated alone or in combination as release-retardant layer. Tablets were tested for weight variation, hardness, diameter/thickness ratio, friability, and drug content uniformity and subjected to in vitro drug-release studies. In addition, the target-release profile of metoprolol tartrate was plotted using its clinical pharmacokinetic data, and the release profiles of the tablets were evaluated in relation to the plotted target release profile. Carrageenan was determined as the best polymer in two-layered matrix tablet formulations due to its better accordance to the target release profile and was selected for preparing three-layered matrix tablets. Carrageenan formulations exhibited super case II release mechanism. Accelerated stability testing was performed on two- and three-layered matrix tablet formulations of carrageenan. The tablets were stored at 25 degrees C/60% relative humidity and 40 degrees C/75% relative humidity for 6 months and examined for physical appearance, drug content, and release characteristics. At the end of the storage time, formulations showed no change either in physical appearance, drug content, or drug-release profile. These results demonstrated the suitability of three-layered tablet formulation of carrageenan to provide controlled release and improved linearity for metoprolol tartrate in comparison to two-layered tablet formulation.

  17. Evaluation of Water Sterilizing Tablets,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    J P. Kroeplin) IMANILA (c) NDHO Main Library1Phlpie3 Philippines 3 %-, SRI LANKA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Director Ms. Rita M. Rapp Food Research and...Puritabs) versus iodine (Afses, Potable Aqua) disinfection, and the safety of long term ingestion of large doses of iodine (Rogers et al, 1977). Water...depend on their ingredients reacting in water to produce their active agent. In the Afses tablet this agent is free iodine (8 ppm) formed from

  18. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  19. Design, Formulation, and Physicochemical Evaluation of Montelukast Orally Disintegrating Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Beigi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are a modern form of tablets that when placed in the oral cavity, disperses rapidly. These tablets have advantages, particularly good applications for children and old patients who have a complication in chewing or swallowing solid dosage forms. The aim of this study was to design, formulate, and evaluate the physicochemical properties of 5 mg montelukast ODTs for the prevention of asthma and seasonal allergies. Methods: Formulations were prepared with different amounts of super disintegrating agents and effervescent bases as disintegrant agents. Flowability and compressibility of mixed powders were evaluated. The prepared formulations were tested for hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, drug content, wetting time, disintegration time, dissolution study, and moisture uptake studies. Results: The compressibility index and angle of repose were in the range of 15.87%–23.43% and 32.93–34.65, respectively. Hardness, thickness, friability, wetting time, and content uniformity of formulations were in the range of 33.7–37.1 N, 3.00–3.81 mm, 0.27%–0.43%, 31–50 s and 96.28%–99.90%, respectively. Disintegration time of the tablets prepared with super disintegrating agents, effervescent bases, and combination of two were in the range of 30–50, more than 60 and 20–36 s, respectively. Conclusions: Mixture of powders and tablets passed all the specified tests. The results showed formulations prepared by super disintegrating agents and super disintegrating agents with effervescent bases had shorter disintegration time compared to formulations with effervescent bases alone. PMID:27857833

  20. Modeling picking on pharmaceutical tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Shrikant

    Tablets are the most popular solid dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry because they are cheap to manufacture, chemically and mechanically stable and easy to transport and fairly easy to control dosage. Pharmaceutical tableting operations have been around for decades however the process is still not well understood. One of the common problems faced during the production of pharmaceutical tablets by powder compaction is sticking of powder to the punch face, This is known as 'sticking'. A more specialized case of sticking is picking when the powder is pulled away form the compact in the vicinity of debossed features. In the pharmaceutical industry, picking is solved by trial and error which is an expensive, labor intensive and time consuming affair. The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and implement a modeling framework for predicting picking in powder compacts. The model was developed in Abaqus a commercially available finite element package. The resulting model was used to investigate the influence of debossed feature geometry viz. the stroke angle and degree of pre-pick, and, influence of lubricant on picking. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Can Tablet Computers Enhance Faculty Teaching?

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Aditee P.; Whicker, Shari A.; Benjamin, Robert W.; Hawley, Jeffrey; McGann, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Learner benefits of tablet computer use have been demonstrated, yet there is little evidence regarding faculty tablet use for teaching. Objective Our study sought to determine if supplying faculty with tablet computers and peer mentoring provided benefits to learners and faculty beyond that of non–tablet-based teaching modalities. Methods We provided faculty with tablet computers and three 2-hour peer-mentoring workshops on tablet-based teaching. Faculty used tablets to teach, in addition to their current, non–tablet-based methods. Presurveys, postsurveys, and monthly faculty surveys assessed feasibility, utilization, and comparisons to current modalities. Learner surveys assessed perceived effectiveness and comparisons to current modalities. All feedback received from open-ended questions was reviewed by the authors and organized into categories. Results Of 15 eligible faculty, 14 participated. Each participant attended at least 2 of the 3 workshops, with 10 to 12 participants at each workshop. All participants found the workshops useful, and reported that the new tablet-based teaching modality added value beyond that of current teaching methods. Respondents developed the following tablet-based outputs: presentations, photo galleries, evaluation tools, and online modules. Of the outputs, 60% were used in the ambulatory clinics, 33% in intensive care unit bedside teaching rounds, and 7% in inpatient medical unit bedside teaching rounds. Learners reported that common benefits of tablet computers were: improved access/convenience (41%), improved interactive learning (38%), and improved bedside teaching and patient care (13%). A common barrier faculty identified was inconsistent wireless access (14%), while no barriers were identified by the majority of learners. Conclusions Providing faculty with tablet computers and having peer-mentoring workshops to discuss their use was feasible and added value. PMID:26221443

  2. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Sponsors. See No. 000859 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30-mg tablet. (c) Special considerations... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531...

  3. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Sponsors. See No. 000859 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30-mg tablet. (c) Special considerations... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531...

  4. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Sponsors. See No. 000859 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30-mg tablet. (c) Special considerations... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531...

  5. Can Tablet Computers Enhance Faculty Teaching?

    PubMed

    Narayan, Aditee P; Whicker, Shari A; Benjamin, Robert W; Hawley, Jeffrey; McGann, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    Learner benefits of tablet computer use have been demonstrated, yet there is little evidence regarding faculty tablet use for teaching. Our study sought to determine if supplying faculty with tablet computers and peer mentoring provided benefits to learners and faculty beyond that of non-tablet-based teaching modalities. We provided faculty with tablet computers and three 2-hour peer-mentoring workshops on tablet-based teaching. Faculty used tablets to teach, in addition to their current, non-tablet-based methods. Presurveys, postsurveys, and monthly faculty surveys assessed feasibility, utilization, and comparisons to current modalities. Learner surveys assessed perceived effectiveness and comparisons to current modalities. All feedback received from open-ended questions was reviewed by the authors and organized into categories. Of 15 eligible faculty, 14 participated. Each participant attended at least 2 of the 3 workshops, with 10 to 12 participants at each workshop. All participants found the workshops useful, and reported that the new tablet-based teaching modality added value beyond that of current teaching methods. Respondents developed the following tablet-based outputs: presentations, photo galleries, evaluation tools, and online modules. Of the outputs, 60% were used in the ambulatory clinics, 33% in intensive care unit bedside teaching rounds, and 7% in inpatient medical unit bedside teaching rounds. Learners reported that common benefits of tablet computers were: improved access/convenience (41%), improved interactive learning (38%), and improved bedside teaching and patient care (13%). A common barrier faculty identified was inconsistent wireless access (14%), while no barriers were identified by the majority of learners. Providing faculty with tablet computers and having peer-mentoring workshops to discuss their use was feasible and added value.

  6. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  9. Identification of anisodamine tablets by Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Zang, Hengchang; Li, Jun; Chen, Dejun; Li, Tao; Wang, Fengshan

    2014-06-05

    Vibrational spectroscopy including Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become an attractive tool for pharmaceutical analysis. In this study, effective calibration models for the identification of anisodamine tablet and its counterfeit and the distinguishment of manufacturing plants, based on Raman and NIR spectroscopy, were built, respectively. Anisodamine counterfeit tablets were identified by Raman spectroscopy with correlation coefficient method, and the results showed that the predictive accuracy was 100%. The genuine anisodamine tablets from 5 different manufacturing plants were distinguished by NIR spectroscopy using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on interval principal component analysis (iPCA) method. And the results showed the recognition rate and rejection rate were 100% respectively. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy and NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics are feasible and potential tools for rapid pharmaceutical tablet discrimination.

  10. A study of micronized poloxamers as lubricants in direct compression of tablets.

    PubMed

    Muzíková, Jitka; Vyhlídalová, Barbora; Pekárek, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluates the micronized poloxamers Lptrol micro127 (poloxamer 407) and Lptrol micro 68 (poloxamer 188) as lubricants in combination with the dry binders microcrystalline cellulose and spray-dried lactose. Magnesium stearate was employed as the comparative lubricant. The parameters under study included energy for friction, plasticity, ejection force, tensile strength of tablets, and disintegration time of tablets. The factors of influence were the concentration of lubricants, compression force, and mixing parameters. The lubricating effect of micronized poloxamers was smaller than that of magnesium stearate. Higher concentrations of poloxamers decreased the tensile strength of tablets from microcrystalline cellulose, shortened the disintegration time, and slightly prolonged the disintegration time in the case of spray-dried lactose. Parameters of mixing of dry binders with poloxamers influenced the tested parameters of compression more in the case of spray-dried lactose. In microcrystalline cellulose, they influenced more the tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets.

  11. Development of extended release divalproex sodium tablets containing hypdrophobic and hydrophilic matrix.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, S; Pandit, J K; Srinatha, A

    2009-07-01

    Bilayered tablets of Divalproex sodium for once-a-day administration were prepared using a hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer as release retarding agents. This technology was found to be more effective than a simple matrix tablet with a mixture of the above polymers in order to retard the drug release for a period of 24 h. The drug release profile was strongly dependent on the presence of wicking agent, pathlength of hydrophobic layer, and hardness of tablet. f(1) value of 6.92 and f(2) value of 76.72 indicated similarity between the release profiles of batch BT3 and reference tablet (Depakote((R)) ER) with the target release of over 55% within 12 h and over 85% within 18 h. Mathematical modeling using Korsmeyer-Peppas equation indicated that the release followed a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism.

  12. Design, Development and Optimization of S (-) Atenolol Floating Sustained Release Matrix Tablets Using Surface Response Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Gunjal, P. T.; Shinde, M. B.; Gharge, V. S.; Pimple, S. V.; Gurjar, M. K.; Shah, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate floating sustained release matrix tablets of s (-) atenolol, by using different polymer combinations and filler, to optimize by using surface response methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate the drug release pattern of the optimized product. Floating sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a binder and lactose monohydrate as filler. The 32 full factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of formulation variables on different properties of tablets applicable to floating lag time, buoyancy time, % drug release in 1 and 6 h (D1 h,D6 h) and time required to 90% drug release (t90%). Significance of result was analyzed using analysis of non variance and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. S (-) atenolol floating sustained release matrix tablets followed the Higuchi drug release kinetics that indicates the release of drug follows anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. The developed floating sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet. PMID:26798171

  13. Design, Development and Optimization of S (-) Atenolol Floating Sustained Release Matrix Tablets Using Surface Response Methodology.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, P T; Shinde, M B; Gharge, V S; Pimple, S V; Gurjar, M K; Shah, M N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate floating sustained release matrix tablets of s (-) atenolol, by using different polymer combinations and filler, to optimize by using surface response methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate the drug release pattern of the optimized product. Floating sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a binder and lactose monohydrate as filler. The 3(2) full factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of formulation variables on different properties of tablets applicable to floating lag time, buoyancy time, % drug release in 1 and 6 h (D1 h,D6 h) and time required to 90% drug release (t90%). Significance of result was analyzed using analysis of non variance and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. S (-) atenolol floating sustained release matrix tablets followed the Higuchi drug release kinetics that indicates the release of drug follows anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. The developed floating sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet.

  14. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy visualizes pharmaceutical tablets during dissolution.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Andrew L; Kleinebudde, Peter; Herek, Jennifer; Strachan, Clare J; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2014-07-04

    Traditional pharmaceutical dissolution tests determine the amount of drug dissolved over time by measuring drug content in the dissolution medium. This method provides little direct information about what is happening on the surface of the dissolving tablet. As the tablet surface composition and structure can change during dissolution, it is essential to monitor it during dissolution testing. In this work coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is used to image the surface of tablets during dissolution while UV absorption spectroscopy is simultaneously providing inline analysis of dissolved drug concentration for tablets containing a 50% mixture of theophylline anhydrate and ethyl cellulose. The measurements showed that in situ CARS microscopy is capable of imaging selectively theophylline in the presence of ethyl cellulose. Additionally, the theophylline anhydrate converted to theophylline monohydrate during dissolution, with needle-shaped crystals growing on the tablet surface during dissolution. The conversion of theophylline anhydrate to monohydrate, combined with reduced exposure of the drug to the flowing dissolution medium resulted in decreased dissolution rates. Our results show that in situ CARS microscopy combined with inline UV absorption spectroscopy is capable of monitoring pharmaceutical tablet dissolution and correlating surface changes with changes in dissolution rate.

  15. Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and tablet cutter

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Walid A.; Alanizi, Abdulaziz S.; Abdelhamid, Magdi M.; Alanizi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4 mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1 N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablet’s or half-tablet’s drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content = 6.43%, weight = 8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for

  16. Prediction of dissolution profiles by non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy in tablets subjected to different levels of strain.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Eduardo; Pawar, Pallavi; Keyvan, Golshid; Wang, Yifan; Velez, Natasha; Callegari, Gerardo; Cuitino, Alberto; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Muzzio, Fernando J; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2016-01-05

    This study describes how the strain on formulation components affects dissolution and how near infrared spectroscopy can be used to predict dissolution. Strain (exposure to shear stress) applied during powder mixing affects the interaction between formulation components. Particles experience shear strain when they move relative to each other in a process affecting the properties of the final product. This stress affects the dissolution of oral solid dosages forms. However, dissolution testing destroys the entire tablet, making it impossible to further evaluate tablet properties when an out of specification result is obtained. Thus, a nondestructive technique such as near infrared spectroscopy is desirable to predict dissolution. The aim of this study was to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain (shear) using near infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. Shear was induced using a modified Couette cell on the powder mixture and tablets from these mixtures were produced using a tablet press emulator. Tablets produced with different strain levels were measured using near infrared spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained in diffuse reflectance mode and pretreated with baseline correction to maintain the physical and chemical information of the tablets. Dissolution profiles were obtained using USP Apparatus 2 as a reference method. Principal component analysis was used to study the sources of variation in the spectra obtained. Partial least squares 2 was used to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain.

  17. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Haloperidol and Trihexyphenidyl in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Wate, S. P.; Borkar, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl is a dosage form to be used as antidyskinetic agent. Literature revealed that there is no single method for the simultaneous estimation of these drugs in tablet dosage form, which prompted us to develop a simple, rapid, accurate, economical and sensitive spectrophotometric method. The simultaneous estimation method is based on the principle of additivity of absorbance, for the determination of haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl in tablet formulation. The absorption maxima of the drugs were found to be at 245.0 nm and 206.0 nm respectively for haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl in methanol and 0.1N HCl (90:10). The obeyance of Beer Lambert’s law was observed in the concentration range of 2.5-12.5 µg/ml for haloperidol and 1.0-5.0 µg/ml for trihexyphenidyl. The accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed method was statistically validated by recovery studies. PMID:20838539

  18. Simultaneous spectrophotometric estimation of haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl in tablets.

    PubMed

    Wate, S P; Borkar, A A

    2010-03-01

    The combination of haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl is a dosage form to be used as antidyskinetic agent. Literature revealed that there is no single method for the simultaneous estimation of these drugs in tablet dosage form, which prompted us to develop a simple, rapid, accurate, economical and sensitive spectrophotometric method. The simultaneous estimation method is based on the principle of additivity of absorbance, for the determination of haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl in tablet formulation. The absorption maxima of the drugs were found to be at 245.0 nm and 206.0 nm respectively for haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl in methanol and 0.1N HCl (90:10). The obeyance of Beer Lambert's law was observed in the concentration range of 2.5-12.5 µg/ml for haloperidol and 1.0-5.0 µg/ml for trihexyphenidyl. The accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed method was statistically validated by recovery studies.

  19. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets....

  20. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnidazole tablets. 520.312 Section 520.312 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.312 Carnidazole tablets....

  1. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cefpodoxime tablets. 520.370 Section 520.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets....

  2. Fertilizer Tablets Stimulate Eucalyptus in Florida Trial

    Treesearch

    George Meskimen

    1971-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida must grow rapidly to withstand first-year frosts and dominate herbaceous competition. Fertilizer tablets in the planting holes of E. camaldulensis stimulated immediate growth, resulting in stems 50 percent taller and 83 percent thicker than check trees at 6 months. Effects of tablets persisted after 4 years, with...

  3. Alternatives to optimal administration of tablets.

    PubMed

    Hasselbalch, H; Jørgensen, F; Wamberg, T; Hey, H

    1985-01-01

    This controlled investigation of 27 volunteers compared the effect of cold and lukewarm tap water and carbonated water on the passage through the esophagus of a large circular tablet containing barium sulphate and of the same size and specific gravity as an acetylsalicylic acid tablet (Kodimagnyl). The influence of yoghurt on the passage of the same tablet was also examined. The investigation emphasized the importance of taking tablets together with 100 ml of liquid. A comparison of the transit times for tablets taken together with 100 ml of cold carbonated water and 100 ml of lukewarm tap water showed a significantly better passage when the tablets were taken with cold carbonated water (p = 0.01). A similar advantage of carbonated liquids was seen when tablets were taken with 25 ml of lukewarm tap water as compared with 25 ml of cold carbonated water (p = 0.01). Administration of a tablet in a tablespoon of yoghurt is a good alternative, even though the bioavailability of certain preparations may be reduced.

  4. How Tablets Are Utilized in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditzler, Christine; Hong, Eunsook; Strudler, Neal

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are a large part of the educational landscape in the 21st century. Emergent technologies are implemented in the classroom at an exponential rate. The newest technology to be added to the daily classroom is the tablet computer. Understanding students' and teachers' perceptions about the role of tablet computers is important as this…

  5. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  9. Transforming the Classroom With Tablet Technology.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Lana; Miles, Elizabeth

    Identifying the most effective models for integrating new technology into the classroom and understanding its effects on educational outcomes are essential for nurse educators. This article describes an educational intervention with tablet technology (iPads) using an innovative case-based learning model in a nursing program. Students reported positive learning outcomes when using the tablet technology for learning course content.

  10. Tablet PCs: A Physical Educator's New Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computers in education have come a long way from the abacus of 5,000 years ago to the desktop and laptop computers of today. Computers have transformed the educational environment, and with each new iteration of smaller and more powerful machines come additional advantages for teaching practices. The Tablet PC is one. Tablet PCs are fully…

  11. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... period. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) Growing chickens—(a.... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) [Reserved] (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... period. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) Growing chickens—(a.... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 72...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2330 - Sulfisoxazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer one tablet... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2330 - Sulfisoxazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer one tablet... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2330 - Sulfisoxazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer one tablet... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2330 - Sulfisoxazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer one tablet... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole...

  2. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  3. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  4. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  5. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  6. Enhancing Student Performance Using Tablet Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Amelito G.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive…

  7. Enhancing Student Performance Using Tablet Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Amelito G.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive…

  8. How Tablets Are Utilized in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditzler, Christine; Hong, Eunsook; Strudler, Neal

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are a large part of the educational landscape in the 21st century. Emergent technologies are implemented in the classroom at an exponential rate. The newest technology to be added to the daily classroom is the tablet computer. Understanding students' and teachers' perceptions about the role of tablet computers is important as this…

  9. Tablet computers in the veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Eurell, Jo Ann C; Diamond, Nancy A; Buie, Brandon; Grant, David; Pijanowski, Gerald J

    2005-01-01

    Tablet computers offer a new method of information management in veterinary medical education. With the tablet computer, students can annotate class notes using electronic ink, search for keywords, and convert handwriting to text as needed. Additional electronic learning resources, such as medical dictionaries and electronic textbooks, can be readily available. Eleven first-year veterinary students purchased tablet computers and participated in an investigation of their working methods and perceptions of the tablet computer as an educational tool. Most students found the technology useful. The small size and portability of the tablet allowed easy transport and use in a variety of environments. Most students adapted to electronic notetaking by the second week of classes; negative experiences with the tablet centered on a failure to become comfortable with taking notes and navigating on the computer as opposed to writing and searching on paper. A few performance-related problems, including short battery life, were reported. Tablet software allowed conversion of faculty course notes from a variety of original formats, meaning that instructors could maintain their original methods of note preparation. Adopting a consistent naming convention for files helped students to locate the files on their computers, and smaller file sizes helped with computer performance. Collaboration between students was fostered by tablet use, which offers possibilities for future development of collaborative learning environments.

  10. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets...

  11. Tablet PCs: A Physical Educator's New Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computers in education have come a long way from the abacus of 5,000 years ago to the desktop and laptop computers of today. Computers have transformed the educational environment, and with each new iteration of smaller and more powerful machines come additional advantages for teaching practices. The Tablet PC is one. Tablet PCs are fully…

  12. Putting Tablet PCs to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirian, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Like many educators, the author and her colleagues (five faculty members and two IT techs) in the department of Media Communications and Technology at East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania were interested to find out the status of tablet PCs in education. Microsoft listed 10 manufacturers of tablet PCs following two forms: the slate and the…

  13. Risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets: A robust-product for pediatrics.

    PubMed

    El-Say, Khalid M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Abdelbary, Maged F; Ali, Bahaa E; Aljaeid, Bader M; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets) as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1), swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2), and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3). Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for pre- and post-compression characteristics. The prepared OD-mini-tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2) and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use.

  14. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, δ and β crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the β-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment.

  15. Development and Characterization of Novel Floating-Mucoadhesive Tablets Bearing Venlafaxine Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Misra, Raghvendra; Bhardwaj, Peeyush

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned about the development of floating bioadhesive drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride which after oral administration exhibits a unique combination of floating and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability within the stomach. The floating bioadhesive tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using different ratios of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4MCR) and Carbopol 934PNF as polymers. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and citric acid were used as gas (CO2) generating agents. Tablets were characterized for floating properties, in vitro drug release, detachment force, and swelling index. The concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol 934PNF significantly affects the in vitro drug release, floating properties, detachment force, and swelling properties of the tablets. The optimized formulation showed the floating lag time 72 ± 2.49 seconds and duration of floating 24.50 ± 0.74 hr. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied. The in vitro drug release from tablets was sufficiently sustained (more than 18 hr) and the Fickian transports of the drug from the tablets were confirmed. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets remained buoyant and altered position in the stomach of albino rabbit and mean gastric residence time was prolonged (more than > 6 hr).

  16. Development and Characterization of Novel Floating-Mucoadhesive Tablets Bearing Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Raghvendra

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned about the development of floating bioadhesive drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride which after oral administration exhibits a unique combination of floating and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability within the stomach. The floating bioadhesive tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using different ratios of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4MCR) and Carbopol 934PNF as polymers. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and citric acid were used as gas (CO2) generating agents. Tablets were characterized for floating properties, in vitro drug release, detachment force, and swelling index. The concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol 934PNF significantly affects the in vitro drug release, floating properties, detachment force, and swelling properties of the tablets. The optimized formulation showed the floating lag time 72 ± 2.49 seconds and duration of floating 24.50 ± 0.74 hr. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied. The in vitro drug release from tablets was sufficiently sustained (more than 18 hr) and the Fickian transports of the drug from the tablets were confirmed. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets remained buoyant and altered position in the stomach of albino rabbit and mean gastric residence time was prolonged (more than > 6 hr). PMID:27274884

  17. Mathematical Model-Based Accelerated Development of Extended-release Metformin Hydrochloride Tablet Formulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Desai, D; Good, D; Crison, J; Timmins, P; Paruchuri, S; Wang, J; Ha, K

    2016-08-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was developed to predict metformin release from a hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) matrix-based extended-release formulation that took into consideration the physical and chemical properties of the drug substance, composition, as well as size and shape of the tablet. New high dose strength (1000 mg) tablet geometry was selected based on the surface area/volume (SA/V) approach advocated by Lapidus/Lordi/Reynold to obtain the desired equivalent metformin release kinetics. Maintaining a similar SA/V ratio across all extended-release metformin hydrochloride (Met XR) tablet strengths that had different geometries provided similar simulations of dissolution behavior. Experimental dissolution profiles of three lots of high-strength tablets agreed with the simulated release kinetics. Additionally, a pharmacokinetic absorption model was developed using GastroPlus™ software and known physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and in vitro dissolution properties of metformin to predict the clinical exposure of the new high strength (1000 mg) tablet prior to conducting a human clinical bioequivalence study. In vitro metformin release kinetics were utilized in the absorption model to predict exposures in humans for new 1000-mg Met XR tablets, and the absorption model correctly projected equivalent in vivo exposure across all dose strengths. A clinical bioequivalence study was pursued based on the combined modeling results and demonstrated equivalent exposure as predicted by the simulations.

  18. Controlled-Release Carbamazepine Matrix Granules and Tablets Comprising Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Components

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Nahla S.; Elbagory, Ibrahim M.; Almurshedi, Alanood S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lipophilic (Compritol® 888 ATO) and hydrophilic components (combination of HPMC and Avicel) on the release of carbamazepine from granules and corresponding tablet. Wet granulation followed by compression was employed for preparation of granules and tablets. The matrix swelling behavior was investigated. The dissolution profiles of each formulation were compared to those of Tegretol® CR tablets and the mean dissolution time (MDT), dissolution efficiency (DE%), and similarity factor (f2 factor) were calculated. It was found that increase in the concentration of HPMC results in reduction in the release rate from granules and achievement of zero-order is difficult from the granules. The amount of HPMC plays a dominant role for the drug release. The release mechanism of CBZ from matrix tablet formulations follows non-Fickian diffusion shifting to Case II by the increase of HPMC content, indicating significant contribution of erosion. Increasing in drug loading resulted in acceleration of the drug release and in anomalous controlled-release mechanism due to delayed hydration of the tablets. These results suggest that wet granulation followed by compression could be a suitable method to formulate sustained release CBZ tablets. PMID:19555310

  19. Smartphones and tablets: Reshaping radiation oncologists' lives.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Iturriaga, Alfonso; Bilbao, Pedro; Casquero, Francisco; Cacicedo, Jon; Crook, Juanita

    2012-09-01

    Smartphones and tablets are new handheld devices always connected to an information source and capable of providing instant updates, they allow doctors to access the most updated information and provide decision support at the point of care. The practice of radiation oncology has always been a discipline that relies on advanced technology. Smartphones provide substantial processing power, incorporating innovative user interfaces and applications. The most popular smartphone and tablet app stores were searched for "radiation oncology" and "oncology" related apps. A web search was also performed searching for smartphones, tablets, oncology, radiology and radiation oncology. Smartphones and tablets allow rapid access to information in the form of podcasts, apps, protocols, reference texts, recent research and more. With the rapidly changing advances in radiation oncology, the trend toward accessing resources via smartphones and tablets will only increase, future will show if this technology will improve clinical care.

  20. Smartphones and tablets: Reshaping radiation oncologists’ lives

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Iturriaga, Alfonso; Bilbao, Pedro; Casquero, Francisco; Cacicedo, Jon; Crook, Juanita

    2012-01-01

    Background Smartphones and tablets are new handheld devices always connected to an information source and capable of providing instant updates, they allow doctors to access the most updated information and provide decision support at the point of care. Aim The practice of radiation oncology has always been a discipline that relies on advanced technology. Smartphones provide substantial processing power, incorporating innovative user interfaces and applications. Materials and methods The most popular smartphone and tablet app stores were searched for “radiation oncology” and “oncology” related apps. A web search was also performed searching for smartphones, tablets, oncology, radiology and radiation oncology. Results Smartphones and tablets allow rapid access to information in the form of podcasts, apps, protocols, reference texts, recent research and more. Conclusion With the rapidly changing advances in radiation oncology, the trend toward accessing resources via smartphones and tablets will only increase, future will show if this technology will improve clinical care. PMID:24669308

  1. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-10-22

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P < .001) higher than those between N and RD and between C and RD. There is therefore the need to carefully choose the nature (N) and concentration (C) of starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern.

  2. The impact of hot-melt extrusion on the tableting behaviour of polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Grymonpré, W; De Jaeghere, W; Peeters, E; Adriaensens, P; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-02-10

    There is evidence that processing techniques like hot-melt extrusion (HME) could alter the mechanical properties of pharmaceuticals, which may impede further processability (e.g. tableting). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if HME has an impact on the tableting behaviour of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-formulations. Mixtures of partially hydrolysed PVA grades (with a hydroxylation degree of 75 and 88%) and sorbitol (0, 10 and 40%) were extruded, (cryo-) milled and compressed into compacts of 350 ± 10 mg. Before compression all intermediate products were characterized for their solid-state (Tg, Tm, crystallinity) and material properties (particle size, moisture content, moisture sorption). Because both PVA-grades required higher extrusion temperatures (i.e. 180 °C), sorbitol was added to PVA as plasticizing agent to allow extrusion at 140 °C. Compaction experiments were performed on both physical mixtures and cryo-milled extrudates of PVA-sorbitol. By measuring tablet tensile strength and porosity in function of compaction pressure, tableting behaviour was compared before and after HME by means of the CTC-profiles (compressibility, tabletability, compactibility). A higher amorphous content in the formulation (as a result of HME) negatively influenced the tableting behaviour (i.e. lower tablet tensile strength). HME altered the mechanical properties towards more elastically deforming materials, thereby increasing tablet elastic recovery during decompression. The lower tensile strengths resulted from a combined effect of less interparticulate bonding areas (because of higher elastic recovery) and weaker bonding strengths per unit bonding area (between glassy particles).

  3. [Methods for the protection against counterfeit medications. Part 2. The assessment of interlot dispersion of the metoprolol succinate tablets fabricated by different manufacturers].

    PubMed

    Iakushev, V A; Morozova, M A; Elizarova, T E; Fitilev, S B; Pletneva, T V

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of analysis of the metoprolol succinate tablets fabricated by two different manufacturers, Akrikhin (Russia) and AstraZeneka (Sweden) by near-IR spectroscopy in the combination with the chemometric processing of the data obtained (discriminative analysis). It is concluded that this method is applicable for the assessment of interlot dispersion of the metoprolol succinate tablets.

  4. Teachers' Attitudes to Using iPads or Tablet Computers; Implications for Developing New Skills, Pedagogies and School-Provided Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes of teachers towards using tablet computers, predominantly Apple's iPad, across 22 post primary-schools in Ireland. The study also questions some previous research and assumptions on the educational use of tablet computers. The majority of schools were using devices with students and teachers; the combined size of…

  5. Teachers' Attitudes to Using iPads or Tablet Computers; Implications for Developing New Skills, Pedagogies and School-Provided Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes of teachers towards using tablet computers, predominantly Apple's iPad, across 22 post primary-schools in Ireland. The study also questions some previous research and assumptions on the educational use of tablet computers. The majority of schools were using devices with students and teachers; the combined size of…

  6. Phase transformation in thiamine hydrochloride tablets: Influence on tablet microstructure, physical properties, and performance.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Paroma; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Govindarajan, Ramprakash

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this article was to monitor phase transformation in thiamine hydrochloride, from a nonstoichiometric hydrate (NSH) to a hemihydrate (HH), in stored tablets, prepared both by direct compression and wet granulation, and to relate the storage-induced phase transformation with changes in tablet microstructure, physical properties, and performance. Raman spectroscopy revealed complete NSH → HH transformation in tablets, within 30 h of storage at 40°C/75% relative humidity. When the tablets were prepared by wet granulation of NSH alone, there was a marked increase in both tablet volume and hardness on storage. However, when microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was included in granulation, the resulting stored tablets also exhibited a pronounced increase in disintegration time. In contrast, tablets prepared by dry processing via compression of a NSH-MCC physical mixture did not exhibit any changes in properties, despite the in situ solid form conversion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed growth of needle-like HH crystals in all stored tablets and mercury porosimetry revealed considerable changes in the pore size distribution during storage. Longer storage led to crystal growth (Ostwald ripening), causing further gradual but less dramatic changes in properties. The phase transformation and the complex interparticulate associations in the tablet influenced the changes in tablet microstructure, compact physical properties, and product behavior.

  7. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) as in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Nos. 051311 and 059130 for use of tablets... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) as in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Nos. 051311 and 059130 for use of tablets... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272...

  9. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats for reducing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet...

  10. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats for reducing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) as in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Nos. 051311 and 059130 for use of tablets... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide 6... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains...

  13. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats for reducing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) as in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Nos. 051311 and 059130 for use of tablets... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide 6... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains...

  16. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats for reducing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet...

  17. Xylan--a possible filler and disintegrant for tablets.

    PubMed

    Juslin, M; Paronen, P

    1984-04-01

    Xylan, a novel possible adjuvant for tablets was tested and compared with modified starch, Sta-Rx 1500, for weight variation, strength and disintegration of tablets. There was no remarkable difference in weight variation between the tablets of the corresponding compositions. The tablets containing xylan were stronger and disintegrated more rapidly than those containing modified starch.

  18. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520... tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 1/5 to 1 tablet per...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520... tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 1/5 to 1 tablet per...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg), or...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or...

  4. In-line monitoring of compaction properties on a rotary tablet press during tablet manufacturing of hot-melt extruded amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Grymonpré, W; Verstraete, G; Van Bockstal, P J; Van Renterghem, J; Rombouts, P; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2017-01-30

    As the number of applications for polymers in pharmaceutical development is increasing, there is need for fundamental understanding on how such compounds behave during tableting. This research is focussed on the tableting behaviour of amorphous polymers, their solid dispersions and the impact of hot-melt extrusion on the compaction properties of these materials. Soluplus, Kollidon VA 64 and Eudragit EPO were selected as amorphous polymers since these are widely studied carriers for solid dispersions, while Celecoxib was chosen as BCS class II model drug. Neat polymers and physical mixtures (up to 35% drug load) were processed by hot-melt extrusion (HME), milled and sieved to obtain powders with comparable particle sizes as the neat polymer. A novel approach was used for in-line analysis of the compaction properties on a rotary tablet press (Modul P, GEA) using complementary sensors and software (CDAAS, GEA). By combining 'in-die' and 'out-of-die' techniques, it was possible to investigate in a comprehensive way the impact of HME on the tableting behaviour of amorphous polymers and their formulations. The formation of stable glassy solutions altered the formulations towards more fragmentary behaviour under compression which was beneficial for the tabletability. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to summarize the behaviour during compaction of the formulations, enabling the selection of Soluplus and Kollidon VA 64 as the most favourable polymers for compaction of glassy solutions.

  5. Formulation and development of orodispersible sustained release tablet of domperidone.

    PubMed

    Patil, Hemlata G; Tiwari, Roshan V; Repka, Michael A; Singh, Kamalinder K

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available domperidone orodispersible tablets (ODT) are intended for immediate release of the drug, but none of them have been formulated for sustained action. The aim of the present research work was to develop and evaluate orodispersible sustained release tablet (ODT-SR) of domperidone, which has the convenience of ODT and benefits of controlled release product combined in one. The technology comprised of developing sustained release microspheres (MS) of domperidone, followed by direct compression of MS along with suitable excipients to yield ODT-SR which rapidly disperses within 30 seconds and yet the dispersed MS maintain their integrity to have a sustained drug release. The particle size of the MS was optimized to be less than 200 μm to avoid the grittiness in the mouth. The DSC thermograms of MS showed the absence of drug-polymer interaction within the microparticles, while SEM confirmed their spherical shape and porous nature. Angle of repose, compressibility and Hausner's ratio of the blend for compression showed good flowability and high percent compressibility. The optimized ODT-SR showed disintegration time of 21 seconds and matrix controlled drug release for 9 h. In-vivo pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats showed that the ODT-SR had a prolonged MRT of 11.16 h as compared 3.86 h of conventional tablet. The developed technology is easily scalable and holds potential for commercial exploitation.

  6. Formulation design of fast disintegrating tablets using disintegrant blends.

    PubMed

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P V; Para, M S; Nagendra Kumar, D

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by direct compression method. In this method, crospovidone (up to 3% w/w) and croscarmellose sodium (up to 5% w/w) in combination were used as superdisintegrants. Since disintegrants complement each other, accelerating the disintegration process when used together. Estimation of prochlorperazine maleate in the prepared tablet formulations was carried out by extracting the drug with methanol and measuring the absorbance at 254.5nm. The prepared formulations were further evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 12 s), one promising formulation was tested for in vitro drug release pattern in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and short-term stability (at 40 degrees /70% RH for 3 mo), drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy) were studied. Among the formulations tested, formulation DCPC(4) containing 5% w/w of croscarmellose sodium and 3% w/w of crospovidone as superdisintegrant emerged as the overall best (t(50%) 7.0 min) based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation (t(50%) 17.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05).

  7. Stability studies of tablets containing 5 mg of policosanol.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, L; Rivero, B; Magraner, J; Sierra, R; González, V; Uribarri, E; Laguna, A; Cora, M; Tejeda, Y; Rodríguez, E; Velázquez, C

    2003-09-01

    The stability studies of tablets containing 5 mg of policosanol, a new cholesterol lowering drug, were conducted to predict an expiration date and to search the appearance of putative degradation products. All quality parameters such as colour, moisture content, hardness, disintegration, policosanol content and microbiological limits of the tablets were assessed. The effect of extreme treatments such as acid and basic hydrolysis, oxidative and photolytic degradation as well as thermal degradation, on the policosanol content was studied. In addition, studies under extreme conditions of storage [(40 +/- 2) degree C and (75 +/- 5)% R.H.] as well as 37, 45, 55 and 60 degrees C combined with 50, 75 and 92% R.H.) and under ambient conditions of storage for climatic zones II and IV were performed. These studies demonstrate that these tablets are a stable pharmaceutical formulation, without significant changes in their quality criteria at the stressed conditions used, so that policosanol content remains unchanged during the entire studies. The chromatographic profile of the samples after 9 months of thermal degradation shows chromatographic peaks that corresponds to the palmitate and stearate esters of octacosanoyl, triacontanoyl and hexacosanoyl, being the only degradation products observed on these studies.

  8. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  9. A critical review on tablet disintegration.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors. In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence. Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included "tablet disintegration", "mechanism tablet disintegration", "superdisintegrants", "disintegrants", "swelling force", "disintegration force", "disintegration mechanisms", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well. Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process. The use of different excipients, experimental setups and manufacturing techniques, as well as the demand for original research led to a distinct patchwork of knowledge. Broader, more systematic approaches are necessary not only to structure the past but also future findings.

  10. Multispectral imaging of tablets in blister packaging.

    PubMed

    Malik, I; Poonacha, M; Moses, J; Lodder, R A

    2001-06-09

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that using near-infrared (IR) imaging spectrometry on tablets through blister packs permits the identification and composition of multiple individual tablets to be determined simultaneously. Aspirin was selected for this study because its breakdown mechanism is well understood. Near-IR cameras were used to collect thousands of spectra simultaneously from a field of packaged aspirin tablets. Tablets were selected by a principal component analysis selection algorithm. Graphs of the columns of the transformation matrix showed that salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in the samples were modeled by the principal components. The bootstrap error-adjusted single-sample technique chemometric-imaging algorithm was used to draw probability-density contour plots that revealed tablet composition. Choice of color was used to represent constituent identity, whereas intensity represented concentration. The percentage of usable pixels in the indium antimonide (InSb) array was 99.9%. The SEP was 0.06% of the tablet mass for both water uptake and salicylic acid production. The number of tablets that a typical near-IR camera can currently analyze simultaneously was also estimated to be approximately 1300.

  11. Nano-reservoir Bioadhesive Tablets Enhance Protein Drug Permeability Across the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lifang; Wang, Yong; Wang, Cuifeng; Feng, Min

    2017-01-23

    Most therapeutic proteins are classified as class III drugs according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System means that the low permeability across the intestinal epithelium is the rate-limited step for their oral absorption. Cationic chitosan nanoparticles have been found to open the tight junctions between epithelial cells. On the other hand, bioadhesive delivery devices could prolong the gastrointestinal residence time. In the present study, we developed a novel nano-reservoir bioadhesive tablets that combining the advantages of cationic nanoparticles and bioadhesive delivery devices anticipated achieving effective transport of sufficient protein drugs across the intestinal epithelium. The nano-reservoir in bioadhesive tablets was composed of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) loading a model protein drug bovine serum albumin (BSA). The formula of bioadhesive tablets was optimized by using rotatable central composite design and response surface methodology. The nano-reservoir, BSA-loaded CS-NPs, had an average particle diameter of 312.5 ± 12.89 nm and zeta-potential value of 26.76 ± 3.56 mV. Carboxymethyl chitosan added to the formula significantly ameliorated the tight junction damage of the Caco-2 cell monolayer induced by CS-NPs, meanwhile maintained the high transport efficiency of BSA. Permeability study exhibited that these nano-reservoir bioadhesive tablets combining the advantages of cationic nanoparticles and bioadhesive tablets significantly enhanced BSA transport through rabbit small intestine in comparison with either conventional bioadhesive tablets or CS-NPs. Therefore, these nano-reservoir bioadhesive tablets provided a great potential dosage form design for the oral delivery of protein drugs.

  12. Comparison of the halving of tablets prepared with eccentric and rotary tablet presses.

    PubMed

    Sovány, T; Kása, P; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the densification of powder mixtures on eccentric and rotary tablet presses and to establish relationships with the halving properties of the resulting scored tablets. This is an important problem because the recent guidelines of EU require verification of the equal masses of tablet halves. The models of Walker, Heckel, and Kawakita were used to describe the powder densification on the two machines. The calculated parameters revealed that the shorter compression cycle of rotary machines results in poorer densification and lower tablet hardness at a given compression force. This is manifested in poorer halving properties, which are influenced mainly by the hardness. Better densification improves the halving even at lower tablet hardness. This demonstrates that these parameters can be good predictors of tablet halving properties.

  13. Damage-tolerance strategies for nacre tablets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Xinqiao; Li, Qiyang; Wang, Rizhi; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-01

    Nacre, a natural armor, exhibits prominent penetration resistance against predatory attacks. Unraveling its hierarchical toughening mechanisms and damage-tolerance design strategies may provide significant inspiration for the pursuit of high-performance artificial armors. In this work, relationships between the structure and mechanical performance of nacre were investigated. The results show that other than their brick-and-mortar structure, individual nacre tablets significantly contribute to the damage localization of nacre. Affected by intracrystalline organics, the tablets exhibit a unique fracture behavior. The synergistic action of the nanoscale deformation mechanisms increases the energy dissipation efficiency of the tablets and contributes to the preservation of the structural and functional integrity of the shell.

  14. Development of Maltodextrin-Based Immediate-Release Tablets Using an Integrated Twin-Screw Hot-Melt Extrusion and Injection-Molding Continuous Manufacturing Process.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, Dave; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-07-04

    The combination of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding (HME-IM) is a promising process technology for continuous manufacturing of tablets. However, there has been limited research on its application to formulate crystalline drug-containing immediate-release tablets. Furthermore, studies that have applied the HME-IM process to molded tablets have used a noncontinuous 2-step approach. The present study develops maltodextrin (MDX)-based extrusion-molded immediate-release tablets for a crystalline drug (griseofulvin) using an integrated twin-screw HME-IM continuous process. At 10% w/w drug loading, MDX was selected as the tablet matrix former based on a preliminary screen. Furthermore, liquid and solid polyols were evaluated for melt processing of MDX and for impact on tablet performance. Smooth-surfaced tablets, comprising crystalline griseofulvin solid suspension in the amorphous MDX-xylitol matrix, were produced by a continuous process on a twin-screw extruder coupled to a horizontally opening IM machine. Real-time HME process profiles were used to develop automated HME-IM cycles. Formulation adjustments overcame process challenges and improved tablet strength. The developed MDX tablets exhibited adequate strength and a fast-dissolving matrix (85% drug release in 20 min), and maintained performance on accelerated stability conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of fast disintegrants in terfenadine tablets containing a gas-evolving disintegrant.

    PubMed

    Sallam, E; Ibrahim, H; Dahab, R A; Shubair, M; Khalil, E

    1998-06-01

    Effects of four fast disintegrants on the dissolution of terfenadine tablets containing the gas-evolving disintegrant, CaCO3, were evaluated. In addition, effects of presence of starch along with the fast disintegrants on the dissolution of the tablets were examined. Dissolution data were treated to give dissolution parameters which reflected efficiency of the disintegrant combinations. The four fast disintegrants improved disintegration/dissolution of the original formulation. The relative efficiency of improvement was in the order crospovidone > Ac-Di-Sol > Primojel > low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose. The presence of starch advertently affected the role of the fast disintegrants. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that starch covered the drug-containing granules and other particles of the tablet. pH changes during dissolution of representative tablets in 0.1 N HCl solutions were determined at specific time intervals. The progressive decrease in rates of acid consumption as a function of the amount of starch, along with the SEM studies, suggested that a barrier existed around the tablet particles. The barrier was generated by the swelled starch grains and was responsible for the loss of the dissolution-improving capacity of the fast disintegrants. Furthermore, the barrier interfered with the diffusion of the hydronium ions and therefore, impaired the function of the disintegrant combination.

  16. Microstructure of Tablet-Pharmaceutical Significance, Assessment, and Engineering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the microstructure - property relationship of pharmaceutical tablets and approaches to improve tablet properties through tablet microstructure engineering. The main topics reviewed here include: 1) influence of material properties and manufacturing process parameters on the evolution of tablet microstructure; 2) impact of tablet structure on tablet properties; 3) assessment of tablet microstructure; 4) development and engineering of tablet microstructure. Microstructure plays a decisive role on important pharmaceutical properties of a tablet, such as disintegration, drug release, and mechanical strength. Useful information on mechanical properties of a powder can be obtained from analyzing tablet porosity-pressure data. When helium pycnometry fails to accurately measure true density of a water-containing powder, non-linear regression of tablet density-pressure data is a useful alternative method. A component that is more uniformly distributed in a tablet generally exerts more influence on the overall tablet properties. During formulation development, it is highly recommended to examine the relationship between any property of interest and tablet porosity when possible. Tablet microstructure can be engineered by judicious selection of formulation composition, including the use of the optimum solid form of the drug and appropriate type and amount of excipients, and controlling manufacturing process.

  17. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  18. Compressibility of tableting materials and properties of tablets with glyceryl behenate.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Muchová, Sandra; Komersová, Alena; Lochař, Václav

    2015-03-01

    The paper studies the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials with dry binders, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose, and glyceryl dibehenate at various concentrations. Compressibility was evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression and tensile strength of tablets. Release rate of the active ingredient, salicylic acid, from the tablets was also examined. In the case of microcrystalline cellulose, a higher concentration of glyceryl dibehenate increased the strength of tablets, while this did not occur in the case of spray-dried lactose. Increasing concentration of glyceryl dibehenate prolonged the release of salicylic acid; however, no statistically significant difference was found compared to the type of the dry binder used.

  19. Two- and three-layer tablet drug delivery systems for oral sustained release of soluble and poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Efentakis, M; Naseef, H; Vlachou, M

    2010-08-01

    Multilayer tablets are gaining importance in oral sustained drug delivery. They consist of an active matrix core and one or more layers applied during tableting which may act as barriers and regulate drug release. To examine the release performance of two model drugs, diclofenac sodium and furosemide, from two- and three-layer drug delivery systems using as carriers hydrophilic swellable polymers, namely, Metolose, Polyox, Xantham gum, and an erodible material Gantrez. All prepared formulations demonstrated sustained release profiles. They also indicated that the carrier characteristics (particularly swelling-expansion, erosion-dissolution) and drug solubility in combination with tablet structure considerably influenced the performance of examined formulations as well as their mode and mechanisms of release. In general our findings show that the differences in drug release between the two- and three-layer tablets are small as it appears that two-layer tablets exhibit a slightly higher release. Because of its greater erosion Gantrez formulations displayed faster release relative to Xantham gum, as did Metolose formulations compared to Polyox formulations. A faster release rate was also noted with diclofenac formulations compared to those of furosemide because of diclofenac's higher solubility mainly seen at early time period. All three-layer Gantrez tablets containing either diclofenac or furosemide and the two-layer furosemide formulation demonstrated a biphasic release. The above indicate that both structures may be used successfully for sustained release drug delivery. In addition the use of multilayer tablets, consisting of materials with suitable properties, may result in modulation of drug release.

  20. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a... comprehensive behavioral management program to treat separation anxiety in dogs greater than 6 months of age. (3...

  1. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a... comprehensive behavioral management program to treat separation anxiety in dogs greater than 6 months of age. (3...

  2. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a... comprehensive behavioral management program to treat separation anxiety in dogs greater than 6 months of age. (3...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets...) Indications for use. For the treatment of infections in dogs and cats associated with bacteria susceptible to...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets...) Indications for use. For the treatment of infections in dogs and cats associated with bacteria susceptible to...

  5. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a... comprehensive behavioral management program to treat separation anxiety in dogs greater than 6 months of age. (3...

  6. Smartphones, Tablets and Weight Gain in Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day on smartphones, tablets, computers and video games, the researchers discovered. By comparison, only 8 percent ... Huntington, N.Y. "If kids are playing video games on the computer while they're eating, they ...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a... information. (2) Indications for use. For the control of convulsions associated with idiopathic epilepsy...

  8. Formulation design and optimization of fast dissolving clonazepam tablets by sublimation method.

    PubMed

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Kusumdevi, V; Swamy, P V

    2011-09-01

    Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of croscarmellose sodium and camphor. Croscarmellose sodium (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (20-40% w/w) was used as subliming agent, to increase the porosity of the tablets, since it helps water to penetrate into the tablets, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 11 s); the formulation containing 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium and 40% w/w camphor was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly nine-fold faster drug release (t(50%) 1.8 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05).

  9. Improvement of tablet coating uniformity using a quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Atul; Boukouvala, Fani; Keyvan, Golshid; Hsia, Richard; Saranteas, Kostas; Brone, Dean; Misra, Tushar; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2012-03-01

    A combination of analytical and statistical methods is used to improve a tablet coating process guided by quality by design (QbD) principles. A solid dosage form product was found to intermittently exhibit bad taste. A suspected cause was the variability in coating thickness which could lead to the subject tasting the active ingredient in some tablets. A number of samples were analyzed using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-based analytical method, and it was found that the main variability component was the tablet-to-tablet variability within a lot. Hence, it was inferred that the coating process (performed in a perforated rotating pan) required optimization. A set of designed experiments along with response surface modeling and kriging method were used to arrive at an optimal set of operating conditions. Effects of the amount of coating imparted, spray rate, pan rotation speed, and spray temperature were characterized. The results were quantified in terms of the relative standard deviation of tablet-averaged LIBS score and a coating variability index which was the ratio of the standard deviation of the tablet-averaged LIBS score and the weight gain of the tablets. The data-driven models developed based on the designed experiments predicted that the minimum value of this index would be obtained for a 6% weight gain for a pan operating at the highest speed at the maximum fill level while using the lowest spraying rate and temperature from the chosen parametric space. This systematic application of the QbD-based method resulted in an enhanced process understanding and reducing the coating variability by more than half.

  10. Formulation Design and Optimization of Fast Dissolving Clonazepam Tablets by Sublimation Method

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, S. B.; Suresh, Sarasija; Kusumdevi, V.; Swamy, P. V.

    2011-01-01

    Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of croscarmellose sodium and camphor. Croscarmellose sodium (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (20-40% w/w) was used as subliming agent, to increase the porosity of the tablets, since it helps water to penetrate into the tablets, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 11 s); the formulation containing 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium and 40% w/w camphor was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly nine-fold faster drug release (t50% 1.8 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t50% 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:22923860

  11. Controlled release of metformin hydrochloride and repaglinide from sandwiched osmotic pump tablet.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; He, Wei; Zhu, Chunli; Wu, Mengmeng; Jin, Zhu; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangji; Yin, Lifang

    2014-05-15

    The marketed compound tablet of metformin hydrochloride (MH) and repaglinide (RG) exhibits perfect multidrug therapeutic effect of type 2 diabetes. However, due to the short half life of the drugs, the tablet has to be administered 2 to 3 times a day, causing inconvenience to patient and fluctuations of plasma concentration. Here, a sandwiched osmotic pump tablet was developed to deliver the two drugs simultaneously at zero-order rate, in which MH and RG were loaded in different layers separated by a push layer. The osmotic pump tablet was prepared by a combination of three tableting procedure and film coating method. The factors including type and amount of propellant, osmotic active agents, amount of porogenic agent, coating weight, orifice diameter were optimized. The pharmacokinetic study was performed in beagle dogs, and the drug concentration in plasma samples was assayed by HPLC-MS/MS method. Simultaneous, controlled release of MH and RG in the first 12 and 8h was achieved from the optimized formulation. A significantly decreased Cmax, prolonged Tmax and satisfactory bioavailability of the osmotic pump tablet were obtained, and a good in vivo-in vitro correlation of the two drugs was also established. In summary, the sandwiched osmotic pump tablet released the MH and RG simultaneously at zero-order rate, and exhibited significant sustained release effect in vivo and good in vivo-in vitro correlation. The designed controlled release system for MH and RG proposed a promising replacement for the marked compound product in the therapy of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of a newly developed portable NIR imaging device to monitor the dissolution process of tablets.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Awa, Kimie; Genkawa, Takuma; Komiyama, Makoto; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-11-01

    We have recently developed a novel portable NIR imaging device (D-NIRs), which has a high speed and high wavelength resolution. This NIR imaging approach has been developed by utilizing D-NIRs for studying the dissolution of a model tablet containing 20 % ascorbic acid (AsA) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and 80 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, where the tablet is sealed by a special cell. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra in the 1,000 to 1,600 nm region were measured during the dissolution of the tablet. A unique band at around 1,361 nm of AsA was identified by the second derivative spectra of tablet and used for AsA distribution NIR imaging. Two-dimensional change of AsA concentration of the tablet due to water penetration is clearly shown by using the band-based image at 1,361 nm in NIR spectra obtained with high speed. Moreover, it is significantly enhanced by using the intensity ratio of two bands at 1,361 and 1,354 nm corresponding to AsA and water absorption, respectively, showing the dissolution process. The imaging results suggest that the amount of AsA in the imaged area decreases with increasing water penetration. The proposed NIR imaging approach using the intensity of a specific band or the ratio of two bands combined with the developed portable NIR imaging instrument, is a potentially useful practical way to evaluate the tablet at every moment during dissolution and to monitor the concentration distribution of each drug component in the tablet.

  13. [Overview of regulatory aspects guiding tablet scoring].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Maíra Teles; Sá-Barreto, Lívia Cristina Lira; Silva, Dayde Lane Mendonça; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio Sergio Soares

    2016-06-01

    Tablet scoring is a controversial but common practice used to adjust doses, facilitate drug intake, or lower the cost of drug treatment, especially in children and the elderly. The risks of tablet scoring are mainly related to inaccuracies in the resulting dose and stability problems. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of worldwide guidelines regarding tablet scoring. We found that regulatory health agencies in Mercosur countries as well as other South American countries do not have published standards addressing tablet splitting. Among the surveyed health agencies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States is the only one to present standards, ranging from splitting instructions to regulation of the manufacturing process. The concept of functional scoring implemented by the FDA has introduced some level of guarantee as to the ability of tablets to be split. In conclusion, technical and scientific bases are still insufficient to guide health rules on this subject, making the decision on scoring, in certain situations, random and highly risky to public health. The need for more detailed regulation is vital to ensure the safety of tablet medications.

  14. Surrogate functionality of celluloses as tablet excipients.

    PubMed

    Díaz Ramírez, Carmen Cristina; Robles, Leopoldo Villafuerte

    2010-12-01

    The variety of excipients from different sources and prices to which we have access gives rise to the necessity to evaluate their functional characteristics. The aim of this work is to determine some physical and technological characteristics of celluloses from different sources, India and United States, to ascertain their functionality as tablet excipients. The used surrogate functionality properties are particle morphology and particle size distribution, compactibility, ejection pressure, and the disintegration properties of pure excipients and their compressed tablets. The innovators Avicel and Croscarmellose show advantages over the generic celluloses Alfacel and Carmacel. Avicel PH 101 and 102 show an average of 26% greater compactibility than both types of Alfacel, whereas the compactibility of Croscarmellose is greater than that of Carmacel in about 50%. Avicel tablets compacted at a compaction pressure of 47 MPa exhibit shorter disintegration times (3.7 minutes) than Alfacel tablets (28 minutes), whereas Carmacel show better disintegrant properties than Croscarmellose. This occurs regardless of the similar particle morphology, size, and size distribution. As expected, all celluloses show low ejection pressures. The surrogate functionality properties of the generic celluloses are still considered as satisfactory to be used as tablet excipients, although they are inferior in some aspects to innovator celluloses. Alfacel and Carmacel have the potential to be used as filler, binder, and disintegrant, in the design of tablets. Moreover, one should bear in mind that the differences reported here may be altered because of a possible inter-batch variability and variations in the moisture content.

  15. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light.

  16. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  17. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets.

    PubMed

    Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Al-Tabakha, Moawia M M; Eissa, Nermin A M; Javadi, Jeevani

    2016-10-11

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril(®) tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  18. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Fahelelbom, Khairi M. S.; Al-Tabakha, Moawia M. M.; Eissa, Nermin A. M.; Javadi, Jeevani

    2016-01-01

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used. PMID:27727195

  19. Influence of pH modifiers on the dissolution and stability of hydrochlorothiazide in the bi- and three-layer tablets.

    PubMed

    Blatnik, Sandra Urek; Dreu, Rok; Srčič, Stanko

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, the studies of bi- and multi-layered tablets increased due to the consumption of several different drugs per day by a patient and requests for appropriate patient compliance. The demographic shift toward older population increases the use of combination therapy as polypharmacy. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), as a model drug, is most commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and as a diuretic. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the local environment on dissolution and stability behaviour of HCTZ in fixed multilayered tablet combinations, which are commonly used in polypharmacy. For this purposes, three different systems were introduced: (i) two conventional tablets (HCTZ and pH modifying placebo), (ii) 2-layer tablets (HCTZ, pH modifying placebo) and (iii) 3-layer tablets (HCTZ, barrier and pH modifying placebo). Disintegration of tablets, dissolution of HCTZ from tablets and HCTZ related substances were monitored for all systems. Results showed that there was a significant difference between dissolution profiles of the conventional two-tablet system (HCTZ tablet and pH modifying tablet) and the 2-layer and 3-layer tablets, which include the pH modifying layer. In the case of the conventional two-tablets system, 85 % of HCTZ was dissolved in less than 15 minutes. The dissolution profiles of HCTZ from 2-layered and 3-layered tablets showed a decrease in the dissolution rate. In addition, during the stability studies, it has been confirmed that the typical degradation product of HCTZ is formed, impurity B (4-amino-6-chloro-1,3-benzenedisulfonamide), which implies formation of formaldehyde as hydrolytic impurity not reported in the Ph. Eur. (16). Both impurities are particularly raised in 2-layered tablets with alkaline and neutral placebo layers. Stability of HCTZ was improved in the case of the 3-layer tablet, where the intermediate separation layer of glycerol monostearate was present

  20. Using iPad Tablets for Self-modeling with Preschoolers: Videos versus Photos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Dacia M.; Morrison, Julie Q.; Barnett, Dave W.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Donovan, Lauren K.

    2017-01-01

    As technology becomes more accessible and acceptable in the preschool setting, teachers need effective strategies of incorporating it to address challenging behaviors. A nonconcurrent delayed multiple baseline design in combination with an alternating treatment design was utilized to investigate the effects of using iPad tablets to display video…

  1. Multidisciplinary Information System of Assyrian Cuneiform Tablets Enhancing New Research Possibilities via Heterogeneous Data in Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, J.; Štefcová, P.; Bruna, R.; Zemánek, P.

    2017-08-01

    This paper outlines recently started project dedicated to creation and development of information system for cuneiform tablets. The contribution deals with the architecture of a virtual collection of cuneiform tablets, conceived as a complex system combining and integrating several domains of information obtained from various types of analyses. The research team includes experts from the field of collection conservation with philologists and researchers in the 3D scanning and physical measurement. Multidisciplinary databases like the one described, represent a new tool in digital humanities and help to improve accessibility of collections to public and researchers.

  2. Notes from the field: national shortage of isoniazid 300 mg tablets.

    PubMed

    2012-12-21

    On November 16, 2012, the Illinois State tuberculosis (TB) program notified CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Elimination of a national shortage of 300 mg tablets of the antituberculosis medication isoniazid (INH). Subsequently, other state TB programs (e.g., California, Indiana, Maryland, New York, Virginia, and Wisconsin) reported difficulty obtaining INH 300 mg tablets. Other programs (e.g., San Diego) have experienced difficulties obtaining at least one of the commercially available anti-TB preparations containing the combination of rifampin and INH (IsonaRif [VersaPharm]).

  3. Tablet splitting: Product quality assessment of metoprolol succinate extended release tablets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zidan, Ahmed; Tawakkul, Mobin; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor

    2010-11-30

    Metoprolol succinate extended release tablets comprise a multiple unit system containing metoprolol succinate in a multitude of controlled release pellets. Each pellet acts as a separate drug delivery unit and is designed to deliver metoprolol continuously over the dosage interval. Despite the flexibility that controlled release pellets may offer, segregation is one of the challenges that commonly occur during tableting for such drug delivery system. Since all commercial metoprolol succinate extended release tablets are scored, they are deemed suitable for splitting. The present study was aimed at utilizing an innovative technology to determine the dose uniformity for split tablets. Four marketed drug products consisting of innovator and generics were evaluated for effect of splitting on weight, assay and content uniformity. Novel analytical tool such as near infrared (NIR) chemical imaging was used to visualize the distribution of metoprolol succinate and functional excipients on the surfaces of the marketed tablets. The non-homogeneous distribution of directly compressed metoprolol succinate beads on the surface of the tablets as well as the split intersection explained the large variation in the split tablets' weight and content uniformity results. The obtained results indicated the usefulness of NIR chemical imaging to determine the need for content uniformity studies for certain split tablets.

  4. Study of drug release and tablet characteristics of silicone adhesive matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Tolia, Gaurav; Li, S Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Matrix tablets of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) were prepared using a highly compressible low glass transition temperature (T(g)) polymer silicone pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) at various binary mixtures of silicone PSA/APAP ratios. Matrix tablets of a rigid high T(g) matrix forming polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) were the reference for comparison. Drug release study was carried out using USP Apparatus 1 (basket), and the relationship between the release kinetic parameters of APAP and polymer/APAP ratio was determined to estimate the excipient percolation threshold. The critical points attributed to both silicone PSA and EC tablet percolation thresholds were found to be between 2.5% and 5% w/w. For silicone PSA tablets, satisfactory mechanical properties were obtained above the polymer percolation threshold; no cracking or chipping of the tablet was observed above this threshold. Rigid EC APAP tablets showed low tensile strength and high friability. These results suggest that silicone PSA could eliminate issues related to drug compressibility in the formulation of directly compressed oral controlled release tablets of poorly compressible drug powder such as APAP. No routinely used excipients such as binders, granulating agents, glidants, or lubricants were required for making an acceptable tablet matrix of APAP using silicone PSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety and Clinical Activity of the Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Inhibitor Durvalumab in Combination With Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor Olaparib or Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1-3 Inhibitor Cediranib in Women's Cancers: A Dose-Escalation, Phase I Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Min; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Peer, Cody J; Zimmer, Alexandra; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Annunziata, Christina M; Cao, Liang; Harrell, Maria I; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Houston, Nicole; Botesteanu, Dana-Adriana; Taube, Janis M; Thompson, Elizabeth; Ogurtsova, Aleksandra; Xu, Haiying; Nguyen, Jeffers; Ho, Tony W; Figg, William D; Kohn, Elise C

    2017-07-01

    Purpose Data suggest that DNA damage by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition and/or reduced vascular endothelial growth factor signaling by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition may complement antitumor activity of immune checkpoint blockade. We hypothesize the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, durvalumab, olaparib, or cediranib combinations are tolerable and active in recurrent women's cancers. Patients and Methods This phase I study tested durvalumab doublets in parallel 3 + 3 dose escalations. Durvalumab was administered at 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 1,500 mg every 4 weeks with either olaparib tablets twice daily or cediranib on two schedules. The primary end point was the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Response rate and pharmacokinetic analysis were secondary end points. Results Between June 2015 and May 2016, 26 women were enrolled. The RP2D was durvalumab 1,500 mg every 4 weeks with olaparib 300 mg twice a day, or cediranib 20 mg, 5 days on/2 days off. No dose-limiting toxicity was recorded with durvalumab plus olaparib. The cediranib intermittent schedule (n = 6) was examined because of recurrent grade 2 and non-dose-limiting toxicity grade 3 and 4 adverse events (AEs) on the daily schedule (n = 8). Treatment-emergent AEs included hypertension (two of eight), diarrhea (two of eight), pulmonary embolism (two of eight), pulmonary hypertension (one of eight), and lymphopenia (one of eight). Durvalumab plus intermittent cediranib grade 3 and 4 AEs were hypertension (one of six) and fatigue (one of six). Exposure to durvalumab increased cediranib area under the curve and maximum plasma concentration on the daily, but not intermittent, schedules. Two partial responses (≥15 months and ≥ 11 months) and eight stable diseases ≥ 4 months (median, 8 months [4 to 14.5 months]) were seen in patients who received durvalumab plus olaparib, yielding an 83% disease control rate. Six partial responses (≥ 5 to ≥ 8 months) and three

  6. Evaluation of Maltose-Induced Chemical Degradation at the Interface of Bilayer Tablets.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Yousuke; Murayama, Daisuke; Katakawa, Yoshifumi; Mimura, Hisashi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Fixed dose combination tablets consisting of mirabegron (MB) and solifenacin succinate (SS) were developed and formulated into bilayer tablets in the current study. The results of a chemical stability study showed that the original formulation for the tablets led to a significant increase of unknown degradants in the SS layer. Two compatibility studies were conducted to simulate the interface between the MB and SS layers, and the results revealed that the degradants only formed in the presence of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and that the presence of maltose in the SS layer was critical to inducing degradation. High resolution mass spectroscopy coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the chemical structures of the degradants, which were identified to MB derivatives bearing one or two sugar units. These findings therefore suggested that the degradation of the API could be attributed to the addition of sugar units from maltose to MB under the acidic conditions caused by SS. With this in mind, we developed a new formulation by replacing maltose with hydroxypropyl cellulose as a polymer-type binder. The results showed that this formulation suppressed the formation of the degradants. The results of this study have shown that chemical degradation can occur at the interface of bilayer tablets and that an alternative strategy is available to formulate more stable MB/SS bilayer tablets.

  7. Investigation of the composition of anabolic tablets using near infrared spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Rebiere, Hervé; Ghyselinck, Céline; Lempereur, Laurent; Brenier, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The use of performance enhancing drugs is a widespread phenomenon in professional and leisure sports. A spectroscopic study was carried out on anabolic tablets labelled as 5 mg methandienone tablets provided by police departments. The analytical approach was based on a two-step methodology: a fast analysis of tablets using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sample homogeneity based on their global composition, followed by Raman chemical imaging of one sample per NIR profile to obtain information on sample formulation. NIR spectroscopy assisted by a principal components analysis (PCA) enabled fast discrimination of different profiles based on the excipient formulation. Raman hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution - alternating least square (MCR-ALS) provided chemical images of the distribution of the active substance and excipients within tablets and facilitated identification of the active compounds. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging highlighted dose-to-dose variations and succeeded in the discrimination of four different formulations out of eight similar samples of anabolic tablets. Some samples contained either methandienone or methyltestosterone whereas one sample did not contain an active substance. Other ingredients were sucrose, lactose, starch or talc. Both techniques were fast and non-destructive and therefore can be carried out as exploratory methods prior to destructive screening methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. In-vitro evaluation of enteric coated insulin tablets containing absorption enhancer and enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun Y; Martinez, Jorge; Carnagarin, Revathy; Dass, Crispin R

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an enteric coated insulin tablet formulation using polymers, absorption enhancer and enzyme inhibitor, which protect the tablets in acidic pH and enhance systemic bioavailability. In this study, the influence of coating by cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate solution and chosen excipients on Glut-4 transporter translocation in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells was examined. Following the determination of optimum number of coating layers, two dissolution buffers such as 0.01 m hydrochloric acid, pH 2, and 50 mm phosphate, pH 7.4, were employed to determine the in-vitro release of insulin. Insulin was protected by the coating during the dissolution process. Five (5-CL) coating layers and eight (8-CL) coating layers had minimal insulin release in hydrochloric acid, but not three (3-CL) coating layers. Glut-4 translocation in C2C12 cells was promoted by the chosen excipients. No detrimental metabolic effects were observed in these cells. To date, limited studies combine the overall effectiveness of multiple excipients. Our study showed that the coated tablets have an immediate release effect in phosphate buffer. In Glut-4 translocation assay, insulin was still functional after releasing from the tablet. Such tablet formulation can be potentially beneficial to type 1 diabetes patients. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Orally disintegrating films and mini-tablets-innovative dosage forms of choice for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Preis, Maren

    2015-04-01

    Oral drug delivery is a non-invasive and therefore a very convenient route of administration. Orally disintegrating dosage forms, like soluble films and (mini-)tablets, appear promising for use in the pediatric population. New guidance for the development of pediatric medicines has been published, which provides considerations on how pediatric products should be designed. However, most of the considerations leave a lot of room for interpretations. Bearing in mind the different aspects discussed in the latest guideline, the use of orally disintegrating films and tablets, in particular, small-sized tablets, is discussed and reflected upon by providing evidence from the scientific literature. The available dosage forms for children are various and examples of currently licensed products for use in the pediatric population were compiled. Aspects such as the appropriateness for pediatrics, the choice of excipients, the opportunities for modified drug release preparations or fixed-dose combinations, the acceptability and palatability, and also limitations were discussed with respect to the new dosage forms of orally disintegrating films and mini-tablets. This paper points out that innovation in pediatric medicines are planned and should be encouraged; however, supported by the regulatory guidance, only general considerations are provided. Nevertheless, the guideline summarizes multiple points to consider during the development of medicines for pediatric use. Considering the scientific evidence and the regulatory guidance, orally disintegrating dosage forms, like soluble films and (mini-)tablets, offer an innovative solution for pediatric drug delivery.

  10. Quality Attributes and In Vitro Bioequivalence of Different Brands of Amoxicillin Trihydrate Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M.; Fahelelbom, Khairi M. S.; Obaid, Dana Emad Eddin; Sayed, Sadik

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial resistance and antibiotic drug effectiveness can be related to administering generic products with a subtherapeutic dose or poor in vivo drug release. The aim of this study was to investigate whether locally marketed amoxicillin tablets have the required chemical and physical attributes, including in vitro bioequivalence performance. Five generic products (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) containing combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate as 1 g strength present in immediate release tablets were compared to the reference listed drug product Augmentin® (R) for weight variation, friability, resistance to crushing, and chemical content of amoxicillin. Difference (f1) and similarity (f2) factors were calculated to assess in vitro bioequivalence requirements. The tablets from different products have shown compliance with the pharmacopeial requirements of the performed tests. The measured resistance to crushing of tablets did not influence the dissolution time. Three generic products released more than 85% of amoxicillin by the first 15 min as did the reference product and were considered as bioequivalent products. T1 and T4 had f1 values of 16.5% and 25.4% respectively and their f2 values were 44.5 and 34.6 respectively, indicating failure to meet in vitro bioequivalence requirements. Tablet formulations can play an important role in achieving bioequivalence. Independent investigations such as this study serve as an important tool to reveal possible inferior or noncompliant products that may find their way to the market. PMID:28531119

  11. Controlled release of glaucocalyxin - a self-nanoemulsifying system from osmotic pump tablets with enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Yanfei, Miao; Guoguang, Chen; Lili, Ren; Pingkai, Ouyang

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new formulation to enhance the bioavailability simultaneously with controlled release of glaucocalyxin A (GLA). In this study, controlled release of GLA was achieved by the osmotic release strategy taking advantage of the bioavailability enhancing capacity of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). The formulation of GLA-SNEDDS was selected by the solubility and pseudoternary-phase diagrams studies. The prepared GLA-SNEDDS formulations were characterized for self-emulsification time, effect of pH and robustness to dilution, droplet size analysis and zeta potential. The optimized GLA-SNEDDS were used to prepare GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet via direct powder compression method. The effect of formulation variables on the release characteristic was investigated. GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablets were administered to beagle dogs and their pharmacokinetics were compared to GLA and GLA-SNEDDS as a control. In vitro drug release studies indicated that the GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet showed sustained release profiles with 90% released within 12 h. Pharmacokinetic study showed steady blood GLA with prolonged Tmax and mean residence time (MRT), and enhanced bioavailability for GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet. It was concluded that simultaneous controlling on GLA release and enhanced bioavailability had been achieved by a combination of osmotic pump tablet and SNEDDS.

  12. Application of melt granulation technology to enhance tabletting properties of poorly compactible high-dose drugs.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Jay P; Kowalski, James; Vasanthavada, Madhav; Tong, Wei-Qin; Joshi, Yatindra M; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2011-04-01

    Using metformin HCl as the model drug and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as the polymeric excipient, a melt granulation (MG) process that employs a twin-screw extruder has been developed to enhance compactibility of poorly compactible high-dose drug substances. A high (90%) drug-load tablet formulation, containing 1025 mg of active pharmaceutical ingredients and 109 mg of excipients, was produced. Drug-polymer-powder mixtures were melt granulated at a temperature above glass transition of HPC (130°C) but below melting point of metformin HCl (224°C). MG was compared with modified wet granulation (WG) and solvent granulation (SG) processes. Under identical compression force, the hardness of tablets produced was MG>SG>WG and the friability was MGtablets was highly sensitive to moisture content both during compression and subsequent storage, and, although not to the same extent, the hardness of SG tablets was also affected by loss-on-drying levels. MG provided a robust manufacturing process with highest compactibility and lowest friability that were not sensitive to changes in atmospheric moisture level. The process can decrease tablet sizes of high-dose drugs and combination products by decreasing the need for relatively large amounts of excipients generally used to overcome physicochemical limitations of drug substances. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 100:1553-1565, 2011.

  13. UV imaging of multiple unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets: A case study of acetylsalicylic acid stability.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens M; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2017-10-01

    The applicability of multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis was investigated to monitor API degradation within multiple unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets during storage. For this purpose, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) layered pellets were coated with Eudragit® RL PO and compressed to MUPS tablets. These tablets were stored under four different conditions with different levels of relative humidity (0 and 75%) and temperature (21 and 40°C) and analysed at seven storage time points (0, 15, 40, 140, 165, 265, and 330d). The UV imaging results for estimation of the salicylic acid (SA) concentration as degradation product of ASA in the tablets were compared to the SA concentration measured by high performance liquid chromatography with a partial least squares regression resulting in an RMSEP of 4.86% and an R(2) of 0.9812. The estimation of the SA concentration based on mean UV reflectance spectra was possible even through the coating of the API pellets and at low concentration levels. In addition, the distribution of the SA concentration on the tablet surfaces for different storage time periods was visualized. UV imaging as fast and non-destructive method appears to offer significant potential for monitoring of API degradation during stability studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design Space Approach in Optimization of Fluid Bed Granulation and Tablets Compression Process

    PubMed Central

    Djuriš, Jelena; Medarević, Djordje; Krstić, Marko; Vasiljević, Ivana; Mašić, Ivana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize fluid bed granulation and tablets compression processes using design space approach. Type of diluent, binder concentration, temperature during mixing, granulation and drying, spray rate, and atomization pressure were recognized as critical formulation and process parameters. They were varied in the first set of experiments in order to estimate their influences on critical quality attributes, that is, granules characteristics (size distribution, flowability, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and moisture content) using Plackett-Burman experimental design. Type of diluent and atomization pressure were selected as the most important parameters. In the second set of experiments, design space for process parameters (atomization pressure and compression force) and its influence on tablets characteristics was developed. Percent of paracetamol released and tablets hardness were determined as critical quality attributes. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied in order to determine design space. ANNs models showed that atomization pressure influences mostly on the dissolution profile, whereas compression force affects mainly the tablets hardness. Based on the obtained ANNs models, it is possible to predict tablet hardness and paracetamol release profile for any combination of analyzed factors. PMID:22919295

  15. Spectrophotometric estimation of ambroxol and cetirizine hydrochloride from tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Gowekar, N M; Pande, V V; Kasture, A V; Tekade, A R; Chandorkar, J G

    2007-07-01

    Fixed dose combination tablets containing ambroxol HCl and cetirizine HCl are clinically used as mucolytic and antiallergic. Several spectrophotometric and HPLC methods have been reported for simultaneous estimation of these drugs with other drugs. The drugs individually and in mixture obeys Beer's law over conc. range 1.2-4.4 microg/mL for cetirizine HCL and for ambroxol HCL 15-52 microg/mL at all five sampling wavelengths (correlation coeff. well above 0.995). The mean recoveries from tablet by standard addition method were 100.18% (+/-2.4) and 100.66 % (+/-2.31). The present work reports simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods for their simultaneous estimation from tablet dosage form.

  16. Press-coating of immediate release powders onto coated controlled release tablets with adhesives.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Fergione, Michael B

    2003-05-20

    A novel adhesive coating was developed that allows even small quantities of immediate-release (IR) powders to be press-coated onto controlled-release (CR), coated dosage forms without damaging the CR coating. The process was exemplified using a pseudoephedrine osmotic tablet (asymmetric membrane technology, AMT) where a powder weighing less than 25% of the core was pressed onto the osmotic tablet providing a final combination tablet with low friability. The dosage form with the adhesive plus the press-coated powder showed comparable sustained drug release rates to the untreated dosage form after an initial 2-h lag. The adhesive layer consisted of an approximately 100- microm coating of Eudragit RL, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and triethyl citrate (TEC) at a ratio of 5:3:1.2. This coating provides a practical balance between handleability before press-coating and good adhesion.

  17. Angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Wassgren, Carl

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a single tablet model and a discrete element method (DEM) computer simulation are developed to obtain the angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan for range of vibration frequencies and amplitudes. The models identify three important dimensionless parameters that influence the speed of the tablets: the dimensionless amplitude ratio (a/R), the Froude number (aω2/g), and the tablet-wall friction coefficient, where a is the peak vibration amplitude at the drum center, ω is the vibration angular frequency, R is the drum radius, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The models predict that the angular circulation speed of tablets increases with an increase in each of these parameters. The rate of increase in the angular circulation speed is observed to decrease for larger values of a/R. The angular circulation speed reaches an asymptote beyond a tablet-wall friction coefficient value of about 0.4. Furthermore, it is found that the Froude number should be greater than one for the tablets to start circulating. The angular circulation speed increases as Froude number increases but then does not change significantly at larger values of the Froude number. Period doubling, where the motion of the bed is repeated every two cycles, occurs at a Froude number larger than five. The single tablet model, although much simpler than the DEM model, is able to predict the maximum circulation speed (the limiting case for a large value of tablet-wall friction coefficient) as well as the transition to period doubling.

  18. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    PubMed

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101 > DCP/Avicel PH101 > Starch > DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input.

  19. Spectroscopic insight for tablet compression.

    PubMed

    Lakio, S; Ylinärä, H; Antikainen, O; Räikkönen, H; Yliruusi, J

    2015-02-01

    Tablet compression process has been studied over the years from various perspectives. However what exactly happens to material during compression is still unknown. In this study a novel compression die which enables real-time spectroscopic measurements during the compression of material is represented. Both near infrared and Raman spectroscope probes can be attached to the die. In this study the usage of the die is demonstrated by using Raman spectroscopy. Eicosane, d-glucose anhydrate, α-lactose monohydrate and xylitol were used in the study because their compression behavior and bonding properties during compression were assumed to be different. The intensity of the Raman signal changed during compression with all of the materials. However, the intensity changes were different within the materials. The biggest differences were within the xylitol spectra. It was noticed that some peaks disappeared with higher compression pressures indicating that the pressure affected variously on different bonds in xylitol structure. These reversible changes were supposed to relate the changes in conformation and crystal structure. As a conclusion, the die was found to be a significant addition for studying compression process in real-time. It can help to reveal Process induced transformations (PITs) occurring during powder compaction.

  20. Meloxicam taste-masked oral disintegrating tablet with dissolution enhanced by ion exchange resins and cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop taste-masked oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using the combination of ion exchange resin and cyclodextrin, to mask the bitter taste and enhance drug dissolution. Meloxicam (MX) was selected as a model drug with poor water solubility and a bitter taste. Formulations containing various forms of MX (free drug, MX-loaded resin or resinate, complexes of MX and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) or MX/HPβCD complexes, and a mixture of resinate and MX/HPβCD complexes) were made and tablets were prepared by direct compression. The ODTs were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, MX content, MX release, degree of bitter taste, and stability. The results showed that thickness, diameter, weight, and friability did not differ significantly for all of these formulations. The tablet hardness was approximately 3 kg/in.(2), and the friability was less than 1%. Tablets formulated with resinate and the mixture of resinate and MX/HPβCD complexes disintegrated rapidly within 60 s, which is the acceptable limit for ODTs. These results corresponded to the in vivo disintegration and wetting times. However, only tablets containing the mixture of resinate and MX/HPβCD complexes provided complete MX dissolution and successfully masked the bitter taste of MX. In addition, this tablet was stable at least 6 months. The results from this study suggest that the appropriate combination of ion exchange resin and cyclodextrin could be used in ODTs to mask the bitter taste of drug and enhance the dissolution of drugs that are weakly soluble in water.

  1. Formulation and characterization of modified release tablets containing isoniazid using swellable polymers.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M F; Rabbani, M; Sharif, A; Akhtar, B; Saleem, A; Murtaza, G

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop swellable modified release (MR) isoniazid tablets using different combinations of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC). Granules were prepared by moist granulation technique and then compressed into tablets. In vitro release studies for 12 hr were carried out in dissolution media of varying pH i.e. pH 1.2, 4.5, 7.0 and 7.5. Tablets of all formulations were found to be of good physical quality with respect to appearance (width and thickness), content uniformity, hardness, weight variation and friability. In vitro release data showed that increasing total polymer content resulted in more retarding effect. Formulation with 35% polymer content exhibited zero order release profile and it released 35% of the drug in first hr, later on, controlled drug release was observed upto the 12(th) hour. Formulations with PVAc to Na-CMC ratio 20:80 exhibited zero order release pattern at levels of studied concentrations, which suggested that this combination can be used to formulate zero order release tablets of water soluble drugs like isoniazid. Korsmeyer-Peppas modeling of drug release showed that non-Fickian transport is the primary mechanism of isoniazid release from PVAc and Na-CMC based tablets. The value of mean dissolution time decreased with the increase in the release rate of drug clearly showing the retarding behavior of the swellable polymers. The application of a mixture of PVAc to Na-CMC in a specific ratio may be feasible to formulate zero order release tablets of water soluble drugs like isoniazid.

  2. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nipanikar, Sanjay U.; Chitlange, Soham S.; Nagore, Dheeraj

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease associated with several complications leading to significant mortality and morbidity. Limitations and drawbacks of the conventional treatment generate need for safer, effective complimentary therapies to prevent complications, and maintain normoglycemic status. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to to evaluate antidiabetic activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet alone, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA[s]), and combination of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet and OHA(s) in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods: Totally, ten groups of animals were studied comparatively to evaluate antidiabetic activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet, OHA(s), and combination of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet and OHA(s). Blood glucose level (BGL), lipid profile, serum creatinine, serum insulin level, and histopathological characteristics of pancreas were studied to evaluate the efficacy of various formulations. Histopathological examination of kidney and heart was carried out to assess the ability of various formulations in preventing complications of diabetes. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean BGL, serum triglycerides, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL, and serum creatinine levels in all formulations groups. Significant increase in mean serum insulin level and high-density lipoprotein level was observed when compared to diabetic control (DC) group. Recovery of pancreatic beta cells and prevention of damage to heart and kidney cells was significant in all the formulation groups as compared to DC group. None of the formulations tested in nondiabetic rat showed hypoglycemia suggesting safety of all the formulations. Conclusion: AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet alone and in combination with OHA(s) can be effectively used in the management of diabetes mellitus. In addition, AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet alone and in combination with OHA(s) help in prevention of diabetic complications. As an adjuvant to

  3. Molecular dynamic simulations of ocular tablet dissolution.

    PubMed

    Ru, Qian; Fadda, Hala M; Li, Chung; Paul, Daniel; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve; Zloh, Mire

    2013-11-25

    Small tablets for implantation into the subconjunctival space in the eye are being developed to inhibit scarring after glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). There is a need to evaluate drug dissolution at the molecular level to determine how the chemical structure of the active may correlate with dissolution in the nonsink conditions of the conjunctival space. We conducted molecular dynamics simulations to study the dissolution process of tablets derived from two drugs that can inhibit fibrosis after GFS, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and the matrix metalloprotease inhibitor (MMPi), ilomastat. The dissolution was simulated in the presence of simple point charge (SPC) water molecules, and the liquid turnover of the aqueous humor in the subconjunctival space was simulated by removal of the dissolved drug molecules at regular intervals and replacement by new water molecules. At the end of the simulation, the total molecular solvent accessible surface area of 5-FU tablets increased by 60 times more than that of ilomastat as a result of tablet swelling and release of molecules into solution. The tablet dissolution pattern shown in our molecular dynamic simulations tends to correlate with experimental release profiles. This work indicates that a series of molecular dynamic simulations can be used to predict the influence of the molecular properties of a drug on its dissolution profile and could be useful during preformulation where sufficient amounts of the drug are not always available to perform dissolution studies.

  4. [Modern polymers in matrix tablets technology].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Łukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Matrix tablets are the most popular method of oral drug administration, and polymeric materials have been used broadly in matrix formulations to modify and modulate drug release rate. The main goal of the system is to extend drug release profiles to maintain a constant in vivo plasma drug concentration and a consistent pharmacological effect. Polymeric matrix tablets offer a great potential as oral controlled drug delivery systems. Cellulose derivatives, like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are often used as matrix formers. However, also other types of polymers can be used for this purpose including: Kollidon SR, acrylic acid polymers such as Eudragits and Carbopols. Nevertheless, polymers of natural origin like: carragens, chitosan and alginates widely used in the food and cosmetics industry are now coming to the fore of pharmaceutical research and are used in matrix tablets technology. Modern polymers allow to obtain matrix tablets by 3D printing, which enables to develop new formulation types. In this paper, the polymers used in matrix tablets technology and examples of their applications were described.

  5. Development and characterization of buccoadhesive nifedipine tablets.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, J; Dehghan, Z

    2002-09-01

    The buccoadhesive controlled-release tablets for delivery of nifedipine were prepared by direct compression of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with carbomer (CP), which showed superior bioadhesion properties compared to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and acacia in a modified tensiometry method in vitro. The tablets containing 30mg of nifedipine and various amounts of CMC and CP showed a zero-order drug release kinetic. The adhesion force was significantly affected by the mixing ratio of CP:CMC in the tablets. The weakest and highest adhesion force was observed at the mixing ratios of 1:0 and 8:2 of CP:CMC, respectively. The tablets containing 15% CMC and 35% CP adhered for over 8h to the upper gums of six healthy human volunteers. These tablets released about 56% of the loaded drug after 8h in vivo with a rate of 2.17h(-1) and were perfectly tolerated, while they released about 100% of their content after the same time with a rate of 3.49h(-1) in vitro. A good correlation (r(2)=0.989) was observed between drug-released in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Characterization of the Roman curse tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Boyang; Fu, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The Roman curse tablet, produced in ancient Rome period, is a metal plate that inscribed with curses. In this research, several techniques were used to find out the physical structure and chemical composition of the Roman curse tablet, and testified the hypothesis that whether the tablet is made of pure lead or lead alloy. A sample of Roman Curse Tablet from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum was analyzed using several different characterization techniques to determine the physical structure and chemical composition. The characterization techniques used were including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Because of the small sample size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cannot test the sample. Results from optical microscopy and SEM, enlarged images of the sample surface were studied. The result revealed that the sample surface has a rough, non-uniform, and grainy surface. AFM provides three-dimensional topography of the sample surface, studying the sample surface in atomic level. DSC studies the thermal property, which is most likely a lead-alloy, not a pure lead. However, none of these tests indicated anything about the chemical composition. Future work will be required due to the lack of measures finding out its chemical composition. Therefore, from these characterization techniques above, the Roman curse tablet sample is consisted of lead alloy, not pure lead.

  7. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  11. Graphics Tablets: How to Draw on a New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Margie; Mason, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Describes the graphics tablet, a microcomputer peripheral device used to develop graphics, together with its uses and specific classroom applications. Six currently available graphics tablets are discussed, and ten points to consider before purchasing one are provided. (MBR)

  12. Graphics Tablets: How to Draw on a New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Margie; Mason, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Describes the graphics tablet, a microcomputer peripheral device used to develop graphics, together with its uses and specific classroom applications. Six currently available graphics tablets are discussed, and ten points to consider before purchasing one are provided. (MBR)

  13. Incidence of urinary retention during treatment with single tablet combinations of solifenacin+tamsulosin OCAS™ for up to 1 year in adult men with both storage and voiding LUTS: A subanalysis of the NEPTUNE/NEPTUNE II randomized controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Drake, Marcus J; Oelke, Matthias; Snijder, Robert; Klaver, Monique; Traudtner, Klaudia; van Charldorp, Karin; Bongaerts, Dominique; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of urinary retention (UR), specifically acute urinary retention (AUR), has been a concern when treating men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with antimuscarinic drugs. In NEPTUNE (12-week, double-blind), men (≥45 years) with LUTS were randomized to receive tamsulosin oral-controlled absorption system (TOCAS) 0.4 mg, fixed-dose combination (FDC) of solifenacin (Soli) 6 mg + TOCAS 0.4 mg, FDC Soli 9 mg + TOCAS 0.4 mg, or placebo. In NEPTUNE II (40-week, open-label extension of NEPTUNE), continuing patients received 4-week FDC Soli 6 mg + TOCAS, then FDC Soli 6 mg or 9 mg + TOCAS for the remainder of the study, switchable every 3 months. Across both studies, 1208 men received ≥1 dose of FDC Soli 6 mg or 9 mg + TOCAS for up to 52 weeks; 1199 men completed NEPTUNE and 1066 received ≥1 dose in NEPTUNE II. In total, 13 men (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.8%) reported a UR event while receiving FDC, eight of which were AUR (0.7%; 95% CI, 0.3%-1.3%, incidence 7/1000 man-years). Six men reported UR events while taking Soli 6 mg + TOCAS (three AUR), and seven men reported a UR event while taking Soli 9 mg + TOCAS (five AUR). One man developed AUR while taking TOCAS alone and four reported UR (three AUR) during placebo run-in. Most AUR/UR events occurred within 4 months of treatment initiation. FDC Soli and TOCAS was associated with a low rate of UR and AUR in men with LUTS.

  14. Incidence of urinary retention during treatment with single tablet combinations of solifenacin+tamsulosin OCAS™ for up to 1 year in adult men with both storage and voiding LUTS: A subanalysis of the NEPTUNE/NEPTUNE II randomized controlled studies

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Marcus J.; Oelke, Matthias; Snijder, Robert; Klaver, Monique; Traudtner, Klaudia; van Charldorp, Karin; Bongaerts, Dominique; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of urinary retention (UR), specifically acute urinary retention (AUR), has been a concern when treating men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with antimuscarinic drugs. Materials and methods In NEPTUNE (12-week, double-blind), men (≥45 years) with LUTS were randomized to receive tamsulosin oral-controlled absorption system (TOCAS) 0.4 mg, fixed-dose combination (FDC) of solifenacin (Soli) 6 mg + TOCAS 0.4 mg, FDC Soli 9 mg + TOCAS 0.4 mg, or placebo. In NEPTUNE II (40-week, open-label extension of NEPTUNE), continuing patients received 4-week FDC Soli 6 mg + TOCAS, then FDC Soli 6 mg or 9 mg + TOCAS for the remainder of the study, switchable every 3 months. Results Across both studies, 1208 men received ≥1 dose of FDC Soli 6 mg or 9 mg + TOCAS for up to 52 weeks; 1199 men completed NEPTUNE and 1066 received ≥1 dose in NEPTUNE II. In total, 13 men (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.6%–1.8%) reported a UR event while receiving FDC, eight of which were AUR (0.7%; 95% CI, 0.3%–1.3%, incidence 7/1000 man-years). Six men reported UR events while taking Soli 6 mg + TOCAS (three AUR), and seven men reported a UR event while taking Soli 9 mg + TOCAS (five AUR). One man developed AUR while taking TOCAS alone and four reported UR (three AUR) during placebo run-in. Most AUR/UR events occurred within 4 months of treatment initiation. Conclusions FDC Soli and TOCAS was associated with a low rate of UR and AUR in men with LUTS. PMID:28166296

  15. Investigations into the tensile failure of doubly-convex cylindrical tablets under diametral loading using finite element methodology.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Drake, Kevin R; Newton, J Michael

    2013-09-15

    In the literature various solutions exist for the calculation of the diametral compression tensile strength of doubly-convex tablets and each approach is based on experimental data obtained from single materials (gypsum, microcrystalline cellulose) only. The solutions are represented by complex equations and further differ for elastic and elasto-plastic behaviour of the compacts. The aim of this work was to develop a general equation that is applicable independently of deformation behaviour and which is based on simple tablet dimensions such as diameter and total tablet thickness only. With the help of 3D-FEM analysis the tensile failure stress of doubly-convex tables with central cylinder to total tablet thickness ratios W/D between 0.06 and 0.50 and face-curvature ratios D/R between 0.25 and 1.85 were evaluated. Both elastic and elasto-plastic deformation behaviour were considered. The results of 80 individual simulations were combined and showed that the tensile failure stress σt of doubly-convex tablets can be calculated from σt=(2P/πDW)(W/T)=2P/πDT with P being the failure load, D the diameter, W the central cylinder thickness, and T the total thickness of the tablet. This equation converts into the standard Brazilian equation (σt=2P/πDW) when W equals T, i.e. is equally valid for flat cylindrical tablets. In practice, the use of this new equation removes the need for complex measurements of tablet dimensions, because it only requires values for diameter and total tablet thickness. It also allows setting of standards for the mechanical strength of doubly-convex tablets. The new equation holds both for elastic and elasto-plastic deformation behaviour of the tablets under load. It is valid for all combinations of W/D-ratios between 0.06 and 0.50 with D/R-ratios between 0.00 and 1.85 except for W/D=0.50 in combination with D/R-ratios of 1.85 and 1.43 and for W/D-ratios of 0.40 and 0.30 in combination with D/R=1.85. FEM-analysis indicated a tendency to

  16. Fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets: effect of epinephrine load on tablet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem M; Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2006-04-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing epinephrine load on the characteristics of fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets for the potential emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Four tablet formulations, A, B, C, and D, containing 0%, 6%, 12%, and 24% of epinephrine bitartrate, respectively, and microcrystalline cellulose:low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (9:1), were prepared by direct compression, at a range of compression forces. Tablet weight variation, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, wetting time, and friability were measured for each formulation at each compression force. All 4 tablet formulations at each compression force were within the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) limits for weight variation and content uniformity. A linear increase in compression force resulted in an exponential increase in hardness for all formulations, a linear increase in disintegration and wetting times of A, and an exponential increase in disintegration and wetting times of B, C, and D. At a mean +/- SD hardness of > or = 2.3 +/- 0.2 kg, all tablet formulations passed the USP friability test. At a mean +/- SD hardness of < or = 3.1 +/- 0.2 kg, all tablet formulations resulted in disintegration and wetting times of <10 seconds and <30 seconds, respectively. Tablets with drug loads from 0% to 24% epinephrine can be formulated with hardness, disintegration times, and wetting times suitable for sublingual administration.

  17. Influence of tableting forces and lubricant concentration on the adhesion strength in complex layer tablets.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, P; Bauer-Brandl, A; Schubert, R

    2000-07-01

    The strength of adhesion in complex two-layer tablets is assessed using statistical methods with respect to the applied tableting forces for the first layer and for applying the second layer on the first, as well as regarding the fraction of the lubricant. These results, obtained on a single-punch tablet press, are compared with the results for three-layer tablets produced on a rotary press at production scale. The strongest negative influence on adhesion strength was exerted by the amount of lubricant in the central layer. As expected, compression forces for central-layer tableting also had a negative effect, whereas the compression forces for complex layer tableting exerted a positive effect on layer adhesion. The validity of the derived model equation was proved by experiments: It was shown that the adhesion strength in complex layer tablets produced in production scale can be predicted from laboratory-scale experiments. This makes optimization of the formulation and parameter settings at an early stage of development possible.

  18. Deformation of the Stokes B2 rotary tablet press: quantitation and influence on tablet compaction.

    PubMed

    Altaf, S A; Hoag, S W

    1995-03-01

    Deformations that affect the vertical punch displacement of a Stokes B2 rotary tablet press were characterized with a cathetometer. The press deformation was found to be elastic for both the upper and lower compression roller assemblies. However, the upper and lower compression roller assemblies have different Hookian spring constants: 8.58 x 10(4) and 5.18 x 10(4) kN/m for the upper and lower assemblies, respectively. Using two-way analysis of variance, the Hookian spring constants were shown to be independent of compaction phases and lower punch penetration setting. To study the influence of press deformation on tablet compaction, the Hookian spring constants were factored into the caculation of the incremental work of compaction for dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate and microcrystalline cellulose. As the peak compression pressure increases, the force-displacement work done on the tablet during the loading phase decreases relative to calculations that neglect press deformation. This decrease in force-displacement work was attributed to elastic press deformation, which absorbs energy during the loading phase and then releases this energy later in the compaction cycle, altering the punch-displacement profile. The rate at which the press stores and releases elastic energy depends in part upon the viscoelastic properties of the tablet. Based upon these results, the coupling between press elasticity and a tablet's viscoelastic properties should be accounted for when analyzing tablet compaction or trying to simulate the punch-displacement profile of a tablet press that deforms during compaction.

  19. Evaluation of the tablets' surface flow velocities in pan coaters.

    PubMed

    Dreu, Rok; Toschkoff, Gregor; Funke, Adrian; Altmeyer, Andreas; Knop, Klaus; Khinast, Johannes; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The tablet pan coating process involves various types of transverse tablet bed motions, ranging from rolling to cascading. To preserve satisfactory results in terms of coating quality after scale-up, understanding the dynamics of pan coating process should be achieved. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology of estimating translational surface velocities of the tablets in a pan coater and to assess their dependence on the drum's filling degree, the pan speed, the presence of baffles and the selected tablet properties in a dry bed system and during coating while varying the drum's filling degree and the pan speed. Experiments were conducted on the laboratory scale and on the pilot scale in side-vented pan coaters. Surface movement of biconvex two-layer tablets was assessed before, during and after the process of active coating. In order to determine the tablets' surface flow velocities, a high-speed video of the tablet surface flow was recorded via a borescope inserted into the coating drum and analysed via a cross-correlation algorithm. The obtained tablet velocity data were arranged in a linear fashion as a function of the coating drum's radius and frequency. Velocity data obtained during coating were close to those of dry tablets after coating. The filling degree had little influence on the tablet velocity profile in a coating drum with baffles but clearly affected it in a coating drum without baffles. In most but not all cases, tablets with a lower static angle of repose had tablet velocity profiles with lower slopes than tablets with higher inter-tablet friction. This particular tablet velocity response can be explained by case specific values of tablet bed's dynamic angle of repose.

  20. Combination therapy with solifenacin and tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system in a single tablet for lower urinary tract symptoms in men: efficacy and safety results from the randomised controlled NEPTUNE trial.

    PubMed

    van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Chapple, Christopher; Drogendijk, Ted; Klaver, Monique; Sokol, Roman; Speakman, Mark; Traudtner, Klaudia; Drake, Marcus J

    2013-12-01

    Storage symptoms are particularly bothersome in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but may not be adequately treated by α-blocker monotherapy. To assess the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of solifenacin and an oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) formulation of tamsulosin compared with placebo and compared with tamsulosin OCAS (TOCAS) monotherapy in men with moderate to severe storage symptoms and voiding symptoms. A double-blind 12-wk phase 3 study in 1334 men with storage and voiding LUTS: total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥ 13, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) 4.0-12.0 ml/s, two or more urgency episodes per 24 h of Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale grade 3 or 4, and eight or more micturitions per 24h. Patients were randomised to placebo, TOCAS 0.4 mg, FDC solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS 0.4 mg, or FDC solifenacin 9 mg plus TOCAS 0.4 mg. Primary efficacy end points were (1) total IPSS and (2) Total Urgency and Frequency Score (TUFS). An FDC met the success criteria if it demonstrated superiority compared with placebo and noninferiority compared with TOCAS for total IPSS, as well as superiority compared with TOCAS for TUFS. Reductions in total IPSS and TUFS were observed with both solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS (-7.0 and -8.1, respectively) and solifenacin 9 mg plus TOCAS (-6.5 and -7.6, respectively) compared with TOCAS (-6.2 and -6.7, respectively) and placebo (-5.4 and -4.4, respectively). Solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS met all prespecified success criteria for both primary end points, while solifenacin 9 mg plus TOCAS met success criteria compared with placebo but not compared with TOCAS. Both FDCs improved quality of life (QoL) measures and were well tolerated, with low incidences of acute urinary retention. The FDC of solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS significantly improved storage and voiding symptoms, as well as QoL parameters, compared with placebo. This FDC also improved storage symptoms and Qo

  1. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding for...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding for...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding for...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid. (b...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid. (b...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid. (b...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid. (b...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  14. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  15. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  16. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  17. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section... hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 2, 5, 10, 15, or 30 milligrams of... use—Dogs—(1) Dosage. 1 milligram per kilogram (0.45 milligram per pound) of body weight....

  20. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  1. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  2. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  3. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section... hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 2, 5, 10, 15, or 30 milligrams of... use—Dogs—(1) Dosage. 1 milligram per kilogram (0.45 milligram per pound) of body weight....

  6. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section... Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin carbamate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in...

  7. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  8. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2280 - Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets... Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 250 milligrams of... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections...

  12. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2280 - Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets... Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 250 milligrams of... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section... Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin carbamate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate equivalent to...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2280 - Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets... Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 250 milligrams of... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections...

  18. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  19. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning: Options and Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people's learning with portable tablets matches the…

  20. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000...