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Sample records for 50ka dc-current interruption

  1. 14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volcán Galeras, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Volcán Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and

  2. A critique of the chronometric evidence for hominid fossils: I. Africa and the Near East 500-50 ka.

    PubMed

    Millard, Andrew R

    2008-06-01

    The chronometric dating evidence for all hominid fossils from Africa and the Near East that have previously been dated to 500-50 ka is critically assessed using the concept of chronometric hygiene, and these dates are revised using Bayesian statistical analyses where possible. Sixteen relevant hominid sites lacking chronometric evidence are briefly discussed. Chronometric evidence from 37 sites is assessed in detail. The dates for many hominid fossils are poorly constrained, with a number dated by comparisons of faunal assemblages-a method that does not have good chronological resolution for much of the last million years. For sites with stratigraphic sequences of dates, it is generally possible to refine the dating, but in some cases, the revised chronology is less precise than previous chronologies. Fossils over 200 ka in age tend to be poorly dated, but for the last 200 kyr, dating is better due to the availability of electron-spin-resonance and thermoluminescence dating. Consideration of the chronologies favored by the proponents of the out-of-Africa and multiregional hypotheses of human evolution shows their selectivity. The chronological assessment of the fossils here is compatible with either hypothesis. If evolutionary schemes that do not rely on the morphology of the hominid fossils to decide the sequence of fossils are to be built, then further dating is required, alongside full publication of existing dates.

  3. Eolian depositional phases during the past 50 ka and inferred climate variability for the Pampean Sand Sea, western Pampas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripaldi, Alfonsina; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    The Pampean Sand Sea, which occurs from the Argentinian Pampas to the eastern Andean piedmont, hosts presently stabilized dune fields spanning the late Quaternary. This study integrates previous results and presents new geomorphic, stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronologic data for nineteen >2 m-thick eolian successions for the San Luis paleo-dune field, western Pampas, to better constrain the depositional history. Six eolian depositional phases are identified spanning the past 50 ka, interposed with paleosols and/or bounded by erosive surfaces. Age control was from 61 OSL ages of small aliquots of quartz grains from eolian stratigraphic units. The inferred timing of eolian phases are at ca. 70 ± 10 yr, 190 ± 20 yr, 12 to 1 ka, 22 to 17 ka, 29 to 24 ka, and 40 to 32 ka. A maximum span for periods of pedogenesis at ca. 12 to 17 ka, 22 to 24 ka, and 29 to 32 ka was provided by bounding OSL ages, which broadly overlap with high stands of pluvial lakes and glacier advances in the central Andes. We infer that the added precipitation may reflect expansion of the Southern Hemisphere monsoon, associated with Northern Hemisphere Heinrich events, leading to episodes of significantly wetter conditions (>350 mm MAP) to at least 35° S. Most of the Holocene (12 ka to 0.8 ka) was characterized by sand sheet deposit under drier than present conditions (100-450 mm MAP), associated with Monte-type vegetation (shrub steppe). The latest two eolian depositional phases, occurred at ca. 190 and 70 yr ago, during the historic period with European settlement and are related to anthropogenic landscape disturbance, though the youngest phase was concomitant with 1930s drought. Wet conditions dominated since ca. AD 1970 with new lakes and rivers forming across this eolian terrain; an incongruous environmental response in reference to drier conditions for most of the Holocene.

  4. Variability of Western Pacific Warm Pool Rainfall since 50 ka BP: Lithologic and Isotopic Perspectives from Lake Matano, Central Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, S. A.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Noren, A. J.; Wattrus, N. J.; Vogel, H.

    2012-12-01

    We use multiple paleohydrological proxies applied to the sedimentary record of Lake Matano (2°29.1'S 121°20'E), central Sulawesi, Indonesia, to understand the mechanisms controlling long-term variations of the Australian-Indonesian Monsoon (AIM) and Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) convection during the past 50 ka. Lithogenic tracers of surface runoff, including magnetic susceptibility and XRF-derived iron counts, are high during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2/Last Glacial Maximum as well as during millennial-scale northern hemisphere cold events (e.g. the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events), indicating a wetter climate during these northern hemisphere stadials. These events appear in antiphase to dry conditions in mainland Asia, reconstructed by oxygen isotopic analyses of Chinese speleothems, demonstrating antiphasing between the AIM (our record) and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (Chinese speleothems) at both orbital and millennial timescales. At the orbital band, this antiphasing is likely due to the influence of changing seasonal insolation on the global summer monsoons, northern hemisphere ice sheet expansion, and associated shifts in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Interestingly, our data indicates that MIS2 was far wetter than the late Holocene, despite similar austral summer insolation at these times. The strikingly wet MIS2 signal in our proxy data compared to MIS1 and MIS3 suggests that the climate in this region is strongly sensitive to glacial forcings, likely related to changes in WPWP convection driven by greenhouse gas forcing and ice-volume induced atmospheric circulation changes. To better understand the connection between WPWP convection, water vapor transport, and AIM strength at orbital timescales, we also investigate hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial higher plant leaf waxes (δDwax) in Lake Matano's sediments. Assuming that δDwax records the δD of past precipitation, which may be related to the

  5. Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations of the 20-50ka interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménabréaz, L.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    To better constrain the Earth's dipole moment changes at the time of the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, we reconstructed the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production variations in the atmosphere using authigenic 10Be/9Be records measured along two marine sediment sequences from the north-east Atlantic (Portuguese margin) and west-equatorial Pacific (Papua-New Guinea margin) oceans. These two records evidence an almost doubling of the 10Be production at ~41 ka, thus assignable to the geomagnetic dipole low associated to the Laschamp excursion. The compilation of authigenic 10Be/9Be marine records provides a stack which indicates that the global 10Be production rates at 41 ka were enhanced by a ~1.5 factor compared to the average over the 20-50 ka interval. The comparison of this authigenic 10Be/9Be marine stack with the Greenland 10Be flux record (smoothed by 1000-year averaging) evidences a good coherency of the timing and amplitude of 10Be production recorded at high, mid and low latitudes. This confirms that the 10Be overproduction signal has a global significance, as expected from a geomagnetic dipole moment loss. The calibration of the 10Be/9Be stack using absolute virtual dipole moment values provides an independent tool to reconstruct geomagnetic dipole moment variations. This allows computing the loss rate leading to the Laschamp dipole minimum (~ -1.5 x 1022 A.m2.ka-1), which constitutes an interesting criterion to assess the loss rate of the historical field. In constrast with relative paleointensity records and absolute paleointensity data sets, the absence of significant cosmogenic enhancement at the age of 34 ka suggests that the Mono Lake dipole low was not sufficient to trigger a significant cosmogenic overproduction. This demonstrates that if the Mono lake excursion really occurred at that time, the duration and amplitude of the dipole weakening were very limited compared to that of the Laschamp. The 10Be overproduction quantified in this study

  6. Linking the10Be continental record of Lake Baikal to marine and ice archives of the last 50 ka: Implication for the global dust-aerosol input

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Peck, J.; King, J.; Colman, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present here a 10Be profile from the continental sediments of Lake Baikal (the world's largest fresh water lake), which, for the first time, shows the ??? 40 ka 10Be enhancement and a pattern that strongly matches those from the marine and ice records for the last 50 ka. This finding provides a new horizon for global and regional correlation of continental archives. Additionally, our VADM-predicted 10Be production confirms and further strengthens a common global cause (geomagnetic field intensity) for the change in atmospheric 10Be over the last 50 ka. We also show that most of the 10Be inventory to the lake has been provided by riverine input, but with a significant addition from direct precipitation and dust-aerosol fallout. We estimate a higher dust-aerosol contribution of 10Be during the Holocene and interstadial stage 3 (22-50 ka) as compared with the glacial period (12-22 ka). Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  8. Five Earthquakes In The Last 50 Ka In The Northwestern Yakima Fold And Thrust Belt, Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Blakely, R. J.; Barnett, E. A.; Foit, F. F.; Weaver, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Stratigraphic and structural relationships revealed in paleoseismic trenches suggest at least five earthquakes occurred in the last 50 ka along two prominent anticlines of the Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB). The YFTB is a series of northwest- and west-trending anticlinal ridges and synclinal valleys formed during and after emplacement of Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Here we focus on scarps along Umtanum and Boylston Ridges. Air photos and LiDAR show an E-W trending, up-to-the-north scarp (~8 m high, ~11 km long) lying at the base of the southern limb of the Umtanum Ridge anticline at Wenas Valley, near the city of Yakima. A trench across the scarp exposed volcaniclastic deposits overlain by buried soils and colluvial deposits. Electron microprobe analysis of tephra from the uppermost volcaniclastic layers indicates correlation with Mt. St. Helens Set C (possibly Cy), erupted ~47 ka. Eight normal faults and one possible reverse fault deform the tephra, buried soils, and colluvial deposits above the tephra. Cross cutting relations require at least three earthquakes over the last ~47 ka. We infer bending moment deformation above a buried reverse fault as the most likely cause of surface faulting observed along the Wenas Valley scarp. LiDAR images at Boylston Ridge east of Ellensburg, WA reveal a ~4-km-long, NE-trending, up-to-the-west scarp. Trenches across this scarp showed Miocene basalt overlain by a thin, cobble-rich, colluvial soil at the surface. A single high-angle reverse fault offsets the basalt, and a fissure filled with colluvium separates the fault blocks. Older colluvium and a soil formed in the colluvium are both offset by the fault, suggesting at least two episodes of movement. Inclined striae on the fault plane hint at right-lateral oblique offset. About 1 km to the NE, a 700-m-long stretch of stream floodplain is incised as much as 7 m. Electron microprobe analysis of a tephra layer in the incised floodplain

  9. PASADO - ICDP Deep Drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina): A 50 ka Record of Increasing Environmental Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolitschka, Bernd; Anselmetti, Flavio; Ariztegui, Daniel; Francus, Pierre; Gebhardt, Catalina; Kliem, Annette Hahn Pierre; Lücke, Andreas; Ohlendorf, Christian; Schäbitz, Frank; Wastegard, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    . Such features either indicate an increased seismicity that cannot be completely excluded for this late Quaternary backarc volcanic field or they are the result of hydrologically induced lake level variations and hence relate to changes in hydrological conditions within the catchment area. Intercalated throughout the record are 24 macroscopically visible volcanic ash layers that document the regional volcanic history and open the possibility to establish an independent time control through tephrochronology supported by Ar/Ar dating. Moreover, these isochrones potentially act as links to marine sediment records from the South Atlantic and to Antarctic ice cores. Preliminary extrapolation of the mean sedimentation rate of 1.1 mm/a determined for the upper 16 ka indicates that a continuous and high quality record may go back in time to approximately 50 ka. A comparable time frame is supported by first radiocarbon dates obtained from aquatic mosses.

  10. SIM regional comparison of ac-dc current transfer difference SIM.EM-K12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lillo, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The ac-dc current transfer difference identified as SIM.EM.K-12 began in July 2010 and was completed in September 2012. Six NMIs in the SIM region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay), INMETRO (Brazil) and NIS (Egypt). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc current transfer difference of the participants NMIs. The ac-dc current transfer differences of the travelling standard had been measured at 10 mA and 5 A at 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz and 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons (CCEM-K12), through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons (INTI, NRC and NIST). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc current transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Multidisciplinary study of sediments deposited in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) during the last 50 ka: information on changes of ice extent during the glacial-interglacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carlo, Paola; Baneschi, Ilaria; Bertagnini, Antonella; Boschi, Chiara; Cascella, Antonio; Colizza, Ester; Di Roberto, Alessio; Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Finocchiaro, Furio; Landi, Patrizia; Lirer, Fabrizio; Pompilio, Massimo; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Sprovieri, Mario; Wrinkler, Aldo

    2013-04-01

    In the Ross Sea (Antarctica), sedimentation is controlled by the dynamics of the ice shelves, fluctuations of the ice sheets extensions (Eastern and Western) and volcanic activity from several volcanic complex of the Victoria Land. Marine sediments consisting of alternated glacigenic, biogenic and volcanic deposits can be interpreted in terms of changes in paleoclimate and paleoenvironment conditions. In this project we present a multidisciplinary study (comprising tephrostratigraphy, petrology, paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, TIC/TOC geochemistry, Ar/Ar dating, palinology and integrated biostratigraphy of forams and calcareous nannoplankton) of the sediments recovered in selected cores from Ross Sea during 1999 and 2000 cruises and stored in the Italian archive at Museo Nazionale dell'Antartide (Trieste). Results provide new data on local and/or global changes of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental conditions over the past 50 Ka. Furthermore, the study of the recovered volcanic deposits adds new information about the poorly known, recent volcanic activity in the Victoria Land area.

  12. Superconducting NbN Coplanar Switch Driven by DC Current for CMB Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordier, G.; Cammilleri, V. D.; Bélier, B.; Bleurvacq, N.; Ghribi, A.; Piat, M.; Tartari, A.; Zannoni, M.

    2014-09-01

    The next generations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) instruments will be dedicated to the detection and characterisation of CMB B-modes. To measure this tiny signal, instruments need to control and minimise systematics. Signal modulation is one way to achieve such a control. New generation of focal planes will include the entire detection chain on chip. In this context, we present a superconducting coplanar switch driven by DC current. It consists of a superconducting micro-bridge which commutes between its on (superconducting) and off (normal metal) states, depending on the amplitude of the current injection. To be effective, we have to use a high normal state resistivity superconducting material with a gap frequency higher than the frequencies of operation (millimeter waves). Several measurements were made at low temperature on NbN and yielded very high resistivities. Preliminary results of components dc behavior is shown. Thanks to its low power consumption, fast modulation and low weight, this component is a perfect candidate for future CMB space missions.

  13. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  14. Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 50 ka at ODP Site 1233: Continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pisias, N.G.; Heusser, L.; Heusser, C.; Hostetler, S.W.; Mix, A.C.; Weber, M.

    2006-01-01

    Site 1233 drilled during Leg 202 of the Ocean Drilling Program provides a detailed record of marine and continental climate change in the Southeast Pacific and South American continent. Splits from over 500 samples taken at 20 cm intervals for quantitative analysis of radiolarian and pollen populations yield a temporal resolution of 200-400 years. In each sample, 39 pollen taxa and 40 radiolarian species and genera were evaluated. Age control is provided by 25 AMS 14C dates [Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J., 2004. Science 304, 1959-1962]. Multivariate statistical analyses of these data allow us to conclude the following: (1) During the past 50 ka, the region of the central Chile coast is not directly influenced by polar water from the Antarctic region. (2) Changes in ocean conditions off central Chile during this time interval primarily reflect north-south shifts in the position of the South Pacific transition zone. (3) Changes in Chilean vegetation reflect comparable latitudinal shifts in precipitation and the position of the southern westerlies. (4) The first canonical variate of radiolarian and pollen records extracted from Site 1233 are remarkably similar to each other as well as to temperature records from the Antarctic, which suggests that marine and continental climate variability in the region is tightly coupled at periods longer than 3000 years. (5) The phase coupling of these climate records, which lead variations of continental erosion based on iron abundance at the same site, are consistent with a hypothesis that erosion is linked to relatively long (i.e, few thousand years) response times of the Patagonian ice sheet, and thus is not a direct indicator of regional climate. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. ); Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Schafer, D.A. )

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This smoking neutral'' results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  16. Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

  17. A regional overview of the last glacial period in the temperate NE Atlantic: varying paleoproductivity centers over the last 50 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Ganne, Axelle

    2015-04-01

    Recent palynological investigations carried out in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz (MD99-2339 core) over MIS 3 enable to consider dinoflagellate cyst assemblage patterns over the last 50 ka BP through a compilation of 6 cores from the NE subtropical Atlantic to the Northern Bay of Biscay (also including cores MD95-2042, MD95-2043, MD04-2805CQ, VK03-58bis). Dinocyst signals depict hydrological front latitudinal shifts over the last glacial and associated sea-surface consequences regarding past regimes of primary productivity. We show here new data clearly evidencing subtropical latitudes of Cadiz as being as productive areas over the last glacial as recorded today in the septentrional part of the Bay of Biscay, especially between GI 8 and GI 12. We especially focus on dinocyst-species Lingulodinium machaerophorum relative abundances and absolute concentrations that we first evidence as a powerful tool to reconstruct and discuss productivity shifts through time in the temperate North Atlantic. This spatio-temporal synthesis bring important evidences of fast migrating paleoproductiviy centers from the last glacial period to present, implying also large consequences on the biological pump through time. Regarding this specific session, 5 of the 6 cores discussed here were retrieved by the R/V Marion Dufresne through 3 different cruises: Core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170m water depth, 18.54m long) was retrieved in a contouritic field in the oriental part of the Gulf of Cadiz by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1999 International Marine Global Change Studies V (IMAGES V) cruise (Labeyrie, Jansen and Cortijo, 2003). Cores MD95-2042 (37°48'N, 10°10'W, 3146m water depth, 39.56m long) and MD95-2043 (36°8.6'N, 2°37.3'W, 1841m water depth, 36m long) were retrieved from the SW Iberian margin and the central Alboran Sea, respectively, by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1995 IMAGES I cruise (Bassinot and Labeyrie, 1996). Core MD04-2805 CQ (34

  18. Adversary Sequence Interruption Model

    1985-11-15

    PC EASI is an IBM personal computer or PC-compatible version of an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. PC EASI utilizes a methodology called Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) which evaluates the probability of interruption (PI) for a given sequence of adversary tasks. Probability of interruption is defined as the probability that the response force will arrive before the adversary force has completed its task. The EASI methodology is amore » probabilistic approach that analytically evaluates basic functions of the physical security system (detection, assessment, communications, and delay) with respect to response time along a single adversary path. It is important that the most critical scenarios for each target be identified to ensure that vulnerabilities have not been overlooked. If the facility is not overly complex, this can be accomplished by examining all paths. If the facility is complex, a global model such as Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) may be used to identify the most vulnerable paths. PC EASI is menu-driven with screen forms for entering and editing the basic scenarios. In addition to evaluating PI for the basic scenario, the sensitivities of many of the parameters chosen in the scenario can be analyzed. These sensitivities provide information to aid the analyst in determining the tradeoffs for reducing the probability of interruption. PC EASI runs under the Micro Data Base Systems'' proprietary database management system Knowledgeman. KMAN provides the user environment and file management for the specified basic scenarios, and KGRAPH the graphical output of the sensitivity calculations. This software is not included. Due to errors in release 2 of KMAN, PC EASI will not execute properly; release 1.07 of KMAN is required.« less

  19. Structured treatment interruption workshop.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    A workshop on structured treatment interruptions (STI) took place in Boston in July 1999. The three basic reasons for initiating STI are to save or increase the immune system's response to HIV, to renew sensitivity to anti-HIV drugs, and to provide a break for people experiencing treatment fatigue or severe side effects. Discussions at the conference emphasized that research on STI is still preliminary and the benefits of STI are unclear at this time. The meeting concluded with a review of ongoing studies; a list of recommendations was proposed. Also discussed was the need to communicate a clear definition of STI that could be applied for large observational studies. A task force is being established to achieve this goal, which would include representatives from large studies. Contact information is provided. PMID:11367357

  20. Large reduction of the depinning field for a transverse domain wall under application of rf and dc currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Anane, A.; Cros, V.; Grollier, J.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.

    2010-03-01

    A new generation of proposed spintronic devices are based on domain wall (DW) motion (DW-MRAM, DW logic, racetrack memory...). However, reliable depinning of domain walls remains elusive, especially in zero field. Here, we have studied the combined effect of rf and dc currents on the depinning of transverse walls in the soft NiFe layer of a 100 nm wide Co/Cu/NiFe spin valve wire. Using the GMR effect, we ensure that the domain wall is always prepared at the same intrinsic defect and then measure the depinning field for different applied dc and rf currents. Notably, for a narrow range of rf frequencies at around 3GHz, we evidence a strong reduction in the depinning field (from ˜80 Oe to ˜30 Oe). Our results are suggestive of a very efficient resonant depinning effect in our spin valve wire which depends not only on the rf power but also on the polarity and amplitude of the accompanying dc current.

  1. Oceanic density fronts steering bottom-current induced sedimentation deduced from a 50 ka contourite-drift record and numerical modeling (off NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Zhang, Wenyan; Hofmann, Antonia L.; Löwemark, Ludvig A.; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2015-03-01

    How the various bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of contourite drifts, i.e. of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters, usually remains widely speculative. This study uses a transect of six sediment cores and a sediment echosounder profile across a whole contourite system off NW Spain to address the sediment dynamics responsible for the depositional pattern. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep channel (moat) has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Deposition on the contourite drift in the past was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: <4 cal ka BP) led to slightly current-influenced deposition of fine-grained sediments (10 μm) in the entire basin. This regime was interrupted by periods of short-lasting waxing-and-waning high-energy conditions (D/O events during Marine Isotope Stage 3; the Deglacial/early Holocene time interval at 17-4 cal ka BP), resulting in the deposition of coarse sediments (70 μm). Process-based numerical modeling demonstrates that pulse-like oceanic density fronts traveling within the transition zone of two water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sands stored inside the drift's moat and to subsequent upward transport towards the drift's crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose

  2. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 105 A/cm2 dc Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 105 A/cm2 dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices.

  3. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  4. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 10(5) A/cm(2) dc Current.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  5. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 105 A/cm2 dc Current

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 105 A/cm2 dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  6. An architecture for intelligent task interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

    1990-01-01

    In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

  7. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R.; Tesche, F.M.; Schafer, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This ``smoking neutral`` results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  8. Microwave polarization angle study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron system under dc current bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad-Zahir; Liu, Han-Chun; Heimbeck, Martin S.; Everitt, Henry O.; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh G.

    Microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations followed by the vanishing resistance states are a prime representation of non-equilibrium transport phenomena in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES). The effect of a dc current bias on the nonlinear response of 2DES with microwave polarization angle under magnetic field is a subject of interest. Here, we have studied the effect of various dc current bias on microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in a high mobility 2DES. Further, we systematically investigate the effect of the microwave polarization angle on the magneto-resistance oscillations at two different frequencies 152.78 GHz and 185.76 GHz. This study aims to better understand the effects of both dc current and microwave polarization angle in the GaAs/AlGaAs system, both of which modify the observed magneto-transport properties DOE-BES, Mat'l. Sci. & Eng. Div., DE-SC0001762; ARO W911NF-14-2-0076; ARO W911NF-15-1-0433.

  9. Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

  10. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-05-11

    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  11. Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Y. Jeremy; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated memory from interrupted visual searches. Participants conducted a change detection search task on polygons overlaid on scenes. Search was interrupted by various disruptions, including unfilled delay, passive viewing of other scenes, and additional search on new displays. Results showed that performance was unaffected by…

  12. Opportunistic Interruptions: Interactional Vulnerabilities Deriving from Linearization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Speaking involves "linearizing" a message into a string of words. This process leaves us vulnerable to being interrupted in such a way that the aborted turn is a misrepresentation of the intended message. Further, because we linearize our messages in standard ways, we are recurrently vulnerable to interruptions at particular turn-construction…

  13. Production inventory with service time and interruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, A.; Nair, Sajeev S.; Narayanan, Viswanath C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper considers an (s,S) production inventory system with positive service time, with time for producing each item following Erlang distribution. Customers arrive according to a Poisson process. A customer who arrives when there is no inventory in the system is considered lost. On the other hand, a customer who finds a busy server with at least one inventory in the system joins a queue of infinite capacity. When the inventory level falls to s, production process is switched on, and it is switched off when the inventory level reaches back to S. Service time to each customer also follows an Erlang distribution. The service of a customer may be interrupted, where the time for such a phenomenon follows an exponential distribution, whenever it occurs. An interrupted service, after repair, resumes from where it was stopped. The correction/repair time follows an exponential distribution. We assume that the service of a single customer may encounter any number of interruptions and that the customer being served waits there until his service is completed. Moreover, at a time the server is subject to at most one interruption. We also assume that no inventory is lost due to a service interruption. Like the service process, the production process also is subject to interruptions, where the duration to an interruption follows an exponential distribution. However, in contrast to the service interruption, in the case of interruption to production process, we assume that the item being processed is lost because of interruption. That is, the production process, on being interrupted, restarts from the beginning, after repair. The repair time of an interrupted production process follows exponential distribution. Few of the last service phases are assumed to be protected in the sense that the service will not be interrupted while being in these phases. The same is assumed for the production process also. The model is analysed as a level-independent quasi-birth-death process. We

  14. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  15. Checklist interruption and resumption: A linguistic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    This study forms part of a project investigating the relationships among the formal structure of aviation procedures, the ways in which the crew members are taught to execute them, and the ways in which thet are actually performed in flight. Specifically, this report examines the interactions between the performance of checklists and interruptions, considering both interruptions by radio communications and by other crew members. The data consists of 14 crews' performance of a full mission simulation of a higher ratio of checklist speech acts to all speech acts within the span of the performance of the checklist. Further, it is not number of interruptions but length of interruptions which is associated with crew performance quality. Use of explicit holds is also associated with crew performance.

  16. A study of the interrupted REM episode.

    PubMed

    Merica, H; Gaillard, J M

    1991-12-01

    Brief interruptions of REM sleep are considered to be part of the REM episode. The maximum allowable duration of such an interruption, which is used to define the end of the REM episode, is currently a matter of debate. Making measurements on individual REM cycles, inter-REM interval analysis was carried out to determine whether the generally adopted 15 minute empirical rule for this maximum needs to be extended to 25 minutes as suggested by several including Kobayashi et al. Our results show that there is no reason to alter the 15 minute rule and that measurements which do not take into account the time-of-night effect may be misleading. The proportion of interrupted REM episodes observed in our population of healthy adults is high. We have therefore also examined in some detail the phenomenology of the temporal evolution of the structure and content of the interrupted REM episodes. Both showed a definite change over the night: the interruptions in the earlier episodes tend to return the system to slow wave sleep while those in the later episodes tend to return it to wake. It is hypothesized that these interruptions reflect a measure of REM sleep pressure and its interaction with both slow wave sleep and wake pressures. PMID:1798770

  17. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  18. DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Haoliang; Luo, Zhenlin Yang, Yuanjun; Yang, Mengmeng; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Sixia; Bao, Jun; Yun, Yu; Meng, Dechao; Lu, Yalin; Gao, Chen

    2014-05-15

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3} (SNNO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The T{sub MI} of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup −2} to 4.9 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup −2}. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

  19. Development of an in situ calibration method for current-to-voltage converters for high-accuracy SI-traceable low dc current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Yoon, Howard W.; Jarrett, Dean G.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    For photocurrent measurements with low uncertainties, wide dynamic range reference current-to-voltage converters and a new converter calibration method have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The high-feedback resistors of a reference converter were in situ calibrated on a high-resistivity, printed circuit board placed in an electrically shielded box electrically isolated from the operational amplifier using jumpers. The feedback resistors, prior to their installation, were characterized, selected and heat treated. The circuit board was cleaned with solvents, and the in situ resistors were calibrated using measurement systems for 10 kΩ to 10 GΩ standard resistors. We demonstrate that dc currents from 1 nA to 100 µA can be measured with uncertainties of 55 × 10-6 (k = 2) or lower, which are lower in uncertainties than any commercial device by factors of 10 to 30 at the same current setting. The internal (NIST) validations of the reference converter are described.

  20. Interruption as a test of the user-computer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Mccarthy, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the effects different logic systems might have on interrupted operation, an algebraic calculator and a reverse polish notation calculator were compared when trained users were interrupted during problem entry. The RPN calculator showed markedly superior resistance to interruption effects compared to the AN calculator although no significant differences were found when the users were not interrupted. Causes and possible remedies for interruption effects are speculated. It is proposed that because interruption is such a common occurrence, it be incorporated into comparative evaluation tests of different logic system and control/display system and that interruption resistance be adopted as a specific design criteria for such design.

  1. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  2. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  3. Observation of self-magnetic field relaxations in Bi2223 and Y123 HTS tapes after over-current pulse and DC current operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallouli, M.; Sun, J.; Chikumoto, N.; Otabe, E. S.; Shyshkin, O.; Charfi-Kaddour, S.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The development of power transmission lines based on long-length HTS tapes requires the production of high quality tapes. Due to fault conditions, technical mistakes and human errors during the operation of a DC power transmission line, an over-current pulse, several times larger than the rated current, could occur. To study the effect of such over-current pulses on the transport current density distribution in the HTS tapes, we simulated two start-up scenarios for one BSCCO and two YBCO tapes. The first start-up scenario is an initial over-current pulse during which the transport current was turned on rapidly, rising to 900 A during the first milliseconds, then reduced to a 100 A DC current. The second start-up scenario is normal operation, and involved increasing the transport current slowly from 0 A to 100 A at a rate of 1 A/s. For both scenarios, we then measured the vertical component of the self-magnetic field by means of a Hall probe above the tape, and afterward, by solving a linear equation of the inverse problem we obtain the current density profiles. We observe a change of the self-magnetic field above the edge of the BSCCO and YBCO tapes during 30 min after the 5 ms of over-current pulse and during the normal operation. The current density profiles are peaked in the centre for over-current pulse, and more peaked around the edge of the HTS tape for normal operation, which means that the limited time over-current pulse changes the current density profiles of the HTS tapes. We observe also a loop of current for YBCO tapes and we show the role of the HTS tape stabilizer.

  4. Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kolbeinsson, Ari; Thorvald, Peter; Lindblom, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  5. Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kolbeinsson, Ari; Thorvald, Peter; Lindblom, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing. PMID:27633233

  6. Using Turf to Understand the Functions of Interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vickie; Okafor, Nnaemeka; Zhang, Jiajie; Franklin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions are an often lamented and frequently studied aspect of clinical practice. However, some interruptions, such as updates on patient care decisions and notifications of detrimental patient lab values, are in fact necessary to the work process. In this paper, we explore the interruptions as an emergent feature of communication in teams. Looking beyond the frequency of interruptions, we consider the source and intent of interruptions with the goal of discovering the functions served by such communications. Furthermore, in this study of an emergency department, we classify interruptions into those activities that support required work and those interruptions that create unnecessary breaks in workflow. The intent of our larger body of work is to develop health information technology systems that support team efforts including the functions currently served by interruptions. PMID:25954399

  7. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine. A... the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be acceptable....

  8. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine. A... the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be acceptable....

  9. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine. A... the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be acceptable....

  10. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine. A... the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be acceptable....

  11. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine. A... the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be acceptable....

  12. Assessing Individual-Level Impact of Interruptions during Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Wan, Ping; Choi, Seung W.; Kim, Dong-In

    2015-01-01

    With an increase in the number of online tests, the number of interruptions during testing due to unexpected technical issues seems to be on the rise. For example, interruptions occurred during several recent state tests. When interruptions occur, it is important to determine the extent of their impact on the examinees' scores. Researchers such as…

  13. Determining the Overall Impact of Interruptions during Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Wan, Ping; Whitaker, Mike; Kim, Dong-In; Zhang, Litong; Choi, Seung W.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the number of online tests, interruptions during testing due to unexpected technical issues seem unavoidable. For example, interruptions occurred during several recent state tests. When interruptions occur, it is important to determine the extent of their impact on the examinees' scores. There is a lack of research on this…

  14. Testing of a 50 kA, 50 kV current interrupter with I sup 2 t preheating and long recovery voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Melton, J.G. )

    1989-01-01

    The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) presently being constructed at Los Alamos in a next generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma experiment. An inductive energy transfer system, employing a 50 kA, 50 kV dc current interrupter, is being utilized for initiating the plasma current. These performance requirements (50 kA, 50 kV) had yet to be realized in a reliable switching system, development of this current interrupter system was initiated. A switch test bay with a 50 kA battery bank has been built at Los Alamos to test the interrupter in conditions which will exist in the CPRF experiment. Many switch parameters were measured to provide information on the current interrupting characteristics and reliability. Some of these diagnostics include voltage, current, pre and post I{sup 2}t contact resistance, opening speed and position, arc voltage, and stem temperature. To determine any long term changes, all shots and data channels are computer indexed, and may be easily recalled for review. Extensive testing was performed on Siemens D-10 vacuum interrupter. Test parameter space included 55 kA, 40 kV (per bottle); di/dt of 2250 A/{mu}s, I{sup 2}t of 5 {times} 10{sup 9} amp{sup 2} sec; and 20 kV-200 msec RC recovery decay. Circuit parameters effect opening reliability. Circuit data and the associated testing results will be presented along with long term trends of switch performance under normal'' conditions. 12 figs.

  15. Interruptions and Distractions in Healthcare: Review and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, A. Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare settings can be hectic, demanding, time-constrained environments. Within these environments, health care professionals (HCP) are expected to perform tasks that often require their undivided attention. However, HCPs are frequently interrupted, which can distract their attention and add to the complexity of their work. That said, not all interruptions are bad; many interruptions are essential to the patient care process and provide HCPs with necessary information. This paper systematically reviews the peer-reviewed literature on interruptions in healthcare settings to determine the state of the science and to identify gaps. It then provides a complex sociotechnical systems approach to understanding interruptions in healthcare. PMID:20378621

  16. Gentle interruptions: transformative approaches to clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; Tower, Marion; Walker, Rachel

    2007-07-01

    This conceptual article, drawn from the authors' shared teaching experiences and recent student and clinician evaluation data, set out to reveal and then address some common problems faced by clinical educators and nursing students in the time-constrained, complex, specialized field of clinical learning. We explain and argue the benefits of transformative learning and outline specific strategies for building skills in transformative education, such as interrogating clinical routines and habits, teaching diplomacy skills, and using a process of interruption. Clinical educators can use these strategies to move beyond unwittingly serving the status quo toward consciously contributing to change.

  17. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, Joseph H.; Mikesell, Harvey E.; Jha, Kamal N.

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  18. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  19. Assembly interruptability robustness model with applications to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, James William

    1991-02-01

    Interruptability robustness of a construction project together with its assembly sequence may be measured by calculating the probability of its survival and successful completion in the face of unplanned interruptions of the assembly process. Such an interruption may jeopardize the survival of the structure being assembled, the survival of the support equipment, and/or the safety of the members of the construction crew, depending upon the stage in the assembly sequence when the interruption occurs. The interruption may be due to a number of actors such as: machinery break-downs, environmental damage, worker emergency illness or injury, etc. Each source of interruption has a probability of occurring, and adds an associated probability of loss, schedule delay, and cost to the project. Several options may exist for reducing the consequences of an interruption at a given point in the assembly sequence, including altering the assembly sequence, adding extra components or equipment as interruptability 'insurance', increasing the capability of support facilities, etc. Each option may provide a different overall performance of the project as it relates to success, assembly time, and project cost. The Interruptability Robustness Model was devised and provides a method which allows the overall interruptability robustness of construction of a project design and its assembly sequence to be quantified. In addition, it identifies the susceptibility to interruptions for the assembly sequence at all points within the assembly sequence. The model is applied to the present problem of quantifying and improving interruptability robustness during the construction of Space Station Freedom. This application was used as a touchstone for devising the Interruptability Robustness Model. However, the model may be utilized to assist in the analysis of interruptability robustness for other space-related construction projects such as the lunar base and orbital assembly of the manned Mars

  20. Interrupt handling in a multiprocessor computing system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, L.W.; Guyer, J.M.

    1989-01-03

    A multiprocessor computing system is described comprising: a system bus, including an address bus for carrying an address phase of an instruction and a data bus for carrying a data phase of an instruction; a plurality of processing units connected to the system bus, each processing unit including means for generating broadcast interrupt origin request instructions on the system bus; asynchronous input/output channel controllers connected to the system bus, each of the input/output channel controllers including means for generating a synchronizing signal in response to completion of an address phase of a broadcast instruction on the system bus, and corresponding to a different one of the processing units connected through each of the input/output channel controllers, the input/output channel controllers being arranged on the priority lines in order of priority, the priority lines being gated in an input/output channel controller so that priority is asserted over all lower priority input/output channel controllers on a priority line by an input/output channel controller if the input/output channel controller has an interrupt pending in the input/output channel controller for the processing unit corresponding to the priority line.

  1. Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

  2. Pulsed interrupter and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Drake, Joel Lawton; Kratz, Robert

    2015-06-09

    Some embodiments provide interrupter systems comprising: a first electrode; a second electrode; a piston movably located at a first position and electrically coupled with the first and second electrodes establishing a closed state, the piston comprises an electrical conductor that couples with the first and second electrodes providing a conductive path; an electromagnetic launcher configured to, when activated, induce a magnetic field pulse causing the piston to move away from the electrical coupling with the first and second electrodes establishing an open circuit between the first and second electrodes; and a piston control system comprising a piston arresting system configured to control a deceleration of the piston following the movement of the piston induced by the electromagnetic launcher such that the piston is not in electrical contact with at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode when in the open state.

  3. Operational Failures and Interruptions in Hospital Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Anita L; Spear, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the work environment of hospital nurses with particular focus on the performance of work systems supplying information, materials, and equipment for patient care. Data Sources Primary observation, semistructured interviews, and surveys of hospital nurses. Study Design We sampled a cross-sectional group of six U.S. hospitals to examine the frequency of work system failures and their impact on nurse productivity. Data Collection We collected minute-by-minute data on the activities of 11 nurses. In addition, we conducted interviews with six of these nurses using questions related to obstacles to care. Finally, we created and administered two surveys in 48 nursing units, one for nurses and one for managers, asking about the frequency of specific work system failures. Principal Findings Nurses we observed experienced an average of 8.4 work system failures per 8-hour shift. The five most frequent types of failures, accounting for 6.4 of these obstacles, involved medications, orders, supplies, staffing, and equipment. Survey questions asking nurses how frequently they experienced these five categories of obstacles yielded similar frequencies. For an average 8-hour shift, the average task time was only 3.1 minutes, and in spite of this, nurses were interrupted mid-task an average of eight times per shift. Conclusions Our findings suggest that nurse effectiveness can be increased by creating improvement processes triggered by the occurrence of work system failures, with the goal of reducing future occurrences. Second, given that nursing work is fragmented and unpredictable, designing processes that are robust to interruption can help prevent errors. PMID:16704505

  4. Structured treatment interruptions to control HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Lori, F; Maserati, R; Foli, A; Seminari, E; Timpone, J; Lisziewicz, J

    2000-01-22

    Structured treatment interruptions progressively lowered the rate of viral rebound in some HIV-1 infected patients. This approach should be explored as an alternative to continuous antiretroviral therapies.

  5. Association between Interruptions in Chemical Prophylaxis and VTE Formation.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Gu, Zirui; Limkemann, Ashley J; Chandrasekhar, Shillika; Rensing, Edna; Mays, Cathy; Duane, Therese M

    2015-07-01

    Venous thromboembolisms (VTE) are considered preventable events with appropriate mechanical or chemical prophylaxis. However, chemical prophylaxis is frequently delayed or interrupted during hospitalization. We investigated the impact of delayed initiation and interruption of chemical prophylaxis on VTE rates. The incidence of VTE at an urban academic medical center was measured in patients hospitalized for >2 days between November 2013 and May 2014. Patients receiving prophylaxis were grouped as complete (started within 24 hours of admission and no interruptions), delayed (started >24 hours and no interruptions), and interrupted (interruption for >24 hours with or without delay). There were 9961 hospital admissions and 33 VTE (3.3 per 1000 admissions). 25.2 per cent had complete, 16.4 per cent had delayed, and 11.8 per cent had interrupted prophylaxis. 36.8 per cent received no prophylaxis. Interrupted prophylaxis was associated with more VTE than complete (10.2 vs 2.0 per 1000, P < 0.01) and 5.2 greater odds. Admission to a surgical service and prolonged hospital stay were independently associated with increased likelihood of VTE. There was a lower likelihood of getting complete prophylaxis among patients admitted to orthopedic, transplant, cardiac, plastic, and vascular surgery. Surgical patients are at higher risk for VTE and interruptions in VTE prophylaxis significantly increase the risk of VTE.

  6. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  9. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  10. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  13. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  14. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  15. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  16. The Interrupted Intercourse in the Election Communication: Pragmatic Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andryuchshenko, Olga K.; Suyunova, Gulnara S.; Nygmetova, Bibigul Dz.; Garanina, Ekaterina P.

    2016-01-01

    The article provides analysis of the interrupted communication as part of the communication in the election discourse. The authors explored the most typical reasons for the interrupted communication in the electoral discourse analyzed communication failures as a kind of ineffective communication. Communication failures are presented as a result of…

  17. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  18. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  19. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  20. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  1. Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, James W.; Edin, Per-Anders; Sundstrom, Marianne; Vroman, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional and panel estimations of Swedish data reveal that different types of career interruptions have different effects on wages, varying by gender. Therefore, human capital depreciation does not entirely account for the negative effect of career interruptions on subsequent wages. (SK)

  2. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of higher education...

  3. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of higher education...

  4. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of higher education...

  5. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of higher education...

  6. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of higher education...

  7. Role of hydroxyurea during structured treatment interruptions.

    PubMed

    Foli, A; Seminari, E; Ravot, E; Lisziewicz, J; Lori, F

    2002-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) represent a major advance in the treatment of HIV infection. Although with HAART a substantial suppression of viral replication can be obtained, eradication of the virus from the body cannot be achieved. Therefore, HIV-infected subjects have to be treated for the rest of their lives. Long term treatment will increase the frequency of: i) drug-related side effects; ii) onset of drug-resistant viral strains; iii) non-adherence of the patients to the treatment. Structured treatment interruptions (STI)-HAART might represent a feasible alternative and preliminary studies have shown that STI-HAART might induce immune control in patients treated in the early stage of infection. This regimen does not produce similar effects in patients treated during the chronic phase of the infection. However, there are some clinical data suggesting a possible role of hydroxyurea (HU) in inducing control of HIV replication in patients with established infection. In this manuscript in vitro and in vivo data indicating that HU might play a major role in the setting of STI-HAART will be presented.

  8. INTERRUPTED STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Aaron M.; Leigh, Nathan W. C. E-mail: nleigh@amnh.org

    2015-07-20

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single–binary and binary–binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be “interrupted” by an interloping star or binary may be 20%–40% (or higher) in the core, though for typical globular clusters we expect ≲1% of encounters to be interrupted. Thus, the assumption that strong encounters occur in relative isolation breaks down for certain clusters. Instead, many strong encounters develop into more complex “mini-clusters,” which must be accounted for in studying, for example, the internal dynamics of star clusters, and the physical stellar collision rate.

  9. Interruption of shigellosis by hand washing.

    PubMed

    Khan, M U

    1982-01-01

    High attack rates, increasing resistance to antibiotics and high mortality make shigellosis a serious problem. As Shigella is associated with poor hygiene we examined the effectiveness of a simple intervention, washing hands with soap and water, in checking the spread of the disease. The study population was comprised of confirmed cases of shigellosis. These and matched controls were followed up for 10 days. Several pieces of soap and earthenware pitchers for storing water were provided to the study families and they were advised to wash their hands with soap and water after defaecation and before meals. Compliance was monitored daily by observing the size of the soap and residual water. Rectal swabs of contacts of both the groups were obtained for culture. The secondary infection rate was 10.1% in the study group and 32.4% in the control group. The secondary case (symptomatic) rate was 2.2% in the study group and 14.2% in the control group. These results suggest that hand-washing has a positive interrupting effect, even in unsanitary environments.

  10. Development of a high-power vacuum interrupter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, J.A.; Farrall, G.A.; Imam, I.; Sofianek, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    The goal of the present investigation is to assess the feasibility of designing and building a vacuum interrupter for transmission systems; to specifically develop a vacuum interrupter with a voltage capability in the 72-80 kV range and a current capability in the 63-80 kA range with a continuous current rating of 3000 A. To implement this undertaking, analytical and experimental work was carried out in four major problem areas: arc physics; vacuum breakdown; mechanical problems; interrupter fabrication and test. The leading concept is that of the diffuse vacuum arc, particularly as embodied in electrode structures of rod array type; structures which are capable of carrying very large arcing currents without suffering damage. Corollary to the diffuse arc concept is that of arc transfer from the butt contacts to the fixed-gap diffuse arc structure and the separation of functions which this allows. The original intent was to build four sealed interrupters each of a separate and distinct design, the fourth to be the prototype. Three interrupters were actually built, with records of performance ranging from poor to outstanding. The must successful interrupter was a triggered vacuum gap of rod array type whose interruption performance represents a high watermark for interruption in vacuum viz. 63 kA, 97 kV rated voltage (84 kV test voltage). Actually, the current and voltage limitations are not known since the tube was not tested to failure. A possible application for the interrupter is as a very fast, high-voltage, high current crowbar switch for protecting power transmission equipment and circuits. The single major problem blocking progress to the prototype is that of arc transfer. Though rapid and efficient transfer has been demonstrated in the laboratory on demountable systems, a successful translation to a sealed vacuum interrupter has not been achieved.

  11. The Effect of Interruptions on Part 121 Air Carrier Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, Diane L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relative priorities of various events and activities by examining the probability that a given activity was interrupted by a given event. The analysis will begin by providing frequency of interruption data by crew position (captain versus first officer) and event type. Any differences in the pattern of interruptions between the first officers and the captains will be explored and interpreted in terms of standard operating procedures. Subsequent data analyses will focus on comparing the frequency of interruptions for different types of activities and for the same activities under normal versus emergency conditions. Briefings and checklists will receive particular attention. The frequency with which specific activities are interrupted under multiple- versus single-task conditions also will be examined; because the majority of multiple-task data were obtained under laboratory conditions, LOFT-type tapes offer a unique opportunity to examine concurrent task performance under 'real-world' conditions. A second purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the interruptions on performance. More specifically, when possible, the time to resume specific activities will be compared to determine if pilots are slower to resume certain types of activities. Errors in resumption or failures to resume specific activities will be noted and any patterns in these errors will be identified. Again, particular attention will be given to the effects of interruptions on the completion of checklists and briefings. Other types of errors and missed events (i.e., the crew should have responded to the event but did not) will be examined. Any methodology using interruptions to examine task prioritization must be able to identify when an interruption has occurred and describe the ongoing activities that were interrupted. Both of these methodological problems are discussed In detail in the following section,

  12. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    DOEpatents

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  13. Interrupting Chagas disease transmission in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Aché, A; Matos, A J

    2001-01-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in Venezuela is attributed to the combined effects of ongoing entomoepidemiological surveillance, ongoing house spraying with residual insecticides and the concurrent building and modification of rural houses in endemic areas during almost five decades. The original endemic areas which totaled 750,000 km(2), have been reduced to 365,000 km(2). During 1958-1968, initial entomological evaluations carried out showed that the house infestation index ranged between 60-80%, the house infection index at 8-11% and a house density index of 30-50 triatomine bugs per house. By 1990-98, these indexes were further reduced to 1.6-4.0%, 0.01-0.6% and 3-4 bugs per house respectively. The overall rural population seroprevalence has declined from 44.5% (95% C.I.: 43.4-45.3%) to 9.2% (95% C.I.: 9.0-9.4%) for successive grouped periods from 1958 to 1998. The annual blood donor prevalence is firmly established below 1%. The population at risk of infection has been estimated to be less than four million. Given that prevalence rates are stable and appropriate for public health programmes, consideration has been given to potential biases that may distort results such as: a) geographical differences in illness or longevity of patients; b) variations in levels of ascertainment; c) variations in diagnostic criteria; and d) variations in population structure, mainly due to appreciable population migration. The endemic areas with continuous transmission are now mainly confined to piedmonts, as well as patchy foci in higher mountainous ranges, where the exclusive vector is Rhodnius prolixus. There is also an unstable area, of which landscapes are made up of grasslands with scattered broad-leaved evergreen trees and costal plains, where transmission is very low and occasional outbreaks are reported.

  14. Interrupt-based Phase-locked Frequency Multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method aud system utilize a processor's digital timer and two interrupts to form a frequency multiplier. The first internipt's processing time window is definable by a first uumber of counts C(sub 1), of the digital timer while the second interrupt's processing time window is definable by a second number of counts C(sub 2) of the digital timer. A count value CV utilized by the systedmethod is based on a desired frequency multiplier N(sub 1), the timer clock rate, and the tiole required for one cycle of an input signal. The first interrupt is triggered upon completion of one cycle ofthe input sigual at which point the processing time window associated therewith begins. The second interrupt is triggered each time the timer's overflow signal is generated at which point the processing time window associated with the second interrupt begins. During the occurrence of the second interrupt's processing. the count value CV is modified to maintain the first interrupt's processing time window approximately centered between two of the second internipt's processing time windows.

  15. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E-3, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.

  16. A case of neonatal arterial thrombosis mimicking interrupted aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Gürsu, Hazım Alper; Varan, Birgül; Oktay, Ayla; Özkan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal arterial thrombosis is a very rare entity with clinical findings resembling coarctation of aorta or interrupted aortic arch. A two day-old male newborn was admitted to a different hospital with difficulty in sucking and sleepiness. On echocardiographic examination, a diagnosis of interrupted aortic arch was made and he was treated with prostoglandin E2. When the patient presented to our center, physical examination revealed that his feet were bilaterally cold. The pulses were not palpable and there were ecchymotic regions in the lower extremities. Echocardiography ruled out interrupted aortic arch. Computerized tomographic angiography revealed a large thrombosis and total occlusion of the abdominal aorta. Since there was no response to treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, we performed thrombectomy. Homozygous Factor V Leiden and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations were found in this patient. Neonatal aortic thrombosis which is observed very rarely and fatal should be considered in the differential diagnosis of coarctation of aorta and interrupted aortic arch. PMID:26265897

  17. Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Anand, S H; Jasper, Anitha; Mani, Sunithi Elizabeth; Joseph, Elizabeth; Mathai, John

    2015-12-01

    We present a few cases of Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery, an uncommon developmental anomaly associated with congenital heart disease. The cases had varied clinical presentations. Chest radiograph showed a hypoplastic lung with an ipsilateral small hilum on the side of the interruption and hyperinflation of the contralateral lung. Contrast CT confirmed the diagnosis, demonstrating non-visualization of the left or right pulmonary artery, and other related findings. PMID:26816968

  18. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    PubMed

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  19. The Effect of Interruption Duration and Demand on Resuming Suspended Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Christopher A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    The time to resume task goals after an interruption varied depending on the duration and cognitive demand of interruptions, as predicted by the memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Three experiments using an interleaved tasks interruption paradigm showed that longer and more demanding interruptions led to longer resumption times in a…

  20. The Nature of Procedural Interrupts in Ground Operations in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Cheryl M.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology for characterizing the causal context and consequences of procedural interrupts in ground operations tasks. Behavioral science researchers observed 26 tasks at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. From these tasks, 81 procedural interrupts were identified and coded for the following information: source of the interrupt, circumstances surrounding the interrupt, and consequences of the interrupt. We found that more interrupts were equipment or personnel-related than procedure-related. More interrupts were due to unavailable resources or resources being incorrect than resources being inaccessible, and most interrupts resulted in some action being taken. Variation in duration of procedural interrupts across causal categories was also examined. The characterization process helps to identify those interrupts that are disruptive, those that cannot be avoided, and those that may have been prevented through better planning or scheduling of resources. Implications for the use of the methodology and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  1. "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension": Correction to Foroughi et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension" by Cyrus K. Foroughi, Nicole E. Werner, Daniela Barragán and Deborah A. Boehm-Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2015[Jun], Vol 144[3], 704-709). In the article the effect sizes (Cohen's d) were reported using the incorrect formula. The correct formula and effect sizes are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-15250-001.) Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension

  2. Fundamentals of interruption in vacuum. Eighth progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, A N; Childs, S E

    1980-05-30

    In analyzing the behavior of a vacuum arc during interruption , a mathematical model has been set up to describe the events occurring in the interelectrode gap during interruption. The reliability of the results obtained using such a model depends on the accuracy of the initial assumptions made in setting up the model equations. Previous results obtained from the model analysis were compared to experimental data and it was found that there was a discrepancy close to current zero. To improve our model results some of the original model assumptions have been reconsidered in order to make the model more closely represent the physical reality of a vacuum arc.

  3. "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension": Correction to Foroughi et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension" by Cyrus K. Foroughi, Nicole E. Werner, Daniela Barragán and Deborah A. Boehm-Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2015[Jun], Vol 144[3], 704-709). In the article the effect sizes (Cohen's d) were reported using the incorrect formula. The correct formula and effect sizes are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-15250-001.) Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension

  4. The Needs of Others: Gender and Sleep Interruptions for Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgard, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Received wisdom, some sociological theory and a handful of qualitative studies suggest that the "night shift" of caregiving work that interrupts sleep is a burden borne disproportionately by women. However, there is no broadly representative evidence to substantiate claims about who takes the night shift in contemporary American households.…

  5. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interruptible transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... guaranteeing revenue. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 284.9, see the List of...

  6. Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations.

    PubMed

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana Mh; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

    2014-11-01

    The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations.

  7. Effect of unloading time on interrupted creep in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, H.D. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The effect of unloading time on the interrupted creep behavior of polycrystalline copper specimens was investigated over the temperature range 298--773 K. Up to 553 K, cyclic creep acceleration could be explained in terms of deformation and hardening using a dislocation glide model with recovery during unloading being due to dislocation climb. At higher temperatures, recrystallization effects probably influence behavior.

  8. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  9. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  10. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  11. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  12. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  13. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  14. Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations

    PubMed Central

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana MH; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Summary The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations. PMID:25606365

  15. Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations.

    PubMed

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana Mh; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

    2014-11-01

    The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations. PMID:25606365

  16. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... payments were continued under an established policy based upon an Executive order of the President or...

  17. Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob; Ofek, Haim

    1982-01-01

    Using National Longitudinal Survey panel data on wages of married women, the authors found that real wages at reentry are lower than at the point of labor force withdrawal, and the decline in wages is greater, the longer the interruption. Discusses how this data affects immigrants to the United States. (CT)

  18. Toy Modification Note: Build It Yourself Battery Interrupter. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; Brandenburg, S.

    This toy modification note presents illustrated instructions on how to build a battery interrupter that permits on/off control of battery-operated toys without modification of the toys themselves. The device allows for a separate control switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Information on the construction and use…

  19. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  20. Multi-megampere current interruption from explosive deformation of conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Goforth, J.H.; Williams, A.H.; Marsh, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Two approaches for using explosives to interrupt current flowing in solid conductors are described. One concept uses explosives to extrude the switch conductor into thin regions that fuse due to current in the switch. A preliminary scaling law is presented. The second approach employs dielectric jets to sever current carrying conductors. A feasibility experiment and an improved design are described.

  1. Ascending Aortic Slide for Interrupted Aortic Arch Repair.

    PubMed

    Urencio, Miguel; Dodge-Khatami, Ali; Greenleaf, Chris E; Aru, Giorgio; Salazar, Jorge D

    2016-09-01

    For repair of interrupted aortic arch, unfavorable anatomy challenges a tension-free anastomosis. We describe a useful alternative surgical technique used in five neonates/infants, involving splitting the ascending aorta from the sinotubular junction to the arch origin, leftward and posterior "sliding" of the flap with anastomosis to the distal arch creating a native tissue bridge, and reconstruction with a patch. With wide interruption gaps between proximal and distal aortic portions, the ascending aortic slide is a safe and reproducible technique, providing a tension-free native tissue bridge with potential for growth, and a scaffold for patch augmentation in biventricular hearts, or for Norwood stage I in univentricular palliation. PMID:27587504

  2. Estimating Subglottal Pressure via Airflow Interruption with Auditory Masking

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Current noninvasive measurement of subglottal pressure using airflow interruption often produces inconsistent results due to the elicitation of audio-laryngeal reflexes. Auditory feedback could be considered as a means of ensuring measurement accuracy and precision. The purpose of this study was to determine if auditory masking could be used with the airflow interruption system to improve intrasubject consistency. Study Design A prerecorded sample of subject phonation was played on a loop over headphones during the trials with auditory masking. This provided subjects with a target pitch and blocked out distracting ambient noise created by the airflow interrupter. Methods Subglottal pressure was noninvasively measured using the airflow interruption system. Thirty subjects, divided into two equal groups, performed ten trials without auditory masking and ten trials with auditory masking. Group one performed the normal trials first, followed by the trials with auditory masking. Group two performed the auditory masking trials first, followed by the normal trials. Results Intrasubject consistency was improved by adding auditory masking, resulting in a decrease in average intrasubject standard deviation from 0.93 ± 0.51 to 0.47 ± 0.22 cmH2O (p < .001). Conclusions Auditory masking can be used effectively to combat audio-laryngeal reflexes and aid subjects in maintaining constant glottal configuration and frequency, thereby increasing intrasubject consistency when measuring subglottal pressure. By considering auditory feedback, a more reliable method of measurement was developed. This method could be employed by clinicians, as reliable, immediately available values of subglottal pressure are useful in evaluating laryngeal health and monitoring treatment progress. PMID:18538988

  3. Interrupted searches in the BBMCSFilter context for MINLP problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Florbela P.; Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

    2016-06-01

    The BBMCSFilter method was developed to solve mixed integer nonlinear programming problems. This kind of problems have integer and continuous variables and they appear very frequently in process engineering problems. The objective of this work is to analyze the performance of the method when the coordinate searches are interrupted in the context of the multistart strategy. From the numerical experiments, we observed a reduction on the number of function evaluations and on the CPU time.

  4. [Road map for transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jiang, Qing-Wu; Guo, Jia-Gang; Lin, Dan-Dan; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-Zhu; Xu, Jing

    2012-02-01

    Based on the transmission status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China, the challenges and road map for achieving the transmission interruption of schistosomiasis by 2020 in the country was discussed, particularly focused on elimination strategy, surveillance and response approaches, and key technique needs in the three stages, e.g. pre-elimination, elimination and post-elimination stages. Recommendation of strengthening studies on transmission threshold and technological innovation at the low transmission level of schistosomiasis japonica were put forward.

  5. Modification of seizure disorders: the interruption of behavioral chains.

    PubMed

    Zlutnick, S; Mayville, W J; Moffat, S

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of interruption and differential reinforcement on seizures in children. Seizures were conceptualized as the terminal link in a behavioral chain, resulting in a strategy aimed at identifying and modifying behaviors that reliably preceded the seizure climax. Seizure frequency was reduced in four of five subjects, whereas the frequency of preseizure behavior was reduced in only three subjects. Parents and school personnel were successfully used as change agents.

  6. This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence.

  7. ICDS database: interrupted CoDing sequences in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Perrodou, Emmanuel; Deshayes, Caroline; Muller, Jean; Schaeffer, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Ripp, Raymond; Poch, Olivier; Reyrat, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Odile

    2006-01-01

    Unrecognized frameshifts, in-frame stop codons and sequencing errors lead to Interrupted CoDing Sequence (ICDS) that can seriously affect all subsequent steps of functional characterization, from in silico analysis to high-throughput proteomic projects. Here, we describe the Interrupted CoDing Sequence database containing ICDS detected by a similarity-based approach in 80 complete prokaryotic genomes. ICDS can be retrieved by species browsing or similarity searches via a web interface (http://www-bio3d-igbmc.u-strasbg.fr/ICDS/). The definition of each interrupted gene is provided as well as the ICDS genomic localization with the surrounding sequence. Furthermore, to facilitate the experimental characterization of ICDS, we propose optimized primers for re-sequencing purposes. The database will be regularly updated with additional data from ongoing sequenced genomes. Our strategy has been validated by three independent tests: (i) ICDS prediction on a benchmark of artificially created frameshifts, (ii) comparison of predicted ICDS and results obtained from the comparison of the two genomic sequences of Bacillus licheniformis strain ATCC 14580 and (iii) re-sequencing of 25 predicted ICDS of the recently sequenced genome of Mycobacterium smegmatis. This allows us to estimate the specificity and sensitivity (95 and 82%, respectively) of our program and the efficiency of primer determination.

  8. Interruption Phenomenon in Intermediate-Frequency Vacuum Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    In the condition of the 3 mm gap, experiments for 360 Hz intermediate-frequency vacuum arc are carried out in interrupters with the diameters being 41 mm and with the contact materials being CuCr50 and Cu-W-WC alloy respectively. The results indicate that the contacts material is closely related to the breaking capacity of the vacuum interrupters and characteristics of an intermediate-frequency vacuum arc. For contacts with the same diameter, the breaking capacity of CuCr50 is better than that of Cu-W-WC. When the current fails to be interrupted, the arcs overflow the gap and present irregular performances in the first half wave. Consequently a voltage spike appears. More macroscopic metal droplets can be seen in the arc column between CuCr50 contacts because of the lower melting point. It is observed that the droplet emission is much more severe during arc reignition than that in the first half wave. It is much more conspicuous that the high frequency arc voltage noises appear in Cu-W-WC contacts when the vacuum arcs reignite, for higher temperature and stronger electronic emission ability of Cu-W-WC contacts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377007), Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20131102130006), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  9. Interruption Management in the Intensive Care Unit: Predicting Resumption Times and Assessing Distributed Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Sanderson, Penelope; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Interruptions are frequent in many work domains. Researchers in health care have started to study interruptions extensively, but their studies usually do not use a theoretically guided approach. Conversely, researchers conducting theoretically rich laboratory studies on interruptions have not usually investigated how effectively their findings…

  10. The Roles of MDs and RNs as Initiators and Recipients of Interruptions in Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Brixey, Juliana J.; Robinson, David J.; Turley, James P.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research studies have focused on the recipients of interruptions because of the negative impact interruptions have on task performance. It is equally important to understand the initiators of interruptions to help design strategies to lessen the number of interruptions and the possible negatives consequences. The purpose of this study was to examine MDs and RNs as initiators and recipients of interruptions. Methods This was an instrumental case study using the shadowing method. A convenience sample of five attending trauma MDs and eight RNs were observed during the 0700–1500 and 1500–2100 shifts in the trauma section of a level one trauma center. Result Seventy hours of observations were recorded. Initiator and recipient of an interruption emerged as major roles during categorization of the notes. Medical doctors and RNs were found to be the recipient of an interruption more frequently than the initiator. Findings from this study indicate that MDs and RNs initiate interruptions most often through face-to-face interactions and use of the telephone. Conclusions A role-based taxonomy of interruptions was derived from the recorded notes. Strategies to successfully manage interruptions must consider both the role of initiator as well as the recipient when an interruption occurs. It is suggested that the role-based taxonomy presented in this paper be used to classify interruptions in future studies. PMID:18996736

  11. Interruption of the Tower of London Task: Support for a Goal-Activation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Helen M.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2006-01-01

    Unexpected interruptions introduced during the execution phase of simple Tower of London problems incurred a time cost when the interrupted goal was retrieved, and this cost was exacerbated the longer the goal was suspended. Furthermore, time taken to retrieve goals was greater following a more complex interruption, indicating the processing…

  12. No evidence of relation between working memory and perception of interrupted speech in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Naveen K; Knapp, Andrea N

    2015-08-01

    Understanding interrupted speech requires top-down linguistic and cognitive restoration mechanisms. To investigate the relation between working memory (WM) and perception of interrupted speech, 20 young adults were asked to recognize sentences interrupted at 2 Hz, 8 Hz, and a combination of 2 and 8 Hz. WM was measured using automated reading and operation span tasks. Interestingly, the results presented here revealed no statistical relation between any of the interrupted speech recognition scores and WM scores. This finding is in agreement with previous findings that suggest greater reliance on linguistic factors relative to cognitive factors during perception of interrupted speech. PMID:26328740

  13. Interruptions of nurses' activities and patient safety: an integrative literature review1

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Cintia; Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics related to the interruption of nurses in professional practice, as well as to assess the implications of interruptions for patient safety. METHOD: integrative literature review. The following databases were searched: Pubmed/Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, using the descriptors interruptions and patient safety. An initial date was not established, but the final date was December 31, 2013. A total of 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: all the papers included describe interruptions as a harmful factor for patient safety. Data analysis revealed three relevant categories: characteristics of interruptions, implications for patient safety, and interventions to minimize interruptions. CONCLUSION: interruptions favor the occurrence of errors in the health field. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to understand such a phenomenon and its effects on clinical practice. PMID:25806646

  14. Efficient system interrupt concept design at the microprogramming level

    SciTech Connect

    Fakharzadeh, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past decade the demand for high speed super microcomputers has been tremendously increased. To satisfy this demand many high speed 32-bit microcomputers have been designed. However, the currently available 32-bit systems do not provide an adequate solution to many highly demanding problems such as in multitasking, and in interrupt driven applications, which both require context switching. Systems for these purposes usually incorporate sophisticated software. In order to be efficient, a high end microprocessor based system must satisfy stringent software demands. Although these microprocessors use the latest technology in the fabrication design and run at a very high speed, they still suffer from insufficient hardware support for such applications. All too often, this lack also is the premier cause of execution inefficiency. In this dissertation a micro-programmable control unit and operation unit is considered in an advanced design. An automaton controller is designed for high speed micro-level interrupt handling. Different stack models are designed for the single task and multitasking environment. The stacks are used for storage of various components of the processor during the interrupt calls, procedure calls, and task switching. A universal (as an example seven port) register file is designed for high speed parameter passing, and intertask communication in the multitasking environment. In addition, the register file provides a direct path between ALU and the peripheral data which is important in real-time control applications. The overall system is a highly parallel architecture, with no pipeline and internal cache memory, which allows the designer to be able to predict the processor's behavior during the critical times.

  15. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  16. Fundamentals of interruption in vacuum. Eleventh progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, A.N.; Sullivan, J.S.

    1981-02-28

    During the past three months effort has concentrated on formulating a method to predict the enhancement of electrode surface field and power input occasioned by the presence of a projection on the electrode surface, during the ion sheath development period which attends the scavenging a contact gap following current interruption in vacuum. In addition, experimental evidence has been obtained to support the theory, postulated earlier, of a turn-around interval for electrons left in the gap, which preceeds the rise of the transient recovery voltage.

  17. Interrupting Sitting Time with Regular Walks Attenuates Postprandial Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, M; Edamoto, K; Kidokoro, T; Yanaoka, T; Kashiwabara, K; Takahashi, M; Burns, S

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of prolonged sitting with the effects of sitting interrupted by regular walking and the effects of prolonged sitting after continuous walking on postprandial triglyceride in postmenopausal women. 15 participants completed 3 trials in random order: 1) prolonged sitting, 2) regular walking, and 3) prolonged sitting preceded by continuous walking. During the sitting trial, participants rested for 8 h. For the walking trials, participants walked briskly in either twenty 90-sec bouts over 8 h or one 30-min bout in the morning (09:00-09:30). Except for walking, both exercise trials mimicked the sitting trial. In each trial, participants consumed a breakfast (08:00) and lunch (11:00). Blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after breakfast. The serum triglyceride incremental area under the curve was 15 and 14% lower after regular walking compared with prolonged sitting and prolonged sitting after continuous walking (4.73±2.50 vs. 5.52±2.95 vs. 5.50±2.59 mmol/L∙8 h respectively, main effect of trial: P=0.023). Regularly interrupting sitting time with brief bouts of physical activity can reduce postprandial triglyceride in postmenopausal women. PMID:26509374

  18. The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity.

  19. Left atrial thrombus formation after brief interruption of rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew; Solarz, David

    2016-01-01

    Every year, nearly 250000 atrial fibrillation patients require temporary interruption of anticoagulation therapy for invasive procedures, acute illness, or bleeding events. Rivaroxaban is an oral anticoagulant that works by inhibiting factor Xa leading to a blockage of thrombin production, which inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. As with other anticoagulants, there is an increased risk of a thrombotic event occurring when rivaroxaban therapy is temporarily interrupted (TI) or prematurely discontinued. The 30-day rate of stroke or systemic embolism for rivaroxaban TI is 0.36%. Possible factors for higher than expected rates of embolic events include a prothrombotic perioperative environment among patients having TI for surgery and a prothrombotic environment associated with TI due to bleeding. The ROCKET AF study showed that there was no detectable difference in the risk of stroke and systemic embolism for participants treated with rivaroxaban vs warfarin undergoing TI. Another analysis suggested that the risk for stroke from TI is probably higher in the rivaroxaban group with 3 to 30 days discontinuation. Alternative anticoagulation therapy such as bridging should always be considered when stopping rivaroxaban.

  20. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Codeª (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  1. Immunological biomarkers predict HIV-1 viral rebound after treatment interruption

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jacob; Hoffmann, Matthias; Pace, Matthew; Williams, James P.; Thornhill, John; Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Chris; Koelsch, Kersten K.; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David A.; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Phillips, Rodney E.; Frater, John

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the weeks following transmission may induce a state of ‘post-treatment control' (PTC) in some patients, in whom viraemia remains undetectable when ART is stopped. Explaining PTC could help our understanding of the processes that maintain viral persistence. Here we show that immunological biomarkers can predict time to viral rebound after stopping ART by analysing data from a randomized study of primary HIV-1 infection incorporating a treatment interruption (TI) after 48 weeks of ART (the SPARTAC trial). T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Tim-3 and Lag-3 measured prior to ART strongly predict time to the return of viraemia. These data indicate that T-cell exhaustion markers may identify those latently infected cells with a higher proclivity to viral transcription. Our results may open new avenues for understanding the mechanisms underlying PTC, and eventually HIV-1 eradication. PMID:26449164

  2. Immunological biomarkers predict HIV-1 viral rebound after treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jacob; Hoffmann, Matthias; Pace, Matthew; Williams, James P; Thornhill, John; Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Chris; Koelsch, Kersten K; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David A; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Kelleher, Anthony D; Phillips, Rodney E; Frater, John

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the weeks following transmission may induce a state of 'post-treatment control' (PTC) in some patients, in whom viraemia remains undetectable when ART is stopped. Explaining PTC could help our understanding of the processes that maintain viral persistence. Here we show that immunological biomarkers can predict time to viral rebound after stopping ART by analysing data from a randomized study of primary HIV-1 infection incorporating a treatment interruption (TI) after 48 weeks of ART (the SPARTAC trial). T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Tim-3 and Lag-3 measured prior to ART strongly predict time to the return of viraemia. These data indicate that T-cell exhaustion markers may identify those latently infected cells with a higher proclivity to viral transcription. Our results may open new avenues for understanding the mechanisms underlying PTC, and eventually HIV-1 eradication.

  3. Interrupted Self-Organization of SiGe Pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqua, Jean-Noël; Gouyé, Adrien; Ronda, Antoine; Frisch, Thomas; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the morphological evolution of SiGe quantum dots deposited on Si(100) during long-time annealing. At low strain, the dots’ self-organization begins by an instability and interrupts when (105) pyramids form. This evolution and the resulting island density are quantified by molecular-beam epitaxy. A kinetic model accounting for elasticity, wetting, and anisotropy is shown to reproduce well the experimental findings with appropriate wetting parameters. In this nucleationless regime, a mean-field kinetic analysis explains the existence of nearly stationary states by the vanishing of the coarsening driving force. The island size distribution follows in both experiments and theory the scaling law associated with a single characteristic length scale.

  4. Influence of bile flow interruption on acute experimental pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Gafà, M; Lupi, M; Peracchia, A

    1984-01-01

    The influence of bile flow interruption on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been evaluated in the rat. The pancreatitis was induced by Pfeffer's technique and the severity of the disease was assessed by a macroscopic examination of the pancreatic damage and the calculation of amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as well. The results showed that the bile reflux into the pancreas made the pancreatic lesions caused by stasis in the gland associated with hyperstimulation of exocrine secretion more severe. On the other hand the bile reflux had no influence when the pancreatitis was due to flowing back of duodenal contents into the pancreas (closed duodenal loop). It was concluded that the bile effect is probably consistent with a pressure mechanism. In addition the reliability of ACCR in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed, and the test was effective in detecting even milder pancreatic damages. PMID:6206023

  5. Landmarks and ant search strategies after interrupted tandem runs.

    PubMed

    Basari, Norasmah; Bruendl, Aisha C; Hemingway, Charlotte E; Roberts, Nicholas W; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2014-03-15

    During a tandem run, a single leading ant recruits a single follower to an important resource such as a new nest. To examine this process, we used a motorized gantry, which has not previously been used in ant studies, to track tandem running ants accurately in a large arena and we compared their performance in the presence of different types of landmark. We interrupted tandem runs by taking away the leader and moved a large distant landmark behind the new nest just at the time of this separation. Our aim was to determine what information followers might have obtained from the incomplete tandem run they had followed, and how they behaved after the tandem run had been interrupted. Our results show that former followers search by using composite random strategies with elements of sub-diffusive and diffusive movements. Furthermore, when we provided more landmarks former followers searched for longer. However, when all landmarks were removed completely from the arena, the ants' search duration lasted up to four times longer. Hence, their search strategy changes in the presence or absence of landmarks. Even after extensive search of this kind, former followers headed back to their old nest but did not return along the path of the tandem run they had followed. The combination of the position to which the large distant landmark behind the new nest was moved and the presence or absence of additional landmarks influenced the orientation of the former followers' paths back to the old nest. We also found that these ants exhibit behavioural lateralization in which they possibly use their right eye more than their left eye to recognize landmarks for navigation. Our results suggest that former follower ants learn landmarks during tandem running and use this information to make strategic decisions. PMID:24198259

  6. Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Eva; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Baker, Jason V.; Somboonwit, Charurut; Llibre, Josep M.; Palfreeman, Adrian; Chini, Maria; Lundgren, Jens D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow-up analyses of stored plasma samples demonstrated increased activation of both inflammatory and coagulation pathways after stopping ART. Design SMART patients from sites that determined platelets routinely. Methods Platelet counts were retrospectively collected from 2206 patients from visits at study entry, and during follow-up. D-dimer levels were measured at study entry, month 1, and 2. Results Platelet levels decreased in the drug conservation group following randomization, but remained stable in the viral suppression group [median (IQR) decline from study entry to month 4: −24 000/µl (−54 000 to 4000) vs. 3000 (−22 000 to 24 000), respectively, P < 0.0001)] and the rate of developing thrombocytopenia (<100 000/µl) was significantly higher in the drug conservation vs. the viral suppression arm (unadjusted drug conservation/viral suppression [HR (95%CI) = 1.8 (1.2–2.7)]. The decline in platelet count among drug conservation participants on fully suppressive ART correlated with the rise in D-dimer from study entry to either month 1 or 2 (r = −0.41; P = 0.02). Among drug conservation participants who resumed ART 74% recovered to their study entry platelet levels. Conclusion Interrupting ART increases the risk of thrombocytopenia, but reinitiation of ART typically reverses it. Factors contributing to declines in platelets after interrupting ART may include activation of coagulation pathways or HIV-1 replication itself. The contribution of platelets in HIV-related procoagulant activity requires further study. PMID:23018440

  7. A first census of collagen interruptions: collagen's own stutters and stammers.

    PubMed

    Bella, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The repetitive Gly-X-Y sequence is the telltale sign of triple helical domains in collagens and collagen-like proteins. Most collagen sequences contain sporadic interruptions of this pattern, which may have functional roles in molecular flexibility, assembly or molecular recognition. However, the structural signatures of the different interruptions are not well defined. Here, a first comprehensive survey of collagen interruptions on collagen sequences from different taxonomic groups is presented. Amino acid preferences at the sites of interruption and the flanking triplets are analysed separately for metazoan and prokaryotic collagens and the concept of commensurateness between interruptions is introduced. Known structural information from model peptides is used to present a common framework for hydrogen bonding topology and variations in superhelical twist for the different types of interruptions. Several collagen interruptions are further classified here as stutters or stammers in analogy to the heptad breaks observed in alpha-helical coiled coils, and the structural consequences of commensurate interruptions in heterotrimeric collagens are briefly discussed. Data presented here will be useful for further investigation on the relation between structure and function of collagen interruptions.

  8. A systematic review of the psychological literature on interruption and its patient safety implications

    PubMed Central

    Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the complex effects of interruption in healthcare. Materials and methods As interruptions have been well studied in other domains, the authors undertook a systematic review of experimental studies in psychology and human–computer interaction to identify the task types and variables influencing interruption effects. Results 63 studies were identified from 812 articles retrieved by systematic searches. On the basis of interruption profiles for generic tasks, it was found that clinical tasks can be distinguished into three broad types: procedural, problem-solving, and decision-making. Twelve experimental variables that influence interruption effects were identified. Of these, six are the most important, based on the number of studies and because of their centrality to interruption effects, including working memory load, interruption position, similarity, modality, handling strategies, and practice effect. The variables are explained by three main theoretical frameworks: the activation-based goal memory model, prospective memory, and multiple resource theory. Discussion This review provides a useful starting point for a more comprehensive examination of interruptions potentially leading to an improved understanding about the impact of this phenomenon on patient safety and task efficiency. The authors provide some recommendations to counter interruption effects. Conclusion The effects of interruption are the outcome of a complex set of variables and should not be considered as uniformly predictable or bad. The task types, variables, and theories should help us better to identify which clinical tasks and contexts are most susceptible and assist in the design of information systems and processes that are resilient to interruption. PMID:21946236

  9. Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

  10. Resistance to the impact of interruptions during multitasking by healthy adults and dysexecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna S; Logie, Robert H; Pearson, David G; Cantagallo, Anna; Moretti, Eva; Dimarco, Francesca

    2004-07-01

    Two experiments (one with healthy adult volunteers and the other with controls and dysexecutive patients) assessed the impact of interruptions on a novel test of multitasking. The test involved switching repeatedly between four tasks (block construction, bead threading, paper folding, alphabetical searching) over a 10 min period. In Experiment 1, there were four groups of 20 healthy participants. One group attempted multitasking with no interruption, a second group was interrupted early in the test, a third group late in the test and a fourth group was interrupted both early and late. Interruption involved carrying out a fifth, unexpected task for a period of 1 min before returning to the four main tasks. There was no difference in multitasking performance between the groups. In Experiment 2 the participants were seven dysexecutive patients and 14 age-matched controls. A repeated measures approach was employed to assess the impact of two interruptions (early and late) for both groups. Contrary to predictions, the patients as well as controls were resistant to the effects of interruptions, despite their clearly impaired multitasking performance. These results suggest that the ability to deal with interruptions may be separable from the ability to organise and execute multiple tasks within a limited time frame.

  11. Interruptions of activities experienced by nursing professionals in an intensive care unit 1

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Daniele de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the interruptions experienced by nursing professionals while undertaking care activities. Method: an observational study undertaken in two intensive care units. Two nurses observed 33 nursing professionals for three hours. The data were recorded in real time, using a semistructured instrument. Results: after 99 hours of observation of 739 activities, it was identified that 46.82% were interrupted, resulting in 7.85 interruptions per hour. On average, the interruptions compromised 9.42% of the nursing professionals' worktime. The activities geared towards indirect care of the patient suffered the highest number of interruptions (56.65%), with the nursing records being the activity interrupted most. The principal source of the interruptions was external, coming from the health professionals (51%), and the main causes were those related to the patients (34.70%) and to interpersonal communication (26.47%). Conclusion: the activity of nursing suffers a high number of interruptions, mainly caused by the health professionals themselves, indicating that the work environment needs to undergo interventions aiming to reduce the risk of compromising of the professional's performance and to increase the patients' safety. PMID:27627123

  12. Real time interrupt handling using FORTRAN IV plus under RSX-11M

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    A real-time data acquisition application for a linear accelerator is described. The important programming features of this application are use of connect to interrupt, a shared library, map to I/O page, and a shared data area. How you can provide rapid interrupt handling using these tools from FORTRAN IV PLUS is explained.

  13. Unemployment and Work Interruption among African American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using interview data from 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tested a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influenced adolescent socioemotional functioning. Found that current unemployment, but not past work interruption, contributed to depressive…

  14. Towards a Politics of Interruption: High School Design as Politically Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, David

    2007-01-01

    The following essay seeks to highlight the use of engaged qualitative community-based research in education to respond to conditions of structural inequality. As "the politics of interruption", the process of creating neighborhood public high schools is centred in community accountability. Responsibility in this mode "interrupts" the resurgence of…

  15. How Speakers Interrupt Themselves in Managing Problems in Speaking: Evidence from Self-Repairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfeddinipur, Mandana; Kita, Sotaro; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When speakers detect a problem in what they are saying, they must decide whether or not to interrupt themselves and repair the problem, and if so, when. Speakers will maximize accuracy if they interrupt themselves as soon as they detect a problem, but they will maximize fluency if they go on speaking until they are ready to produce the repair.…

  16. Interruptions and Failure in Higher Education: Evidence from ISEG-UTL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagas, Margarida; Fernandaes, Graca Leao

    2011-01-01

    Failure in higher education (HE) is the outcome of multiple time-dependent determinants. Interruptions in students' individual school trajectories are one of them, and that is why research on this topic has been attracting much attention these days. From an individual point of view, it is expected that interruptions in school trajectory, whatever…

  17. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Leviton Manufacturing Co., of Melville, New York (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final... the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and...

  18. 77 FR 66080 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ...''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same AGENCY: U.S. International... the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters...

  19. 76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Leviton Manufacturing Co. (``Leviton'') of Melville, New York. 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason...

  20. Two sides to every story: The Dual Perspectives Method for examining interruptions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    McCurdie, Tara; Sanderson, Penelope; Aitken, Leanne M; Liu, David

    2017-01-01

    Interruptions are widely considered a problem in healthcare. Results from observation and experimental studies have guided extensive mitigation efforts, but the effectiveness of interventions remains mixed. We have built on current theories and methods for studying interruptions to develop a novel observational approach - the Dual Perspectives Method - for examining interruptions from the perspectives of the different work functions in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We detail the method and provide representative examples of the insights it offers, such as why interruptions happen, the role they play, and the consequences of preserving them or eliminating them. We anticipate that the Dual Perspectives Method will help us to arrive at a better basis on which to draw conclusions about interruptions, and will lead to the development of appropriate and sustainable interventions to ensure the effective and safe functioning of the work system under examination. PMID:27633202

  1. Two sides to every story: The Dual Perspectives Method for examining interruptions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    McCurdie, Tara; Sanderson, Penelope; Aitken, Leanne M; Liu, David

    2017-01-01

    Interruptions are widely considered a problem in healthcare. Results from observation and experimental studies have guided extensive mitigation efforts, but the effectiveness of interventions remains mixed. We have built on current theories and methods for studying interruptions to develop a novel observational approach - the Dual Perspectives Method - for examining interruptions from the perspectives of the different work functions in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We detail the method and provide representative examples of the insights it offers, such as why interruptions happen, the role they play, and the consequences of preserving them or eliminating them. We anticipate that the Dual Perspectives Method will help us to arrive at a better basis on which to draw conclusions about interruptions, and will lead to the development of appropriate and sustainable interventions to ensure the effective and safe functioning of the work system under examination.

  2. University students' attitudes towards Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Martínez-Silva, Isabel María; Soto, José Luis; Concheiro, Luis; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    An evaluation of the future professional trends was performed by analyzing the attitudes of university students to the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy (VIP). An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 300 students (Medicine, Nursing and Law) of the University of Santiago de Compostela, with questions on their personal beliefs, opinion on the law and intention to participate in VIP. Of the 245 respondents (response rate 82%), 66.5% were pro-abortion and their attitudes towards VIP were consistent with their opinion on the beginning of life and with the ethical arguments related to the fetus and the mother. No differences were found with age, sex or degree. The students showed to be well informed on the VIP law, and the majority of them considered unsuitable termination of pregnancy in minors without parental consent. Students' intentions to take part in abortion provision were influenced by their views on abortion, level of participation and circumstances of pregnancy. Although the majority of participants would be willing to perform VIP in situations that affect fetus and mother's life or health (87-66%), their intentions clearly diminished in other situations, such as abortion on demand (17%). These data suggest that conscientious objection of health professionals can even increase with the new policy, a fact that might affect VIP availability. It is important to stress the need of ethical training to help in the solution of conflicts between patient and health professional values. PMID:22498236

  3. Execution-Based Model Checking of Interrupt-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drusinsky, Doron; Havelund, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Execution-based model checking (EMC) is a verification technique based on executing a multi-threaded/multiprocess program repeatedly in a systematic manner in order to explore the different interleavings of the program. This is in contrast to traditional model checking, where a model of a system is analyzed Several execution-based model-checking tools exist at this point, such as for example Verisoft and Java PathFinder. The most common formal specification languages used by EMC tools are un- timed, either just assertions, or linear-time temporal logic (LTL). An alternative verification technique is Runtime Execution Monitoring (REM), which is based on monitor- ing the execution of a program, checking that the execution trace conforms to a requirement specification. The Temporal Rover and DBRover are such tools. They provide a very rich specification language, being an extension of LTL with real-time constraints and time-series. We show how execution-based model checking, combined with runtime execution monitoring, can be used for the verification of a large class of safety critical systems commonly known as interrupt-based systems. The proposed approach is novel in that: (i) it supports model checking of a large class of applications not practically verifiable using conventional EMC tools, (ii) it supports verification of LTL assertions extended with real-time and time-series constraints, and (iii) it supports the verification of custom schedulers.

  4. Interrupted time-series analysis: studying trends in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ricky H; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Pan, I-Wen; Lam, Sandi K

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Neurosurgery studies traditionally have evaluated the effects of interventions on health care outcomes by studying overall changes in measured outcomes over time. Yet, this type of linear analysis is limited due to lack of consideration of the trend's effects both pre- and postintervention and the potential for confounding influences. The aim of this study was to illustrate interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) as applied to an example in the neurosurgical literature and highlight ITSA's potential for future applications. METHODS The methods used in previous neurosurgical studies were analyzed and then compared with the methodology of ITSA. RESULTS The ITSA method was identified in the neurosurgical literature as an important technique for isolating the effect of an intervention (such as a policy change or a quality and safety initiative) on a health outcome independent of other factors driving trends in the outcome. The authors determined that ITSA allows for analysis of the intervention's immediate impact on outcome level and on subsequent trends and enables a more careful measure of the causal effects of interventions on health care outcomes. CONCLUSIONS ITSA represents a significant improvement over traditional observational study designs in quantifying the impact of an intervention. ITSA is a useful statistical procedure to understand, consider, and implement as the field of neurosurgery evolves in sophistication in big-data analytics, economics, and health services research. PMID:26621420

  5. Interrupted time-series analysis: studying trends in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ricky H; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Pan, I-Wen; Lam, Sandi K

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Neurosurgery studies traditionally have evaluated the effects of interventions on health care outcomes by studying overall changes in measured outcomes over time. Yet, this type of linear analysis is limited due to lack of consideration of the trend's effects both pre- and postintervention and the potential for confounding influences. The aim of this study was to illustrate interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) as applied to an example in the neurosurgical literature and highlight ITSA's potential for future applications. METHODS The methods used in previous neurosurgical studies were analyzed and then compared with the methodology of ITSA. RESULTS The ITSA method was identified in the neurosurgical literature as an important technique for isolating the effect of an intervention (such as a policy change or a quality and safety initiative) on a health outcome independent of other factors driving trends in the outcome. The authors determined that ITSA allows for analysis of the intervention's immediate impact on outcome level and on subsequent trends and enables a more careful measure of the causal effects of interventions on health care outcomes. CONCLUSIONS ITSA represents a significant improvement over traditional observational study designs in quantifying the impact of an intervention. ITSA is a useful statistical procedure to understand, consider, and implement as the field of neurosurgery evolves in sophistication in big-data analytics, economics, and health services research.

  6. Resistance to Vemurafenib Can Be Reversible After Treatment Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz-Wysocka, Małgorzata; Krokowicz, Łukasz; Kocur, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Abstract About 40% to 60% of melanomas present BRAF mutation. Selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib are currently approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma patients with BRAF mutation. The treatment-induced tumor regression occurs in the majority of patients; however, acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors is observed in most of the patients after 6 to 7 months. After progression of the disease, the patient might be offered treatment with ipilimumab followed by chemotherapy. Subsequent lines of systemic treatment of metastatic melanoma patients do not exist. Here we report a case of a 59-year-old woman with a diagnosis of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma that responded to initial treatment with vemurafenib. Subsequently, after disease progression, the patient received chemotherapy. Since no clinical response to dacarbazine was observed, carboplatin with paclitaxel were applied. Transient partial response was obtained, which was followed by further disease progression. Then retreatment with vemurafenib was applied. The patient developed very short-term tumor regression and significant biochemical response (serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase) to the treatment. However, following 5 weeks of retreatment, the patient developed progression of the disease. Our clinical observation indicates that in melanoma patients who developed resistance to selective BRAF inhibitors, rechallenge after treatment interruption might be beneficial. PMID:25501056

  7. ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vezina, James M.

    1990-01-01

    The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

  8. [Ethical dilemmas in medicine. The interruption of pregnancy in woman].

    PubMed

    Gual-Castro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates. To avoid this undesirable situation, it has been proposed to follow the established WHO guidelines and adopt national health policies to re-orientate population goals on life quality, gender equity, universal public health services, and to promote the new holistic concepts of reproductive and sexual health such as: family planning, use of anti-fertility methods, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and newborn health, peri- and post-menopausal women's health, and prevention, diagnosis, and opportune treatment of mammary, cervical-uterine, and ovarian cancers. Finally, it is recommended to revise our national health policies and existing laws on abortion de-penalization. PMID:27595258

  9. Interruptions in the collagen repeating tripeptide pattern can promote supramolecular association.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eileen S; Thiagarajan, Geetha; Parmar, Avanish S; Brodsky, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    The standard collagen triple-helix requires a perfect (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)(n) sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain interruptions in this tripeptide repeating pattern. Defining the structural consequences of disruptions in the sequence pattern may shed light on the biological role of sequence interruptions, which have been suggested to play a role in molecular flexibility, collagen degradation, and ligand binding. Previous studies on model peptides with 1- and 4-residue interruptions showed a localized perturbation within the triple-helix, and this work is extended to introduce natural collagen interruptions up to nine residue in length within a fixed (Gly-Pro-Hyp)(n) peptide context. All peptides in this set show decreases in triple-helix content and stability, with greater conformational perturbations for the interruptions longer than five residue. The most stable and least perturbed structure is seen for the 5-residue interruption peptide, whose sequence corresponds to a Gly to Ala missense mutation, such as those leading to collagen genetic diseases. The triple-helix peptides containing 8- and 9-residue interruptions exhibit a strong propensity for self-association to fibrous structures. In addition, a small peptide modeling only the 9-residue sequence within the interruption aggregates to form amyloid-like fibrils with antiparallel beta-sheet structure. The 8- and 9-residue interruption sequences studied here are predicted to have significant cross-beta aggregation potential, and a similar propensity is reported for approximately 10% of other naturally occurring interruptions. The presence of amyloidogenic sequences within or between triple-helix domains may play a role in molecular association to normal tissue structures and could participate in observed interactions between collagen and amyloid.

  10. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  11. Examination of gestations and deliveries subsequent to rivanol-induced interruption of first trimester pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Szeverényi, M; Lampé, L

    1986-01-01

    The pregnancies and deliveries of 550 parturient women were studied. The women previously had undergone interruption of pregnancy induced by Rivanol predilatation of the cervical canal. As controls served the data of 557 pregnancies and deliveries in which the pregnant women had formerly undergone invasive interruption of pregnancy. In addition the data of further 531 women were studied whose last delivery occurred before term or of a small for dates baby. The examinations showed that the necessitating cerclage occurrence of cervical incompetence was significantly lower in pregnancies following non-invasive interruption than after those following invasive interruption. There were no differences in the start and course of delivery and in the number of complications that could be traced back to the method of interruption. There was no difference in the intactness, site of adherence, separation and gross structure of the placenta. The condition of neonates at delivery was similar in the two groups. On the other hand, in the group of invasive interruptions the proportion of neonates that needed medical treatment was higher. An important observation was that after non-invasive interruption the proportion of preterm and small for dates births was significantly lower. These findings may be important in everyday practice.

  12. Effects of age and hearing loss on the intelligibility of interrupted speecha)

    PubMed Central

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    How age and hearing loss affect the perception of interrupted speech may vary based on both the physical properties of preserved or obliterated speech fragments and individual listener characteristics. To investigate perceptual processes and interruption parameters influencing intelligibility across interruption rates, participants of different age and hearing status heard sentences interrupted by silence at either a single primary rate (0.5–8 Hz; 25%, 50%, 75% duty cycle) or at an additional concurrent secondary rate (24 Hz; 50% duty cycle). Although age and hearing loss significantly affected intelligibility, the ability to integrate sub-phonemic speech fragments produced by the fast secondary rate was similar in all listener groups. Age and hearing loss interacted with rate with smallest group differences observed at the lowest and highest interruption rates of 0.5 and 24 Hz. Furthermore, intelligibility of dual-rate gated sentences was higher than single-rate gated sentences with the same proportion of retained speech. Correlations of intelligibility of interrupted speech to pure-tone thresholds, age, or measures of working memory and auditory spectro-temporal pattern discrimination were generally low-to-moderate and mostly nonsignificant. These findings demonstrate rate-dependent effects of age and hearing loss on the perception of interrupted speech, suggesting complex interactions of perceptual processes across different time scales. PMID:25698009

  13. Influence of male gonadal hormones and familiarity on pregnancy interruption in prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Smale, L

    1988-08-01

    Pregnancy interruption (PI) was examined in female prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, exposed to stimuli from males 7 to 12 days after pairing. Urine from unfamiliar males interrupted pregnancy when placed directly on the external nares of newly mated females, but urine from familiar stud males was without effect. Castration of males did not reduce the efficacy of unfamiliar male urine in interrupting pregnancy. The neuroendocrine system of female prairie voles responded selectively to male urine as a function of its familiarity; the efficacy of male stimuli leading to PI was not dependent on gonadal hormones. PMID:3061485

  14. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at

  15. Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times τ given by ψ(τ )∝1/τμ, with μ ≈2. The condition μ <2 violates the ergodic hypothesis, and in this case the adoption of Wiener-Khintchine (WK) theorem for the spectrum evaluation requires some caution. We study this problem theoretically and numerically and we prove that the power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f )=K/fη, with η =3-μ, namely, the 1/f noise lives at border between the ergodic μ >2 and nonergodic μ <2 condition. We study sequences with the finite length L. In the case μ <2 the adoption of WK theorem is made legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case ψ(τ ) is truncated at τ ≈Tmax and L ≫Tmax ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L ≪Tmax, is more challenging. It was already solved by Margolin and Barkai, who used time asymptotic arguments based on the ergodicity breakdown and obtained K ∝1/L2-μ, proving that the out-of-equilibrium nature of the condition μ <2 is signaled by the decrease of K with the increase of L. We use a generalized version of the Onsager principle that leads us to the same conclusion from a somewhat more extended view valid also for the transient out-of-equilibrium case of μ >2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1/fη to the 1/f2 regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the L ≪Tmax or by the L ≫Tmax condition.

  16. Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes.

    PubMed

    Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-11-14

    We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times tau given by psi(tau) proportional to 1tau(mu), with mu approximately 2. The condition mu<2 violates the ergodic hypothesis, and in this case the adoption of Wiener-Khintchine (WK) theorem for the spectrum evaluation requires some caution. We study this problem theoretically and numerically and we prove that the power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f)=Kf(eta), with eta=3-mu, namely, the 1f noise lives at border between the ergodic mu>2 and nonergodic mu<2 condition. We study sequences with the finite length L. In the case mu<2 the adoption of WK theorem is made legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case psi(tau) is truncated at tau approximately T(max) and L>T(max) ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1f(eta) to the 1f(2) regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the LT(max) condition.

  17. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior occasioned by interruption of free-operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Louis P; Bruzek, Jennifer L; Bowman, Lynn G; Jennett, Heather K

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using "do" requests (Study 1) as well as "do" and "don't" requests (Study 2) occasioned problem behavior. Initially, treatment involved differential and noncontingent reinforcement without interruption. To make the intervention more sustainable in the natural environment (where interruptions are unavoidable), a two-component multiple-schedule arrangement was used to progressively increase the period of time in which ongoing activities would be interrupted. During generalization sessions, the intervention was applied across a variety of contexts and therapists. PMID:17471795

  18. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior occasioned by interruption of free-operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Louis P; Bruzek, Jennifer L; Bowman, Lynn G; Jennett, Heather K

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using "do" requests (Study 1) as well as "do" and "don't" requests (Study 2) occasioned problem behavior. Initially, treatment involved differential and noncontingent reinforcement without interruption. To make the intervention more sustainable in the natural environment (where interruptions are unavoidable), a two-component multiple-schedule arrangement was used to progressively increase the period of time in which ongoing activities would be interrupted. During generalization sessions, the intervention was applied across a variety of contexts and therapists.

  19. Functional Interrupts and Destructive Failures from Single Event Effect Testing of Point-Of-Load Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Swonger, James; Musil, Paul; LaBel, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We show examples of single event functional interrupt and destructive failure in modern POL devices. The increasing complexity and diversity of the design and process introduce hard SEE modes that are triggered by various mechanisms.

  20. Interrupted Time Series Versus Statistical Process Control in Quality Improvement Projects.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus; Andersson Gäre, Boel; Elg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system.

  1. Assessment of treatment interruption among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gorityala, Satya Bhgath; Mateti, Uday Venkat; Konuru, Venkateswarlu; Martha, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a rising peril of the TB control in India caused mostly by incomplete treatment. Aim: The aim was to assess the treatment interruption among pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 9 months among PTB patients. Patients admitted with active pulmonary Koch's and history of anti-TB treatment (ATT) for 1-month or more from any source and who returns to treatment after not taking ATT consecutively for 2 months or more were included in the study. The data were collected from the patients or their caretakers to obtain the source of treatment given previously before default, number of treatment interruptions, phase and reasons for treatment interruption treatment. Results: A total of 107 defaulters were identified during the study period. In the present study, 62.6% of the patients interrupted treatment only once, 55.34% of the patient's early continuation (3–4 months) treatment, and 47.66% of the patient's only one reason for the treatment interruptions during the course of the treatment. The most common reason for the treatment interruptions were felt well with TB treatment (29.53%) followed by side effects (16.06%), lack of money (8.29%), and other reasons. Conclusion: The study revealed that most of the defaulters were in the age group between 35 and 60 years, male gender, illiterates, daily wage labor, and married. The treatment interruptions were minimized by putting the efforts to improve direct supervision; pretreatment counseling and retrieve treatment interrupters were recommended. PMID:26229358

  2. Investigating membrane and mitochondrial cryobiological responses of HUVEC using interrupted cooling protocols.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Anthony J F; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2015-10-01

    The success of cryopreservation protocols is largely based on membrane integrity assessments after thawing, since membrane integrity can be considered to give an upper limit in assessment of cell viability and the plasma membrane is considered to be a primary site of cryoinjury. However, the exposure of cells to conditions associated with low temperatures can induce injury to cellular structure and function that may not be readily identified by membrane integrity alone. Interrupted cooling protocols (including interrupted slow cooling without a hold time (graded freezing), and interrupted rapid cooling with a hold time (two-step freezing)), can yield important information about cryoinjury by separating the damage that occurs upon cooling to (and possibly holding at) a critical intermediate temperature range from the damage that occurs upon plunging to the storage temperature (liquid nitrogen). In this study, we used interrupted cooling protocols in the absence of cryoprotectant to investigate the progression of damage to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), comparing an assessment of membrane integrity with a mitochondrial polarization assay. Additionally, the membrane integrity response of HUVEC to interrupted cooling was investigated as a function of cooling rate (for interrupted slow cooling) and hold time (for interrupted rapid cooling). A key finding of this work was that under slow cooling conditions which resulted in a large number of membrane intact cells immediately post thaw, mitochondria are predominantly in a non-functional depolarized state. This study, the first to look directly at mitochondrial polarization throughout interrupted cooling profiles and a detailed study of HUVEC response, highlights the complexity of the progression of cell damage, as the pattern and extent of cell injury throughout the preservation process differs by injury site. PMID:26254036

  3. Occurrence and chemical structure of nonmethylene-interrupted dienoic fatty acids in American oyster Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Paradis, M; Ackman, R G

    1975-01-01

    The American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was found to contain structurally homologous nonmethylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) fatty acids. The major C20 and C22 nonmethylene-interrupted dienoic fatty acid isomers were shown to occur as two pairs of homologues 5,13-20:2 with 7,15-22:2 and 5,11-20:2 with 7,13-22:2. A combination of analytical procedures was required for conclusive structure determination.

  4. [Interruption of the aortic arch with no patent ductus arteriosus: is survival possible?].

    PubMed

    Boukhris, M; Hakim, K; Ouarda, F; M'saad, H; Boussaada, R

    2014-03-01

    Interruption of the aortic arch is a rare congenital disease. It is defined by the complete interruption between the ascending and descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus is necessary to maintain flow from the pulmonary to the descending aorta. Its closure leads to a cardiovascular collapse and this malformation is therefore duct-dependent. However, in rare cases, survival remains possible even after ductus arteriosus closure. We report such a case. PMID:24457106

  5. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Fischer, Paul H; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship between long- and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children. Lung function was measured using the interrupter resistance method in children participating in a Dutch birth cohort study. Long-term average air pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and soot at the residential address at birth were assessed using land-use regression models. Daily average air pollution concentrations on the day of clinical examination were obtained from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Significant associations were found between long-term average air pollution concentrations and interrupter resistance. Interrupter resistance increased by 0.04 kPa·s·L(-1) (95% CI 0.01-0.07) per interquartile range increase (3.3 μg·m(-3)) in fine particle concentration. Short-term exposure was not associated with interrupter resistance. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with increased interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children, supporting previous birth cohort studies reporting effects of air pollution on subjectively reported respiratory symptoms in preschool children.

  6. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, L.B.

    1998-08-18

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

  7. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Lowell B.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

  8. Deleterious effects of interruption followed by reintroduction of enzyme replacement therapy on a lysosomal storage disorder.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ana Paula; Matte, Ursula; Pasqualim, Gabriela; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Martinelli, Barbara; Ribas, Graziela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme

    2016-10-01

    Temporary interruption of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with different lysosomal storage disorders may happen for different reasons (adverse reactions, issues with reimbursement, logistic difficulties, and so forth), and the impact of the interruption is still uncertain. In the present work, we studied the effects of the interruption of intravenous ERT (Laronidase, Genzyme) followed by its reintroduction in mice with the prototypical lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I, comparing to mice receiving continuous treatment, untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice, and normal mice. In the animals which treatment was temporarily interrupted, we observed clear benefits of treatment in several organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney, and testis) after reintroduction, but a worsening in the thickness of the aortic wall was detected. Furthermore, these mice had just partial improvements in behavioral tests, suggesting some deterioration in the brain function. Despite worsening is some disease aspects, urinary glycosaminoglycans levels did not increase during interruption, which indicates that this biomarker commonly used to monitor treatment in patients should not be used alone to assess treatment efficacy. The deterioration observed was not caused by the development of serum antienzyme antibodies. All together our results suggest that temporary ERT interruption leads to deterioration of function in some organs and should be avoided whenever possible.

  9. Differential effects of traffic sign stimuli upon speeding in school zones following a traffic light interruption.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Bree; Irwin, Julia D; Faulks, Ian J; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Motorists whose journey has been interrupted by signalized traffic intersections in school zones resume their journey at a faster vehicle speed than motorists who have not been required to stop. Introducing a flashing "check speed" sign 70m after the traffic intersections counteracts this interruptive effect. The present study examined which aspects of a reminder sign are responsible for reducing the speeding behavior of interrupted motorists. When a sign that combines both written text and flashing lights was introduced, interrupted motorists did not speed, traveling on average 0.82km/h below the 40km/h speed limit when measured 100m from traffic intersections. Alternatively, when only the flashing lights were visible the interrupted motorists sped 3.36km/h over the 40km/h speed limit. Similar vehicular speeds were observed when only the written text was visible and when no sign was present (7.67 and 7.49km/h over the 40km/h speed limit, respectively). This indicates that static reminder signs add little value over the absence of a school zone reminder sign; the presence of both cues is necessary to fully offset the interruptive effect. This study also highlights the benefit of using exogenous visual cues in traffic signs to capture drivers' attention. These findings have practical implications for the design and use of traffic signs to increase compliance with posted speed limits.

  10. Differential effects of traffic sign stimuli upon speeding in school zones following a traffic light interruption.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Bree; Irwin, Julia D; Faulks, Ian J; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Motorists whose journey has been interrupted by signalized traffic intersections in school zones resume their journey at a faster vehicle speed than motorists who have not been required to stop. Introducing a flashing "check speed" sign 70m after the traffic intersections counteracts this interruptive effect. The present study examined which aspects of a reminder sign are responsible for reducing the speeding behavior of interrupted motorists. When a sign that combines both written text and flashing lights was introduced, interrupted motorists did not speed, traveling on average 0.82km/h below the 40km/h speed limit when measured 100m from traffic intersections. Alternatively, when only the flashing lights were visible the interrupted motorists sped 3.36km/h over the 40km/h speed limit. Similar vehicular speeds were observed when only the written text was visible and when no sign was present (7.67 and 7.49km/h over the 40km/h speed limit, respectively). This indicates that static reminder signs add little value over the absence of a school zone reminder sign; the presence of both cues is necessary to fully offset the interruptive effect. This study also highlights the benefit of using exogenous visual cues in traffic signs to capture drivers' attention. These findings have practical implications for the design and use of traffic signs to increase compliance with posted speed limits. PMID:26545011

  11. Effects of Interrupting Children's Sedentary Behaviors With Activity on Metabolic Function: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berrigan, David; Papachristopoulou, Alexia; Brady, Sheila M.; Bernstein, Shanna B.; Brychta, Robert J.; Hattenbach, Jacob D.; Tigner, Ira L.; Courville, Amber B.; Drinkard, Bart E.; Smith, Kevin P.; Rosing, Douglas R.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Chen, Kong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that interrupting sedentary behaviors with activity improves metabolic parameters in adults. Objective: We tested whether interrupting sitting with short, moderate-intensity walking bouts improved glucose tolerance in children. Design: Participants underwent two experimental conditions in random order on different days: continuous sitting for 3 hours or sitting interrupted by walking (3 min of moderate-intensity walking every 30 min). Insulin, C-peptide, glucose, and free fatty acids were measured every 30 minutes for 3 hours during an oral glucose tolerance test. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated from hormone and substrate measurements. Children were given a buffet meal after each condition. Setting: The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health Hatfield Clinical Research Center. Participants: Twenty-eight normal-weight 7–11 year olds participated. Main Outcomes: Patterns of substrate/hormone secretion and AUC, as well as energy intake, were examined by experimental condition. Results: Interrupting sitting resulted in a 32% lower insulin AUC (P < .001), 17% lower C-peptide AUC (P < .001), and 7% lower glucose AUC (P = .018) vs continuous sitting. Mixed model results indicated that insulin (P = .036) and free fatty acid concentrations (P = .009) were significantly lower in the interrupted vs the continuous sitting condition. Lunchtime buffet meal energy intake did not significantly differ between the conditions (975 ± 387 vs 963 ± 309 kcal; P = .85). Conclusions: Interrupting sedentary time with brief moderate-intensity walking improved short-term metabolic function in non-overweight children without increasing subsequent energy intake. These findings suggest that interrupting sedentary behavior may be a promising prevention strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in children. PMID:26312582

  12. Recovering from an interruption: investigating speed-accuracy trade-offs in task resumption behavior.

    PubMed

    Brumby, Duncan P; Cox, Anna L; Back, Jonathan; Gould, Sandy J J

    2013-06-01

    Interruptions are disruptive because they take time to recover from, in the form of a resumption lag, and lead to an increase in the likelihood of errors being made. Despite an abundance of work investigating the effect of interruptions on routine task performance, little is known about whether there is a link between how quickly a task is resumed following an interruption (i.e., the duration of the postinterruption resumption lag) and the likelihood that an error is made. Two experiments are reported in which participants were interrupted by a cognitively demanding secondary mental arithmetic task while working on a routine sequential data-entry task. In Experiment 1 the time-cost of making an error on the primary task was varied between conditions. When errors were associated with a high time-cost penalty, participants made fewer errors and resumed the primary task more slowly than when errors were associated with a low time-cost penalty. In Experiment 2 participants were prohibited from resuming the primary task quickly by a 10-s system lockout period following the completion of the interrupting task. This lockout period led to a significant reduction in resumption errors because the lockout prohibited fast, inaccurate task resumptions. Taken together, our results suggest that longer resumption lags following an interruption are beneficial in terms of reducing the likelihood of errors being made. We discuss the practical implications of how systems might be designed to encourage more reflective task resumption behavior in situations where interruptions are commonplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23795978

  13. Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Mehta, Vivek; Blough, David; Tock, Lauri; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

  14. Response of laying hens to asymmetrical interrupted lighting regimens: physiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Perry, G C

    1990-03-01

    1. There were no significant differences in the mean time of oviposition, distribution of ovipositions over the 24 h or proportion of eggs laid in the modal 8 h when conventionally-lit hens were compared with hens which received interrupted lighting with the same apparent daylength. 2. Intermittently-lit hens performed 25% less feeding activity than conventionally-lit hens, but without a significant reduction in mean food intake. There were genetic differences in response of feeding rate to interrupted lighting. 3. Intermittently-illuminated hens consumed about 20% of their food during the scotoperiods which interrupted the apparent day of a 1.5L:0.5D:10(0.5L:0.5D):4L:8D regimen, although there was significant genetic variation from 10 to 22%. None of the genotypes ate during the 8-h night. 4. Across 4 genotypes neither crop weight nor rate of crop emptying was affected by the lighting treatments, although a heavier mean crop weight under interrupted lighting approached significance in one breed (P less than 0.10). 5. Interrupted lighting did not cause any ocular disorders.

  15. Workflow interruptions, social stressors from supervisor(s) and attention failure in surgery personnel

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Diana; MÜLLER, Patrick; ELFERING, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Workflow interruptions and social stressors among surgery personnel may cause attention failure at work that may increase rumination about work issues during leisure time. The test of these assumptions should contribute to the understanding of exhaustion in surgery personnel and patient safety. Workflow interruptions and supervisor-related social stressors were tested to predict attention failure that predicts work-related rumination during leisure time. One hundred ninety-four theatre nurses, anaesthetists and surgeons from a Swiss University hospital participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participation rate was 58%. Structural equation modelling confirmed both indirect paths from workflow interruptions and social stressors via attention failure on rumination (both p<0.05). An alternative model, assuming the reversed indirect causation—from attention failure via workflow interruptions and social stressors on rumination—could not be empirically supported. Workflow interruptions and social stressors at work are likely to trigger attention failure in surgery personnel. Work redesign and team intervention could help surgery personnel to maintain a high level of quality and patient safety and detach from work related issues to recover during leisure time. PMID:26027706

  16. Prediction of SFL Interruption Performance from the Results of Arc Simulation during High-Current Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Woun-Jea

    2015-09-01

    The design and development procedures of SF6 gas circuit breakers are still largely based on trial and error through testing although the development costs go higher every year. The computation cannot cover the testing satisfactorily because all the real processes arc not taken into account. But the knowledge of the arc behavior and the prediction of the thermal-flow inside the interrupters by numerical simulations are more useful than those by experiments due to the difficulties to obtain physical quantities experimentally and the reduction of computational costs in recent years. In this paper, in order to get further information into the interruption process of a SF6 self-blast interrupter, which is based on a combination of thermal expansion and the arc rotation principle, gas flow simulations with a CFD-arc modeling are performed during the whole switching process such as high-current period, pre-current zero period, and current-zero period. Through the complete work, the pressure-rise and the ramp of the pressure inside the chamber before current zero as well as the post-arc current after current zero should be a good criterion to predict the short-line fault interruption performance of interrupters.

  17. A portable device based on the interrupter technique for measuring airway resistance in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Derman, O; Yaramis, A; Kirbas, G

    2004-01-01

    The interrupter technique for measuring airway resistance is a noninvasive method reported to require minimal subject cooperation. Therefore it has a good potential for use in young children who are not able to cooperate with conventional lung function tests. The interrupter method is based on transient interruption of airflow at the mouth for a brief period during which alveolar pressure equilibrates with mouth pressure. In order to investigate the compliance rate with the interrupter technique in preschool children and to look for associated baseline measures of RINT we performed a study in 214 children of ages from 3 months to 5 years. There was a significant inverse correlation between baserint and age (r = -0.672, p<0.001), and standing height (r = -0.692, p<0.001) in children with recurrent wheezing. However, this was not seen in healthy children. We concluded that the portable interrupter device is very useful in preschool children. The measurements showed that the age and standing height are inversely proportional to the baseline RINT values measured. We reported that these differences would be more apparent in children with a history of recurrent wheezing. PMID:15301301

  18. Figure-of-eight vs. interrupted sternal wire closure of median sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Ramzisham, Abdul-Rahman Mohd; Raflis, Awang Ruzairee; Khairulasri, Mohd Ghani; Ooi Su Min, Joanna; Fikri, Abdullah Mohd; Zamrin, Mohd Dimon

    2009-12-01

    Sternal dehiscence is a rare but devastating complication following median sternotomy for cardiac surgery. The optimal technique for sternal closure is unclear. We conducted this prospective randomized trial to compare the incidence of sternal dehiscence after figure-of-8 and simple interrupted suturing in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Between January 2007 and June 2008, 98 patients had figure-of-8 suturing and 97 had interrupted sutures. The mean age of the patients was 60.9 +/- 7.6 years. The overall sternal dehiscence rate was 8%; 7 cases in the in figure-of-8 group and 9 in the interrupted group. Thirteen patients had no wound infection and healed with conservative treatment. Only 3 patients had sternal dehiscence with infection: 2 with simple interrupted closure and 1 with figure-of-8 sternal closure. There was no significant difference in rates of sternal dehiscence between the 2 groups. It was concluded that figure-of-8 sternal suturing is equally effective as simple interrupted suturing in preventing sternal dehiscence.

  19. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications. PMID:26974642

  20. Knowing before doing: discrimination by rats of a brief interruption of a tone.

    PubMed Central

    Eisler, H

    1984-01-01

    Eight rats' lever presses were reinforced after an interruption in a tone, provided the lever had not been pressed before the tone interruption. After a few sessions, long before the animals reliably refrained from lever pressing before the interruption, the latencies of postinterruption presses (time from the termination of the interruption to the moment of the lever press) dissociated into two classes: short ones for to-be-rewarded presses, and long ones for presses in the other trials, which contained no reward because one or more lever presses had occurred before the interruption. Thus discrimination of impending reinforcement in the current trial occurred before there was evidence of sensitivity to reinforcement in the reinforcement-producing aspect of behavior. This finding is related to Shimp's (1981) contention that the temporal properties of recent behavior are reinforceable, if remembered. The present finding shows that learning to discriminate whether one's behavior has met a contingency, and learning to carry out this behavior, need not go together, implying that memory of temporal properties is probably a necessary but not a sufficient condition for learning the latter. PMID:6736860

  1. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  2. Viral re-suppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive NNRTI-based regimen

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Zoe; Phillips, Andrew; Cohen, Cal; Neuhaus, Jacquie; Baxter, John; Emery, Sean; Hirschel, Bernard; Hullsiek, Kathy Huppler; Stephan, Christoph; Lundgren, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Background Interruption of an NNRTI-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use. Methods Patients in the drug-conservation arm of SMART who interrupted a fully suppressive NNRTI-regimen were evaluated. From 2003, SMART recommended interruption of an NNRTI by: a staggered-interruption, where the NNRTI was stopped before the NRTIs; or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous-interruption of all ARVs was discouraged. Re-suppression rates four-to-eight months after re-initiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within two months of the treatment interruption in a subset (N=141). Results Overall, 601/688 (87.4%) patients who re-started an NNRTI achieved viral re-suppression. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for achieving re-suppression was 1.94 (1.02-3.69) for patients with a staggered-interruption and 3.64 (1.37-9.64) for those with a switched-interruption compared to patients with a simultaneous-interruption. At least one NNRTI-mutation was detected in the virus of 16.4% patients with simultaneous-interruption, 12.5% patients with staggered-interruption and 4.2% patients with switched-interruption. Fewer patients with detectable mutations (i.e. 69.2%) achieved HIV-RNA≤400 copies/mL compared to those in whom no mutations were detected (i.e. 86.7%), p=0.05. Conclusions In patients who interrupt a suppressive NNRTI-regimen, the choice of interruption-strategy may influence re-suppression rates when re-starting a similar regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered- or switched-interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs. PMID:18981767

  3. Electric circuit breaker comprising a plurality of vacuum interrupters simultaneously operated by a common operator

    DOEpatents

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1980-01-01

    This circuit breaker comprises a plurality of a vacuum-type circuit interrupters, each having a movable contact rod. A common operating device for the interrupters comprises a linearly-movable operating member. The interrupters are mounted at one side of the operating member with their movable contact rods extending in a direction generally toward the operating member. Means is provided for mechanically coupling the operating member to the contact rods, and this means comprises a plurality of insulating operating rods, each connected at one end to the operating member and at its opposite end to one of the movable contact rods. The operating rods are of substantially equal length and have longitudinal axes that converge and intersect at substantially a common point.

  4. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chuan; Sun, Di-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Considering the effects that the probability of traffic interruption and the friction between two lanes have on the car-following behaviour, this paper establishes a new two-lane microscopic car-following model. Based on this microscopic model, a new macroscopic model was deduced by the relevance relation of microscopic and macroscopic scale parameters for the two-lane traffic flow. Terms related to lane change are added into the continuity equations and velocity dynamic equations to investigate the lane change rate. Numerical results verify that the proposed model can be efficiently used to reflect the effect of the probability of traffic interruption on the shock, rarefaction wave and lane change behaviour on two-lane freeways. The model has also been applied in reproducing some complex traffic phenomena caused by traffic accident interruption.

  5. Mediated interruptions of anaesthesia providers using predictions of workload from anaesthesia information management system data.

    PubMed

    Epstein, R H; Dexter, F

    2012-09-01

    Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable. PMID:22934862

  6. Mediated interruptions of anaesthesia providers using predictions of workload from anaesthesia information management system data.

    PubMed

    Epstein, R H; Dexter, F

    2012-09-01

    Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable.

  7. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  8. Investigation on X-Radiation for 126 kV Vacuum Interrupters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yingyao

    2016-05-01

    When subjected to high voltages between opened contacts, vacuum interrupters may emit X-rays. In order to ensure that these are of an acceptable level, vacuum interrupters should comply with the limits for X-ray emission and the test procedures to be carried out to verify this based on relevant standards and specifications. In this paper, a comprehensive experimental study has been performed for 126 kV vacuum interrupters used in a transmission system to understand the X-radiation level and its influence by three main parameters, namely applied power-frequency voltage, contact gap and power-frequency voltage conditioning. The radiation instrument is an FJ347 radiometer and the X-radiation dose was measured at the power-frequency test voltage. These tests demonstrated that the X-radiation emission level for a 126 kV vacuum interrupter did not exceed the following: 5 μSv per hour at a rated voltage of 126 kV and 150 μSv per hour at a power-frequency voltage of 230 kV at 1 m distance. The X-radiation dose increased with the applied power-frequency voltage increasing and decreased with the contact gap increasing. The X-radiation dose for 126 kV vacuum interrupters decreased by 57% after the conditioning procedure with a certain power-frequency voltage. During the conditioning procedure, the average value of the X-radiation dose was 4.49 mSv, which means if a professional conditions 180 interrupters per year, it will be safe at the 6.4 m distance. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251002)

  9. The effect of a safe zone on nurse interruptions, distractions, and medication administration errors.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Mindy; Schadewald, Diane; Dietrich, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a health care priority. Yet medical errors are ranked the eighth leading cause of death. Medication administration errors (MAEs) often result from multiple environmental and individual factors. This quality improvement initiative adapted a protocol based on airline industry safety measures to decrease nurse distractions and interruptions during medication administration, with the goal of decreasing MAEs. Sources of distractions, interruptions, and MAEs were measured pre and post intervention. Patient satisfaction scores were measured concurrently. Results of this initiative differ from previous studies in which similar interventions reduced both distractions and MAEs. An unexpected finding was dramatically increased patient satisfaction. PMID:25723837

  10. Influence of the traffic interruption probability on traffic stability in lattice model for two-lane freeway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan; Liu, Changqing; Tuo, Manxian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new lattice model is proposed with the traffic interruption probability term in two-lane traffic system. The linear stability condition and the mKdV equation are derived from linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis by introducing the traffic interruption probability of optimal current for two-lane traffic freeway, respectively. Numerical simulation shows that the traffic interruption probability corresponding to high reaction coefficient can efficiently improve the stability of two-lane traffic flow as traffic interruption occurs with lane changing.

  11. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  12. Distinct mechanisms for the impact of distraction and interruption on working memory in aging

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Interference is known to negatively impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM), an effect that is exacerbated with aging. Here, we explore how distinct sources of interference, i.e., distraction (stimuli to-be-ignored) and interruption (stimuli requiring attention), differentially influence WM in younger and older adults. EEG was recorded while participants engaged in three versions of a delayed-recognition task: no interference, a distracting stimulus, and an interrupting stimulus presented during WM maintenance. Behaviorally, both types of interference negatively impacted WM accuracy in older adults significantly more than younger adults (with a larger deficit for interruptions). N170 latency measures revealed that the degree of processing both distractors and interruptors predicted WM accuracy in both populations. However, while WM impairments could be explained by excessive attention to distractors by older adults (a suppression deficit), impairment induced by interruption were not clearly mediated by age-related increases in attention to interruptors. These results suggest that distinct underlying mechanisms mediate the impact of different types of external interference on WM in normal aging. PMID:20144492

  13. A Comparison of Alternative Approaches to the Analysis of Interrupted Time-Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, John W.; Velicer, Wayne F.

    1985-01-01

    Computer generated data representative of 16 Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) models were used to compare the results of interrupted time-series analysis using: (1) the known model identification, (2) an assumed (l,0,0) model, and (3) an assumed (3,0,0) model as an approximation to the General Transformation approach. (Author/BW)

  14. Effects of undulator interruptions on the performance of high-gain FEL amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.; Pelligrini, C.

    1995-12-31

    The high-gain amplifiers for short wavelength free electron lasers (FELs) such as the LCLS project require a long undulator. The construction of the undulator as well as the FEL operation would become easier if the undulator could be interrupted with drift sections every few gain lengths. We have investigated the influence of such interruption on the FEL performances. Three effects are considered: (i) the diffraction loss, (ii) the phase mismatch and, (iii) the phase smearing due to velocity spread and to dispersion errors. The effect (i) is the loss during the process in which the optical mode in a section of the undulator leaves the undulator, propagates through the free space and then re-enters and re-adjusts in the next section. The effect (ii) is the fact that the phase of the optical beam is displaced with respect to the electrons density modulation for optical FEL interaction due to the slippage of the electron beam in the interruption region. The effect (iii) is the fact that electrons velocity spread, emittance, and dispersion due to misalignment of the quadrupoles used for additional focusing lead to a reduction of the bunching factor. We present an approximate analysis of these effects. When applied to the LCLS parameters, we find that the effect (i) is negligible, the effect (ii) gives a condition on the length of the drift section, and the effects (iii) are small, but could be non-negligible if there are sufficient number of interruptions.

  15. The Effects of Verbal Operant Training and Response Interruption and Redirection on Appropriate and Inappropriate Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Candice L.; Ahearn, William H.; Clark, Kathleen M.; Masalsky, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although…

  16. The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on…

  17. Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals Associated with Left Pulmonary Artery Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Da-Na; Park, Chun Soo; Kim, Young-Hwue; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2016-01-01

    A multistage plan and multidisciplinary approach are the keys to successful repair in patients with pulmonary atresia (PA) with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this article, we present a multidisciplinary approach adopted to treat a patient with PA with VSD and MAPCAs associated with left pulmonary artery interruption. PMID:27733998

  18. Evaluation of the Immediate and Subsequent Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Brittany I.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated 2 3-component multiple-schedule sequences--a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) treatment sequence and a no-interaction control sequence--using a multielement design. With this design, we were able to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on 2 participants' vocal stereotypy. For both participants, RIRD…

  19. The Reasons for the Interruption of Vocational Training in Estonian Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilmann, Mai; Espenberg, Kerly

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of school before achieving any qualification is a serious problem both at an individual and societal level. This study provides an insight into the lives of young people who have dropped out or are at a risk of dropping out of vocational schools in Estonia and gives an overview of the reasons behind the interruption of their studies.…

  20. Preparing School Leaders to Interrupt Racism at Various Levels in Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2015-01-01

    This narrative inquiry seeks to advance the field of educational leadership preparation by exploring ways to interrupt personal, interpersonal, and institutional racism through the senses--ways in which people perceive their experiences and relation to others. Findings suggest that participants engage in actions aligned with revelations from their…

  1. Relational Identity Making on the Professional Landscape as a Substitute Teacher: Interruptions and Continuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driedger-Enns, Lynnette M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, which comes out of a research project exploring teaching as intellectual work, focuses specifically on a young woman who worked as a substitute teacher after she graduated from a two-year teacher education program at her local university. For Penny, substitute teaching was an interruption as she shaped a professional life moving…

  2. A gunner model for an AAA tracking task with interrupted observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. F.; Wei, K. C.; Vikmanis, M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of modeling a trained human operator's tracking performance in an anti-aircraft system under various display blanking conditions is discussed. The input to the gunner is the observable tracking error subjected to repeated interruptions (blanking). A simple and effective gunner model was developed. The effect of blanking on the gunner's tracking performance is approached via modeling the observer and controller gains.

  3. 33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power interruption: Type I and II devices. 159.89 Section 159.89 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.89...

  4. The Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy: A Review of Research and Discussion of Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Grunsell, Julie

    2001-01-01

    A review of 10 studies that utilize the behavior chain interruption strategy (BCIS) to teach communication skills to individuals with severe disabilities found that BCIS has been successfully applied to individuals across a wide range of ages and levels of disability, including learners with multiple disabilities. Generalization concerns are…

  5. Pardon the Interruption: Enhancing Communication Skills for Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayes, Daniel A.; Heath, Amy K.; Williams, Carol; Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides teachers and parents with a description of the behavior chain interruption strategy (BCIS), an evidence-based intervention for increasing requesting behaviors in individuals with moderate to severe disabilities. A review of the relevant literature is provided, as well as a description of the behavioral principles that…

  6. Interruption in Conversational Dyads between Mothers and Their Preschool Stuttering and Nonstuttering Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Cheryl L.; Ryan, Bruce

    This study analyzed overlap (or interruption behavior) in conversations between mothers and their stuttering children to determine how overlap relates to fluency. Subjects for the study, which is part of the Genesis of Stuttering Project, were 20 preschool stuttering children and their mothers. Three forms of overlap were examined: simultaneous…

  7. Tracing My Research on Parent Engagement: Working to Interrupt the Story of School as Protectorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushor, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author makes visible and works to interrupt the story of school as "protectorate." In examining, within this dominant narrative, educators' taken-for-granted assumptions about parents' positioning in relation to the landscape of school, the author presents research on parent engagement that provides those within the field of…

  8. Mitigating Disruptive Effects of Interruptions through Training: What Needs to Be Practiced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Monk, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on…

  9. The Antecedents and Consequences of Interruptions in Formal Schooling: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; Barker, Susan C.

    The document presents a literature review, providing a summary of existing research findings relevant to all types of schooling interruptions. The section on the noncollege interruptee examines primary and secondary schooling: the types of programs available, characteristics of returnees, probabilities of program completion, and effect of…

  10. Proximal interruption of a main pulmonary artery with transpleural collateral vessels: CT and MR appearances.

    PubMed

    Morgan, P W; Foley, D W; Erickson, S J

    1991-01-01

    The plain chest radiographic, CT, and MR findings in a 31-year-old woman with proximal interruption of the right main pulmonary artery and transpleural collaterals are presented. The diagnosis can be established by both dynamic CT and MR. Intercostal collaterals and their transpleural connections are best demonstrated with dynamic CT.

  11. RTtxGap: An android radiobiological tool for compensation of radiotherapy treatment interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, A. L.; Mohamad, M.; Abdullah, R.; Bhavaraju, V. M. K.; Nik Idris, N. R.

    2016-03-01

    Treatment interruption is not uncommon in radiotherapy. Common reasons for treatment interruption include machine breakdown, holidays and patient severe radiation reactions. Here RTtxGap, an Android application to assist calculations of compensation for treatment gap, is reported. It uses linear quadratic (LQ) model to calculate the biological effective dose (BED) that is used to solve for treatment gap compensations. Solutions are calculated using BED equation, with consideration for tissue proliferation. The accuracy of results has been verified using LQL Equiv software to be accurate within 1%. Five treatment interruption examples were used to illustrate the capability of the software to calculate the treatment compensation schedules. Solving these examples also illustrates the general consensus regarding compensating for unscheduled treatment interruptions, which ultimately involves balancing the BEDs of tumour and organ at risk. In addition to compensation for treatment gap, RTtxGap can also be used to calculate equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction (EQD2), to modify treatment schedule and to calculate alternative dose prescriptions having the same isoeffect.

  12. Reaching ELLs at Risk: Instruction for Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCapua, Andrea; Marshall, Helaine W.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is receiving unprecedented numbers of immigrants, with a parallel increase in the number of English-language learners (ELLs) entering our schools. Many of these ELLs are students with limited or interrupted formal education who face great challenges, especially at the secondary level where they have little time to master academic…

  13. Timing for distribution and interrupt control for the TOPAZ Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Enomoto, R.; Kawabata, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Imanishi, A.; Ishii, T.; Maruyama, K.; Masuda, H.; Okumo, H.; Ukai, K.

    1987-02-01

    In order to provide a standardized control for the data acquisition system for the TOPAZ detector, a Timing Server/Receiver scheme was developed. The entire system is under control of the Interrupt Control Section, which manages an integral operation of the data acquisition system in the FASTBUS environment.

  14. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the flow path near the filter. (6) Teflon sample filter, as specified in section 6 of 40 CFR part 50... Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II... interruptions. (a) Overview. (1) This test procedure is designed to test certain performance parameters of...

  15. The Effects of Matched Stimulation and Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica J.; Miguel, Caio F.; Fernand, Jonathan K.; LaBrie, Jillian K.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

  16. Further Evaluation of Response Interruption and Redirection as Treatment for Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Erin N.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S.; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)--motor RIRD and vocal RIRD--were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were…

  17. Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: A Systematic Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M.; Sidener, David W.; Progar, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD…

  18. 78 FR 73562 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act... Leviton. 77 FR 66080 (Nov. 1, 2012). The enforcement complaint alleged that domestic respondent American... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final...

  19. 78 FR 47749 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...., Inc., of Melville, New York (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint alleged... orders based on an enforcement complaint filed by Leviton. 77 FR 66080 (Nov. 1, 2012). The enforcement... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same AGENCY: U.S....

  20. Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Search Is Independent of Age-Related Improvements in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Alejandro; Porporino, Mafalda; Burack, Jacob A.; Enns, James T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 7-19-year-olds performed an interrupted visual search task in two experiments. Our question was whether the tendency to respond within 500 ms after a second glimpse of a display (the "rapid resumption" effect ["Psychological Science", 16 (2005) 684-688]) would increase with age in the same way as overall search efficiency. The…

  1. Computer assessment of indirect insight during an airflow interrupter maneuver of breathing.

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Ireneusz

    2013-06-01

    The paper answers the questions if it is possible to conclude in objective way on more (than one -Rint - in a classical IT) number of parameters from the time domain post-interrupter signals during the occlusional measurement of respiratory mechanics and also verifies what accuracy can be achieved in such attempt. To obtain reported results, the time-domain enhanced interrupter technique (TD-EIT) was developed in this paper using computer simulations. Three-stage scheme of work was assumed in the project. First, the quality of the model identification was assessed for various combinations of pressure and flow signals recorded during the interruption. Then, the correlation between the working characteristics of the interrupter valve and the precision of the parameter estimation were assessed for the TD-EIT algorithm. Finally, a verification experiment by forward-inverse modeling was organized, in which the mechanical characteristics of a complex model were mapped with reduced analogs and with the use of neural networks for three typical modes: 'Normal state', 'Airway constriction' and 'Cheeks supported'. Obtained results show that to became effective in time-domain post-interrupter data exploration, both pressure and flow signals should be used in assessment of respiratory mechanics, taken in a range of at least 100ms and when both slopes (valve closing and opening) of quasi-step excitation are included. What is more, the faster the valve the smaller error of parameter estimation in proposed TD-EIT was observed, and this uncertainty importantly falls down for the length of time window exceeding the limit of 100ms. The pioneering use of neural network for mapping the mechanical properties of lungs with the use of interrupter experiment methodology proves that it is possible to conclude about more (than one) number of parameters characterizing the complex system and that this insight is biased with the error not exceeding of 10%; only peripheral properties are

  2. Measuring the relationship between interruptions, multitasking and prescribing errors in an emergency department: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Raban, Magdalena Z; Walter, Scott R; Douglas, Heather E; Strumpman, Dana; Mackenzie, John; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interruptions and multitasking are frequent in clinical settings, and have been shown in the cognitive psychology literature to affect performance, increasing the risk of error. However, comparatively less is known about their impact on errors in clinical work. This study will assess the relationship between prescribing errors, interruptions and multitasking in an emergency department (ED) using direct observations and chart review. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in an ED of a 440-bed teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Doctors will be shadowed at proximity by observers for 2 h time intervals while they are working on day shift (between 0800 and 1800). Time stamped data on tasks, interruptions and multitasking will be recorded on a handheld computer using the validated Work Observation Method by Activity Timing (WOMBAT) tool. The prompts leading to interruptions and multitasking will also be recorded. When doctors prescribe medication, type of chart and chart sections written on, along with the patient's medical record number (MRN) will be recorded. A clinical pharmacist will access patient records and assess the medication orders for prescribing errors. The prescribing error rate will be calculated per prescribing task and is defined as the number of errors divided by the number of medication orders written during the prescribing task. The association between prescribing error rates, and rates of prompts, interruptions and multitasking will be assessed using statistical modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the hospital research ethics committee. Eligible doctors will be provided with written information sheets and written consent will be obtained if they agree to participate. Doctor details and MRNs will be kept separate from the data on prescribing errors, and will not appear in the final data set for analysis. Study results will be disseminated in publications and feedback to the ED. PMID

  3. 76 FR 17670 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason...

  4. 76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same. The...

  5. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same. The...

  6. Interrupted Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWell, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Article described a project in the electronic music idiom for use in the intermediate grades that was different, that involved no complicated or expensive apparatus, and that showed an interesting relationship between measurement and rhythm. (Author/RK)

  7. Voluntary interruption of pregnancy in Europe: medico-legal issues and ethical approach to the regulation.

    PubMed

    Molinelli, A; Picchioni, D M; Celesti, R

    2005-04-01

    The legislative criteria of the various European countries, as far as voluntary interruption of pregnancy is concerned, differ in the levels of severity employed by the law of the single nations. The authors analyze the legislation of some of European countries and, as a result, they identify countries that may be defined as more tolerant and others where the law is more restrictive. Italy is to be dealt with separately, because its legislation as regards this subject presents a greater interpretative ambiguity. In the end they analyze religious attitudes underlying the laws on voluntary interruption of pregnancy, because of the suspicion that the teachings of both Catholic and Protestant theology have influenced the differences in the quality of the law in force as regards termination of pregnancy is certainly well-grounded, and on the other hand the philosophy of law certainly owes its meditation both to theology and to the teachings of the Catholic Church.

  8. Cyst and encystment in protozoan parasites: optimal targets for new life-cycle interrupting strategies?

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Díaz, Hugo; Carrero, Julio César; Argüello-García, Raúl; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Certain protozoan parasites use survival strategies to reside outside the host such as the formation of cysts. This dormant and resistant stage results from the complex process of encystment that involves diverse molecular and cellular modifications. The stimuli and changes associated with cyst biogenesis are a matter of ongoing studies in human and animal protozoan parasites such as amoeba and Giardia species because blocking every step in the encystment pathway should, in theory, interrupt their life cycles. The present review thoroughly examines this essential process in those protozoan parasites and discusses the possibility of using that information to develop new kinds of anti-parasite specific and life cycle-interrupting drugs, aimed at holding back the dissemination of these infections.

  9. On-line corrosion rate measurements using current interrupted galvanostatic polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Martinchek, G.A.; Yaffe, M.R.

    1997-12-01

    A corrosion rate monitoring device incorporating current interrupt IR compensation has been developed. The device is based on galvanostatic cell control with the current adjusted in software to give a fixed polarization voltage. In effect, the device acts as a potentiostat, while gaining significant advantages due to its galvanostatic cell control. The electronic circuitry and control algorithm of the device is outlined. The theory of the basic measurement and of current interrupt IR compensation are discussed. A prototype unit was built and was used to measure results on model cells built from resistors and capacitors. The results predict field performance superior to existing devices when measuring poorly conductive solutions. The device is predicted to measure 75 mpy (1.9 mm/year) of corrosion in 34.5 {micro}S water and 0.75 mpy (19 {micro}m/year) in 0.35 {micro}S water.

  10. Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-02-16

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

  11. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOEpatents

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  12. Voluntary interruption of pregnancy in Europe: medico-legal issues and ethical approach to the regulation.

    PubMed

    Molinelli, A; Picchioni, D M; Celesti, R

    2005-04-01

    The legislative criteria of the various European countries, as far as voluntary interruption of pregnancy is concerned, differ in the levels of severity employed by the law of the single nations. The authors analyze the legislation of some of European countries and, as a result, they identify countries that may be defined as more tolerant and others where the law is more restrictive. Italy is to be dealt with separately, because its legislation as regards this subject presents a greater interpretative ambiguity. In the end they analyze religious attitudes underlying the laws on voluntary interruption of pregnancy, because of the suspicion that the teachings of both Catholic and Protestant theology have influenced the differences in the quality of the law in force as regards termination of pregnancy is certainly well-grounded, and on the other hand the philosophy of law certainly owes its meditation both to theology and to the teachings of the Catholic Church. PMID:15940085

  13. Reduction of a linear complex model for respiratory system during Airflow Interruption.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Ireneusz; Mroczka, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents methodology of a complex model reduction to its simpler version - an identifiable inverse model. Its main tool is a numerical procedure of sensitivity analysis (structural and parametric) applied to the forward linear equivalent designed for the conditions of interrupter experiment. Final result - the reduced analog for the interrupter technique is especially worth of notice as it fills a major gap in occlusional measurements, which typically use simple, one- or two-element physical representations. Proposed electrical reduced circuit, being structural combination of resistive, inertial and elastic properties, can be perceived as a candidate for reliable reconstruction and quantification (in the time and frequency domain) of dynamical behavior of the respiratory system in response to a quasi-step excitation by valve closure.

  14. Safety Profile of Nifurtimox and Treatment Interruption for Chronic Chagas Disease in Colombian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Mario Javier; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Nifurtimox (NFX) is one of the approved drugs used to treat Chagas disease. Safety profile studies and models on risk factors for treatment interruption in adults are scarce in Latin America. This study evaluated retrospectively the medical records of adult Chagas disease patients treated with NFX between 2007 and 2012 in Bogotá, Colombia. An accelerated failure time model was used, and associations were expressed as time ratio (TR). In total, 76 adult patients with NFX were included: 60 (79.0%) completed 60 days of treatment, 61 (80.3%) presented adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and 16 (21.0%) required treatment interruption. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (23.7%), nauseas (18.4%), sleep disturbances (18.4%), loss of appetite (17.1%), and temporary loss of memory (15.2%). ADRs were classified as mild (64.5%), moderate (30.4%), and severe (5.1%). Time of treatment was significantly longer when presenting ≤ 3 ADRs (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04–3.03), presence of non-severe ADRs (TR: 6.52; 95% CI: 3.24–13.1), doses of NFX ≤ 8 mg/kg/day (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.90–3.49), and age < 48 years (TR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.90–2.74). Treatment with NFX in adults caused a high frequency of ADRs, but most of the cases were mild and did not require treatment interruption. Severity and number of ADRs were the main predictors for treatment interruption. PMID:26392162

  15. A re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Buttà, Carmelo; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Giarrusso, Lucia; Miceli, Giuseppe; Cuttitta, Francesco; La Rosa, Donata; Licata, Giuseppe; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia is the most common form of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. It starts frequently with a supraventricular ectopic beat that, on finding the fast pathway in refractory period, travels in the slow pathway as to appear as a prolongation of the PR interval on the ECG. In this study, we show a singular case of a common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.

  16. Development of Resistance during Antimicrobial Therapy Caused by Insertion Sequence Interruption of Porin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Allés, Santiago; Benedí, Vicente J.; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Pascual, Álvaro; Aguilar, Alicia; Tomás, Juan M.; Albertí, Sebastián

    1999-01-01

    We have demonstrated by using an in vitro approach that interruption of the OmpK36 porin gene by insertion sequences (ISs) is a common type of mutation that causes loss of porin expression and increased resistance to cefoxitin in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This mechanism also operates in vivo: of 13 porin-deficient cefoxitin-resistant clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, 4 presented ISs in their ompK36 gene. PMID:10103203

  17. Response interruption and redirection for vocal stereotypy in children with autism: a systematic replication.

    PubMed

    Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M; Sidener, David W; Progar, Patrick R

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD produced substantial decreases in vocal stereotypy. Limitations of this study were that behavior reduction did not generalize to novel settings or with novel instructors and that appropriate vocalizations did not improve.

  18. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Onbas, Omer Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-06-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT.

  19. Interrupting Nazarov Reaction with Different Trapping Modality: Utilizing Potassium Alkynyltrifluoroborate as a σ-Nucleophile.

    PubMed

    William, Ronny; Wang, Siming; Mallick, Asadulla; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2016-09-16

    The putative oxyallyl cation intermediate generated following Nazarov cyclization of dienone has been successfully intercepted with potassium alkynyltrifluoroborates which act as σ-nucleophiles in the presence of BF3·Et2O. This new trapping modality allowed unprecedented introduction of an alkynyl moiety to the cyclopentanone framework by means of an interrupted Nazarov reaction. The α-alkynyl cyclopentanone product can be further transformed into an array of densely functionalized cyclic compounds. PMID:27603230

  20. 1,4-Diketones from Cross-Conjugated Dienones: Potassium Permanganate-Interrupted Nazarov Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schatz, Devon J; West, Frederick G

    2015-08-17

    A domino potassium permanganate-interrupted Nazarov reaction to yield syn-2,3-disubstituted 1,4-diketones via a decarbonylative cleavage of the Nazarov oxyallyl intermediate, believed to be without precedent, is presented. This process allows syn substituents to be established stereospecifically on the 2-carbon bridge connecting the ketone carbonyl carbons, and the formation of one carbon-carbon and two carbon-oxygen bonds. Two carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in this process. PMID:26138361

  1. Interruption of the Calvin cycle inhibits the repair of Photosystem II from photodamage.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shunichi; Murata, Norio

    2005-07-15

    In photosynthetic organisms, impairment of the activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle enhances the extent of photoinactivation of Photosystem II (PSII). We investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for this phenomenon in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. When the Calvin cycle was interrupted by glycolaldehyde, which is known to inhibit phosphoribulokinase, the extent of photoinactivation of PSII was enhanced. The effect of glycolaldehyde was very similar to that of chloramphenicol, which inhibits protein synthesis de novo in chloroplasts. The interruption of the Calvin cycle by the introduction of a missense mutation into the gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) also enhanced the extent of photoinactivation of PSII. In such mutant 10-6C cells, neither glycolaldehyde nor chloramphenicol has any additional effect on photoinactivation. When wild-type cells were incubated under weak light after photodamage to PSII, the activity of PSII recovered gradually and reached a level close to the initial level. However, recovery was inhibited in wild-type cells by glycolaldehyde and was also inhibited in 10-6C cells. Radioactive labelling and Northern blotting demonstrated that the interruption of the Calvin cycle suppressed the synthesis de novo of chloroplast proteins, such as the D1 and D2 proteins, but did not affect the levels of psbA and psbD mRNAs. Our results suggest that the photoinactivation of PSII that is associated with the interruption of the Calvin cycle is attributable primarily to the inhibition of the protein synthesis-dependent repair of PSII at the level of translation in chloroplasts.

  2. Safety Profile of Nifurtimox and Treatment Interruption for Chronic Chagas Disease in Colombian Adults.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Mario Javier; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Nifurtimox (NFX) is one of the approved drugs used to treat Chagas disease. Safety profile studies and models on risk factors for treatment interruption in adults are scarce in Latin America. This study evaluated retrospectively the medical records of adult Chagas disease patients treated with NFX between 2007 and 2012 in Bogotá, Colombia. An accelerated failure time model was used, and associations were expressed as time ratio (TR). In total, 76 adult patients with NFX were included: 60 (79.0%) completed 60 days of treatment, 61 (80.3%) presented adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and 16 (21.0%) required treatment interruption. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (23.7%), nauseas (18.4%), sleep disturbances (18.4%), loss of appetite (17.1%), and temporary loss of memory (15.2%). ADRs were classified as mild (64.5%), moderate (30.4%), and severe (5.1%). Time of treatment was significantly longer when presenting ≤ 3 ADRs (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04-3.03), presence of non-severe ADRs (TR: 6.52; 95% CI: 3.24-13.1), doses of NFX ≤ 8 mg/kg/day (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.90-3.49), and age < 48 years (TR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.90-2.74). Treatment with NFX in adults caused a high frequency of ADRs, but most of the cases were mild and did not require treatment interruption. Severity and number of ADRs were the main predictors for treatment interruption. PMID:26392162

  3. Fully kinetic model of breakdown during sheath expansion after interruption of vacuum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Haoran; Zhou, Zhipeng; Tian, Yunbo; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    Research on sheath expansion is critical to the understanding of the dielectric recovery process in a vacuum interrupter after interruption of vacuum arcs. In this paper, we investigated how residual plasma affects breakdown in the sheath expansion period after the current zero. To simulate sheath expansion and breakdown, we developed a fully kinetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision model with one spatial dimension and three velocity dimensions. The model accounted for various collisions, including ionization, excitation, elastic collisions, charge exchange, and momentum exchange, and we added an external circuit to the model to make the calculations self-consistent. The existence of metal vapor slowed the sheath expansion in the gap and caused high electric field formation in front of the cathode surface. The initial residual plasma, which was at sufficiently low density, seemed to have a limited impact on breakdown, and the metal vapor dominated the breakdown in this case. Additionally, the breakdown probability was sensitive to the initial plasma density if the value exceeded a specific threshold, and plasma at sufficiently high density could mean that breakdown would occur more easily. We found that if the simulation does not take the residual plasma into account, it could overestimate the critical value of the metal vapor density, which is always used to describe the boundary of breakdown after interruption of vacuum arcs. We discussed the breakdown mechanism in sheath expansion, and the breakdown is determined by a combination of metal vapor, residual plasma, and the electric field in front of the cathode surface.

  4. HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Johannes F.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Bar-On, Yotam; Kreider, Edward F.; Lu, Ching-Lan; Lorenzi, Julio C. C.; Feldmann, Anna; Braunschweig, Malte; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago; Shimeliovich, Irina; Patel, Roshni; Burke, Leah; Cohen, Yehuda Z.; Hadrigan, Sonya; Settler, Allison; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; West, Anthony P.; Juelg, Boris; Keler, Tibor; Hawthorne, Thomas; Zingman, Barry; Gulick, Roy M.; Pfeifer, Nico; Learn, Gerald H.; Seaman, Michael S.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Klein, Florian; Schlesinger, Sarah J.; Walker, Bruce D.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Caskey, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals leads to rapid viral rebound. Here we report the results of a phase IIa open label clinical trial evaluating 3BNC117, a broad and potent neutralizing antibody (bNAb) against the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 Env1, in the setting of analytical treatment interruption in 13 HIV-1-infected individuals. Participants with 3BNC117-sensitive virus outgrowth cultures were enrolled. Two or four 30 mg kg−1 infusions of 3BNC117, separated by 3 or 2 weeks, respectively, are generally well tolerated. Infusions are associated with a delay in viral rebound for 5–9 weeks after two infusions, and up to 19 weeks after four infusions, or an average of 6.7 and 9.9 weeks respectively, compared with 2.6 weeks for historical controls (P < 0.00001). Rebound viruses arise predominantly from a single provirus. In most individuals, emerging viruses show increased resistance, indicating escape. However, 30% of participants remained suppressed until antibody concentrations waned below 20 μg ml−1, and the viruses emerging in all but one of these individuals showed no apparent resistance to 3BCN117, suggesting failure to escape over a period of 9–19 weeks. We conclude that administration of 3BNC117 exerts strong selective pressure on HIV-1 emerging from latent reservoirs during analytical treatment interruption in humans. PMID:27338952

  5. Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2014-01-01

    Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability. PMID:25148297

  6. Enhancing the Simulation Speed of Sensor Network Applications by Asynchronization of Interrupt Service Routines

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Hyunwoo; Woo, Duk-Kyun; Kim, Hyungshin

    2013-01-01

    Sensor network simulations require high fidelity and timing accuracy to be used as an implementation and evaluation tool. The cycle-accurate and instruction-level simulator is the known solution for these purposes. However, this type of simulation incurs a high computation cost since it has to model not only the instruction level behavior but also the synchronization between multiple sensors for their causality. This paper presents a novel technique that exploits asynchronous simulations of interrupt service routines (ISR). We can avoid the synchronization overheads when the interrupt service routines are simulated without preemption. If the causality errors occur, we devise a rollback procedure to restore the original synchronized simulation. This concept can be extended to any instruction-level sensor network simulator. Evaluation results show our method can enhance the simulation speed up to 52% in the case of our experiments. For applications with longer interrupt service routines and smaller number of preemptions, the speedup becomes greater. In addition, our simulator is 2 to 11 times faster than the well-known sensor network simulator. PMID:23966200

  7. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Endale; Bermudez-Cañete, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion. PMID:24701089

  8. Role of contextual cues on the perception of spectrally reduced interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Patro, Chhayakanta; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2016-08-01

    Understanding speech within an auditory scene is constantly challenged by interfering noise in suboptimal listening environments when noise hinders the continuity of the speech stream. In such instances, a typical auditory-cognitive system perceptually integrates available speech information and "fills in" missing information in the light of semantic context. However, individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) find it difficult and effortful to understand interrupted speech compared to their normal hearing counterparts. This inefficiency in perceptual integration of speech could be attributed to further degradations in the spectral-temporal domain imposed by CIs making it difficult to utilize the contextual evidence effectively. To address these issues, 20 normal hearing adults listened to speech that was spectrally reduced and spectrally reduced interrupted in a manner similar to CI processing. The Revised Speech Perception in Noise test, which includes contextually rich and contextually poor sentences, was used to evaluate the influence of semantic context on speech perception. Results indicated that listeners benefited more from semantic context when they listened to spectrally reduced speech alone. For the spectrally reduced interrupted speech, contextual information was not as helpful under significant spectral reductions, but became beneficial as the spectral resolution improved. These results suggest top-down processing facilitates speech perception up to a point, and it fails to facilitate speech understanding when the speech signals are significantly degraded. PMID:27586760

  9. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Bentancor, Ana; Hernández, Ana Laura; Godoy, Yamile; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1) historical background; 2) implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3) functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices. PMID:27384969

  10. HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Johannes F; Horwitz, Joshua A; Bar-On, Yotam; Kreider, Edward F; Lu, Ching-Lan; Lorenzi, Julio C C; Feldmann, Anna; Braunschweig, Malte; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago; Shimeliovich, Irina; Patel, Roshni; Burke, Leah; Cohen, Yehuda Z; Hadrigan, Sonya; Settler, Allison; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; West, Anthony P; Juelg, Boris; Keler, Tibor; Hawthorne, Thomas; Zingman, Barry; Gulick, Roy M; Pfeifer, Nico; Learn, Gerald H; Seaman, Michael S; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Klein, Florian; Schlesinger, Sarah J; Walker, Bruce D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-07-28

    Interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals leads to rapid viral rebound. Here we report the results of a phase IIa open label clinical trial evaluating 3BNC117,a broad and potent neutralizing antibody against the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 Env protein, during analytical treatment interruption in 13 HIV-1-infected individuals. Participants with 3BNC117-sensitive virus outgrowth cultures were enrolled. Results show that two or four 30 mg kg(-1) 3BNC117 infusions,separated by 3 or 2 weeks, respectively, are generally well tolerated.Infusions are associated with a delay in viral rebound of 5-9 weeks after two infusions, and up to 19 weeks after four infusions, or an average of 6.7 and 9.9 weeks, respectively, compared with 2.6 weeks for historical controls (P < 0.00001). Rebound viruses arise predominantly from a single provirus. In most individuals,emerging viruses show increased resistance, indicating escape.However, 30% of participants remained suppressed until antibody concentrations waned below 20 μg ml(-1), and the viruses emerging in all but one of these individuals showed no apparent resistance to 3BCN117, suggesting failure to escape over a period of 9-19 weeks.We conclude that the administration of 3BNC117 exerts strong selective pressure on HIV-1 emerging from latent reservoirs during analytical treatment interruption in humans. PMID:27338952

  11. Interrupted versus uninterrupted flow: a safety propensity index for driver behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamdar, Samer H; Schorr, Justin

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a quantitative safety propensity index (SPI) that captures the overall propensity of a given surrounding environment to cause unsafe driving. The study is conducted in two different flow conditions: interrupted and uninterrupted. Using structural modeling techniques, the index can be estimated from observed geometric, weather-related, vehicular, driver-related, and traffic-related characteristics. To illustrate the adopted approach, extensive effort was conducted to "sync" data from different sources including the Virginia Department of Transportation and the FARS/GES crash data libraries. The Virginia Department of Transportation provided traffic data for 10 freeway sections with interrupted flow and 9 highway sections with interrupted flow in the Northern Virginia area, USA. Two different structural equations models were found allowing insights to the safety impact of different surrounding elements/dimensions. The SPI provides (a) a basis for quantifying the effects of the aforementioned characteristics on safety, (b) a basis for comparing the differences between the factors affecting safety in different flow scenarios and (c) ranking the corresponding roadway sections/locations for improved safety performance. The framework and methodology used to develop this index have the potential to support safety policy analysis and decision making.

  12. Children's Avoidance of Interrupting Others' Activities in Requesting Help: Cultural Aspects of Considerateness.

    PubMed

    Ruvalcaba, Omar; Rogoff, Barbara; López, Angélica; Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Gutiérrez, Kris

    2015-01-01

    To be able to collaborate skillfully, people need to coordinate well with others, taking into account how their actions fit with those of their partners. This is a key aspect of an approach to learning called Learning by Observing and Pitching In, hypothesized to be common in many Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. This chapter considers cultural values that emphasize considerateness and awareness of how one's actions impact others such as the Mexican cultural value of respeto and cultural differences in children's efforts to avoid interrupting others' activity. US Mexican-heritage children showed more evidence of avoiding interrupting the ongoing activity of an adult when they requested help, compared with European American children from families with extensive schooling experience. Most of the Mexican-heritage children's requests for help that gave evidence of avoiding interruption were made nonverbally, which may facilitate unobtrusive requests. There were no significant differences among children from two US Mexican-heritage backgrounds varying in experience with Western schooling and likely experience with Indigenous-American practices, suggesting that the Mexican cultural value of respeto and associated considerateness is widespread even among US Mexican-heritage families with extensive experience with Western schooling and life in the United States.

  13. Role of contextual cues on the perception of spectrally reduced interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Patro, Chhayakanta; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2016-08-01

    Understanding speech within an auditory scene is constantly challenged by interfering noise in suboptimal listening environments when noise hinders the continuity of the speech stream. In such instances, a typical auditory-cognitive system perceptually integrates available speech information and "fills in" missing information in the light of semantic context. However, individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) find it difficult and effortful to understand interrupted speech compared to their normal hearing counterparts. This inefficiency in perceptual integration of speech could be attributed to further degradations in the spectral-temporal domain imposed by CIs making it difficult to utilize the contextual evidence effectively. To address these issues, 20 normal hearing adults listened to speech that was spectrally reduced and spectrally reduced interrupted in a manner similar to CI processing. The Revised Speech Perception in Noise test, which includes contextually rich and contextually poor sentences, was used to evaluate the influence of semantic context on speech perception. Results indicated that listeners benefited more from semantic context when they listened to spectrally reduced speech alone. For the spectrally reduced interrupted speech, contextual information was not as helpful under significant spectral reductions, but became beneficial as the spectral resolution improved. These results suggest top-down processing facilitates speech perception up to a point, and it fails to facilitate speech understanding when the speech signals are significantly degraded.

  14. Using Survival Analysis to Identify Risk Factors for Treatment Interruption among New and Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Masini, Enos O.; Mansour, Omar; Speer, Clare E.; Addona, Vittorio; Hanson, Christy L.; Sitienei, Joseph K.; Kipruto, Hillary K.; Githiomi, Martin Muhingo; Mungai, Brenda Nyambura

    2016-01-01

    Despite high tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate, treatment adherence is one of the major obstacles to tuberculosis control in Kenya. Our objective was to identify patient-related factors that were associated with time to TB treatment interruption and the geographic distribution of the risk of treatment interruption by county. Data of new and retreatment patients registered in TIBU, a Kenyan national case-based electronic data recording system, between 2013 and 2014 was obtained. Kaplan-Meier curves and log rank tests were used to assess the adherence patterns. Mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards modeling was used for multivariate analysis. Records from 90,170 patients were included in the study. The cumulative incidence of treatment interruption was 4.5% for new patients, and 8.5% for retreatment patients. The risk of treatment interruption was highest during the intensive phase of treatment. Having previously been lost to follow-up was the greatest independent risk factor for treatment interruption (HR: 4.79 [3.99, 5.75]), followed by being HIV-positive not on ART (HR: 1.96 [1.70, 2.26]) and TB relapse (HR: 1.70 [1.44, 2.00]). Male and underweight patients had high risks of treatment interruption (HR: 1.46 [1.35, 1.58]; 1.11 [1.03, 1.20], respectively). High rates of treatment interruption were observed in counties in the central part of Kenya while counties in the northeast had the lowest risk of treatment interruption. A better understanding of treatment interruption risk factors is necessary to improve adherence to treatment. Interventions should focus on patients during the intensive phase, patients who have previously been lost to follow-up, and promotion of integrated TB and HIV services among public and private facilities. PMID:27706230

  15. Interruption of a dry-type transformer in no-load by a vacuum circuit-breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenheuvel, W. M. C.; Daalder, J. E.; Boone, M. J. M.; Wilmes, L. A. H.

    1983-08-01

    Overvoltages generated during interruption of a dry type delta-star connected transformer in no load by a vacuum breaker were studied. During interruption of inrush current 37% of the phase-to-ground overvoltages were 5 pu, and 6% 7 pu. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results using Boyle's model shows no discrepancy for inrush currents and clean overvoltages from the steady-state interruption. Overvoltages due to repetitive reignitions (not covered by Boyle's model) are higher than the calculated values during steady-state switching.

  16. Asymptomatic Interrupted Aortic Arch, Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation, and Bicuspid Aortic Valve in a 76-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Tajdini, Masih; Sardari, Akram; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil; Baradaran, Abdolvahab; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital abnormality with a high infancy mortality rate. The principal finding is loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. Because of the high mortality rate in infancy, interrupted aortic arch is very rare among adults. In this report, we describe the case of a 76-year-old woman with asymptomatic interrupted aortic arch, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and bicuspid aortic valve. To our knowledge, she is the oldest patient ever reported with this possibly unique combination of pathologic conditions. In addition to reporting her case, we review the relevant medical literature. PMID:27777532

  17. Mitigating errors caused by interruptions during medication verification and administration: interventions in a simulated ambulatory chemotherapy setting

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Varuna; Koczmara, Christine; Savage, Pamela; Trip, Katherine; Stewart, Janice; McCurdie, Tara; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Trbovich, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses are frequently interrupted during medication verification and administration; however, few interventions exist to mitigate resulting errors, and the impact of these interventions on medication safety is poorly understood. Objective The study objectives were to (A) assess the effects of interruptions on medication verification and administration errors, and (B) design and test the effectiveness of targeted interventions at reducing these errors. Methods The study focused on medication verification and administration in an ambulatory chemotherapy setting. A simulation laboratory experiment was conducted to determine interruption-related error rates during specific medication verification and administration tasks. Interventions to reduce these errors were developed through a participatory design process, and their error reduction effectiveness was assessed through a postintervention experiment. Results Significantly more nurses committed medication errors when interrupted than when uninterrupted. With use of interventions when interrupted, significantly fewer nurses made errors in verifying medication volumes contained in syringes (16/18; 89% preintervention error rate vs 11/19; 58% postintervention error rate; p=0.038; Fisher's exact test) and programmed in ambulatory pumps (17/18; 94% preintervention vs 11/19; 58% postintervention; p=0.012). The rate of error commission significantly decreased with use of interventions when interrupted during intravenous push (16/18; 89% preintervention vs 6/19; 32% postintervention; p=0.017) and pump programming (7/18; 39% preintervention vs 1/19; 5% postintervention; p=0.017). No statistically significant differences were observed for other medication verification tasks. Conclusions Interruptions can lead to medication verification and administration errors. Interventions were highly effective at reducing unanticipated errors of commission in medication administration tasks, but showed mixed effectiveness at

  18. Pre-conditioned place preference treatment of chloral hydrate interrupts the rewarding effect of morphine.

    PubMed

    Sun, YongMei; Zong, Wei; Zhou, MuRu; Ma, YuanYe; Wang, JianHong

    2015-08-01

    The medical use of morphine as a pain killer is hindered by its side effects including dependence and further addiction. As the prototypical μ receptor agonist, morphine's rewarding effect can be measured by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms in animals. Chloral hydrate is a clinical sedative. Using a morphine CPP paradigm that mainly contains somatosensory cues, we found that pre-CPP treatment in rats using chloral hydrate for 6 consecutive days could disrupt the establishment of CPP in a U shape. Chloral hydrate had no effect on the body weight of rats. Our results indicate that prior treatment with chloral hydrate can interrupt the rewarding effect of morphine.

  19. Creating a Fontan fenestration in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Charlagorla, Pradeepkumar; Breinholt, John P

    2016-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of the Fontan operation. Transcatheter Fontan fenestration can ameliorate symptoms by decompressing elevated venous pressures. Transcatheter creation of a fenestration can be technically challenging in cases with complex venous anatomy. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with heterotaxy, dextrocardia with unbalanced atrioventricular canal (AVC), atrial and visceral situs inversus, left-sided superior vena cava (SVC), and left-sided interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos continuation. With few modifications to the equipment, a successful Fontan fenestration with stent implantation was performed via transjugular approach. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms of plastic bronchitis improved significantly.

  20. Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. )

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

  1. Interrupted and continuous strip technique for tip surgery during traditional rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Micheli-Pellegrini, V; Ponti, L; Ponti, G; Guidarelli, P

    1996-10-01

    The authors report their experience in corrective surgery of the tip during traditional closed rhinoplasty. After a critical revision of the proposed techniques by other authors, the advantages of the "Doberman's ears" and "Butterfly" are given. The choice of the corrective techniques of the tip next to Tardy's algorithm can use a "sequential criterium" after having used a delivery approach. During rhinoplasty it is possible to perform a system of "progression" from one method to another maintaining or interrupting the cartilaginous arch and having as a goal the increasing or the decreasing of the tip.

  2. A chemical synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl featuring the interrupted Ugi reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimin; Schneekloth, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, a new member of the mitragynine class of opioid agonists, from a derivative of the Geissman-Waiss lactone is described. An internal attack of an electron-rich aromatic ring on an electrophilic nitrilium ion and a late-stage construction of the functionalized piperidine ring by the method of reductive cyclization are the pivotal transformations; both ring annulations proceed in a highly diastereoselective fashion. The construction of substituted indoxyl frameworks by the interrupted Ugi method offers an attractive alternative to the strategy of oxidatively rearranging indoles. PMID:23878716

  3. Hydrogen-Borrowing and Interrupted-Hydrogen-Borrowing Reactions of Ketones and Methanol Catalyzed by Iridium**

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Poole, Darren L; Shotton, Camilla C; Kornahrens, Anne F; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of catalytic [{Ir(cod)Cl}2] to facilitate hydrogen-borrowing reactions of ketone enolates with methanol at 65 °C. An oxygen atmosphere accelerates the process, and when combined with the use of a bulky monodentate phosphine ligand, interrupts the catalytic cycle by preventing enone reduction. Subsequent addition of pro-nucleophiles to the reaction mixture allowed a one-pot methylenation/conjugate addition protocol to be developed, which greatly expands the range of products that can be made by this methodology. PMID:25491653

  4. Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF2, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

  5. Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert

    2008-11-03

    Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF{sub 2}, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

  6. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Therapy Interruption in Chronic HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Background Approaches to limiting exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs are an active area of HIV therapy research. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a randomized, open-label, single-center study of the immune, viral, and safety outcomes of structured therapy interruptions (TIs) in patients with chronically suppressed HIV-1 infection as compared to equal follow-up of patients on continuous therapy and including a final therapy interruption in both arms. Methods and Findings Forty-two chronically HIV-infected patients on suppressive ART with CD4 counts higher than 400 were randomized 1:1 to either (1) three successive fixed TIs of 2, 4, and 6 wk, with intervening resumption of therapy with resuppression for 4 wk before subsequent interruption, or (2) 40 wk of continuous therapy, with a final open-ended TI in both treatment groups. Main outcome was analysis of the time to viral rebound (>5,000 copies/ml) during the open-ended TI. Secondary outcomes included study-defined safety criteria, viral resistance, therapy failure, and retention of immune reconstitution. There was no difference between the groups in time to viral rebound during the open-ended TI (continuous therapy/single TI, median [interquartile range] = 4 [1–8] wk, n = 21; repeated TI, median [interquartile range] = 5 [4–8] wk, n = 21; p = 0.36). No differences in study-related adverse events, viral set point at 12 or 20 wk of open-ended interruption, viral resistance or therapy failure, retention of CD4 T cell numbers on ART, or retention of lymphoproliferative recall antigen responses were noted between groups. Importantly, resistance detected shortly after initial viremia following the open-ended TI did not result in a lack of resuppression to less than 50 copies/ml after reinitiation of the same drug regimen. Conclusion Cycles of 2- to 6-wk time-fixed TIs in patients with suppressed HIV infection failed to confer a clinically significant benefit with regard to viral suppression off

  7. Interrupted genes in extremophilic archaea: mechanisms of gene expression in early organisms.

    PubMed

    Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Rossi, Mosè; Moracci, Marco

    2006-12-01

    Extremophilic Archaea populate biotopes previously considered inaccessible for life. This feature, and the possibility that they are the extant forms of life closest to the last common ancestor, make these organisms excellent candidates for the study of evolution on Earth and stimulate the exobiological research in planets previously considered totally inhospitable. Among the other aspects of the physiology of these organisms, the study of the molecular genetics of extremophilic Archaea can give hints on how the genetic information is transmitted and propagated in ancient forms of life. We review here the expression of interrupted genes in a recently discovered nanoarchaeon and the mechanisms of reprogrammed genetic decoding in Archaea.

  8. The Effect of Interrupts on Software Pipeline Execution on Message-Passing Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Pipelining is a common strategy for extracting parallelism from a collection of independent computational tasks, each of which is spread among a number of processors and has an implied data dependence. When implemented on MIMD parallel computers with finite process interrupt times, pipeline algorithms suffer from slowdown--in addition to the expected pipeline fill time--due to a wave-like propagation of delays. This phenomenon, which has been observed experimentally using the performance monitoring system AIMS, is investigated analytically, and an optimal correction is derived to eliminate the wave. Efficiency increase through the correction is verified experimentally.

  9. A Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Model Demonstrates That Nocturnal Hot Flashes Interrupt Objective Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Hadine; Crawford, Sybil; Economou, Nicole; Kim, Semmie; Regan, Susan; Hall, Janet E.; White, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep interruption is often reported by women with hot flashes and night sweats (or vasomotor symptoms, VMS). Although women report that VMS awaken them, polysomnography (PSG) studies have not consistently supported this contention. Design: We mimicked menopause using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to investigate whether VMS increase awakenings and wake after sleep onset (WASO). VMS, serum estradiol, and at-home PSGs (two pretreatment, two posttreatment) were measured before and after 4 weeks on GnRHa. Regression models were used to determine the effect of increasing VMS frequency on awakenings and WASO, as measured objectively and subjectively. Participants: Twenty-nine healthy women (mean 27.3 y). Setting: Academic medical center. Interventions: Depot GnRHa (leuprolide 3.75-mg). Results: Serum estradiol was rapidly and uniformly suppressed on GnRHa. Persistent VMS were reported by 69% of women. The number of nighttime VMS correlated directly with the degree of sleep disturbance. Each additional reported nighttime VMS was associated with a 62% increase from baseline in PSG-measured WASO (P = 0.007), a 3% increase in awakenings (P = 0.05), and 6% increase in %N1 sleep (P = 0.02). Nighttime VMS were also associated with increased perceived WASO (312%; P = 0.02), awakenings (16%; P = 0.007), Insomnia Severity Index (P = 0.03), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03) scores, and decreased perceived sleep efficiency (P = 0.01). Objectively recorded nighttime VMS correlated with PSG-measured WASO (rs = 0.45, P = 0.02). Conclusions: This menopause model demonstrates that nighttime vasomotor symptoms correlate with increased sleep fragmentation. These findings are consistent with a specific contribution of vasomotor symptoms to polysomnography-measured sleep interruption suggesting that nighttime vasomotor symptoms interrupt sleep in the setting of menopause. Citation: Joffe H; Crawford S; Economou N; Kim S; Regan S; Hall JE; White D. A

  10. The effects of response interruption and redirection and sertraline on vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Caio F; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H

    2009-01-01

    Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on automatically maintained vocal stereotypy of a 4-year-old boy with autism. Results suggested that vocal stereotypy decreased when RIRD was implemented and that sertraline did not affect the participant's vocal stereotypy. PMID:20514198

  11. Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

    2004-09-01

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and industry to jointly under take the

  12. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2002-02-27

    During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

  13. The effect of interruptions during training on the time to the first trial and race start in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Bolwell, C F; Rogers, C W; French, N P; Firth, E C

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of having interruptions during training on future training and racing performance in Thoroughbred racehorses. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of having an interruption before the first trial on starting in a trial or a race. A prospective cohort study was used to record the training activity of a cohort of Thoroughbred racehorses, over two racing seasons. Fourteen racehorse trainers recorded information on the distances worked at canter and at fast speeds (<15s/200 m) and provided reasons for horses not training, or for having interruptions (break from training). Trial and racing results were obtained from the New Zealand Thoroughbred Racing online database. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to investigate two outcome measures of performance: (1) time to the first trial and (2) time to the first race. The type of interruption that had occurred before the first trial was the main exposure of interest, and was grouped into: no interruption, voluntary (no known condition or disease present) and involuntary interruptions (due to the presence of a condition or disease). A total of 160/200 (80%) horses started in at least one trial and 100/205 (48%) horses started in at least one race during the study period. The median time to starting in a trial or a race differed significantly (p<0.001) with the type of interruption. The hazard of starting in a trial was lower for horses experiencing voluntary and involuntary interruptions (p<0.001) but there was no association with starting in a race, after adjusting for confounding variables. As age at the start of training increased the hazard of starting in a trial decreased. Horses accumulating longer distances at 15s/200 m had a higher hazard of starting in a trial, whilst horses accumulating fewer events at high speed and fewer trials had a reduced hazard of starting in a race. There was significant clustering at the trainer level for both the

  14. Microsatellite interruptions stabilize primate genomes and exist as population-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms within individual human genomes.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D; Eckert, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ∼26,000-40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases α, β, or η. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase α, β, δ, κ, and η error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The

  15. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Higazi, Tarig B; Zarroug, Isam M A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Elmubark, Wigdan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Mackenzie, Charles D; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

    2013-07-01

    Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ≤ 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

  16. Modulation of IL-1β reprogrammes the tumor microenvironment to interrupt oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tong; Hong, Yun; Jia, Lihua; Wu, Jie; Xia, Juan; Wang, Juan; Hu, Qinchao; Cheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) development is a multistage process includes the normal, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) stages. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that the tumor microenvironment (TME) is an integral part of malignant transformation. Exploring certain key node genes in TME for future intervention in dysplasia to interrupt oral carcinogenesis was the primary goal of this research. To achieve this goal, systems biology approaches were first applied to the epithelia and fibroblasts collected at sequential stages in a 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) - induced rat oral carcinogenesis model. Through bioinformatics network construction, IL-1β was identified as one of the key node genes in TME during carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining of human and rat samples demonstrated that IL-1β expression patterns were parallel to the stages of malignant transformation. Silencing IL-1β with lentivirus-delivered shRNA significantly inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that IL-1β may be a chemoprevention target in TME during oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, we targeted IL-1 in the TME by oral mucosal injection of an IL-1 receptor antagonist in 4NQO rats. The results demonstrated that targeting IL-1 could interrupt oral carcinogenesis by reprogramming the TME. PMID:26831400

  17. Generalized Negative Reciprocity in the Dictator Game--How to Interrupt the Chain of Unfairness.

    PubMed

    Strang, Sabrina; Grote, Xenia; Kuss, Katarina; Park, Soyoung Q; Weber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Humans are tremendously sensitive to unfairness. Unfairness provokes strong negative emotional reactions and influences our subsequent decision making. These decisions might not only have consequences for ourselves and the person who treated us unfairly but can even transmit to innocent third persons--a phenomenon that has been referred to as generalized negative reciprocity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether regulation of emotions can interrupt this chain of unfairness. Real allocations in a dictator game were used to create unfair situations. Three different regulation strategies, namely writing a message to the dictator who made an unfair offer, either forwarded or not forwarded, describing a neutral picture and a control condition in which subjects just had to wait for three minutes, were then tested on their ability to influence the elicited emotions. Subsequently participants were asked to allocate money between themselves and a third person. We show that writing a message which is forwarded to the unfair actor is an effective emotion regulation strategy and that those participants who regulated their emotions successfully by writing a message made higher allocations to a third person. Thus, using message writing as an emotion regulation strategy can interrupt the chain of unfairness. PMID:26924557

  18. Estimating kinetic mass transfer by resting-period measurements in flow-interruption tracer tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, Wei-min; Cheng, H.; Gu, Baohua; Watson, David B; Criddle, Craig; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Brooks, Scott C; Jardine, Philip M; Luo, Jian

    2010-06-01

    Flow-interruption tracer test is an effective approach to identify kinetic mass transfer processes for solute transport in subsurface media. By switching well pumping and resting, one may alter the dominant transport mechanism and generate special concentration patterns for identifying kinetic mass transfer processes. In the present research, we conducted three-phase (i.e., pumping, resting, and pumping) field-scale flow-interruption tracer tests using a conservative tracer bromide in a multiple-well system installed at the US Department of Energy Site, Oak Ridge, TN. A novel modeling approach based on the resting-period measurements was developed to estimate the mass transfer parameters. This approach completely relied on the measured breakthrough curves without requiring detailed aquifer characterization and solving transport equations in nonuniform, transient flow fields. Additional measurements, including hydraulic heads and tracer concentrations in large pumping wells, were taken to justify the assumption that mass transfer processes dominated concentration change during resting periods. The developed approach can be conveniently applied to any linear mass transfer model. Both first-order and multirate mass transfer models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at various monitoring wells. The multirate mass transfer model was capable of jointly fitting breakthrough curve behavior, showing the effectiveness and flexibility for incorporating aquifer heterogeneity and scale effects in upscaling effective mass transfer models.

  19. Estimating kinetic mass transfer by resting-period measurements in flow-interruption tracer tests.

    PubMed

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, W-M; Cheng, H; Gu, B; Watson, D B; Criddle, C S; Kitanidis, P K; Brooks, S C; Jardine, P M; Luo, J

    2010-09-20

    Flow-interruption tracer test is an effective approach to identify kinetic mass transfer processes for solute transport in subsurface media. By switching well pumping and resting, one may alter the dominant transport mechanism and generate special concentration patterns for identifying kinetic mass transfer processes. In the present research, we conducted three-phase (i.e., pumping, resting, and pumping) field-scale flow-interruption tracer tests using a conservative tracer bromide in a multiple-well system installed at the US Department of Energy Site, Oak Ridge, TN. A novel modeling approach based on the resting-period measurements was developed to estimate the mass transfer parameters. This approach completely relied on the measured breakthrough curves without requiring detailed aquifer characterization and solving transport equations in nonuniform, transient flow fields. Additional measurements, including hydraulic heads and tracer concentrations in large pumping wells, were taken to justify the assumption that mass transfer processes dominated concentration change during resting periods. The developed approach can be conveniently applied to any linear mass transfer model. Both first-order and multirate mass transfer models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at various monitoring wells. The multirate mass transfer model was capable of jointly fitting breakthrough curve behavior, showing the effectiveness and flexibility for incorporating aquifer heterogeneity and scale effects in upscaling effective mass transfer models.

  20. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  1. Unemployment and work interruption among African American single mothers: effects on parenting and adolescent socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    McLoyd, V C; Jayaratne, T E; Ceballo, R; Borquez, J

    1994-04-01

    Using interview data from a sample of 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tests a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influence adolescent socioemotional functioning. In general, these economic stressors affected adolescent socioemotional functioning indirectly, rather than directly, through their impact on mothers' psychological functioning and, in turn, parenting behavior and mother-child relations. Current unemployment, but not past work interruption, had a direct effect on depressive symptomatology in mothers. As expected, depressive symptomatology in mothers predicted more frequent maternal punishment of adolescents, and this relation was fully mediated by mothers' negative perceptions of the maternal role. More frequent maternal punishment was associated with increased cognitive distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents, and consistent with predictions, these relations were partially mediated by adolescents' perceptions of the quality of relations with their mothers. Increased availability of instrumental support, as perceived by mothers, predicted fewer depressive symptoms in mothers, less punishment of adolescents, and less negativity about the maternal role. Both economic stressors were associated with higher levels of perceived financial strain in mothers, which in turn predicted adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship. Adolescents who perceived their families as experiencing more severe economic hardship reported higher anxiety, more cognitive distress, and lower self-esteem.

  2. Generalized Negative Reciprocity in the Dictator Game – How to Interrupt the Chain of Unfairness

    PubMed Central

    Strang, Sabrina; Grote, Xenia; Kuss, Katarina; Park, Soyoung Q.; Weber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Humans are tremendously sensitive to unfairness. Unfairness provokes strong negative emotional reactions and influences our subsequent decision making. These decisions might not only have consequences for ourselves and the person who treated us unfairly but can even transmit to innocent third persons – a phenomenon that has been referred to as generalized negative reciprocity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether regulation of emotions can interrupt this chain of unfairness. Real allocations in a dictator game were used to create unfair situations. Three different regulation strategies, namely writing a message to the dictator who made an unfair offer, either forwarded or not forwarded, describing a neutral picture and a control condition in which subjects just had to wait for three minutes, were then tested on their ability to influence the elicited emotions. Subsequently participants were asked to allocate money between themselves and a third person. We show that writing a message which is forwarded to the unfair actor is an effective emotion regulation strategy and that those participants who regulated their emotions successfully by writing a message made higher allocations to a third person. Thus, using message writing as an emotion regulation strategy can interrupt the chain of unfairness. PMID:26924557

  3. Effects of political conflict-induced treatment interruptions on HIV drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Mann, Marita; Lurie, Mark N; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-four million people worldwide were living with the HIV by the end of 2010. Despite significant advances in antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance remains a major deterrent to successful, enduring treatment. Unplanned interruptions in antiretroviral therapy have negative effects on HIV treatment outcomes, including increased morbidity and mortality, as well as development of drug resistance. Treatment interruptions due to political conflicts, not infrequent in resource-limited settings, result in disruptions in health care, infrastructure, or treatment facilities and patient displacement. Such circumstances are ideal bases for antiretroviral therapy resistance development, but there is limited awareness of and data available on the association between political conflict and the development of HIV drug resistance. In this review we identify and discuss this association and review how varying antiretroviral therapy half-lives, genetic barriers, different HIV subtypes, and archived resistance can lead to lack of medication effectiveness upon post-conflict resumption of care. Optimized antiretroviral therapy stopping strategies as well as infrastructural concerns and stable HIV treatment systems to ensure continuity of care and rapid resumption of care must be addressed in order to mitigate risks of HIV drug resistance development during and after political conflicts. Increased awareness of such associations by clinicians as well as politicians and stakeholders is essential.

  4. An interrupted tensile testing at high strain rates for pure copper bars

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Dongfang; Chen Danian; Wu Shanxing; Wang Huanran; Hou Yanjun; Cai Canyuan

    2010-12-01

    A high-speed tensile facility (HSTF) invented by us was applied to interrupting the tests for pure copper specimen bars controlled locally at different levels of elongation. It was realized to isolate and identify the different stages of the dynamic fracture process of the pure copper specimen bar under impact tension. The results of scanning electron microscopical (SEM) investigation of the recovered pure copper specimens show that the void evolution near the surface of the minimum cross-section of the necking area is more severe than that at the middle of the necking area, which may be connected with the findings discussed by Alves and Jones [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 643 (1999)]. The constitutive models in a certain range of strain determined from the tensile split Hopkinson bar optimized by us were employed and adjusted in numerically simulating the large deformation of the pure copper specimen in the interrupted tensile tests on HSTF. The dependence of the instability strain of thermoviscoplastic materials in simple tension on material parameters delineated by Batra and Wei [Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 448 (2007)] was inspected in predicting the diffuse necking of the specimen bar. The axisymmetric necking rod model with a central void under static tension presented by Ragab [Eng. Fract. Mech. 71, 1515 (2004)] was extended to predicting the local necking and fracture of the specimen bar under impact tension.

  5. Plants cause ecosystem nutrient depletion via the interruption of bird-derived spatial subsidies.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-02-01

    Plant introductions and subsequent community shifts are known to affect nutrient cycling, but most such studies have focused on nutrient enrichment effects. The nature of plant-driven nutrient depletions and the mechanisms by which these might occur are relatively poorly understood. In this study we demonstrate that the proliferation of the commonly introduced coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, interrupts the flow of allochthonous marine subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems via an indirect effect: impact on birds. Birds avoid nesting or roosting in C. nucifera, thus reducing the critical nutrient inputs they bring from the marine environment. These decreases in marine subsidies then lead to reductions in available soil nutrients, decreases in leaf nutrient quality, diminished leaf palatability, and reduced herbivory. This nutrient depletion pathway contrasts the more typical patterns of nutrient enrichment that follow plant species introductions. Research on the effects of spatial subsidy disruptions on ecosystems has not yet examined interruptions driven by changes within the recipient community, such as plant community shifts. The ubiquity of coconut palm introductions across the tropics and subtropics makes these observations particularly noteworthy. Equally important, the case of C. nucifera provides a strong demonstration of how plant community changes can dramatically impact the supply of allochthonous nutrients and thereby reshape energy flow in ecosystems. PMID:20133852

  6. Enantiodivergent Synthesis of Bis-Spiropyrrolidines via Sequential Interrupted and Completed (3 + 2) Cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Egoitz; Rivilla, Iván; Larumbe, Amaia; Cossío, Fernando P

    2015-12-01

    Both (5R)- and (5S)-1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonan-6-ones are obtained via a sequence of interrupted and completed stepwise (3 + 2) cycloadditions between azomethine ylides and π-deficient alkenes. The only source of chirality along the whole process is an enantiopure ferrocenyl pyrrolidine catalytic ligand. When the starting imine incorporates two aryl groups or one aryl group with one electron-releasing substituent, the reaction between the azomethine ylide and the alkene stops at the first step, leading to the corresponding Michael adduct. When imines derived from p-methoxybenzaldehyde are used, the corresponding syn-α-amino-γ-nitro ester is obtained with almost complete enantiocontrol. In contrast, imines derived from benzophenone lead to the corresponding anti analogue. From this interrupted (3 + 2) cycloaddition, cis- and trans-α-amino-γ-lactams can be obtained via hydrogenation of the nitro group followed by in situ cyclization. Imines derived from these latter compounds are the precursors of N-metalated azomethine ylides from which up to four new chiral centers can be generated via completed (3 + 2) cycloaddition reactions with full regio- and diastereocontrol. Cis- and trans-γ-lactams lead to opposite bis-spiropyrrolidine enantiomers. Therefore, both enantiomeric series of spiro compounds can be obtained by means of the same catalytic system. The potential of these rigid, densely substituted homochiral compounds in medicinal chemistry is briefly described.

  7. Generalized Negative Reciprocity in the Dictator Game--How to Interrupt the Chain of Unfairness.

    PubMed

    Strang, Sabrina; Grote, Xenia; Kuss, Katarina; Park, Soyoung Q; Weber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Humans are tremendously sensitive to unfairness. Unfairness provokes strong negative emotional reactions and influences our subsequent decision making. These decisions might not only have consequences for ourselves and the person who treated us unfairly but can even transmit to innocent third persons--a phenomenon that has been referred to as generalized negative reciprocity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether regulation of emotions can interrupt this chain of unfairness. Real allocations in a dictator game were used to create unfair situations. Three different regulation strategies, namely writing a message to the dictator who made an unfair offer, either forwarded or not forwarded, describing a neutral picture and a control condition in which subjects just had to wait for three minutes, were then tested on their ability to influence the elicited emotions. Subsequently participants were asked to allocate money between themselves and a third person. We show that writing a message which is forwarded to the unfair actor is an effective emotion regulation strategy and that those participants who regulated their emotions successfully by writing a message made higher allocations to a third person. Thus, using message writing as an emotion regulation strategy can interrupt the chain of unfairness.

  8. A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions.

    PubMed

    Janowich, Jacki; Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-07-16

    Goal-directed behavior is often impaired by interference from the external environment, either in the form of distraction by irrelevant information that one attempts to ignore, or by interrupting information that demands attention as part of another (secondary) task goal. Both forms of external interference have been shown to detrimentally impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM). Emerging evidence suggests that these different types of external interference exert different effects on behavior and may be mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. Better characterizing the distinct neuro-behavioral impact of irrelevant distractions versus attended interruptions is essential for advancing an understanding of top-down attention, resolution of external interference, and how these abilities become degraded in healthy aging and in neuropsychiatric conditions. This manuscript describes a novel cognitive paradigm developed the Gazzaley lab that has now been modified into several distinct versions used to elucidate behavioral and neural correlates of interference, by to-be-ignored distractors versus to-be-attended interruptors. Details are provided on variants of this paradigm for investigating interference in visual and auditory modalities, at multiple levels of stimulus complexity, and with experimental timing optimized for electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. In addition, data from younger and older adult participants obtained using this paradigm is reviewed and discussed in the context of its relationship with the broader literatures on external interference and age-related neuro-behavioral changes in resolving interference in working memory.

  9. Primary repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions in newborns.

    PubMed

    Tláskal, T; Chaloupecky, V; Marek, J; Hŭcín, B; Kostelka, M; Tax, P; Kucera, V; Janousek, J; Skovránek, J; Reich, O

    1997-04-01

    Primary repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions was performed in 13 patients aged from 1 to 85 days. The surgery was performed through the midline sternotomy approach in extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermia. Hypothermic circulatory arrest at 14 to 19 degrees C was used for reconstruction of the aortic arch. In all patients it was possible to perform a direct anastomosis between the ascendent and descendent aorta. At the same time closure of the ventricular septal defect was performed in 11 patients, closure of the atrial septal defect in 4, correction of persistent truncus arteriosus in 3, resection of subaortic stenosis in 2, arterial switch repair of transposition of the great arteries in 1, correction of double outlet right ventricle in 1 and patch closure of aortico-pulmonary window in 1 patient. Three (23.1%) newborns died in the early postoperative period: two from sepsis and one from multiple organ failure. Ten patients (76.9%) were followed up for 1 to 29 months postoperatively. All of them are in very good condition with a nonrestrictive aortic anastomosis. Primary one-stage repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions is preferred to the two-stage repair in all newborns with this critical congenital heart disease. PMID:9201119

  10. Feasibility of global measles eradication after interruption of transmission in the Americas.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ciro A; Andrus, Jon Kim; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    Measles is one of the most infectious diseases. Before the introduction of the measles vaccine, nearly all children contracted measles. By the end of the 1980s, most countries of the world had incorporated the measles vaccine into their routine vaccination programs. Globally, some 345,000 deaths due to measles still occur every year. Eradication of measles would play an important role in improving child survival. The goal to eradicate measles from the Americas was set by the Pan-American Sanitary Conference in 1994. Progress to date has been remarkable. Measles is no longer an endemic disease in the Americas and interruption of transmission has been documented in most countries. As of December 2007, 5 years have elapsed since the detection of the last endemic case in Venezuela in November 2002. This experience demonstrates that interruption of measles transmission can be achieved and sustained over a long period of time. Global eradication should be feasible if the appropriate strategies are implemented. Even in a new paradigm in which eradication is not followed by the discontinuation of vaccination, eradication of measles should be a good investment to avoid expensive epidemics and save those children that would potentially die due to infection with the measles virus. It is not only a dream to think that we will see a world free of measles by the year 2015. PMID:18393605

  11. The fallacy of neutrality: the interruption of pregnancy of anencephalic fetus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Carolina D A Costa E

    2011-10-01

    Those who favor and those who oppose the interruption of pregnancy with anencephalic fetuses answer the question 'what is the right to life?' differently. Those in favor argue that life exists only when it is 'viable'; that is to say, when cerebral activities occur or may occur. Those who oppose it argue that it is not possible to describe 'life' as residing in a particular quality, since life 'exists from conception'. In fact, in both cases, the noun 'life' is being defined by a particular quality, either as 'viable' or as 'existing from the time of conception'. Also, simply saying that 'there is life' cannot count as a neutral answer since those who utter such a sentence employ an unspecified criterion to establish if there is life or not. There are two possible ways to investigate this controversial matter: either we look for a definition of 'life' which is neutral and objective and does not reside in a particular quality or we try to establish whether or not the search for a neutral point of view can lead to a satisfactory answer. In this article we explore the argument against the interruption of pregnancy - as defined above - in order to show 1) the impossibility of establishing a neutral point of view regarding knowledge; 2) the existence of a psychological motivation which justifies the longing for an absolute criterion for the evaluation of human actions. This psychological motivation is analyzed from a Nietzschean perspective. PMID:21929705

  12. CD4+ guided antiretroviral treatment interruption in HIV infection: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seminari, Elena; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Boschi, Andrea; Tinelli, Carmine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis study was to evaluate the relative risk of death or AIDS-defining events associated to CD4+ guided treatment interruption in patients with chronic HIV infection. A search was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane Library; key words for PubMed were: "antiretroviral therapy and interrupt*" in the full papers from January 1, 2000 up to and including December 31, 2007. To limit the publication bias, clinical trials performed on the topic of the meta-analysis were searched also on http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Inclusion criteria of studies were: starting a CD4+ guided interruption of HAART in HIV chronically infected patients with CD4+ cell count > 350 cells/mm3, age > 13 years old, and absence of concomitant use of immunomodulatory drugs. Using a conservative approach, to be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to have a follow up period > 100 person years to minimize the bias of a too short observation time. The studies were classified into two categories: randomized clinical trial (one arm stops therapy and other arms continues HAART) and cohort studies. For each study measures of effect (hazard ratio or incidence rate ratio) were reported, when available, uncorrected and corrected for potential confounders. Publication bias was assessed graphically through funnel plot. Pooled relative risk and pooled risk difference were calculated by use of a random effects model following the DerSimonian-Laird method. Observational studies were considered separately and the incidence of primary endpoint was evaluated in each study and the cumulative incidence was calculated. Of the 555 full papers found, all abstracts were screened and 58 full text articles for potential inclusion were retrieved and 18 were retained (seven randomized clinical trials and 11 observational studies). In randomized clinical trials, the meta-analysis showed that the pooled relative risk of AIDS-defining event or mortality was 2.50 (95% CI: 1.87-3.34; p < 0.001); the

  13. Reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions during the past 50 ka from the biogeochemical record of Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, A.; Rosén, P.; Kliem, P.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2011-12-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) are used to reconstruct the environmental history during the past 50kyrs in high resolution from Laguna Potrok Aike. During the Holocene warmer conditions lead to an increased productivity reflected in higher TOC and BSi contents. Calcite precipitation initiated around 9 ka cal. BP probably due to supersaturation induced by lake level lowering. It is assumed that prior to this time period sediments are carbonate-free because high lake-level conditions prevailed. During the Glacial, increased runoff linked to permafrost, precipitation related to stronger cyclonic activity and reduced evaporation have caused higher lake levels. Moreover, during cold glacial conditions lake productivity was low and organic matter mainly of algal or cyanobacterial origin as indicated by generally low TOC and C/N values. During interstadials, such as the Antarctic A-events and the Younger Dryas, TOC contents appear to rise. The glacial C/N ratios and their correlation with TOC concentrations indicate that aquatic moss blooms probably induce these increases in TOC. Aquatic mosses grow if surface water temperatures rise due to warmer climatic conditions and/or development of a lake water stratification. The latter may occur if wind speeds are low and melt water inflow caused higher density gradients. Prevailing permafrost thawing during warmer periods could lead to considerable rises of lake levels, which would contribute to the preservation of organic material. This may explain why higher C/N and TOC values occur at the end of Antarctic A-events. For the uppermost 25 m, the BSi profile shows a high correlation with the TOC profile. In deeper horizons, however, there are indications that the BSi/TOC ratio increased. This part of the record is dominated by mass movement events, which may have supplied nutrients and thus triggered diatom blooms.

  14. Learning from Accident and Error: Avoiding the Hazards of Workload, Stress, and Routine Interruptions in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem. PMID:22168187

  15. Learning from accident and error: avoiding the hazards of workload, stress, and routine interruptions in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem.

  16. Alveolar macrophage kinetics and function after interruption of canine marrow function

    SciTech Connect

    Springmeyer, S.C.; Altman, L.C.; Kopecky, K.J.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.

    1982-03-01

    To study the kinetics and function of alveolar macrophages after interruption of marrow function, we performed serial bronchoalveolar lavages in dogs. The studies were performed before and after 9.0 to 9.5 Grey total body irradiation and marrow infusion. Monocytes had disappeared from the bloodstream by Day 7 after the irradiation. Alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased at Day 21. At Days 14 and 21 myeloperoxidase-positive alveolar macrophages were also significantly decreased. Beyond Day 30 the number of circulating monocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive and total alveolar macrophages had returned. Sex chromatin stains of alveolar macrophages obtained from a male dog that received female marrow indicated that the repopulating macrophages were of marrow origin. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophage migration and phagocytosis demonstrated increased activities beyond Day 30. These studies suggest that in this model the alveolar macrophage is dependent on the bone marrow for support and that the alveolar macrophage depletion may impair lung defense mechanisms.

  17. Creating a Fontan fenestration in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Charlagorla, Pradeepkumar; Breinholt, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of the Fontan operation. Transcatheter Fontan fenestration can ameliorate symptoms by decompressing elevated venous pressures. Transcatheter creation of a fenestration can be technically challenging in cases with complex venous anatomy. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with heterotaxy, dextrocardia with unbalanced atrioventricular canal (AVC), atrial and visceral situs inversus, left-sided superior vena cava (SVC), and left-sided interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos continuation. With few modifications to the equipment, a successful Fontan fenestration with stent implantation was performed via transjugular approach. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms of plastic bronchitis improved significantly. PMID:27212858

  18. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Nicholas W.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; West, Alan C.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism. Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. Furthermore, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.

  19. Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

    2009-01-01

    The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for “more of the same” solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply “less of the same” solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients. PMID:19997533

  20. The effects of verbal operant training and response interruption and redirection on appropriate and inappropriate vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Colón, Candice L; Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathleen M; Masalsky, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although appropriate vocalizations were not targeted directly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of directly targeting appropriate language (i.e., verbal operant training) on vocal stereotypy and appropriate speech in 3 children with an autism spectrum disorder. The effects of verbal operant (i.e., tact) training were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. In addition, RIRD was implemented with 2 of the 3 participants to further decrease levels of vocal stereotypy. Verbal operant training alone produced slightly lower levels of stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants; however, RIRD was required to produce acceptably low levels of stereotypy for 2 of the 3 participants. PMID:22403453

  1. Motion-induced interruptions and postural equilibrium in linear lateral accelerations.

    PubMed

    Matsangas, P; McCauley, M E; Gehl, G; Kiser, J; Bandstra, A; Blankenship, J; Pierce, E

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses lateral tipping motion-induced interruptions (MIIs) in a simulated motion environment. The objective is to revisit MII occurrence and sway motion relationship by focusing on the frequency and acceleration of the lateral motion stimulus. Results verify that MIIs increase with increasing peak sway acceleration, but the effect of sway frequency is not as clear as that of acceleration. Complex multidirectional motions create more tipping MIIs than unidirectional motion. Research should incorporate acceleration, frequency and motion complexity as factors influencing MII occurrence. To describe a temporary loss of balance without tipping, the term 'probable' MII is introduced. This term fills the gap between the theoretical definition and a human-centred perception of an MII where loss of balance is not a binary phenomenon. The 'probable' MIIs were 16-67% more common than the 'definite' MIIs. The developed mathematical model of MII occurrence versus sway acceleration (amplitude, frequency) approximated the observed MIIs with less than 9% difference.

  2. The effects of verbal operant training and response interruption and redirection on appropriate and inappropriate vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Colón, Candice L; Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathleen M; Masalsky, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although appropriate vocalizations were not targeted directly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of directly targeting appropriate language (i.e., verbal operant training) on vocal stereotypy and appropriate speech in 3 children with an autism spectrum disorder. The effects of verbal operant (i.e., tact) training were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. In addition, RIRD was implemented with 2 of the 3 participants to further decrease levels of vocal stereotypy. Verbal operant training alone produced slightly lower levels of stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants; however, RIRD was required to produce acceptably low levels of stereotypy for 2 of the 3 participants.

  3. Antiretroviral Treatment Interruptions Induced by the Kenyan Postelection Crisis Are Associated With Virological Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kemboi, Emmanuel; Mambo, Fidelis; Rono, Mary; Injera, Wilfred; Delong, Allison; Schreier, Leeann; Kaloustian, Kara W.; Sidle, John; Buziba, Nathan; Kantor, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) cause suboptimal clinical outcomes. Data on TIs during social disruption are limited. Methods We determined effects of unplanned TIs after the 2007–2008 Kenyan postelection violence on virological failure, comparing viral load (VL) outcomes in HIV-infected adults with and without conflict-induced TI. Results Two hundred and one patients were enrolled, median 2.2 years after conflict and 4.3 years on treatment. Eighty-eight patients experienced conflict-related TIs and 113 received continuous treatment. After adjusting for preconflict CD4, patients with TIs were more likely to have detectable VL, VL >5,000 and VL >10,000. Conclusions Unplanned conflict-related TIs are associated with increased likelihood of virological failure. PMID:24047971

  4. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot.

  5. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    DOE PAGES

    Nicholas W. Brady; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; West, Alan C.

    2016-05-05

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism.more » Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. As a result, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.« less

  6. Immediate and subsequent effects of response interruption and redirection on targeted and untargeted forms of stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Pastrana, Sarah J; Rapp, John T; Frewing, Tyla M

    2013-07-01

    A number of studies have shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) decreases immediate engagement in targeted stereotypic behaviors; however, its effects on untargeted stereotypy have not yet been studied, and its effects following removal of treatment are unclear. We evaluated the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on targeted motor stereotypy, as well as untargeted but higher probability vocal stereotypy, of two participants diagnosed with autism, using a three-component multiple-schedule design. Treatment with RIRD decreased immediate engagement in motor stereotypy for both participants, and did not increase subsequent engagement above baseline levels for either participant. In addition, RIRD produced modest changes in immediate engagement in untargeted vocal stereotypy for both participants. We briefly discuss the clinical implications and limitations of the findings from this study.

  7. Further evaluation of response interruption and redirection as treatment for stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Erin N; Lerman, Dorothea C; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)-motor RIRD and vocal RIRD-were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared for 2 participants. In Experiment 2, the effects of both RIRD procedures on both vocal and motor stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared with 2 additional participants. Results suggested that RIRD was effective regardless of the procedural variation or topography of stereotypy and that vocal RIRD functioned as a punisher. This mechanism was further explored with 1 participant by manipulating the schedule of RIRD in Experiment 3. Results were consistent with the punishment interpretation. PMID:21541130

  8. Interruption of Somatic Embryogenesis in Daucus carota L. by 5-Bromodeoxyuridine

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John C.; Nessler, Craig; Katterman, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Embryogenic Daucus carota L. cells grown in 9 micromolar 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid are resistant to greater than 5 micromolar 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). In contrast, 5 micromolar BrdU strongly inhibits somatic embryogenesis within 24 hours after transfer of cells to an auxin-free medium. DNA synthesis rates in control and BrdU-treated cultures are rapid and similar; however, the DNA content does not reach levels as great in the presence of BrdU as in control cultures. BrdU substitutes for thymidine in the DNA in 28% of the available sites 48 hours after auxin removal. Following DNA repair, somatic embryogenesis resumes. BrdU DNA incorporation leads to somatic embryogenesis inhibition and provides an alternative to auxin treatment for the interruption of carrot cell culture differentiation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 7 PMID:16666898

  9. Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and "the art of the possible".

    PubMed

    Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

    2014-02-01

    In a recent article in the Reader's Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly "the art of the possible."

  10. THE EFFECTS OF MATCHED STIMULATION AND RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION ON VOCAL STEREOTYPY

    PubMed Central

    Love, Jessica J; Miguel, Caio F; Fernand, Jonathan K; LaBrie, Jillian K

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of RIRD alone, MS alone, and MS combined with RIRD. One participant's results suggested similar suppressive effects on vocal stereotypy across treatment conditions. For the second participant, a slightly greater suppression of stereotypy was associated with MS + RIRD. In addition, both participants emitted a greater frequency of appropriate vocalizations in conditions with RIRD. Data suggest that the addition of MS might facilitate the implementation of RIRD in applied settings. PMID:23060668

  11. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot.

  12. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot. PMID:24387485

  13. THE EFFECTS OF VERBAL OPERANT TRAINING AND RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION ON APPROPRIATE AND INAPPROPRIATE VOCALIZATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Colón, Candice L; Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathleen M; Masalsky, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although appropriate vocalizations were not targeted directly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of directly targeting appropriate language (i.e., verbal operant training) on vocal stereotypy and appropriate speech in 3 children with an autism spectrum disorder. The effects of verbal operant (i.e., tact) training were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. In addition, RIRD was implemented with 2 of the 3 participants to further decrease levels of vocal stereotypy. Verbal operant training alone produced slightly lower levels of stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants; however, RIRD was required to produce acceptably low levels of stereotypy for 2 of the 3 participants. PMID:22403453

  14. Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and “the art of the possible”

    PubMed Central

    Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in the Reader’s Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly “the art of the possible.” PMID:24626310

  15. Further evaluation of response interruption and redirection as treatment for stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Erin N; Lerman, Dorothea C; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)-motor RIRD and vocal RIRD-were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared for 2 participants. In Experiment 2, the effects of both RIRD procedures on both vocal and motor stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared with 2 additional participants. Results suggested that RIRD was effective regardless of the procedural variation or topography of stereotypy and that vocal RIRD functioned as a punisher. This mechanism was further explored with 1 participant by manipulating the schedule of RIRD in Experiment 3. Results were consistent with the punishment interpretation.

  16. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days--Implications for HIV Remission.

    PubMed

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin; Grimm, Andrew J; Cooper, David A; Lewin, Sharon R; Søgaard, Ole S; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Kent, Stephen J; Kelleher, Anthony D; Davenport, Miles P

    2015-07-01

    HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to 'purge' the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days). This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different 'reactivation founder' viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in approaches to prolong

  17. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals.

  18. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals. PMID:23376006

  19. Finite Buffer GI/M(n)/1 Queue with Bernoulli-Schedule Vacation Interruption under N-Policy.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Laxmi, P; Suchitra, V

    2014-01-01

    We study a finite buffer N-policy GI/M(n)/1 queue with Bernoulli-schedule vacation interruption. The server works with a slower rate during vacation period. At a service completion epoch during working vacation, if there are at least N customers present in the queue, the server interrupts vacation and otherwise continues the vacation. Using the supplementary variable technique and recursive method, we obtain the steady state system length distributions at prearrival and arbitrary epochs. Some special cases of the model, various performance measures, and cost analysis are discussed. Finally, parameter effect on the performance measures of the model is presented through numerical computations. PMID:27355076

  20. Finite Buffer GI/M(n)/1 Queue with Bernoulli-Schedule Vacation Interruption under N-Policy.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Laxmi, P; Suchitra, V

    2014-01-01

    We study a finite buffer N-policy GI/M(n)/1 queue with Bernoulli-schedule vacation interruption. The server works with a slower rate during vacation period. At a service completion epoch during working vacation, if there are at least N customers present in the queue, the server interrupts vacation and otherwise continues the vacation. Using the supplementary variable technique and recursive method, we obtain the steady state system length distributions at prearrival and arbitrary epochs. Some special cases of the model, various performance measures, and cost analysis are discussed. Finally, parameter effect on the performance measures of the model is presented through numerical computations.

  1. One-Stage Repair of an Interrupted Aortic Arch with an Aortopulmonary Window in a Premature Neonate.

    PubMed

    Bobos, Dimitrios; Kanakis, Meletios A; Koulouri, Sofia; Giannopoulos, Nicholas M

    2015-12-01

    Interrupted aortic arch with an aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital entity that is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in premature low-birth-weight infants, and the proper timing of surgical correction remains a matter of debate. We present the case of a premature infant weighing 1.6 kg who successfully underwent one stage surgical repair to treat interrupted aortic arch with an aortopulmonary window. The therapeutic management of this patient is described below, and a review of the literature is presented.

  2. One-Stage Repair of an Interrupted Aortic Arch with an Aortopulmonary Window in a Premature Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Bobos, Dimitrios; Kanakis, Meletios A.; Koulouri, Sofia; Giannopoulos, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch with an aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital entity that is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in premature low-birth-weight infants, and the proper timing of surgical correction remains a matter of debate. We present the case of a premature infant weighing 1.6 kg who successfully underwent one stage surgical repair to treat interrupted aortic arch with an aortopulmonary window. The therapeutic management of this patient is described below, and a review of the literature is presented. PMID:26665109

  3. Exploring Relationships between Teachers' Philosophical Beliefs and Practices Relative to Unforeseen Interruptions in Elementary Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Faye Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge, goals, beliefs, and decision-making activities were explored individually and combined relative to their philosophical beliefs and practices in the elementary classroom setting in response to unforeseen interruptions. Schoenfeld's Theory of Teaching-in-Context and Brown's "The Experimental Mind in…

  4. Use of Transnational Services to Prevent Treatment Interruption in Tuberculosis-Infected Persons Who Leave the United States.

    PubMed

    Tschampl, Cynthia A; Garnick, Deborah W; Zuroweste, Edward; Razavi, Moaven; Shepard, Donald S

    2016-03-01

    A major problem resulting from interrupted tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the development of drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), a more deadly and costly-to-treat form of the disease. Global health systems are not equipped to diagnose and treat the current burden of MDR TB. TB-infected foreign visitors and temporary US residents who leave the country during treatment can experience treatment interruption and, thus, are at greater risk for drug-resistant TB. Using epidemiologic and demographic data, we estimated TB incidence among this group, as well as the proportion of patients referred to transnational care-continuity and management services during relocation; each year, ≈2,827 visitors and temporary residents are at risk for TB treatment interruption, 222 (8%) of whom are referred for transnational services. Scale up of transnational services for persons at high risk for treatment interruption is possible and encouraged because of potential health gains and reductions in healthcare costs for the United States and receiving countries.

  5. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. 260.9 Section 260.9 Conservation of..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on... Director, Division of Pipeline Certificates, at the earliest feasible time: (i) Damage to...

  6. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. 260.9 Section 260.9 Conservation of..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on... Director, Division of Pipeline Certificates, at the earliest feasible time: (i) Damage to...

  7. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. 260.9 Section 260.9 Conservation of..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on... Director, Division of Pipeline Certificates, at the earliest feasible time: (i) Damage to...

  8. Efficacy of HCG and ovarian steroids in the maintenance/interruption of pregnancy in-albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nevagi, S A; Vani, V; Doddamani, L S

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and ovarian steroids in the maintenance/interruption of pregnancy in normal pregnant rats. Holtzman's strain rats were laparotomized to observe the number of implantations. In this study, continuous administration of HCG (5 IU) to normal pregnant rats, from day 8 through days 14 or 19, interrupted gestation, resulting in fetal resorption with many placentomas and placental scars. By contrast, a single injection of HCG (5 IU or 1 IU) on day 8 had no deleterious effect on pregnancy, except that the percent fetal survival was slightly reduced, attributable to a slight hyperstimulation of the ovaries of the pregnant rats. One possibility is that prolonged treatment with HCG might have caused progesterone/luteal hormone deficiency with a concomitant increase in estrogen secretion, resulting in the interruption of pregnancy. Hence, here we tested whether progesterone (5 mg) or estradiol-17beta (1 microg) administered to HCG treated rats could compensate this deficiency and maintain pregnancy. The results indicate that these steroids cannot prevent the interruption of pregnancy induced by the continuous administration of HCG, possibly due to an overstimulation of the ovaries by gonadotrophin. PMID:16438394

  9. Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. A.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Timms, W.

    2015-09-01

    We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge-induced flow, no flow and centrifuge-induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite-clay-dominated core samples. All core samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi-)porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was > 0.97 for all samples). In combination, interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.

  10. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  11. Use of Transnational Services to Prevent Treatment Interruption in Tuberculosis-Infected Persons Who Leave the United States

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Zuroweste, Edward; Razavi, Moaven; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    A major problem resulting from interrupted tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the development of drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), a more deadly and costly-to-treat form of the disease. Global health systems are not equipped to diagnose and treat the current burden of MDR TB. TB-infected foreign visitors and temporary US residents who leave the country during treatment can experience treatment interruption and, thus, are at greater risk for drug-resistant TB. Using epidemiologic and demographic data, we estimated TB incidence among this group, as well as the proportion of patients referred to transnational care–continuity and management services during relocation; each year, ≈2,827 visitors and temporary residents are at risk for TB treatment interruption, 222 (8%) of whom are referred for transnational services. Scale up of transnational services for persons at high risk for treatment interruption is possible and encouraged because of potential health gains and reductions in healthcare costs for the United States and receiving countries. PMID:26886720

  12. Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the…

  13. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  14. Critical finger ischemia and myocardial fibrosis development after sudden interruption of sildenafil treatment in a systemic sclerosis patient.

    PubMed

    Bruni, C; Bellando-Randone, S; Gargani, L; Picano, E; Pingitore, A; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Guiducci, S

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease frequently associated with Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP). Among possible pharmacological treatments, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are considered in cases of severe non -responsive RP. We present the case of a male SSc patient wh presented with critical finger ischemia and concomitant appearance of myocardial fibrosis after sudden interruption of sildenafil treatment. PMID:27608801

  15. An interrupted vinylogous iso-Nazarov reaction: cycloisomerization of conjugated trienones to cyclopenta[b]furan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Riveira, Martín J; Mischne, Mirta P

    2014-09-01

    Iron(III) chloride-catalyzed cyclopentannulation of π-conjugated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is described. An interrupted vinylogous iso-Nazarov reaction of trienones was established in which cyclopenta[b]furan derivatives are obtained as single diastereomers. PMID:25075431

  16. Critical finger ischemia and myocardial fibrosis development after sudden interruption of sildenafil treatment in a systemic sclerosis patient.

    PubMed

    Bruni, C; Bellando-Randone, S; Gargani, L; Picano, E; Pingitore, A; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Guiducci, S

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease frequently associated with Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP). Among possible pharmacological treatments, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are considered in cases of severe non -responsive RP. We present the case of a male SSc patient wh presented with critical finger ischemia and concomitant appearance of myocardial fibrosis after sudden interruption of sildenafil treatment.

  17. Using Free-Time to Reduce Verbal and Behavioral Interruptions in a High School Residential Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Dan; McLaughlin, T. F.

    1988-01-01

    Studies the effectiveness of a free-time contingency on reducing the frequency of interruptions of 28 students in a residential treatment center high class room. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of implementation, use of peers for data collection and impact on the target behaviors. (FMW)

  18. Paying the price works: increasing goal-state access cost improves problem solving and mitigates the effect of interruption.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip L; Patrick, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether it was possible to induce more internal planning in the four-disk Tower of Hanoi (ToH) in order not only to produce more efficient problem solving but also to make it more resistant to the negative effect of interruption. The theoretical frameworks of soft constraints and the memory for goals model underpinned Experiments 1 and 2. In both experiments, three goal-state access cost conditions were used: high (mouse movements and 2.5-s delay), medium (mouse movements) and low (goal state always available). In Experiment 1, more memory-based planning was induced by the high cost condition, which resulted in fewer moves to solution and the gradual development of an efficient subgoaling strategy, resulting in more perfect solutions. In Experiment 2, the same condition protected performance against a 10-s interruption irrespective of the interrupting task (blank screen, mental arithmetic, or three-disk ToH). The more memory-based planning strategy, induced by high access cost, presumably strengthened participants' goals during planning and problem solving, making them less susceptible to decay and interference from interruption. These novel results are discussed in the context of other recent studies. PMID:22928975

  19. When Interrupted Intervention Leads to Failure: A Correlation Study of the Three-Tiered Reading Model in Grades K-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Beverly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The three-tiered reading model is a widely practiced instructional scheme that moves students in and out of reading intervention groups during the school year. Though designed to treat students who need extra help learning to read, this interruption of reading interventions may hinder some students' progress. The purpose of this study was to…

  20. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  1. Perception of interrupted speech: Effects of dual-rate gating on the intelligibility of words and sentencesa

    PubMed Central

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Perception of interrupted speech and the influence of speech materials and memory load were investigated using one or two concurrent square-wave gating functions. Sentences (Experiment 1) and random one-, three-, and five-word sequences (Experiment 2) were interrupted using either a primary gating rate alone (0.5−24 Hz) or a combined primary and faster secondary rate. The secondary rate interrupted only speech left intact after primary gating, reducing the original speech to 25%. In both experiments, intelligibility increased with primary rate, but varied with memory load and speech material (highest for sentences, lowest for five-word sequences). With dual-rate gating of sentences, intelligibility with fast secondary rates was superior to that with single rates and a 25% duty cycle, approaching that of single rates with a 50% duty cycle for some low and high rates. For dual-rate gating of words, the positive effect of fast secondary gating was smaller than for sentences, and the advantage of sentences over word-sequences was not obtained in many dual-rate conditions. These findings suggest that integration of interrupted speech fragments after gating depends on the duration of the gated speech interval and that sufficiently robust acoustic-phonetic word cues are needed to access higher-level contextual sentence information. PMID:21973362

  2. Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

  3. Reframing the Conversation about Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education: From Achievement Gap to Cultural Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCapua, Andrea; Marshall, Helaine W.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. schools face increasing pressure to ensure that all students succeed, yet the dropout rate for English learners is alarmingly high, especially for those with limited or interrupted formal schooling (SLIFE). Serving SLIFE can be challenging because they not only need to master language and content but also need to develop literacy skills and…

  4. Effects of age and hearing loss on the recognition of interrupted words in isolation and in sentences

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Gary R.; Humes, Larry E.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to recognize spoken words interrupted by silence was investigated with young normal-hearing listeners and older listeners with and without hearing impairment. Target words from the revised SPIN test by Bilger et al. [J. Speech Hear. Res. 27(1), 32–48 (1984)] were presented in isolation and in the original sentence context using a range of interruption patterns in which portions of speech were replaced with silence. The number of auditory “glimpses” of speech and the glimpse proportion (total duration glimpsed/word duration) were varied using a subset of the SPIN target words that ranged in duration from 300 to 600 ms. The words were presented in isolation, in the context of low-predictability (LP) sentences, and in high-predictability (HP) sentences. The glimpse proportion was found to have a strong influence on word recognition, with relatively little influence of the number of glimpses, glimpse duration, or glimpse rate. Although older listeners tended to recognize fewer interrupted words, there was considerable overlap in recognition scores across listener groups in all conditions, and all groups were affected by interruption parameters and context in much the same way. PMID:22352515

  5. Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ∼26,000–40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases α, β, or η. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase α, β, δ, κ, and η error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The

  6. Typed Versus Voice Recognition for Data Entry in Electronic Health Records: Emergency Physician Time Use and Interruptions

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, Jonathan E.; Shabosky, John C.; Albrecht, Matthew; Clark, Ted R.; Milbrandt, Joseph C.; Markwell, Steven J.; Kegg, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Use of electronic health record (EHR) systems can place a considerable data entry burden upon the emergency department (ED) physician. Voice recognition data entry has been proposed as one mechanism to mitigate some of this burden; however, no reports are available specifically comparing emergency physician (EP) time use or number of interruptions between typed and voice recognition data entry-based EHRs. We designed this study to compare physician time use and interruptions between an EHR system using typed data entry versus an EHR with voice recognition. Methods We collected prospective observational data at 2 academic teaching hospital EDs, one using an EHR with typed data entry and the other with voice recognition capabilities. Independent raters observed EP activities during regular shifts. Tasks each physician performed were noted and logged in 30 second intervals. We compared time allocated to charting, direct patient care, and change in tasks leading to interruptions between sites. Results We logged 4,140 minutes of observation for this study. We detected no statistically significant differences in the time spent by EPs charting (29.4% typed; 27.5% voice) or the time allocated to direct patient care (30.7%; 30.8%). Significantly more interruptions per hour were seen with typed data entry versus voice recognition data entry (5.33 vs. 3.47; p=0.0165). Conclusion The use of a voice recognition data entry system versus typed data entry did not appear to alter the amount of time physicians spend charting or performing direct patient care in an ED setting. However, we did observe a lower number of workflow interruptions with the voice recognition data entry EHR. Additional research is needed to further evaluate the data entry burden in the ED and examine alternative mechanisms for chart entry as EHR systems continue to evolve. PMID:25035765

  7. Scottish Keep Well health check programme: an interrupted time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geue, Claudia; Lewsey, James D; MacKay, Daniel F; Antony, Grace; Fischbacher, Colin M; Muirie, Jill; McCartney, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective interventions are available to reduce cardiovascular risk. Recently, health check programmes have been implemented to target those at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is much debate whether these are likely to be effective at population level. This paper evaluates the impact of wave 1 of Keep Well, a Scottish health check programme, on cardiovascular outcomes. Methods Interrupted time series analyses were employed, comparing trends in outcomes in participating and non-participating practices before and after the introduction of health checks. Health outcomes are defined as CVD mortality, incident hospitalisations and prescribing of cardiovascular drugs. Results After accounting for secular trends and seasonal variation, coronary heart disease mortality and hospitalisations changed by 0.4% (95% CI −5.2% to 6.3%) and −1.1% (−3.4% to 1.3%) in Keep Well practices and by −0.3% (−2.7% to 2.2%) and −0.1% (−1.8% to 1.7%) in non-Keep Well practices, respectively, following the intervention. Adjusted changes in prescribing in Keep Well and non-Keep Well practices were 0.4% (−10.4% to 12.5%) and −1.5% (−9.4% to 7.2%) for statins; −2.5% (−12.3% to 8.4%) and −1.6% (−7.1% to 4.3%) for antihypertensive drugs; and −0.9% (−6.5% to 5.0%) and −2.4% (−10.1% to 6.0%) for antiplatelet drugs. Conclusions Any impact of the Keep Well health check intervention on CVD outcomes and prescribing in Scotland was very small. Findings do not support the use of the screening approach used by current health check programmes to address CVD. We used an interrupted time series method, but evaluation methods based on randomisation are feasible and preferable and would have allowed more reliable conclusions. These should be considered more often by policymakers at an early stage in programme design when there is uncertainty regarding programme effectiveness. PMID:27072868

  8. Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean Sapropel S1 deposits during Formation and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Filippidi, Amalia; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period and vegetated Sahara. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1sediments determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary diagenetic Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably during the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation

  9. Formation, Redox-Controled Preservation, and Interruption of Organic-rich Sapropel S1 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Hennekam, Rick; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Filippidi, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Distinct, organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation in the Aegean or Adriatic due to a period of

  10. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Data extraction Search strategy of the Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, for any intervention to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). Study designs were randomised trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and controlled before and after studies. Data synthesis Of 2300 titles scanned 138 full papers were retrieved, including 49 papers of 51 studies. Study quality was poor for the three randomised controlled trials and most of the cluster randomised controlled trials; the observational studies were of mixed quality. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis of most data except that from six case-control studies. The highest quality cluster randomised trials suggest that the spread of respiratory viruses into the community can be prevented by intervening with hygienic measures aimed at younger children. Meta-analysis of six case-control studies suggests that physical measures are highly effective in preventing the spread of SARS: handwashing more than 10 times daily (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.57; number needed to treat=4, 95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.52); wearing masks (0.32, 0.25 to 0.40; NNT=6, 4.54 to 8.03); wearing N95 masks (0.09, 0.03 to 0.30; NNT=3, 2.37 to 4.06); wearing gloves (0.43, 0.29 to 0.65; NNT=5, 4.15 to 15.41); wearing gowns (0.23, 0.14 to 0.37; NNT=5, 3.37 to 7.12); and handwashing, masks, gloves, and gowns combined (0.09, 0.02 to 0.35; NNT=3, 2.66 to 4.97). The incremental effect of adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to decrease the spread of respiratory disease remains uncertain. The lack of proper evaluation of global measures such as screening at entry ports and social distancing prevent firm

  11. Predictors of unstructured antiretroviral treatment interruption and resumption among HIV-positive individuals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Samji, Hasina; Taha, Taha E; Moore, David; Burchell, Ann N; Cescon, Angela; Cooper, Curtis; Raboud, Janet M; Klein, Marina; Loutfy, Mona R; Machouf, Nima; Tsoukas, Chris M; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Background Sustained optimal use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has been shown to decrease morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. However, incomplete adherence and treatment interruption (TI) remain challenges to the full realization of the promise of cART. We estimated trends and predictors of treatment interruption and resumption among individuals in the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration. Methods cART-naïve individuals ≥18 years of age who initiated cART between 2000–2011 were included. We defined TIs as ≥90 consecutive days off cART. We used descriptive analyses to study TI trends over time and Cox regression to identify factors predicting time to first TI and time to treatment resumption after a first TI. Results 7,633 participants were eligible, of whom 1,860 (24.5%) experienced a TI. The prevalence of TI in the first calendar year of cART decreased by half over the study period. Our analyses highlighted a higher risk of TI among women (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.59, 95%CI: 1.33–1.92), younger individuals (aHR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15–1.37 per decade increase), earlier treatment initiators (CD4 count ≥350 versus <200 mm3, aHR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.17–1.81), Aboriginal participants (aHR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.27–2.20), injecting drug users (aHR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.09–1.89), and users of zidovudine versus tenofovir in the initial cART regimen (aHR: 2.47, 95%CI: 1.92–3.20). Conversely, factors predicting treatment resumption were male sex, older age, and a CD4 cell count <200 mm3 at cART initiation. Conclusion Despite significant improvements in cART since its advent, our results demonstrate that TIs remain relatively prevalent. Strategies to support continuous HIV treatment are needed to maximize the benefits of cART. PMID:25174373

  12. Caring Is Not Enough: Teachers' Enactment of Ethical Care for Adolescent Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE) in a Newcomer Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    The educational landscape for schools in the United States is continuing to shift with the arrival of refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education, especially at the secondary schools. As refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE) adjust to schools in the United States, they may experience acculturative…

  13. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  14. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S.; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  15. Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

  16. Common interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence of non-fibrillar collagens: sequence analysis and structural studies on triple-helix peptide models.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Geetha; Li, Yingjie; Mohs, Angela; Strafaci, Christopher; Popiel, Magdalena; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara

    2008-02-22

    Interruptions in the repeating (Gly-X1-X2)(n) amino acid sequence pattern are found in the triple-helix domains of all non-fibrillar collagens, and perturbations to the triple-helix at such sites are likely to play a role in collagen higher-order structure and function. This study defines the sequence features and structural consequences of the most common interruption, where one residue is missing from the tripeptide pattern, Gly-X1-X2-Gly-AA(1)-Gly-X1-X2, designated G1G interruptions. Residues found within G1G interruptions are predominantly hydrophobic (70%), followed by a significant amount of charged residues (16%), and the Gly-X1-X2 triplets flanking the interruption are atypical. Studies on peptide models indicate the degree of destabilization is much greater when Pro is in the interruption, GP, than when hydrophobic residues (GF, GY) are present, and a rigid Gly-Pro-Hyp tripeptide adjacent to the interruption leads to greater destabilization than a flexible Gly-Ala-Ala sequence. Modeling based on NMR data indicates the Phe residue within a GF interruption is located on the outside of the triple helix. The G1G interruptions resemble a previously studied collagen interruption GPOGAAVMGPO, designated G4G-type, in that both are destabilizing, but allow continuation of rod-like triple helices and maintenance of the single residue stagger throughout the imperfection, with a loss of axial register of the superhelix on both sides. Both kinds of interruptions result in a highly localized perturbation in hydrogen bonding and dihedral angles, but the hydrophobic residue of a G4G interruption packs near the central axis of the superhelix, while the hydrophobic residue of a G1G interruption is located on the triple-helix surface. The different structural consequences of G1G and G4G interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence pattern suggest a physical basis for their differential susceptibility to matrix metalloproteinases in type X collagen.

  17. On the numerical simulation of the diffuse arc in a vacuum interrupter

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, Y.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.; Gentils, F.

    2011-06-01

    A 2D two-fluid numerical model is developed for the description of the diffuse arc in a vacuum interrupter under the possible influence of an axial magnetic field (AMF). This model incorporates the energy balance equations for both ions and electrons and takes into account the three components of the self-generated magnetic field. The possibility of both supersonic (at low current density) and subsonic (at high current density) plasma flow regimes is considered. Data from the literature are used to specify the values of the plasma parameters near the cathode, and the boundary conditions on the anode boundary rely on a simplified model of the anode sheath. Simulation results are presented for both ion flow regimes, with special attention to the current and plasma flow features. It is shown that there is always a contraction of the current flow, whereas the dynamics of the ions throughout the interelectrode gap is strongly influenced by their flow regime near the cathode. Finally, the influence of various operating parameters (presence of an AMF, gap length) on the current constriction at the anode is discussed.

  18. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in vitro study, we investigated the mechanism of anticancer effects of astaxanthin in gastric carcinoma cell lines. Methods The human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS, KATO-III, MKN-45, and SNU-1 were treated with various concentrations of astaxanthin. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblotting were performed. Results The viability of each cancer cell line was suppressed by astaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner with significantly decreased proliferation in KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase but reduced the proportion of S phase KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was decreased in an inverse dose-dependent correlation with astaxanthin concentration, and the expression of p27kip-1 increased the KATO-III and SNU-1 cell lines in an astaxanthin dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progression in KATO-III and SNU-1 gastric cancer cells. This may be caused by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK and the enhanced expression of p27kip-1. PMID:26470770

  19. Cessation of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Zanzibar in 2006: Was Transmission Interrupted?

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Thomas, Brent; Ame, Shaali; Ali, Said Mohammed; Cano, Jorge; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA) for 4–6 years. In 2006, Zanzibar stopped MDA against LF after five rounds of MDA revealed no microfilaraemic individuals during surveys at selected sentinel sites. We asked the question if LF transmission was truly interrupted in 2006 when MDA was stopped. Methodology/Principal Findings In line with ongoing efforts to shrink the LF map, we performed the WHO recommended transmission assessment surveys (TAS) in January 2012 to verify the absence of LF transmission on the main Zanzibar islands of Unguja and Pemba. Altogether, 3275 children were tested on both islands and 89 were found to be CFA positive; 70 in Pemba and 19 in Unguja. The distribution of schools with positive children was heterogeneous with pronounced spatial variation on both islands. Based on the calculated TAS cut-offs of 18 and 20 CFA positive children for Pemba and Unguja respectively, we demonstrated that transmission was still ongoing in Pemba where the cut-off was exceeded. Conclusions Our findings indicated ongoing transmission of LF on Pemba in 2012. Moreover, we presented evidence from previous studies that LF transmission was also active on Unguja shortly after stopping MDA in 2006. Based on these observations the government of Zanzibar decided to resume MDA against LF on both islands in 2013. PMID:25816287

  20. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Pozhitkov, Alex E; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y; Leroux, Brian G; Hunter, Colby M; Flemmig, Thomas F; Noble, Peter A; Bryers, James D

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient's mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4-5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients.

  1. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Finneran, James J; Fletcher, Elizabeth A; Weisman, Brian C; Ridgway, Sam H

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  2. Improving malaria control in West Africa: interruption of transmission as a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Doumbia, Seydou O; Ndiaye, Daouda; Koita, Ousmane A; Diakité, Mahamadou; Nwakanma, Davis; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Traoré, Sekou F; Keating, Joseph; Milner, Danny A; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Sene, Papa Diogoye; Ahouidi, Ambroise; Dieye, Tandakha N; Gaye, Oumar; Okebe, Joseph; Ceesay, Serign J; Ngwa, Alfred; Oriero, Eniyou C; Konaté, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Jawara, Musa; Faye, Ousmane; Kéita, Moussa; Cissé, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Poudiougou, Belco; Diawara, Sory; Sangaré, Lansana; Coulibaly, Tinzana; Seck, Ibrahima; Abubakar, Ismaela; Gomis, Jules; Mather, Frances J; Sissako, Aliou; Diarra, Ayouba; Kandeh, Balla; Whalen, Christopher; Moyer, Brian; Nnedu, Obinna; Thiero, Oumar; Bei, Amy K; Daniels, Rachel; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A; Fairhurst, Rick M; Duraisingh, Manoj; Muskavitch, Marc A T; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Conway, David J; Volkman, Sarah K; Valim, Clarissa; Wirth, Dyann F; Krogstad, Donald J

    2012-03-01

    With the paradigm shift from the reduction of morbidity and mortality to the interruption of transmission, the focus of malaria control broadens from symptomatic infections in children ≤5 years of age to include asymptomatic infections in older children and adults. In addition, as control efforts intensify and the number of interventions increases, there will be decreases in prevalence, incidence and transmission with additional decreases in morbidity and mortality. Expected secondary consequences of these changes include upward shifts in the peak ages for infection (parasitemia) and disease, increases in the ages for acquisition of antiparasite humoral and cellular immune responses and increases in false-negative blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests. Strategies to monitor these changes must include: (1) studies of the entire population (that are not restricted to children ≤5 or ≤10 years of age), (2) study sites in both cities and rural areas (because of increasing urbanization across sub-Saharan Africa) and (3) innovative strategies for surveillance as the prevalence of infection decreases and the frequency of false-negative smears and rapid diagnostic tests increases.

  3. Data analysis of response interruption and redirection as a treatment for vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Kara L; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Vocal stereotypy, or repetitive, noncontextual vocalizations, is a problematic form of behavior exhibited by many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has evaluated the efficacy of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) in the reduction of vocal stereotypy. Research has indicated that RIRD often results in reductions in the level of vocal stereotypy; however, many previous studies have only presented data on vocal stereotypy that occurred outside RIRD implementation. The current study replicated the procedures of previous studies that have evaluated the efficacy of RIRD and compared 2 data-presentation methods: inclusion of only data collected outside RIRD implementation and inclusion of all vocal stereotypy data from the entirety of each session. Subjects were 7 children who had been diagnosed with ASD. Results indicated that RIRD appeared to be effective when we evaluated the level of vocal stereotypy outside RIRD implementation, but either no reductions or more modest reductions in the level of vocal stereotypy during the entirety of sessions were obtained for all subjects. Results suggest that data-analysis methods used in previous research may overestimate the efficacy of RIRD.

  4. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Pozhitkov, Alex E.; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y.; Leroux, Brian G.; Hunter, Colby M.; Flemmig, Thomas F.; Noble, Peter A.; Bryers, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient’s mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4–5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients. PMID:26461491

  5. Direct Observation of Intermediates Involved in the Interruption of the Bischler–Napieralski Reaction

    PubMed Central

    White, Kolby L.; Mewald, Marius; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The first mechanistic investigation of electrophilic amide activation of α,α-disubstituted tertiary lactams and the direct observation of key intermediates by in situ FTIR, 1H, 13C, and 19F NMR in our interrupted Bischler–Napieralski based synthetic strategy to the aspidosperma alkaloids, including a complex tetracyclic diiminium ion, is discussed. The reactivity of a wide range of pyridines with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride was systematically examined, and characteristic IR absorption bands for the corresponding N-trifluoromethanesulfonylated pyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonates were assigned. The reversible formation of diiminium ether intermediates was studied, providing insight into divergent mechanistic pathways as a function of the steric environment of the amide substrate and stoichiometry of reagents. Importantly, when considering base additives during electrophilic amide activation, more hindered α-quaternary tertiary lactams require the use of non-nucleophilic pyridine additives in order to avoid deactivation via a competing desulfonylation reaction. The isolation and full characterization of a tetracyclic iminium trifluoromethanesulfonate provided additional correlation between in situ characterization of sensitive intermediates and isolable compounds involved in this synthetic transformation. PMID:26166404

  6. Application of padmounted fault interrupters to single-phase URD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    Underground distribution has proven itself to be a highly effective means of eliminating the temporary faults that plague overhead distribution, however, the permanent faults that do occur are often cable or splice failures which are unpredictable, difficult to locate and require a lot of time and expense to repair. One of the ways that the designer seeks to minimize the impact of such events on service reliability is by incorporating an overcurrent protection scheme which removes the faulted section from the rest of the system and contingency scheme which allows isolation of the faulted section and restoration of service in the shortest possible time with a minimal number of switching operations. As a result there has been a continuing interest in the development of devices, equipment, and methods which help to realize the ideals of rapid service restoration and isolation of faults to the smallest segment of the system. Overcurrent protection of the single-phase URD system has, traditionally, been the province of fused cutouts and fused padmounted sectionalizing terminals and switchgear. Recently however, padmounted vacuum fault interrupters, that utilize electronic controls for tripping, have become available from several manufacturers and are beginning to make inroads into this portion of the distribution system. This paper will discuss the characteristics and potential applications of a new product offered by Cooper Power Systems, the Shrubline VFI, which was designed specifically for use in single phase residential underground distribution.

  7. [Study on the efficacy of genetically engineered vaccines against hepatitis B for interruption of perinatal transmission].

    PubMed

    Kang, P; Shen, X M; Yu, H M

    1995-07-01

    The infectivity rate of newborn babies who had been borne from HBsAG(+), HBeAg(+) and anti-HBc(+) mothers was very high (85%). 142 babies born in the hospital were divided into three groups, in this study. In the group 1, 57 babies were inoculated with 20 micrograms recombinant DNA vaccinia vaccines against hepatitis B. The injections were given at newborn, 1 month, and 6 months, respectively. In group 2, 41 babies were inoculated with 20 micrograms genetic engineering vaccines against hepatitis B at same time were intervals as group 1. In group 3, 44 newborn babies were inoculated with 10 micrograms as same vaccines as group 2 HBIG plus 1ml (200 U/ml), at same time intervals as group 1. The immune pretection rates of newborn babies in three groups were 88.2%, 85.9% and 100%, respectively. The anti-HBs pasitive conversion rates were 82%, 86% and 98%, respectively. The group 3 was compared with group 1 and 2. Statistical analysis showed the significant differences (P < 0.05). The result showed the immune program of group 3 was superior to that of group 1 and 2, and none of the 44 babies in group 3 were infected. The efficacy of immunization by genetic engineering vaccines were superior to that of blood-derived vaccine. The genetic engineering vaccines against hepatitis B would be more useful for interruption of perinatal transmission of HBV. PMID:8631089

  8. Life interrupted and life regained? Coping with stroke at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Clare; Locock, Louise; Lyons, Renee F.; Lasserson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability across the developed world, affecting an increasing number of younger people. In this article, we seek to understand the experience of stroke as a disabling life situation among young people and the strategies that they use to recover and cope. Directed content analysis was conducted from interviews with 17 community-dwelling stroke survivors aged 55 years and younger across the United Kingdom. The sample was drawn from a larger maximum variation sample of stroke survivors. Using the sociological concepts of biographical disruption and biographical repair as a guide, excerpts from the interviews pertaining to aspects of the patients’ life that were interrupted, in addition to how they coped with the changes, were selected and analysed. All individuals described an “altered sense of self,” a theme that included loss of identity, family disruption, and/or loss of valued activities. Individuals sought to adapt their sense of self by seeking external support, by restoring normality, and/or through positive reflection. Despite the adapted self that emerged, most individuals continued to experience impairments. While young stroke survivors adapt to their illness over time, they continue to experience impairments and disruptions in their personal and work lives. A holistic model of rehabilitation that helps individuals regain the capacity for everyday activities related to work, family life, and leisure can begin to address the emotional ramifications of diseases such as stroke, restore wellness, and work towards minimizing the burden felt by family caregivers and children. PMID:24461569

  9. Dolphins Can Maintain Vigilant Behavior through Echolocation for 15 Days without Interruption or Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  10. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  11. Improving Malaria Control in West Africa: Interruption of Transmission as a Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Doumbia, Seydou O.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Koita, Ousmane A.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Nwakanma, Davis; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Traoré, Sekou F.; Keating, Joseph; Milner, Danny A.; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Sene, Papa Diogoye; Ahouidi, Ambroise; Dieye, Tandakha N.; Gaye, Oumar; Okebe, Joseph; Ceesay, Serign J.; Ngwa, Alfred; Oriero, Eniyou C.; Konaté, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Jawara, Musa; Faye, Ousmane; Kéita, Moussa; Cissé, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Poudiougou, Belco; Diawara, Sory; Sangaré, Lansana; Coulibaly, Tinzana; Seck, Ibrahima; Abubakar, Ismaela; Gomis, Jules; Mather, Frances J.; Sissako, Aliou; Diarra, Ayouba; Kandeh, Balla; Whalen, Christopher; Moyer, Brian; Nnedu, Obinna; Thiero, Oumar; Bei, Amy K.; Daniels, Rachel; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Conway, David J.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Valim, Clarissa; Wirth, Dyann F.; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    With the paradigm shift from the reduction of morbidity and mortality to the interruption of transmission, the focus of malaria control broadens from symptomatic infections in children ≤ 5 years of age to include asymptomatic infections in older children and adults. In addition, as control efforts intensify and the number of interventions increases, there will be decreases in prevalence, incidence and transmission with additional decreases in morbidity and mortality. Expected secondary consequences of these changes include upward shifts in the peak ages for infection (parasitemia) and disease, increases in the ages for acquisition of antiparasite humoral and cellular immune responses and increases in false-negative blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests. Strategies to monitor these changes must include: 1] studies of the entire population (that are not restricted to children ≤ 5 or ≤ 10 years of age), 2] study sites in both cities and rural areas (because of increasing urbanization across sub-Saharan Africa) and 3] innovative strategies for surveillance as the prevalence of infection decreases and the frequency of false-negative smears and rapid diagnostic tests increases. PMID:22142790

  12. Walking, cycling, or gardening, with or without seasonal interruption, in relation to acute coronary events.

    PubMed

    Magnus, K; Matroos, A; Strackee, J

    1979-12-01

    The case-referent study reported here investigates the relationship between acute coronary events (ACE) and sustained light physical exercise, mainly leisure-time walking, cycling, or gardening (WCG). These activities are classified as habitual WCG (greater than 8 months/year), seasonal WCG (4--8 months), or occasional WCG (less than 4 months), each category being further subdivided according to the number of hours a week: less than 4 hours, 4--7 hours, or greater than 7 hours. A significant negative association is found between ACE and habitual WCG. No such relationship is evident between ACE and seasonal WCG, however, seasonal WCG being equally frequent (27%) in both cases and referents. These observations may indicate that any effect on the incidence of acute coronary events that is caused by walking, cycling, or gardening is neutralized if these activities are interrupted for several months of the year. The negative association between habitual WCG and ACE does not depend on the number of hours a week devoted to SCG and is not enhanced by more vigorous additional exercise. The fatality of ACE (death rate within 4 weeks) is significantly higher in the least active group (WCG less than 4 months/year).

  13. Interruptions improve choice performance in gray jays: prolonged information processing versus minimization of costly errors.

    PubMed

    Waite, Thomas A

    2002-12-01

    Under the assumption that selection favors minimization of costly errors, erroneous choice may be common when its fitness cost is low. According to an adaptive-choice model, this cost depends on the rate at which an animal encounters the choice: the higher this rate, the smaller the cost of choosing a less valuable option. Errors should thus be more common when interruptions to foraging are shorter. A previous experiment supported this prediction: gray jays, Perisoreus canadensis, were more error prone when subjected to shorter delays to access to food rewards. This pattern, though, is also predicted by an attentional-constraints model. Because the subjects were able to inspect the rewards during delays, their improved performance when subjected to longer delays could have been a byproduct of the experimentally prolonged opportunity for information processing. To evaluate this possibility, a follow-up experiment manipulated both delay to access and whether rewards could be inspected during delays. Depriving jays of the opportunity to inspect rewards (using opaque lids) induced only a small, nonsignificant increase in error rate. This effect was independent of length of delay and so the jays' improved performance when subjected to longer delays was not simply a byproduct of prolonged information processing. More definitively, even when the jays were prevented from inspecting rewards during delays, their performance improved when subjected to longer delays. The findings are thus consistent with the adaptive-choice model.

  14. Non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD

    PubMed Central

    Kavasery, Ravi; Galai, Noya; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lucas, Gregory M; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2009-01-01

    Background We characterized patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and predictors of non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD. Methods 335 IDUs who initiated HAART from 1996-2006 were studied. NTIs were defined as any subsequent six-month interval where HAART was not reported. Predictors of the first NTI and subsequent restart of HAART were examined using Cox regression. Results 260 (78%) reported ≥1 NTI. Of 215 with ≥1 follow-up visit after the NTI, 44 (20%) never restarted HAART, 62 (29%) restarted and remained on HAART and 109 (51%) reported multiple NTIs. NTIs were less likely among those who initiated HAART in later calendar years and hada recent outpatient visit and more likely among women, persons with detectable HIV RNA at the prior visit and those who reported injecting daily. Among those with NTIs, interuptions occurred earlier in persons who were younger, did not have a prior AIDS diagnosis and were actively injecting; NTIs lasted longer in persons who had higher HIV RNA levels, were incarcerated and drinking alcohol. A recent outpatient visit and not actively injecting were associated with restarting HAART. Conclusions NTIs were common in this population and occurred most frequently in the setting of active drug use and disruption of health care. Effective linkages between primary care for HIV and substance abuse treatment may improve HAART outcomes in this population. PMID:19214124

  15. Framework for evaluating the risks of paralytic poliomyelitis after global interruption of wild poliovirus transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, R. Bruce; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    With the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission globally, the need for new policies to deal with the post-certification era will rapidly arise. New policies will be required in four areas: detection and notification of circulating polioviruses; biocontainment of wild, vaccine-derived and attenuated strains of poliovirus; vaccine stockpiles and response mechanisms; and routine immunization against polioviruses. A common understanding of the potential risks of paralytic poliomyelitis in the post-certification period is essential to the development of these policies. Since 2000, there has been increasing international consensus that the risks of paralytic poliomyelitis in the post-certification era fall into two categories: those due to the continued use of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and those due to future improper handling of wild polioviruses. The specific risks within both categories have now been defined, and an understanding of the frequency and potential burden of disease associated with each is rapidly improving. This knowledge and clarity have provided a framework that is already proving valuable for identifying research priorities and discussing potential policy options with national authorities. However, this framework must be regarded as a dynamic tool, requiring regular updating as additional information on these risks becomes available through further scientific research, programmatic work, and policy decisions. PMID:15106299

  16. Contribution of Environmental Surveillance Toward Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria, 2012–2015

    PubMed Central

    Johnson Muluh, Ticha; Hamisu, Abdullahi Walla; Craig, Kehinde; Mkanda, Pascal; Andrew, Etsano; Adeniji, Johnson; Akande, Adefunke; Musa, Audu; Ayodeji, Isiaka; Nicksy, Gumede; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Oyetunji, Ajiboye; Diop, Ousmane; Vaz, Rui G.; Muhammad, Ado J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cases of paralysis caused by poliovirus have decreased by >99% since the 1988 World Health Assembly's resolution to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization identified environmental surveillance (ES) of poliovirus in the poliomyelitis eradication strategic plan as an activity that can complement acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. This article summarizes key public health interventions that followed the isolation of polioviruses from ES between 2012 and 2015. Methods. The grap method was used to collect 1.75 L of raw flowing sewage every 2–4 weeks. Once collected, samples were shipped at 4°C to a polio laboratory for concentration. ES data were then used to guide program implementation. Results. From 2012 to 2015, ES reported 97 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2) and 14 wild polioviruses. In 2014 alone, 54 cVDPV type 2 cases and 1 WPV type 1 case were reported. In Sokoto State, 58 cases of AFP were found from a search of 9426 households. A total of 2 252 059 inactivated polio vaccine and 2 460 124 oral polio vaccine doses were administered to children aged <5 year in Borno and Yobe states. Conclusions. This article is among the first from Africa that relates ES findings to key public health interventions (mass immunization campaigns, inactivated polio vaccine introduction, and strengthening of AFP surveillance) that have contributed to the interruption of poliovirus transmission in Nigeria. PMID:26908747

  17. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days—Implications for HIV Remission

    PubMed Central

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin; Grimm, Andrew J.; Cooper, David A.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Søgaard, Ole S.; Rasmussen, Thomas A.; Kent, Stephen J.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to ‘purge’ the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days). This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different ‘reactivation founder’ viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in approaches to

  18. Cognitive functioning during highly active antiretroviral therapy interruption in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Childers, Meredith E; Woods, Steven Paul; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, J Allen; Rosario, Debralee; Grant, Igor; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Ellis, Ronald J

    2008-11-01

    Although no longer considered therapeutically beneficial, antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) still occur frequently among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for a variety of reasons. TIs typically result in viral rebound and worsening immunosuppression, which in turn are risk factors for neurocognitive decline and dementia. We sought to determine the extent of neurocognitive risk with TIs and subsequent reintroduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by using a comprehensive, sensitive neuropsychological assessment and by concurrently determining changes in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load and CD4 counts. Prospective, serial, clinical evaluations including neuropsychological (NP) testing and measurement of plasma HIV RNA and CD4 count and mood state were performed on HIV-1-infected individuals (N=11) at three time points: (1) prior to a TI, while on HAART; (2) after TIs averaging 6 months; and (3) after reinitiating HAART therapy. During TI, plasma HIV RNA increased and CD4 counts declined significantly, but NP performance did not change. Following reinitiation of HAART, viral loads fell below pre-TI levels, and CD4 counts rose. Improved viral suppression and immune restoration with reinitiation of HAART resulted in significant improvement in neurocognitive performance. No changes on comprehensive questionnaires of mood state were observed in relation to TI.NP performance and mood state remained stable during TIs despite worsened viral loads and CD4 counts. Because "practice effects" are generally greatest between the first and second NP testing sessions, improvement at the third, post-TI time point was unlikely to be accounted for by practice. TIs of up to 6 months appear to be neurocognitively and psychiatrically safe for most patients.

  19. Immunological predictors of CD4+ T cell decline in antiretroviral treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Elena; Resino, Salvador; Moreno, Santiago; de Quiros, Juan Carlos Lopez Bernaldo; Moreno, Ana; Rubio, Rafael; Gonzalez-García, Juan; Arribas, José Ramón; Pulido, Federico; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Background The common response to stopping anti-HIV treatment is an increase of HIV-RNA load and decrease in CD4+, but not all the patients have similar responses to this therapeutic strategy. The aim was to identify predictive markers of CD4+ cell count declines to < 350/μL in CD4-guided antiretroviral treatment interruptions. Methods 27 HIV-infected patients participated in a prospective multicenter study in with a 24 month follow-up. Patients on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), with CD4+ count > 600/μL, and HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml for at least 6 months were offered the option to discontinue antiretroviral therapy. The main outcome was a decline in CD4+ cell count to < 350/μL. Results After 24 months of follow-up, 16 of 27 (59%) patients (who discontinued therapy) experienced declines in CD4+ cell count to < 350/μL. Patients with a CD4+ nadir of < 200 cells/μL had a greater risk of restarting therapy during the follow-up (RR (CI95%): 3.37 (1.07; 10.36)). Interestingly, lymphoproliferative responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) below 10000 c.p.m. at baseline (4.77 (1.07; 21.12)), IL-4 production above 100 pg/mL at baseline (5.95 (1.76; 20.07)) in PBMC cultured with PPD, and increased IL-4 production of PBMC with p24 antigen at baseline (1.25 (1.01; 1.55)) were associated to declines in CD4+ cell count to < 350/μL. Conclusion Both the number (CD4+ nadir) and the functional activity of CD4+ (lymphoproliferative response to PPD) predict the CD4+ decrease associated with discontinuation of ART in patients with controlled viremia. PMID:18302775

  20. Efficient interruption of infection chains by targeted removal of central holdings in an animal trade network.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Kathrin; Krieter, Joachim; Traulsen, Arne; Traulsen, Imke

    2013-01-01

    Centrality parameters in animal trade networks typically have right-skewed distributions, implying that these networks are highly resistant against the random removal of holdings, but vulnerable to the targeted removal of the most central holdings. In the present study, we analysed the structural changes of an animal trade network topology based on the targeted removal of holdings using specific centrality parameters in comparison to the random removal of holdings. Three different time periods were analysed: the three-year network, the yearly and the monthly networks. The aim of this study was to identify appropriate measures for the targeted removal, which lead to a rapid fragmentation of the network. Furthermore, the optimal combination of the removal of three holdings regardless of their centrality was identified. The results showed that centrality parameters based on ingoing trade contacts, e.g. in-degree, ingoing infection chain and ingoing closeness, were not suitable for a rapid fragmentation in all three time periods. More efficient was the removal based on parameters considering the outgoing trade contacts. In all networks, a maximum percentage of 7.0% (on average 5.2%) of the holdings had to be removed to reduce the size of the largest component by more than 75%. The smallest difference from the optimal combination for all three time periods was obtained by the removal based on out-degree with on average 1.4% removed holdings, followed by outgoing infection chain and outgoing closeness. The targeted removal using the betweenness centrality differed the most from the optimal combination in comparison to the other parameters which consider the outgoing trade contacts. Due to the pyramidal structure and the directed nature of the pork supply chain the most efficient interruption of the infection chain for all three time periods was obtained by using the targeted removal based on out-degree. PMID:24069293

  1. STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G; Freeman, Alexandra F; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2014-04-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease.

  2. Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Mocroft, A; Wyatt, C; Szczech, L; Neuhaus, J; El-Sadr, W; Tracy, R; Kuller, L; Shlipak, M; Angus, B; Klinker, H; Ross, M

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of renal function. We sought to determine if participants randomized to episodic use of antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4+ count (drug conservation; DC) had altered cystatin C levels compared to those randomised to continuous antiretroviral therapy (viral suppression; VS) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Trial, and to identify factors associated with increased cystatin C. Methods Cystatin C was measured in plasma collected at randomization, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months after randomization in a random sample of 249 and 250 participants in the DC and VS groups respectively. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of ≥ 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C (1 standard deviation [SD]) in the first month after randomisation, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results At randomisation, mean (SD) cystatin C level was 0.99 (0.26 mg/dl) and 1.01 (0.28 mg/dl) in the DC and VS arms respectively (p=0.29). In the first month after randomisation, 21.8% and 10.6% had ≥0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the DC and VS arm respectively (p=0.0008). The difference in cystatin C between the treatment arms was maintained through 1 year after randomisation. After adjustment, participants in the VS arm had significantly reduced odds of ≥0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the first month (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23–0.74, p=0.0023). Conclusions These results demonstrate that interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in cystatin C, which may reflect worsened renal function. PMID:19050388

  3. Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Bertelsen, C. David; Crimmins, Michael A.

    2014-05-01

    Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

  4. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Gina M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI) as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of an ATI is not ideal

  5. Interruptions of the ancient Shu Civilization: triggered by climate change or natural disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingyue; Bai, Song; Zeng, Na; Page Chamberlain, C.; Wang, Chengshan; Huang, Chengmin; Zhang, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Environmental proxies of a stable carbon isotope, total organic carbon, free iron oxide, and particle size distribution in sediments as well as the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in fossil human and animal teeth were used to reconstruct the history of climate change and natural disasters near the Jinsha Relic Site and to track their effect on the ancient Shu Civilization, which was established in the Chengdu Plain of southwest China during the late Holocene. In general, the late Holocene climate in the Chengdu Plain demonstrated a drying and cooling trend, with evident cooler events ~4100 and ~2700 a BP, which coincided with global climate changes. The ancient Shu Civilization was interrupted twice, and it included three stages—the Baodun (4700-3700 a BP), the Sanxingdui (3700-3150 a BP), and the Shi'erqiao (3150-2600 a BP)—that were slightly related to the abrupt climate changes that resulted from the collapse of the classic Sanxingdui Civilization, which was founded in a regional warm period. The abrupt increase in sand content in the sediment from the Jinsha Site coincided with the palaeoearthquake and palaeodam burst in the Longmen Mountains when the Baodun and Shi'erqiao desisted, indicating that a flood had occurred due to a dam burst and may likely have caused the ancient civilization's destruction. Although the warm and humid climate, flat terrain and rich water resources prompted the prosperity of the ancient towns of Sanxingdui and Jinsha, frequent natural disasters, such as powerful earthquakes, landslide dams, and outburst floods, consistently affected the ancient Shu inhabitants.

  6. Reducing Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: An Interrupted Time Series Quality Improvement Study

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G.; McNaughton, Candace D.; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B.; Talbot, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. Methods The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure, to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique), and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. Results During the baseline period, 321 out of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% CI = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. Conclusions A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate

  7. The effects of interrupted noise exposures on the noise-damaged cochlea.

    PubMed

    Ahroon, W A; Hamernik, R P

    2000-05-01

    A variety of interrupted noise exposure paradigms will produce a toughening effect in the mammalian auditory system. That is, the threshold shift will gradually become smaller with each successive daily exposure. The ability of the system to be toughened has not been explored in subjects with a pre-existing noise-induced hearing loss. Using the chinchilla as the experimental animal, evoked potential audiometry to obtain thresholds, and surface preparation histology to quantify the sensory cell population, the issue of toughening was examined in the noise-damaged auditory system. Toughening was produced by a 1.0 kHz, narrow-band impact at 115 dB peak SPL for 10 days, 6 h/day, and trauma was produced by a 1.0 kHz, narrow-band impact at 121 dB peak SPL for 5 days, 24 h/day. Four groups of animals were used. Group 1: traumatic exposure followed 30 days later by the toughening exposure. Group 2: toughening exposure followed 30 days later by the traumatic exposure. Group 3: a trauma-only control. Group 4: a toughening-only control. Group 2 that received the toughening exposure 30 days prior to the traumatic exposure showed a 10 to more than 20 dB toughening effect between the 0.5 and 4.0 kHz test frequencies, while Group 1 that received the traumatic exposure followed 30 days later by the toughening exposure showed no toughening. The permanent changes in the evoked response audiograms and sensory cell populations were the same in Groups 1, 2 and 3 that were exposed to the traumatic noise, regardless of whether or not the animals were ever subjected to the toughening noise or whether the toughening noise preceded or followed the traumatic noise. PMID:10771187

  8. Safety of thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer without interruption of anti-platelet agents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Sik; Jung, Hee Suk; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Chung, Kyung Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Perioperative bleeding concerns have led to the general recommendation that antiplatelet agents (APAs) be discontinued 7-10 days preoperatively, but this could increase the risk of perioperative cardiovascular events. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety of APA continuation during thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer. Methods Between January 2009 and February 2015, 164 patients taking APAs underwent curative resection. Comparisons were conducted between two groups: preoperatively interrupted APA administration (group I, n=106) and continued APA administration (group N, n=58). Results Group N had a significantly higher revised cardiac risk index (rCRI) (P=0.001). Lobectomy was performed in the majority of patients [95 (89.6%) in group I; 52 (89.7%) in group N]. There were no significant differences in intraoperative outcomes, such as the thoracotomy conversion rate, operating time, intraoperative transfusion, and amount of blood loss during the operation, or postoperative outcomes, such as postoperative bleeding and thrombotic complications, postoperative transfusions, and operative mortality. Within group N, the patients taking aspirin + clopidogrel (n=11) had significantly greater postoperative bleeding (P=0.005), and more postoperative transfusions (P=0.003) and chest tube drainage over a 3-day period (P=0.049) compared with other antiplatelet regimens. Conclusions Continued use of APAs during thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer could be safely done in patients at high risk of cardiac or thrombotic events. However, in patients administered aspirin + clopidogrel, it may be the best to continue aspirin only because of an increased risk of postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements. PMID:26716042

  9. Validity Testing of the Stopwatch Urine Stream Interruption Test in Radical Prostatectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joanne P.; Burrell, Sherry A.; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; McCorkle, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess convergent validity of the stopwatch urine stream interruption test (UST). Specific aims were to describe relationships among stopwatch UST scores and four common clinical indices of pelvic floor muscle strength: 24-hour urine leakage, confidence in performing pelvic muscle exercise, 24-hour pad count, and daily pelvic muscle exercise count. Design Secondary analysis; instrumentation study. Methods The final sample consisted of baseline stopwatch UST scores and measurements of comparison variables from 47 participants in a randomized clinical trial of three approaches to pelvic floor training for patients with urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. The sample size provided 80% power to detect correlations of moderate strength or higher. The stopwatch UST was conducted in an examination room at the study site by trained study personnel. Measurements of comparison variables were obtained from three instruments: 24-hour pad test, Broome Pelvic Muscle Self-Efficacy Scale, and 3-day bladder diary. Relationships among study variables were evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results Stopwatch UST scores were moderately correlated with 24-hour urine leakage on the 24-hour pad test (r = .35, p < .05), the most robust comparison measure. Correlations between stopwatch UST scores and all other comparison measures were in the appropriate direction, although weak and did not reach statistical significance Conclusion Findings suggest the stopwatch UST may be a valid index of pelvic floor muscle strength in men following radical prostatectomy. With further testing, the stopwatch UST could become a valuable clinical tool for assessing pelvic floor muscle strength in radical prostatectomy patients with urinary incontinence. PMID:22825573

  10. Chronical sleep interruption-induced cognitive decline assessed by a metabolomics method.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Wu, Hong-wei; Song, Guang-qing; Lu, Cong; Li, Ying-hui; Qu, Li-na; Chen, Shan-guang; Liu, Xin-min; Chang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Good sleep is necessary for optimal health, especially for mental health. Insomnia, sleep deprivation will make your ability to learn and memory impaired. Nevertheless, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of sleep disorders-induced cognitive decline is still largely unknown. In this study, the sleep deprivation of animal model was induced by chronical sleep interruption (CSI), the behavioral tests, biochemical index determinations, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based serum metabolic profiling analysis were performed to explore the effects of CSI on cognitive function and the underlying mechanisms. After 14-days CSI, the cognitive function of the mice was evaluated by new objects preference (NOP) task and temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. Serum corticosterone (CORT), and brain Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Catalase (CAT) levels were determined by ELISA kits. Data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Squares project to latent structures-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and Student's t-test. We found that the cognitive function of the mice was significantly affected by CSI. Besides, levels of CORT and MDA were higher, and SOD and CAT were lower in CSI mice than those of control. Obvious body weight loss of CSI mice was also observed. Thirteen potential serum biomarkers including choline, valine, uric acid, allantoic acid, carnitines, and retinoids were identified. Affected metabolic pathways involve metabolism of purine, retinoid, lipids, and amino acid. These results showed that CSI can damage the cognitive performance notably. The cognitive decline may ascribe to excessive oxidative stress and a series of disturbed metabolic pathways. PMID:26747207

  11. Cholestasis Reveals Severe Cortisol Deficiency in Neonatal Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mauvais, Francois-Xavier; Gonzales, Emmanuel; Davit-Spraul, Anne; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Brauner, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cholestasis has been reported during the course of congenital hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency, but crucial information is lacking regarding both its origin and prognosis. We aimed to characterize the course of cholestasis and factors contributing to it in patients with deficiency due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). Methods We conducted a retrospective single-center, case-cohort study including 16 patients with PSIS diagnosed before one year of age. We collected clinical and biological parameters from medical records and compared the characteristics of the endocrine syndrome in PSIS patients with and without cholestasis. Results 5/16 patients had cholestasis, all with a neonatal onset and multiple hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency. Patients with cholestasis presented with lower Apgar score and higher rate of ophthalmic malformations: 3/5 vs 1/11, p = 0.03 and 5/5 vs 4/11, p = 0.02, respectively. The plasma cortisol level was strongly decreased in patients with cholestasis: 12.4 ng/mL (8–15 ng/mL) vs 79.4 ng/mL (10–210 ng/mL), p = 0.04. Cholestasis resolved within 9 months following hormone supplementation. No development of chronic liver disease was observed during a median follow-up of 9.4 years (range, 1.3–13.3 years). Conclusions Cholestasis is a frequent symptom at presentation of PSIS during the neonatal period that may help earlier diagnosis and that indicates a profound cortisol deficiency. PMID:26829045

  12. Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodríguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval = 0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. PMID:23556018

  13. Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Díaz, Aníbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. PMID:24970956

  14. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  15. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Toxopeus, Carolien M; Maurits, Natasha M; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A; Leenders, Klaus L; de Jong, Bauke M

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  16. Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

    1993-01-01

    Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8390817

  17. Mechanism of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)-Exosome Release at Synaptic Boutons*

    PubMed Central

    Koles, Kate; Nunnari, John; Korkut, Ceren; Barria, Romina; Brewer, Cassandra; Li, Yihang; Leszyk, John; Zhang, Bing; Budnik, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles during synaptic development and plasticity. However, the mechanisms by which Wnts are released and travel to target cells are unresolved. During synaptic development, the secretion of Drosophila Wnt1, Wingless, requires the function of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)/Wls, a Wingless-binding protein that is secreted along with Wingless at the neuromuscular junction. Given that Evi is a transmembrane protein, these studies suggested the presence of a novel vesicular mechanism of trans-synaptic communication, potentially in the form of exosomes. To establish the mechanisms for the release of Evi vesicles, we used a dsRNA assay in cultured cells to screen for genes that when down-regulated prevent the release of Evi vesicles. We identified two proteins, Rab11 and Syntaxin 1A (Syx1A), that were required for Evi vesicle release. To determine whether the same mechanisms were used in vivo at the neuromuscular junction, we altered the activity of Rab11 and Syx1A in motoneurons and determined the impact on Evi release. We found that Syx1A, Rab11, and its effector Myosin5 were required for proper Evi vesicle release. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of synaptic boutons demonstrated the presence of multivesicular bodies, organelles involved in the production and release of exosomes, and these multivesicular bodies contained Evi. We also used mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques to characterize the exosome fraction from cultured cells. Our studies revealed that secreted Evi vesicles show remarkable conservation with exosomes in other systems. In summary, our observations unravel some of the in vivo mechanisms required for Evi vesicle release. PMID:22437826

  18. Emergency doctors' strategies to manage competing workload demands in an interruptive environment: An observational workflow time study.

    PubMed

    Walter, Scott R; Raban, Magdalena Z; Dunsmuir, William T M; Douglas, Heather E; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-01-01

    An observational workflow time study was conducted involving doctors in the emergency department (ED) of a large Australian hospital. During 121.7 h across 58 sessions, we observed interruptive events, conceptualised as prompts, and doctors' strategies to handle those prompts (task-switching, multitasking, acknowledgement, deferral and deflection) to assess the role of multiple work system factors influencing doctors' work in the ED. Prompt rates varied vastly between work scenarios, being highest during non-verbal solo tasks. The propensity to use certain strategies also differed with task type, prompt type and location within the department, although task-switching was by far the most frequent. Communicative prompts were important in patient treatment and workload management. Clinicians appear to adjust their communication strategies in response to contextual factors in order to deliver patient care. Risk due to the interruptive nature of ED communication is potentially outweighed by the positive effects of timely information transfer and advice provision.

  19. Development of a Discharge Channel upon Electric Explosion of a Wire in Interrupted- and Uninterrupted-Current Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanova, Vera; Tkachenko, Svetlana; Mingaleev, Albert; Agafonov, Alexey; Ter-Oganesyan, Alexey; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergey

    2009-01-21

    Experimental results on the electrical explosion of thin W, Cu and Ni wires with a current density of {approx}10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, a current rise rate (dI/dt){approx}40 A/ns and a current pulse with amplitude 9 kA are presented. The structures of the discharge channels developed in single wire explosions in air and vacuum using laser shadow and schlieren imaging have been studied under the condition that the current in the circuit was interrupted. A difference in the shock wave propagation in air and the expansion of the exploded wire dense core in interrupted- and uninterrupted-current regimes has been observed. Analysis of the optical images has been performed in a shunting breakdown scenario.

  20. Emergency doctors' strategies to manage competing workload demands in an interruptive environment: An observational workflow time study.

    PubMed

    Walter, Scott R; Raban, Magdalena Z; Dunsmuir, William T M; Douglas, Heather E; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-01-01

    An observational workflow time study was conducted involving doctors in the emergency department (ED) of a large Australian hospital. During 121.7 h across 58 sessions, we observed interruptive events, conceptualised as prompts, and doctors' strategies to handle those prompts (task-switching, multitasking, acknowledgement, deferral and deflection) to assess the role of multiple work system factors influencing doctors' work in the ED. Prompt rates varied vastly between work scenarios, being highest during non-verbal solo tasks. The propensity to use certain strategies also differed with task type, prompt type and location within the department, although task-switching was by far the most frequent. Communicative prompts were important in patient treatment and workload management. Clinicians appear to adjust their communication strategies in response to contextual factors in order to deliver patient care. Risk due to the interruptive nature of ED communication is potentially outweighed by the positive effects of timely information transfer and advice provision. PMID:27633242

  1. Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephen T; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Keen, Phillip; McDonald, Ann; Middleton, Melanie; Woolley, Ian; Kelly, Mark; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. Methods We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Results Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural–regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007–2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007–2012 versus 1996–2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Conclusions Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods. PMID:25865372

  2. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Meghan K; Keele, Brandon F; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Fletcher, Courtney V; Beilman, Gregory J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P; Schmidt, Thomas E; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G; Utay, Netanya S; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C; Haase, Ashley T; Schacker, Timothy W

    2015-03-10

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV.

  3. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, Meghan K.; Keele, Brandon F.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Beilman, Gregory J.; Chipman, Jeffrey G.; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D.; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P.; Schmidt, Thomas E.; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G.; Utay, Netanya S.; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C.; Haase, Ashley T.; Schacker, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV. PMID:25713386

  4. Work–Family Conflict, Task Interruptions, and Influence at Work Predict Musculoskeletal Pain in Operating Room Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Nützi, Marina; Koch, Patricia; Baur, Heiner; Elfering, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in Swiss operating room (OR) nurses, and to investigate how work–family conflict, work interruptions, and influence at work are related to lumbar and cervical back pain. Methods Participants in this correlational questionnaire study included 116 OR nurses from eight different hospitals in Switzerland. Results We found that 66% of the OR staff suffered from musculoskeletal problems. The most prevalent musculoskeletal complaints were lumbar (52.7%) and cervical pain (38.4%). Furthermore, 20.5% reported pain in the mid spine region, 20.5% in the knees and legs, and 9.8% in the hands and feet. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that work–family conflict (p < 0.05) and interruptions (p < 0.05) significantly predicted lumbar and cervical pain in OR nurses, while influence at work (p < 0.05) only predicted lumbar pain. Conclusion These results suggest that reducing the work–family conflict and interruptions at work, as well as offering opportunities to influence one's workplace, help to promote OR nurses' health. PMID:26929846

  5. A pilot study on the vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupter using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. H.; Yuan, H.; Liu, D. X.; Yang, A. J.; Liu, P.; Gao, L.; Ding, H. B.; Wang, W. T.; Rong, M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupter has been a great challenge for decades. In this letter, a novel approach based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed to solve this tough problem, which is suitable for non-intrusive, electro-magnetic interference free and remote detection. The spectral lines of Cu, H, N and O elements from the interrupter shield were detected for a large gas pressure range from p  =  1  ×  10‑3 Pa to 1  ×  105 Pa. It was found that the spectral intensities of O and H increase monotonically with gas pressure, in contrast the spectral intensity of Cu first decreases slightly and then increases. Their intensity ratios, especially for that of Cu to O, change dramatically and monotonically with the gas pressure when p  ⩽  0.1 Pa, indicating that they can be used for determining the vacuum degree values. Spectral ratio method fundamentally reduces the influences of the possible variation in measuring distance and the laser power fluctuation, making LIBS a promising method for vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupters.

  6. An analysis of strategic treatment interruptions during imatinib treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with imatinib-resistant mutations.

    PubMed

    Paquin, Dana; Sacco, David; Shamshoian, John

    2015-04-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells that results from increased and uncontrolled growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. The most common form of treatment for CML is imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although imatinib is an effective treatment for CML and most patients treated with imatinib do attain some form of remission, imatinib does not completely eradicate all leukemia cells, and if treatment is stopped, all patients eventually relapse (Cortes, 2005). In Kim (2008), the authors developed a mathematical model for the dynamics of CML under imatinib treatment that incorporates the anti-leukemia immune response, and in Paquin (2011), the authors used this mathematical model to study strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic strategy for CML patients. Although the authors presented the results of several numerical simulations in Paquin (2011), the studies in that work did not include the possibility of imatinib-resistant mutations or an initial population of imatinib-resistant leukemia cells. As resistance is a significant consideration in any drug treatment, it is important to study the efficacy of the strategic treatment interruption plan in the presence of imatinib resistance. In this work, we modify the delay differential equations model of Kim (2008), Paquin (2011) to include the possibility of imatinib resistance, and we analyze strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic tool in the case of patients with imatinib-resistance leukemia cells.

  7. Interrupted chalcogenide-based zeolite-analogue semiconductor: atomically precise doping for tunable electro-/photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Dong, Youzhen; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Dandan; Li, Na; Wang, Le; Liu, Yang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-20

    Incorporation of semiconductor property into zeolite materials is a plausible approach to graft oxide zeolites with multifunctionality in which both electronic/optoelectronic functions and high porosity are integrated. However, creating such semiconductor zeolites, especially the ones with controllable function regulation still remains as a great synthetic challenge over the years. Hereby, we reported the first case of an interrupted chalcogenide-based zeolite-analog semiconductor with an entirely new boracite-related framework and specific sites at the interrupted section. The semiconducting nature and band structure of this open-framework n-type semiconductor material were characterized with solid-state UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurements. More importantly, the In-Se chalcogenide zeolite analog was for the first time explored as an effective electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The specific indium sites served as active centers and proved to be responsible for a superior ORR activity. Meanwhile, these specific sites could be precisely replaced by bismuth(III) ions, leading to facile manipulation in their electro-/photoelectrochemical properties. Such atomically precise doping successfully implemented at the semiconductor zeolite material with specifically interrupted sites presents a very promising route for accurately regulating electronic structure and photoelectrical properties of other open-framework semiconductor materials.

  8. The effects of brief visual interruption tasks on drivers' ability to resume their visual search for a pre-cued hazard.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-08-01

    Driver visual distraction is known to increase the likelihood of being involved in a crash, especially for long glances inside the vehicle. The detrimental impact of these in-vehicle glances may carry over and disrupt the ongoing processing of information after the driver glances back up on the road. This study explored the effect of different types of visual tasks inside the vehicle on the top-down processes that guide the detection and monitoring of road hazards after the driver glances back towards the road. Using a driving simulator, 56 participants were monitored with an eye tracking system while they navigated various hazardous scenarios in one of four experimental conditions. In all conditions, a potential hazard was visible 4-5s before the driver could strike the potential hazard were it to materialize. All interruptions were exactly two seconds in length. After the interruption the potential hazard again became visible for about a half-second after which the driver passed by the hazard. The nature of the in-vehicle visual interruption presented to the participants was varied across conditions: (1) Visual interruptions comprised of spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (2) visual interruptions comprised of non-spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (3) visual interruptions with no tasks added; and (4) no visual interruptions. In the first three conditions drivers glancing on the forward roadway was momentarily interrupted (either with or without a task) just after the potential hazard first became visible by the occurrence of an in-vehicle task lasting two seconds. In the last condition (no interruptions) the driver could not see the potential hazard after it just became visible because of obstructions in the built or natural environment. The obstruction (like the interruption) lasted for two seconds. In other words, across all conditions the hazard was visible, then became invisible, and finally became visible again. Importantly, the results show that the

  9. Outcomes of Temporary Interruption of Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Matthew W.; Douketis, James D.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Spyropoulos, Alex C.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Singer, Daniel E.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.; Becker, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background During long-term anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation, temporary interruptions (TIs) of therapy are common, but the relationship between patient outcomes and TIs has not been well studied. We sought to determine reasons for TI, the characteristics of patients undergoing TI, and the relationship between anticoagulant and outcomes among patients with TI. Methods and Results In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF), a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study of rivaroxaban and warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, baseline characteristics, management, and outcomes, including stroke, non–central nervous system systemic embolism, death, myocardial infarction, and bleeding, were reported in participants who experienced TI (3–30 days) for any reason. The at-risk period for outcomes associated with TI was from TI start to 30 days after resumption of study drug. In 14 236 participants who received at least 1 dose of study drug, 4692 (33%) experienced TI. Participants with TI were similar to the overall ROCKET AF population in regard to baseline clinical characteristics. Only 6% (n=483) of TI incidences involved bridging therapy. Stroke/systemic embolism rates during the at-risk period were similar in rivaroxaban-treated and warfarin-treated participants (0.30% versus 0.41% per 30 days; hazard ratio [confidence interval]=0.74 [0.36–1.50]; P=0.40). Risk of major bleeding during the at-risk period was also similar in rivaroxaban-treated and warfarin-treated participants (0.99% versus 0.79% per 30 days; hazard ratio [confidence interval]=1.26 [0.80–2.00]; P=0.32). Conclusions TI of oral anticoagulation is common and is associated with substantial stroke risks and bleeding risks that were similar among patients treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal

  10. Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: Effective Management Requires a Careful Balancing Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Sumwalt, Robert L., III; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Managing several tasks concurrently is an everyday part of cockpit operations. For the most part, crews handle concurrent task demands efficiently, yet crew preoccupation with one task to the detriment of performing other tasks is one of the more common forms of error in the cockpit. Most pilots are familiar with the December 1972 L1011 crash that occurred when the crew became preoccupied with a landing gear light malfunction and failed to notice that someone had inadvertently bumped off the autopilot. More recently a DC-9 landed gear-up in Houston when the crew, preoccupied with an stabilized approach, failed to recognize that the gear was not down because they had not switched the hydraulic pumps to high. We have recently started a research project to study why crews are vulnerable to these sorts of errors. As part of that project we reviewed NTSB reports of accidents attributed to crew error; we concluded that nearly half of these accidents involved lapses of attention associated with interruptions, distractions, or preoccupation with one task to the exclusion of another task. We have also analyzed 107 ASRS reports involving competing tasks; we present here some of our conclusions from those ASRS reports. These 107 reports involved 21 different types of routine tasks crews neglected at a critical moment while attending to another task. Sixty-nine percent of the neglected tasks involved either failure to monitor the current status or position of the aircraft or failure to monitor the actions of the pilot flying or taxiing. Thirty-four different types of competing activities distracted or preoccupied the pilots. Ninety percent of these competing activities fell into one of four broad categories: communication (e.g., discussion among crew or radio communication), heads-down work (e.g., programming the FMS or reviewing approach plates), responding to abnormals, or searching for VMC traffic. We will discuss examples of each of these four categories and suggest things

  11. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  12. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  13. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  14. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  15. Perioperative bridging anticoagulation during dabigatran or warfarin interruption among patients who had an elective surgery or procedure. Substudy of the RE-LY trial.

    PubMed

    Douketis, James D; Healey, Jeff S; Brueckmann, Martina; Eikelboom, John W; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Fraessdorf, Mandy; Noack, Herbert; Oldgren, Jonas; Reilly, Paul; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Wallentin, Lars; Connolly, Stuart J

    2015-03-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who require interruption of dabigatran or warfarin for an elective surgery/procedure, the risks and benefits of perioperative bridging anticoagulation is uncertain.We accessed the database from RE-LY, a randomised trial comparing dabigatran with warfarin for stroke prevention in AF, to assess the potential benefits and risks of bridging. In patients who had a first interruption of dabigatran or warfarin for an elective surgery/procedure, we compared the risk for major bleeding (MB), stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) and any thromboembolism (TE) in patients who were bridged or not bridged during the period of seven days before until 30 days after surgery/procedure. We used multivariable Cox regression to adjust for potential confounders.Bridging was used more during warfarin interruption than dabigatran interruption (27.5 % vs 15.4 %; p< 0.001). With dabigatran interruption, bridged patients had more MB (6.5 % vs 1.8 %, p< 0.001) than those not bridged but bridged and not bridged groups did not differ for any TE (1.2 % vs 0.6 %, p=0.16) and SSE (0.5 % vs 0.3 %, p=0.46). With warfarin interruption, bridged patients had more MB (6.8 % vs 1.6 %, p< 0.001) and any TE (1.8 % vs 0.3 %, p=0.007) than those not bridged but bridged and not bridged groups did not differ for SSE (0.5 % vs 0.2 %, p=0.321). In conclusion, in patients who interrupted dabigatran or warfarin for a surgery/ procedure in the RE-LY trial, use of bridging anticoagulation appeared to increase the risk for major bleeding irrespective of dabigatran or warfarin interruption.

  16. NMR Studies Demonstrate a Unique AAB Composition and Chain Register for a Heterotrimeric Type IV Collagen Model Peptide Containing a Natural Interruption Site*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianxi; Sun, Xiuxia; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    All non-fibrillar collagens contain interruptions in the (Gly-X-Y)n repeating sequence, such as the more than 20 interruptions found in chains of basement membrane type IV collagen. Two selectively doubly labeled peptides are designed to model a site in type IV collagen with a GVG interruption in the α1(IV) and a corresponding GISLK sequence within the α2(IV) chain. CD and NMR studies on a 2:1 mixture of these two peptides support the formation of a single-component heterotrimer that maintains the one-residue staggering in the triple-helix, has a unique chain register, and contains hydrogen bonds at the interruption site. Formation of hydrogen bonds at interruption sites may provide a driving force for self-assembly and chain register in type IV and other non-fibrillar collagens. This study illustrates the potential role of interruptions in the structure, dynamics, and folding of natural collagen heterotrimers and forms a basis for understanding their biological role. PMID:26209635

  17. Increasing the efficiency of solute leaching: impacts of flow interruption with drainage of the ``preferential flow paths''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, C. M.; Bristow, K. L.; Ross, P. J.

    2000-05-01

    Most soils contain preferential flow paths that can impact on solute mobility. Solutes can move rapidly down the preferential flow paths with high pore-water velocities, but can be held in the less permeable region of the soil matrix with low pore-water velocities, thereby reducing the efficiency of leaching. In this study, we conducted leaching experiments with interruption of the flow and drainage of the main flow paths to assess the efficiency of this type of leaching. We compared our experimental results to a simple analytical model, which predicts the influence of the variations in concentration gradients within a single spherical aggregate (SSA) surrounded by preferential flow paths on leaching. We used large (length: 300 mm, diameter: 216 mm) undisturbed field soil cores from two contrasting soil types. To carry out intermittent leaching experiments, the field soil cores were first saturated with tracer solution (CaBr 2), and background solution (CaCl 2) was applied to mimic a leaching event. The cores were then drained at 25- to 30-cm suction to empty the main flow paths to mimic a dry period during which solutes could redistribute within the undrained region. We also conducted continuous leaching experiments to assess the impact of the dry periods on the efficiency of leaching. The flow interruptions with drainage enhanced leaching by 10-20% for our soils, which was consistent with the model's prediction, given an optimised "equivalent aggregate radius" for each soil. This parameter quantifies the time scales that characterise diffusion within the undrained region of the soil, and allows us to calculate the duration of the leaching events and interruption periods that would lead to more efficient leaching. Application of these methodologies will aid development of strategies for improving management of chemicals in soils, needed in managing salts in soils, in improving fertiliser efficiency, and in reclaiming contaminated soils.

  18. Correlates of Unstructured Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Individuals in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Samji, Hasina; Chen, Yalin; Salters, Kate; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ≥1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count or initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, TIs were defined as a patient-initiated interruption in treatment ≥90 consecutive days during the 12 months preceding or following the study interview. 117 (15%) of 768 participants included in this study had a TI during the study window. 76.0% of participants were male, 27.5% were of Aboriginal ethnicity and the median age was 46 (interquartile range (IQR): 40–52). In multivariable logistic regression, TIs were significantly associated with current illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.68); <95% adherence in the first year of treatment (aOR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.67–4.12); living with more than one person (aOR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.22–3.14) or living on the street (aOR: 5.08, 95% CI: 1.72–14.99) compared to living alone; poor perception of overall health (aOR: 1.64 95% CI: 1.05–2.55); being unemployed (aOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.16–4.23); and younger age at interview (aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44–0.75, per 10 year increment). Addressing socioeconomic barriers to treatment retention is vital for supporting the continuous engagement of patients in care. PMID:24781638

  19. Results of Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption and Intensification in Advanced Multi-Drug Resistant HIV Infection from the OPTIMA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; Brown, Sheldon T.; Cameron, D. William; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Angus, Brian; Babiker, Abdel; Singer, Joel; Owens, Douglas K.; Anis, Aslam; Goodall, Ruth; Hudson, Fleur; Piaseczny, Mirek; Russo, John; Schechter, Martin; Deyton, Lawrence; Darbyshire, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidance is needed on best medical management for advanced HIV disease with multidrug resistance (MDR) and limited retreatment options. We assessed two novel antiretroviral (ARV) treatment approaches in this setting. Methods and Findings We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized open label controlled trial in patients with a CD4 count ≤300 cells/µl who had ARV treatment (ART) failure requiring retreatment, to two options (a) re-treatment with either standard (≤4 ARVs) or intensive (≥5 ARVs) ART and b) either treatment starting immediately or after a 12-week monitored ART interruption. Primary outcome was time to developing a first AIDS-defining event (ADE) or death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. From 2001 to 2006, 368 patients were randomized. At baseline, mean age was 48 years, 2% were women, median CD4 count was 106/µl, mean viral load was 4.74 log10 copies/ml, and 59% had a prior AIDS diagnosis. Median follow-up was 4.0 years in 1249 person-years of observation. There were no statistically significant differences in the primary composite outcome of ADE or death between re-treatment options of standard versus intensive ART (hazard ratio 1.17; CI 0.86–1.59), or between immediate retreatment initiation versus interruption before re-treatment (hazard ratio 0.93; CI 0.68–1.30), or in the rate of non-HIV associated serious adverse events between re-treatment options. Conclusions We did not observe clinical benefit or harm assessed by the primary outcome in this largest and longest trial exploring both ART interruption and intensification in advanced MDR HIV infection with poor retreatment options. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00050089 PMID:21483491

  20. Transapical closure of paraprosthetic mitral leak in a patient with inferior vena cava interruption and azygos continuation.

    PubMed

    Mega, Simona; Patti, Giuseppe; Carminati, Mario; Sedati, Pietro; D'Ambrosio, Andrea; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-01-01

    Para-valvular leaks represent a relevant post-operative complication of cardiac valve replacement, often causing heart failure or severe hemolysis. We report a case of a 72 year-old woman with aortic and mitral mechanical prostheses who developed hemolytic anemia because of a para-prosthetic mitral leak. Chest tomography in such patient unexpectedly documented inferior vena cava interruption with azygos continuation into superior vena cava. Given the high surgical risk, the venous anomaly and the presence of the aortic valve prosthesis, transcatheter leak closure via antero-lateral mini-thoracotomy and transapical approach was performed.

  1. Dual Arterial Access for Stenting of Aortic Coarctation in Patients with Near-Total Descending Aortic Interruption.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Tahir; Jamallulail, Syed Ibrahim; Clarke, Bernard; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    2015-12-01

    Endovascular stenting is a recognized treatment strategy for the treatment of coarctation of aorta (COA) in adults. The aortic coarctation is usually crossed retrogradely from the descending aorta via the femoral approach. We report three patients who had near-total descending aortic interruption and underwent successful stenting of severe COA using a combined radial/brachial and femoral approach due to difficulty in crossing the lesion retrogradely via a femoral approach. There were no procedural complications and no adverse events during 6 months of follow-up.

  2. Catalytic, Interrupted Formal Homo-Nazarov Cyclization with (Hetero)arenes: Access to α-(Hetero)aryl Cyclohexanones.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corey W; Shenje, Raynold; France, Stefan

    2016-09-16

    The first examples of a Lewis-acid catalyzed (hetero)arene interrupted, formal homo-Nazarov cyclization have been disclosed. Using SnCl4 as the catalyst, alkenyl cyclopropyl ketones undergo ring-opening cyclization to form six-membered cyclic oxyallyl cations. Subsequent intermolecular Friedel-Crafts-type arylation with various electron-rich arenes and heteroarenes provides functionalized α-(hetero)arylated cyclohexanones, a scaffold present in many natural products and bioactive compounds, in yields up to 88% and diastereomeric ratios up to 12:1. Regiospecific arylation occurs at the α-carbon of the oxyallyl cation due to polarization caused by the ester group. PMID:27529123

  3. Real-Time Predictions of Reservoir Size and Rebound Time during Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption Trials for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, Daniel I. S.; Goldstein, Edward; Hanhauser, Emily; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of novel reservoir-reducing treatments for HIV is challenging. The limited ability to sample and quantify latent infection means that supervised antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption studies are generally required. Here we introduce a set of mathematical and statistical modeling tools to aid in the design and interpretation of ART-interruption trials. We show how the likely size of the remaining reservoir can be updated in real-time as patients continue off treatment, by combining the output of laboratory assays with insights from models of reservoir dynamics and rebound. We design an optimal schedule for viral load sampling during interruption, whereby the frequency of follow-up can be decreased as patients continue off ART without rebound. While this scheme can minimize costs when the chance of rebound between visits is low, we find that the reservoir will be almost completely reseeded before rebound is detected unless sampling occurs at least every two weeks and the most sensitive viral load assays are used. We use simulated data to predict the clinical trial size needed to estimate treatment effects in the face of highly variable patient outcomes and imperfect reservoir assays. Our findings suggest that large numbers of patients—between 40 and 150—will be necessary to reliably estimate the reservoir-reducing potential of a new therapy and to compare this across interventions. As an example, we apply these methods to the two “Boston patients”, recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants who experienced large reductions in latent infection and underwent ART-interruption. We argue that the timing of viral rebound was not particularly surprising given the information available before treatment cessation. Additionally, we show how other clinical data can be used to estimate the relative contribution that remaining HIV+ cells in the recipient versus newly infected cells from the donor made to the residual reservoir

  4. Real-Time Predictions of Reservoir Size and Rebound Time during Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption Trials for HIV.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alison L; Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Goldstein, Edward; Hanhauser, Emily; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Siliciano, Robert F; Henrich, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of novel reservoir-reducing treatments for HIV is challenging. The limited ability to sample and quantify latent infection means that supervised antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption studies are generally required. Here we introduce a set of mathematical and statistical modeling tools to aid in the design and interpretation of ART-interruption trials. We show how the likely size of the remaining reservoir can be updated in real-time as patients continue off treatment, by combining the output of laboratory assays with insights from models of reservoir dynamics and rebound. We design an optimal schedule for viral load sampling during interruption, whereby the frequency of follow-up can be decreased as patients continue off ART without rebound. While this scheme can minimize costs when the chance of rebound between visits is low, we find that the reservoir will be almost completely reseeded before rebound is detected unless sampling occurs at least every two weeks and the most sensitive viral load assays are used. We use simulated data to predict the clinical trial size needed to estimate treatment effects in the face of highly variable patient outcomes and imperfect reservoir assays. Our findings suggest that large numbers of patients-between 40 and 150-will be necessary to reliably estimate the reservoir-reducing potential of a new therapy and to compare this across interventions. As an example, we apply these methods to the two "Boston patients", recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants who experienced large reductions in latent infection and underwent ART-interruption. We argue that the timing of viral rebound was not particularly surprising given the information available before treatment cessation. Additionally, we show how other clinical data can be used to estimate the relative contribution that remaining HIV+ cells in the recipient versus newly infected cells from the donor made to the residual reservoir that

  5. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium neavei in Mount Elgon focus of Eastern Uganda has been interrupted.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses; Lakwo, Tom; Habomugisha, Peace; Agunyo, Stella; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ochieng, Galex Orukan; Abwaimo, Francis; Onapa, Ambrose; Lwamafa, Dennis W K; Walsh, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R; Richards, Frank O

    2014-06-01

    The study determined that Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Mount Elgon onchocerciasis focus had been interrupted. Annual mass treatment with ivermectin changed to two times per year along with vector elimination in 2007. Then, baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence data of 1994 in five sentinel communities were compared with follow-up data in 2005 and 2011. Blood spots from 3,051 children obtained in 2009 were analyzed for Onchocerca volvulus immunoglobulin G4 antibodies. Fresh water crab host captures and blackflies collected indicated their infestation with larval stages of S. neavei and presence or absence of the vector, respectively. Mf rates dropped from 62.2% to 0.5%, and 1 (0.03%) of 3,051 children was positive for O. volvulus antibodies. Crab infestation dropped from 41.9% in 2007 to 0%, and S. neavei biting reduced to zero. Both remained zero for the next 3 years, confirming interruption of onchocerciasis transmission, and interventions were halted. PMID:24686740

  6. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  7. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  8. Graphical Data Analysis on the Circle: Wrap-Around Time Series Plots for (Interrupted) Time Series Designs.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Beasley, William Howard; Schuelke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Many data structures, particularly time series data, are naturally seasonal, cyclical, or otherwise circular. Past graphical methods for time series have focused on linear plots. In this article, we move graphical analysis onto the circle. We focus on 2 particular methods, one old and one new. Rose diagrams are circular histograms and can be produced in several different forms using the RRose software system. In addition, we propose, develop, illustrate, and provide software support for a new circular graphical method, called Wrap-Around Time Series Plots (WATS Plots), which is a graphical method useful to support time series analyses in general but in particular in relation to interrupted time series designs. We illustrate the use of WATS Plots with an interrupted time series design evaluating the effect of the Oklahoma City bombing on birthrates in Oklahoma County during the 10 years surrounding the bombing of the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City. We compare WATS Plots with linear time series representations and overlay them with smoothing and error bands. Each method is shown to have advantages in relation to the other; in our example, the WATS Plots more clearly show the existence and effect size of the fertility differential.

  9. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous GPR161 Mutation in a Family with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O.; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M.; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare, congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk—characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: WES was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G protein–coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

  10. Feasibility of bloodless liver resection using Lumagel, a reverse thermoplastic polymer, to produce temporary, targeted hepatic blood flow interruption

    PubMed Central

    Pomposelli, James J; Akoad, Mohamed; Flacke, Sebastian; Benn, James J; Solano, Mauricio; Kalra, Aarti; Madras, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    Background Lumagel, a reverse thermosensitive polymer (RTP), provides targeted flow interruption to the kidney by reversibly plugging segmental branches of the renal artery, allowing blood-free partial nephrectomy. Extending this technology to the liver requires the development of techniques for temporary occlusion of the hepatic artery and selected portal vein branches. Methods A three-phased, 15 swine study was performed to determine feasibility, techniques and survival implications of using Lumagel for occlusion of inflow vessels to targeted portions of the liver. Lumagel was delivered using angiographic techniques to sites determined by pre-operative 3-D vascular reconstructions of arterial and venous branches. During resection, the targeted liver mass was resected without vascular clamping. Three survival swine were sacrificed at 3 weeks; the remainder at 6 weeks for pathological studies. Results Six animals (100%) survived, with normal growth, blood tests and no adverse events. Three left lateral lobe resections encountered no bleeding during resection; one right median resection bled; two control animals bled significantly. Pre-terminal angiography and autopsy showed no local pathology and no remote organ damage. Conclusions Targeted flow interruption to the left lateral lobe of the swine liver is feasible and allows resection without bleeding, toxicity or pathological sequelae. Targeting the remaining liver will require more elaborate plug deposition owing to the extensive collateral venous network. PMID:22221572

  11. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them.

  12. Mechanism of Fast Current Interruption in p -π -n Diodes for Nanosecond Opening Switches in High-Voltage-Pulse Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharabani, Y.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Eger, D.

    2015-07-01

    Step-recovery diodes operating in the snappy recovery regime are used as opening switches for generating narrow pulses with high-voltage amplitude. Physical modeling of the switching process is complex due to the large number of parameters involved, including diode structure, the extreme physical conditions, and the effect of external driving conditions. In this work, we address the problem by using a physical device simulator for solving the coupled device and electrical driving circuit equations. This method allows deciphering of the physical processes to take place in the diode during the fast current interruption phase. Herein we analyze the complete hard (snappy) reverse recovery process in short-base devices and determine the fast-transition-phase mechanism. It was found that the fast current interruption phase is constructed of two processes; the main parameters governing the switching time duration and the prepulse magnitude are the diode's reverse current density and its base-doping concentration. We describe the dependence of the switching performance in these parameters.

  13. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  14. Cardiac Surgical Repair Should Be Offered to Infants with Trisomy 18, Interrupted Aortic Arch and Ventricular Septal Defect.

    PubMed

    Kavarana, Minoo N

    2016-06-01

    The management of children born with trisomy 18 is controversial, and both providers and parents often have differing opinions. Many parents choose to terminate the pregnancy while others go forward, making decisions based on their beliefs, understanding, and physician recommendations. Physicians are similarly divided regarding treatment of these children, as some feel that aggressive treatments are futile while others defer to the parents' wishes.Interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect in children with trisomy 18 presents an ethical dilemma that highlights the kinds of controversies in medical decision making facing physicians on a daily basis. Repair of interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect poses a high risk to newborns with or without trisomy 18. Therefore, the option for surgery should be treated as with any routine informed consent process. Parents should be counseled about the risks, benefits, alternatives, and the likelihood of success both short and long term and be should offered a choice between surgery and palliative care. PMID:27338603

  15. Hosed vs. unhosed: interruptions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a global coupled model, with and without freshwater forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicolas; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that glacial periods were punctuated by abrupt climate changes, with large impacts on air temperature, precipitation, and ocean circulation across the globe. However, the long-held idea that freshwater forcing, caused by massive iceberg discharges, was the driving force behind these changes has been questioned in recent years. This throws into doubt the abundant literature on modelling abrupt climate change through "hosing" experiments, whereby the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is interrupted by an injection of freshwater to the North Atlantic: if some, or all, abrupt climate change was not driven by freshwater input, could its character have been very different than the typical hosed experiments? Here, we describe spontaneous, unhosed oscillations in AMOC strength that occur in a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model when integrated under a particular background climate state. We compare these unhosed oscillations to hosed oscillations under a range of background climate states in order to examine how the global imprint of AMOC variations depends on whether or not they result from external freshwater input. Our comparison includes surface air temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the intermediate-depth ocean, and marine export production. The results show that the background climate state has a significant impact on the character of the freshwater-forced AMOC interruptions in this model, with particularly marked variations in tropical precipitation and in the North Pacific circulation. Despite these differences, the first-order patterns of response to AMOC interruptions are quite consistent among all simulations, implying that the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere dynamics associated with an AMOC weakening dominate the global response, regardless of whether or not freshwater input is the cause. Nonetheless, freshwater addition leads to a more complete shutdown of the AMOC than occurs in the unhosed oscillations

  16. Ebselen and congeners inhibit NADPH-oxidase 2 (Nox2)-dependent superoxide generation by interrupting the binding of regulatory subunits

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.E.; Min, Jaeki; Ganesh, Thota; Diebold, Becky; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Zhu, Yerun; McCoy, James; Sun, Aiming; Snyder, James P.; Fu, Haian; Du, Yuhong; Lewis, Iestyn; Lambeth, J. David

    2012-01-01

    Summary NADPH-oxidases are a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which function in normal physiology and, when overproduced, in pathophysiology. Recent studies using mice deficient in Nox2 identify this isoform as a novel target against Nox2-implicated inflammatory diseases. Nox2 activation depends on the binding of the proline rich domain of its heterodimeric partner p22phox to p47phox. A high-throughput screen that monitored this interaction via fluorescence polarization identified ebselen and several of its analogs as inhibitors. Medicinal chemistry was performed to explore structure-activity relationships and to optimize potency. Ebselen and analogs potently inhibited Nox1 and Nox2 activity but were less effective against other isoforms. Ebselen also blocked translocation of p47phox to neutrophil membranes. Thus, ebselen and its analogs represent a class of compounds that inhibit ROS generation by interrupting the assembly of Nox2-activating regulatory subunits. PMID:22726689

  17. The interruption of thyroid and interrenal and the inter-hormonal interference in fish: does it promote physiologic adaptation or maladaptation?

    PubMed

    Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2011-12-01

    Endocrines, the chief components of chemical centers which produce hormones in tune with intrinsic and extrinsic clues, create a chemical bridge between the organism and the environment. In fishes also hormones integrate and modulate many physiologic functions and its synthesis, release, biological actions and metabolic clearance are well regulated. Consequently, thyroid hormones (THs) and cortisol, the products of thyroid and interrenal axes, have been identified for their common integrative actions on metabolic and osmotic functions in fish. On the other hand, many anthropogenic chemical substances, popularly known as endocrine disrupting chemicals, have been shown to disrupt the hormone-receptor signaling pathways in a number fish species. These chemicals which are known for their ability to induce endocrine disruption particularly on thyroid and interrenals can cause malfunction or maladaptation of many vital processes which are involved in the development, growth and reproduction in fish. On the contrary, evidence is presented that the endocrine interrupting agents (EIAs) can cause interruption of thyroid and interrenals, resulting in physiologic compensatory mechanisms which can be adaptive, though such hormonal interactions are less recognized in fishes. The EIAs of physical, chemical and biological origins can specifically interrupt and modify the hormonal interactions between THs and cortisol, resulting in specific patterns of inter-hormonal interference. The physiologic analysis of these inter-hormonal interruptions during acclimation and post-acclimation to intrinsic or extrinsic EIAs reveals that combinations of anti-hormonal, pro-hormonal or stati-hormonal interference may help the fish to fine-tune their metabolic and osmotic performances as part of physiologic adaptation. This novel hypothesis on the phenomenon of inter-hormonal interference and its consequent physiologic interference during thyroid and interrenal interruption thus forms the basis of

  18. The interruption of thyroid and interrenal and the inter-hormonal interference in fish: does it promote physiologic adaptation or maladaptation?

    PubMed

    Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2011-12-01

    Endocrines, the chief components of chemical centers which produce hormones in tune with intrinsic and extrinsic clues, create a chemical bridge between the organism and the environment. In fishes also hormones integrate and modulate many physiologic functions and its synthesis, release, biological actions and metabolic clearance are well regulated. Consequently, thyroid hormones (THs) and cortisol, the products of thyroid and interrenal axes, have been identified for their common integrative actions on metabolic and osmotic functions in fish. On the other hand, many anthropogenic chemical substances, popularly known as endocrine disrupting chemicals, have been shown to disrupt the hormone-receptor signaling pathways in a number fish species. These chemicals which are known for their ability to induce endocrine disruption particularly on thyroid and interrenals can cause malfunction or maladaptation of many vital processes which are involved in the development, growth and reproduction in fish. On the contrary, evidence is presented that the endocrine interrupting agents (EIAs) can cause interruption of thyroid and interrenals, resulting in physiologic compensatory mechanisms which can be adaptive, though such hormonal interactions are less recognized in fishes. The EIAs of physical, chemical and biological origins can specifically interrupt and modify the hormonal interactions between THs and cortisol, resulting in specific patterns of inter-hormonal interference. The physiologic analysis of these inter-hormonal interruptions during acclimation and post-acclimation to intrinsic or extrinsic EIAs reveals that combinations of anti-hormonal, pro-hormonal or stati-hormonal interference may help the fish to fine-tune their metabolic and osmotic performances as part of physiologic adaptation. This novel hypothesis on the phenomenon of inter-hormonal interference and its consequent physiologic interference during thyroid and interrenal interruption thus forms the basis of

  19. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  20. The Impact of Sex Work Interruption on Blood-Derived T Cells in Sex Workers from Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omollo, Kenneth; Boily-Larouche, Geneviève; Lajoie, Julie; Kimani, Makobu; Cheruiyot, Julianna; Kimani, Joshua; Oyugi, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Unprotected sexual intercourse exposes the female genital tract (FGT) to semen-derived antigens, which leads to a proinflammatory response. Studies have shown that this postcoital inflammatory response can lead to recruitment of activated T cells to the FGT, thereby increasing risk of HIV infection. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sex work on activation and memory phenotypes of peripheral T cells among female sex workers (FSW) from Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Thirty FSW were recruited from the Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort, 10 in each of the following groups: HIV-exposed seronegative (at least 7 years in active sex work), HIV positive, and New Negative (HIV negative, less than 3 years in active sex work). Blood was obtained at three different phases (active sex work, abstinence from sex work–sex break, and following resumption of sex work). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stained for phenotypic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161), memory phenotype markers (CD45RA and CCR7), activation markers (CD69, HLA-DR, and CD95), and the HIV coreceptor (CCR5). T-cell populations were compared between groups. Results: In HIV-positive women, CD8+CCR5+ T cells declined at the sex break period, while CD4+CD161+ T cells increased when returning to sex work. All groups showed no significant changes in systemic T-cell activation markers following the interruption of sex work, however, significant reductions in naive CD8+ T cells were noted. For each of the study points, HIV positives had higher effector memory and CD8+CD95+ T cells and lower naive CD8+ T cells than the HIV-uninfected groups. Conclusions: Interruption of sex work had subtle effects on systemic T-cell memory phenotypes. PMID:26879184

  1. Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

    2006-01-01

    Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

  2. A Study to Determine the Counseling Needs of Women Enrolled at the University of West Florida After an Interruption in Their Formal Educational Training. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Barbara H.

    Counseling needs of women enrolled at a university after an interruption in their formal educational training are explored. The target population was women who were at least 24 years old and who had not attended an educational institution for two years prior to enrolling in the university. A stratefied sample (N=20) was chosen from a computer…

  3. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by Verbenone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the ability of verbenone, a bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, to interrupt the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg / d at 25 oC reduced the attraction of Anisandr...

  4. Peek-a-What? Infants' Response to the Still-Face Task after Normal and Interrupted Peek-a-Boo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Best, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Infants' sensitivity to the vitality or tension envelope within dyadic social exchanges was investigated by examining their responses following normal and interrupted games of peek-a-boo embedded in a Still-Face Task. Infants 5-6 months old engaged in two modified Still-Face Tasks with their mothers. In one task, the initial interaction ended…

  5. An Interrupted Time Series Analysis of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an Assessment of Rental Property Managers as Place Manager/Intimate Handler of Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehle, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    This research involves a legal impact study of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an assessment of State College Rental Property Managers in the role of place manager/intimate handler of offender. The impact of the Ordinance was assessed by employing an interrupted time series design which examined five years of pre-ordinance…

  6. Curative Effects of Different Sequences of Vessel Interruption During the Completely Thoracoscopic Lobectomy on Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengwei; Jiang, Guanchao; Chen, Yingtai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between prognosis and different sequences of pulmonary artery and vein interruption during completely thoracoscopic lobectomy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 334 cases underwent completely thoracoscopic lobectomy, which were identified as stage I~II non-small cell lung cancer by pathology. They were divided into three groups according to the order of vessel interruption: pulmonary vein first (Group V, n = 174), pulmonary artery first (Group A, n = 93), and artery-vein-artery group (Group M, n = 67). Their preoperative and operative conditions, and the postoperative survival, recurrence were compared. Results: Group A had less cases with history of smoking but more with history of pulmonary infection. The average bleeding amount during the operation in Group A is significantly less Group V, and Group M fell in between them. The duration of operation and postoperative complications were similar among the three groups. The types of tumor recurrence were also similar, which were mostly distant metastasis. There was no statistically significant difference in tumor-free survival and overall survival among the three groups. Conclusions: For the treatment of stage I~II non-small cell lung cancer using completely thoracoscopic lobectomy, pulmonary artery interruption first can reduce the bleeding amount without affecting the operative difficulty and postoperative complications. The sequence of vessel interruption during lobectomy by thoracoscopic surgery would not affect tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival. PMID:26289504

  7. 20 CFR 1002.153 - If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, is the employee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, is the employee permitted upon request to use accrued vacation, annual or similar leave with pay during the service? Can the employer require the employee to use accrued leave during a period of service?...

  8. 20 CFR 1002.152 - If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, are there any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, are there any circumstances under which the employee is not entitled to the non-seniority rights and benefits ordinarily granted to similarly situated employees on furlough or leave of absence? 1002.152...

  9. 20 CFR 1002.152 - If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, are there any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, are there any circumstances under which the employee is not entitled to the non-seniority rights and benefits ordinarily granted to similarly situated employees on furlough or leave of absence? 1002.152...

  10. 20 CFR 1002.153 - If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, is the employee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, is the employee permitted upon request to use accrued vacation, annual or similar leave with pay during the service? Can the employer require the employee to use accrued leave during a period of service?...

  11. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design and the Difference-in-Difference Design in Educational Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andrée; Zhu, Pei; Jacob, Robin; Bloom, Howard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the validity and precision of two nonexperimental study designs (NXDs) that can be used in educational evaluation: the comparative interrupted time series (CITS) design and the difference-in-difference (DD) design. In a CITS design, program impacts are evaluated by looking at whether the treatment group deviates from its…

  12. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  13. Morphogenesis, Flowering, and Gene Expression of Dendranthema grandiflorum in Response to Shift in Light Quality of Night Interruption.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Gyeong; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    The impact of shifts in the spectral quality of light on morphogenesis, flowering, and photoperiodic gene expression during exposure to light quality of night interruption (NI) was investigated in Dendranthema grandiflorum. The circadian rhythms of plants grown in a closed walk-in growth chamber were interrupted at night for a total of 4 h, using light-emitting diodes with an intensity of 10 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ PPF. The light quality of the NI was shifted from one wavelength to another after the first 2 h. Light treatments consisting of all possible pairings of blue (B), red (R), far-red (Fr), and white (W) light were tested. Plants in the NI treatment groups exposed to Fr light grew larger than plants in other treatment groups. Of plants in NI treatment groups, those in the NI-WB treatment grew the least. In addition, the impact of shifts in the light quality of NI on leaf expansion was greater in treatment groups exposed to a combination of either B and R or R and W light, regardless of their order of supply. Flowering was observed in the NI-RB, NI-FrR, NI-BFr, NI-FrB, NI-WB, NI-FrW, NI-WFr, NI-WR, and SD (short-day) treatments, and was especially promoted in the NI-BFr and NI-FrB treatments. In a combined shift treatment of B and R or B and W light, the NI concluded with B light (NI-RB and NI-WB) treatment induced flowering. The transcriptional factors phyA, cry1 and FTL (FLOWERING LOCUS T) were positively affected, while phyB and AFT were negatively affected. In conclusion, morphogenesis, flowering, and transcriptional factors were all significantly affected either positively or negatively by shifts in the light quality of NI. The light quality of the first 2 h of NI affected neither morphogenesis nor flowering, while the light quality of the last 2 h of NI significantly affected both morphogenesis and flowering. PMID:26197314

  14. Assessment of airway function in young children with asthma: comparison of spirometry, interrupter technique, and tidal flow by inductance plethsmography.

    PubMed

    Black, J; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Gordon, J; Findlay, A L; Helms, P J

    2004-06-01

    The assessment of airway function in young children requires adaptation of techniques designed for adults and/or application of techniques that do not require complex respiratory maneuvers. We sought to assess two methods of measuring airway function: time to peak expiratory flows as a ratio of expiratory time (T(PTEF)/T(E)), derived from respiratory inductance plethysmography, and total respiratory resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint), both obtained during quiet tidal breathing. Both techniques were referenced to FEV1 and flow at 50% expired volume (FEF50) from conventional spirometry in 30 children aged 4-8 years (median age, 6.9; range, 4.5-8.5 years) with a physician diagnosis of asthma and who were able to perform FEV1 with a repeatability of at least 8%. T(PTEF)/T(E) and Rint were performed in random order followed by spirometry, in order to reduce the possible effects of pulmonary stretch on tidal breathing measures. Coefficients of variation (CV) and mean absolute change/baseline standard deviation were derived for each measurement. Baseline FEV1 did not correlate significantly with T(PTEF)/T(E) (r = 0.025), but did correlate with Rint (r = 0.737, P < 0.001); respective relationships for change after bronchodilator were r = 0.09 (ns) and r = 0.64 (P < 0.001). FEF50 also correlated significantly with Rint (R = 0.769, P < 0.001) but not with T(PTEF)/T(E). FEV1 and FEF50 both increased postbronchodilator, with respective mean changes of 11.4% and 28% (P < 0.001), while Rint decreased by 24.3% (P < 0.001). No significant changes were noted for T(PTEF)/T(E). T(PTEF)/T(E) derived from inductance plethysmography does not detect mild airway obstruction or modest changes in airway caliber following bronchodilator in young children with asthma. The interrupter technique may have a role in assessing baseline airway function and response to therapy in children unable to perform reliable spirometry, and/or when the investigator wishes to avoid the possible

  15. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy – A qualitative study at the Lighthouse Clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Julia; Namakhoma, Ireen; Tweya, Hannock; Phiri, Sam; Schnitzler, Paul; Neuhann, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings moved impressively towards universal access. Along with these achievements, public health HIV programs are facing a number of challenges including the support of patients on lifelong therapy and the prevention of temporary/permanent loss of patients in care. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption (TI) can inform strategies for improving drug adherence and retention in care. Objective To evaluate key characteristics of patients resuming ART after TI at the Lighthouse Clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, and to identify their reasons for interrupting ART. Design This study uses a mixed methods design to evaluate patients resuming ART after TI. We analysed an assessment form for patients with TI using pre-defined categories and a comments field to identify frequently stated reasons for TI. Additionally, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews to deepen our understanding of common reasons for TI. In-depth interviews also included the patients’ knowledge about ART and presence of social support systems. Qualitative data analysis was based on a thematic framework approach. Results A total of 347 patients (58.2% female, average age 35.1±11.3 years) with TI were identified. Despite the presence of social support and sufficient knowledge of possible consequences of TI, all patients experienced situations that resulted in TI. Analysis of in-depth interviews led to new and distinct categories for TI. The most common reason for TI was travel (54.5%, n=80/147), which further differentiated into work- or family-related travel. Patients also stated transport costs and health-care-provider-related reasons, which included perceived/enacted discrimination by health care workers. Other drivers of TI were treatment fatigue/forgetfulness, the patients’ health status, adverse drug effects, pregnancy/delivery, religious belief or perceived/enacted stigma. Conclusions To adequately

  16. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease

  17. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-04-14

    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation, so this migration was mostly caused by superheating of primary Ni3Sn2 phase below TP, leading to nucleation and migration of liquid film at this interface. This migration can be classified as a kind of liquid film migration (LFM), and the migration velocity at the horizontal direction has been confirmed to be much faster than that along the direction of temperature gradient. Analytical prediction has shown that the migration of liquid film could be divided into two stages depending on whether primary phase exists below TP. If the isothermal annealing time is not long enough, both the liquid film and the primary/peritectic interface migrate towards the primary phase until the superheated primary phase has all been dissolved. Then, this migration process towards higher temperature is controlled by temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM).

  18. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-01-01

    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn–Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation, so this migration was mostly caused by superheating of primary Ni3Sn2 phase below TP, leading to nucleation and migration of liquid film at this interface. This migration can be classified as a kind of liquid film migration (LFM), and the migration velocity at the horizontal direction has been confirmed to be much faster than that along the direction of temperature gradient. Analytical prediction has shown that the migration of liquid film could be divided into two stages depending on whether primary phase exists below TP. If the isothermal annealing time is not long enough, both the liquid film and the primary/peritectic interface migrate towards the primary phase until the superheated primary phase has all been dissolved. Then, this migration process towards higher temperature is controlled by temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM). PMID:27075006

  19. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-04-01

    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn–Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation, so this migration was mostly caused by superheating of primary Ni3Sn2 phase below TP, leading to nucleation and migration of liquid film at this interface. This migration can be classified as a kind of liquid film migration (LFM), and the migration velocity at the horizontal direction has been confirmed to be much faster than that along the direction of temperature gradient. Analytical prediction has shown that the migration of liquid film could be divided into two stages depending on whether primary phase exists below TP. If the isothermal annealing time is not long enough, both the liquid film and the primary/peritectic interface migrate towards the primary phase until the superheated primary phase has all been dissolved. Then, this migration process towards higher temperature is controlled by temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM).

  20. Effect of chromium on larval chironomidae as determined by the optical-fiber light-interruption biomonitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Batac-Catalan, Z.; White, D.S.

    1981-10-01

    An optical-fiber light-interruption biomonitoring system for examining the activity of aquatic invertebrates has been developed to test potential toxicity of chromium and other compounds on tubicolous larval Diptera (Chironomidae). Chromium has been identified as a heavy metal of environmental concern, but little is known of its effect on aquatic biota at chronic or sublethal levels. When movement patterns of midge larvae, Chironomus tentans, are monitored by the system, three distinct phases are revealed: respiratory undulations, crawling-type movements, and rest or immobility. It has been shown in other studies that the rates and duration of movements are controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature. Chromium alters the duration but not the rates of the three movement phases. At 0.01 ppm chromium, larval movement patterns were not altered. At 0.1 and 1.0 ppm, the duration of the respiratory phase was suppressed. Levels from 10.0 to 1000.0 ppm progressively increased the duration of this phase. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ for fourth instar larvae was calculated to be 61.0 ppm chromium, which shows that the change in respiratory movements does indicate potential lethality of the solutions. Thus, the biomonitoring system's sensitivity is apparent in detecting low-level effects of a heavy metal on this aquatic invertebrate.

  1. Design and implementation of embedded un-interruptible power supply system (EUPSS) for web-based mobile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-gan; Zhang, Xiao-dan

    2012-11-01

    With the growth of the amount of information manipulated by embedded application systems, which are embedded into devices and offer access to the devices on the internet, the requirements of saving the information systemically is necessary so as to fulfil access from the client and the local processing more efficiently. For supporting mobile applications, a design and implementation solution of embedded un-interruptible power supply (UPS) system (in brief, EUPSS) is brought forward for long-distance monitoring and controlling of UPS based on Web. The implementation of system is based on ATmega161, RTL8019AS and Arm chips with TCP/IP protocol suite for communication. In the embedded UPS system, an embedded file system is designed and implemented which saves the data and index information on a serial EEPROM chip in a structured way and communicates with a microcontroller unit through I2C bus. By embedding the file system into UPS system or other information appliances, users can access and manipulate local data on the web client side. Embedded file system on chips will play a major role in the growth of IP networking. Based on our experiment tests, the mobile users can easily monitor and control UPS in different places of long-distance. The performance of EUPSS has satisfied the requirements of all kinds of Web-based mobile applications.

  2. An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B; Cochran, John K

    2007-06-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance.

  3. Sentence intelligibility during segmental interruption and masking by speech-modulated noise: Effects of age and hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Bologna, William J.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how single-talker modulated noise impacts consonant and vowel cues to sentence intelligibility. Younger normal-hearing, older normal-hearing, and older hearing-impaired listeners completed speech recognition tests. All listeners received spectrally shaped speech matched to their individual audiometric thresholds to ensure sufficient audibility with the exception of a second younger listener group who received spectral shaping that matched the mean audiogram of the hearing-impaired listeners. Results demonstrated minimal declines in intelligibility for older listeners with normal hearing and more evident declines for older hearing-impaired listeners, possibly related to impaired temporal processing. A correlational analysis suggests a common underlying ability to process information during vowels that is predictive of speech-in-modulated noise abilities. Whereas, the ability to use consonant cues appears specific to the particular characteristics of the noise and interruption. Performance declines for older listeners were mostly confined to consonant conditions. Spectral shaping accounted for the primary contributions of audibility. However, comparison with the young spectral controls who received identical spectral shaping suggests that this procedure may reduce wideband temporal modulation cues due to frequency-specific amplification that affected high-frequency consonants more than low-frequency vowels. These spectral changes may impact speech intelligibility in certain modulation masking conditions. PMID:26093436

  4. Measurements and Modeling of Stress in Precipitation-Hardened Aluminum Alloy AA2618 during Gleeble Interrupted Quenching and Constrained Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobaut, Nicolas; Carron, Denis; Saelzle, Peter; Drezet, Jean-Marie

    2016-11-01

    Solutionizing and quenching are the key steps in the fabrication of heat-treatable aluminum parts such as AA2618 compressor impellers for turbochargers as they highly impact the mechanical characteristics of the product. In particular, quenching induces residual stresses that can cause unacceptable distortions during machining and unfavorable stresses in service. Predicting and controlling stress generation during quenching of large AA2618 forgings are therefore of particular interest. Since possible precipitation during quenching may affect the local yield strength of the material and thus impact the level of macroscale residual stresses, consideration of this phenomenon is required. A material model accounting for precipitation in a simple but realistic way is presented. Instead of modeling precipitation that occurs during quenching, the model parameters are identified using a limited number of tensile tests achieved after representative interrupted cooling paths in a Gleeble machine. This material model is presented, calibrated, and validated against constrained coolings in a Gleeble blocked-jaws configuration. Applications of this model are FE computations of stress generation during quenching of large AA2618 forgings for compressor impellers.

  5. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. Methods An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. Results The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip rate were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11293: 95% CI 5169 to 17416). Conclusions Brief interventions that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have short-term effects on travel behaviour. Repeated brief interventions at frequent intervals could contribute to increasing population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of active modes of transportation. PMID:22024219

  6. Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a new tool to interrupt seizures after cortical injury

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Davidson, Thomas J.; Frechette, Eric S.; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrocortical injuries, such as stroke, are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, yet mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. Here we report in rats the first evidence that the thalamus – a structure remote from but connected to the injured cortex – is required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex undergo changes in HCN channel expression and become hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy demonstrates that reducing their activity in real-time is sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, since it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast to existing treatments such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

  7. Influences of Cross-Border Mobility on Tuberculosis Diagnoses and Treatment Interruption Among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Deiss, Robert; Garfein, Richard S.; Lozada, Remedios; Burgos, Jose Luis; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Moser, Kathleen S.; Zuniga, Maria Luisa; Rodwell, Timothy C.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify correlates of reported lifetime diagnoses of TB among injection drug users in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. Methods. Injection drug users in Tijuana were recruited into a prospective cohort study during 2006 and 2007. We used weighted multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of TB diagnoses. Results. Of the 1056 participants, 103 (9.8%) reported a history of TB, among whom 93% received anti-TB medication and 80% were diagnosed in the United States. Treatment was prematurely halted among 8% of patients; deportation from the United States was the cause of half of these treatment interruptions. History of travel to (odds ratio [OR] = 6.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.53, 27.20) or deportation from (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.12) the United States and incarceration (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.06, 4.58) were independently associated with a reported lifetime diagnosis of TB. Conclusions. Mobility and migration are important factors in identifying and treating TB patients diagnosed in the US–Mexico border region. Strengthening capacity on both sides of the border to identify, monitor, and treat TB is a priority. PMID:19542040

  8. Hearing loss from interrupted, intermittent, and time varying non-Gaussian noise exposure: The applicability of the equal energy hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamernik, Roger P; Qiu, Wei; Davis, Bob

    2007-10-01

    Sixteen groups of chinchillas (N=140) were exposed to various equivalent energy noise paradigms at 100 dB(A) or 103 dB(A) SPL. Eleven groups received an interrupted, intermittent, and time varying (IITV) non-Gaussian exposure quantified by the kurtosis statistic. The IITV exposures, which lasted for 8 hday, 5 daysweek for 3 weeks, were designed to model some of the essential features of an industrial workweek. Five equivalent energy reference groups were exposed to either a Gaussian or non-Gaussian 5 days, 24 hday continuous noise. Evoked potentials were used to estimate hearing thresholds and surface preparations of the organ of Corti quantified the sensory cell population. For IITV exposures at an equivalent energy and kurtosis, the temporal variations in level did not alter trauma and in some cases the IITV exposures produced results similar to those found for the 5 day continuous exposures. Any increase in kurtosis at a fixed energy was accompanied by an increase in noise-induced trauma. These results suggest that the equal energy hypothesis is an acceptable approach to evaluating noise exposures for hearing conservation purposes provided that the kurtosis of the amplitude distribution is taken into consideration. Temporal variations in noise levels seem to have little effect on trauma. PMID:17902860

  9. Electrical impedance tomography for assessing ventilation/perfusion mismatch for pulmonary embolism detection without interruptions in respiration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan Trang; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Barry, Michael A; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Jin, Craig; McEwan, Alistair L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown high correlation between pulmonary perfusion mapping with impedance contrast enhanced Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and standard perfusion imaging methods such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT). EIT has many advantages over standard imaging methods as it is highly portable and non-invasive. Contrast enhanced EIT uses hypertonic saline bolus instead of nephrotoxic contrast medium that are utilized by CT and nuclear Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) scans. However, current implementation of contrast enhanced EIT requires induction of an apnea period for perfusion measurement, rendering it disadvantageous compared with current gold standard imaging modalities. In the present paper, we propose the use of a wavelet denoising algorithm to separate perfusion signal from ventilation signal such that no interruption in patient's ventilation would be required. Furthermore, right lung to left lung perfusion ratio and ventilation ratio are proposed to assess the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion for detection of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The proposed methodology was validated on an ovine model (n=3, 83.7±7.7 kg) with artificially induced PE in the right lung. The results showed a difference in right lung to left lung perfusion ratio between baseline and diseased states in all cases with all paired t-tests between baseline and PE yielding p <; 0.01, while the right lung to left lung ventilation ratio remained unchanged in two out of three experiments. Statistics were pooled from multiple repetitions of measurements per experiment.

  10. Research Designs for Intervention Research with Small Samples II: Stepped Wedge and Interrupted Time-Series Designs.

    PubMed

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    The stepped wedge design (SWD) and the interrupted time-series design (ITSD) are two alternative research designs that maximize efficiency and statistical power with small samples when contrasted to the operating characteristics of conventional randomized controlled trials (RCT). This paper provides an overview and introduction to previous work with these designs and compares and contrasts them with the dynamic wait-list design (DWLD) and the regression point displacement design (RPDD), which were presented in a previous article (Wyman, Henry, Knoblauch, and Brown, Prevention Science. 2015) in this special section. The SWD and the DWLD are similar in that both are intervention implementation roll-out designs. We discuss similarities and differences between the SWD and DWLD in their historical origin and application, along with differences in the statistical modeling of each design. Next, we describe the main design characteristics of the ITSD, along with some of its strengths and limitations. We provide a critical comparative review of strengths and weaknesses in application of the ITSD, SWD, DWLD, and RPDD as small sample alternatives to application of the RCT, concluding with a discussion of the types of contextual factors that influence selection of an optimal research design by prevention researchers working with small samples.

  11. Measurements and Modeling of Stress in Precipitation-Hardened Aluminum Alloy AA2618 during Gleeble Interrupted Quenching and Constrained Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobaut, Nicolas; Carron, Denis; Saelzle, Peter; Drezet, Jean-Marie

    2016-08-01

    Solutionizing and quenching are the key steps in the fabrication of heat-treatable aluminum parts such as AA2618 compressor impellers for turbochargers as they highly impact the mechanical characteristics of the product. In particular, quenching induces residual stresses that can cause unacceptable distortions during machining and unfavorable stresses in service. Predicting and controlling stress generation during quenching of large AA2618 forgings are therefore of particular interest. Since possible precipitation during quenching may affect the local yield strength of the material and thus impact the level of macroscale residual stresses, consideration of this phenomenon is required. A material model accounting for precipitation in a simple but realistic way is presented. Instead of modeling precipitation that occurs during quenching, the model parameters are identified using a limited number of tensile tests achieved after representative interrupted cooling paths in a Gleeble machine. This material model is presented, calibrated, and validated against constrained coolings in a Gleeble blocked-jaws configuration. Applications of this model are FE computations of stress generation during quenching of large AA2618 forgings for compressor impellers.

  12. Resistance to vemurafenib can be reversible after treatment interruption: a case report of a metastatic melanoma patient.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz-Wysocka, Małgorzata; Krokowicz, Lukasz; Kocur, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    About 40% to 60% of melanomas present BRAF mutation. Selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib are currently approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma patients with BRAF mutation. The treatment-induced tumor regression occurs in the majority of patients; however, acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors is observed in most of the patients after 6 to 7 months. After progression of the disease, the patient might be offered treatment with ipilimumab followed by chemotherapy. Subsequent lines of systemic treatment of metastatic melanoma patients do not exist.Here we report a case of a 59-year-old woman with a diagnosis of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma that responded to initial treatment with vemurafenib. Subsequently, after disease progression, the patient received chemotherapy. Since no clinical response to dacarbazine was observed, carboplatin with paclitaxel were applied. Transient partial response was obtained, which was followed by further disease progression. Then retreatment with vemurafenib was applied. The patient developed very short-term tumor regression and significant biochemical response (serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase) to the treatment. However, following 5 weeks of retreatment, the patient developed progression of the disease. Our clinical observation indicates that in melanoma patients who developed resistance to selective BRAF inhibitors, rechallenge after treatment interruption might be beneficial.

  13. Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome from Infancy to Adulthood: Clinical, Hormonal, and Radiological Assessment According to the Initial Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Céline; Zadro, Charline; Diene, Gwenaelle; Oliver, Isabelle; Pienkowski, Catherine; Jouret, Béatrice; Cartault, Audrey; Ajaltouni, Zeina; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Sevely, Annick; Tauber, Maithé; Edouard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) are initially referred for hypoglycemia during the neonatal period or growth retardation during childhood. PSIS is either isolated (nonsyndromic) or associated with extra-pituitary malformations (syndromic). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and long-term evolution in patients with PSIS according to the initial presentation. Study Design Sixty-seven patients with PSIS were included. Data from subgroups were compared: neonates (n = 10) versus growth retardation patients (n = 47), and syndromic (n = 32) versus nonsyndromic patients (n = 35). Results Neonates displayed a more severe hormonal and radiological phenotype than children referred for growth retardation, with a higher incidence of multiple hormonal deficiencies (100% versus 34%; P = 0.0005) and a nonvisible anterior pituitary lobe (33% versus 2%; P = 0.0017). Regular follow-up of growth might have allowed earlier diagnosis in the children with growth retardation, as decreased growth velocity and growth retardation were present respectively 3 and 2 years before referral. We documented a progressive worsening of endocrine impairment throughout childhood in these patients. Presence of extra-pituitary malformations (found in 48%) was not associated with more severe hormonal and radiological characteristics. Growth under GH treatment was similar in the patient groups and did not vary according to the pituitary MRI findings. Conclusions PSIS diagnosed in the neonatal period has a particularly severe hormonal and radiological phenotype. The progressive worsening of endocrine impairment throughout childhood justifies periodic follow-up to check for additional hormonal deficiencies. PMID:26562670

  14. Oceanic Density Fronts Steering Bottom-Current Induced Sedimentation Deduced from a 50 ka Contourite-Drift Record and Numerical Modeling (off NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Zhang, W.; Hofmann, A. L.; Lowemark, L. A.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    How bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters remains widely speculative. The geological approach of this study uses a transect of sediment cores and sediment echosounder profiles across a whole contourite system off NW Spain. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep moat has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Past deposition was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: < 4 cal ka BP) led to slightly current-influenced deposition of fine-grained sediments (10 µm) over the entire basin. In contrast, waxing-and-waning high-energy conditions (D/O events during Marine Isotope Stage 3; the Deglacial/early Holocene time interval at 17-4 cal ka BP) resulted in coarse grained (70 µm) deposition. Process-based numerical modelling demonstrates that pulse-like oceanic density fronts travelling within the transition zone of two water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sand from the moat and to subsequent upward transport over the crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose a conceptual model to explain how seafloor obstacles redirect and perturbate bottom currents. This model proposes water mass transition zone as an important high-energy medium, for oceanic density fronts to travel. On the respective time scale, the moat itself seems to act as the main source for those sands, making a remote source and a long-distance sediment transport unnecessary.

  15. Paleomagnetic record in the Late Pleistocene loess-soil deposits of the Pekla section in the time interval 425-50 Ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, O. V.; Trubikhin, V. M.

    2011-08-01

    The composition, granulometry data, and concentration of grains that carry the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) are studied in the bottom 6.5 meters of the loess-soil deposits of the Pekla section (Azov coast, Krasnodar region). It was shown that these strata, which correspond to the 9th-11th marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) and cover the time interval ˜425-300 ka, are suitable for further paleomagnetic investigation. The deposits in the upper portion of the Inzhavino paleosoils (Likhvin Interstadial) contain the records of anomalous deviations of the direction of magnetization from the dipole field at the sampling site. The studied interval was sampled by taking two hand blocks from four sampling levels, which minimizes the errors due to the specimen cutting. This anomaly dated ˜300 ka possibly corresponds to the Biva-II geomagnetic excursion. However, the studies of implications of anisotropy in magnetic susceptibility (AMS) for the direction of natural remanent magnetization (NMR) have shown that parts of the samples from the Inzhavino paleosoils and the underlying loess horizon are magnetically anisotropic, which is characteristic for biogenic magnetite grains, while other parts of the samples exhibit plane anisotropy typical for natural sedimentary structures. A weak correlation between the time series of averaged curves of relative paleointensity, NRM20/ARM20 (and NRM20/ K) for the loess horizons of the Pekla section and the global composite reference curve of relative paleointensity, Sint-800, in the time intervals 200-130 ka and 370-320 ka indicates that the paleomagnetic records have been imprinted not only on the detritic magnetic grains but also on the grains produced by chemical reactions and the life processes of bacteria.

  16. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Suzuki, M.; Hawkins, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if the

  17. An Interrupted Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Dee

    2011-01-01

    It took the author 22 years to get her first undergraduate degree. Not that she studied for all that time, of course, but she first enrolled in 1976 and she didn't graduate with her BA until April 1998. Why did it take so long? Was there something wrong with her? Was there anything anyone else could have done to help her get through university…

  18. Water Supply Interruptions and Suspected Cholera Incidence: A Time-Series Regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Methods and Findings Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54–4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile—4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%–33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91–7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%–42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any

  19. Kinetics and activation energy of recrystallization of intracellular ice in mouse oocytes subjected to interrupted rapid cooling.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Intracellular ice formation (IIF) is almost invariably lethal. In most cases, it results from the too rapid cooling of cells to below -40 degrees C, but in some cases it is manifested, not during cooling, but during warming when cell water that vitrified during cooling first devitrifies and then recrystallizes during warming. Recently, Mazur et al. [P. Mazur, I.L. Pinn, F.W. Kleinhans, Intracellular ice formation in mouse oocytes subjected to interrupted rapid cooling, Cryobiology 55 (2007) 158-166] dealt with one such case in mouse oocytes. It involved rapidly cooling the oocytes to -25 degrees C, holding them 10 min, rapidly cooling them to -70 degrees C, and warming them slowly until thawed. No IIF occurred during cooling but intracellular freezing, as evidenced by blackening of the cells, became detectable at -56 degrees C during warming and was complete by -46 degrees C. The present study differs in that the oocytes were warmed rapidly from -70 degrees C to temperatures between -65 and -50 degrees C and held for 3-60 min. This permitted us to determine the rate of blackening as function of temperature. That in turn allowed us to calculate the activation energy (E(a)) for the blackening process; namely, 27.5 kcal/mol. This translates to about a quadrupling of the blackening rate for every 5 degrees C rise in temperature. These data then allowed us to compute the degree of blackening as a function of temperature for oocytes warmed at rates ranging from 10 to 10,000 degrees C/min. A 10-fold increase in warming rate increased the temperature at which a given degree of blackening occurred by 8 degrees C. These findings have significant implications both for cryobiology and cryo-electron microscopy.

  20. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings During Interrupted High-Heat-Flux Laser Testing using Luminescence Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and