Science.gov

Sample records for 500-mhz copper cavity

  1. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  2. Fabrication and Measurements of 500 MHz Double Spoke Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Park, HyeKyoung; Hopper, Christopher S.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2014-12-01

    A 500 MHz β0=1 double spoke cavity has been designed and optimized for a high velocity application such as a compact electron accelerator at the Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University [1] and the fabrication was recently completed at Jefferson Lab. The geometry specific to the double spoke cavity required a variety of tooling and fixtures. Also a number of asymmetric weld joints were expected to make it difficult to maintain minimal geometric deviation from the design. This paper will report the fabrication procedure, resulting tolerance from the design, initial test results and the lessons learned from the first β0=1 double spoke cavity fabrication.

  3. Design and development progress of a LLRF control system for a 500 MHz superconducting cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. W.; Song, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, K. H.; Yu, I. H.; Chai, J. S.

    2012-07-01

    The LLRF (low-level radio-frequency) control system which regulates the amplitude and the phase of the accelerating voltage inside a RF cavity is essential to ensure the stable operation of charged particle accelerators. Recent advances in digital signal processors and data acquisition systems have allowed the LLRF control system to be implemented in digitally and have made it possible to meet the higher demands associated with the performance of LLRF control systems, such as stability, accuracy, etc. For this reason, many accelerator laboratories have completed or are completing the developments of digital LLRF control systems. The digital LLRF control system has advantages related with flexibility and fast reconfiguration. This paper describes the design of the FPGA (field programmable gate array) based LLRF control system and the status of development for this system. The proposed LLRF control system includes an analog front-end, a digital board (ADC (analog to digital converter), DAC (digital to analog converter), FPGA, etc.) and a RF & clock generation system. The control algorithms will be implemented by using the VHDL (VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuits) hardware description language), and the EPICS (experiment physics and industrial control system) will be ported to the host computer for the communication. In addition, the purpose of this system is to control a 500 MHz RF cavity, so the system will be applied to the superconducting cavity to be installed in the PLS storage ring, and its performance will be tested.

  4. Studies of an LL-type 500 MHz 5-cell superconducting cavity at SINAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hong-Tao; Ma, Zhen-Yu; Mao, Dong-Qing; Feng, Zi-Qiang; Luo, Chen; Shi, Jing; Wang, Yan; Li, Zheng; Xu, Kai; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Zheng, Xiang; Zhao, Shen-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Jian-Fei

    2015-04-01

    A low loss- (LL) type 500 MHz 5-cell superconducting niobium prototype cavity with a large beam aperture has been developed successfully including the optimization, the deep drawing and electron beam welding, the surface treatment and the vertical testing. The performance of the fundamental mode was optimized and the higher order modes were damped by adopting an enlarged beam pipe for propagation. Surface preparation or treatment including mechanical polishing, buffered chemical polishing and high pressure rinsing with ultra-pure water and so on was carried out carefully to ensure a perfect inner surface condition. The vertical testing results show that the accelerating voltage higher than 7.5 MV was obtained while the quality factor was better than 1×109 at 4.2 K. No obvious multipacting or field emission was found during the test. However, a quench happened while increasing the field a little higher than 7.5 MV that at present limited the cavity performance. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175237)

  5. Commissioning of the 112 MHz SRF Gun and 500 MHz bunching cavities for the CeC PoP Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J. C.; Litvinenko, V.; McIntosh, P.; Moss, A.; Narayan, G.; Orfin, P.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, K.; Than, R.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, E.; Wheelhouse, A.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B.; Xin, T.; Xu, W.; Zaltsman, A.

    2015-05-03

    The Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment at BNL includes a short electron linac. During Phase 1, a 112 MHz superconducting RF photo-emission gun and two 500 MHz normal conducting bunching cavities were installed and are under commissioning. The paper describes the Phase1 linac layout and presents commissioning results for the cavities and associated RF, cryogenic and other sub-systems

  6. Analysis of coupled-bunch instabilities for the NSLS-II storage ring with a 500 MHz 7-cell PETRA-III cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, G.; Blednykh, A.; Cheng, W.; Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Teytelman, D.

    2016-02-01

    The NSLS-II storage ring is designed to operate with superconducting RF-cavities with the aim to store an average current of 500 mA distributed in 1080 bunches, with a gap in the uniform filling for ion clearing. At the early stage of the commissioning (phase 1), characterized by a bare lattice without damping wigglers and without Landau cavities, a normal conducting 7-cell PETRA-III RF-cavity structure has been installed with the goal to store an average current of 25 mA. In this paper we discuss our analysis of coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the Higher Order Modes (HOMs) of the 7-cell PETRA-III RF-cavity. As a cure of the instabilities, we apply a well-known scheme based on a proper detuning of the HOMs frequencies based upon cavity temperature change, and the use of the beneficial effect of the slow head-tail damping at positive chromaticity to increase the transverse coupled-bunch instability thresholds. In addition, we discuss measurements of coupled-bunch instabilities observed during the phase 1 commissioning of the NSLS-II storage ring. In our analysis we rely, in the longitudinal case, on the theory of coupled-bunch instability for uniform fillings, while in the transverse case we complement our studies with numerical simulations with OASIS, a novel parallel particle tracking code for self-consistent simulations of collective effects driven by short and long-range wakefields.

  7. Analysis of coupled-bunch instabilities for the NSLS-II storage ring with a 500MHz 7-cell PETRA-III cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, G.; Blednykh, A.; Cheng, W.; Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Teytelman, D.

    2015-12-11

    We present the NSLS-II storage ring that is designed to operate with superconducting RF-cavities with the aim to store an average current of 500 mA distributed in 1080 bunches, with a gap in the uniform filling for ion clearing. At the early stage of the commissioning (phase 1), characterized by a bare lattice without damping wigglers and without Landau cavities, a normal conducting 7-cell PETRA-III RF-cavity structure has been installed with the goal to store an average current of 25 mA. In this paper we discuss our analysis of coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the Higher Order Modes (HOMs) of the 7-cell PETRA-III RF-cavity. As a cure of the instabilities, we apply a well-known scheme based on a proper detuning of the HOMs frequencies based upon cavity temperature change, and the use of the beneficial effect of the slow head–tail damping at positive chromaticity to increase the transverse coupled-bunch instability thresholds. In addition, we discuss measurements of coupled-bunch instabilities observed during the phase 1 commissioning of the NSLS-II storage ring. In our analysis we rely, in the longitudinal case, on the theory of coupled-bunch instability for uniform fillings, while in the transverse case we complement our studies with numerical simulations with OASIS, a novel parallel particle tracking code for self-consistent simulations of collective effects driven by short and long-range wakefields.

  8. Analysis of coupled-bunch instabilities for the NSLS-II storage ring with a 500MHz 7-cell PETRA-III cavity

    DOE PAGES

    Bassi, G.; Blednykh, A.; Cheng, W.; ...

    2015-12-11

    We present the NSLS-II storage ring that is designed to operate with superconducting RF-cavities with the aim to store an average current of 500 mA distributed in 1080 bunches, with a gap in the uniform filling for ion clearing. At the early stage of the commissioning (phase 1), characterized by a bare lattice without damping wigglers and without Landau cavities, a normal conducting 7-cell PETRA-III RF-cavity structure has been installed with the goal to store an average current of 25 mA. In this paper we discuss our analysis of coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the Higher Order Modes (HOMs) of themore » 7-cell PETRA-III RF-cavity. As a cure of the instabilities, we apply a well-known scheme based on a proper detuning of the HOMs frequencies based upon cavity temperature change, and the use of the beneficial effect of the slow head–tail damping at positive chromaticity to increase the transverse coupled-bunch instability thresholds. In addition, we discuss measurements of coupled-bunch instabilities observed during the phase 1 commissioning of the NSLS-II storage ring. In our analysis we rely, in the longitudinal case, on the theory of coupled-bunch instability for uniform fillings, while in the transverse case we complement our studies with numerical simulations with OASIS, a novel parallel particle tracking code for self-consistent simulations of collective effects driven by short and long-range wakefields.« less

  9. 4 Kelvin Cryogenic Probe for 500 MHz NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, F.; Takahashi, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Hobo, F.; Inoue, K.; Miki, T.; Hamada, M.; Okamura, T.; Yokoyama, S.; Maeda, H.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a 4 K cryogenic probe for 500 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analyses. As thermal noise is proportional to the square root of the RF coil temperature, sensitivity of a 4 K probe is expected to be double that of conventional 25 K probes. The 4 K probe apparatus consists of a closed-cycle cooling system, a 5 m long helium transfer line and the NMR probe itself. The cooling system produces cold helium mist with a Gifford-McMahon/Joule-Thomson (GM/JT) cryocooler. The helium mist traverses the transfer line and then cools the RF coil. An acceptable power input of 3.6 W for the NMR pulse sequence was demonstrated, which was more than the time-averaged heat input, 2 W, generated by a multi-dimensional NMR pulse sequence. The basic NMR sensitivity of the cryogenic probe remains insufficient at present, but increasing B1xy (the field component in the xy plane generated by unit current of the RF coil) and decreasing the noise temperature of the preamplifier are promising approaches for achieving higher sensitivity in the future.

  10. Interaction of copper with cavities in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S. M.; Follstaedt, D. M.

    1996-02-01

    Copper in Si was shown to be strongly bound at cavities formed by He ion implantation and annealing. Evolution of this system during heating was observed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Results were mathematically modeled to characterize quantitatively the binding of Cu in the cavities and, for comparison, in precipitates of the equilibrium silicide, η-Cu3Si. Binding of Cu to cavities occurred by chemisorption on the walls, and the binding energy was determined to be 2.2±0.2 eV relative to solution in Si. The heat of solution from the silicide was found to be 1.7 eV, consistent with the published phase diagram. These findings suggest the use of cavities for metal-impurity gettering in Si devices. Hydrogen in solution in equilibrium with external H2 gas displaced Cu atoms from cavity walls, a mechanistically illuminating effect that is also of practical concern for gettering applications.

  11. Non-thermal effects of 500MHz - 900MHz microwave radiation on enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Pirogova, E; Vojisavljevic, V; Cosic, I

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes are essential for the catalysis of biochemical reactions and in the regulation of metabolic pathways. They function by greatly accelerating the rate of specific chemical reactions that would otherwise be slow. It has been shown that extremely low-power microwaves can influence enzyme activity [1-5]. This study is focused at investigating the effects of low level microwave exposures ranging from 500MHz to 900MHz on L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity. The results obtained revealed the increased bioactivity of the LDH upon microwave radiation at two particular frequencies 500MHz and 900MHz.

  12. Architecture and design of a 500-MHz gallium-arsenide processing element for a parallel supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouts, Douglas J.; Butner, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the processing element of GASP, a GaAs supercomputer with a 500-MHz instruction issue rate and 1-GHz subsystem clocks, is presented. The novel, functionally modular, block data flow architecture of GASP is described. The architecture and design of a GASP processing element is then presented. The processing element (PE) is implemented in a hybrid semiconductor module with 152 custom GaAs ICs of eight different types. The effects of the implementation technology on both the system-level architecture and the PE design are discussed. SPICE simulations indicate that parts of the PE are capable of being clocked at 1 GHz, while the rest of the PE uses a 500-MHz clock. The architecture utilizes data flow techniques at a program block level, which allows efficient execution of parallel programs while maintaining reasonably good performance on sequential programs. A simulation study of the architecture indicates that an instruction execution rate of over 30,000 MIPS can be attained with 65 PEs.

  13. Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating in RF Copper Accelerating Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, M. H.; Gonin, I.; Romanov, Romanov; Khabiboulline, T.; Yakovlev, V.

    2016-01-17

    Electromagnetic heating is a critical issue in normal conducting copper RF cavities that are employed in particle accelerators. With several tens to hundreds of kilowatts dissipated RF power, there must be an effective cooling scheme whether it is water or air based or even a combination of both. In this paper we investigate the electromagnetic heating in multiple cavities that were designed at Fermilab exploring how the electromagnetic and thermal analyses are coupled together to properly design the cooling of such cavities.

  14. Structural elucidation of the Brucella melitensis M antigen by high-resolution NMR at 500 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Bundle, D.R.; Cherwonogrodzky, J.W.; Perry, M.B.

    1987-12-29

    The Brucella M antigen from the species type strain Brucella melitensis 16M has been identified as a component of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). O polysaccharide liberated from this LPS by mild acid hydrolysis exhibited M activity in serological tests and was shown to be a homopolymer of 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosyl residues arranged in an oligosaccharide repeating unit as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the native lipopolysaccharide. Structural analysis of the O polysaccharide by NMR methods was difficult due to apparent microheterogeneity of the repeating unit, which was in fact caused by the presence of rotational isomers of the N-formyl moiety. This problem was resolved by chemical modification of the polysaccharide to its amino and N-acetyl derivatives, the 500-MHz /sup 1/H and 125-MHz /sup 13/C NMR spectra of which could be analyzed in terms of a unique structure through application of pH-dependent ..beta..-shifts and two-dimensional techniques that included COSY, relayed COSY, and NOESY experiments together with heteronuclear C/H shift correlation spectroscopy. On the basis of these experiments and supported by methylation and periodate oxidation data, the structure of the M polysaccharide was determined as a linear polymer of unbranched pentasaccharide repeating units consisting of four 1,2-linked and one 1,3-lined 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosyl residues. The marked structural similarity of the M antigen and the A antigen, which is known to be a 1,2-linked homopolysaccharide of 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosyl units, accounts for cross-serological reactions of the two and the long-standing confusion surrounding the nature of their antigenic determinants.

  15. Structural elucidation of the Brucella melitensis M antigen by high-resolution NMR at 500 MHz.

    PubMed

    Bundle, D R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Perry, M B

    1987-12-29

    The Brucella M antigen from the species type strain Brucella melitensis 16M has been identified as a component of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). O polysaccharide liberated from this LPS by mild acid hydrolysis exhibited M activity in serological tests and was shown to be a homopolymer of 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl residues arranged in an oligosaccharide repeating unit as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the native lipopolysaccharide. Structural analysis of the O polysaccharide by NMR methods was difficult due to apparent microheterogeneity of the repeating unit, which was in fact caused by the presence of rotational isomers of the N-formyl moiety. This problem was resolved by chemical modification of the polysaccharide to its amino and N-acetyl derivatives, the 500-MHz 1H and 125-MHz 13C NMR spectra of which could be analyzed in terms of a unique structure through application of pH-dependent beta-shifts and two-dimensional techniques that included COSY, relayed COSY, and NOESY experiments together with heteronuclear C/H shift correlation spectroscopy. On the basis of these experiments and supported by methylation and periodate oxidation data, the structure of the M polysaccharide was determined as a linear polymer of unbranched pentasaccharide repeating units consisting of four 1,2-linked and one 1,3-linked 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl residues. The marked structural similarity of the M antigen and the A antigen, which is known to be a 1,2-linked homopolysaccharide of 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl units, accounts for cross-serological reactions of the two and the long-standing confusion surrounding the nature of their antigenic determinants. Structural and serological considerations in conjuction with the sodium dodecyl sulfate banding pattern of Brucella A LPS suggest that its biosynthesis differs appreciably from that of the M antigen, which appears to be

  16. Copper spherical cavity arrays: Fluorescence enhancement in PFO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, Edna R.; Valente, Gustavo T.; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A.; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.; Faria, Roberto M.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript addresses the use of a well-ordered antidot copper nanostructure as a active substrate for surface enhancement fluorescence (SEF). The antidot array was produced by electrodeposition and nanosphere lithography and characterized by microscopy technique, its successful application as SEF-active substrates was verified using polyfluorene (PFO) as a probe layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the regularity of the metal surface as well PFO coated process and confocal laser fluorescence microscopy (CLSM) to determine the behavior exhibited by the fluorescent layer due to the existence of the nanostructured surface. No accumulation PFO in the cavities was detected and the more intense emission regions coincides with the position of the cavities and is at about one order of magnitude higher.

  17. The 500 MHz to 5.50 GHz complex permittivity spectra of single-wall carbon nanotube-loaded polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Mungle, C.; Kouzoudis, D.; Fang, S.; Eklund, P. C.

    2000-03-01

    The 500 MHz to 5.50 GHz complex permittivity spectra of a thick-film polymer loaded with 0-23 wt% single-wall carbon nanotubes is measured. At 500 MHz, as the weight percentage loading of the carbon nanotubes increases from 0 to 23% the real permittivity is found to increase by a factor of ˜35, and the imaginary permittivity by a factor of 1200. The spectral magnitudes decrease rapidly from the 500 MHz value over the measured frequency range. Experimental data are in qualitative agreement with values predicted using an effective medium theory for materials comprised of elongated cylindrical conductors [A.N. Lagarkov, A.K. Sarychev, Phy. Rev. B 53 (1996) 6318].

  18. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-21

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  19. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  20. Cavity Design, Fabrication and Commission Performance of a 750MHz, 4-rod Separator for CEBAF 4-Hall Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haipeng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Turlington, Larry T.; Wissmann, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    A short version of the original CEBAF normal conducting 4-rod separator cavity has been developed into a 750MHz one * since the concept of simultaneous 4-hall operation for CEBAF is introduced **. This work has been advanced further based on the EM design optimization, bench measurement and by conducting RF-thermal coupled simulation using CST and ANSYS to confirm the cavity tuning and thermal performance. The cavity fabrication used matured technology like copper plating and machining. The cavity flanges, couplers, tuners and cooling channels adopted consistent/compatible hardware with the existing 500MHz cavities. The electromagnetic and thermal design simulations have greatly reduced the prototyping and bench tuning time of the first prototype. Four production cavities have reached a typical 1.94MV kick voltage or 3.0kW wall loss on each cavity after a minor multipactoring or no processing, 7.5% overhead power than the design specification.

  1. Interference Mitigation Technique Using Active Spaceborne Sensor Antenna in EESS (Active) and Space Research Service (Active) for Use in 500 MHz Bandwidth Near 9.6 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.

    2005-01-01

    This document presents an interference mitigation technique using the active spaceborne sensor SAR3 antenna in the Earth Exploration-Satellite Service (active) and Space Research Service (active) for use in a 500 MHz bandwidth near 9.6 GHz. The purpose of the document is present antenna designs which offer lower sidelobes and faster rolloff in the sidelobes which in turn mitigates the interference to other services from the EESS (active) and SRS (active) sensors.

  2. Diffusion behavior of copper atoms under Cu(II) reduction in Cucurbit[8]uril cavity at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bakovets, Vladimir V.; Nadolinnii, Vladimir A.; Kovalenko, Ekaterina A.; Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Dolgovesova, Irina P.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper we describe copper clusters and nanoparticles formation by the reduction of copper (II) ions inside cavities of macrocycle molecules using supramolecular compound [Cu(Cyclen)(H{sub 2}O)@CB[8

  3. Gettering of copper to hydrogen-induced cavities in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Leung, J.; Ascheron, C. E.; Petravic, M.; Elliman, R. G.; Williams, J. S.

    1995-03-01

    Hydrogen implantation and subsequent thermal annealing is found to result in a well-defined band of cavities in Si. This band is an extremely efficient gettering layer for Cu which is also introduced into the near surface of Si by ion implantation. Profiling of implanted Cu indicates that ˜95% of an initial 3×1015 cm-2 Cu implant is redistributed following annealing at a temperature of 780 °C from a near-surface damaged layer to a narrow band of cavities of width ˜1000 Å at a depth of ˜1 μm. Furthermore, the Si between the surface and the cavity band is essentially defect-free and that some cavities contain the bulk Cu3Si phase.

  4. Copper Prototype Measurements of the HOM, LOM And SOM Couplers for the ILC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dexter, A.C.; Bellantoni, L.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    The ILC Crab Cavity is positioned close to the IP and delivered luminosity is very sensitive to the wakefields induced in it by the beam. A set of couplers were designed to couple to and damp the spurious modes of the crab cavity. As the crab cavity operates using a dipole mode, it has different damping requirements from an accelerating cavity. A separate coupler is required for the monopole modes below the operating frequency of 3.9 GHz (known as the LOMs), the opposite polarization of the operating mode (the SOM), and the modes above the operating frequency (the HOMs). Prototypes of each of these couplers have been manufactured out of copper and measured attached to an aluminum nine cell prototype of the cavity and their external Q factors were measured. The results were found to agree well with numerical simulations.

  5. Copper Prototype Measurements of the HOM, LOM and SOM Couplers for the ILC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dexter, A.C.; Bellantoni, L.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2008-06-23

    The ILC Crab Cavity is positioned close to the IP and delivered luminosity is very sensitive to the wakefields induced in it by the beam. A set of couplers were designed to couple to and damp the spurious modes of the crab cavity. As the crab cavity operates using a dipole mode, it has different damping requirements from an accelerating cavity. A separate coupler is required for the monopole modes below the operating frequency of 3.9 GHz (known as the LOMs), the opposite polarization of the operating mode (the SOM), and the modes above the operating frequency (the HOMs). Prototypes of each of these couplers have been manufactured out of copper and measured attached to an aluminum nine cell prototype of the cavity and their external Q factors were measured. The results were found to agree well with numerical simulations.

  6. 500-MHz proton NMR evidence for two solution structures of the common arm base-paired segment of wheat germ 5S ribosomal RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jiejun; Marshall, A.G. )

    1990-02-20

    The base-pair protons of the common arm duplex fragment of wheat germ (Triticum aestivum) ribosomal 5S RNA have been identified and assigned by means of 500-MHz proton NMR spectroscopy. The two previously reported extra base pairs within the fragment are now explained by the presence of two distinct solution structures of the common arm fragment (and its corresponding base-paired segment in intact 5S rRNA). The present conclusions are supported by one- and two-dimensional proton homonuclear Overhauser enhancements in H{sub 2}O and by temperature variation and Mg{sup 2+} titration of the downfield {sup 1}H NMR spectrum. The difference between the two conformers is most likely due to difference in helical tightness. Some additional amino proton resonances have also been assigned.

  7. Extreme diffusion limited electropolishing of niobium radiofrequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Anthony C.

    2017-03-01

    A deeply modulated, regular, continuous, oscillating current waveform is reliably and repeatably achieved during electropolishing of niobium single-cell elliptical radiofrequency cavities. Details of the technique and cavity test results are reported here. The method is applicable for cavity frequencies in the range 500 MHz to 3.9 GHz and can be extended to multicell structures.

  8. Extreme diffusion limited electropolishing of niobium radiofrequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Crawford, Anthony C.

    2017-01-04

    In this study, a deeply modulated, regular, continuous, oscillating current waveform is reliably and repeatably achieved during electropolishing of niobium single-cell elliptical radiofrequency cavities. Details of the technique and cavity test results are reported here. The method is applicable for cavity frequencies in the range 500 MHz to 3.9 GHz and can be extended to multicell structures.

  9. Microwave-cavity measurements for gas thermometry up to the copper point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, XiaoJuan; Gillis, Keith A.; Moldover, Michael R.; Mehl, James B.

    2013-06-01

    This work explores the feasibility of acoustic gas thermometry (AGT) in the range 700 K to the copper point (1358 K) in order to more accurately measure the differences between ITS-90 and the thermodynamic temperature. To test material suitability and stability, we investigated microwave resonances in argon-filled cylindrical cavities machined from a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy. We measured the frequencies of five non-degenerate microwave modes of one cavity at temperatures up to 1349 K using home-made coaxial cables and antennas. The short-term repeatability of both the measured frequencies fN and the scaled half-widths gN/fN was better than 10-6 fN. Oxidation was not a problem while clean argon flowed through the cavity. The measurement techniques are compatible with highly accurate AGT and may be adaptable to refractive index gas thermometry.

  10. Copper-sulfenate complex from oxidation of a cavity mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin.

    PubMed

    Sieracki, Nathan A; Tian, Shiliang; Hadt, Ryan G; Zhang, Jun-Long; Woertink, Julia S; Nilges, Mark J; Sun, Furong; Solomon, Edward I; Lu, Yi

    2014-01-21

    Metal-sulfenate centers are known to play important roles in biology and yet only limited examples are known due to their instability and high reactivity. Herein we report a copper-sulfenate complex characterized in a protein environment, formed at the active site of a cavity mutant of an electron transfer protein, type 1 blue copper azurin. Reaction of hydrogen peroxide with Cu(I)-M121G azurin resulted in a species with strong visible absorptions at 350 and 452 nm and a relatively low electron paramagnetic resonance gz value of 2.169 in comparison with other normal type 2 copper centers. The presence of a side-on copper-sulfenate species is supported by resonance Raman spectroscopy, electrospray mass spectrometry using isotopically enriched hydrogen peroxide, and density functional theory calculations correlated to the experimental data. In contrast, the reaction with Cu(II)-M121G or Zn(II)-M121G azurin under the same conditions did not result in Cys oxidation or copper-sulfenate formation. Structural and computational studies strongly suggest that the secondary coordination sphere noncovalent interactions are critical in stabilizing this highly reactive species, which can further react with oxygen to form a sulfinate and then a sulfonate species, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry. Engineering the electron transfer protein azurin into an active copper enzyme that forms a copper-sulfenate center and demonstrating the importance of noncovalent secondary sphere interactions in stabilizing it constitute important contributions toward the understanding of metal-sulfenate species in biological systems.

  11. Superconducting Materials Testing with a High-Q Copper RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, S.G.; Dolgashev, V.; Bowden, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nantista, C.D.; Canabal, A.; Tajima, T.; Capmpisi, I.E.; /Oak Ridge

    2007-11-07

    Superconducting RF is of increasing importance in particle accelerators. We have developed a resonant cavity with high quality factor and an interchangeable wall for testing of superconducting materials. A compact TE01 mode launcher attached to the coupling iris selectively excites the azimuthally symmetric cavity mode, which allows a gap at the detachable wall and is free of surface electric fields that could cause field emission, multipactor, and RF breakdown. The shape of the cavity is tailored to focus magnetic field on the test sample. We describe cryogenic experiments conducted with this cavity. An initial experiment with copper benchmarked our apparatus. This was followed by tests with Nb and MgB2. In addition to characterizing the onset of superconductivity with temperature, our cavity can be resonated with a high power klystron to determine the surface magnetic field level sustainable by the material in the superconducting state. A feedback code is used to make the low level RF drive track the resonant frequency.

  12. Binding of copper and nickel to cavities in silicon formed by helium ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S. M.; Follstaedt, D. M.; Bishop, D. M.

    Cavities formed in Si by He ion implantation and annealing are shown to be strong traps for Cu and Ni impurities. Experiments utilizing ion-beam analysis and transmission electron microscopy indicate that Cu is trapped at the internal surfaces of cavities up to approximately 1 monolayer coverage with a binding energy of 2.2 +/- 0.2 eV relative to solution. This is greater than the heat of solution from the precipitated Cu3Si phase, determined to be 1.7 eV in agreement with earlier work. Copper at cavity-wall sites is reversibly replaced by H during heating in H2 gas, indicating the relative stability of the two surface terminations. Initial results for Ni impurities indicate that trapping at cavities is again energetically preferred to silicide formation. The saturation coverage of Ni on the internal surfaces, however, is an order of magnitude smaller for Ni than Cu, consistent with published studies of external-surface adsorption. These results suggest that cavity trapping may getter metallic impurities in Si more effectively than methods based on silicide precipitation.

  13. Binding of copper and nickel to cavities in silicon formed by helium ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Bishop, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    Cavities formed in Si by He ion implantation and annealing are shown to be strong traps for Cu and Ni impurities. Experiments utilizing ion-beam analysis and transmission electron microscopy indicate that Cu is trapped at the internal surfaces of cavities up to {approximately}1 monolayer coverage with a binding energy of 2.2{plus_minus}0.2 eV relative to solution. This is greater than the heat of solution from the precipitated Cu{sub 3}Si phase, determined to be 1.7 eV in agreement with earlier work. Copper at cavity-wall sites is reversibly replaced by H during heating in H{sub 2} gas, indicating the relative stability of the two surface terminations. Initial results for Ni impurities indicate that trapping at cavities is again energetically preferred to silicide formation. The saturation coverage of Ni on the internal surfaces, however, is an order of magnitude smaller for Ni than Cu, consistent with published studies of external-surface adsorption. These results suggest that cavity trapping may getter metallic impurities in Si more effectively than methods based on silicide precipitation.

  14. Assignment of histidine resonances in the sup 1 H NMR (500 MHz) spectrum of subtilisin BPN prime using site-directed mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bycroft, M.; Fersht, A.R. )

    1988-09-20

    A spin-echo pulse sequence has been used to resolve the six histidine C-2H protons in the 500-MHz NMR spectrum of subtilisin BPN{prime}. Five of these residues have been substituted by site-directed mutagenesis, and this has enabled a complete assignment of these protons to be obtained. Analysis of the pH titration curves of these signals has provided microscopic pK{sub a}'s for the six histidines in this enzyme. The pK{sub a}'s of the histidine residues in subtilisin BPN{prime} have been compared with the values obtained for the histidines in the homologous enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis (subtilisin Carlsberg). Four of the five conserved histidines titrate with essentially identical pK{sub a}'s in the two enzymes. It therefore appears that the assignments made for these residues in subtilisin BPN{prime} can be transferred to subtilisin Carlsberg. On the basis of these assignments, the one histidine that titrates with a substantially different pK{sub a} in the two enzymes can be assigned to histidine-238. This difference in pK{sub a} has been attributed to a Trp to Lys substitution at position 241 in subtilisin Carlsberg.

  15. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masato; Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji; Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Nakagome, Hideki; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Yamazaki, Toshio; Maeda, Hideaki

    2012-10-01

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb3Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a 7Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  16. Secondary structure in solution of two anti-HIV-1 hammerhead ribozymes as investigated by two-dimensional 1H 500 MHz NMR spectroscopy in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, R. H.; Sarma, M. H.; Rein, R.; Shibata, M.; Setlik, R. S.; Ornstein, R. L.; Kazim, A. L.; Cairo, A.; Tomasi, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    Two hammerhead chimeric RNA/DNA ribozymes (HRz) were synthesized in pure form. Both were 30 nucleotides long, and the sequences were such that they could be targeted to cleave the HIV-1 gag RNA. Named HRz-W and HRz-M, the former had its invariable core region conserved, the latter had a uridine in the invariable region replaced by a guanine. Their secodary structures were determined by 2D NOESY 1H 500 MHz NMR spectroscopy in 90% water and 10% D2(0), following the imino protons. The data show that both HRz-M and HRz-W form identical secondary structures with stem regions consisting of continuous stacks of AT and GT pairs. An energy minimized computer model of this stem region is provided. The results suggest that the loss of catalytic activity that is known to result when an invariant core residue is replaced is not related to the secondary structure of the ribozymes in the absence of substrate.

  17. Exploration of material removal rate of srf elliptical cavities as a function of media type and cavity shape on niobium and copper using centrifugal barrel polishing (cbp)

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Li, Yongming; Geng, Rongli

    2013-09-01

    Centrifugal barrel polishing (cbp) for SRF application is becoming more wide spread as the technique for cavity surface preparation. CBP is now being used in some form at SRF laboratories around the world including in the US, Europe and Asia. Before the process can become as mature as wet chemistry like eletro-polishing (EP) and buffered chemical polishing (BCP) there are many questions which remain unanswered. One of these topics includes the uniformity of removal as a function of cavity shape and material type. In this presentation we show CBP removal rates for various media types on 1.3 GHz TESLA and 1.5 GHz CEBAF large/fine grain niobium cavities, and 1.3GHz low surface field copper cavity. The data will also include calculated RF frequency shift modeling non-uniform removal as a function of cavity position and comparing them with CBP results.

  18. Copper-sulfenate complex from oxidation of a cavity mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin

    SciTech Connect

    Sieracki, Nathan A.; Tian, Shiliang; Hadt, Ryan G.; Zhang, Jun-Long; Woertink, Julia S.; Nilges, Mark J.; Sun, Furong; Solomon, Edward I.; Lu, Yi

    2014-08-25

    Metal–sulfenate centers are known to play important roles in biology and yet only limited examples are known due to their instability and high reactivity. Herein we report a copper–sulfenate complex characterized in a protein environment, formed at the active site of a cavity mutant of an electron transfer protein, type 1 blue copper azurin. Reaction of hydrogen peroxide with Cu(I)–M121G azurin resulted in a species with strong visible absorptions at 350 and 452 nm and a relatively low electron paramagnetic resonance gz value of 2.169 in comparison with other normal type 2 copper centers. The presence of a side-on copper–sulfenate species is supported by resonance Raman spectroscopy, electrospray mass spectrometry using isotopically enriched hydrogen peroxide, and density functional theory calculations correlated to the experimental data. In contrast, the reaction with Cu(II)–M121G or Zn(II)–M121G azurin under the same conditions did not result in Cys oxidation or copper–sulfenate formation. Structural and computational studies strongly suggest that the secondary coordination sphere noncovalent interactions are critical in stabilizing this highly reactive species, which can further react with oxygen to form a sulfinate and then a sulfonate species, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry. Engineering the electron transfer protein azurin into an active copper enzyme that forms a copper–sulfenate center and demonstrating the importance of noncovalent secondary sphere interactions in stabilizing it constitute important contributions toward the understanding of metal–sulfenate species in biological systems.

  19. Cryogenic Testing of High-Velocity Spoke Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Christopher S.; Delayen, Jean R.; Park, HyeKyoung

    2014-12-01

    Spoke-loaded cavities are being investigated for the high-velocity regime. The relative compactness at low-frequency makes them attractive for applications requiring, or benefiting from, 4 K operation. Additionally, the large velocity acceptance makes them good candidates for the acceleration of high-velocity protons and ions. Here we present the results of cryogenic testing of a 325 MHz, β0= 0.82 single-spoke cavity and a 500 MHz, β0 = 1 double-spoke cavity.

  20. Identification and assignment of base pairs in four helical segments of Bacillus megaterium ribosomal 5S RNA and its ribonuclease T1 cleavage fragments by means of 500-MHz proton homonuclear Overhauser enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.; Marshall, A.G. )

    1990-01-23

    Three different fragments of Bacillus megaterium ribosomal 5S RNA have been produced by enzymatic cleavage with ribonuclease T1. Fragment A consists of helices II and III, fragment B contains helix IV, and fragment C contains helix I of the universal 5S rRNA secondary structure. All (eight) imino proton resonances in the downfield region (9-15 ppm) of the 500-MHz proton FT NMR spectrum of fragment B have been identified and assigned as G{sub 80}{center dot}C{sub 92}{center dot}G{sub 81}{center dot}C{sub 91}-G{sub 82}{center dot}C{sub 90}-A{sub 83}{center dot}U{sub 89}-C{sub 84}{center dot}G{sub 88} and three unpaired U's in helix IV by proton homonuclear Overhauser enhancement connectivities. The secondary structure in helix IV of the prokaryotic loop is completely demonstrated spectroscopically for the first time in any native or enzyme-cleaved 5S rRNA. In addition, G{sub 21}{center dot}C{sub 58}-A{sub 20}{center dot}U{sub 59}-G{sub 19}{center dot}C{sub 60}-A{sub 18}{center dot}U{sub 61} in helix II, U{sub 32}{center dot}A{sub 46}-G{sub 31}{center dot}C{sub 47}-C{sub 30}{center dot}G{sub 48}-C{sub 29}{center dot}G{sub 49} in helix III, and G{sub 4}{center dot}C{sub 112}-G{sub 5}{center dot}C{sub 111}-U{sub 6}{center dot}G{sub 110} in the terminal stem (helix I) have been assigned by means of NOE experiments on intact 5S rRNA and its fragments A and C. Base pairs in helices I-IV of the universal secondary structure of B. megaterium 5S RNA are described.

  1. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  2. Efficient stabilization of copper(III) in tetraaza pseudo-macrocyclic oxime-and-hydrazide ligands with adjustable cavity size.

    PubMed

    Fritsky, Igor O; Kozłowski, Henryk; Kanderal, Olga M; Haukka, Matti; Swiatek-Kozłowska, Jolanta; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Meyer, Franc

    2006-10-21

    Substitution of the amide donors in open-chain {2N(oxime), 2N(amide)} ligands by hydrazide donors gives new pseudo-macrocyclic copper complexes that show a significant decrease of the Cu(3+/2+) redox potentials in both mono- and polynuclear systems, thus demonstrating a pronounced capacity of such ligand systems to efficiently stabilize the trivalent copper.

  3. Evaluation of cavity occurrence in the Maynardville Limestone and the Copper Ridge Dolomite at the Y-12 Plant using logistic and general linear models

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.A.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1994-11-01

    Several waste disposal sites are located on or adjacent to the karstic Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These formations receive contaminants in groundwaters from nearby disposal sites, which can be transported quite rapidly due to the karst flow system. In order to evaluate transport processes through the karst aquifer, the solutional aspects of the formations must be characterized. As one component of this characterization effort, statistical analyses were conducted on the data related to cavities in order to determine if a suitable model could be identified that is capable of predicting the probability of cavity size or distribution in locations for which drilling data are not available. Existing data on the locations (East, North coordinates), depths (and elevations), and sizes of known conduits and other water zones were used in the analyses. Two different models were constructed in the attempt to predict the distribution of cavities in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant: General Linear Models (GLM), and Logistic Regression Models (LOG). Each of the models attempted was very sensitive to the data set used. Models based on subsets of the full data set were found to do an inadequate job of predicting the behavior of the full data set. The fact that the Ccr and Cmn data sets differ significantly is not surprising considering the hydrogeology of the two formations differs. Flow in the Cmn is generally at elevations between 600 and 950 ft and is dominantly strike parallel through submerged, partially mud-filled cavities with sizes up to 40 ft, but more typically less than 5 ft. Recognized flow in the Ccr is generally above 950 ft elevation, with flow both parallel and perpendicular to geologic strike through conduits, which tend to be large than those on the Cnm, and are often not fully saturated at the shallower depths.

  4. 500 MHz Analog-to-Digital Converter Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-03-01

    producing binary words that correspond to the quantized values. Inside the Encoder, an analog reference is subdivided forming a dis- crete set of 2 N -I...Sth.comparator or el T ors acosdnr u ane paNIe comparatorbk endiCordfer lores.l incremn QN is moth A/Dunoer cfbnrisonfigrastions. tEac comparator i a key elment

  5. Primary structure determination of five sialylated oligosaccharides derived from bronchial mucus glycoproteins of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The occurrence of the NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)] GlcNAc beta(1----.) structural element revealed by 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lamblin, G; Boersma, A; Klein, A; Roussel, P; van Halbeek, H; Vliegenthart, J F

    1984-07-25

    The structure of sialylated carbohydrate units of bronchial mucins obtained from cystic fibrosis patients was investigated by 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with sugar analysis. After subjecting the mucins to alkaline borohydride degradation, sialylated oligosaccharide-alditols were isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography. Five compounds could be obtained in a rather pure state; their structures were established as the following: A-1, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4) [Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----3)Gal-NAc-ol; A-2, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)GlcNAc beta(1----6)-[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAc-o1; A-3, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta-(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----3)Gal beta(1----3) GalNAc-o1; A-4, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]Glc-NAc NAc beta(1----6)[GlcNAc beta(1----3)]GalNAc-o1; A-6,NeuAc alpha-(2----3) Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----6)[Gal beta-(1----4) GlcNAc beta(1----3)]GalNAc-o1. The simultaneous presence of sialic acid in alpha(2----3)-linkage to Gal and fucose in alpha(1----3)-linkage to GlcNAc of the same N-acetyllactosamine unit could be adequately proved by high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy. This sequence constitutes a novel structural element for mucins.

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL AND HIGHER-ORDER MODES FOR 7-CELL CAVITY OF PETRA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Y.; Blednykh, A.; Cupolo, J.; Davidsaver, M.; Holub, B.; Ma, H.; Oliva, J.; Rose, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The booster synchrotron for NSLS-II will include a 7-cell PETRA cavity, which was manufactured for the PETRA-II project at DESY. The cavity fundamental frequency operates at 500 MHz. In order to verify the impedances of the fundamental and higher-order modes (HOM), which were calculated by computer code, we measured the magnitude of the electromagnetic field of the fundamental acceleration mode and HOM using the bead-pull method. To keep the cavity body temperature constant, we used a chiller system to supply cooling water at 20 degrees C. The bead-pull measurement was automated with a computer. We encountered some issues during the measurement process due to the difficulty in measuring the electromagnetic field magnitude in a multi-cell cavity. We describe the method and apparatus for the field measurement, and the obtained results.

  7. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  8. Progress on a Be Cavity Design

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M. S.; Palmer, R.; Stratakis, D.

    2011-10-06

    Previous RF experiments with normal-conducting cavities have demonstrated that there is a significant degradation in maximum gradient when the cavity is subjected to a strong axial magnetic field. We have developed a model suggesting that a cavity with beryllium walls may perform better than copper cavities. In this paper we outline the issues that led us to propose fabricating a Be-wall cavity. We also discuss a concept for fabricating such a cavity and mention some of the manufacturing issues we expect to face.

  9. Progress on a Be Cavity Design

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Palmer, R.; Stratakis, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, Michael S.

    2010-12-24

    Previous RF experiments with normal-conducting cavities have demonstrated that there is a significant degradation in maximum gradient when the cavity is subjected to a strong axial magnetic field. We have developed a model suggesting that a cavity with beryllium walls may perform better than copper cavities. In this paper we outline the issues that led us to propose fabricating a Be-wall cavity. We also discuss a concept for fabricating such a cavity and mention some of the manufacturing issues we expect to face.

  10. [Copper IUDs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thiery, M

    1983-10-01

    for as long as 20 years. Shorter and smaller versions of standard copper IUDs have been tested as they permit easier insertion, but high rates of pregnancy, expulsion, and removal have prevented their wider use. The discovery that the size of the uterine cavity is more important than its length has prompted the development of some promising uterine measuring instruments. Attempts to develop a device appropriate for postpartum use have been disappointing, and expulsion rates remain high. A few promising new forms of copper IUDs have been developed but not yet tested clinically.

  11. New waveguide-type HOM damper for ALS storage ring cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Baptiste, Kenneth; Julian, James

    2004-06-28

    The ALS storage ring 500 MHz RF system uses two re-entrant accelerating cavities powered by a single 320kW PHILLIPS YK1305 klystron. During several years of initial operation, the RF cavities were not equipped with effective passive HOM damper systems. Longitudinal beam stability was achieved through cavity temperature control and the longitudinal feedback system (LFB), which was often operating at the edge of its capabilities. As a result, longitudinal beam stability was a significant operations issue at the ALS. During two consecutive shutdown periods (April 2002 and 2003) we installed E-type HOM dampers on the main and third harmonic cavities. These devices dramatically decreased the Q-values of the longitudinal anti-symmetric HOM modes. The next step is to damp the rest of the longitudinal HOM modes in the main cavities below the synchrotron radiation damping level. This will hopefully eliminate the need for the LFB and set the stage for a possible increase in beam current. The ''waveguide'' type of HOM damper was the only option that didn't significantly compromise the vacuum performance of the RF cavity. The design process and the results of the low level measurements of the new waveguide dampers are presented in this paper.

  12. Clamshell microwave cavities having a superconductive coating

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Arendt, Paul N.; Piel, Helmut

    1994-01-01

    A microwave cavity including a pair of opposing clamshell halves, such halves comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, or a silver-based alloy, wherein the cavity is further characterized as exhibiting a dominant TE.sub.011 mode is provided together with an embodiment wherein the interior concave surfaces of the clamshell halves are coated with a superconductive material. In the case of copper clamshell halves, the microwave cavity has a Q-value of about 1.2.times.10.sup.5 as measured at a temperature of 10K and a frequency of 10 GHz.

  13. Cavity magnomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  14. First results of testing 3.9 GHz TM(010) superconducting cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.A.; Bellantoni, L.; Berenc, T.G.; Edwards, H.T.; Gonin, I.V.; Khabiboulline, T.N.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    Fermilab is developing third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity to improve performances of A0 and TTF photoinjectors. In frame of this project we have built and tested two nine-cell copper models and one 3-cell niobium cavity. Properties of the high order modes were carefully studied in a chain of two copper cavities at room temperature. In paper we discuss results of cold tests of the 3-cell cavity before and after BCP.

  15. Fabrication Processes for the PEP II RF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, R.Mark; Rimmer, Robert A.; Schwarz, Heinz; /SLAC

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the major steps used in the fabrication of the 26 RF Cavities required for the PEP-II B-factory. Several unique applications of conventional processes have been developed and successfully implemented: electron beam welding (EBW), with minimal porosity, of .75 inch (19 mm) copper cross-sections; extensive 5-axis milling of water channels; electroplating of .37 inch (10 mm) thick OFE copper; tuning of the cavity by profiling beam noses prior to final joining with the cavity body; and machining of the cavity interior, are described here.

  16. Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering

    SciTech Connect

    McHugo, S.A.; Flink, C.; Weber, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

  17. Automated Hydroforming of Seamless Superconducting RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Tomohiko; Shinozawa, Seiichi; Abe, Noriyuki; Nagakubo, Junki; Murakami, Hirohiko; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Masashi; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-07-31

    We are studying the possibility of automated hydroforming process for seamless superconducting RF cavities. Preliminary hydroforming tests of three-cell cavities from seamless tubes made of C1020 copper have been performed. The key point of an automated forming is to monitor and strictly control some parameters such as operation time, internal pressure and material displacements. Especially, it is necessary for our studies to be able to control axial and radial deformation independently. We plan to perform the forming in two stages to increase the reliability of successful forming. In the first stage hydroforming by using intermediate constraint dies, three-cell cavities were successfully formed in less than 1 minute. In parallel, we did elongation tests on cavity-quality niobium and confirmed that it is possible to achieve an elongation of >64% in 2 stages that is required for our forming of 1.3 GHz cavities.

  18. Tetraphenylphosphonium copper(I) dicyanamide.

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Materials Science Division

    2007-01-01

    In the title compound, {l_brace}(C{sub 24}H{sub 20}P)[Cu(C{sub 2}N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}, the copper(I) dicyanamide anion forms a distorted three-dimensional single diamondoid network. Templating tetraphenylphosphonium cations reside within the cavities of the polymeric anion.

  19. Copper hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  20. Voltage Probe Antenna (VPA) Design 5 kHz to 500 MHz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    Y ~sao:itY objetoz G-,4tOpnPubliotica (AS AMD U~ 1975. or - Engineering Xepb~fth ’ *j-0 - ROBE ANTENA (p_. ISGkHz to 50 M ) /1 GrKeeth /U ALAMELE TO...WATER all. INSULATED /SPACER to DC POWER - SOURCE 󈧄’ Figure 4-2. Antena , Setup for Elevation Patterns/Gains. -4- - ’ _, _ . .CONTROL’ " . _________SHACK...34, . . ., ’ \\ . "- • , ~ ~ ~ 9 • .-. .,. . \\- , I’.,A J, ,.. .. ,, -. , i ’ "TURNTABLE FOR AZIMUTH AND CONIC PATTERNS Figure 4-3 . Antena Setup for Azimuth/Conic

  1. Human brain MRI at 500 MHz, scientific perspectives and technological challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, Denis; Schild, Thierry

    2017-03-01

    The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission launched a program to conceive and build a ‘human brain explorer’, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7 T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious French-German project Iseult, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using ultra-high field MRI. In this article we provide a summary of the main neuroscience and medical targets of the Iseult project, mainly to acquire within timescales compatible with human tolerances images at a scale of 100 μm at which everything remains to discover, and to create new approaches to develop new imaging biomarkers for specific neurological and psychiatric disorders. The system specifications, the technological challenges, in terms of magnet design, winding technology, cryogenics, quench protection, stability control, and the solutions which have been chosen to overcome them and build this outstanding instrument are provided. Lines of the research and development which will be necessary to fully exploit the potential of this and other UHF MRI scanners are also outlined.

  2. High Gradient Accelerator Cavities Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Parsons, Gregory; Williams, Philip; Oldham, Christopher; Mundy, Zach; Dolgashev, Valery

    2014-12-09

    In the Phase I program, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR), in collaboration with North Carolina State University (NCSU), fabricated copper accelerator cavities and used Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to apply thin metal coatings of tungsten and platinum. It was hypothesized that a tungsten coating would provide a robust surface more resistant to arcing and arc damage. The platinum coating was predicted to reduce processing time by inhibiting oxides that form on copper surfaces soon after machining. Two sets of cavity parts were fabricated. One was coated with 35 nm of tungsten, and the other with approximately 10 nm of platinum. Only the platinum cavity parts could be high power tested during the Phase I program due to schedule and funding constraints. The platinum coated cavity exhibit poor performance when compared with pure copper cavities. Not only did arcing occur at lower power levels, but the processing time was actually longer. There were several issues that contributed to the poor performance. First, machining of the base copper cavity parts failed to achieve the quality and cleanliness standards specified to SLAC National Accelerator Center. Secondly, the ALD facilities were not configured to provide the high levels of cleanliness required. Finally, the nanometer coating applied was likely far too thin to provide the performance required. The coating was ablated or peeled from the surface in regions of high fields. It was concluded that the current ALD process could not provide improved performance over cavities produced at national laboratories using dedicated facilities.

  3. Copper transport.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  4. LIGA-fabricated compact mm-wave linear accelerator cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Bajikar, S.S.; DeCarlo, F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Mancini, D.C.; Nassiri, A.; Lai, B.; Feinerman, A.D.; White, V.

    1998-03-23

    Millimeter-wave rf cavities for use in linear accelerators, free-electron lasers, and mm-wave undulatory are under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Typical cavity dimensions are in the 1000 mm range, and the overall length of the accelerator structure, which consists of 30-100 cavities, is about 50-100 mm. An accuracy of 0.2% in the cavity dimensions is necessary in order to achieve a high Q-factor of the cavity. To achieve this these structures are being fabricated using deep X-ray lithography, electroforming, and assembly (LIGA). The first prototype cavity structures are designed for 108 GHz and 2p/3-mode operation. Input and output couplers are integrated with the cavity structures. The cavities are fabricated on copper substrates by electroforming copper into 1-mm-thick PMMA resists patterned by deep x-ray lithography and polishing the copper down to the desired thickness. These are fabricated separately and subsequently assembled with precision spacing and alignment using microspheres, optical fibers, or microfabricated spacers/alignment pieces. Details of the fabrication process, alignment, and assembly work are presented in here.

  5. What's a Cavity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity (say: KA-vuh-tee) develops when a tooth decays (say: dih-KAZE), or breaks down. A cavity ... and deeper over time. Cavities are also called dental caries (say: KARE-eez), and if you have a ...

  6. Progress on the high-current 704 MHz superconducting RF cavity at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Xu W.; Astefanous, C.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; et al

    2012-05-20

    The 704 MHz high current superconducting cavity has been designed with consideration of both performance of fundamental mode and damping of higher order modes. A copper prototype cavity was fabricated by AES and delivered to BNL. RF measurements were carried out on this prototype cavity, including fundamental pass-band and HOM spectrum measurements, HOM studies using bead-pull setup, prototyping of antenna-type HOM couplers. The measurements show that the cavity has very good damping for the higher-order modes, which was one of the main goals for the high current cavity design. 3D cavity models were simulated with Omega3P code developed by SLAC to compare with the measurements. The paper describes the cavity design, RF measurement setups and results for the copper prototype. The progress with the niobium cavity fabrication will also be described.

  7. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  8. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  9. Dielectric supported radio-frequency cavities

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U. L.; Lee, Terry G.

    2000-01-01

    A device which improves the electrical and thermomechanical performance of an RF cavity, for example, in a disk-loaded accelerating structure. A washer made of polycrystalline diamond is brazed in the middle to a copper disk washer and at the outer edge to the plane wave transformer tank wall, thus dissipating heat from the copper disk to the outer tank wall while at the same time providing strong mechanical support to the metal disk. The washer structure eliminates the longitudinal connecting rods and cooling channels used in the currently available cavities, and as a result minimizes problems such as shunt impedance degradation and field distortion in the plane wave transformer, and mechanical deflection and uneven cooling of the disk assembly.

  10. 201 MHz Cavity R&D for MUCOOL and MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derun; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Michael; Norem, Jim; Bross,Alan; Moretti, Alfred; Norris, Barry; Torun, Yagmur; Phillips, Larry; Rimmer, Robert; Stirbet, Mircea; Reep, Michael; Summers, Don

    2006-06-23

    We describe the design, fabrication, analysis and preliminary testing of the prototype 201 MHz copper cavity for a muon ionization cooling channel. Cavity applications include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) as well as cooling channels for a neutrino factory or a muon collider. This cavity was developed by the US muon cooling (MUCOOL) collaboration and is being tested in the MUCOOL Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab. To achieve a high accelerating gradient, the cavity beam irises are terminated by a pair of curved, thin beryllium windows. Several fabrication methods developed for the cavity and windows are novel and offer significant cost savings as compared to conventional construction methods. The cavity's thermal and structural performances are simulated with an FEA model. Preliminary high power RF commissioning results will be presented.

  11. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  12. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  13. Copper Metallochaperones

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nigel J.; Winge, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    The current state of knowledge on how copper metallochaperones support the maturation of cuproproteins is reviewed. Copper is needed within mitochondria to supply the CuA and intramembrane CuB sites of cytochrome oxidase, within the trans-Golgi network to supply secreted cuproproteins and within the cytosol to supply superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Subpopulations of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase also localize to mitochondria, the secretory system, the nucleus and, in plants, the chloroplast, which also requires copper for plastocyanin. Prokaryotic cuproproteins are found in the cell membrane and in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Cu(I) and Cu(II) form tight complexes with organic molecules and drive redox chemistry, which unrestrained would be destructive. Copper metallochaperones assist copper in reaching vital destinations without inflicting damage or becoming trapped in adventitious binding sites. Copper ions are specifically released from copper metallochaperones upon contact with their cognate cuproproteins and metal transfer is thought to proceed by ligand substitution. PMID:20205585

  14. Design Methodology and Consideratios for NOVA 53 MHZ RF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.; Wildman, D.W.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-19

    The NO?A Experiment will construct a detector optimized for electron neutrino detection in the existing Neutrino at Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. This beamline is capable of operating at 400 kW of primary beam power and the upgrade will allow up to 700 kW. The cavities will operate at 53 MHz and three of them will be installed in the Recycler beamline. Thermal stability of the cavities is crucial since this affects the tuning. Results of finite element thermal and structural analysis involving the copper RF cavity will be presented.

  15. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  16. Multi-Mode Cavity Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay Leonard

    2016-11-10

    This project aimed to develop a prototype for a novel accelerator structure comprising coupled cavities that are tuned to support modes with harmonically-related eigenfrequencies, with the goal of reaching an acceleration gradient >200 MeV/m and a breakdown rate <10-7/pulse/meter. Phase I involved computations, design, and preliminary engineering of a prototype multi-harmonic cavity accelerator structure; plus tests of a bimodal cavity. A computational procedure was used to design an optimized profile for a bimodal cavity with high shunt impedance and low surface fields to maximize the reduction in temperature rise ΔT. This cavity supports the TM010 mode and its 2nd harmonic TM011 mode. Its fundamental frequency is at 12 GHz, to benchmark against the empirical criteria proposed within the worldwide High Gradient collaboration for X-band copper structures; namely, a surface electric field Esurmax< 260 MV/m and pulsed surface heating ΔTmax< 56 °K. With optimized geometry, amplitude and relative phase of the two modes, reductions are found in surface pulsed heating, modified Poynting vector, and total RF power—as compared with operation at the same acceleration gradient using only the fundamental mode.

  17. Electromagnetic SCRF Cavity Tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.; Borissov, E.; Foster, G.W.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Khabiboulline, T.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    A novel prototype of SCRF cavity tuner is being designed and tested at Fermilab. This is a superconducting C-type iron dominated magnet having a 10 mm gap, axial symmetry, and a 1 Tesla field. Inside the gap is mounted a superconducting coil capable of moving {+-} 1 mm and producing a longitudinal force up to {+-} 1.5 kN. The static force applied to the RF cavity flanges provides a long-term cavity geometry tuning to a nominal frequency. The same coil powered by fast AC current pulse delivers mechanical perturbation for fast cavity tuning. This fast mechanical perturbation could be used to compensate a dynamic RF cavity detuning caused by cavity Lorentz forces and microphonics. A special configuration of magnet system was designed and tested.

  18. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  19. High-field 1H T1 and T2 NMR relaxation time measurements of H2O in homeopathic preparations of quartz, sulfur, and copper sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Martin; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Heusser, Peter; Thurneysen, André; Wolf, Ursula

    2009-09-01

    Quantitative meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials investigating the specific therapeutic efficacy of homeopathic remedies yielded statistically significant differences compared to placebo. Since the remedies used contained mostly only very low concentrations of pharmacologically active compounds, these effects cannot be accounted for within the framework of current pharmacology. Theories to explain clinical effects of homeopathic remedies are partially based upon changes in diluent structure. To investigate the latter, we measured for the first time high-field (600/500 MHz) 1H T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of H2O in homeopathic preparations with concurrent contamination control by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Homeopathic preparations of quartz (10 c-30 c, n = 21, corresponding to iterative dilutions of 100-10-100-30), sulfur (13 x-30 x, n = 18, 10-13-10-30), and copper sulfate (11 c-30 c, n = 20, 100-11-100-30) were compared to n = 10 independent controls each (analogously agitated dilution medium) in randomized and blinded experiments. In none of the samples, the concentration of any element analyzed by ICP-MS exceeded 10 ppb. In the first measurement series (600 MHz), there was a significant increase in T1 for all samples as a function of time, and there were no significant differences between homeopathic potencies and controls. In the second measurement series (500 MHz) 1 year after preparation, we observed statistically significant increased T1 relaxation times for homeopathic sulfur preparations compared to controls. Fifteen out of 18 correlations between sample triplicates were higher for controls than for homeopathic preparations. No conclusive explanation for these phenomena can be given at present. Possible hypotheses involve differential leaching from the measurement vessel walls or a change in water molecule dynamics, i.e., in rotational correlation time and/or diffusion. Homeopathic preparations

  20. Optically measuring interior cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  1. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Optical appearance of copper clusters and nanoparticles in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii P.; Gurin, Valerij S.; Machorro, Roberto; Abbaspur, Alireza

    2004-08-01

    Copper incorporation into zeolites by the ion-exchange from Cu(II) solutions followed by different heat treatments results in a production of a number of species. Redistribution among different sites after dehydration, spontaneous and forced reduction, cluster and particle aggregation, etc. can occur, and a final copper state depends on type of zeolite, SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio and processing conditions. Various species where observed: copper ions Cu2+ and Cu+, small particles and clusters Cun. We concentrate on the appearance of small copper clusters feasible in zeolites with size of cavities those match the cluster size. The clusters were simulated with ab initio quantum chemical calculations in the range of sizes 5 < n < 10 those are probable within zeolites cavities. Experimental data available on optical absorption of the reduced copper in the three types of zeolites can argue on the occurrence of the clusters stabilized within channels under mild reduction conditions while the larger copper nanoparticles appear under the harder reduction. The model calculation proposes some few-atomic copper clusters (Cun) as the candidates to fit the zeolite cavities with correspondence of the calculated absorption bands with the experimental spectra.

  3. What's a Cavity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and deeper over time. Cavities are also called dental caries (say: KARE-eez), and if you have a cavity, it's important to get it repaired. But why would your ... and when plaque clings to your teeth, the acids can eat away at the outermost ...

  4. CAVITY EXCITATION CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Franck, J.V.

    1959-10-20

    An electronic oscillator is described for energizing a resonant cavity and to a system for stabilizing the operatin g frequency of the oscillator at the particular frequency necessary to establish a particular preferred field configuration or mode in the cavity, in this instance a linear accelerator. A freely rnnning oscillator has an output coupled to a resonant cavity wherein a field may be built up at any one of several adjacent frequencies. A pickup loop in the cavity is suitably shielded and positioned in the cavity so that only energy at the panticular desired frequency is fed back to stabilize the oscillator. A phase and gain control is in cluded in the feedback line.

  5. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  6. Development of the third harmonic SC cavity at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolay Solyak et al.

    2004-08-05

    The third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity was recently proposed by DESY for a new generation of high brightness photo-injector (TTF photoinjector-2) to compensate nonlinear distortion of the longitudinal phase space due to RF curvature of the 1.3 GHz TESLA cavities [1,2]. Installation of the 3rd harmonic cavity will allow us to generate ultra-short (<50 {micro}m rms) highly charged electron bunches with an extremely small transverse normalized emittance (<1 {micro}m). This is required to support a new generation of linear colliders, free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation sources. In this paper we present the current status of the 3rd harmonic cavity being developed at Fermilab. We discuss the design procedure, the building and testing of the copper and niobium half-cells and components, the design of input and HOM couplers.

  7. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  8. Copper peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, L.

    1988-01-01

    A number of oxidizing agents, including chlorine, bromine, ozone and other peroxides, were allowed to act on copper solutions with the intention of forming copper peroxide. The only successful agent appears to be hydrogen peroxide. It must be used in a neutral 50 to 30 percent solution at a temperature near zero. Other methods described in the literature apparently do not work. The excess of hydrogen must be quickly sucked out of the brown precipitate, which it is best to wash with alcohol and ether. The product, crystalline under a microscope, can be analyzed only approximately. It approaches the formula CuO2H2O. In alkaline solution it appears to act catalytically in causing the decomposition of other peroxides, so that Na2O2 cannot be used to prepare it. On the addition of acids the H2O2 is regenerated. The dry substance decomposes much more slowly than the moist but is not very stable.

  9. Fabrication of the prototype 201.25 mhz cavity for a muon ionization cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.A.; Manning, S.; Manus, R.; Phillips, L.; Stirbet, M.; Worland, K.; Wu, G.; Li, D.; MacGill, R.; Staples, J.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.S.; Taminger, K.; Hafley, R.; Martin, R.; Summers, D.; Reep, M.

    2005-05-20

    We describe the fabrication and assembly of the first prototype 201. 25 MHz copper cavity for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE). This cavity was developed by the US MUCOOL collaboration and will be tested in the new MUCOOL Test Area at Fermilab. We outline the component and subassembly fabrication steps and the various metal forming and joining methods used to produce the final cavity shape. These include spinning, brazing, TIG welding, electron beam welding, electron beam annealing and deep drawing. Some of the methods developed for this cavity are novel and offer significant cost savings over conventional methods.

  10. Fabrication of the Prototype 201.25 MHz Cavity for a Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Rimmer; S. Manning; R. Manus; L. Phillips; M. Stirbet; K. Worland; G. Wu; D. Li; R. MacGill; J. Staples; S. Virostek; M. Zisman; K. Taminger; R. Hafley; R. Martin; D. Summers; M. Reep

    2005-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and assembly of the first prototype 201.25 MHz copper cavity for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE). This cavity was developed by the US MUCOOL collaboration and will be tested in the new MUCOOL Test Area at Fermilab. We outline the component and subassembly fabrication steps and the various metal forming and joining methods used to produce the final cavity shape. These include spinning, brazing, TIG welding, electron beam welding, electron beam annealing and deep drawing. Some of the methods developed for this cavity are novel and offer significant cost savings over conventional construction methods.

  11. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  12. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  13. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; ...

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with resultsmore » of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have

  14. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double

  15. ANT tuner retrofit for LEB cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, L.; Goren, Y.; Kwiatkowski, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes a ferrite tuner design for the LEB cavity that utilizes techniques for bonding ferrite to metallic cooling plates that is utilized in the high-power rf and microwave industry. A test tuner was designed to fit into the existing LEB-built magnet and onto the Grimm LEB Cavity. It will require a new vacuum window in order to attain maximal tuning range and high voltage capability and a new center conductor of longer length and a different vacuum window connection than the Grimm center conductor. However, the new center conductor will be essentially identical to the Grimm center conductor in its basic construction and in the way it connects to the stand for support. The tuner is mechanically very similar to high-power stacked circulators built by ANT of Germany and was designed according to ANT`s established engineering and design criteria and SSC LEB tuning and power requirements. The tuner design incorporates thin tiles of ferrite glued using a high-radiation-resistance epoxy to copper-plated stainless steel cooling plates of thickness 6.5 mm with water cooling channels inside the plates. The cooling plates constitute 16 pie-shaped segments arranged in a disk. They are electrically isolated from each other to suppress eddy currents. Five of these disks are arranged in parallel with high-pressure rf contacts between the plates at the outer radius. The end walls are slotted copper-plated stainless steel of thickness 3 mm.

  16. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  17. RF breakdown of 805 MHz cavities in strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bowring, D.; Stratakis, D.; Kochemirovskiy, A.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Palmer, M.; Peterson, D.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.; Lane, P.; Torun, Y.; Haase, A.

    2015-05-03

    Ionization cooling of intense muon beams requires the operation of high-gradient, normal-conducting RF structures in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We have measured the breakdown rate in several RF cavities operating at several frequencies. Cavities operating within solenoidal magnetic fields B > 0.25 T show an increased RF breakdown rate at lower gradients compared with similar operation when B = 0 T. Ultimately, this breakdown behavior limits the maximum safe operating gradient of the cavity. Beyond ionization cooling, this issue affects the design of photoinjectors and klystrons, among other applications. We have built an 805 MHz pillbox-type RF cavity to serve as an experimental testbed for this phenomenon. This cavity is designed to study the problem of RF breakdown in strong magnetic fields using various cavity materials and surface treatments, and with precise control over sources of systematic error. We present results from tests in which the cavity was run with all copper surfaces in a variety of magnetic fields.

  18. An Advanced 500-MHZ-Bandwidth Fiber-Optic Signal Link for EMP and General Laboratory Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    COMMANDER WASHINGTON, DC 20375 ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER COMMNDERATTN DY, DrR TECHNOLOGY COMMANDER ATTN DYR, PAD DIV NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS...LANHAM, C., 00210 (2 COPIES) ATTN P. MILLER ATTN SHARE, S., 22800 1257 TASMAN DRIVE ATTN 8IXBY, R., 22900 SUNNYVALE, CA 94086 ATTN HUTTLIN, G. A

  19. Octave-spanning spectrum generation in tapered silica photonic crystal fiber by Yb:fiber ring laser above 500 MHz.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tongxiao; Wang, Guizhong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chen; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Zhigang

    2013-02-15

    We report octave-spanning spectrum generated in a tapered silica photonic crystal fiber by a mode-locked Yb:fiber ring laser at a repetition rate as high as 528 MHz. The output pulses from this laser were compressed to 62 fs. By controlling the hole expansion and core diameter, a silica PCF was tapered to 20 cm with an optimal d/Λ ratio of 0.6. Pulses with the energy of 280 pJ and the peak power of 4.5 kW were injected into the tapered fiber and the pulse spectrum was expanded from 500 to 1600 nm at the level of -30 dB.

  20. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  1. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  2. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  3. Multi-purpose 805 MHz Pillbox RF Cavity for Muon Acceleration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.; Chan, Kwok-Chi Dominic; Jason, Andrew; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    An 805 MHz RF pillbox cavity has been designed and constructed to investigate potential muon beam acceleration and cooling techniques. The cavity can operate at vacuum or under pressure to 100 atmospheres, at room temperature or in a liquid nitrogen bath at 77 K. The cavity is designed for easy assembly and disassembly with bolted construction using aluminum seals. The surfaces of the end walls of the cavity can be replaced with different materials such as copper, aluminum, beryllium, or molybdenum, and with different geometries such as shaped windows or grid structures. Different surface treatments such as electro polished, high-pressure water cleaned, and atomic layer deposition are being considered for testing. The cavity has been designed to fit inside the 5-Tesla solenoid in the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab. Current status of the cavity prepared for initial conditioning and operation in the external magnetic field is discussed.

  4. COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

  5. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  6. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  7. Copper and copper proteins in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Montes, Sergio; Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  8. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  9. Fermilab linac upgrade side coupled cavity temperature control system

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Satti, J.

    1991-05-01

    Each cavity section has a temperature control system which maintains the resonant frequency by exploiting the 17.8 ppm/{degree}C frequency sensitivity of the copper cavities. Each accelerating cell has a cooling tube brazed azimuthally to the outside surface. Alternate supply and return connection to the water manifolds reduce temperature gradients and maintain physical alignment of the cavity string. Special tubing with spiral inner fins and large flow rate are used to reduce the film coefficient. Temperature is controlled by mixing chilled water with the water circulating between the cavity and the cooling skid located outside the radiation enclosure. Chilled water flow is regulated with a valve controlled by a local microcomputer. The temperature loop set point will be obtained from a slower loop which corrects the phase error between the cavity section and the rf drive during normal beam loaded conditions. Time constants associated with thermal gradients induced in the cavity with the rf power require programming it to the nominal 7.1 MW level over a 1 minute interval to limit the reverse power. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  10. External Q studies for APT superconducting cavity couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Balleyguier, P.

    1998-12-31

    Coupling coefficients for the APT superconducting cavity couplers have been predicted using an improvement of the method previously developed for the French Trispal project. The authors here present the method and a proof of the formula used to compute the external Q. Measurements on a single-cell copper cold model exhibited a very good agreement against simulation. Then, they established that the original coupler design lead to an insufficient coupling in {beta} = 0.64 cavities. Different solutions were proposed to fix this problem, like combining impedance discontinuities in the line and an off-centered disc end tip. Finally, it was decided to increase the beam tube diameter though it has some influence on the cavity end-cell performance.

  11. Filling a Conical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  12. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  13. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  14. Single-cavity SLED device

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, B.A.

    1984-09-01

    The conventional SLED device used at SLAC requires two cavities. However, the same effect can be obtained with a single cavity; the theory and operation of the device is the same, only the hardware is changed. The single-cavity device is described here.

  15. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  16. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  17. Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor, alternative method of measuring cavity microphonics

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski; G. Davis; Hai Dong; J. Hovater; John Musson; Thomas Powers

    2005-09-20

    As is well known, mechanical vibration or microphonics in a cryomodule causes the cavity resonance frequency to change at the vibration frequency. One way to measure the cavity microphonics is to drive the cavity with a Phase Locked Loop. Measurement of the instantaneous frequency or PLL error signal provides information about the cavity microphonic frequencies. Although the PLL error signal is available directly, precision frequency measurements require additional instrumentation, a Cavity Resonance Monitor (CRM). The analog version of such a device has been successfully used for several cavity tests [1]. In this paper we present a prototype of a Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor designed and built in the last year. The hardware of this instrument consists of an RF downconverter, digital quadrature demodulator and digital processor motherboard (Altera FPGA). The motherboard processes received data and computes frequency changes with a resolution of 0.2 Hz, with a 3 kHz output bandwidth.

  18. CAVITY CONTROL ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski, J. Hovater

    2010-09-01

    A digital low level radio frequency (RF) system typically incorporates either a heterodyne or direct sampling technique, followed by fast ADCs, then an FPGA, and finally a transmitting DAC. This universal platform opens up the possibilities for a variety of control algorithm implementations. The foremost concern for an RF control system is cavity field stability, and to meet the required quality of regulation, the chosen control system needs to have sufficient feedback gain. In this paper we will investigate the effectiveness of the regulation for three basic control system algorithms: I&Q (In-phase and Quadrature), Amplitude & Phase and digital SEL (Self Exciting Loop) along with the example of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV cavity field control system.

  19. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-20

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  20. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    PubMed Central

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations. PMID:26481853

  1. RF Cavity Characterization with VORPAL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nieter, C. Roark, P. Stoltz, C.D. Zhou, F. Marhauser

    2011-03-01

    When designing a radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity structure various figures of merit are considered before coming to a final cavity design. These figures of merit include specific field and geometry based quantities such as the ratio of the shunt impedance to the quality factor (R/Q) or the normalized peak fields in the cavity. Other important measures of cavity performance include the peak surface fields as well as possible multipacting resonances in the cavity. High fidelity simulations of these structures can provide a good estimate of these important quantities before any cavity prototypes are built. We will present VORPAL simulations of a simple pillbox structure where these quantities can be calculated analytically and compare them to the results from the VORPAL simulations. We will then use VORPAL to calculate these figures of merit and potential multipacting resonances for two cavity designs under development at Jefferson National Lab for Project X.

  2. Mechanical design upgrade of the APS storage ring rf cavity tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Bromberek, D.; Kang, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring (SR) rf system employs four banks of four spherical, single-cell resonant cavities. Each cavity is tuned by varying the cavity volume through insertion/retraction of a copper piston located at the circumference of the cavity and oriented perpendicular to the accelerator beam. During the commissioning of the APS SR, the tuners and cavity tuner ports were prone to extensive arcing and overheating. The existing tuners were modified to eliminate the problems, and two new, redesigned tuners were installed. In both cases marked improvements were obtained in the tuner mechanical performance. As measured by tuner piston and flange surface temperatures, tuner heating has been reduced by a factor of five in the new version. Redesign considerations discussed include tuner piston-to-housing alignment, tuner piston and housing materials and cooling configurations, and tuner piston sliding electrical contacts. The tuner redesign is also distinguished by a modular, more maintainable assembly.

  3. SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS OF A HEAVILY HOM-DAMPED MULTI-CELL SRF CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang; Robert Rimmer; Frank Marhauser

    2007-07-02

    After an initial cavity shape optimization [1] and cryomodule development [2] for an Ampere-class FEL ERL, we have simulated a complete 5-cell high-current (HC) cavity structure with six waveguide (WG) couplers for Higher Order Mode (HOM) damping and fundamental power coupling. The time-domain wakefield simulations of the MAFIA codes have been used to calculate the cavities broadband HOM impedance spectrum. Microwave Studio (MWS) has also been used to evaluate the external Q of the fundamental power coupler (FPC) and the R/Qs of the HOMs. A half scale 1497MHz single-cell model cavity and a 5-cell copper cavity including dummy HOM WG loads were fabricated to bench measure and confirm the design performance. Details of the multi-beam wakefield simulations, the HOM damping measurements and multi-peak data fitting analysis techniques are presented.

  4. Dark Current and X Ray Measurements of an 805 MHz Pillbox Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Norem; P. Gruber; A. Bross; S. Geer; A. Moretti; Z Qian; D. M. Kaplan; Y. Torun; R. Rimmer; Derun Li; M. Zisman

    2003-05-01

    The muon cooling systems proposed for neutrino factories require low frequency (201 MHz) RF cavities with Be windows, at high gradient (Eacc {approx} 16 MV/m), in strong solenoidal magnetic field ({approx} 5 T). For the proposed Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) [1], an experimental demonstration of cooling, we have an additional constraint that we must operate sensitive particle detectors very close to the RF cavities, which produce backgrounds from dark currents and x rays. To understand the processes involved in cavity conditioning and operation near particle detectors, we have constructed a test facility at Lab G of Fermilab, where a 5 Tesla superconducting solenoid, a 14 MW peak power klystron and a pillbox test cavity at 805 MHz are available. We present measurements of dark currents, x rays and surface structure from the pillbox cavity, with both copper and beryllium endplates, and discuss the interaction between surface structure and radiation backgrounds produced.

  5. Impurity gettering in silicon using cavities formed by helium implantation and annealing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, S.M. Jr.; Bishop, D.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.

    1998-11-24

    Impurity gettering in silicon wafers is achieved by a new process consisting of helium ion implantation followed by annealing. This treatment creates cavities whose internal surfaces are highly chemically reactive due to the presence of numerous silicon dangling bonds. For two representative transition-metal impurities, copper and nickel, the binding energies at cavities were demonstrated to be larger than the binding energies in precipitates of metal silicide, which constitutes the basis of most current impurity gettering. As a result the residual concentration of such impurities after cavity gettering is smaller by several orders of magnitude than after precipitation gettering. Additionally, cavity gettering is effective regardless of the starting impurity concentration in the wafer, whereas precipitation gettering ceases when the impurity concentration reaches a characteristic solubility determined by the equilibrium phase diagram of the silicon-metal system. The strong cavity gettering was shown to induce dissolution of metal-silicide particles from the opposite side of a wafer. 4 figs.

  6. Impurity gettering in silicon using cavities formed by helium implantation and annealing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Jr., Samuel M.; Bishop, Dawn M.; Follstaedt, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Impurity gettering in silicon wafers is achieved by a new process consisting of helium ion implantation followed by annealing. This treatment creates cavities whose internal surfaces are highly chemically reactive due to the presence of numerous silicon dangling bonds. For two representative transition-metal impurities, copper and nickel, the binding energies at cavities were demonstrated to be larger than the binding energies in precipitates of metal silicide, which constitutes the basis of most current impurity gettering. As a result the residual concentration of such impurities after cavity gettering is smaller by several orders of magnitude than after precipitation gettering. Additionally, cavity gettering is effective regardless of the starting impurity concentration in the wafer, whereas precipitation gettering ceases when the impurity concentration reaches a characteristic solubility determined by the equilibrium phase diagram of the silicon-metal system. The strong cavity gettering was shown to induce dissolution of metal-silicide particles from the opposite side of a wafer.

  7. High-Q 3D coaxial resonators for cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taekwan; Owens, John C.; Naik, Ravi; Lachapelle, Aman; Ma, Ruichao; Simon, Jonathan; Schuster, David I.

    Three-dimensional microwave resonators provide an alternative approach to transmission-line resonators used in most current circuit QED experiments. Their large mode volume greatly reduces the surface dielectric losses that limits the coherence of superconducting circuits, and the well-isolated and controlled cavity modes further suppress coupling to the environment. In this work, we focus on unibody 3D coaxial cavities which are only evanescently coupled and free from losses due to metal-metal interfaces, allowing us to reach extremely high quality-factors. We achieve quality-factor of up to 170 million using 4N6 Aluminum at superconducting temperatures, corresponding to an energy ringdown time of ~4ms. We extend our methods to other materials including Niobium, NbTi, and copper coated with Tin-Lead solder. These cavities can be further explored to study their properties under magnetic field or upon coupling to superconducting Josephson junction qubits, e.g. 3D transmon qubits. Such 3D cavity QED system can be used for quantum information applications, or quantum simulation in coupled cavity arrays.

  8. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  9. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  10. Cavity soliton billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Prati, F.; Lugiato, L. A.; Tissoni, G.; Brambilla, M.

    2011-11-15

    The motion of a self-propelled cavity soliton in a laser where the pump profile acts as a square billiard is investigated. In the long-term dynamics, only closed trajectories are possible, exhibiting nonspecular reflections with striking similarities to walking droplets in a vibrated liquid bath. Open orbits can be achieved either by introducing scattering defects in the pump profile or in the presence of more than two solitons, due to their interaction. Such dynamical properties can be exploited for applications such as a compact soliton-force microscope.

  11. Cavity optomechanical magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Forstner, S; Prams, S; Knittel, J; van Ooijen, E D; Swaim, J D; Harris, G I; Szorkovszky, A; Bowen, W P; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H

    2012-03-23

    A cavity optomechanical magnetometer is demonstrated. The magnetic-field-induced expansion of a magnetostrictive material is resonantly transduced onto the physical structure of a highly compliant optical microresonator and read out optically with ultrahigh sensitivity. A peak magnetic field sensitivity of 400  nT  Hz(-1/2) is achieved, with theoretical modeling predicting the possibility of sensitivities below 1  pT  Hz(-1/2). This chip-based magnetometer combines high sensitivity and large dynamic range with small size and room temperature operation.

  12. Development of 400- to 450-MHz RFQ resonator-cavity mechanical designs

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the development of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, the resonator cavity's mechanical design may be a challenge similar in magnitude to that of the development of the accelerator structure itself. Experience with the all-copper 425-MHz RFQ proof-of-principle linac has demonstrated that the resonator cavity must be structurally stiff and easily tunable. This experience has led to development of copper-plated steel structures having vanes that may be moved within a cylinder for tuning. Design of a flexible vane-to-cylinder radio-frequency (rf) joint, the vane, and the cylinder has many constraints dictated by the small-diameter cavities in the 400-MHz-frequency region. Two types of flexible, mechanical vane-to-cylinder rf joints are being developed at Los Alamos: the C-seal and the rf clamp-joint.

  13. [Application of intrauterine devices preceded by measurement of the endometrial cavity using a Hollister sound].

    PubMed

    Reynoso Ron, L; Lozano Balderas, M; Lara Ricalde, R; Flores Velez, A; Aznar Ramos, R

    1982-02-01

    The frequency of IUD expulsion, pregnancy, and removal was studied in 694 users. Those IUD types examined were the Lippes Loop D, Copper T-device, the 220C, and the T releasing 65 mcg of progesterone. A comparison was done as to the length of the uterine cavity, measured by a Hollister device which tends to be very accurate. Other authors have described certain length limits in the uterine cavity beyond which the number of pregnancies, expulsions, and removals are greater, but this was not confirmed in the present study. The only statistically significant difference was reduced frequency of such events in those women using the Copper T as compared with the Lippes Loop, independent of uterine cavity length. (author's modified)

  14. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-01

    "Cavity-optomechanics" aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  15. Acute copper toxicity following copper glycinate injection.

    PubMed

    Oon, S; Yap, C-H; Ihle, B U

    2006-11-01

    We present a patient who developed multi-organ failure due to severe copper toxicity following attempted suicide by s.c. injection of copper glycinate. Acute copper toxicity is rare in the developed world, although it occurs more frequently in developing world countries, where it is a common mode of suicide. Acute toxicity usually results from oral ingestion and there are several local and systemic effects. Specific management can be difficult as there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of chelating agents in acute toxicity.

  16. JLEIC SRF cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    The initial design of a low higher order modes (HOM) impedance superconducting RF (SRF) cavity is presented in this paper. The design of this SRF cavity is for the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC). The electron ring of JLEIC will operate with electrons of 3 to 10 GeV energy. The ion ring of JLEIC will operate with protons of up to 100 GeV energy. The bunch lengths in both rings are ~12 mm (RMS). In order to maintain the short bunch length in the ion ring, SRF cavities are adopted to provide large enough gradient. In the first phase of JLEIC, the PEP II RF cavities will be reused in the electron ring to lower the initial cost. The frequency of the SRF cavities is chosen to be the second harmonic of PEP II cavities, 952.6 MHz. In the second phase of JLEIC, the same frequency SRF cavities may replace the normal conducting PEP II cavities to achieve higher luminosity at high energy. At low energies, the synchro-tron radiation damping effect is quite weak, to avoid the coupled bunch instability caused by the intense closely-spaced electron bunches, low HOM impedance of the SRF cavities combined with longitudinal feedback sys-tem will be necessary.

  17. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, T.; Cormick, C.; Landa, H.; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Demler, E.; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  18. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-04

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  19. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  20. The peritoneal reaction to the translocated copper intrauterine device in women and female rats.

    PubMed

    Avni, A; David, M P; Pauzner, D

    1983-02-01

    The observation of a very severe peritoneal reaction to translocated copper-bearing devices in five women necessitated operative removal. Three Copper-T (Ortho Gyne-T, Ortho, Saunderton, High Wycombe, England) and two Copper-7 (Gravigard, Searle, High Wycombe, England) devices were involved. Similarly severe peritoneal reactions were noted in 90% of female rats who had small-sized modified copper devices inserted into their peritoneal cavities. In a control group of rats with the same device but without a copper wire, mild adhesions were observed in the majority (85%), and none had a severe peritoneal reaction. It seems evident that the severe peritoneal reaction is induced by the copper wire in both women and female rats.

  1. Copper in developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Alm, Per A

    2005-01-01

    It has previously been reported that men with developmental stuttering showed reduced concentration of copper in the blood, and a negative correlation between the copper level and the severity of stuttering. Disorders of copper metabolism may result in dysfunction of the basal ganglia system and dystonia, a motor disorder sharing some traits of stuttering. It has been shown that copper ions affect the dopamine and the GABA systems. With this background we investigated the plasma level of copper, the copper binding protein ceruloplasmin, and the estimated level of free copper in stuttering adults. Sixteen men with developmental stuttering were compared with 16 men without speech problems. The samples were assayed in one batch in a pseudorandom and counterbalanced order. No significant differences were found between stuttering men and the control group in any of the biological variables, and no negative correlation between copper and the general severity of stuttering was shown. On the contrary, an explorative analysis resulted in a positive correlation between high plasma copper and superfluous muscular activity during stuttering (r=0.51, p=0.04). This result indicates that there is no relation between developmental stuttering and low plasma copper in the main population of stuttering adults.

  2. Handling of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bulcke, Felix; Dringen, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for many important cellular functions. However, excess of copper can impair cellular functions by copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a prominent role in the copper homeostasis. In this short review we summarise the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the handling of copper by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up copper ions predominantly by the copper transporter Ctr1 and the divalent metal transporter DMT1. In addition, copper oxide nanoparticles are rapidly accumulated by astrocytes via endocytosis. Cultured astrocytes tolerate moderate increases in intracellular copper contents very well. However, if a given threshold of cellular copper content is exceeded after exposure to copper, accelerated production of reactive oxygen species and compromised cell viability are observed. Upon exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of copper ions or copper oxide nanoparticles, astrocytes increase their copper storage capacity by upregulating the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins. In addition, cultured astrocytes have the capacity to export copper ions which is likely to involve the copper ATPase 7A. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently accumulate, store and export copper ions suggests that astrocytes have a key role in the distribution of copper in brain. Impairment of this astrocytic function may be involved in diseases which are connected with disturbances in brain copper metabolism.

  3. Bench Tuning of the 748.5 MHz Normal Conducting Separator Cavities for 4-Hall Beam Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    The 748.5 MHz cavities (or the 750 MHz cavities for short) were installed at CEBAF as part of the 12 GeV upgrade. The cavity is composed of two different cells. In each cell there are 4 copper rods, a tuning paddle, and a field probe. In one cell, a coupler antenna is inserted in the form of a copper loop. These components then work together to create an RF field that kicks electron bunches. The goal of these separator cavities was to split the electron beam so that simultaneous 4-hall beam delivery was possible. For bench tuning of the cavities, three parameters must be achieved: target operational frequency, critical coupling, and field flatness between each cell. The initial problem was that when the cavities were installed, it wasn't possible to optimize the three parameters by only controlling the cooling water temperature during the commissioning. Thus, the four 750 MHz cavities were uninstalled and underwent bench tuning. This was done through bead-pull testing, computer simulations, and off-line high power testing. The tuning procedure developed allows for all three parameters to be met. Therefore the cavities will be able to be reinstalled in the beam-line and enable 4-hall beam delivery.

  4. Shock induced cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Jonathan; Doyle, Hugo; Tully, Brett; Betney, Matthew; Foster, Peta; Ringrose, Tim; Ramasamy, Rohan; Parkin, James; Edwards, Tom; Hawker, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Results from the experimental investigation of cavity collapse driven by a strong planar shock (>6km/s) are presented. Data from high speed framing cameras, laser backlit diagnostics and time-resolved pyromety are used to validate the results of hydrodynamic front-tracking simulations. As a code validation exercise, a 2-stage light gas gun was used to accelerate a 1g Polycarbonate projectile to velocities exceeding 6km/s; impact with a PMMA target containing a gas filled void results in the formation of a strong shockwave with pressures exceeding 1Mbar. The subsequent phenomena associated with the collapse of the void and excitation of the inert gas fill are recorded and compared to simulated data. Variation of the mass density and atomic number of the gas fill is used to alter the plasma parameters furthering the extent of the code validation.

  5. A scanning cavity microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm2; we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  6. Quench studies of ILC cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari; Dai, Jin

    2011-07-01

    Quench limits accelerating gradient in SRF cavities to a gradient lower than theoretically expected for superconducting niobium. Identification of the quenching site with thermometry and OST, optical inspection, and replica of the culprit is an ongoing effort at Jefferson Lab aimed at better understanding of this limiting phenomenon. In this contribution we present our finding with several SRF cavities that were limited by quench.

  7. Single-photon emission at a rate of 143 MHz from a deterministic quantum-dot microlens triggered by a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlehahn, A.; Gaafar, M.; Vaupel, M.; Gschrey, M.; Schnauber, P.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Stolz, W.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Heindel, T.; Koch, M.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the realization of a quantum dot (QD) based single-photon source with a record-high single-photon emission rate. The quantum light source consists of an InGaAs QD which is deterministically integrated within a monolithic microlens with a distributed Bragg reflector as back-side mirror, which is triggered using the frequency-doubled emission of a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (ML-VECSEL). The utilized compact and stable laser system allows us to excite the single-QD microlens at a wavelength of 508 nm with a pulse repetition rate close to 500 MHz at a pulse width of 4.2 ps. Probing the photon statistics of the emission from a single QD state at saturation, we demonstrate single-photon emission of the QD-microlens chip with g(2)(0) < 0.03 at a record-high single-photon flux of (143 ± 16) MHz collected by the first lens of the detection system. Our approach is fully compatible with resonant excitation schemes using wavelength tunable ML-VECSELs, which will optimize the quantum optical properties of the single-photon emission in terms of photon indistinguishability.

  8. Copper-Silicon Bronzes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1933-05-11

    copper alloys which have good static properties are disa:cinting in their endurance properties. The silicide allo~rs that are given high tensile strength...notched endurance tests and on cast alloys of this type, are lacking. uowever, preliminary reports state that a copper beryllium alloy of about 2 1/2...properties re- main almost the same. Grain size increases with sil- icon. III A study of hardening copper by heat treating its alloys with silicides

  9. Superconducting Storage Cavity for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi,I.

    2009-01-02

    This document provides a top-level description of a superconducting cavity designed to store hadron beams in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It refers to more detailed documents covering the various issues in designing, constructing and operating this cavity. The superconducting storage cavity is designed to operate at a harmonic of the bunch frequency of RHIC at a relatively low frequency of 56 MHz. The current storage cavities of RHIC operate at 197 MHz and are normal-conducting. The use of a superconducting cavity allows for a high gap voltage, over 2 MV. The combination of a high voltage and low frequency provides various advantages stemming from the resulting large longitudinal acceptance bucket.

  10. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, Salvatore

    1985-01-01

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  11. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1984-02-09

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  13. Hair copper in intrauterine copper device users.

    PubMed

    Thiery, M; Heyndrickx, A; Uyttersprot, C

    1984-03-01

    The antifertility effect of copper-bearing IUDs is based on continuous release of copper, which is a result of the reaction between the metal and the uterine secretions. Released cupric ions collect in the endometrium and in the uterine fluid but significant accumulation has not been found in the bloodstream or elsewhere. Following Laker's suggestion that hair be used for monitoring essential trace elements, e.g., copper, we checked the copper content of the hair of women wearing copper-bearing IUDs. Samples of untreated pubic hair removed by clipping before diagnostic curettage were obtained from 10 young (24-34 years old), white caucasian females who until then had been wearing an MLCu250 IUD for more than 1 year. Pubes from 10 comparable (sex, age, race) subjects who had never used a Cu-containing device served as controls. The unwashed material was submitted to the toxicology laboratory, where the copper content was assessed by flameless atomic absorption, a technique whose lower limit of measurement lies at a concentration of 0.05 mcg Cu/ml fluid (50 ppb). Hair samples were washed to remove extraneous traces of metal according to the prescriptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, weighed, and mineralized, after which a small volume (10 mcl) of the diluted fluid was fed into the graphite furnace. Each sample (75-150 mg) was analyzed 4 times, both before and after washing. Since the cleaning procedure reduces the weight of the sample (mainly by the removal of fat, dust, etc.) this explains why the percentage copper content of washed hair is higher than that of unwashed hair belonging to the same subject. The results indicate that there was no significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test) between the mean copper levels of both unwashed and washed pubes from women who were using or had never used an MLCu250 IUD. We therefore conclude that the use of this copper-containing device is not associated with significant accumulation of copper in (pubic) hair.

  14. Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

    2013-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed.

  15. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  16. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  17. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  18. DESIGN, PROTOTYPE AND MEASUREMENT OF A SINGLE-CELL DEFLECTING CAVITY FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang, Guangfeng Cheng, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Larry Turlington, Alireza Nassiri, Geoff Waldschmidt

    2009-05-01

    After the design optimization of a squashed elliptical shape, single-cell, superconducting (SC) deflecting cavity at 2.815 GHz, a copper prototype has been bench measured to determine its rf properties and the effectiveness of waveguide damping of parasitic modes [1]. RF cold tests were also performed at 2K on niobium single-cell and two-cell prototype cavities. Details of impedance calculation using wakefiled analysis of the single-cell cavity are shown to meet the strict 200 mA beam stability requirement of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Lab where a total of 16 single-cell cavities will be divided into two cryomodule. The design of higher-order mode (HOM) waveguide damping, the simulations of the Lorenz force detuning, and the prototype of on-cell damping are presented.

  19. Laser Scanner for Tile-Cavity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, Stanley Y.; Wykes, Donald H.; Hagen, George R.; Lotgering, Gene E.; Gaynor, Michael B.; Westerlund, Paul G.; Baal, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Irregular surfaces mapped and digitized for numerical-control machinery. Fast, accurate laser scanning system measures size and shape of cavity without making any physical contact with cavity and walls. Measurements processed into control signals for numerically controlled machining of tile or block to fit cavity. System generates map of grid points representing cavity and portion of outer surface surrounding cavity. Map data used to control milling machine, which cuts tile or block to fit in cavity.

  20. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  1. Improved Electroformed Structural Copper and Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Hudson, W.; Babcock, B.; Edwards, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electroforming offers a superior means for fabricating internally cooled heat exchangers and structures subjected to thermal environments. Copper is deposited from many such applications because of the good thermal conductivity. It suffers from mediocre yield strength as a structural material and loses mechanical strength at intermediate temperatures. Mechanical properties similar to those of electroformed nickel are desired. Phase 1 examined innovative means to improve deposited copper structural performance. Yield strengths as high as 483 MPa (70 ksi) were obtained with useful ductility while retaining a high level of purity essential to good thermal conductivity. Phase 2 represents a program to explore new additive combinations in copper electrolytes to produce a more fine, equiaxed grain which can be thermally stabilized by other techniques such as alloying in modest degrees and dispersion strengthening. Evaluation of new technology - such as the codeposition of fullerness (diamond-like) particles were made to enhance thermal conductivity in low alloys. A test fire quality tube-bundle engine was fabricated using these copper property improvement concepts to show the superiority of the new coppers and fabrications methods over competitive technologies such as brazing and plasma deposition.

  2. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  3. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  4. Cavity-state preparation using adiabatic transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jonas; Andersson, Erika

    2005-05-01

    We show how to prepare a variety of cavity field states for multiple cavities. The state preparation technique used is related to the method of stimulated adiabatic Raman passage. The cavity modes are coupled by atoms, making it possible to transfer an arbitrary cavity field state from one cavity to another and also to prepare nontrivial cavity field states. In particular, we show how to prepare entangled states of two or more cavities, such as an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state and a W state, as well as various entangled superpositions of coherent states in different cavities, including Schrödinger cat states. The theoretical considerations are supported by numerical simulations.

  5. Acoustic confinement in superlattice cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Daniel; Déleglise, Samuel; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Atkinson, Paola; Lagoin, Camille; Perrin, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The large coupling rate between the acoustic and optical fields confined in GaAs/AlAs superlattice cavities makes them appealing systems for cavity optomechanics. We have developed a mathematical model based on the scattering matrix that allows the acoustic guided modes to be predicted in nano and micropillar superlattice cavities. We demonstrate here that the reflection at the surface boundary considerably modifies the acoustic quality factor and leads to significant confinement at the micropillar center. Our mathematical model also predicts unprecedented acoustic Fano resonances on nanopillars featuring small mode volumes and very high mechanical quality factors, making them attractive systems for optomechanical applications.

  6. Novel Crab Cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Sah, R.; Rimmer, B.; Wang, H.

    2011-03-01

    A 20-50 MV integrated transverse voltage is required for the Electron-Ion Collider. The most promising of the crab cavity designs that have been proposed in the last five years are the TEM type crab cavities because of the higher transverse impedance. The TEM design approach is extended here to a hybrid crab cavity that includes the input power coupler as an integral part of the design. A prototype was built with Phase I monies and tested at JLAB. The results reported on, and a system for achieving 20-50 MV is proposed.

  7. COPPER RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an update and overview of new research results and remaining research needs with respect to copper corrosion control issues. The topics to be covered include: occurrence of elevated copper release in systems that meet the Action Level; impact of water c...

  8. Light storage and cavity supermodes in two coupled optomechanical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate a hybrid optomechanical system including two coupled optomechanical cavities in the presence of two strong pump fields and a weak probe field. The photon-hopping coupling of the cavities gives rise to two cavity supermodes whose resonant frequencies can be obtained in the probe transmission spectrum. In a strong photon-hopping coupling regime, there is a large coupling rate between the probe field and one of the two cavity supermodes that is called a bright mode. The optomechanical couplings between the bright mode and two mechanical resonators can cause double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT), which can be employed to both separately and simultaneously store two weak probe pulses with different central frequencies. We obtain the group delay (light storage time) of the probe field in the hybrid optomechanical system. The results suggest that compared with that of a single cavity optomechanical system, the maximum value of the storage time roughly quadrupled in a particular case. The physical origin of the results is discussed. The hybrid optomechanical system opens an avenue of light storage in cavity optomechanics.

  9. Green Luminescent Copper Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Y.; Annapurna, S.; Bhikshamaiah, G.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a green chemical reduction method using Gum Kondagogu extract as stabilizer. The as-prepared powder samples are characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The as-prepared copper nanoparticles are found to be FCC crystalline and nearly monodispersed with particles size 19 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed strong green visible emission and PL intensity was found enhanced with the presence of natural extract on copper nanoparticle surface. The increase in the PL intensity was mainly due to copper nanoparticles. Photoluminescence spectra of copper nanoparticles show an emission peak at 430 nm when illuminated at 325 nm.

  10. Optical Material Characterization Using Microdisk Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Christopher P.

    Since Jack Kilby recorded his "Monolithic Idea" for integrated circuits in 1958, microelectronics companies have invested billions of dollars in developing the silicon material system to increase performance and reduce cost. For decades, the industry has made Moore's Law, concerning cost and transistor density, a self-fulfilling prophecy by integrating technical and material requirements vertically down their supply chains and horizontally across competitors in the market. At recent technology nodes, the unacceptable scaling behavior of copper interconnects has become a major design constraint by increasing latency and power consumption---more than 50% of the power consumed by high speed processors is dissipated by intrachip communications. Optical networks at the chip scale are a potential low-power high-bandwidth replacement for conventional global interconnects, but the lack of efficient on-chip optical sources has remained an outstanding problem despite significant advances in silicon optoelectronics. Many material systems are being researched, but there is no ideal candidate even though the established infrastructure strongly favors a CMOS-compatible solution. This thesis focuses on assessing the optical properties of materials using microdisk cavities with the intention to advance processing techniques and materials relevant to silicon photonics. Low-loss microdisk resonators are chosen because of their simplicity and long optical path lengths. A localized photonic probe is developed and characterized that employs a tapered optical-fiber waveguide, and it is utilized in practical demonstrations to test tightly arranged devices and to help prototype new fabrication methods. A case study in AlxGa1-xAs illustrates how the optical scattering and absorption losses can be obtained from the cavity-waveguide transmission. Finally, single-crystal Er2O3 epitaxially grown on silicon is analyzed in detail as a potential CMOS-compatable gain medium due to its high Er3

  11. Bioaccessibility and Solubility of Copper in Copper-Treated Lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper (MC)-treated lumber is a recent replacement for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammonium Copper (AC)-treated lumbers; though little is known about the potential risk of copper (Cu) exposure from incidental ingestion of MC-treated wood. The bioaccessibility o...

  12. Killing of bacteria by copper surfaces involves dissolved copper.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Cristina; Abicht, Helge K; Solioz, Marc

    2010-06-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces. However, the mechanism of this process remains unclear. Using Enterococcus hirae, the effect of inactivation of copper homeostatic genes and of medium compositions on survival and copper dissolution was tested. The results support a role for dissolved copper ions in killing.

  13. Corrosion of dental copper, nickel, and gold alloys in artificial saliva and saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B I; Lemons, J E; Hao, S Q

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the tarnish and corrosion of three commercial copper alloys, three experimental copper alloys, two nickel alloys, and one high-gold alloy by exposing the specimens for four weeks to artificial saliva and saline solutions. Half of the specimens were brushed, and the solutions were changed regularly. The copper-based and the beryllium-containing nickel alloys exhibited significant surface alterations after exposure to either solution. The potential of elevated release of ions to the oral cavity and to the target organs by some of the investigated alloys should be considered if dental usage of these alloys is to be extended.

  14. Geometry-invariant resonant cavities

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, I.; Mahmoud, A. M.; Engheta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant cavities are one of the basic building blocks in various disciplines of science and technology, with numerous applications ranging from abstract theoretical modelling to everyday life devices. The eigenfrequencies of conventional cavities are a function of their geometry, and, thus, the size and shape of a resonant cavity is selected to operate at a specific frequency. Here we demonstrate theoretically the existence of geometry-invariant resonant cavities, that is, resonators whose eigenfrequencies are invariant with respect to geometrical deformations of their external boundaries. This effect is obtained by exploiting the unusual properties of zero-index metamaterials, such as epsilon-near-zero media, which enable decoupling of the temporal and spatial field variations in the lossless limit. This new class of resonators may inspire alternative design concepts, and it might lead to the first generation of deformable resonant devices. PMID:27010103

  15. CRAB Cavity in CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Beam collisions with a crossing angle at the interaction point are often necessary in colliders to reduce the effects of parasitic collisions which induce emittance growth and decrease beam lifetime. The crossing angle reduces the geometrical overlap of the beams and hence the luminosity. Crab cavity offer a promising way to compensate the crossing angle and to realize effective head-on collisions. Moreover, the crab crossing mitigates the synchro-betatron resonances due to the crossing angle. A crab cavity experiment in SPS is proposed as a proof of principle before deciding on a full crab-cavity implementation in the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a single crab cavity on beam dynamics in the SPS and life time.

  16. Geometry-invariant resonant cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberal, I.; Mahmoud, A. M.; Engheta, N.

    2016-03-01

    Resonant cavities are one of the basic building blocks in various disciplines of science and technology, with numerous applications ranging from abstract theoretical modelling to everyday life devices. The eigenfrequencies of conventional cavities are a function of their geometry, and, thus, the size and shape of a resonant cavity is selected to operate at a specific frequency. Here we demonstrate theoretically the existence of geometry-invariant resonant cavities, that is, resonators whose eigenfrequencies are invariant with respect to geometrical deformations of their external boundaries. This effect is obtained by exploiting the unusual properties of zero-index metamaterials, such as epsilon-near-zero media, which enable decoupling of the temporal and spatial field variations in the lossless limit. This new class of resonators may inspire alternative design concepts, and it might lead to the first generation of deformable resonant devices.

  17. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control.

  18. Influence of phosphorus on the creep ductility of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandström, Rolf; Wu, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Around 1990 it was discovered that pure copper could have extra low creep ductility in the temperature interval 180-250 °C. The material was intended for use in canisters for nuclear waste disposal. Although extra low creep ductility was not observed much below 180 °C and the temperature in the canister will never exceed 100 °C, it was feared that the creep ductility could reach low values at lower temperatures after long term exposure. If 50 ppm phosphorus was added to the copper the low creep ductility disappeared. A creep cavitation model is presented that can quantitatively describe the cavitation behaviour in uniaxial and multiaxial creep tests as well as the observed creep ductility for copper with and without phosphorus. A so-called double ledge model has been introduced that demonstrates why the nucleation rate of creep cavities is often proportional to the creep rate. The phosphorus agglomerates at the grain boundaries and limits their local deformation and thereby reduces the formation and growth of cavities. This explains why extra low creep ductility does not occur in phosphorus alloyed copper.

  19. The evolution of damage in tritium exposed copper

    SciTech Connect

    Goods, S.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Severe microstructural damage has been observed in polycrystalline OFHC copper specimens thermally exposed to high pressure tritium gas at temperatures {le}200 {degree}C, but not at 300 {degree}C. No such damage occurs in single crystal specimens exposed under identical conditions, regardless of temperature. In the polycrystals, the damage takes the form of very flat, crack-like intergranular cavities. It is found that the cavitation evolves slowly with time. For short exposure times, cavities as small as 0.1 {mu}m are observed. In specimens subjected to the longest aging times, the cavities grow and link until entire grain boundary facets fail. The driving force for the growth of these cavities is attributed to the internal gas pressure of helium-3 generated by the decay of tritium. The growth kinetics of cavity microstructure are described by a coupled grain boundary, surface self-diffusion process. The tritium exposure profoundly affects the mechanical properties of the polycrystalline material, inducing a severe loss in ductility. In concert with the observed ductility loss is a change in fracture morphology from transgranular ductile rupture to intergranular fracture. Examination of the resulting grain boundary facets reveals a dimple structure. The spacing of these dimples can be correlated with the spacing of the exposure-induced grain boundary cavities.

  20. Progress on a Cavity with Beryllium Walls for Muon Ionization Cooling Channel R&D.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowring, D. L.; DeMello, A. J.; Lambert, A. R.; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Kaplan, D.; Palmer, R. B.

    2012-05-20

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) collaboration is working to develop an ionization cooling channel for muon beams. An ionization cooling channel requires the operation of high-gradient, normal-conducting RF cavities in multi-Tesla solenoidal magnetic fields. However, experiments conducted at Fermilab?s MuCool Test Area (MTA) show that increasing the solenoidal field strength reduces the maximum achievable cavity gradient. This gradient limit is characterized by an RF breakdown process that has caused significant damage to copper cavity interiors. The damage may be caused by field-emitted electrons, focused by the solenoidal magnetic field onto small areas of the inner cavity surface. Local heating may then induce material fatigue and surface damage. Fabricating a cavity with beryllium walls would mitigate this damage due to beryllium?s low density, low thermal expansion, and high electrical and thermal conductivity. We address the design and fabrication of a pillbox RF cavity with beryllium walls, in order to evaluate the performance of high-gradient cavities in strong magnetic fields.

  1. Active Control of Open Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UKeiley, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Open loop edge blowing was demonstrated as an effective method for reducing the broad band and tonal components of the fluctuating surface pressure in open cavities. Closed loop has been successfully applied to low Mach number open cavities. Need to push actuators that are viable for closed loop control in bandwidth and output. Need a better understanding of the effects of control on the flow through detailed measurements so better actuation strategies can be developed.

  2. Cavity alignment using fringe scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkunaite, Laura Paulina; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael

    2017-01-01

    LIGO employs two 4-km long Fabry-Pérot arm cavities, which need to be aligned in order for an interferometer to be locked on a TEM00 mode. Once the cavity is locked, alignment signals can be derived from wave-front sensors which measure the TEM01 mode content. However, the alignment state is not always good enough for locking on TEM00. Even when this is the case, the alignment can be evaluated using a free swinging cavity, that shows flashes when higher-order modes become resonant. By moving test masses, small changes are made to the mirror orientation, and hence the TEM00 mode can be optimized iteratively. Currently, this is a manual procedure, and thus it is very time-consuming. Therefore, this project is aimed to study another possible way to lock the cavity on the TEM00 mode. Misalignment information can also be extracted from the power of the higher-order modes transmitted through the cavity. This talk will present an algorithm for this alternative and faster way to derive the alignment state of the arm cavities. Supported by APS FIP, NSF, and Caltech SFP.

  3. Copper, Boron, and Cerium Additions in Type 347 Austenitic Steel to Improve Creep Rupture Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Kinkar; Kyono, J.; Shinya, Norio

    2012-04-01

    Type 347 austenitic stainless steel (18Cr-12Ni-Nb) was alloyed with copper (3 wt pct), boron (0.01 to 0.06 wt pct), and cerium (0.01 wt pct) with an aim to increase the creep rupture strength of the steel through the improved deformation and cavitation resistance. Short-term creep rupture strength was found to increase with the addition of copper in the 347 steel, but the long-term strength was inferior. Extensive creep cavitation deprived the steel of the beneficial effect of creep deformation resistance induced by nano-size copper particles. Boron and cerium additions in the copper-containing steel increased its creep rupture strength and ductility, which were more for higher boron content. Creep deformation, grain boundary sliding, and creep cavity nucleation and growth in the steel were found to be suppressed by microalloying the copper-containing steel with boron and cerium, and the suppression was more for higher boron content. An auger electron spectroscopic study revealed the segregation of boron instead of sulfur on the cavity surface of the boron- and cerium-microalloyed steel. Cerium acted as a scavenger for soluble sulfur in the steels through the precipitation of cerium sulfide (CeS). This inhibited the segregation of sulfur and facilitated the segregation of boron on cavity surface. Boron segregation on the nucleated cavity surface reduced its growth rate. Microalloying the copper-containing 347 steel with boron and cerium thus enabled to use the full extent of creep deformation resistance rendered by copper nano-size particle by increase in creep rupture strength and ductility.

  4. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  5. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  6. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-05-23

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  7. Synthesis of Cycloparaphenyleneacetylene via Alkyne Metathesis: C70 Complexation and Copper-Free Triple Click Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Semin; Chénard, Etienne; Gray, Danielle L; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2016-10-10

    Alkyne metathesis provided an efficient macrocyclization route to a cycloparaphenyleneacetylene derivative in high yield. The cavity size was suitably matched for C70 which was tightly bound in an induced-fit fashion. The strain on the alkynyl bonds enabled a copper-free, three-fold azide-alkyne cycloaddi-tion at 50 °C.

  8. HOM identification by bead pulling in the Brookhaven ERL cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn H.; Calaga, R.; Jain, P.; Johnson, E.C.; Xu, W.

    2012-06-25

    Several past measurements of the Brookhaven ERL at superconducting temperature produced a long list of higher order modes (HOMs). The Niobium 5-cell cavity is terminated with HOM ferrite dampers that successfully reduce the Q-factors to tolerable levels. However, a number of undamped resonances with Q {ge} 10{sup 6} were found at 4 K and their mode identification remained as a goal for this paper. The approach taken here consists in taking different S{sub 21} measurements on a copper cavity replica of the ERL which can be compared with the actual data and also with Microwave Studio computer simulations. Several different S{sub 21} transmission measurements are used, including those taken from the fundamental input coupler to the pick-up probe across the cavity, between probes in a single cell, and between beam-position monitor probes in the beam tubes. Mode identification is supported by bead pulling with a metallic needle or a dielectric sphere that are calibrated in the fundamental mode. This paper presents results for HOMs in the first two dipole bands with the prototypical 958 MHz trapped mode, the lowest beam tube resonances, and high-Q modes in the first quadrupole band and beyond.

  9. Micromachining with copper lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  10. Volatility of copper

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.; Joyce, D.B.

    1996-08-01

    The relevant aqueous thermodynamics of copper and its oxides are evaluated and summarized with emphasis on solubility, hydrolysis, and complexation. The solubilities of metallic copper, solid cuprous and cupric oxides in steam measured by Pocock and Stewart in 1963 are discussed and the latter data are fitted in the form of established empirical equations and compared to other existing results. No other sources of data were found for the solubility of copper and cupric oxide in steam and even these data are very limited. Discussion of corresponding available solubility data on both oxide phases in liquid water is given. The possible effects of complexing agents are considered. A brief discussion is provided of the role of surface adsorption in determining the fate of dissolved copper in the boiler. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Darve, Christine; Bosland, Pierre; Devanz, Guillaume; Renard, Bertrand; Olivier, Gilles; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. The superconducting section of the Linac accelerates the beam from 80 MeV to 2.0 GeV. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain four elliptical Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 704.42 MHz. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design, the prototyping and the expected operation of the ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules. An Elliptical Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator (ECCTD) will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

  12. The ESS spoke cavity cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Bousson, Sebastien; Duthil, Patxi; Reynet, Denis; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design and expected operation of the ESS spoke cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain two double spoke bulk Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 352.21 MHz. The superconducting section of the Spoke Linac accelerates the beam from 90 MeV to 220 MeV. A Spoke Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

  13. Coupling of an overdriven cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Garbin, H D

    1993-11-01

    It is well known that when a nuclear test is conducted in a sufficiently large cavity, the resulting seismic signal is sharply reduced when compared to a normal tamped event. Cavity explosions are of interest in the seismic verification community because of this possibility of reducing the seismic energy generated which can lower signal amplitudes and make detection difficult. Reduced amplitudes would also lower seismic yield estimates which has implications in a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT). In the past several years, there have been a number of nuclear tests at NTS (Nevada Test Site) inside hemispherical cavities. Two such tests were MILL YARD and MISTY ECHO which had instrumentation at the surface and in the free-field. These two tests differ in one important aspect. MILL YARD was completely decoupled i.e., the cavity wall behaved in an elastic manner. It was estimated that MILL YARD`s ground motion was reduced by a factor of at least 70. In contrast, MISTY ECHO was detonated in a hemispherical cavity with the same dimensions as MILL YARD, but with a much larger device yield. This caused an inelastic behavior on the wall and the explosion was not fully decoupled.

  14. A SURVEY OF CORONAL CAVITY DENSITY PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-08-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R{sub sun} and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R{sub sun} than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height-indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions-except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  15. RRR Characteristics for SRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yoochul; Hyun, Myungook; Joung, Mijoung

    2015-10-01

    The first heavy ion accelerator is being constructed by the rare isotope science project (RISP) launched by the Institute of Basic Science (IBS) in South Korea. Four different types of superconducting cavities were designed, and prototypes such as a quarter-wave resonator (QWR), a half-wave resonator (HWR) and a single-spoke resonator (SSR) were fabricated. One of the critical factors determining the performances of superconducting cavities is the residual resistance ratio (RRR). The RRR values essentially represent how pure niobium is and how fast niobium can transmit heat. In general, the RRR degrades during electron beam welding due to impurity incorporation. Thus, it is important to maintain the RRR above a certain value at which a niobium cavity shows target performance. In this study, RRR degradation related with electron beam welding conditions, for example, the welding power, welding speed, and vacuum level, will be discussed.

  16. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water

    PubMed Central

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Soroka, Inna L.; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. PMID:27086752

  17. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water.

    PubMed

    Lousada, Cláudio M; Soroka, Inna L; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-04-18

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories.

  18. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Soroka, Inna L.; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-04-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories.

  19. Cavity-controlled spectral singularity.

    PubMed

    Nireekshan Reddy, K; Dutta Gupta, S

    2014-08-01

    We study theoretically a parity-time (PT)-symmetric, saturable, balanced gain-loss system in a ring-cavity configuration. The saturable gain and loss are modeled by a two-level medium with or without population inversion. We show that the specifics of the spectral singularity can be fully controlled by the cavity and the atomic detuning parameters. The theory is based on the mean-field approximation, as in the standard theory of optical bistability. Further, in the linear regime we demonstrate the regularization of the singularity in detuned systems, while larger input power levels are shown to be adequate to limit the infinite growth in absence of detunings.

  20. Synchronization in an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlomi, Keren; Yuvaraj, D.; Baskin, Ilya; Suchoi, Oren; Winik, Roni; Buks, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    We study self-excited oscillations (SEO) in an on-fiber optomechanical cavity. Synchronization is observed when the optical power that is injected into the cavity is periodically modulated. A theoretical analysis based on the Fokker-Planck equation evaluates the expected phase space distribution (PSD) of the self-oscillating mechanical resonator. A tomography technique is employed for extracting PSD from the measured reflected optical power. Time-resolved state tomography measurements are performed to study phase diffusion and phase locking of the SEO. The detuning region inside which synchronization occurs is experimentally determined and the results are compared with the theoretical prediction.

  1. Temperature optimization for superconducting cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, Claus

    1999-06-01

    Since our previous analysis of optimized operating temperature of superconducting cavities in an accelerator a decade ago, significant additional information has been discovered about SRF cavities. The most significant is the Q0 (quality factor) shift across the Lambda line at higher gradients as a result of a slope in Q0 vs. Eacc above Lambda. This is a result of the changing heat conduction conditions. We discuss temperature optimizations as a function of gradient and frequency. The refrigeration hardware impacts and changes in cycle efficiency are presented.

  2. Experimental cavity pressure distributions at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, Robert L., Jr.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to define pressure distributions for rectangular cavities over a range of free-stream Mach numbers and cavity dimensions. These pressure distributions together with schlieren photographs are used to define the critical values of cavity length-to-depth ratio that separate open type cavity flows from closed type cavity flows. For closed type cavity flow, the shear layer expands over the cavity leading edge and impinges on the cavity floor, whereas for open type cavity flow, the shear layer bridges the cavity. The tests were conducted by using a flat-plate model permitting the cavity length to be remotely varied from 0.5 to 12 in. Cavity depths and widths were varied from 0.5 to 2.5 in. The flat-plate boundary layer approaching the cavity was turbulent and had a thickness of approximately 0.2 in. at the cavity front face for the range of test Mach numbers from 1.5 to 2.86. Presented are a discussion of the results and a complete tabulation of the experimental data.

  3. DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY TEST OF THE 1500 MHZ NSLS-II PASSIVE SUPERCONDUCTING RF CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Kosciuk, B.; Ravindranath, V.; Sikora, B.; Sharma, S.; Towne, N.; Grimm, T.L.; Boulware, C.H.; Krizmanich, C.; Kuhlman, B.; Miller, N.; Siegel, B.; Winowski, M.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third harmonic cavity in order to increase the Touschek limited lifetime. Earlier work described the design alternatives and the geometry selected for a copper prototype. We subsequently have iterated the design to lower the R/Q of the cavity and to increase the diameter of the beam pipe ferrite HOM dampers to reduce the wakefield heating. A niobium cavity and full cryomodule including LN2 shield, magnetic shield and insulating vacuum vessel have been fabricated and installed. A passive SRF 3rd harmonic cavity consisting of two tightly coupled cells has been designed and fabricated for NSLS-II. Initial cold tests of this cavity are very promising. These tests have verified that the cavity frequency and mode separation between the 0 and {pi}-modes can be set at manufacture. Further, the frequency separation can be maintained over wide tuning ranges necessary for operation. Future work includes HOM damper and motorized tuner development.

  4. 1500 MHZ Passive SRF Cavity for Bunch Lengthening in the NSLS-II Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa,T.; Rose, J.; Grimm, T.; Bogle, A.

    2009-05-04

    NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third harmonic cavity in order to increase the Touschek limited lifetime. After an extensive investigation of different cavity geometries, a passive, superconducting two-cell cavity has been selected for prototyping. The cavity is HOM damped with ferrite absorbers on the beam pipes. The two-cell cavity simplifies the tuner design, compared to having two independent cells. Tradeoffs between the damping of the higher order modes, thermal isolation associated with the large beam tubes, and overall cavity length are described. A copper prototype has been constructed, and measurements of fundamental and higher order modes will be compared to calculated values.

  5. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-12-01

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes, four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Finally, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.

  6. A computational study of dielectric photonic-crystal-based accelerator cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, C. A.

    Future particle accelerator cavities may use dielectric photonic crystals to reduce harmful wakefields and increase the accelerating electric field (or gradient). Reduced wakefields are predicted based on the bandgap property of some photonic crystals (i.e. frequency-selective reflection/transmission). Larger accelerating gradients are predicted based on certain dielectrics' strong resistance to electrical breakdown. Using computation, this thesis investigated a hybrid design of a 2D sapphire photonic crystal and traditional copper conducting cavity. The goals were to test the claim of reduced wakefields and, in general, judge the effectiveness of such structures as practical accelerating cavities. In the process, we discovered the following: (1) resonant cavities in truncated photonic crystals may confine radiation weakly compared to conducting cavities (depending on the level of truncation); however, confinement can be dramatically increased through optimizations that break lattice symmetry (but retain certain rotational symmetries); (2) photonic crystal cavities do not ideally reduce wakefields; using band structure calculations, we found that wakefields are increased by flat portions of the frequency dispersion (where the waves have vanishing group velocities). A complete comparison was drawn between the proposed photonic crystal cavities and the copper cavities for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC); CLIC is one of the candidates for a future high-energy electron-positron collider that will study in greater detail the physics learned at the Large Hadron Collider. We found that the photonic crystal cavity, when compared to the CLIC cavity: (1) can lower maximum surface magnetic fields on conductors (growing evidence suggests this limits accelerating gradients by inducing electrical breakdown); (2) shows increased transverse dipole wakefields but decreased longitudinal monopole wakefields; and (3) exhibits lower accelerating efficiencies (unless

  7. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene. PMID:21148701

  8. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Harb, Charles C.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2001-05-15

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  9. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Harb, Charles C.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  10. Half-Wave, beta=0.43 Cavity Prototyping for a Heavy Ion Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Popielarski, John; Compton, Chris C.; Hartung, Walter; Johnson, Mat; Oliva, John; York, R. C.; Marti, Felix

    2008-04-01

    A medium velocity half wave resonator has been designed and prototyped at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) for use in a heavy ion linac. The cavity is designed to provide 3.7 MV of accelerating voltage at an optimum beta = v/c = 0.53, with peak surface electric and magnetic fields of 32.5 MV/m and 79 mT, respectively. The cavity was designed for stiffness and tunability, as well as straightforward fabrication, assembly and cleaning. Measurements were performed to confirm Finite Element Analysis (FEA) predictions for modal analysis, bath pressure sensitivity, tuner stiffness and tuning range. A copper cavity prototype has been fabricated to confirm tolerances and formability. A tuner prototype has been built. The helium vessel and power coupler have been designed.

  11. Electromagnetic coupling to centimeter-scale mechanical membrane resonators via RF cylindrical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis A.; Castelli, Alessandro R.; Delmas, William; Sharping, Jay E.; Chiao, Raymond

    2016-11-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results for the excitation of a mechanical oscillator via radiation pressure with a room-temperature system employing a relatively low-(Q) centimeter-size mechanical oscillator coupled to a relatively low-Q standard three-dimensional radio-frequency (RF) cavity resonator. We describe the forces giving rise to optomechanical coupling using the Maxwell stress tensor and show that nanometer-scale displacements are possible and experimentally observable. The experimental system is composed of a 35 mm diameter silicon nitride membrane sputtered with a 300 nm gold conducting film and attached to the end of a RF copper cylindrical cavity. The RF cavity is operated in its {{TE}}011 mode and amplitude modulated on resonance with the fundamental drum modes of the membrane. Membrane motion is monitored using an unbalanced, non-zero optical path difference, optically filtered Michelson interferometer capable of measuring sub-nanometer displacements.

  12. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  13. A STUDY OF FERRITE CAVITY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHAO, Y.

    2002-04-19

    This note addresses the general concerns for the design of a ferrite cavity. The parameters are specified for the RCMS, for which the frequency ramp is in the range of 1.27 MHz to 6.44 MHz, or a ratio of 1:5.

  14. Fibre ring cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Medvedev, S V

    2013-10-31

    This paper presents a study of semiconductor lasers having a polarisation maintaining fibre ring cavity. We examine the operating principle and report main characteristics of a semiconductor ring laser, in particular in single- and multiple-frequency regimes, and discuss its application areas. (lasers)

  15. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  16. Piezoelectric tunable microwave superconducting cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, N. C.; Fan, Y.; Tobar, M. E.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of engineered quantum systems, there is a demand for superconducting tunable devices, able to operate with high-quality factors at power levels equivalent to only a few photons. In this work, we developed a 3D microwave re-entrant cavity with such characteristics ready to provide a very fine-tuning of a high-Q resonant mode over a large dynamic range. This system has an electronic tuning mechanism based on a mechanically amplified piezoelectric actuator, which controls the resonator dominant mode frequency by changing the cavity narrow gap by very small displacements. Experiments were conducted at room and dilution refrigerator temperatures showing a large dynamic range up to 4 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively, and were compared to a finite element method model simulated data. At elevated microwave power input, nonlinear thermal effects were observed to destroy the superconductivity of the cavity due to the large electric fields generated in the small gap of the re-entrant cavity.

  17. Cavity Enhanced Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siller, Brian; Mills, Andrew; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2010-06-01

    Velocity modulation spectroscopy has traditionally been used with a unidirectional multipass White cell to obtain several passes through a plasma in order to obtain strong signals from the absorption of ions, but the total number of passes allowed by this type of setup is limited to ˜8. By placing an optical cavity around an N_2^+ plasma and locking the cavity to a Ti:Sapphire laser, the effective number of passes has been increased to several hundred. Demodulating the signal from the transmitted light at twice the plasma frequency (due to the symmetric nature of the cavity) gives a 2nd derivative lineshape for ions and a Gaussian lineshape for excited neutrals. N_2^+ and N_2^* have been observed to be 78° out of phase with one another. The different lineshapes and phases allow for discrimination and separation of the ion and neutral signals. The high intensity laser light within the cavity causes the transitions to saturate, which allows for the observation of lamb dips; this opens the door to sub-Doppler spectroscopy, as well as to studies of ion-neutral collisional rate coefficients.

  18. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    SciTech Connect

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K.

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  19. Preparation of high purity copper fluoride by fluorinating copper hydroxyfluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Lundquist, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Copper fluoride containing no more than 50 ppm of any contaminating element was prepared by the fluorination of copper hydroxyfluoride. The impurity content was obtained by spark source mass spectrometry. High purity copper fluoride is needed as a cathode material for high energy density batteries.

  20. Surface topographic characterization for polyamide composite injection molds made of aluminum and copper alloys.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A; Hernández, P; Martinez, J; Pérez, J A; Mathia, T G

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure flexibility and rapid new product development, the mold industry made use of soft materials for cavity inserts in injection molds. However, materials of this kind are prone to wear. This article analyzes the topographic characterization of the surface and wear processes in injection molds cavities. Two materials have been used to produce the cavities: aluminum alloy EN AW‐6082 T4 and copper alloy Cu Zn39 Pb3. The surface topography was measured with the use of optical interferometry profiling technology; roughness and surface parameters were determined according to ISO 4287, ISO 25178, and EUR 15178N. In order to complete this research, an experimental part with different thicknesses and shapes was designed, and cavity inserts of aluminum and copper were made. Polyamide PA6, with 30% fiberglass reinforcement, was employed in the experimental procedure. Measurements of cavity mold surfaces were performed after 9,200 cycles on each mold and at different locations on the mold. The surface measurement was made with a white light vertical scanning interferometry, also known as coherence scanning interferometry (ISO DIS 25178‐604). The results are analyzed and differences between the two types of cavity inserts materials are discussed.

  1. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with providing a urine sample. Alternative Names Quantitative urinary copper Images Copper urine test References McPherson ... for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis ...

  2. Agricultural soils spiked with copper mine wastes and copper concentrate: implications for copper bioavailability and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sánchez, Pablo; de la Fuente, Luz María; Camus, Isabel; Bustamante, Elena; Silva, Yasna; Urrestarazu, Paola; Torres, Juan C; Rodríguez, Patricio H

    2006-03-01

    A better understanding of exposure to and effects of copper-rich pollutants in soils is required for accurate environmental risk assessment of copper. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study copper bioavailability and bioaccumulation in agricultural soils spiked with different types of copper-rich mine solid wastes (copper ore, tailing sand, smelter dust, and smelter slag) and copper concentrate. A copper salt (copper sulfate, CuSO4) that frequently is used to assess soil copper bioavailability and phytotoxicity also was included for comparison. Results showed that smelter dust, tailing sand, and CuSO4 are more likely to be bioavailable and, thus, toxic to plants compared with smelter slag, concentrate, and ore at equivalent total copper concentrations. Differences may be explained by intrinsic differences in copper solubilization from the source materials, but also by their capability to decrease soil pH (confounding effect). The copper toxicity and bioaccumulation in plants also varied according to soil physicochemical characteristics (e.g., pH and total organic carbon) and the available levels of plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Chemistry/mineralogy of mine materials, soil/pore-water chemistry, and plant physiological status thus should be integrated for building adequate models to predict phytotoxicity and environmental risk of copper.

  3. A creep cavity growth model for creep-fatigue life prediction of a unidirectional W/Cu composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Verrilli, Michael J.; Halford, Gary R.

    1992-01-01

    A microstructural model was developed to predict creep-fatigue life in a (0)(sub 4), 9 volume percent tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite at the temperature of 833 K. The mechanism of failure of the composite is assumed to be governed by the growth of quasi-equilibrium cavities in the copper matrix of the composite, based on the microscopically observed failure mechanisms. The methodology uses a cavity growth model developed for prediction of creep fracture. Instantaneous values of strain rate and stress in the copper matrix during fatigue cycles were calculated and incorporated in the model to predict cyclic life. The stress in the copper matrix was determined by use of a simple two-bar model for the fiber and matrix during cyclic loading. The model successfully predicted the composite creep-fatigue life under tension-tension cyclic loading through the use of this instantaneous matrix stress level. Inclusion of additional mechanisms such as cavity nucleation, grain boundary sliding, and the effect of fibers on matrix-stress level would result in more generalized predictions of creep-fatigue life.

  4. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3260 Cavity varnish. (a) Identification. Cavity varnish is a... restorative materials. The device is intended to prevent penetration of restorative materials, such as...

  6. Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, W.D.

    1996-05-01

    Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state. (3) It acts as a deoxidant or a fluxing agent with copper. (4) It lowers the ductility of copper (embrittles). There is a misconception that silver improves the ductility of the copper-phosphorus alloys. In reality, silver added to copper acts in a similar manner as phosphorus. The addition of silver to copper lowers the melt temperature (temperature depressant) and decreases the ductility. Fortunately, the rate and amount at which silver lowers copper ductility is significantly less than that of phosphorus. Therefore, taking advantage of the temperature depressant property of silver, a Ag-Cu-P alloy can be selected at approximately the same melt temperature as a Cu-P alloy, but at a lower phosphorus content. The lowering of the phosphorus content actually makes the alloy more ductile, not the silver addition. A major advantage of the copper-phosphorus alloys is the self-fluxing characteristic when joining copper to copper. They may also be used with the addition of a paste flux on brass, bronze, and specialized applications on silver, tungsten and molybdenum. Whether it is selection of the proper BCuP alloy or troubleshooting an existing problem, the suggested approach is a review of the desired phosphorus content in the liquid metal and how it is being altered during application. In torch brazing, a slight change in the oxygen-fuel ratio can affect the joint quality or leak tightness.

  7. Multipacting analysis for JLAB ampere class cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; Mircea Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Robert Rimmer; Evan Donoghue

    2005-07-10

    JLAB's ampere class 5-cell cavities require a moderate accelerating gradient (16.7 {approx} 20MV/m). Electron multipacting activity in the machine operating range can degrade the expected performance. A survey was conducted in the area of multipacting analysis for beta=1 electron cavity shapes, including options for the new high current cavity shape. The results obtained provided useful guidance to the final cavity shape adopted and to its expected performance.

  8. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  9. Modeling and cavity optimization of an external cavity semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feies, Valentin I.; Montrosset, Ivo

    2004-09-01

    Semiconductor external cavity lasers (ECL) have a wide range of applications in the field of DWDM and measurement systems. One of their most important features is the continuous tuning without mode hopping in a wide wavelength range. In this paper we present a modelling approach for an ECL in Littman-Metcalf configuration carried out for optimising: 1) the laser diode position inside the cavity in order to maximize the range of continuous wavelength tuning without mode hopping and without cavity-length adjustment and 2) the choice of the detuning of the operating wavelength respect to the Bragg condition in order to minimize the four-wave mixing (FWM) effects and the effect of a non-perfect antireflection coating (ARC). A realistic example has been analyzed and therefore we considered: the wavelength dependence of the modal gain, linewidth enhancement factor and grating selectivity, as well as the modal refractive index change with carrier injection, operating wavelength and temperature. The implemented numerical tools allow also to obtain some specifications on the grating selectivity and the ARC design.

  10. Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.

  11. Photonic crystal cavities and integrated optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lin; Li, ZhiYuan

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to our recent works on photonic crystal (PhC) cavities and related integrated optical structures and devices. Theoretical background and numerical methods for simulation of PhC cavities are first presented. Based on the theoretical basis, two relevant quantities, the cavity mode volume and the quality factor are discussed. Then the methods of fabrication and characterization of silicon PhC slab cavities are introduced. Several types of PhC cavities are presented, such as the usual L3 missing-hole cavity, the new concept waveguide-like parallel-hetero cavity, and the low-index nanobeam cavity. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of cavity are discussed. This will help the readers to decide which type of PhC cavities to use in particular applications. Furthermore, several integrated optical devices based on PhC cavities, such as optical filters, channel-drop filters, optical switches, and optical logic gates are described in both the working principle and operation characteristics. These devices designed and realized in our group demonstrate the wide range of applications of PhC cavities and offer possible solutions to some integrated optical problems.

  12. Power coupler for the ILC crab cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Jenkins, R.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Bellantoni, Leo; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The ILC crab cavity will require the design of an appropriate power coupler. The beam-loading in dipole mode cavities is considerably more variable than accelerating cavities, hence simulations have been performed to establish the required external Q. Simulations of a suitable coupler were then performed and were verified using a normal conducting prototype with variable coupler tips.

  13. Measurement of dielectric properties of whole and ground chicken breast meat over the frequency range from 500 MHz to 50 GHz

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dielectric properties of food greatly influence its interaction with RF and MW electromagnetic fields and subsequently determine the absorption of microwave energy and consequent heating behavior of food materials in microwave heating and processing applications. Microwave heating is usually re...

  14. Effect of oxide particle distribution on the helium-induced fracture of copper

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.A.

    1990-12-31

    Long-term exposure to tritium (H{sup 3}) gas can degrade the mechanical properties of copper alloys while similar exposure to protium (H{sup 1}) gas does not cause such degradation. This difference in behavior is attributed to the presence of helium which is generated by the radioactive decay of tritium. The accumulation of helium, which is virtually insoluble in the copper lattice, can cause the nucleation of cavities along grain boundaries and promote intergranular fracture. Permeation studies have shown that oxide particles act as trap sites for diffusing hydrogen isotopes, and thus may affect the susceptibility of copper to helium-induced degradation by altering the initial tritium distribution in the metal lattice. Tensile and metallographic data demonstrate that oxide particles trap both tritium and helium and decrease the susceptibility of copper to helium-induced intergranular fracture. 25 refs, 3 tabs, 12 figs.

  15. Effect of oxide particle distribution on the helium-induced fracture of copper

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term exposure to tritium (H[sup 3]) gas can degrade the mechanical properties of copper alloys while similar exposure to protium (H[sup 1]) gas does not cause such degradation. This difference in behavior is attributed to the presence of helium which is generated by the radioactive decay of tritium. The accumulation of helium, which is virtually insoluble in the copper lattice, can cause the nucleation of cavities along grain boundaries and promote intergranular fracture. Permeation studies have shown that oxide particles act as trap sites for diffusing hydrogen isotopes, and thus may affect the susceptibility of copper to helium-induced degradation by altering the initial tritium distribution in the metal lattice. Tensile and metallographic data demonstrate that oxide particles trap both tritium and helium and decrease the susceptibility of copper to helium-induced intergranular fracture. 25 refs, 3 tabs, 12 figs.

  16. Many-atom-cavity QED system with homogeneous atom-cavity coupling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmin; Vrijsen, Geert; Teper, Igor; Hosten, Onur; Kasevich, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a many-atom-cavity system with a high-finesse dual-wavelength standing wave cavity in which all participating rubidium atoms are nearly identically coupled to a 780-nm cavity mode. This homogeneous coupling is enforced by a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by the field of a 1560-nm cavity mode.

  17. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, D.G.; Allen, D.; Lee, R.

    1996-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail that has been possible to date. The beam is produced by using third-generation insertion devices in a 7 GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1100 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high power devices is very high and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm{sup 2}. Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop{reg_sign}, a dispersion strengthened copper, is the desired material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  19. A micropillar for cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Aurélien; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Deléglise, Samuel; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine; Van Brackel, Emmanuel; Chartier, Claude; Ducloux, Olivier; Le Traon, Olivier; Michel, Christophe; Pinard, Laurent; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2014-12-04

    Demonstrating the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical object is a major experimental challenge in physics, at the origin of the rapid emergence of cavity optomechanics. We have developed a new generation of optomechanical devices, based on a microgram quartz micropillar with a very high mechanical quality factor. The structure is used as end mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity with a high optical finesse, leading to ultra-sensitive interferometric measurement of the resonator displacement. We expect to reach the ground state of this optomechanical resonator by combining cryogenic cooling in a dilution fridge at 30 mK and radiation-pressure cooling. We have already carried out a quantum-limited measurement of the micropillar thermal noise at low temperature.

  20. A micropillar for cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Aurélien; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Van Brackel, Emmanuel; Chartier, Claude; Ducloux, Olivier; Le Traon, Olivier; Michel, Christophe; Pinard, Laurent; Flaminio, Raffaele; Deléglise, Samuel; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Demonstrating the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical object is a major experimental challenge in physics, at the origin of the rapid emergence of cavity optomechanics. We have developed a new generation of optomechanical devices, based on a microgram quartz micropillar with a very high mechanical quality factor. The structure is used as end mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity with a high optical finesse, leading to ultra-sensitive interferometric measurement of the resonator displacement. We expect to reach the ground state of this optomechanical resonator by combining cryogenic cooling in a dilution fridge at 30 mK and radiation-pressure cooling. We have already carried out a quantum-limited measurement of the micropillar thermal noise at low temperature.

  1. Status of the ILC Crab Cavity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Grimm, T.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-10-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require two dipole cavities to 'crab' the electron and positron bunches prior to their collision. It is proposed to use two 9 cell SCRF dipole cavities operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz, with a transverse gradient of 3.8MV/m in order to provide the required transverse kick. Extensive numerical modelling of this cavity and its couplers has been performed. Aluminium prototypes have been manufactured and tested to measure the RF properties of the cavity and couplers. In addition single cell niobium prototypes have been manufactured and tested in a vertical cryostat. The International Collider (ILC) [1] collides bunches of electrons and positrons at a crossing angle of 14 mrad. The angle between these bunches causes a loss in luminosity due to geometric effects [2]. The luminosity lost from this geometric effect can be recovered by rotating the bunches into alignment prior to collision. One possible method of rotating the bunches is to use a crab cavity [3]. A crab cavity is a transverse defecting cavity, where the phase of the cavity is such that the head and tail of the bunch receive equal and opposite kicks. As the bunches are only 500 nm wide in the horizontal plane, the cavity phase must be strictly controlled to avoid the bunch centre being deflected too much. In order to keep the phase stability within the required limits it is required that the cavity be superconducting to avoid thermal effects in both the cavity and its RF source. At the location of the crab cavity in the ILC there is only 23 cm separation between the centre of the cavity and the extraction line, hence the cavity must be small enough to fit in this space. This, along with the difficulty of making high frequency SRF components, set the frequency of the cavity to 3.9 GHz.

  2. Superconducting Thin Films for SRF Cavity Applications: A Route to Higher Field Gradient Linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, Wiliam Michael

    Many linear accelerator (linac) applications rely on the use of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. In order to overcome the current field gradient limits imposed by the use of bulk niobium, a model involving the deposition of alternating superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) thin films onto the interior surface of SRF cavities has been proposed. Since SRF performance is a surface phenomenon, the critical surface of these cavities is less than 1 micron thick, thus enabling the use of thin films. Before such approach can successfully be implemented fundamental studies correlating the microstructure and superconducting properties of thin films are needed. To this end the effect of grain boundary density and interfacial strain in thin films has been explored. Thin films with a smaller grain boundary density were found to have better superconducting properties than films with a larger grain boundary density. Interfacial strain due to a lattice mismatch between the film and substrate lead to two regions in films, one strained region near the interface and one relaxed region away from the interface. The presence of two regions in the film resulted in two types of superconducting behavior. Niobium films were deposited onto copper surfaces to help understand why previous attempts of implementing niobium coated copper cavities in order to exploit the better thermal properties of copper had varying degrees of success. It was found that an increased growth temperature produced niobium films with larger grains and correspondingly better superconducting properties. Proof of principle multilayer samples were prepared to test the SIS model. For the first time, multilayers were produced that were capable of shielding an underlying niobium film from vortex penetration beyond the lower critical field of bulk niobium. This result provides evidence supporting the feasibility of the SIS model.

  3. Shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin after application of cavity disinfectants – SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivek; Rampal, Poonam; Kumar, Sukesh

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on dentin bond strengths of composite resin applied with two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred mandibular molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal surface to expose dentin in the midcoronal one-third. The dentinal surfaces were polished with waterproof-polishing papers. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups of 40 teeth each as follows: group 1(control) -- specimens were not treated with any cavity disinfectants. Groups 2--5 (experimental groups) -- dentin surfaces were treated with the following cavity disinfectants, respectively; 2% chlorhexidine solution, 0.1% benzalkonium chloride-based disinfectant, 1% chlorhexidine gel, and an iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectant. The specimens were then randomly divided into two subgroups including 20 teeth each to evaluate the effect of different bonding systems. Dentin bonding systems were applied to the dentin surfaces and the composite buildups were done. After the specimens were stored in an incubator for 24 hours, the shear bond strength was measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The specimens were then statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: One way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD tests were used. Results: There was no significant difference between chlorhexidine gel and control groups regardless of the type of the bonding agent used (P>0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions had a negative effect on the shear bond strength of self-etching bonding systems. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that when benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions are used as a cavity disinfectant, an etch-and-rinse bonding system should be preferred. PMID:22090756

  4. High-performance coaxial EPR cavity for investigations at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Ira B.; McKinney, Ted M.

    1984-07-01

    A microwave cavity suitable for heating a sample to temperatures above 800 °C within 15 s at gas pressures above 17.5 MPa is reported. The cavity is coaxial and operates in the TE011 mode at frequencies between 9 and 10 GHz. The heating element is constructed of nickel-chromium (i.e., Chromel) wire. It consists of two concentric helices wound in opposite senses (directions) and connected in series so as to minimize the magnetic field generated by the heater current. The heater is potted in magnesium oxide-phosphate ceramic and placed inside of a cylinder made from 50-μm copper foil which provides uniform temperature distribution and shields the heater from the microwave field. This assembly then serves as the heating element and the coaxial conductor of the cavity. The diameter of the coaxial heater assembly is approximately 7 mm. The sample is confined by a cylindrical quartz cuvette which surrounds the coaxial conductor. Sample thicknesses of 0.2 to 1.0 mm can be used. Heating from room temperature to 800 °C requires between 15 and 20 s. Operating pressures up to 17 MPa have been used, although the structural design limit of the brass or beryllium copper walls is greater than 22 MPa. Modulation coils are placed in recessed areas of the cavity walls and covered with a thin layer of copper. Cooling water flows through channels cut into the walls to maintain constant microwave parameters. Q factors of 8000 -12 000 can be obtained depending on the sample.

  5. Magnetic spheres in microwave cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare Rameshti, Babak; Cao, Yunshan; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2015-06-01

    We apply Mie scattering theory to study the interaction of magnetic spheres with microwaves in cavities beyond the magnetostatic and rotating wave approximations. We demonstrate that both strong and ultrastrong coupling can be realized for stand alone magnetic spheres made from yttrium iron garnet (YIG), acting as an efficient microwave antenna. The eigenmodes of YIG spheres with radii of the order mm display distinct higher angular momentum character that has been observed in experiments.

  6. Grinding Inside A Toroidal Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Walter; Adams, James F.; Burley, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    Weld lines ground smooth within about 0.001 in. Grinding tool for smoothing longitudinal weld lines inside toroidal cavity includes curved tunnel jig to guide grinding "mouse" along weld line. Curvature of tunnel jig matched to shape of toroid so grinding ball in mouse follows circular arc of correct radius as mouse is pushed along tunnel. Tool enables precise control of grindout shape, yet easy to use.

  7. Creative Copper Crests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knab, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to create an art activity that would link the computer-created business cards of fourth-grade students with an upcoming school-wide medieval event. Creating family crests from copper foil would be a great connection, since they, like business cards, are an individual's way to identify themselves to others.…

  8. Botryomycosis in a lung cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, D; Ramasubramanian, V; Gopalakrishnan, Ram; Jessani, Laxman G

    2016-01-01

    Botryomycosis is a rare pyogranulomatous disease characterized by suppurative and often granulomatous bacterial infection of the skin, soft tissues and viscera. Only about 90 cases have been reported in world literature till date: 75% of them are cases of cutaneous botryomycosis. Of the 18 reported cases of primary pulmonary botryomycosis, only one had histologically proven botryomycosis in a lung cavity. We report here a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis occurring in a lung cavity, which is to the best of our knowledge first such case from India. The index case was a 62 year old female who presented to us with recurrent episodes of non-massive streaky hemoptysis with CT chest revealing ‘Air Crescent’ sign with a probable fungal ball in a left upper lobe cavity. Left upper pulmonary lobectomy was done and histopathology of the cavitary tissue revealed Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and features suggestive of Botryomycosis. Tissue culture from the cavitary specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Botryomycosis can mimic Aspergilloma radiologically as was seen in our case, but therapy is often a combination of both medical and surgical measures unlike Aspergilloma. PMID:27625451

  9. Optomechanic interactions in phoxonic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Oudich, Mourad; Pennec, Yan; El-Jallal, Said

    2014-12-15

    Phoxonic crystals are periodic structures exhibiting simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps, thus allowing the confinement of both excitations in the same cavity. The phonon-photon interaction can be enhanced due to the overlap of both waves in the cavity. In this paper, we discuss some of our recent theoretical works on the strength of the optomechanic coupling, based on both photoelastic and moving interfaces mechanisms, in different (2D, slabs, strips) phoxonic crystals cavities. The cases of two-dimensional infinite and slab structures will enable us to mention the important role of the symmetry and degeneracy of the modes, as well as the role of the materials whose photoelastic constants can be wavelength dependent. Depending on the phonon-photon pair, the photoelastic and moving interface mechanisms can contribute in phase or out-of-phase. Then, the main part of the paper will be devoted to the optomechanic interaction in a corrugated nanobeam waveguide exhibiting dual phononic/photonic band gaps. Such structures can provide photonic modes with very high quality factor, high frequency phononic modes of a few GHz inside a gap and optomechanical coupling rate reaching a few MHz.

  10. Superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padamsee, H.

    1992-02-01

    RF Superconductivity has become an important technology for particle accelerators for high energy physics, nuclear physics, and free electron lasers. More than 100 MVolts of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities have been installed in accelerators for heavy ions and operated at gradients of 2-3 MV/m in excess of 105 hours. More than 500 MVolts are installed in electron accelerators and operated at gradients of 4-6 MV/m in excess of 104 hours. Encouraged by this success, another 500 meters of SRF cavities are in the production line. New applications for High Energy Physics are forthcoming for high current e+e- colliders in the B-quark energy range (B-factory). For the next linear collider in the TeV energy range, there are many compelling attractions to use SRF, if the gradients can be improved substantially and the costs lowered. Substantial progress has been made in understanding performance limitations and in inventing cures through better cavity geometries, materials, and processes. Techniques are now in hand to reach 15-20 MV/m accelerating. In light of this progress, the potential of high gradient SRF for a TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA) will be explored.

  11. The inter-relationship between grain boundary sliding and cavitation during creep of polycrystalline copper

    SciTech Connect

    Ayensu, A.; Langdon, T.G.

    1996-04-01

    High-temperature creep tests were conducted on polycrystalline copper of commercial purity in order to investigate the inter-relationship between the extent and the rate of grain boundary sliding (GBS) and the development of internal cavitation. An image processing technique was used to provide quantitative information on the size and shape of the cavities formed over a range of stresses and at temperatures from 673 to 873 K. The results demonstrate that cavity development is inhomogeneous within any specimen, such that there is an increase in the level of cavitation in regions of higher local strain. It is shown by quantitative measurements that the total cavitated area increases at the faster sliding rates, but the number density of cavities decreases at the highest sliding rates because of cavity interlinkage. When interlinkage is taken into account, the results confirm that the overall level of cavitation is related to the occurrence of GBS.

  12. Acoustic cavity technology for high performance injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of damping more than one mode of rocket engine combustion instability by means of differently tuned acoustic cavities sharing a common entrance was shown. Analytical procedures and acoustic modeling techniques for predicting the stability behavior of acoustic cavity designs in hot firings were developed. Full scale testing of various common entrance, dual cavity configurations, and subscale testing for the purpose of obtaining motion pictures of the cavity entrance region, to aid in determining the mechanism of cavity damping were the two major aspects of the program.

  13. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.; Jackaway, Adam D.

    2000-05-16

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  14. Controlled directional scattering cavity for tubular absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1982-01-01

    A specular cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. The cavity is provided with a series of V groove-like indentations (or pyramidal-type indentations) which redirect energy entering between the receiver and cavity structure onto the receiver. The aperture opening of each V groove is less than half the cavity opening and in most preferred embodiments, much less than half. This enables the optical receiver to be emplaced a distance g from the cavity wherein 0.414r

  15. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  16. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Smith, J. D.A.; Rimmer, R.; Wang, H.; Delayen, J.; Calaga, R.

    2009-05-01

    In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme but the frequency cannot be increased any higher due to the long bunch length of the LHC beam. This will require a novel compact crab cavity design. A superconducting version of a two rod coaxial deflecting cavity as a suitable design is proposed in this paper.

  17. Control of Cavity Resonance Using Oscillatory Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarfe, Alison Lamp; Chokani, Ndaona

    2000-01-01

    The near-zero net mass oscillatory blowing control of a subsonic cavity flow has been experimentally investigated. An actuator was designed and fabricated to provide both steady and oscillatory blowing over a range of blowing amplitudes and forcing frequencies. The blowing was applied just upstream of the cavity front Wall through interchangeable plate configurations These configurations enabled the effects of hole size, hole shape, and blowing angle to be examined. A significant finding is that in terms of the blowing amplitude, the near zero net mass oscillatory blowing is much more effective than steady blowing; momentum coefficients Lip two orders of magnitude smaller than those required for steady blowing are sufficient to accomplish the same control of cavity resonance. The detailed measurements obtained in the experiment include fluctuating pressure data within the cavity wall, and hot-wire measurements of the cavity shear layer. Spectral and wavelet analysis techniques are applied to understand the dynamics and mechanisms of the cavity flow with control. The oscillatory blowing, is effective in enhancing the mixing in the cavity shear layer and thus modifying the feedback loop associated with the cavity resonance. The nonlinear interactions in the cavity flow are no longer driven by the resonant cavity modes but by the forcing associated with the oscillatory blowing. The oscillatory blowing does not suppress the mode switching behavior of the cavity flow, but the amplitude modulation is reduced.

  18. Plasmonic Coupled Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupled cavity modes on Moire surfaces. An experimental study has been made of the propagation of SPPs on a thin silver surface that is textured with Moire surface pattern using interference lithography. The Moire surface contains periodic array of one dimensional cavities. The distance between the cavities can be controlled by changing the periodicities of Moire surface. When the SPP cavity separation is sufficiently small, we show splitting of strongly coupled plasmonic cavity modes through numerical simulations. Conversely, when the SPP cavity separation is sufficiently large, SPP cavity modes are found to be localized and do not show splitting of SPP cavity modes . This splitting of SPP cavity modes are well explained with a tight binding model that has been succesfully applied in photonic coupled cavities. Reflection measurements and numerical simulation of a large number of adjacent SPP cavities have shown a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) type plasmonic waveguide band formation within the band gap region of unperturbed uniform grating.

  19. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall,G. Burt,C. Lingwood,Robert Rimmer,Haipeng Wang; Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Lingwood, C.; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng

    2010-05-01

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  20. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2010-05-23

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  1. Shape Determination for Deformed Electromagnetic Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, Volkan; Ko, Kwok; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zhenghai; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2007-12-10

    The measured physical parameters of a superconducting cavity differ from those of the designed ideal cavity. This is due to shape deviations caused by both loose machine tolerances during fabrication and by the tuning process for the accelerating mode. We present a shape determination algorithm to solve for the unknown deviations from the ideal cavity using experimentally measured cavity data. The objective is to match the results of the deformed cavity model to experimental data through least-squares minimization. The inversion variables are unknown shape deformation parameters that describe perturbations of the ideal cavity. The constraint is the Maxwell eigenvalue problem. We solve the nonlinear optimization problem using a line-search based reduced space Gauss-Newton method where we compute shape sensitivities with a discrete adjoint approach. We present two shape determination examples, one from synthetic and the other from experimental data. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is very effective in determining the deformed cavity shape.

  2. Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diode

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE, KENT D.; CHOW, WENG W.; FISCHER, ARTHUR J.; GEIB, KENT M.; HOU, HONG Q.

    1999-09-16

    We report the operation of an electrically injected monolithic coupled resonator vertical cavity laser which consists of an active cavity containing In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As quantum wells optically coupled to a passive GaAs cavity. This device demonstrates novel modulation characteristics arising from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. A composite mode theory is used to model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser. It is shown that the laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. Under forward biasing, the modulation is due to carrier induced changes in the refractive index, while for reverse bias operation the modulation is caused by field dependent cavity enhanced absorption.

  3. RF, Thermal and Structural Analysis of the 201.25 MHz MuonIonization Cooling Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, S.; Li, D.

    2005-05-10

    A finite element analysis has been carried out to characterize the RF, thermal and structural behavior of the prototype 201.25 MHz cavity for a muon ionization cooling channel. A single ANSYS model has been developed to perform all of the calculations in a multi-step process. The high-gradient closed-cell cavity is currently being fabricated for the MICE (international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) and MUCOOL experiments. The 1200 mm diameter cavity is constructed of 6 mm thick copper sheet and incorporates a rounded pillbox-like profile with an open beam iris terminated by 420 mm diameter, 0.38 mm thick curved beryllium foils. Tuning is accomplished through elastic deformation of the cavity, and cooling is provided by external water passages. Details of the analysis methodology will be presented including a description of the ANSYS macro that computes the heat loads from the RF solution and applies them directly to the thermal model. The process and results of a calculation to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity will also be presented.

  4. Pool boiling on surfaces with mini-fins and micro-cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuszko, Robert; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2012-11-01

    The experimental studies presented here focused on pool boiling heat transfer on mini-fin arrays, mini-fins with perforated covering and surfaces with micro-cavities. The experiments were carried out for water and fluorinert FC-72 at atmospheric pressure. Mini-fins of 0.5 and 1 mm in height were uniformly spaced on the base surface. The copper foil with holes of 0.1 mm in diameter (pitch 0.2/0.4 mm), sintered with the fin tips, formed a system of connected perpendicular and horizontal tunnels. The micro-cavities were obtained through spark erosion. The maximal depth of the craters of these cavities was 15 - 30 μm and depended on the parameters of the branding-pen settings. At medium and small heat fluxes, structures with mini-fins showed the best boiling heat transfer performance both for water and FC-72. At medium and high heat fluxes (above 70 kW/m2 for water and 25 kW/m2 for FC-72), surfaces with mini-fins without porous covering and micro-cavities produced the highest heat transfer coefficients. The surfaces obtained with spark erosion require a proper selection of geometrical parameters for particular liquids - smaller diameters of cavities are suitable for liquids with lower surface tension (FC-72).

  5. RACE and Calculations of Three-dimensional Distributed Cavity Phase Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Ruoxin; Gibble, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The design for RACE, a Rb-clock flight experiment for the ISS, is described. The cold collision shift and multiple launching (juggling) have important implications for the design and the resulting clock accuracy and stability. We present and discuss the double clock design for RACE. This design reduces the noise contributions of the local oscillator and simplifies and enhances an accuracy evaluation of the clock. As we try to push beyond the current accuracies of clocks, new systematic errors become important. The best fountain clocks are using cylindrical TE(sub 011) microwave cavities. We recently pointed out that many atoms pass through a node of the standing wave microwave field in these cavities. Previous studies have shown potentially large frequency shifts for atoms passing through nodes in a TE(sub 013) cavity. The shift occurs because there is a small traveling wave component due to the absorption of the copper cavity walls. The small traveling wave component leads to position dependent phase shifts. To study these effects, we perform Finite Element calculations. Three-dimensional Finite Element calculations require significant computer resources. Here we show that the cylindrical boundary condition can be Fourier decomposed to a short series of two-dimensional problems. This dramatically reduces the time and memory required and we obtain (3D) phase distributions for a variety of cavities. With these results, we will be able to analyze this frequency shift in fountain and future space clocks.

  6. THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE 53 MHZ RF CAVITIES FOR THE NSLS X-RAY RING.

    SciTech Connect

    KEANE,J.; MORTAZAVI,P.; THOMAS,M.; TOWNE,N.; WOODLE,M.

    1999-03-29

    Four single cell rf cavities currently provide the required energy to the x-ray ring beam. Mechanical deficiencies and limitations of these early cavities necessitated their replacement with newly designed units. The selection of forged OFHC copper, replacement of traditional Conflat flanges with integrally machined Marmon type flanges, use of commercial spring loaded metal seals for both vacuum and rf purposes and an enhanced thermal cooling system are among the new design features. Ancillary components such as the input couplers and HOM antennae have also been redesigned utilizing a thermally conductivity ceramic material. The design characteristics and performance will be reviewed.

  7. Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenehan, Sean Michael

    The field of cavity optomechanics, which concerns the coupling of a mechanical object's motion to the electromagnetic field of a high finesse cavity, allows for exquisitely sensitive measurements of mechanical motion, from large-scale gravitational wave detection to microscale accelerometers. Moreover, it provides a potential means to control and engineer the state of a macroscopic mechanical object at the quantum level, provided one can realize sufficiently strong interaction strengths relative to the ambient thermal noise. Recent experiments utilizing the optomechanical interaction to cool mechanical resonators to their motional quantum ground state allow for a variety of quantum engineering applications, including preparation of non-classical mechanical states and coherent optical to microwave conversion. Optomechanical crystals (OMCs), in which bandgaps for both optical and mechanical waves can be introduced through patterning of a material, provide one particularly attractive means for realizing strong interactions between high-frequency mechanical resonators and near-infrared light. Beyond the usual paradigm of cavity optomechanics involving isolated single mechanical elements, OMCs can also be fashioned into planar circuits for photons and phonons, and arrays of optomechanical elements can be interconnected via optical and acoustic waveguides. Such coupled OMC arrays have been proposed as a way to realize quantum optomechanical memories, nanomechanical circuits for continuous variable quantum information processing and phononic quantum networks, and as a platform for engineering and studying quantum many-body physics of optomechanical meta-materials. However, while ground state occupancies (that is, average phonon occupancies less than one) have been achieved in OMC cavities utilizing laser cooling techniques, parasitic absorption and the concomitant degradation of the mechanical quality factor fundamentally limit this approach. On the other hand, the high

  8. [Stress in teeth restored with gold and copper-aluminum alloys under distributed force. Finite element method].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, R C; Matson, E

    1990-01-01

    The author studied the stress distribution which occurs in casted metalic restoration a gold alloy type II and a copper-aluminum, with cavity preparation of both types: intracoronal or extracoronal cavity using the finite elements method in a first right inferior molar. The conclusion was that the mechanical performance of both are very similar. Stress occurred in a dental structure which alloy cast restoration are smaller than that occurred in a tooth without cavity preparation. The cavity preparation with intracoronal shows a better stress distribution in the dentine than that with extracoronal. In the region near the buccopulpal line angle occurs a stress concentration in despite of the type of the cavity metallic alloy used.

  9. Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decay at an early stage helps maintain the strength of the tooth and limits the chance of damage to the pulp. Fillings Fillings are made of various materials and may be put inside the tooth or ...

  10. Production of ultrahigh purity copper using waste copper nitrate solution.

    PubMed

    Choi, J Y; Kim, D S

    2003-04-25

    The production of ultrahigh purity copper (99.9999%) by electrolysis in the presence of a cementation barrier has been attempted employing a waste nitric copper etching solution as the electrolyte. The amount of copper deposited on the cathode increased almost linearly with electrolysis time and the purity of copper was observed to increase as the electrolyte concentration was increased. At some point, however, as the electrolyte concentration increased, the purity of copper decreased slightly. As the total surface area of cementation barrier increased, the purity of product increased. The electrolyte temperature should be maintained below 35 degrees C in the range of investigated electrolysis conditions to obtain the ultrahigh purity copper. Considering that several industrial waste solutions contain valuable metallic components the result of present study may support a claim that electrowinning is a very desirable process for their treatment and recovery.

  11. Characterization of failure processes in tungsten copper composites under fatigue loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yong-Suk; Verrilli, Michael J.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    1989-01-01

    A fractographic and metallographic investigation was performed on specimens of a tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite (9 vol percent), which had experienced fatigue failures at elevated temperatures. Major failure modes and possible failure mechanisms, with an emphasis placed on characterizing fatigue damage accumulation, were determined. Metallography of specimens fatigued under isothermal cyclic loading suggested that fatigue damage initiates in the matrix. Cracks nucleated within the copper matrix at grain boundaries, and they propagated through cavity coalescence. The growing cracks subsequently interacted with the reinforcing tungsten fibers, producing a localized ductile fiber failure. Examinations of interrupted tests before final failure confirmed the suggested fatigue damage processes.

  12. Experiments and computer simulations of the dynamic cavity formed by a particulated shaped-charge jet in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.C.; Winer, K.A.; Reaugh, J.E.; Breithaupt, R.D.; Baum, D.W.

    1995-02-28

    Experiments have been carried out to measure the dynamic cavity growth of dry sand during penetration by particulated jets from Viper 65-mm-diameter, Cu-lined conical shaped charges at 1,000-mm standoff. The sand target was instrumented with foil switches, piezoelectric pins, and pressure transducers. Flash radiography at 450-keV was used to characterize the jets before impact and to image the target hole during jet penetration. The authors have developed a dry sand equation of state based on existing Hugoniot data as input to a porous material model incorporated in the 2-D arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrocode CALE. They have carried out sand penetration simulations in which the particulated jet is modeled as hot copper rods. By varying parameters in the sand and copper descriptions they identify those features that affect the dynamic cavity formation.

  13. Tumours of the nasal cavity*

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156

  14. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis.

  15. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  16. Mass renormalization in cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Matloob, Reza

    2011-01-15

    We show that the presence of a background medium and a boundary surface or surfaces in cavity QED produces no change in the energy shift of a free charged particle due to its coupling to the fluctuating electromagnetic field of the vacuum. This clarifies that the electromagnetic and the observed mass of the charged particle are not affected by the modification of the field of the vacuum. The calculations are nonrelativistic and restricted to the dipole approximation but are otherwise based on the general requirements of causality.

  17. Basketballs as spherical acoustic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Daniel A.

    2010-06-01

    The sound field resulting from striking a basketball is found to be rich in frequency content, with over 50 partials in the frequency range of 0-12 kHz. The frequencies are found to closely match theoretical expectations for standing wave patterns inside a spherical cavity. Because of the degenerate nature of the mode shapes, explicit identification of the modes is not possible without internal investigation with a microphone probe. A basketball proves to be an interesting application of a boundary value problem involving spherical coordinates.

  18. Copper Vapor Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    percent measured during this program in a static copper vapor apparatus developed at PIB . This efficiency has been calculated by dividing the energy of a... laser medium. A measure of beam quality may be defined in terms ot the energy delivered in the tar field in relatum to the energy delivered by a...phase of the work the homogeneity requirements for the medium of a high -power laser was reviewed. These requirements were translated into measurable

  19. Performance of Single Crystal Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Singer, Waldemar; Singer, Xenia; Reschke, Detlef; Brinkmann, A.

    2008-07-01

    We have fabricated and tested a total of six single cell niobium cavities, made from single crystal, high purity niobium. Two of the three cavities of the TESLA shape (1300 MHz) were made from Heraeus niobium by extending a smaller single crystal by rolling and annealing steps; the third cavity was made by spinning from CBMM material. The three other cavities of the scaled "Low Loss" (LL) shape (two) and "High Gradient" (HG) shape (one) resonated at 2.3 GHz and were fabricated from "as received" single crystals, both from Heraeus and CBMM niobium. After appropriate surface treatments by buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing most cavities performed quite nicely and peak surface magnetic fields of ~ 160 mT or above corresponding to accelerating gradients between 38 MV/m and 45 MV/m were reached. This paper reports about the performance of these cavities.

  20. Subwavelength Nanopatch Cavities for Semiconductor Plasmon Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolatou, Christina; Rana, Farhan

    2008-05-01

    We propose and analyze a family of nanoscale cavities for electrically-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor lasers that use surface plasmons to provide optical mode confinement in cavities which have dimensions in the 100-300 nm range. The proposed laser cavities are in many ways nanoscale optical versions of micropatch antennas that are commonly used at microwave/RF frequencies. Surface plasmons are not only used for mode confinement but also for output beam shaping to realize single-lobe far-field radiation patterns with narrow beam waists from subwavelength size cavities. We identify the cavity modes with the largest quality factors and modal gain, and show that in the near-IR wavelength range (1.0-1.6 microns) cavity losses (including surface plasmon losses) can be compensated by the strong mode confinement in the gain region provided by the surface plasmons themselves and the required material threshold gain values can be smaller than 700 1/cm.

  1. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Jiao, Hong; O'Keefe, Anthony

    2002-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced methods have been extended to fiber optics by use of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as reflectors. High-finesse fiber cavities were fabricated from FBGs made in both germanium/boron-co-doped photosensitive fiber and hydrogen-loaded Corning SMF-28 fiber. Optical losses in these cavities were determined from the measured Fabry-Perot transmission spectra and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. For a 10-m-long single-mode fiber cavity, ring-down times in excess of 2 ms were observed at 1563.6 nm, and individual laser pulses were resolved. An evanescent-wave access block was produced within a fiber cavity, and an enhanced sensitivity to optical loss was observed as the external medium's refractive index was altered.

  2. Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Daniels, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant flow injected into the disk cavities; (3) coolant density; (4) leakage flows through the seal between blades; and (5) the role that each of these various flows has in determining the adiabatic recovery temperature at all of the critical locations within the cavities. The model and the test apparatus provide close geometrical and aerodynamic simulation of all the two-stage cavity flow regions for the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and the ability to simulate the sources and sinks for each cavity flow.

  3. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  4. Cavity-Dumped Communication Laser Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T.

    2003-01-01

    Cavity-dumped lasers have significant advantages over more conventional Q-switched lasers for high-rate operation with pulse position modulation communications, including the ability to emit laser pulses at 1- to 10-megahertz rates, with pulse widths of 0.5 to 5 nanoseconds. A major advantage of cavity dumping is the potential to vary the cavity output percentage from pulse to pulse, maintaining the remainder of the energy in reserve for the next pulse. This article presents the results of a simplified cavity-dumped laser model, establishing the requirements for cavity efficiency and projecting the ultimate laser efficiency attainable in normal operation. In addition, a method of reducing or eliminating laser dead time is suggested that could significantly enhance communication capacity. The design of a laboratory demonstration laser is presented with estimates of required cavity efficiency and demonstration potential.

  5. Rebuild of Capture Cavity 1 at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, E.; Arkan, T.; Borissov, E.; Dhanaraj, N.; Hocker, A.; Orlov, Y.; Peterson, T.; Premo, K.

    2014-01-01

    The front end of the proposed Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab employs two single cavity cryomodules, known as 'Capture Cavity 1' and 'Capture Cavity 2', for the first stage of acceleration. Capture Cavity 1 was previously used as the accelerating structure for the A0 Photoinjector to a peak energy of ~14 MeV. In its new location a gradient of ~25 MV/m is required. This has necessitated a major rebuild of the cryomodule including replacement of the cavity with a higher gradient one. Retrofitting the cavity and making upgrades to the module required significant redesign. The design choices and their rationale, summary of the rebuild, and early test results are presented.

  6. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the .pi.-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is .beta..lambda., where .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a .pi./2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range.

  7. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, J.H.

    1996-11-26

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the {pi}-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is {beta}{lambda}, where {lambda} is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a {pi}/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range. 5 figs.

  8. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    ScienceCinema

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2016-07-12

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  9. SPINNING MOTIONS IN CORONAL CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Stenborg, G. E-mail: guillermo.stenborg.ctr.ar@nrl.navy.mi

    2010-08-20

    In movies made from Fe XII 19.5 nm images, coronal cavities that graze or are detached from the solar limb appear as continually spinning structures, with sky-plane projected flow speeds in the range 5-10 km s{sup -1}. These whirling motions often persist in the same sense for up to several days and provide strong evidence that the cavities and the immediately surrounding streamer material have the form of helical flux ropes viewed along their axes. A pronounced bias toward spin in the equatorward direction is observed during 2008. We attribute this bias to the poleward concentration of the photospheric magnetic flux near sunspot minimum, which leads to asymmetric heating along large-scale coronal loops and tends to drive a flow from higher to lower latitudes; this flow is converted into an equatorward spinning motion when the loops pinch off to form a flux rope. As sunspot activity increases and the polar fields weaken, we expect the preferred direction of the spin to reverse.

  10. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2012-03-01

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  11. Influences of copper and design of intrauterine devices on endometrial bleeding in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S T; Forino, R V; Poon, C H; Moyer, D L

    1976-07-01

    Uterine bleeding in 8 rhesus monkeys was compared in response to plain vs. a specially fitted copper-wrapped IUD. All animals had utero-cutaneous surgical fistulas for accurate IUD insertion and removal. Daily observations for uterine bleeding between menstruations and quantitation of menstrual blood loss (MBL) were made. Following control periods of observation, each monkey was inserted with either a plain or a copper-wrapped IUD and then studied for 4 consecutive menstrual periods. Each IUD was especially fashioned to an estimate of individual uterine cavity size. Some were wrapped with pure copper wire of 30 sp mm surface area. In some animals the devices were later removed from the uterus, the copper wire taken off, and the plain polyethylene oval-Ts reinserted. In some animals originally wearing plain polyethylene devices, the IUDs were removed, wrapped with copper wire, and reinserted into the same monkeys. During the observed 4 consecutive preinsertion periods, MBL averaged 1.54 ml and was the same in the 4 cycles in which a plain polyethylene oval-T device was in place. No intermenstrual bleeding was observed, except slight spotting for the first 1 or 2 days. During the 4 cycles, with the copper-wound device present, mean MBL was 1.28 ml. Having individually fitted each uterine cavity with a best-fitting IUD was considered important. The addition of copper had not increased the bleeding. In humans, especially fitted contraceptive devices may minimize complications of bleeding and pain as compared with standard designs. Bleeding and pain have been the most frequent complications leading to removal of IUDs.

  12. Compact Superconducting Crabbing and Deflecting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika

    2012-09-01

    Recently, new geometries for superconducting crabbing and deflecting cavities have been developed that have significantly improved properties over those the standard TM{sub 110} cavities. They are smaller, have low surface fields, high shunt impedance and, more importantly for some of them, no lower-order-mode with a well-separated fundamental mode. This talk will present the status of the development of these cavities.

  13. Continuously tunable, split-cavity gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, G. F.; Gross, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a gyrotron cavity configuration which is split in halves longitudinally, to allow any frequency lying between the fixed cavity resonance to be assessed by mechanically changing the separation of the two halves. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the rate-of-change in resonant frequency with separation is greatest if the minor axis of the cavity cross section is the one undergoing change. Excellent agreement with theory is noted for these results.

  14. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, Jr., Francis W.; Chiu, Shiu-Chu; Parks, Paul; Rawls, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a resonant coil cavity wave launcher for energizing a plasma immersed in a magnetic field. Energization includes launching fast Alfven waves to excite ion cyclotron frequency resonances in the plasma. The cavity includes inductive and capacitive reactive members spaced no further than one-quarter wavelength from a first wall confinement chamber of the plasma. The cavity wave launcher is energized by connection to a waveguide or transmission line carrying forward power from a remote radio frequency energy source.

  15. Outbursts and cavities in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, Sergei

    Based on analysis of the images made during the first 13 minutes after the collision of the impact module of the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft with Comet 9P/Tempel 1, Ipatov & A'Hearn [1] studied time variations of ejection of material after this impact. They showed that, besides the normal ejection, at time t_{e} after the DI collision between 8 s and 60 s there was a considerable additional ejection (a triggered outburst) of small (micron size) particles. It increased the mean velocities of observed small ejected particles (compared with the normal ejection). The outburst could be caused by excavation of a large cavity with dust and gas under pressure. The largest cavity excavated after the collision could be relatively deep because a considerable excess ejection lasted during about 50 s. Schultz et al. [2] concluded that the diameter d_{tc} of the DI transient crater was about 200 m. Some authors support smaller values of d_{tc}. The depth of the DI crater at t_{e}=8 s was estimated in [3] to be about 6 m for d_{tc}=200 m and 4 m for d_{tc}=100 m. The distance between the pre-impact surface of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 and the upper border of the largest excavated cavity equal to about 4-6 m, and sizes of particles inside the cavities of a few microns are in good agreement with the results obtained by Kossacki & Szutowicz [4]. In their models of the explosion of Comet 17P/Holmes, the initial sublimation front of the CO ice was located at a depth of 4 m, 10 m, or 20 m, and calculations were finished when the CO pressure exceeded the threshold value 10 kPa. It was shown that the pressure of CO vapor can rise to this value only when the nucleus is composed of very fine grains, a few microns in radius. The porous structure of comets provides enough space for sublimation. The projection of the velocity of the leading edge of the DI cloud (onto the plane perpendicular to the line of sight) was about 100-200 m/s and is typical for outburst particles ejected from comets

  16. Oxidation Mechanism of Copper Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskinen, Pekka; Patana, Sonja; Kobylin, Petri; Latostenmaa, Petri

    2014-09-01

    The oxidation mechanism of copper selenide was investigated at deselenization temperatures of copper refining anode slimes. The isothermal roasting of synthetic, massive copper selenide in flowing oxygen and oxygen - 20% sulfur dioxide mixtures at 450-550 °C indicate that in both atmospheres the mass of Cu2Se increases as a function of time, due to formation of copper selenite as an intermediate product. Copper selenide oxidises to copper oxides without formation of thick copper selenite scales, and a significant fraction of selenium is vaporized as SeO2(g). The oxidation product scales on Cu2Se are porous which allows transport of atmospheric oxygen to the reaction zone and selenium dioxide vapor to the surrounding gas. Predominance area diagrams of the copper-selenium system, constructed for selenium roasting conditions, indicate that the stable phase of copper in a selenium roaster gas with SO2 is the sulfate CuSO4. The cuprous oxide formed in decomposition of Cu2Se is further sulfated to CuSO4.

  17. Copper corrosion in coastal Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the atmospheric corrosion performance of copper and other metals along the Oregon coast. Only the copper results will be presented in this paper. Atmospheric corrosion measurements of copper samples were made at seven bridges, eight coastal communities, and three inland reference sites to quantify and understand the effect of high chloride environments on the corrosion performance of copper. The materials were atmospherically exposed for 1, 2, and 3 years to examine the effects of sheltering, orientation, distance from the ocean, and coastal microclimates on the rate of corrosion and the composition of the corrosion film.

  18. Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, H; Doherty, A C

    2002-11-15

    Modern cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) illuminates the most fundamental aspects of coherence and decoherence in quantum mechanics. Experiments on atoms in cavities can be described by elementary models but reveal intriguing subtleties of the interplay of coherent dynamics with external couplings. Recent activity in this area has pioneered powerful new approaches to the study of quantum coherence and has fueled the growth of quantum information science. In years to come, the purview of cavity QED will continue to grow as researchers build on a rich infrastructure to attack some of the most pressing open questions in micro- and mesoscopic physics.

  19. Quantum teleportation with atoms trapped in cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2004-09-01

    We propose a scheme to implement the quantum teleportation protocol with single atoms trapped in cavities. The scheme is based on the adiabatic passage and the polarization measurement. We show that it is possible to teleport the internal state of an atom trapped in a cavity to an atom trapped in another cavity with the success probability of 1/2 and the fidelity of 1. The scheme is resistant to a number of considerable imperfections such as the violation of the Lamb-Dicke condition, weak atom-cavity coupling, spontaneous emission, and detection inefficiency.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Ingot Nb Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Matalevich, Joseph; Rao Myneni, Ganapati

    2014-07-01

    This contribution presents the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and of strain along the contour of a single-cell cavity made of ingot Nb subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. The data were used to infer mechanical properties of this material after cavity fabrication, by comparison with the results from simulation calculations done with ANSYS. The objective is to provide useful information about the mechanical properties of ingot Nb cavities which can be used in the design phase of SRF cavities intended to be built with this material.

  1. Cavity-locked ring down spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Harb, Charles C.; Spence, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Distinct locking and sampling light beams are used in a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system to perform multiple ring-down measurements while the laser and ring-down cavity are continuously locked. The sampling and locking light beams have different frequencies, to ensure that the sampling and locking light are decoupled within the cavity. Preferably, the ring-down cavity is ring-shaped, the sampling light is s-polarized, and the locking light is p-polarized. Transmitted sampling light is used for ring-down measurements, while reflected locking light is used for locking in a Pound-Drever scheme.

  2. Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

    2007-08-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

  3. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  4. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  5. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  6. Comparison of coherently coupled multi-cavity and quantum dot embedded single cavity systems.

    PubMed

    Kocaman, Serdar; Sayan, Gönül Turhan

    2016-12-12

    Temporal group delays originating from the optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) are compared in two systems. Similar transmission characteristics are observed between a coherently coupled high-Q multi-cavity array and a single quantum dot (QD) embedded cavity in the weak coupling regime. However, theoretically generated group delay values for the multi-cavity case are around two times higher. Both configurations allow direct scalability for chip-scale optical pulse trapping and coupled-cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED).

  7. Synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles by solution plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Genki; Hosokai, Sou; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles via a solution plasma, in which the effect of the electrolyte and electrolysis time on the morphology of the products was mainly examined. In the experiments, a copper wire as a cathode was immersed in an electrolysis solution of a K2CO3 with the concentration from 0.001 to 0.50 M or a citrate buffer (pH = 4.8), and was melted by the local-concentration of current. The results demonstrated that by using the K2CO3 solution, we obtained CuO nanoflowers with many sharp nanorods, the size of which decreased with decreasing the concentration of the solution. Spherical particles of copper with/without pores formed when the citrate buffer was used. The pores in the copper nanoparticles appeared when the applied voltage changed from 105 V to 130 V, due to the dissolution of Cu2O.

  8. Mini-cavity-dumped laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lasers for use in high precision satellite ranging systems consist typically of an oscillator followed by several amplifier stages. While the shortest optical pulses are achieved by using a mode locked oscillator, such an oscillator is incompatible with the compact design needed in future, highly mobile systems. The laser oscillator achieves pulse lengths approaching those obtainable by mode locking, but in a much more compact and stable design. The oscillator uses two LiNbO3 Pockels cells inside the resonator. One Q-switches the oscillator, and the other is used in a pulse slicing scheme to cavity dump a portion of the circulating optical energy. The length of the optical output pulse measured at 425 + or - 50 picoseconds.

  9. Slow plasmons in grating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinli, Atilla; Karademir, Ertugrul; Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2016-03-01

    Recent research on surface plasmon polaritons and their applications have brought forward a wealth of information and continues to be of interest to many. In this report, we concentrate on propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and their interaction with matter. Using grating based metallic structures, it is possible to control the electrodynamics of propagating SPPs. Biharmonic gratings loaded with periodic Si stripes allow excitation of SPPs that are localized inside the band gap with grating coupling. The cavity state is formed due to periodic effective index modulation obtained by one harmonic of the grating and loaded Si stripes. More complicated grating structures such as metallic Moiré surfaces have also been shown to form a localized state inside the band gap when excited with Kretschmann configuration.

  10. An unobtrusive liquid sensor utilizing a micromilled RF spark gap transmitter and resonant cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, H.; Wilson, C.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports on a new dielectric liquid sensor that utilizes an RF sparkgap transmitter coupled with an aluminum microwave resonant cavity. The transmitter is a micromilled polymer transmitter housing with patterned copper electrodes that generate micro-arcs. This transmitter which operates outside the measured liquid generates a directed ultrawideband signal which is received by the aluminum waveguide. Absorption resonances in the microwave cavity, measured with a spectrum analyzer are a function of the liquids' dielectric constant at lower frequencies, as well as from molecular vibrations/rotations at higher frequencies. In many chemical manufacturing processes, liquids being manufactured are removed, tested in a lab, and then disposed of, or else they will contaminate the full batch. In beer brewing, for instance, samples are removed, density tested for alcohol content, then disposed of. Using this sensor, the chemical process could be continuously monitored by a computerized system without risk of contamination.

  11. The Heliosphere as Resonant Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bames, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    If a disturbance in the supersonic solar wind reaches the heliospheric shock, a number of events ensue. First, the shock itself responds with inward or outward motion. Secondly, the disturbance propagates outward through the heliosheath as a sound or magnetoacoustic wave; eventually it reaches the heliopause and is (partially) reflected back toward the termination shock. The reflected wave can return to the shock, affecting the shock's motion, and be reflected yet again. The repetition of these processes can produce a 'ringing' in the heliosheath. This suggests that it may be useful to regard the heliosheath as a resonant acoustic cavity with inner and outer boundaries at the termination shock and heliopause, respectively. To evaluate this concept we have developed a simple model of small-amplitude resonant oscillations in an outwardly flowing gas, with appropriate boundary conditions (shock on the interior, tangential discontinuity on the exterior boundary). The fundamental mode of oscillation has a period of order T approx. 2D/C, where C is the speed of sound in the heliosheath and D is the distance between the two boundaries. Typical numerical models of the heliosphere give C approx. 200-500 km/s and D approx. 20 - 100 AU, giving T approx. 0.5 - 2.5 years. Hence we suggest that motions of the heliosheath and termination shock will occur with time scales of the order of a year, and are the consequence of the resonant nature of the heliospheric cavity rather than the history of variation at the Sun and/or in the solar wind. In particular, we suggest that the motion of the termination shock may be unrelated to solar variations over the time scale of the sunspot cycle.

  12. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  13. Microwave Field Strength Measurement in a Rubidium Clock Cavity via Adiabatic Rapid Passage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    to be a very effective mans of measuring the microwave Rabi frequency. 5 ,: ’..*’-.*"" ’ : " "- ’"-" ’ - ".-;’,-- ’ -’.b...resonance lines at 794.7 rim, was used to pump atoms optically from the 52S1/2 (F - 2) Zeeman manifold into the 52Si/ 2 (F - 1) Zeeman manifold. The...Doppler- broadened absorption linewidth (-500 MHz) was greater than both the laser linewidth (-100 MHz) and the Zeeman splitting ((700 kHz). Thus

  14. Copper mediated carbometalation reactions.

    PubMed

    Müller, D S; Marek, I

    2016-08-08

    Since the first discovery of carbocupration of alkynes in the 1970s a tremendous amount of research has been carried out in this field. The exceptionally high selectivities obtained attribute to the great synthetic value of carbocupration reactions. This tutorial review will present the most important features of carbocupration of alkynes and highlight the most relevant reviews. Then a comprehensive review of copper mediated carbometalation of cyclopropenes will follow. The latter method has received much attention over the last decade as it allows the highly selective construction of poly-substituted cyclopropanes which can be transformed into acyclic derivatives bearing one or multiple tertiary or quaternary carbon stereocenters.

  15. Antimony activities in copper mattes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, M.; Toguri, J. M.

    1987-03-01

    A mass spectrometric technique combined with a double Knudsen cell was used to determine the antimony and copper activities in the Cu-Sb binary system at 1373 K and in the two-melt composition range of the Cu-S-Sb ternary system at 1423 K. The antimony and copper activities were calculated based on the intensity ration of the gaseous Sb and Cu species, over the unknown and known activity samples, respectively. γ{Sb/o} were found to be 1.1×10-2 in molten copper at 1373 K, and 1.8×10-2 and 0.44 in a copper-rich phase and in a matter phase, of the Cu-S-Sb ternary system at 1423 K, respectively. These values indicate, that antimony can be removed during the matte smelting and slagging stage of the copper smelting process. Interaction parameters of antimony in molten copper slagging stage of the copper smelting process. Interaction parameters of antimony in molten copper at 1423 K were calculated and found to be 10.7, -5.4, and 6.3 for ɛ{Sb/Sb} · ρSb Sb, and ɛ{Sb/S}, respectively.

  16. Lead and Copper Control 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is an overview of the most important water treatment strategies for the control of lead and copper release from drinking water corrosion. In addition to the sections specifically on lead and copper treatment, sections are included that cover sampling to find le...

  17. Survival analysis of a critical resource for cavity-nesting communities: patterns of tree cavity longevity.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Amanda B; Wiebe, Karen L; Martin, Kathy

    2012-09-01

    Tree cavities are a vital multi-annual resource used by cavity-nesting birds and mammals for nesting and shelter. The abundance of this resource will be influenced by the rates at which cavities are created and destroyed. We applied the demographic concepts of survival and longevity to populations of tree holes to investigate rates of loss for cavities in three tree species, as well as how characteristics of nest trees, habitat type, and species of excavator affected the persistence of tree cavities in trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides (95% of cavities were in aspen trees), in interior British Columbia, Canada. By modeling survival of 1635 nesting cavities in aspen over a time span of 16 years, we found that the decay stage of the nest tree was the most important factor determining cavity longevity. Cavities in trees with advanced decay had a relatively short median longevity of 7 years (95% CI 6-9 years), whereas those in living trees had a median longevity of more than 15 years. We found that cavity longevity was greater in continuous forest than in aspen grove habitat. Interestingly, cavities formed by weak excavators survived as long as those created by Northern Flickers (Colaptes auratus), despite occurring in more decayed tree stems. Thus, weak excavators may be selecting for characteristics that make a tree persistent, such as a broken top. Our results indicate that retention of cavities in large, live aspen trees is necessary to conserve persistent cavities, and that cavity longevity will have a large effect on the structure and function of cavity-using vertebrate communities.

  18. Hydrogen masers with cavity frequency switching servos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Harry E.; Owings, H. B.; Koppang, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    The stability of the free-running hydrogen maser is limited by pulling of the unperturbed hydrogen transition frequency due to instability of the cavity resonance frequency. While automatic spin-exchange tuning is in principle the more basic and accurate method, the required beam intensity switching and the long servo time constant result in reduced stability for measuring intervals up to 10(exp 6) seconds. More importantly, the spin-exchange tuning method requires a second stable frequency source as a reference, ideally a second hydrogen maser, to get the best results. The cavity frequency switching servo, on the other hand, has very little effect on the maser short term stability, and is fast enough to correct for cavity drift while maintaining the cavity at the spin-exchange tuned offset required to minimize instability due to beam intensity fluctuations. Not only does the cavity frequency switching servo not require a second stable frequency source, but the frequency reference is the atomic hydrogen radiated beam signal, so that no extra RF connections need be made to the cavity, and externally generated signals that would perturb the hydrogen atom need not be transmitted through the cavity. The operation of the cavity frequency switching stabilization method is discussed and the transient response of the servo and certain other aspects of the technique that have potential for achieving improved basic accuracy are illustrated.

  19. Geometric Model of a Coronal Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Gibson, S. E.; Ratawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; Reeves, K. K.; Schmidt, D. J.; Sterling, A. C.; Tripathi, D. K.; Williams, D. R.; Zhang, M.

    2010-01-01

    We observed a coronal cavity from August 8-18 2007 during a multi-instrument observing campaign organized under the auspices of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). Here we present initial efforts to model the cavity with a geometrical streamer-cavity model. The model is based the white-light streamer mode] of Gibson et a]. (2003 ), which has been enhanced by the addition of a cavity and the capability to model EUV and X-ray emission. The cavity is modeled with an elliptical cross-section and Gaussian fall-off in length and width inside the streamer. Density and temperature can be varied in the streamer and cavity and constrained via comparison with data. Although this model is purely morphological, it allows for three-dimensional, multi-temperature analysis and characterization of the data, which can then provide constraints for future physical modeling. Initial comparisons to STEREO/EUVI images of the cavity and streamer show that the model can provide a good fit to the data. This work is part of the effort of the International Space Science Institute International Team on Prominence Cavities

  20. Compact microwave cavity for hydrogen atomic clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Dejun; Zhang, Yan; Fu, Yigen; Zhang, Yanjun

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented that introduces the compact microwave cavity used in the hydrogen atomic clock. Special emphasis is placed on derivation of theoretical calculating equations of main parameters of the microwave cavity. A brief description is given of several methods for discriminating the oscillating modes. Experimental data and respective calculated values are also presented.

  1. The ADMX Microwave Cavity: Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollett, Nathan; ADMX Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), a direct-detection axion search, uses a tunable resonant cavity to enhance axion to photon conversion rates to a detectable level when the cavity resonance matches the mass of the axion. It has successfully taken data in the 460 - 890 MHz frequency range and is now probing a similar range with much higher sensitivity. However the axion mass is unknown and may be at higher frequencies than the currently operating system. In anticipation of future runs with an increased mass range, ADMX is conducting extensive research and development of microwave cavities. These developments include photonic band-gap cavities, multi-vane cavities, partitioned cavities, in-phase coupled cavities, and superconducting hybrid cavities. Many of these projects are in different stages between simulations and testing of physical prototypes. The status and current objectives of these projects will be presented. Supported by DOE Grants DE-SC0010280, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, the Heising-Simons Foundation and the LLNL, FNAL and PNNL LDRD program.

  2. Fast tuning of superconducting microwave cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, M.; Wilson, C. M.; Persson, F.; Johansson, G.; Shumeiko, V.; Bauch, T.; Duty, T.; Delsing, P.

    2008-11-07

    Photons are fundamental excitations of electromagnetic fields and can be captured in cavities. For a given cavity with a certain size, the fundamental mode has a fixed frequency f which gives the photons a specific 'color'. The cavity also has a typical lifetime {tau}, which results in a finite linewidth {delta}f. If the size of the cavity is changed fast compared to {tau}, and so that the frequency change {delta}f>>{delta}f, then it is possible to change the 'color' of the captured photons. Here we demonstrate superconducting microwave cavities, with tunable effective lengths. The tuning is obtained by varying a Josephson inductance at one end of the cavity. We show data on four different samples and demonstrate tuning by several hundred linewidths in a time {delta}t<<{tau}. Working in the few photon limit, we show that photons stored in the cavity at one frequency will leak out from the cavity with the new frequency after the detuning. The characteristics of the measured devices make them suitable for different applications such as dynamic coupling of qubits and parametric amplification.

  3. Large grain cavities from pure niobium ingot

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Yorktown, VA; Kneisel, Peter [Williamsburg, VA; Cameiro, Tadeu [McMurray, PA

    2012-03-06

    Niobium cavities are fabricated by the drawing and ironing of as cast niobium ingot slices rather than from cold rolled niobium sheet. This method results in the production of niobium cavities having a minimum of grain boundaries at a significantly reduced cost as compared to the production of such structures from cold rolled sheet.

  4. Folded cavity design for a ruby resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arunkumar, K. A.; Trolinger, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A folded cavity laser resonator operating in the TEM(00) mode has been built and tested. The new oscillator configuration leads to an increase in efficiency and to better line narrowing due to the increased number of passes through the laser rod and tuning elements, respectively. The modification is shown to lead to cavity ruggedization.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cavity varnish. 872.3260 Section 872.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... device that consists of a compound intended to coat a prepared cavity of a tooth before insertion...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cavity varnish. 872.3260 Section 872.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... device that consists of a compound intended to coat a prepared cavity of a tooth before insertion...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cavity varnish. 872.3260 Section 872.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... device that consists of a compound intended to coat a prepared cavity of a tooth before insertion...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cavity varnish. 872.3260 Section 872.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... device that consists of a compound intended to coat a prepared cavity of a tooth before insertion...

  9. Developing of superconducting niobium cavities for accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pobol, I. L.; Yurevich, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of a study of structure and mechanical properties of welding joints, superconducting characteristics of the material after joining of welded components of superconducting radio frequency cavities are presented. The paper also describes the results of testing of the RF 1.3 GHz single-cell niobium cavity manufactured in the PTI NAS Belarus.

  10. Tunable Microwave Cavity For Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, Shigeo; Calco, Frank S.; Scarpelli, August R.

    1988-01-01

    Movable probe and tuning wall adjusted to obtain resonance at microwave frequency used to generate plasma in cell at one end of microwave cavity. Electroless discharge without disadvantages of dc-cathode-discharge and RF-induction methods. To achieve precise positioning, coaxial probe extends into microwave cavity through tube.

  11. Performance Of Superconducting-Cavity Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes experiments on operation of superconducting-cavity maser - all-cryogenic oscillator. Operates with degree of stability, at short measuring times, superior to that achievable by any other means. All components designed for cryogenic operation and stabilizing cavity very rigid, consisting of sapphire filling coated with lead.

  12. Effects of copper(II) and copper oxides on THMs formation in copper pipe.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Huijuan; Hu, Chengzhi

    2007-08-01

    Little is known about how the growth of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water is affected in copper pipe. The formation of THMs and chlorine consumption in copper pipe under stagnant flow conditions were investigated. Experiments for the same water held in glass bottles were performed for comparison. Results showed that although THMs levels firstly increased in the presence of chlorine in copper pipe, faster decay of chlorine as compared to the glass bottle affected the rate of THMs formation. The analysis of water phase was supplemented by surface analysis of corrosion scales using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed the scales on the pipe surface mainly consisted of Cu(2)O, CuO and Cu(OH)(2) or CuCO(3). Designed experiments confirmed that the fast depletion of chlorine in copper pipe was mainly due to effect of Cu(2)O, CuO in corrosion scales on copper pipe. Although copper(II) and copper oxides showed effect on THMs formation, the rapid consumption of chlorine due to copper oxide made THM levels lower than that in glass bottles after 4h. The transformations of CF, DCBM and CDBM to BF were accelerated in the presence of copper(II), cupric oxide and cuprous oxide. The effect of pH on THMs formation was influenced by effect of pH on corrosion of copper pipe. When pH was below 7, THMs levels in copper pipe was higher as compared to glass bottle, but lower when pH was above 7.

  13. Optical Properties of Copper Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenskii, A. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Nikitin, A. P.; Anan'eva, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral dependences of the light extinction, absorption, and scattering efficiency factors of copper nanoparticles attendant to variations of their radii are calculated. A plasmon maximum is observed on the spectral dependence of the extinction efficiency factor for nanoparticle radii 10-60 nm. The maximum of the absorption efficiency factor is shifted toward red wavelengths with increasing radius of copper nanoparticles. Results are interpreted based on the special features of the spectral dependence of the complex copper refractive index. It is shown that the copper nanoparticles with radius of 35 nm placed into a transparent matrix with refractive index of 1.54 (secondary explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate) possess a very high value of the absorption efficiency factor (2.9) of the second harmonic of a neodymium laser. Our investigations suggest that the copper nanoparticles are perspective material for application in compositions for optical detonator capsules.

  14. Subglacial Silicic Eruptions: Wet Cavities and Moist Cavities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, J. A.; McGarvie, D. W.; Gilbert, J. S.; Smellie, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    ice produces water, however in the Kerlingarfjöll eruption (which is thought to have been relatively brief and the vesicular magma is likely to have contained less heat per unit volume) the volumes were small and the subglacial cavity could be appropriately described as 'moist'. The Prestahnúkur eruption occurred in a 'wet' cavity but 'lacustrine' conditions were never developed and the ice was always close to the edifice. Poor sorting and structure in the subglacial deposits are due to a lack of time and space for sorting to occur. In contrast to more mafic eruptions, which are characterised by very strong meltwater-ice interactions, the main influence of the ice during subglacial rhyolite eruptions is reflected in the confinement of eruptive products.

  15. Mechanical failure of cavities in poroelastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, G.; Ortoleva, P.

    1998-12-31

    The stress-induced failure of cavities in poroelastic media is investigated using an analytical solution of the elastic matrix inclusion problem of Eshelby and a rock failure criterion. The elastic properties of the porous matrix surrounding the cavity are modeled using a self-consistent version of the theory of Berryman while the cavity collapse criterion is based on a failure condition calibrated as a function of matrix mineralogy, grain size and porosity. The influence of the latter textural variables as well as pore fluid pressure and cavity shape and orientation relative to the far-field stress are evaluated. The region of failure on the cavity surface is identified. These results are applied to the prediction of vug stability in a sedimentary basin in the context of vuggy reservoir exploration and production.

  16. Air flow in a collapsing cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo R.; Gekle, Stephan; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2013-03-01

    We experimentally study the airflow in a collapsing cavity created by the impact of a circular disc on a water surface. We measure the air velocity in the collapsing neck in two ways: Directly, by means of employing particle image velocimetry of smoke injected into the cavity and indirectly, by determining the time rate of change of the volume of the cavity at pinch-off and deducing the air flow in the neck under the assumption that the air is incompressible. We compare our experiments to boundary integral simulations and show that close to the moment of pinch-off, compressibility of the air starts to play a crucial role in the behavior of the cavity. Finally, we measure how the air flow rate at pinch-off depends on the Froude number and explain the observed dependence using a theoretical model of the cavity collapse.

  17. Performance of 3-cell Seamless Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter K.; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Jelezov, I.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.

    2009-11-01

    In the last several months we have surface treated and cryogenically tested three TESLA-type 3-cell cavities, which had been manufactured at DESY as seamless assemblies by hydroforming. The cavities were completed at JLab with beam tube/flange assemblies. All three cavities performed very well after they had been post-purified with titanium at 1250C for 3 hrs. The cavities, two of which consisted of an end cell and 2 center cells and one was a center cell assembly, achieved gradients of Eacc = 32 MV/m, 34 MV/m and 35 MV/m without quenches. The performance was limited by the appearance of the “Q-drop” in the absence of field emission. This contribution reports about the various measurements undertaken with these cavities.

  18. Cavity cooling below the recoil limit.

    PubMed

    Wolke, Matthias; Klinner, Julian; Keßler, Hans; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2012-07-06

    Conventional laser cooling relies on repeated electronic excitations by near-resonant light, which constrains its area of application to a selected number of atomic species prepared at moderate particle densities. Optical cavities with sufficiently large Purcell factors allow for laser cooling schemes, avoiding these limitations. Here, we report on an atom-cavity system, combining a Purcell factor above 40 with a cavity bandwidth below the recoil frequency associated with the kinetic energy transfer in a single photon scattering event. This lets us access a yet-unexplored regime of atom-cavity interactions, in which the atomic motion can be manipulated by targeted dissipation with sub-recoil resolution. We demonstrate cavity-induced heating of a Bose-Einstein condensate and subsequent cooling at particle densities and temperatures incompatible with conventional laser cooling.

  19. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  20. Casimir forces of metallic microstructures into cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenanakis, George; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2015-08-01

    A theoretical estimate of the Casimir force of a metallic structure embedded into a cubic cavity is proposed. We demonstrate that by calculating the eigenmodes of the system we can determine the Casimir force, which can be either attractive or repulsive, by simply changing the geometry of the structures relative to the walls of the cavity. In this analysis, several cases of structures are taken into account, from rectangular slabs to chiral "omega" particles, and the predicted data are consistent with recent literature. We demonstrate that the sidewalls of the studied cavity contribute decisively to the repulsive Casimir force between the system and the nearby top surface of the cavity. Finally, we provide evidence that the medium embedded into the studied cavity (and especially its permittivity) can change the intensity of the Casimir force, while its repulsive nature, once established (owing to favorable geometrical features), remains quite robust.

  1. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

  2. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of vertical-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of vertical cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting vertical cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.

  3. Microphonics Measurements in SRF Cavities for RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.P.; Fuerst, Joel; Kedzie, M.; Sharamentov, S.I.; Shepard, Kenneth; Delayen, Jean

    2003-05-01

    Phase stabilization of the RIA drift tube cavities in the presence of microphonics will be a key issue for RIA. Due to the relatively low beam currents (lte 0.5 pmA) required for the RIA driver, microphonics will impact the rf power required to control the cavity fields. Microphonics measurements on the ANL Beta=0.4 single spoke cavity and on the ANL Beta=0.4 two-cell spoke cavity have been performed many at high fields and using a new "cavity resonance monitor" device developed in collaboration with JLAB. Tests on a cold two-cell spoke are the first ever on a multi-cell spoke geometry. The design is essentially a production model with an integral stainless steel housing to hold the liquid helium bath.

  4. Design of half-reentrant SRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidlinger, M.; Grimm, T. L.; Hartung, W.

    2006-07-01

    The shape of a TeSLA inner cell can be improved to lower the peak surface magnetic field at the expense of a higher peak surface electric field by making the cell reentrant. Such a single-cell cavity was designed and tested at Cornell, setting a world record accelerating gradient [V. Shemelin et al., An optimized shape cavity for TESLA: concept and fabrication, 11th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, Travemünde, Germany, September 8-12, 2003; R. Geng, H. Padamsee, Reentrant cavity and first test result, Pushing the Limits of RF Superconductivity Workshop, Argonne National Laboratory, September 22-24, 2004]. However, the disadvantage to a cavity is that liquids become trapped in the reentrant portion when it is vertically hung during high pressure rinsing. While this was overcome for Cornell’s single-cell cavity by flipping it several times between high pressure rinse cycles, this may not be feasible for a multi-cell cavity. One solution to this problem is to make the cavity reentrant on only one side, leaving the opposite wall angle at six degrees for fluid drainage. This idea was first presented in 2004 [T.L. Grimm et al., IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 15(6) (2005) 2393]. Preliminary designs of two new half-reentrant (HR) inner cells have since been completed, one at a high cell-to-cell coupling of 2.1% (high- kcc HR) and the other at 1.5% (low- kcc HR). The parameters of a HR cavity are comparable to a fully reentrant cavity, with the added benefit that a HR cavity can be easily cleaned with current technology.

  5. Cavity solitons and localized patterns in a finite-size optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreff, G.; Gelens, L.

    2011-08-01

    In appropriate ranges of parameters, laser-driven nonlinear optical cavities can support a wide variety of optical patterns, which could be used to carry information. The intensity peaks appearing in these patterns are called cavity solitons and are individually addressable. Using the Lugiato-Lefever equation to model a perfectly homogeneous cavity, we show that cavity solitons can only be located at discrete points and at a minimal distance from the edges. Other localized states which are attached to the edges are identified. By interpreting these patterns in an information coding frame, the information capacity of this dynamical system is evaluated. The results are explained analytically in terms of the the tail characteristics of the cavity solitons. Finally, the influence of boundaries and of cavity imperfections on cavity solitons are compared.

  6. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the “cold” cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93 °C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  7. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-01

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the "cold" cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93 °C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  8. Metabolism and functions of copper in brain.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Ivo F; Mercer, Julian F B; Dringen, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Copper is an important trace element that is required for essential enzymes. However, due to its redox activity, copper can also lead to the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cellular uptake, storage as well as export of copper have to be tightly regulated in order to guarantee sufficient copper supply for the synthesis of copper-containing enzymes but also to prevent copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, copper is of importance for normal development. In addition, both copper deficiency as well as excess of copper can seriously affect brain functions. Therefore, this organ possesses ample mechanisms to regulate its copper metabolism. In brain, astrocytes are considered as important regulators of copper homeostasis. Impairments of homeostatic mechanisms in brain copper metabolism have been associated with neurodegeneration in human disorders such as Menkes disease, Wilson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This review article will summarize the biological functions of copper in the brain and will describe the current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in copper transport, storage and export of brain cells. The role of copper in diseases that have been connected with disturbances in brain copper homeostasis will also be discussed.

  9. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  10. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  11. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  12. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper gluconate. 184.1260 Section 184.1260 Food... GRAS § 184.1260 Copper gluconate. (a) Copper gluconate (cupric gluconate (CH2OH(CHOH)4COO)2Cu, CAS Reg... ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Copper gluconate...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper gluconate. 184.1260 Section 184.1260 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1260 Copper gluconate. (a) Copper gluconate (cupric gluconate... practice. Copper gluconate may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of the...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper gluconate. 184.1260 Section 184.1260 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1260 Copper gluconate. (a) Copper gluconate (cupric gluconate... practice. Copper gluconate may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of the...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper gluconate. 184.1260 Section 184.1260 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1260 Copper gluconate. (a) Copper gluconate (cupric gluconate... practice. Copper gluconate may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of the...

  18. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper gluconate. 184.1260 Section 184.1260 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1260 Copper gluconate. (a) Copper gluconate (cupric gluconate... practice. Copper gluconate may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of the...

  20. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  2. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  3. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, F.W. Jr.; Chiu, S.C.; Rawls, J.M.

    1987-04-28

    This patent describes a magnetic confinement plasma device having a plasma. The plasma is immersed in a strong magnetic field and confined within an evacuated plasma chamber. A wave launcher for launching electromagnetic waves in the range of frequencies of 10 MHz to 200 MHz energizes and thereby heats the plasma. The wave launcher is spaced-apart from the plasma. The wave launcher comprises: a resonant cavity, including resonant chamber walls for containing electromagnetic fields; connection means connecting the resonant cavity to a transmission line carrying electromagnetic wave energy to the resonant cavity; at least one capacitive reactive element, and at least one inductive reactive element disposed within the resonant cavity; the capacitive reactive member separated from the chamber walls of the resonant cavity by a first predefined gap, with the capacitive reactive member and the chamber walls of the resonant cavity oriented approximately tangential to the strong magnetic field; the capacitive and the inductive reactive elements spaced apart from the plasma a second predetermined distance which at least partially determines the frequency of the launched waves; and the resonant cavity cooperating with the capacitive and the inductive reactive elements so as to launch electromagnetic waves in the range of frequencies, toward the plasma.

  4. Michelson-Morley with a Birefringent Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve, Francisco J.; Hohensee, Michael; Müller, Holger

    2012-06-01

    We report on the progress of a birefringent cavity test of the isotropy of the speed of light. Previous experimental tests have constrained anisotropies in the speed of light at the level of parts in 10^17 [1-2]. These experiments search for frame-dependent variations in the resonant frequencies of two orthogonally mounted optical cavities. Uncorrelated fluctuations in the cavity lengths are a significant challenge for such experiments. Our experiment uses a single dielectric-filled cavity, and measures the difference in the resonant frequency of two orthogonally polarized modes. Anisotropies in the speed of light will manifest as a frame-dependent strain on the dielectric [3-4], giving rise to a frame-dependent variation in the cavity birefringence. By making the length of each cavity mode identical, we expect that our experiment will be less sensitive to thermal cavity fluctuations. [4pt] [1] S. Herrmann, A. Senger, K. M"ohle, M. Nagel, E.V. Kovalchuk and A. Peters, PRD 80, 105011 (2009).[2] Ch. Eisel, A. Yu. Nevsky, and S. Schiller, PRL 103, 090401 (2009).[3] H. M"uller, PRD 71, 045004 (2005).[4] V.A. Kosteleck'y and M. Mewes, PRD 80, 015020 (2009).

  5. Hydroforming of Tesla Cavities at Desy

    SciTech Connect

    W. Singer; H. Kaiser; X. Singer; I. Gonin; I. Zhelezov; T. Khabibullin; P. Kneisel; K. Saito

    2000-07-01

    Since several years the development of seamless niobium cavity fabrication by hydro forming is being pursued at DESY. This technique offers the possibility of lower cost of fabrication and perhaps better rf performance of the cavities because of the elimination of electron-beam welds, which in the standard fabrication technique have sometimes lead to inferior cavity performance due to defects. Several single cell 1300 MHz cavities have been formed from high purity seamless niobium tubes, which are under computer control expanded with internal pressure while simultaneously being swaged axially. The seamless tubes have been made by either back extrusion and flow forming or by spinning or deep drawing. Standard surface treatment techniques such as high temperature post purification, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), electropolishing (EP) and high pressure ultra pure water rinsing (HPR) have been applied to these cavities. The cavities exhibited high Q - values of 2 x 10{sup 10} at 2K and residual resistances as low as 3 n{Omega} after the removal of a surface layer of app. 100 {micro}m by BCP. Surprisingly, even at high gradients up to the maximum measured values of E{sub acc} {approx} 33 MV/m the Q-value did not decrease in the absence of field emission as often observed. After electropolishing of additional 100 {micro}m one of the cavities reached an accelerating gradient of E{sub acc} {ge} 42 MV/m.

  6. Properties of Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Robert B.

    2003-01-01

    Progress can be reported in two areas related to characterizing the properties of cusp diamagnetic cavities. Laboratory terrella experiments have been conducted for the purpose of using neutral gas excitation as a tracer of trapped electron populations in the presence of two dipoles that are used to develop a magnetic cusp topology. Figure 1 and 2 show top and side views of two configurations. Dipole trapped electron populations appear as the two luminous annular rings. Other populations are the most intense regions are shown. Interspersed between these regions are narrow regions that represent the topological cusps in these configurations. That they contain luminous gas is evidence for cusp trapping similar to what we believe exists in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The asymmetry of these cusp regions as seen in Figure 1 is the result of a relative tilt between the two dipoles suggestive of what would be expected in space. It is in these regions that particle observations were sought, so as to validate the realization of proposed and laboratory achieved trapping in a diamagnetic cusp. Figure 3 shows particle trajectories in a modeled cusp magnetic topology for three particle energies. Blue, green, and red traces correspond to increasing energies. Due to factors discussed outside of this final report, a thorough exploration of relevant satellite observations have not been achieved.

  7. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Brecht, T. Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  8. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-06-23

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions.

  9. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions. PMID:25958394

  10. Polymer microlasers with a suspended cavity design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanga, Sudheer Kumar; Nalla, Venkatram; Bettiol, Andrew A.

    2015-04-01

    We report on the fabrication of microlasers with suspended cavity design in a thin layer of Rhodamine B doped SU-8 polymer using proton beam writing. Optical characterization of the fabricated three-dimensional microlasers under ambient atmosphere results in low lasing threshold of 0.5 μJ/mm2, which is an improvement by factor of 2 when compared to planar microlasers. The directional behavior is also observed in whispering gallery mode microlasers with spiral cavity design. These microlasers with suspended cavity design are not only useful in reducing the lasing threshold but also have significance in 3D photonic integrated circuits.

  11. Selecting copper and copper alloys; Part 2: Cast products

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, D.T. ); Kundig, K.J.A. , Randolph, NJ )

    1994-06-01

    This article provides an introduction to the properties, characteristics, and applications of cast coppers and copper alloys. An overview of alloy families is presented since it is impractical to describe all 130 standard grades in detail. However, additional technical information is readily available from the Copper Development Assn. Inc. (CDA) and the resources listed in the references and bibliography at the end of the article. Copper casting alloys are primarily selected for either their corrosion resistance, or their combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. The materials also feature good castability, high machinability, and, compared with other corrosion-resistant alloys, reasonable cost. Additional benefits include biofouling resistance--important in marine applications--and a spectrum of attractive colors. Many of the alloys also have favorable tribological properties, which explains their widespread use for sleeve bearings, wear plates, gears, and other wear-prone components.

  12. Interpulse kinetics in copper and copper halide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, K. G.

    1983-01-01

    The various rate processes that govern the interpulse relaxation in metal vapor and metal halide vapor lasers are considered. Computer calculations indicate that the rapid metastable levels relaxation observed in copper and copper halide laser experiments requires the existence of a relatively small resonance in the cross section for metastable excitation or deexcitation near threshold. The accurate calculation of interpulse relaxation requires knowledge of rate constants presently not well known; this is especially so for metal halide lasers.

  13. Atomic hydrogen maser active oscillator cavity and bulb design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Washburn, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance characteristics and reliability of the active oscillator atomic hydrogen maser depend upon oscillation parameters which characterize the interaction region of the maser, the resonant cavity and atom storage bulb assembly. With particular attention to use of the cavity frequency switching servo (1) to reduce cavity pulling, it is important to maintain high oscillation level, high atomic beam flux utilization efficiency, small spin exchange parameter and high cavity quality factor. It is also desirable to have a small and rigid cavity and bulb structure and to minimize the cavity temperature sensitivity. Curves for a novel hydrogen maser cavity configuration which is partially loaded with a quartz dielectric cylinder and show the relationships between cavity length, cavity diameter, bulb size, dielectric thickness, cavity quality factor, filling factor and cavity frequency temperature coefficient are presented. The results are discussed in terms of improvement in maser performance resulting from particular design choices.

  14. Striped-double cavity fabry-perot interferometers using both glass and air cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S; Steinmetz, L

    1998-07-08

    We have used piezo-driven Fabry-Perot interferometers in the past far many continuous velocity-time measurements of fast moving surfaces. In order to avoid the annoying drift of some of these devices, we have developed and used inexpensive, solid glass, striped etalons with lengths up to 64 mm. Usable apertures are 35 mm by 80 mm with a finess of 25. A roundabout technique was devised for double cavity operation. We built a passive thermal housing for temperature stability, with tilt and height adjustments. We have also developed and used our first fixed etalon air-spaced cavity with a rotatable glass double- cavity insert. The rotation allows the referee cavity fractional order to be adjusted separately from that of the main cavity. It needs very little thermal protection, and eliminates the need for a roundabout scheme for double cavity operation, but is more costly than the solid glass version I

  15. Frequency combs for cavity cascades: OPO combs and graphene-coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin F.; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, C.-C.; Mohr, C.; Jiang, Jie; Schunemann, Peter G.; Schibli, T. R.; Maslowski, Piotr; Fermann, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Frequency combs can be used directly, for example as a highly precise spectroscopic light source. They can also be used indirectly, as a bridge between devices whose high precision requirements would normally make them incompatible. Here, we demonstrate two ways that a frequency comb enables new technologies by matching optical cavities. One cavity is the laser oscillator. A second cavity is a low-threshold doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Extending optical referencing to the doubly-resonant OPO turns the otherwise unstable device into an extremely precise midinfrared frequency comb. Another cavity is an optical enhancement cavity for amplifying spectral absorption in a gas. With the high speed of a graphene-modulated frequency comb, we can couple a frequency comb directly into a high-finesse cavity for trace gas detection.

  16. Fabrication of a centimeter-long cavity on a nanofiber for cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keloth, Jameesh; Nayak, K. P.; Hakuta, K.

    2017-03-01

    We report the fabrication of a 1.2 cm long cavity directly on a nanofiber using femtosecond laser ablation. The cavity modes with finesse value in the range 200-400 can still maintain the transmission between 40-60%, which can enable "strong-coupling" regime of cavity QED for a single atom trapped 200 nm away from the fiber surface. For such cavity modes, we estimate the one-pass intra-cavity transmission to be 99.53%. Other cavity modes, which can enable high cooperativity in the range 3-10, show transmission over 60-85% and are suitable for fiber-based single photon sources and quantum nonlinear optics in the "Purcell" regime.

  17. Deflecting light into resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Light is coupled into a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) resonant cavity using an acousto-optic modulator. The AOM allows in-coupling efficiencies in excess of 40%, which is two to three orders of magnitude higher than in conventional systems using a cavity mirror for in-coupling. The AOM shutoff time is shorter than the roundtrip time of the cavity. The higher light intensities lead to a reduction in shot noise, and allow the use of relatively insensitive but fast-responding detectors such as photovoltaic detectors. Other deflection devices such as electro-optic modulators or elements used in conventional Q-switching may be used instead of the AOM. The method is particularly useful in the mid-infrared, far-infrared, and ultraviolet wavelength ranges, for which moderately reflecting input mirrors are not widely available.

  18. Deflecting light into resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.

    1998-09-29

    Light is coupled into a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) resonant cavity using an acousto-optic modulator. The AOM allows in-coupling efficiencies in excess of 40%, which is two to three orders of magnitude higher than in conventional systems using a cavity mirror for in-coupling. The AOM shutoff time is shorter than the roundtrip time of the cavity. The higher light intensities lead to a reduction in shot noise, and allow the use of relatively insensitive but fast-responding detectors such as photovoltaic detectors. Other deflection devices such as electro-optic modulators or elements used in conventional Q-switching may be used instead of the AOM. The method is particularly useful in the mid-infrared, far-infrared, and ultraviolet wavelength ranges, for which moderately reflecting input mirrors are not widely available. 5 figs.

  19. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yoon W.; Kustom, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A cavity structure having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.

  20. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1999-07-27

    A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

  1. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  2. Maser cavity servo-tuning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, R. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Two collocated, weakly coupled probes, one loop and one dipole, detect the magnetic and electric fields inside a maser cavity. Signals from the probes are compared in phase, and the signal output from the phase detector is applied to a varactor, the reactance of which is coupled into the cavity by a microwave coupler. Alternatively, the varactor may be placed inside the cavity. Any deviation of phase from 90 deg as detected by the phase detector will then produce an error signal that will change the reactance coupled into the resonant cavity to change its reactance, and thus correct its resonance frequency. An alternative to using two probes is to use a single disk probe oriented to detect both the magnetic and electric fields, and thus provide the error signal directly.

  3. Nb3Sn for Radio Frequency Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.

    2006-12-18

    In this article, the suitability of Nb3Sn to improve theperformance of superconducting Radio-Frequency (RF)cavities is discussed.The use of Nb3Sn in RF cavitiesis recognized as an enabling technology toretain a veryhigh cavity quality factor (Q0) at 4.2 K and tosignificantly improve the cavity accelerating efficiency per unitlength(Eacc). This potential arises through the fundamental properties ofNb3Sn. The properties that are extensively characterized in theliterature are, however, mainly related to improvements in currentcarrying capacity (Jc) in the vortex state. Much less is available forthe Meissner state, which is of key importance to cavities. Relevantdata, available for the Meissner state is summarized, and it is shown howthis already validates the use of Nb3Sn. In addition, missing knowledgeis highlighted and suggestions are given for further Meissner statespecific research.

  4. Interference and Chaos in Metamaterials Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchinitser, Natalia; Jose, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    Optical metamaterials are engineered artificial nanostructures that possess optical properties not available in nature. As metamaterials research continues to mature, their practical applications as well as fundamental questions on wave propagation in these materials attract significant interest. In this talk we focus on wave propagation and interference in chaotic wave cavities with negative or near-zero index of refraction and in double-slit configurations. In this context, we explicitly consider an incomplete two-dimensional D-cavity previously studied, which shows chaotic ray propagation together with scars. We have addressed the question as to how that type of wave propagation is modified by adding metamaterials in these chaotic cavities. We find that the wave interference patterns show significant qualitatively and quantitative changes depending on the effective parameters of the cavity, illumination conditions (planes waves versus beams), and geometry of the system. We will discuss possible experimental setups where these results may be validated.

  5. Photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Quiring, W.; Al-Hmoud, M.; Reuter, D.; Zrenner, A.; Rai, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-07-27

    We report about the fabrication and analysis of high Q photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky-contacts. The structures are based on GaAs n-i membranes with an InGaAs quantum well in the i-region and nanostructured low ohmic metal top-gates. They are designed for photocurrent readout within the cavity and fast electric manipulations. The cavity structures are characterized by photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopy under resonant excitation. We find strong cavity resonances in the photocurrent spectra and surprisingly high Q-factors up to 6500. Temperature dependent photocurrent measurements in the region between 4.5 K and 310 K show an exponential enhancement of the photocurrent signal and an external quantum efficiency up to 0.26.

  6. Wakefield Damping for the CLIC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ambattu, P.K.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Carter, R.G.; Khan, V.; Jones, R.M.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    A crab cavity is required in the CLIC to allow effective head-on collision of bunches at the IP. A high operating frequency is preferred as the deflection voltage required for a given rotation angle and the RF phase tolerance for a crab cavity are inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The short bunch spacing of the CLIC scheme and the high sensitivity of the crab cavity to dipole kicks demand very high damping of the inter-bunch wakes, the major contributor to the luminosity loss of colliding bunches. This paper investigates the nature of the wakefields in the CLIC crab cavity and the possibility of using various damping schemes to suppress them effectively.

  7. Selected computations of transonic cavity flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient diagonal scheme implemented in an overset mesh framework has permitted the analysis of geometrically complex cavity flows via the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Use of rapid hyperbolic and algebraic grid methods has allowed simple specification of critical turbulent regions with an algebraic turbulence model. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are made in two dimensions for the following problems: a backward-facing step; a resonating cavity; and two quieted cavity configurations. In three-dimensions the flow about three early concepts of the stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) are compared to wind-tunnel data. Shedding frequencies of resolved shear layer structures are compared against experiment for the quieted cavities. The results demonstrate the progress of computational assessment of configuration safety and performance.

  8. Stability of proteins inside a hydrophobic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that enclosing a protein in an athermal cavity stabilizes the protein against reversible unfolding by virtue of eliminating many open chain conformations. Examples of such confined spaces include pores in chromatographic columns, Anfinsen's cage in Chaperonins, interiors of Ribosomes or regions of steric occlusion inside cells. However, the situation is more complex inside a hydrophobic cavity. The protein has a tendency to adsorb on the surface of the hydrophobic cavity, but at the same time it loses conformational entropy because of confinement. We study this system using a simple Hydrophobic Polar (HP) lattice protein model. Canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at different temperatures and surface hydrophobicity show that proteins are stabilized at low and moderate hydrophobicity upon adsorption. The range of surface hydrophobicity over which a protein is stable increases with a decrease in radius of the cavity.

  9. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  10. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  11. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  12. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  13. Cellular automata in photonic cavity arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liew, T C H

    2016-10-31

    We propose theoretically a photonic Turing machine based on cellular automata in arrays of nonlinear cavities coupled with artificial gauge fields. The state of the system is recorded making use of the bistability of driven cavities, in which losses are fully compensated by an external continuous drive. The sequential update of the automaton layers is achieved automatically, by the local switching of bistable states, without requiring any additional synchronization or temporal control.

  14. Autoimmune Disease Manifestations in the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Kelly R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah G

    2017-03-01

    Immune-related disorders of the oral cavity may occur as primary disease process, secondary to systemic disease or neoplasm, or as a reaction to medications and other agents. The entities represented within this group may vary significantly by severity, clinical presentation, microscopic presentation, and special testing results. The selected immune-related conditions of the oral cavity in this article are categorized and presented by their prototypical tissue reaction patterns: vesiculobullous, including acantholytic and subepithelial separation; psoriasiform; spongiotic; and lichenoid reaction patterns.

  15. Exploration of very high gradient cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory

    2011-07-01

    Several of the 9-cell ILC cavities processed at Jlab within ongoing ILC R&D program have shown interesting behavior at high fields, such as mode mixing and sudden field emission turn-on during quench. Equipped with thermometry and oscillating superleak transducer (OST) system for quench detection, we couple our RF measurements with local dissipation measurements. In this contribution we report on our findings with high gradient SRF cavities.

  16. The comet Halley diamagnetic cavity boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Lindgren, C. J.; Puhl, P.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetometer onboard the Giotto spacecraft observed a diamagnetic cavity surrounding the nucleus of comet Halley. A narrow transition layer with enhanced plasma density is formed at this shock-like boundary as a flux of cometary ions flowing into it from within the cavity is removed by electron-ion recombination. We examine the structure of this layer using both a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical model and a one- dimensional hybrid code.

  17. Development of spoke cavities for RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K. W.; Kelly, M. P.; Fuerst, J.; Kedzie, M.; Conway, Z. A.; Physics

    2006-07-15

    This paper reports the development status of 345 MHz, 4 cm beam aperture, three-spoke-loaded, TEM-class superconducting cavities for particle velocities 0.4 < v/c < 0.8. Two prototype cavities have been operated cw at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 10 MV/m. Results of cold tests, including mechanical properties and microphonic behavior, are presented.

  18. Effect of Cavity QED on Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rfifi, Saad; Siyouri, Fatimazahra

    2016-11-01

    We use a quantum electrodynamics model, to study the evolution of maximally entangled bipartite states (Bell states), as well as a maximally entangled tripartite states as a multipartite system. Furthermore, we study the entanglement behaviour of these output states in cavity QED as function of interaction time and the coupling strength. The present study discusses the separability and the entanglement limit of such states after interaction with a cavity QED.

  19. Copper atomic-scale transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kavalenka, Maryna N; Röger, Moritz; Albrecht, Daniel; Hölscher, Hendrik; Leuthold, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO4 + H2SO4) in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate). The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and −170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes (U bias) influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1G 0 (G 0 = 2e2/h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck’s constant) or 2G 0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors. PMID:28382242

  20. Cavity quantum electrodynamics on a nanofiber using a composite photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Yalla, Ramachandrarao; Sadgrove, Mark; Nayak, Kali P; Hakuta, Kohzo

    2014-10-03

    We demonstrate cavity QED conditions in the Purcell regime for single quantum emitters on the surface of an optical nanofiber. The cavity is formed by combining an optical nanofiber and a nanofabricated grating to create a composite photonic crystal cavity. By using this technique, significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate into the nanofiber guided modes is observed for single quantum dots. Our results pave the way for enhanced on-fiber light-matter interfaces with clear applications to quantum networks.

  1. Scaled experiments of explosions in cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Grun, J.; Cranch, G. A.; Lunsford, R.; ...

    2016-05-11

    Consequences of an explosion inside an air-filled cavity under the earth's surface are partly duplicated in a laboratory experiment on spatial scales 1000 smaller. The experiment measures shock pressures coupled into a block of material by an explosion inside a gas-filled cavity therein. The explosion is generated by suddenly heating a thin foil that is located near the cavity center with a short laser pulse, which turns the foil into expanding plasma, most of whose energy drives a blast wave in the cavity gas. Variables in the experiment are the cavity radius and explosion energy. Measurements and GEODYN code simulationsmore » show that shock pressuresmeasured in the block exhibit a weak dependence on scaled cavity radius up to ~25 m/kt1/3, above which they decrease rapidly. Possible mechanisms giving rise to this behavior are described. As a result, the applicability of this work to validating codes used to simulate full-scale cavityexplosions is discussed.« less

  2. Woodpecker cavity aeration: a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Ar, Amos; Barnea, Anat; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Mersten-Katz, Cynthia

    2004-12-15

    We studied characteristics of the Syrian woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus) cavities in the field and a laboratory model, and rates of gas exchange in the laboratory. Night temperature of occupied cavities is 4.3 degrees C higher than empty ones, representing energy savings of approximately 24%. Oxygen conductance (GNO2) of an empty cavity is 7.1 ml[STPD] (Torr h)(-1), and is affected by winds at velocities up to 0.8 m/s. Day and night body temperatures were 42.0 and 40.1 degrees C, respectively. Steady-state O2 consumption rates (MO2) were 3.49 +/- 0.49 and 2.53 +/- 0.26 ml[STPD] (g h)(-1) during day and night respectively -- higher than predicted by allometry. A mathematical model describing PO2 in a cavity, taking into consideration MO2, GNO2, heat convection and wind speed, from the moment birds inhabit it, was developed. It shows that on the average, one woodpecker staying in its cavity at night does not encounter hypoxic conditions. However, in nest cavities with below the average GNO2, with more inhabitants (e.g. during the breeding season), hypoxia may become a problem.

  3. Transient Microphonic Effects In Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Powers; G. Davis; Lawrence King

    2005-07-10

    A number of experiments were performed on an installed and operational 5-cell CEBAF cavity to determine the minimum time required to reestablish stable gradient after a cavity window arc trip. Once it was determined that gradient could be reestablished within 10 ms by applying constant power RF signal in and a voltage controlled Oscillator-phase locked loop based system (VCO-PLL), a second experiment was performed to determine if stable gradient could be reestablished using a fixed frequency RF system with a simple gradient based closed loop control system. During this test, instabilities were observed in the cavity forward power signal, which were determined to be microphonic in nature. These microphonic effects were quantified using a cavity resonance monitor and a VCO{_}PLL RF system. Two types of microphonic effects were observed depending on the type of arc event. If the arc occurred in the vacuum space between the warm and cold windows, the transient frequency shift was about 75 Hz peak-to-peak. If the arc occurred on the cavity side of the cold window the transient frequency shift was about 400 Hz peak-to-peak. The background microphonics level for the tested cavity was approximately 30 Hz peak-to-peak. Experimental results, analysis of the resultant klystron power transients, the decay time of the transients, and the implications with respect to fast reset algorithms will be presented.

  4. "Fine grain Nb tube for SRF cavities"

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Barber

    2012-07-08

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in charged particle linear accelerators, are currently fabricated by deep drawing niobium sheets and welding the drawn dishes together. The Nb sheet has a non-uniform microstructure, which leads to unpredictable cavity shape and surface roughness, and inconsistent "spring-back" during forming. In addition, weld zones cause hot spots during cavity operation. These factors limit linear accelerator performance and increase cavity manufacturing cost. Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) can be used to refine and homogenize the microstructure of Nb tube for subsequent hydroforming into SRF cavities. Careful selection of deformation and heat treatment conditions during the processing steps can give a uniform and consistent microstructure in the tube, leading to improved deformability and lower manufacturing costs. Favorable microstructures were achieved in short test samples of RRR Nb tube, which may be particularly suitable for hydroforming into SRF cavity strings. The approach demonstrated could be applicable to microstructure engineering of other tube materials including tantalum, titanium, and zirconium.

  5. Scaled experiments of explosions in cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Grun, J.; Cranch, G. A.; Lunsford, R.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Weaver, J.; Dunlop, W.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-05-11

    Consequences of an explosion inside an air-filled cavity under the earth's surface are partly duplicated in a laboratory experiment on spatial scales 1000 smaller. The experiment measures shock pressures coupled into a block of material by an explosion inside a gas-filled cavity therein. The explosion is generated by suddenly heating a thin foil that is located near the cavity center with a short laser pulse, which turns the foil into expanding plasma, most of whose energy drives a blast wave in the cavity gas. Variables in the experiment are the cavity radius and explosion energy. Measurements and GEODYN code simulations show that shock pressuresmeasured in the block exhibit a weak dependence on scaled cavity radius up to ~25 m/kt1/3, above which they decrease rapidly. Possible mechanisms giving rise to this behavior are described. As a result, the applicability of this work to validating codes used to simulate full-scale cavityexplosions is discussed.

  6. Frequency doubled, cavity dumped feedback laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Jr., Donald L. (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Higher efficiency in cavity dumping and frequency doubling in a laser used to produce modulated output beam pulses is achieved by deflecting light out of the resonant cavity to a third mirror through a frequency doubler using an electro-optic modulator and a polarizing beamsplitter in the resonant cavity, or using just an acousto-optic modulator to deflect light out of the laser cavity in response to a control signal (electric or acoustic). The frequency doubler in front of the third mirror rotates the frequency doubled light so that it will pass out of the laser cavity through the polarizing beamsplitter, while undoubled frequency light is reflected by the polarizing beamsplitter back into the gain medium of the laser. In the case of using a type-II frequency doubler, a dichroic beamsplitter deflects out the frequency doubled light and passes the undoubled frequency light to the polarizing beamsplitter for return to the laser gain medium. If an acousto-optic modulator is used, it deflects light out of the primary laser cavity, so a polarizing beamsplitter is not needed, and only a dichroic beamsplitter is needed to separate frequency doubled light out of the path from the third mirror.

  7. Parametric resonance in tunable superconducting cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wustmann, Waltraut; Shumeiko, Vitaly

    2013-05-01

    We develop a theory of parametric resonance in tunable superconducting cavities. The nonlinearity introduced by the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) attached to the cavity and damping due to connection of the cavity to a transmission line are taken into consideration. We study in detail the nonlinear classical dynamics of the cavity field below and above the parametric threshold for the degenerate parametric resonance, featuring regimes of multistability and parametric radiation. We investigate the phase-sensitive amplification of external signals on resonance, as well as amplification of detuned signals, and relate the amplifier performance to that of linear parametric amplifiers. We also discuss applications of the device for dispersive qubit readout. Beyond the classical response of the cavity, we investigate small quantum fluctuations around the amplified classical signals. We evaluate the noise power spectrum both for the internal field in the cavity and the output field. Other quantum-statistical properties of the noise are addressed such as squeezing spectra, second-order coherence, and two-mode entanglement.

  8. Niobium superconducting rf cavity fabrication by electrohydraulic forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantergiani, E.; Atieh, S.; Léaux, F.; Perez Fontenla, A. T.; Prunet, S.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Bertinelli, F.; Capatina, O.; Favre, G.; Gerigk, F.; Jeanson, A. C.; Fuzeau, J.; Avrillaud, G.; Alleman, D.; Bonafe, J.; Marty, P.

    2016-11-01

    Superconducting rf (SRF) cavities are traditionally fabricated from superconducting material sheets or made of copper coated with superconducting material, followed by trim machining and electron-beam welding. An alternative technique to traditional shaping methods, such as deep-drawing and spinning, is electrohydraulic forming (EHF). In EHF, half-cells are obtained through ultrahigh-speed deformation of blank sheets, using shockwaves induced in water by a pulsed electrical discharge. With respect to traditional methods, such a highly dynamic process can yield interesting results in terms of effectiveness, repeatability, final shape precision, higher formability, and reduced springback. In this paper, the first results of EHF on high purity niobium are presented and discussed. The simulations performed in order to master the multiphysics phenomena of EHF and to adjust its process parameters are presented. The microstructures of niobium half-cells produced by EHF and by spinning have been compared in terms of damage created in the material during the forming operation. The damage was assessed through hardness measurements, residual resistivity ratio (RRR) measurements, and electron backscattered diffraction analyses. It was found that EHF does not worsen the damage of the material during forming and instead, some areas of the half-cell have shown lower damage compared to spinning. Moreover, EHF is particularly advantageous to reduce the forming time, preserve roughness, and to meet the final required shape accuracy.

  9. Vector cavity solitons in broad area Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Averlant, Etienne; Tlidi, Mustapha; Thienpont, Hugo; Ackemann, Thorsten; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of two-dimensional vector cavity solitons in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) under linearly polarized optical injection when varying optical injection linear polarization direction. The polarization of the cavity soliton is not the one of the optical injection as it acquires a distinct ellipticity. These experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by the spin-flip VCSEL model. Our findings open the road to polarization multiplexing when using cavity solitons in broad-area lasers as pixels in information technology. PMID:26847004

  10. A critical ('stress') evaluation of the combined ML Copper 250-short IUD in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Goldstuck, N D

    1981-10-01

    IUD tolerability is related to the size and shape of the carrier frame of the copper-containing IUD. This study evaluates a critically selected group of 30 nulliparous women (those with uterine cavity length of 3.5 cm or less) who underwent insertion of the combined Multiload Copper 250-short (ML Cu 250-short) IUD. The women were aged 18 to 36 years. They were followed up between 6 months and 1 year. 1 patient with a very small infantile uterus (3.5 cm) had 2 IUD insertions and expulsions and was deemed not fit for intrauterine contraception. Another patient requested removal because of persistent bleeding, probably due to a fragile endometrium or a local bleeding disorder. 6 patients (20%) reported pre- and inter-menstrual pain, while 12 (40%) patients, including the patient who requested device removal, complained of prolonged bleeding following insertion of the ML Cu 250-short. Bleeding continued in majority of the cases for about 14 days following insertion. The bleeding pattern returned to normal after 2 months. No infections or pregnancies were reported. 4 of the patients who continued to use the device experienced some pain and/or discomfort. None of the patients who had experienced pain with previous devices experienced pain with the ML Cu 250-short. The length and width of the ML Cu 250-short appears optimal for the endometrial cavity of nulliparous women. The horizontal width of the ML Cu 250-short (18 mm) most closely approximates the 20 mm nulliparous uterine cavity width while the ML Cu 250-mini with a fundal horizontal length of 12 mm appears destined for use only by women with very narrow uterus. Hassons' wing sound 11 allows clinical graphical representation of the uterine cavity, enabling the inserter to select anatomically optimal device immediately in the clinic. The ML Copper 250-short appears highly suitable for use by nulliparous women.

  11. Release of Micronized Copper Particles from Pressure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Micronized copper pressure treated lumber (PTL) has recently been introduced to the consumer market as a replacement for ionized copper PTL. The presence of particulate rather than aqueous copper raises concerns about the exposure of humans as well as the environment to the particles. Two common pathways of exposure, leaching during contact with water and transfer during physical contact, were investigated to gage potential human and environmental risk during intended use of the product. Characterization, leaching tests, and wipe tests were conducted on two representative formulations of micronized copper PTL (micronized copper azole or MCA) to quantify the levels of copper present in the treated material and the amount of copper released during use as well as to determine the form (particle or ion) of the copper after it was released. Additionally, an ionized copper pressure treated wood (alkaline copper azole or ACA) was tested for comparison. The characterization showed that copper carbonate is the primary particle form in the MCA treated wood, but other forms are also present, particularly in the MCA-1 formulation, which contained a large amount of organically complexed copper. Microscopy showed that MCA-1 contained particles roughly half the size of MCA-2. The leaching results indicate that mostly (> ~95%) ionic copper is released from the MCA wood and that the particulate copper that was released is attached to cellulose and not free in solution. A sma

  12. Copper status of ewes fed increasing amounts of copper from copper sulfate or copper proteinate.

    PubMed

    Eckert, G E; Greene, L W; Carstens, G E; Ramsey, W S

    1999-01-01

    The Cu status of mature, crossbred ewes fed two sources (CuSO4 vs. Cu proteinate) and three levels (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) of dietary Cu was determined in a 73-d feeding trial. Ewes (n = 30) were fed a basal diet containing rice meal feed, cottonseed hulls, cottonseed meal, meat and bone meal, cracked corn, and vitamin-mineral supplements at 2.5% of BW to meet NRC requirements for protein, energy, macrominerals, and microminerals, excluding Cu. The basal diet contained 5 mg/kg Cu, 113 mg/kg Fe, .1 mg/kg Mo, and .17% S. Copper sulfate or Cu proteinate was added to the basal diet to supply 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg of dietary copper in a 2x3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Ewes were housed in 3.7- x 9.1-m pens in an open-sided barn. Blood samples were collected on d 28 and 73. Ewes were slaughtered on d 74, and liver and other tissues were collected to determine Cu concentrations. An interaction (P = .08) occurred between source and level for liver Cu. The interaction existed due to an increase in liver Cu concentrations when ewes were fed increasing dietary Cu from CuSO4 but not when fed Cu proteinate diets. There was no source x level interaction (P>.10) for the blood constituents measured. On d 73, plasma ceruloplasmin activity was greater (P<.05) in ewes fed Cu proteinate than in those fed CuSO4 (33.1 vs. 26.8 microM x min(-1) x L(-1)). Increasing the concentration of dietary Cu did not affect (P>.10) plasma ceruloplasmin. Packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count, whole blood hemoglobin (wHb), plasma hemoglobin, and plasma Cu were similar between sources of Cu. Ewes fed 20 mg/kg Cu had lower (P<.05) PCV, RBC, and wHb than those fed 10 or 30 mg/kg Cu diets. Feeding up to 30 mg/kg Cu from these sources did not cause an observable Cu toxicity during the 73-d period.

  13. Dosimetric response of variable-size cavities in photon-irradiated media and the behaviour of the Spencer-Attix cavity integral with increasing Δ.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Deshpande, Deepak D; Nahum, Alan E

    2016-04-07

    Cavity theory is fundamental to understanding and predicting dosimeter response. Conventional cavity theories have been shown to be consistent with one another by deriving the electron (+positron) and photon fluence spectra with the FLURZnrc user-code (EGSnrc Monte-Carlo system) in large volumes under quasi-CPE for photon beams of 1 MeV and 10 MeV in three materials (water, aluminium and copper) and then using these fluence spectra to evaluate and then inter-compare the Bragg-Gray, Spencer-Attix and 'large photon' 'cavity integrals'. The behaviour of the 'Spencer-Attix dose' (aka restricted cema), D S-A(▵), in a 1-MeV photon field in water has been investigated for a wide range of values of the cavity-size parameter ▵: D S-A(▵) decreases far below the Monte-Carlo dose (D MC) for ▵ greater than  ≈  30 keV due to secondary electrons with starting energies below ▵ not being 'counted'. We show that for a quasi-scatter-free geometry (D S-A(▵)/D MC) is closely equal to the proportion of energy transferred to Compton electrons with initial (kinetic) energies above ▵, derived from the Klein-Nishina (K-N) differential cross section. (D S-A(▵)/D MC) can be used to estimate the maximum size of a detector behaving as a Bragg-Gray cavity in a photon-irradiated medium as a function of photon-beam quality (under quasi CPE) e.g. a typical air-filled ion chamber is 'Bragg-Gray' at (monoenergetic) beam energies  ⩾260 keV. Finally, by varying the density of a silicon cavity (of 2.26 mm diameter and 2.0 mm thickness) in water, the response of different cavity 'sizes' was simulated; the Monte-Carlo-derived ratio D w/D Si for 6 MV and 15 MV photons varied from very close to the Spencer-Attix value at 'gas' densities, agreed well with Burlin cavity theory as ρ increased, and approached large photon behaviour for ρ  ≈  10 g cm(-3). The estimate of ▵ for the Si cavity was improved by incorporating a Monte-Carlo-derived correction for

  14. Dosimetric response of variable-size cavities in photon-irradiated media and the behaviour of the Spencer-Attix cavity integral with increasing Δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Nahum, Alan E.

    2016-04-01

    Cavity theory is fundamental to understanding and predicting dosimeter response. Conventional cavity theories have been shown to be consistent with one another by deriving the electron (+positron) and photon fluence spectra with the FLURZnrc user-code (EGSnrc Monte-Carlo system) in large volumes under quasi-CPE for photon beams of 1 MeV and 10 MeV in three materials (water, aluminium and copper) and then using these fluence spectra to evaluate and then inter-compare the Bragg-Gray, Spencer-Attix and ‘large photon’ ‘cavity integrals’. The behaviour of the ‘Spencer-Attix dose’ (aka restricted cema), D S-A(▵), in a 1-MeV photon field in water has been investigated for a wide range of values of the cavity-size parameter ▵: D S-A(▵) decreases far below the Monte-Carlo dose (D MC) for ▵ greater than  ≈  30 keV due to secondary electrons with starting energies below ▵ not being ‘counted’. We show that for a quasi-scatter-free geometry (D S-A(▵)/D MC) is closely equal to the proportion of energy transferred to Compton electrons with initial (kinetic) energies above ▵, derived from the Klein-Nishina (K-N) differential cross section. (D S-A(▵)/D MC) can be used to estimate the maximum size of a detector behaving as a Bragg-Gray cavity in a photon-irradiated medium as a function of photon-beam quality (under quasi CPE) e.g. a typical air-filled ion chamber is ‘Bragg-Gray’ at (monoenergetic) beam energies  ⩾260 keV. Finally, by varying the density of a silicon cavity (of 2.26 mm diameter and 2.0 mm thickness) in water, the response of different cavity ‘sizes’ was simulated; the Monte-Carlo-derived ratio D w/D Si for 6 MV and 15 MV photons varied from very close to the Spencer-Attix value at ‘gas’ densities, agreed well with Burlin cavity theory as ρ increased, and approached large photon behaviour for ρ  ≈  10 g cm-3. The estimate of ▵ for the Si cavity was improved by incorporating a Monte

  15. Compound parabolic concentrator with cavity for tubular absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1983-01-01

    A compond parabolic concentrator with a V-shaped cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. The cavity redirects all energy entering between the receiver and the cavity structure onto the receiver, if the optical receiver is emplaced a distance from the cavity not greater than 0.27 r (where r is the radius of the receiver).

  16. Teleportation of a Weak Coherent Cavity Field State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Wesley B.; Qiang, Wen-Chao; Avelar, Ardiley T.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a scheme to teleport a weak coherent cavity field state. The scheme relies on the resonant atom-field interaction inside a high-Q cavity. The mean photon-number of the cavity field is assumed much smaller than one, hence the field decay inside the cavity can be effectively suppressed.

  17. UV laser with an acousto-optic intra-cavity control for GaN-sapphire cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradoboev, Yury G.; Kazaryan, Mishik A.; Mokrushin, Yury M.; Shakin, Oleg V.

    2012-09-01

    A copper vapor laser is proposed as the basic component of the installation for processing of sapphire substrates with a GaN-coating. Laser radiation is transformed to UV range by optical frequency doubling. Powerful UV lasers are prospective tools for crystal cutting, photolithography and recording of the fiber Bragg gratings. The proposed approach is more promising in comparison with the use of excimer radiation because of instabilities of excimer laser generation and low coherence of its radiation, which makes difficult precise focusing and using interference pattern of UV radiation for exposing materials. UV laser based on second harmonic radiation of copper vapors laser has been designed. The UV laser system of high operation stability has been developed with output power 1 W at wavelengths 255.5 nm, 271.1 nm, 289.1 nm and coherence length radiation about 4 cm. The original intra-cavity acousto-optic control of output radiation is developed. It is allows adjusting frequency and on-off time ratio of output laser pulses with high accuracy. The stable heat regime was achieved for an active element of copper vapor laser̤ The laser system allows to select an optimum mode of ultra-violet radiation exposition for production of different optical elements. Intra-cavity acousto-optic cell was used for controlling of single pulse amplitude and number of pulses without any power supply tuning providing the stable operation of the laser system.

  18. Genes involved in copper resistance influence survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on copper surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Elguindi, Jutta; Wagner, Janine; Rensing, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on copper cast alloys and the influence of genes on survival on copper containing medium and surfaces. Methods and Results Different strains of P. aeruginosa were inoculated on copper containing medium or different copper cast alloys and the survival rate determined. The survival rates were compared to rates on copper-free medium and stainless steel as control. In addition, the effect of temperature on survival was examined. Conclusions Copper cast alloys had previously shown to be bactericidal to various bacteria but the mechanism of copper-mediated killing is still not known. In this report we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa PAO1 is rapidly killed on different copper cast alloys and that genes involved in conferring copper resistance in copper-containing medium also influenced survival on copper cast alloys. We also show that the rate of killing is influenced by temperature. PMID:19239551

  19. JLab SRF Cavity Fabrication Errors, Consequences and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Marhauser

    2011-09-01

    Today, elliptical superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are preferably made from deep-drawn niobium sheets as pursued at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The fabrication of a cavity incorporates various cavity cell machining, trimming and electron beam welding (EBW) steps as well as surface chemistry that add to forming errors creating geometrical deviations of the cavity shape from its design. An analysis of in-house built cavities over the last years revealed significant errors in cavity production. Past fabrication flaws are described and lessons learned applied successfully to the most recent in-house series production of multi-cell cavities.

  20. Radiation measurements during cavities conditioning on APS RF test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Grudzien, D.M.; Kustom, R.L.; Moe, H.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-07-01

    In order to determine the shielding structure around the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron and storage ring RF stations, the X-ray radiation has been measured in the near field and far field regions of the RF cavities during the normal conditioning process. Two cavity types, a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity, are used on the APS and are conditioned in the RF test stand. Vacuum measurements are also taken on a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity. The data will be compared with data on the five-cell cavities from CERN.

  1. Superconducting drift-tube cavity development for the RIA driver.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K. W.; Kelly, M. P.; Fuerst, J. D.

    2002-09-23

    This paper reports the design and development of two intermediate-velocity superconducting cavities and design of an associated cryomodule for the RIA driver linac. The two cavity types are a 115 MHz, {beta}{sub GEOM} = 0.15 quarter-wave resonant (QWR) cavity, and a 173 MHz, {beta}{sub GEOM} = 0.26 half-wave loaded cavity. Both cavities are well-corrected for dipole and quadrupole asymmetries in the accelerating field. The cryomodule is being designed to incorporate a separate vacuum system for cavity vacuum to provide a particulate-free environment for the superconducting cavities.

  2. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A

  3. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOEpatents

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Davis, John W.

    2000-07-18

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  4. Superconducting cavity material for the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Brinkmann, A.; Iversen, J.; Matheisen, A.; Navitski, A.; Tamashevich, Y.; Michelato, P.; Monaco, L.

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of the strategy for superconducting cavity material procurement and quality management is done on the basis of the experience with the cavity production for the European x-ray free electron laser (EXFEL) facility. An adjustment of the material specification to EXFEL requirements, procurement of material, quality control (QC), documentation, and shipment to cavity producers have been worked out and carried out by DESY. A multistep process of qualification of the material suppliers included detailed material testing, single- and nine-cell cavity fabrication, and cryogenic radiofrequency tests. Production of about 25 000 semi-finished parts of high purity niobium and niobium-titanium alloy in a period of three years has been divided finally between companies Heraeus, Tokyo Denkai, Ningxia OTIC, and PLANSEE. Consideration of large-grain (LG) material as a possible option for the EXFEL has resulted in the production of one cryogenic module consisting of seven (out of eight) LG cavities. LG materials fulfilled the EXFEL requirements and showed even 25% to 30% higher unloaded quality factor. A possible shortage of the required quantity of LG material on the market led, however, to the choice of conventional fine-grain (FG) material. Eddy-current scanning (ECS) has been applied as an additional QC tool for the niobium sheets and contributed significantly to the material qualification and sorting. Two percent of the sheets have been rejected, which potentially could affect up to one-third of the cavities. The main imperfections and defects in the rejected sheets have been analyzed. Samples containing foreign material inclusions have been extracted from the sheets and electrochemically polished. Some inclusions remained even after 150 μm surface layer removal. Indications of foreign material inclusions have been found in the industrially fabricated and treated cavities and a deeper analysis of the defects has been performed.

  5. Beam loading in magnicon deflection cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hafizi, B.; Gold, S.H.

    1997-02-01

    The radio frequency (RF) source for the next linear collider (NLC) is required to generate a power of 1/2--1 GW per tube in a 200-ns pulse, or 100--200 J of energy in a pulse of up to a few {micro}s in duration, at a frequency of 10--20 GHz. A variety of RF sources are under investigation at the present time aimed at fulfilling the needs of the NLC. These include the X-band klystron, Gyroklystron, traveling-wave tube, harmonic convertor, chopper-driven traveling-wave tube, and magnicon. Here, analysis of the beam-deflection cavity interaction in a magnicon is presented and compared with experiment. For a driven cavity a dispersion relation is obtained wherein the interaction modifies the cold-cavity factor and the resonance frequency. In terms of a lumped-parameter equivalent circuit the interaction corresponds to a complex-values beam admittance Y{sub b} in parallel with the cavity admittance. The response of the gain cavities is modified by the same admittance. In a magnicon, Y{sub b} is a sensitive function of the solenoidal focusing magnetic field B{sub 0}, thus providing a convenient means of adjusting the cavity properties in experiments. When the relativistic gyrofrequency is twice the drive frequency, ImY{sub b} = 0 and the beam does not load the cavity. Analytical expressions of the variation of the detuning, instantaneous bandwidth (i.e., loaded quality factor) and gain with B{sub 0} are derived. Simulation results are presented to verify the linear analysis with ideal beams and to illustrate the modifications due to finite beam emittance. Results of the magnicon experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory are examined in the light of the analysis.

  6. Coupled-cavity QED using planar photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S

    2007-02-23

    We introduce a technique for controlling cavity QED by indirectly coupling two planar-photonic-crystal nanocavities through an integrated waveguide. Guided by an explicit analytical expression for the photon Green function, the resulting optical response of a single quantum dot, embedded in one of the cavities, is shown to be profoundly influenced by the distant cavity. The regimes of cavity QED, e.g., vacuum Rabi splitting, are made significantly easier and richer than with one cavity alone.

  7. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    SciTech Connect

    E.J. Brown; C.T. Ballinger; S.R. Burger; G.W. Charache; L.R. Danielson; D.M. DePoy; T.J. Donovan; M. LoCascio

    2000-05-30

    The performance of a 1 cm{sup 2} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage.

  8. The main linac cavity for Cornell's energy recovery linac: Cavity design through horizontal cryomodule prototype test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, N.; Liepe, M.; Furuta, F.; Gi, M.; Gonnella, D.; He, Y.; Ho, K.; Hoffstaetter, G.; Klein, D. S.; O'Connell, T.; Posen, S.; Quigley, P.; Sears, J.; Stedman, G. Q.; Tigner, M.; Veshcherevich, V.

    2014-01-01

    Future particle accelerators will require continuous wave operation of SRF cavities capable of supporting high beam currents. An example of this is the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) at Cornell University, a next generation light source designed to run high currents (100 mA) with a high bunch repetition rate (1.3 GHz). Obtaining the beam emittance necessary to meet design specification requires strong damping of higher-order modes that can lead to beam breakup. We discuss the optimization and verification of the accelerating cavity. Next we show that an ERL constructed from the optimized cavity geometry - including realistic shape errors - can support beam currents in excess of 300 mA while still maintaining beam stability. A niobium prototype 7-cell cavity was fabricated and tested in a horizontal cryomodule. We show that the prototype cavity exceeds quality factor and gradient specifications of 2 ×1010 at 16.2 MV/m at 1.8 K by 50%, reaching Q =(3.0 ± 0.3) ×1010. The prototype cavity also satisfies all design constraints and has a higher order mode spectrum consistent with the optimized shape geometry. At 1.6 K, the cavity set a record for quality factor of a multicell cavity installed in a horizontal cryomodule reaching Q =(6.1 ± 0.6) ×1010.

  9. Spin-cavity interactions between a quantum dot molecule and a photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Vora, Patrick M; Bracker, Allan S; Carter, Samuel G; Sweeney, Timothy M; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Yang, Lily; Brereton, Peter G; Economou, Sophia E; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-07-17

    The integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dots into nanophotonic cavities has led to impressive demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, these demonstrations are primarily based on two-level excitonic systems. Efforts to couple long-lived quantum dot electron spin states with a cavity are only now succeeding. Here we report a two-spin-cavity system, achieved by embedding an InAs quantum dot molecule within a photonic crystal cavity. With this system we obtain a spin singlet-triplet Λ-system where the ground-state spin splitting exceeds the cavity linewidth by an order of magnitude. This allows us to observe cavity-stimulated Raman emission that is highly spin-selective. Moreover, we demonstrate the first cases of cavity-enhanced optical nonlinearities in a solid-state Λ-system. This provides an all-optical, local method to control the spin exchange splitting. Incorporation of a highly engineerable quantum dot molecule into the photonic crystal architecture advances prospects for a quantum network.

  10. Spin–cavity interactions between a quantum dot molecule and a photonic crystal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Patrick M.; Bracker, Allan S.; Carter, Samuel G.; Sweeney, Timothy M.; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Yang, Lily; Brereton, Peter G.; Economou, Sophia E.; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dots into nanophotonic cavities has led to impressive demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, these demonstrations are primarily based on two-level excitonic systems. Efforts to couple long-lived quantum dot electron spin states with a cavity are only now succeeding. Here we report a two-spin–cavity system, achieved by embedding an InAs quantum dot molecule within a photonic crystal cavity. With this system we obtain a spin singlet–triplet Λ-system where the ground-state spin splitting exceeds the cavity linewidth by an order of magnitude. This allows us to observe cavity-stimulated Raman emission that is highly spin-selective. Moreover, we demonstrate the first cases of cavity-enhanced optical nonlinearities in a solid-state Λ-system. This provides an all-optical, local method to control the spin exchange splitting. Incorporation of a highly engineerable quantum dot molecule into the photonic crystal architecture advances prospects for a quantum network. PMID:26184654

  11. Spin-cavity interactions between a quantum dot molecule and a photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Patrick M.; Bracker, Allan S.; Carter, Samuel G.; Sweeney, Timothy M.; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Yang, Lily; Brereton, Peter G.; Economou, Sophia E.; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dots into nanophotonic cavities has led to impressive demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, these demonstrations are primarily based on two-level excitonic systems. Efforts to couple long-lived quantum dot electron spin states with a cavity are only now succeeding. Here we report a two-spin-cavity system, achieved by embedding an InAs quantum dot molecule within a photonic crystal cavity. With this system we obtain a spin singlet-triplet Λ-system where the ground-state spin splitting exceeds the cavity linewidth by an order of magnitude. This allows us to observe cavity-stimulated Raman emission that is highly spin-selective. Moreover, we demonstrate the first cases of cavity-enhanced optical nonlinearities in a solid-state Λ-system. This provides an all-optical, local method to control the spin exchange splitting. Incorporation of a highly engineerable quantum dot molecule into the photonic crystal architecture advances prospects for a quantum network.

  12. Fabrication of a centimeter-long cavity on a nanofiber for cavity quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Keloth, Jameesh; Nayak, K P; Hakuta, K

    2017-03-01

    We report the fabrication of a 1.2 cm long cavity directly on a nanofiber using femtosecond laser ablation. The cavity modes with finesse values in the range of 200-400 can enable the "strong-coupling" regime of cavity QED, with high cooperativity of 10-20, for a single atom trapped 200 nm away from the fiber surface [Phys. Rev. A80, 053826 (2009)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.053826]. Such cavity modes can still maintain the transmission between 40%-60%, suggesting a one-pass intracavity transmission of 99.53%. Other cavity modes, which can enable cooperativity in the range of 3-10, show transmission over 60%-85% and are suitable for fiber-based single-photon sources and quantum nonlinear optics in the "Purcell" regime.

  13. Recent advances in coupled laser cavity design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, James R.; Chiang, Hung-Sheng; Nilsson, Johan; Ji, Junhau; Sahu, Jayanta

    2013-03-01

    External cavity coherent beam combining represents a path forward to higher fiber laser radiance, with several groups demonstrating scalable approaches. In this paper, we review recent advances in coupled laser cavity design. In particular, we compare various designs and describe the pros and cons of each with regard to sensitivity to path length errors. Experimental measurements using a specially designed dual-core fiber demonstrate the modal loss from a superposition architecture. A second area of investigation is concerned with Q-switch suppression in coupled laser cavities. The increased cavity loss that accompanies path length errors in the laser arms can suppress lasing, causing an energy build-up in the laser inversion. When the path length errors are removed and the cavity resumes its low loss state, the stored energy can be released in a manner analogous to Q-switching, creating a giant laser pulse. Since the peak power of this pulse can be many orders of magnitude larger than the cw power, the high instantaneous intensity can cause irreparable damage to optical components. We investigate passive systems that are designed to suppress this unwanted Q-switching by allowing alternative lasing paths to clamp the gain.

  14. Long Wave Infrared Cavity Enhanced Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Aker, Pam M.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Munley, John T.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Schultz, John F.

    2004-10-01

    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) long wave infrared (LWIR) cavity enhanced sensor (CES) project is to explore ultra-sensitive spectroscopic techniques and apply them to the development of LWIR chemical sensors needed for detecting weapons proliferation. This includes detecting not only the weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) themselves, but also signatures of their production and/or detonation. The LWIR CES project is concerned exclusively with developing point sensors; other portions of PNNL's IR Sensors program address stand off detection. PNNL's LWIR CES research is distinguished from that done by others by the use quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as the light source. QCLs are novel devices, and a significant fraction of our research has been devoted to developing the procedures and hardware required to implement them most effectively for chemical sensing. This report details the progress we have made on our LWIR CES sensor development. During FY02, PNNL investigated three LWIR CES implementations beginning with the easiest to implement, direct cavity-enhanced detection (simple CES), including a technique of intermediate difficulty, cavity-dithered phase-sensitive detection (FM recovery CES) through to the most complex technique, that of resonant sideband cavity-enhanced detection also known as noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy, or NICE-OHMS.

  15. Inflammatory oral cavity diseases of the cat.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C

    1992-11-01

    There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.

  16. Plasmonic band gap cavities on biharmonic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Askin; Seckin Senlik, S.; Aydinli, Atilla

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated the formation of plasmonic band gap cavities in infrared and visible wavelength range. The cavity structure is based on a biharmonic metallic grating with selective high dielectric loading. A uniform metallic grating structure enables strong surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation and a superimposed second harmonic component forms a band gap for the propagating SPPs. We show that a high dielectric superstructure can dramatically perturb the optical properties of SPPs and enables the control of the plasmonic band gap structure. Selective patterning of the high index superstructure results in an index contrast in and outside the patterned region that forms a cavity. This allows us to excite the SPPs that localize inside the cavity at specific wavelengths, satisfying the cavity resonance condition. Experimentally, we observe the formation of a localized state in the band gap and measure the dispersion diagram. Quality factors as high as 37 have been observed in the infrared wavelength. The simplicity of the fabrication and the method of testing make this approach attractive for applications requiring localization of propagating SPPs.

  17. Biliary copper excretion by hepatocyte lysosomes in the rat. Major excretory pathway in experimental copper overload

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.B. Jr.; Myers, B.M.; Kost, L.J.; Kuntz, S.M.; LaRusso, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that lysosomes are the main source of biliary copper in conditions of hepatic copper overload. We used a rat model of oral copper loading and studied the relationship between the biliary output of copper and lysosomal hydrolases. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given tap water with or without 0.125% copper acetate for up to 36 wk. Copper loading produced a 23-fold increase in the hepatic copper concentration and a 30-65% increase in hepatic lysosomal enzyme activity. Acid phosphatase histochemistry showed that copper-loaded livers contained an increased number of hepatocyte lysosomes; increased copper concentration of these organelles was confirmed directly by both x ray microanalysis and tissue fractionation. The copper-loaded rats showed a 16-fold increase in biliary copper output and a 50-300% increase in biliary lysosomal enzyme output. In the basal state, excretory profiles over time were similar for biliary outputs of lysosomal enzymes and copper in the copper-loaded animals but not in controls. After pharmacologic stimulation of lysosomal exocytosis, biliary outputs of copper and lysosomal hydrolases in the copper-loaded animals remained coupled: injection of colchicine or vinblastine produced an acute rise in the biliary output of both lysosomal enzymes and copper to 150-250% of baseline rates. After these same drugs, control animals showed only the expected increase in lysosomal enzyme output without a corresponding increase in copper output. We conclude that the hepatocyte responds to an increased copper load by sequestering excess copper in an increased number of lysosomes that then empty their contents directly into bile. The results provide direct evidence that exocytosis of lysosomal contents into biliary canaliculi is the major mechanism for biliary copper excretion in hepatic copper overload.

  18. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.1125 Section 73.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.1125 Section 73.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity...

  3. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.1125 Section 73.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The...

  6. Leaching of Copper Ore by Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Biaha, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative laboratory exercise based upon the procedures copper manufacturers employ to increase copper production is described. The role of chemoautotrophic microorganisms in biogeologic process is emphasized. Safety considerations when working with bacteria are included. (KR)

  7. Thermotransport in liquid aluminum-copper alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    A thermotransport study was made on a series of liquid aluminum-copper alloys which contained from trace amounts to 33 weight percent copper. The samples in the form of narrow capillaries were held in known temperature gradient of thermotransport apparatus until the stationary state was reached. The samples were analyzed for the concentration of copper along the length. Copper was observed to migrate to the colder regions in all the samples. The heat of transport, Q*, was determined for each composition from a plot of concentration of copper versus reciprocal absolute temperature. The value of Q* is the highest at trace amounts of copper (4850 cal/gm-atom), but decreases with increasing concentration of copper and levels off to 2550 cal/gm-atom at about 25 weight percent copper. The results are explained on the basis of electron-solute interaction and a gas model of diffusion.

  8. Molecular Mediators Governing Iron-Copper Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Given their similar physiochemical properties, it is a logical postulate that iron and copper metabolism are intertwined. Indeed, iron-copper interactions were first documented over a century ago, but the homeostatic effects of one on the other has not been elucidated at a molecular level to date. Recent experimental work has, however, begun to provide mechanistic insight into how copper influences iron metabolism. During iron deficiency, elevated copper levels are observed in the intestinal mucosa, liver, and blood. Copper accumulation and/or redistribution within enterocytes may influence iron transport, and high hepatic copper may enhance biosynthesis of a circulating ferroxidase, which potentiates iron release from stores. Moreover, emerging evidence has documented direct effects of copper on the expression and activity of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. This review summarizes current experimental work in this field, with a focus on molecular aspects of iron-copper interplay and how these interactions relate to various disease states. PMID:24995690

  9. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  10. Placental copper transport in the brindled mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Garnica, A.; Bates, J.

    1986-03-01

    Pregnant brindled (brin) mice were injected at 16 or 19 days gestation with 2 doses of CuCl/sub 2/ 6 mcg/g/dose, separated by 12 h, and sacrificed 6 h after the second. The copper conc. in placenta (P) and kidneys (K) of uninjected (UI) brin mice were higher than in UI controls, while conc. in liver (L) and fetal carcass (F) were lower. After injection (I), placental copper conc. increased while the carcass conc. remained unchanged. Brin mouse is a model for the human inborn error of copper metabolism, Menkes syndrome, which is characterized by signs of copper deficiency. These data indicate that metabolism of copper in brin fetus is abnormal, but depressed fetal copper levels cannot be corrected by acute copper dosing because of the sequestration of copper in placenta.

  11. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host.

  12. A double stranded metal-organic assembly accommodating a pair of water trimers in the host cavity and catalysing Glaser coupling.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Subhashis; Moon, Dohyun; John, Rohith P

    2016-02-01

    A supramolecular compound, catena-poly{[Cu2(1,3-μ2-(1a))2(μ2-ter)2(H2O)2]n·(6H2O)n} (1) has been synthesized using (1a) [(1a = N(1),N(3),N(5)-trimethyl-N(1),N(3),N(5)-tris((pyridin-4-yl)methyl)-1,3,5-benzene tricarboxamide] and terephthalate (ter) as the pillaring unit by self-assembly. The terephthalate units are connected by copper(II) ions forming a single strand, while a pair of such strands are then linked by (1a) via two pyridyl terminal arms bound to copper(II) nodes on either side forming a one-dimensional double stranded assembly propagating along the c axis. The compound crystallizes in the Fdd2 space group. The cavity created in the interior of this double strand assembly trap six water molecules and are stabilized by hydrogen bonding with the host. The arrangement of the pair of acyclic water trimers in isolated cavities of (1) is such that it resembles a closed-bracket-like formation. The Hirshfeld surface analysis of (1) reveals the presence of strong intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions between one-dimensional ladder-like units and with the water trimer in the host cavity. The copper(II)-containing coordination polymer also acts as an efficient catalyst for the Glaser-Hay homo-coupling reaction.

  13. Application of saccharose as copper(II) ligand for electroless copper plating solutions.

    PubMed

    Norkus, Eugenijus; Prusinskas, Kestutis; Vaskelis, Algirdas; Jaciauskiene, Jane; Stalnioniene, Irena; Macalady, Donald L

    2007-01-15

    Saccharose, forming sufficiently stable complexes with copper(II) ions in alkaline solutions, was found to be a suitable ligand for copper(II) chelating in alkaline (pH>12) electroless copper deposition solutions. Reduction of copper(II)-saccharose complexes by hydrated formaldehyde was investigated and the copper deposits formed were characterized. The thickness of the compact copper coatings obtained under optimal operating conditions in 1h reaches ca. 2 microm at ambient temperature. The plating solutions were stable and no signs of Cu(II) reduction in the bulk solution were observed. Results were compared with those systems operating with other copper(II) ligands.

  14. Optical Resonant Cavity in a Nanotaper

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Goto, Takenari; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Chang, Jiho; Yao, Takafumi

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes an optical resonant cavity in a nanotaper with scale reduction from micro to several nanometers. Both experimental results and a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based simulation suggested that the nanometer-scale taper with a diameter similar to the wavelength of light acted as a mirror, which facilitated the formation of a laser cavity and caused lasing in ZnO nanotapers. As the light inside the nanotaper propagated toward the apex, the lateral mode was reduced and reflection occurred. This report suggests that use of the resonant optical cavities in nanotapers might result in novel active and passive optical components, which will broaden the horizons of photonic technology.

  15. Plasmonic coaxial waveguide-cavity devices.

    PubMed

    Mahigir, Amirreza; Dastmalchi, Pouya; Shin, Wonseok; Fan, Shanhui; Veronis, Georgios

    2015-08-10

    We theoretically investigate three-dimensional plasmonic waveguide-cavity structures, built by side-coupling stub resonators that consist of plasmonic coaxial waveguides of finite length, to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. The resonators are terminated either in a short or an open circuit. We show that the properties of these waveguide-cavity systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. We also show that, with proper choice of their design parameters, three-dimensional plasmonic coaxial waveguide-cavity devices and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal devices can have nearly identical transmission spectra. Thus, three-dimensional plasmonic coaxial waveguides offer a platform for practical implementation of two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal device designs.

  16. Enhanced Method for Cavity Impedance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Marhauser, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Haipeng Wang

    2009-05-01

    With the proposal of medium to high average current accelerator facilities the demand for cavities with extremely low Higher Order Mode (HOM) impedances is increasing. Modern numerical tools are still under development to more thoroughly predict impedances that need to take into account complex absorbing boundaries and lossy materials. With the usually large problem size it is preferable to utilize massive parallel computing when applicable and available. Apart from such computational issues, we have developed methods using available computer resources to enhance the information that can be extracted from a cavities? wakefield computed in time domain. In particular this is helpful for a careful assessment of the extracted RF power and the mitigation of potential beam break-up or emittance diluting effects, a figure of merit for the cavity performance. The method is described as well as an example of its implementation.

  17. Harmonic cavities for the NLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    de Santis, S.; Wolski, A.

    2003-05-29

    To achieve high luminosity, a linear collider needs damping rings to produce beams with very small transverse emittances. In the NLC, design constraints place the Main Damping Rings in a parameter regime where intrabeam scattering (IBS) is likely to be a limitation on the emittance, and hence on the final luminosity. It is possible to mitigate the effects of IBS by lengthening the bunch: this may be achieved by redesigning the lattice with higher momentum compaction, or by use of higher harmonic cavities. Here, we consider the latter approach. We estimate the required bunch lengthening that might be needed, outline some appropriate parameters for the harmonic cavities, and discuss some of the effects that might be introduced or exacerbated by the cavities, such as synchronous phase variation along the bunch train.

  18. Coupled External Cavity Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ~10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ~105× improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays. PMID:23129575

  19. Coupled external cavity photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-05-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ∼10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ∼10(5) × improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays.

  20. ERRATUM: Effective emissivity of a cylindrical cavity with an inclined bottom: I. Isothermal cavity Effective emissivity of a cylindrical cavity with an inclined bottom: I. Isothermal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Hanssen, Leonard M.

    2009-12-01

    In table 2 of this paper, the values of the normal effective emissivity are presented, instead of values of the hemispherical effective emissivity for an isothermal cavity with β = 30°. Here, we present the corrected portion of table 2. Also, in figure 5 (right-side plot) and figure 6 (left column, second row), instead of a cavity with β = 58°, the plots for a cavity with slightly different geometric parameters are shown. We show here the corrected map of reflections and a three-dimensional plot of the distribution of the local normal effective emissivity. The corrected portions of table 2, figure 5 and figure 6 are given in the pdf file.

  1. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Proslier, Th.; Ha, Y.; Zasadzinski, J.; Ciovati, G.; Kneissel, P.; Reece, C.; Rimmer, R.; Gurevich, A.; Cooley, L.; Wu, G.; Pellin, M.; /Argonne

    2009-05-01

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: (1) results from ALD coated cavities and coupons, (2) new evidence from point contact tunneling (PCT) showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, (3) a study of high pressure rinsing damage on niobium samples.

  3. Nitrogen doping study in ingot niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Makita, Junki

    2015-09-01

    Thermal diffusion of nitrogen in niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities at temperature ~800 °C has resulted in the increase in quality factor with a low-field Q-rise extending to Bp > 90 mT. However, the maximum accelerating gradient of these doped cavities often deteriorates below the values achieved by standard treatments prior to doping. Here, we present the results of the measurements on ingot niobium cavities doped with nitrogen at 800 °C. The rf measurements were carried out after the successive electropolishing to remove small amount of material from the inner surface layer. The result showed higher breakdown field with lower quality factor as material removal increases.

  4. Observing spin optodynamical analog of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Justin; Kohler, Jonathan; Spethmann, Nicolas; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cavity Optomechanics has been realized in many diverse systems and led to many interesting results such as ponderomotive squeezing of light, beyond-SQL measurement sensitivity, and squeezing of mechanical oscillators. Optical cavities also allow sensitive measurements of the spin of an atomic ensemble. It has been proposed to utilize this sensitivity to realize an analog of optomechanics by measuring the precession of small excitations of a spin-oscillator around a transverse magnetic field. I will present our recent work in which we realize optomechanical analogs in our system such as cavity-assisted cooling and amplification and optical spring shifts. In addition, the presence of a high-energy `ground state' of the spin oscillator allows the realization of an effective negative mass oscillator which is demonstrated by an inverted sideband asymmetry. In our ongoing work we attempt to realize coherent quantum noise cancelation by coupling spin oscillation with mechanical oscillation.

  5. Hybrid microwave-cavity heat engine.

    PubMed

    Bergenfeldt, Christian; Samuelsson, Peter; Sothmann, Björn; Flindt, Christian; Büttiker, Markus

    2014-02-21

    We propose and analyze the use of hybrid microwave cavities as quantum heat engines. A possible realization consists of two macroscopically separated quantum-dot conductors coupled capacitively to the fundamental mode of a microwave cavity. We demonstrate that an electrical current can be induced in one conductor through cavity-mediated processes by heating up the other conductor. The heat engine can reach Carnot efficiency with optimal conversion of heat to work. When the system delivers the maximum power, the efficiency can be a large fraction of the Carnot efficiency. The heat engine functions even with moderate electronic relaxation and dephasing in the quantum dots. We provide detailed estimates for the electrical current and output power using realistic parameters.

  6. Cavity gas pressure measurements on DIAMOND FORTUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.; Breeze, S.P.

    1993-10-01

    Five measurements were made of the gas pressure in the cavity as a function of time on the DIAMOND FORTUNE event. The measurements were obtained with a fast and slow blowdown technique; an additional transducer on the cavity side of the explosive valve provided valuable data. Data from three of the five transducers are nearly coincident data from the other two show temperature-related shifts. The timeframe of the credible measurements extends from 0.1 second to four hours. The pressure at two seconds was 2,100 kPa (300 Psi). On the logarithmic time scale this level decays monotonically to 210 kPa (30 Psi) at 1,000 seconds. During the next decade of time the cavity pressure approached atmospheric pressure. Over the initial few seconds the measured amplitude is close to the S-Cubed prediction; with increased time the measured pressure decays at a faster rate.

  7. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-01

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm-2 sr-1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  8. Field stabilization of Alvarez-type cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Groening, L.; Mickat, S.; Seibel, A.; Kester, O. K.

    2017-03-01

    Alvarez-type cavities are commonly used to reliably accelerate high quality hadron beams. Optimization of their longitudinal field homogeneity is usually accomplished by post-couplers, i.e., additional rods being integrated into the cavity. This paper instead proposes to use the stems that keep the drift tubes for that purpose. As their individual azimuthal orientations do not change the cavity's undisturbed operational mode, they comprise a set of free parameters that can be used to modify higher mode field patterns. The latter have significant impact on the robustness of the operational mode with respect to eventual perturbations. Several optimized stem configurations are presented and benchmarked against each other. The path to obtain these configurations is paved analytically and worked out in detail through simulations. It is shown also by measurements that the method provides for flat field distributions and very low field tilt sensitivities without insertion of post-couplers.

  9. Textured carbon surfaces on copper by sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, A. N. (Inventor); Jensen, K. A. (Inventor); Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A very thin layer of highly textured carbon is applied to a copper surface by a triode sputtering process. A carbon target and a copper substrate are simultaneously exposed to an argon plasma in a vacuum chamber. The resulting carbon surface is characterized by a dense, random array of needle like spires or peaks which extend perpendicularly from the copper surface. The coated copper is especially useful for electrode plates in multistage depressed collectors.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and....1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7758-99-8) usually... sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  15. Copper Post-CMP Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosvetsky, D.; Ein-Eli, Y.

    Copper on-chip interconnects Damascene technology utilizes chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) in order to remove copper overburden after its electro deposition and achieve global planarization of patterned surface. CMP is a simultaneous action of mechanical overburden metal removal and its electrochemical dissolution. It is performed with the movement of a polisher pad in acidic or alkaline aqueous CMP electrolytes (slurry) containing dispersive abrasive particles (Al2O3 or SiO2), pH buffer, certain electrolyte salts to control ionic strength, oxidants, and corrosion inhibitors. Mechanical and chemical interactions with a patterned wafer surface introduce different defects and contaminations in interlayer dielectric (ILD) surfaces and copper layers. These can either be mechanical (physical) or chemical-based defects and contaminants [1-6].

  16. The copper microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Pilon, Marinus

    2017-02-01

    1030 I. 1030 II. 1030 III. 1031 IV. 1031 V. 1032 VI. 1033 VII. 1034 VIII. 1034 1034 References 1034 SUMMARY: Copper (Cu) microRNAs are upregulated by Cu deficiency and mediate the post-transcriptional downregulation of transcripts that encode Cu proteins, suggesting a role directly related to Cu. However, expression and phenotypic analyses of copper microRNA mutants and over-expressors have suggested roles mainly in tolerance to abiotic stresses. To reconcile available data, a model is proposed which emphasizes the mobile nature of copper microRNA molecules in the regulation of Cu homeostasis. It is proposed that the Cu-microRNA regulatory circuits are further co-opted by plants to regulate both beneficial and pathogenic interactions with microbes. Further exploration of Cu-microRNA functions that account for the cell-to-cell mobility should give novel insight into plant microbe interactions and the integration of micronutrition and development.

  17. Contribution of Copper Ion Resistance to Survival of Escherichia coli on Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Taudte, Nadine; Nies, Dietrich H.; Grass, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of touch surfaces poses a serious threat for public health. The use of bactericidal surface materials, such as copper and its alloys, might constitute a way to aid the use of antibiotics and disinfectants, thus minimizing the risk of emergence and spread of multiresistant germs. The survival of Escherichia coli on metallic copper surfaces has been studied previously; however, the mechanisms underlying bacterial inactivation on copper surfaces have not been elucidated. Data presented in this study suggest that bacteria are killed rapidly on dry copper surfaces. Several factors, such as copper ion toxicity, copper chelators, cold, osmotic stress, and reactive oxygen species, but not anaerobiosis, influenced killing rates. Strains deleted in copper detoxification systems were slightly more sensitive than was the wild type. Preadaptation to copper enhanced survival rates upon copper surface exposure. This study constitutes a first step toward understanding the reasons for metallic copper surface-mediated killing of bacteria. PMID:18156321

  18. The superconducting cavity stability ruby maser oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Strayer, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of an application of the rudy maser to a superconducting Cavity Stabilized oscillator shows many attractive features. These derive from the mechancial stability inherent in an all-cryogenic design and from the properties of the ruby maser itself. A multiple-cavity design has been developed to allow physical separation of the high-Q superconducting cavity and the ruby element with its requried applied magnetic field. Mode selection is accomplished in this design by tuning the ruby by means of the applied field. We conclude that such an oscillator would perform well, even with cavity Q's as low as 10 to the 8th power allowing the use of a superconductor-on-sapphire resonator with its greater rigidity and lower thermal expansion. A first test of the Superconducting Cavity Stabilized Maser Oscillator (SCSMO) confirms the efficacy of the multiple-cavity design and the applicability of the ruby maser. Frequency variation less than 4x10 to the minus 11th power was measured in the stabilized mode and is attributed to the reference oscillator and to instabilities in the pump source. Variation of 10 to the minus 10th power was observed in the low-Q unstabilized mode, again attributable to pump fluctuations. Even so, direct scaling to a Q of 10 the 9th power predicts a stability better than 10 to the minus 15th power. Together with results showing the lowest losses to date in sapphire at microwave frequencies, and preliminary experiments on superconductor-on-sapphire resonators, frequency stability, levels as low as 10 to the minus 17th power are indicated.

  19. Advanced acoustic cavity technology. [for hydrogen oxygen rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, W. S.; Oberg, C. L.; Kusak, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of rocket motor firings was performed in a modified linear aerospike thrust chamber with the H2/O2 propellant combination to allow determination of the physical properties of the combustion gases in acoustic cavities located in the chamber side walls. A preliminary analytical study was first conducted to define theoretically both the appropriate cavity dimensions and the combustion gas flow field adjacent to the cavity openings. During the subsequent motor firings, cavity gas temperature profiles were measured and gas samples were withdrawn from the bottom of the cavities for compositional analysis by measurement of pressure/temperature variation and gas chromatography. Data were obtained with both radially and axially oriented cavities and with and without hydrogen bleed flow through the cavities. A simplified procedure was developed for predicting gas cavity and acoustic velocity for use in acoustic cavity design analyses.

  20. Ferrite-filled cavities for compact planar resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keatley, P. S.; Durrant, C. J.; Berry, S. J.; Sirotkin, E.; Hibbins, A. P.; Hicken, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-wavelength metallic planar cavities, closed at one end, have been constructed by wrapping aluminium foil around teflon or ferrite slabs. Finite cavity width perturbs the fundamental cavity mode frequency of ferrite-filled cavities due to different permeability inside and outside of the cavity, in contrast to teflon-filled cavities, while the cavity length required to achieve a specific resonance frequency is significantly reduced for a ferrite-filled cavity. Ferrite-filled cavities may be excited by an in-plane alternating magnetic field and may be advantageous for high-frequency (HF) and ultra HF tagging and radio frequency identification of metallic objects within security, manufacturing, and shipping environments.

  1. A STUDY OF RAPID CAVITY TUNING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHAO, Y.

    2001-07-12

    An FFAG moot likely requires rapid cavity tuning. The cavity must also have a very high gradient. To satisfy both the high power and rapid tuning requirements is a big challenge. Detailed investigation of the possibility is addressed. Included are general thoughts, dual-loop and simple loop analyses, and a study of using ferrite or PIN diodes. Also proposed is a phase control scheme, which may be a better solution if the needed components can be developed. Finally, an energy analysis reveals the difficult of high power tuning.

  2. Cavity growth on a sliding grain boundary

    SciTech Connect

    I-Wei Chen

    1983-11-01

    Cavity growth on a sliding grain boundary to which a normal stress is applied is found to be faster than that on a stationary grain boundary. The morphology of the cavity contains an asymmetric crack-like tip which prompts surface diffusion locally when the sliding is dominant, and the growth rate becomes proportional to the third power of the normal stress independent of the sliding rate. Since the sliding rates of all grain boundaries are statistically comparable, only the normal stress dependence remains important. The conditions which favor the present mechanism are examined and shown to be in good agreement with the experimental evidence in creep cavitation.

  3. Turbulent Flow Over an Embedded Rectangular Cavity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    If aplicable ) Air Force Office of Scientific. p~arch .. AFnSR ,o _______________________ &c. ADDRESS (City. Stele med ZIP Code) W. SOURCE OF FUNDING...stream velocity I V angular component of velocity Vr radial component of velocity W cavity width a position of transformed cavity corner f,(.) first...magnitude. Thus, a viscous vortex is used in place of the inviscid model, that is V= 2r[i-exp r2~1) (8)27Tr 4v- Vr = 0 (9) where Vo and Vr are the angular

  4. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  5. Optical cavity resonator in an expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.

    2015-02-01

    We study the cosmological evolution of frequency of a standing electromagnetic wave in a resonant optical cavity placed to the expanding manifold described by the Robertson-Walker metric. Because of the Einstein principle of equivalence (EEP), one can find a local coordinate system (a local freely falling frame), in which spacetime is locally Minkowskian. However, due to the conformal nature of the Robertson-Walker metric the conventional transformation to the local inertial coordinates introduces ambiguity in the physical interpretation of the local time coordinate, . Therefore, contrary to a common-sense expectation, a straightforward implementation of EEP alone does not allow us to unambiguously decide whether atomic clocks based on quantum transitions of atoms, ticks at the same rate as the clocks based on electromagnetic modes of a cavity. To resolve this ambiguity we have to analyse the cavity rigidity and the oscillation of its electromagnetic modes in an expanding universe by employing the full machinery of the Maxwell equations irrespectively of the underlying theory of gravity. We proceed in this way and found out that the size of the cavity and the electromagnetic frequency experience an adiabatic drift in conformal (unphysical) coordinates as the universe expands in accordance with the Hubble law. We set up the oscillation equation for the resonant electromagnetic modes, solve it by the WKB approximation, and reduce the coordinate-dependent quantities to their counterparts measured by a local observer who counts time with atomic clock. The solution shows that there is a perfect mutual cancellation of the adiabatic drift of cavity's frequency by space transformation to local coordinates and the time counted by the clocks based on electromagnetic modes of cavity has the same rate as that of atomic clocks. We conclude that if general relativity is correct and the local expansion of space is isotropic there should be no cosmological drift of frequency of a

  6. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  7. Pressure in a cavity under unsteady conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, N. S.

    A transparent Venturi tube equipped with an inductive sensor and an inlet pulser has been used to measure pressure inside a cavity, both in cold and hot water. It is found that at frequencies up to 25 Hz, pressure inside the cavity remains constant and is equal to the steam elasticity over cold and hot water. It is suggested that evaporation and condensation are controlling, rather than accompanying, processes in the dynamics of cavitation. Implications of the results for cavitation pumps are briefly discussed.

  8. Multigrid Approach to Incompressible Viscous Cavity Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional incompressible viscous driven-cavity flows are computed for Reynolds numbers on the range 100-20,000 using a loosely coupled, implicit, second-order centrally-different scheme. Mesh sequencing and three-level V-cycle multigrid error smoothing are incorporated into the symmetric Gauss-Seidel time-integration algorithm. Parametrics on the numerical parameters are performed, achieving reductions in solution times by more than 60 percent with the full multigrid approach. Details of the circulation patterns are investigated in cavities of 2-to-1, 1-to-1, and 1-to-2 depth to width ratios.

  9. Intensity correlations near a cavity QED antiresonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Mølmer, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    We explore the antiresonance phenomenon, where a two-level atom is excited inside a single-mode, laser-driven cavity without appreciably exciting the field mode. Antiresonance is well known in classical physics and the excitation of the atomic and field degrees of freedom by a weak laser field can be easily understood in a classical oscillator picture. The temporal intensity correlations in the signal emitted from the atom and from the cavity, however, show strong signs of nonclassical behavior. We calculate these correlations and show how they can be interpreted in terms of a conditional quantum trajectory dynamics of the system.

  10. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewski, Markus; Vivie-Riedle, Regina de; Morigi, Giovanna; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.

    2011-09-15

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping potential, depending on whether they are charged or neutral, and confined inside a high-finesse optical resonator that enhances radiative emission into the cavity mode. Using realistic experimental parameters and COS as a representative molecular example, we show that in this setup, cooling to the trap ground state is feasible.

  11. Parasitic Cavities Losses in SPEAR-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, Matt

    2016-12-19

    In PEP the large number of particles in a bunch, together with the small bunch length, may cause grievous energy loss from the beam to parasitic modes in the accelerating cavities. I have recently tried to estimate the parasitic cavity in PEP, based on a paper of Keil and I have obtained the result that the loss to parasitic modes will be about 10 MeV per particle per revolution for a bunch length of about 10 cm. In this note, I bring together some of the considerations that might bear on an experimental investigation of the loss using SPEAR-2.

  12. Cavity and HOM coupler design for CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong-Juan; Gao, Jie; Liu, Zhen-Chao

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we will show a cavity and higher order mode (HOM) coupler designing scheme for the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) main ring. The cavity radio frequency (RF) design parameters are shown in this paper. The HOM power is calculated based on the beam parameters in the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (Pre-CDR). The damping results of the higher order modes (HOMs) and same order modes (SOMs) show that they reach the damping requirements for beam stability. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175192)

  13. Coupled Geomechanical Simulations of UCG Cavity Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J P; Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y

    2009-07-13

    This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project to develop predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (both natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). In this paper we will focus upon the development of coupled geomechanical capabilities for simulating the evolution of the UCG cavity using discrete element methodologies. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has unique advantages for facilitating the prediction of the mechanical response of fractured rock masses, such as cleated coal seams. In contrast with continuum approaches, the interfaces within the coal can be explicitly included and combinations of both elastic and plastic anisotropic response are simulated directly. Additionally, the DEM facilitates estimation of changes in hydraulic properties by providing estimates of changes in cleat aperture. Simulation of cavity evolution involves a range of coupled processes and the mechanical response of the host coal and adjoining rockmass plays a role in every stage of UCG operations. For example, cavity collapse during the burn has significant effect upon the rate of the burn itself. In the vicinity of the cavity, collapse and fracturing may result in enhanced hydraulic conductivity of the rock matrix in the coal and caprock above the burn chamber. Even far from the cavity, stresses due to subsidence may be sufficient to induce new fractures linking previously isolated aquifers. These mechanical processes are key in understanding the risk of unacceptable subsidence and the potential for groundwater contamination. These mechanical processes are inherently non-linear, involving significant inelastic response, especially in the region closest to the cavity. In addition, the response of the rock mass involves both continuum and discrete mechanical behavior. We have recently coupled the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) and NUFT (Non

  14. Plasma processing of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan

    The development of plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities not only provides a chemical free and less expensive processing method, but also opens up the possibility for controlled modification of the inner surfaces of the cavity for better superconducting properties. The research was focused on the transition of plasma etching from two dimensional flat surfaces to inner surfaces of three dimensional (3D) structures. The results could be applicable to a variety of inner surfaces of 3D structures other than SRF cavities. Understanding the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for achieving the desired modification of Nb SRF cavities. In the process of developing plasma etching technology, an apparatus was built and a method was developed to plasma etch a single cell Pill Box cavity. The plasma characterization was done with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. The Nb etch rate at various points of this cavity was measured before processing the SRF cavity. Cylindrical ring-type samples of Nb placed on the inner surface of the outer wall were used to measure the dependence of the process parameters on plasma etching. The measured etch rate dependence on the pressure, rf power, dc bias, temperature, Cl2 concentration and diameter of the inner electrode was determined. The etch rate mechanism was studied by varying the temperature of the outer wall, the dc bias on the inner electrode and gas conditions. In a coaxial plasma reactor, uniform plasma etching along the cylindrical structure is a challenging task due to depletion of the active radicals along the gas flow direction. The dependence of etch rate uniformity along the cylindrical axis was determined as a function of process parameters. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the

  15. Instrumentation for localized superconducting cavity diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Z. A.; Ge, M.; Iwashita, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Superconducting accelerator cavities are now routinely operated at levels approaching the theoretical limit of niobium. To achieve these operating levels more information than is available from the RF excitation signal is required to characterize and determine fixes for the sources of performance limitations. This information is obtained using diagnostic techniques which complement the analysis of the RF signal. In this paper we describe the operation and select results from three of these diagnostic techniques: the use of large scale thermometer arrays, second sound wave defect location and high precision cavity imaging with the Kyoto camera.

  16. Fundamental Research in Superconducting RF Cavity Design

    SciTech Connect

    Georg Hoffstaetter

    2012-11-13

    This is a 3-year SRF R&D proposal with two main goals: 1) to benefit near term high gradient SRF applications by understanding the causes of quench at high fields in present-day niobium cavities 2) to open the long-range prospects for SRF applications by experimentally verifying the recent exciting theoretical predication for new cavity materials such as Nb3Sn and MgB2. These predictions shwo that ultimately gradients of 100Mv/m to 200MV/m may become possible as material imperfections are overcome.

  17. Simulating quantum fields with cavity QED.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sean; Hammerer, Klemens; Harrison, Sarah; Northup, Tracy E; Osborne, Tobias J

    2013-03-01

    As the realization of a fully operational quantum computer remains distant, quantum simulation, whereby one quantum system is engineered to simulate another, becomes a key goal of great practical importance. Here we report on a variational method exploiting the natural physics of cavity QED architectures to simulate strongly interacting quantum fields. Our scheme is broadly applicable to any architecture involving tunable and strongly nonlinear interactions with light; as an example, we demonstrate that existing cavity devices could simulate models of strongly interacting bosons. The scheme can be extended to simulate systems of entangled multicomponent fields, beyond the reach of existing classical simulation methods.

  18. THE EVOLUTION OF SYNTHETICALLY PRECIPITATED COPPER SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to explore the effect of water quality, particularly chloride and sulfate, on copper mineral formation. Copper-sulfate and chloride compounds are often found on the surface of copper pipes in drinking water distribution systems. When attempting to ...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  20. 21 CFR 524.463 - Copper naphthenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper naphthenate. 524.463 Section 524.463 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.463 Copper naphthenate. (a) Amount. The drug is a 37.5 percent solution of copper naphthenate. (b) Sponsors. See...