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Sample records for 50ka dc-current interruption

  1. A passive DC current sensing methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong F.; Liu, Huan; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Yang; Xian, Weikang

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a method for passive sensing a two-wire DC current without using any cord separator. In this method, a piezoelectric thin-film cantilever with a micro-magnet on its end is positioned near a power cord. The DC current in the power cord induces a magnetic field, which generates a magnetic force acting on the micro-magnet. Consequently, the piezoelectric cantilever is bent and induces an output voltage that is sensitive to small variations of DC currents. A prototype device has been fabricated and experimentally studied. It was found that the initial peak amplitude of the piezoelectric output voltage increases linearly with the DC current value upon "ON-OFF" switching. Compared to the Hall-effect based sensing, this method has the advantages of no need of driving voltage or cord separators even for two-wire appliance cords. Apart from the conventional consumer electronics, this method may have a wide application foreground in the new emerging fields, such as energy vehicles, lithium ion battery, or smart power grid.

  2. A SQUID series array dc current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, J.; Drung, D.

    2008-09-01

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors are used to sense changes in various physical quantities, which can be transformed into changes in the magnetic flux threading the SQUID loop. We have developed a novel SQUID array dc current sensor. The device is based on a series array of identical dc SQUIDs. An input signal current to be measured is coupled tightly but non-uniformly to the SQUID array elements. The input signal coupling to the individual array elements is chosen such that a single-valued, non-periodic overall voltage response is obtained. Flux offsets in the individual SQUIDs which would compromise the sensor voltage response are avoided or can be compensated. We present simulations and experimental results on the SQUID Array for Dc (SQUAD) current sensor current sensor performance. A dc current resolution of <1 nA in a measurement bandwidth of 0-25 Hz is achieved for an input inductance of LIn<3 nH.

  3. A ˜50 ka record of monsoonal variability in the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Sarkar, Anindya; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-04-01

    Pollen, phytoliths and δ 13C signatures of soil organic matter from two fluvial sedimentary sequences of the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas are used to portray palaeoclimatic oscillations and their impact on regional plant communities over the last ˜50 ka. Quantitative palaeoclimate estimation using coexistence approach on pollen data and other proxies indicate significant oscillations in precipitation during the late part of MIS 3 (46.4-25.9 ka), early and middle part of MIS 2 (25.9-15.6 ka), and 5.4 to 3.5 ka. Middle to late MIS 3 (ca 46.4-31 ka.) was characterized by a comparatively low monsoonal activity and slightly higher temperature than that during ca 31 ka onwards. Simultaneous expansion of deciduous trees and chloridoid grasses also imply a drier and warmer phase. Between 31 and 22.3 ka (late MIS 3 to mid-MIS 2), higher precipitation and a slightly cooler temperature led to an increase in evergreen elements over deciduous taxa and wet-loving panicoid grasses over dry-loving chloridoid grasses than earlier. After ca 22.3 ka, shrinking of forest cover, expansion of C4 chloridoid grasses, Asteraceae and Cheno-ams in the vegetation with lowering of temperature and precipitation characterized the onset of the LGM which continued till 18.3 ka. End of the LGM is manifested by a restoration in the forest cover and in the temperature and precipitation regime. Later, during 5.4 to 4.3 ka, a strong monsoonal activity supported a dense moist evergreen forest cover that subsequently declined during 4.3 to 3.5 ka. A further increase in deciduous elements and non-arboreals might be a consequence of reduced precipitation and higher temperature during this phase. A comparison between monsoonal rainfall, MAT and palaeoatmospheric CO2 with floral dynamics since last ˜50 ka indicates that these fluctuations in plant succession were mainly driven by monsoonal variations.

  4. 14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volcán Galeras, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, N. G.; Calvache V, M. L.; Williams, S. N.

    1997-05-01

    Volcán Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO 2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new 14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and

  5. 14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volcán Galeras, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Volcán Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and

  6. A critique of the chronometric evidence for hominid fossils: I. Africa and the Near East 500-50 ka.

    PubMed

    Millard, Andrew R

    2008-06-01

    The chronometric dating evidence for all hominid fossils from Africa and the Near East that have previously been dated to 500-50 ka is critically assessed using the concept of chronometric hygiene, and these dates are revised using Bayesian statistical analyses where possible. Sixteen relevant hominid sites lacking chronometric evidence are briefly discussed. Chronometric evidence from 37 sites is assessed in detail. The dates for many hominid fossils are poorly constrained, with a number dated by comparisons of faunal assemblages-a method that does not have good chronological resolution for much of the last million years. For sites with stratigraphic sequences of dates, it is generally possible to refine the dating, but in some cases, the revised chronology is less precise than previous chronologies. Fossils over 200 ka in age tend to be poorly dated, but for the last 200 kyr, dating is better due to the availability of electron-spin-resonance and thermoluminescence dating. Consideration of the chronologies favored by the proponents of the out-of-Africa and multiregional hypotheses of human evolution shows their selectivity. The chronological assessment of the fossils here is compatible with either hypothesis. If evolutionary schemes that do not rely on the morphology of the hominid fossils to decide the sequence of fossils are to be built, then further dating is required, alongside full publication of existing dates.

  7. Changes in the geometry and strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial (20-50 ka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M.; Pichat, Sylvain; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Gherardi, Jeanne; Govin, Aline; Lippold, Jörg; Thil, François

    2016-11-01

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Heinrich stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present-day North Atlantic deep water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow, southward-flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

  8. Eolian depositional phases during the past 50 ka and inferred climate variability for the Pampean Sand Sea, western Pampas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripaldi, Alfonsina; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    The Pampean Sand Sea, which occurs from the Argentinian Pampas to the eastern Andean piedmont, hosts presently stabilized dune fields spanning the late Quaternary. This study integrates previous results and presents new geomorphic, stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronologic data for nineteen >2 m-thick eolian successions for the San Luis paleo-dune field, western Pampas, to better constrain the depositional history. Six eolian depositional phases are identified spanning the past 50 ka, interposed with paleosols and/or bounded by erosive surfaces. Age control was from 61 OSL ages of small aliquots of quartz grains from eolian stratigraphic units. The inferred timing of eolian phases are at ca. 70 ± 10 yr, 190 ± 20 yr, 12 to 1 ka, 22 to 17 ka, 29 to 24 ka, and 40 to 32 ka. A maximum span for periods of pedogenesis at ca. 12 to 17 ka, 22 to 24 ka, and 29 to 32 ka was provided by bounding OSL ages, which broadly overlap with high stands of pluvial lakes and glacier advances in the central Andes. We infer that the added precipitation may reflect expansion of the Southern Hemisphere monsoon, associated with Northern Hemisphere Heinrich events, leading to episodes of significantly wetter conditions (>350 mm MAP) to at least 35° S. Most of the Holocene (12 ka to 0.8 ka) was characterized by sand sheet deposit under drier than present conditions (100-450 mm MAP), associated with Monte-type vegetation (shrub steppe). The latest two eolian depositional phases, occurred at ca. 190 and 70 yr ago, during the historic period with European settlement and are related to anthropogenic landscape disturbance, though the youngest phase was concomitant with 1930s drought. Wet conditions dominated since ca. AD 1970 with new lakes and rivers forming across this eolian terrain; an incongruous environmental response in reference to drier conditions for most of the Holocene.

  9. Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations of the 20-50ka interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménabréaz, L.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    To better constrain the Earth's dipole moment changes at the time of the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, we reconstructed the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production variations in the atmosphere using authigenic 10Be/9Be records measured along two marine sediment sequences from the north-east Atlantic (Portuguese margin) and west-equatorial Pacific (Papua-New Guinea margin) oceans. These two records evidence an almost doubling of the 10Be production at ~41 ka, thus assignable to the geomagnetic dipole low associated to the Laschamp excursion. The compilation of authigenic 10Be/9Be marine records provides a stack which indicates that the global 10Be production rates at 41 ka were enhanced by a ~1.5 factor compared to the average over the 20-50 ka interval. The comparison of this authigenic 10Be/9Be marine stack with the Greenland 10Be flux record (smoothed by 1000-year averaging) evidences a good coherency of the timing and amplitude of 10Be production recorded at high, mid and low latitudes. This confirms that the 10Be overproduction signal has a global significance, as expected from a geomagnetic dipole moment loss. The calibration of the 10Be/9Be stack using absolute virtual dipole moment values provides an independent tool to reconstruct geomagnetic dipole moment variations. This allows computing the loss rate leading to the Laschamp dipole minimum (~ -1.5 x 1022 A.m2.ka-1), which constitutes an interesting criterion to assess the loss rate of the historical field. In constrast with relative paleointensity records and absolute paleointensity data sets, the absence of significant cosmogenic enhancement at the age of 34 ka suggests that the Mono Lake dipole low was not sufficient to trigger a significant cosmogenic overproduction. This demonstrates that if the Mono lake excursion really occurred at that time, the duration and amplitude of the dipole weakening were very limited compared to that of the Laschamp. The 10Be overproduction quantified in this study

  10. DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (∂Bz/∂x, ∂Bz/∂y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

  11. Linking the10Be continental record of Lake Baikal to marine and ice archives of the last 50 ka: Implication for the global dust-aerosol input

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Peck, J.; King, J.; Colman, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present here a 10Be profile from the continental sediments of Lake Baikal (the world's largest fresh water lake), which, for the first time, shows the ??? 40 ka 10Be enhancement and a pattern that strongly matches those from the marine and ice records for the last 50 ka. This finding provides a new horizon for global and regional correlation of continental archives. Additionally, our VADM-predicted 10Be production confirms and further strengthens a common global cause (geomagnetic field intensity) for the change in atmospheric 10Be over the last 50 ka. We also show that most of the 10Be inventory to the lake has been provided by riverine input, but with a significant addition from direct precipitation and dust-aerosol fallout. We estimate a higher dust-aerosol contribution of 10Be during the Holocene and interstadial stage 3 (22-50 ka) as compared with the glacial period (12-22 ka). Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  13. SIM regional comparison of ac-dc current transfer difference SIM.EM-K12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lillo, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The ac-dc current transfer difference identified as SIM.EM.K-12 began in July 2010 and was completed in September 2012. Six NMIs in the SIM region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay), INMETRO (Brazil) and NIS (Egypt). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc current transfer difference of the participants NMIs. The ac-dc current transfer differences of the travelling standard had been measured at 10 mA and 5 A at 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz and 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons (CCEM-K12), through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons (INTI, NRC and NIST). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc current transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Circuit monitors powerline interruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Stricklen, J. O.

    1977-01-01

    Simple circuit when combined with pulse detector detects momentary interruptions of 400-cycle ac signal. Circuit has been used during shock and vibration testing of electronic hardware to determine if tests caused interruptions of normal circuit operation.

  15. Multidisciplinary study of sediments deposited in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) during the last 50 ka: information on changes of ice extent during the glacial-interglacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carlo, Paola; Baneschi, Ilaria; Bertagnini, Antonella; Boschi, Chiara; Cascella, Antonio; Colizza, Ester; Di Roberto, Alessio; Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Finocchiaro, Furio; Landi, Patrizia; Lirer, Fabrizio; Pompilio, Massimo; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Sprovieri, Mario; Wrinkler, Aldo

    2013-04-01

    In the Ross Sea (Antarctica), sedimentation is controlled by the dynamics of the ice shelves, fluctuations of the ice sheets extensions (Eastern and Western) and volcanic activity from several volcanic complex of the Victoria Land. Marine sediments consisting of alternated glacigenic, biogenic and volcanic deposits can be interpreted in terms of changes in paleoclimate and paleoenvironment conditions. In this project we present a multidisciplinary study (comprising tephrostratigraphy, petrology, paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, TIC/TOC geochemistry, Ar/Ar dating, palinology and integrated biostratigraphy of forams and calcareous nannoplankton) of the sediments recovered in selected cores from Ross Sea during 1999 and 2000 cruises and stored in the Italian archive at Museo Nazionale dell'Antartide (Trieste). Results provide new data on local and/or global changes of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental conditions over the past 50 Ka. Furthermore, the study of the recovered volcanic deposits adds new information about the poorly known, recent volcanic activity in the Victoria Land area.

  16. Minimizing Classroom Interruptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    Offers suggestions for minimizing classroom interruptions, such as suggesting to the principal that announcements not be read over the intercom during class time and arranging desks and chairs so as to minimize visual distractions. Contains a school interruption survey form. (JC)

  17. DC-current induced magneto-oscillations in very high-mobility 2D electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. L.; Zhang, Chi; Du, R. R.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2007-03-01

    We report on a systematic experimental study of DC-current induced magneto-oscillations [1] using Hall bar samples of very high-mobility (8-20 x 10^6 cm^2/Vs) GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures. Previously we show that remarkable nonlinear resistance and 1/B oscillations can arise when a high bias current (Ix) is passed through a Hall bar (width w), and the effect can be explained by a Zener tunneling model in the presence of a tilting Hall field [1]. Data of resistance Rxx≡Vx/Ix, differential resistance rxx≡Vx/Ix, and rxx'≡rxx/Ix in higher mobility samples, which show higher order oscillations, have confirmed the validity of this model. Our temperature dependent date show that this effect can persist to kBT>φc, where φc is the cyclotron energy. [1] Yang et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 076801 (2002).

  18. Interrupted monogroove slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor); Kosson, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An interrupted monogroove slot in a heat pipe facilitates priming of the heat pipe under zero gravity conditions by preventing the monogroove slot from completely priming before the liquid channel is primed.

  19. Development and interrupting tests on 250KV 8KA HVDC circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuyama, S.; Arimatsu, K.; Hirata, K.; Kato, Y.; Yoshioka, Y.

    1985-09-01

    This paper describes the circuit and component selections, development and equivalent circuit test results on an HVDC circuit breaker for an HVDC transmission line. A puffer type SF/sub 6/ gas interrupter for AC circuit breakers is utilized for interrupting DC current with injection of high-frequency inverse current from a commutating capacitor precharged to HVDC line voltage. Also, the effectiveness of application of the HVDC breaker to an HVDC system with two parallel transmission lines is demonstrated through the EMTP simulation.

  20. Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 50 ka at ODP Site 1233: Continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pisias, N.G.; Heusser, L.; Heusser, C.; Hostetler, S.W.; Mix, A.C.; Weber, M.

    2006-01-01

    Site 1233 drilled during Leg 202 of the Ocean Drilling Program provides a detailed record of marine and continental climate change in the Southeast Pacific and South American continent. Splits from over 500 samples taken at 20 cm intervals for quantitative analysis of radiolarian and pollen populations yield a temporal resolution of 200-400 years. In each sample, 39 pollen taxa and 40 radiolarian species and genera were evaluated. Age control is provided by 25 AMS 14C dates [Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J., 2004. Science 304, 1959-1962]. Multivariate statistical analyses of these data allow us to conclude the following: (1) During the past 50 ka, the region of the central Chile coast is not directly influenced by polar water from the Antarctic region. (2) Changes in ocean conditions off central Chile during this time interval primarily reflect north-south shifts in the position of the South Pacific transition zone. (3) Changes in Chilean vegetation reflect comparable latitudinal shifts in precipitation and the position of the southern westerlies. (4) The first canonical variate of radiolarian and pollen records extracted from Site 1233 are remarkably similar to each other as well as to temperature records from the Antarctic, which suggests that marine and continental climate variability in the region is tightly coupled at periods longer than 3000 years. (5) The phase coupling of these climate records, which lead variations of continental erosion based on iron abundance at the same site, are consistent with a hypothesis that erosion is linked to relatively long (i.e, few thousand years) response times of the Patagonian ice sheet, and thus is not a direct indicator of regional climate. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AC losses in a HTS coil carrying DC current in AC external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, J.; Zushi, Y.; Fukushima, M.; Tsukamoto, O.; Suzuki, E.; Hirakawa, M.; Kikukawa, K.

    2003-10-01

    We electrically measured AC losses in a Bi2223/Ag-sheathed pancake coil excited by a DC current in AC external magnetic field. Losses in the coil contain two kinds of loss components that are the magnetization losses and dynamic resistance losses. In the measurement, current leads to supply a current to the coil were specially arranged to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the coil current and the AC external magnetic field. A double pick-up coils method was used to suppress a large inductive voltage component contained in voltage signal for measuring the magnetization losses. It was observed that the magnetization losses were dependent on the coil current and that a peak of a curve of the loss factor vs. amplitude of the AC external magnetic field shifted to lower amplitude of the AC magnetic field as the coil current increased. This result suggests the full penetration magnetic field of the coil tape decreases as the coil current increases. The dynamic resistance losses were measured by measuring a DC voltage appearing between the coil terminals. It was observed that the DC voltage appearing in the coil subject to the AC external magnetic field was much larger than that in the coil subject to DC magnetic field.

  2. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  3. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. ); Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Schafer, D.A. )

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This smoking neutral'' results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  4. A regional overview of the last glacial period in the temperate NE Atlantic: varying paleoproductivity centers over the last 50 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Ganne, Axelle

    2015-04-01

    Recent palynological investigations carried out in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz (MD99-2339 core) over MIS 3 enable to consider dinoflagellate cyst assemblage patterns over the last 50 ka BP through a compilation of 6 cores from the NE subtropical Atlantic to the Northern Bay of Biscay (also including cores MD95-2042, MD95-2043, MD04-2805CQ, VK03-58bis). Dinocyst signals depict hydrological front latitudinal shifts over the last glacial and associated sea-surface consequences regarding past regimes of primary productivity. We show here new data clearly evidencing subtropical latitudes of Cadiz as being as productive areas over the last glacial as recorded today in the septentrional part of the Bay of Biscay, especially between GI 8 and GI 12. We especially focus on dinocyst-species Lingulodinium machaerophorum relative abundances and absolute concentrations that we first evidence as a powerful tool to reconstruct and discuss productivity shifts through time in the temperate North Atlantic. This spatio-temporal synthesis bring important evidences of fast migrating paleoproductiviy centers from the last glacial period to present, implying also large consequences on the biological pump through time. Regarding this specific session, 5 of the 6 cores discussed here were retrieved by the R/V Marion Dufresne through 3 different cruises: Core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170m water depth, 18.54m long) was retrieved in a contouritic field in the oriental part of the Gulf of Cadiz by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1999 International Marine Global Change Studies V (IMAGES V) cruise (Labeyrie, Jansen and Cortijo, 2003). Cores MD95-2042 (37°48'N, 10°10'W, 3146m water depth, 39.56m long) and MD95-2043 (36°8.6'N, 2°37.3'W, 1841m water depth, 36m long) were retrieved from the SW Iberian margin and the central Alboran Sea, respectively, by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1995 IMAGES I cruise (Bassinot and Labeyrie, 1996). Core MD04-2805 CQ (34

  5. Deconstruction as Narrative Interruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert-Walsh, James

    2007-01-01

    Because of the way it prioritizes "interruption" and calls into question the very possibility of producing coherent, self-contained narratives, the deconstructive work of Jacques Derrida is often thought to be intrinsically anti-narrative in its very structure; and yet there are those who insist that, to the contrary, deconstruction is a narrative…

  6. Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

  7. Composing Disability: Diagnosis, Interrupted.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Abby; Fisher, Joseph; Fletcher, Wade

    2016-12-01

    Writing is central both to the medical diagnostic codification of disability and to disabled people's efforts to interrupt, complicate, or disrupt dominant medical narratives. This Symposium, like the George Washington University conference from which it takes its name, creates space for diverse modes and genres of claiming authority regarding diagnosis and its cultural and material effects. "Queer" and "crip" interrogations of diagnosis illuminate its status as a cultural phenomenon, embracing culturally disavowed embodiments and embodied experiences as tools for diagnosing inegalitarian social relations and opportunities for cultural interventions. This Symposium traces the workings of diagnostic normativity manifested in experiences such as "disruptive deafness," unstable bodily materialities, pathologized grief and other forms of affective distress, and "surgical assemblages." It presents a diverse array of compositions, articulated on each writer's own terms, addressing a range of embodied experiences through multiple genres and voices, ranging from conversation transcript to scholarly essay, poetry, graphic memoir, and personal essay. Here, laypersons interrupt monologic medical diagnosis, claiming space to compose themselves. Together, the authors trace instances of corporeal "correction" back to the noxious agents, both environmental and political, that consistently breach the boundaries of corporeality.

  8. Oceanic density fronts steering bottom-current induced sedimentation deduced from a 50 ka contourite-drift record and numerical modeling (off NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Zhang, Wenyan; Hofmann, Antonia L.; Löwemark, Ludvig A.; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2015-03-01

    How the various bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of contourite drifts, i.e. of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters, usually remains widely speculative. This study uses a transect of six sediment cores and a sediment echosounder profile across a whole contourite system off NW Spain to address the sediment dynamics responsible for the depositional pattern. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep channel (moat) has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Deposition on the contourite drift in the past was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: <4 cal ka BP) led to slightly current-influenced deposition of fine-grained sediments (10 μm) in the entire basin. This regime was interrupted by periods of short-lasting waxing-and-waning high-energy conditions (D/O events during Marine Isotope Stage 3; the Deglacial/early Holocene time interval at 17-4 cal ka BP), resulting in the deposition of coarse sediments (70 μm). Process-based numerical modeling demonstrates that pulse-like oceanic density fronts traveling within the transition zone of two water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sands stored inside the drift's moat and to subsequent upward transport towards the drift's crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose

  9. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  10. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 105 A/cm2 dc Current

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 105 A/cm2 dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  11. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 10(5) A/cm(2) dc Current.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-08-22

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices.

  12. An architecture for intelligent task interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

    1990-01-01

    In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

  13. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R.; Tesche, F.M.; Schafer, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This ``smoking neutral`` results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  14. A socio-technical systems approach to studying interruptions: understanding the interrupter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Rivera, A Joy

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the cognitive processes underlying nurses' decision to interrupt other nurses. The Institute of Medicine (2000) reported that interruptions are likely contributors to medical errors. Unfortunately, the research to date has been quite homogenous, focusing only on the healthcare provider being interrupted, ignoring the true complexities of interruptions. This study took a socio-technical approach being the first to examine interruptions from the viewpoint of the interrupting nurse. Over 15 h of observations and 10 open-ended interviews with expert nurses in a Neuroscience Surgical Intensive Care Unit were conducted. It was found that nurses conduct a quick cost-benefit assessment to determine the interruptibility of other nurses and whether an interruption is value-added vs. non-value added. To complete the assessment, nurses consider several conditional factors related to the interruptee, the interrupter, and the nature of the interruption content, and different potential consequences of the interruption.

  15. Heat Pipe With Interrupted Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F.; Kosson, Robert L.; Edelstein, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Newer version of heat pipe slot interrupted by plug or, if heat pipe is cast, by bridge of heat-pipe material cast integrally across groove. Small barrier assists in priming heat pipe. Vapor and noncondensible gas still accumulates in liquid channel at evaporator before or during startup, but barrier keeps liquid out of small part of slot at bubble. Dry part of slot allows bubble to escape into vapor channel, making room for liquid to move in during startup.

  16. Electrical and mechanical performance difference on piezoelectric segmentation in a passive MEMS DC current sensor applicable to two-wire DC appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Fu, Yupeng; Wang, Dong F.

    2017-01-01

    As society develops in intelligence, DC is being widely used in all kinds of field in modern life, which means that a sensitive and convenient DC sensor is necessary to monitor it. Compared with other kinds of current sensor, the proposed passive MEMS DC current sensor has several significant features: power-free passive sensing, small size and low cost. In this work, the performance difference of a cantilever-based bending MEMS DC current sensor among three segmentation PZT plates was first experimentally discovered. The distribution difference of X-dir (X-direction) stress along the Y axis is confirmed through FEM analysis. An optimized structure with two slots at the root of the cantilever has been proposed to minimize the difference of average X-dir stress on an area attached to three PZT plates. A nearly linear relationship between the output voltage V output and the AC current has been obtained through both theoretical calculation and experimental verification. The sensitivity of the developed MEMS DC current sensor is 40-25 mV A-1 in the current range of 0-400 mA. It is found that there is a good consistency among the calculation, experiment and simulation results.

  17. Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

  18. Long period variability of a High Resolution Hydraulic Balance Proxy for Southern California and Northwestern Mexico: A 50 ka-long Sediment Record from Laguna Salada Basin, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aco-Palestina, A.; Contreras, J.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Hergeura, J. C.; Rendon-Marquez, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Salton Trough region of southern California and the Mexicali valley in northwestern Mexico are areas of rapid subsidence due to extension along the San Andreas-Imperial fault system and are being filled by clastic sediments transported by the Colorado River. The relatively high sedimentation rates of these basins have a high potential to preserve high-resolution climatic information. With this goal in mind, we drilled a 42 m-long core in the center of the Laguna Salada, a lacustrine basin located west of the Mexicali valley and to the south of the Salton Trough. Two 14C dates from plant remnants indicate sedimentation rates are in the order of 1mm/yr; based on this we estimate the age of the bottom of the core close to 50 Ka. This high sedimentation rate could in principle allow us to reconstruct the climatic variability of this hyperarid region on timescales ranging from centennial and millennial periodicities up to Milankovitch forcing. Here we present data on the first-order changes introduced by the later longer periods. Sedimentary facies in the core were identified based on color, granulometry, mineralogical composition and primary structures such as laminations, dissecation cracks, and bioturbation. Additionally, we obtained reflectivity of sediments every 5 mm to 1 cm, depending on the scale of primary structures. The recovered stratigraphy consists of three sedimentary successions. The lower part of the core is characterized by an alternation of mud and silt laminae of varying thickness between 5mm-1cm, probably deposited during stage 3. This ancient paleolake was dominated by sub-aqueous conditions with a permanent water table year-round. Good preservation of laminae suggests seasonal bottom anoxia. During the last glacial maximum, moisture conditions changed drastically. Laminations are replaced by finely stratified sand and further upsection by repetitive packages 50cm-thick composed of fine sand, brown mud, greenish silt and mud, and mud, caped

  19. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-05-11

    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  20. Stressing of turbine-generator-exciter shafts by variable-frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links and following disturbances at converter stations

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Bremner, J.J. )

    1994-09-01

    Ripple currents on the DC side of both HVDC synchronous and asynchronous. Links together with cleared HVDC and AC system disturbances can excite in some circumstances onerous torsional vibrations in large steam generator shafts. The problem has assumed importance in recent months on account of the HVDC Link between Scotland and Northern Ireland going ahead, on account of the proposed Eire/Wales Link, and because AC/DC/AC couplers are to be installed extensively to interconnect the East and West European Grid Systems. This paper discusses and analyses excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by (1) variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC currents in asynchronous Links, and (2) disturbances at bi-polar converter stations. The time response and tables show that for the systems studied variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC current in asynchronous Links can excite shaft torsional vibrations, the very small noncharacteristic currents could result in onerous shaft torques which might damage the machine, and that DC line faults at converter stations in close proximity of steam turbine-generator units can excite onerous turbine-generator shaft torsional response. Detailed simulation of the HVDC converter and generator is necessary for precise assessments of shaft torsional response following HVDC converter station faults. 500MW, 660MW, 1000MW and 1300MW machines are considered in the analyses that are made.

  1. Power links with Ireland -- Excitation of turbine-generator shaft torsional vibrations by variable frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Tay, B.W.; Kok, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    The paper describes an in-depth analysis of excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam-turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC currents in asynchronous Links. It extends earlier work to include an in depth analysis of system scaling factors for harmonic currents impressed on generators in Northern Ireland by an inverter and to investigate the phenomena for possible torsional vibrations in the generators by the Link. Frequencies at which shaft torsional vibrations would be excited by modulation product harmonics in 50Hz/50Hz asynchronous Links as a function of deviation in system frequency is reviewed. Relative noncharacteristic current levels for 50Hz/50Hz connectors are illustrated assuming ripple currents at the inverter which gives realistic harmonic voltages in a twelve-pulse bridge. The paper then shows that torques in machines in multi-machine networks may be estimated by proportioning HVDC link harmonic disturbance current appropriately to each machine at risk. It is concluded that variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC current in asynchronous links can excite sympathetic torsional vibrations in turbine-generator-exciter shafts.

  2. Combined complementary plasma diagnostics to characterize a 2f plasma with additional DC current with conditioning effects at the chamber wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klick, Michael; Rothe, Ralf; Baek, Kye Hyun; Lee, Eunwoo

    2016-09-01

    Multiple frequencies and DC current used in a low-pressure plasma rf discharge result in an increased complexity. This needs plasma diagnostics applied, in particular in a plasma process chamber. That is done under manufacturing conditions which restrict the applicable plasma diagnostics to non-invasive methods with small footprint. So plasma chamber parameters, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and self-excited electron spectroscopy (SEERS) are used to characterize the plasma and to understand chamber wall conditioning effects in an Ar plasma. The parameters are classified according to their origin--the region they are representative for. The center ion density is estimated from the DC current and compared to the SEERS electron density reflecting the electron density close to that at the chamber wall. The conditioning effects are caused by Si sputtering at a Si wafer changing the chamber wall state only when the chamber is clean, subsequent plasmas in the same chamber are not affected in that way. Through the combination of the complementary methods it can be shown that the chamber wall condition finally changes the radial plasma density distribution. Also the heating of electrons in the sheath is shown to be influenced by conditioning effects.

  3. Detection of DC currents and resistance measurements in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect experiments on Pt/YIG and Pt/NFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Daniel; Kuschel, Timo; Meyer, Sibylle; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Shen, Liming; Gupta, Arunava; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Reiss, Günter

    2016-05-01

    In this work we investigated thin films of the ferrimagnetic insulators Y 3Fe5O12 and NiFe2O4 capped with thin Pt layers in terms of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE). The electric response detected in the Pt layer under an out-of-plane temperature gradient can be interpreted as a pure spin current converted into a charge current via the inverse spin Hall effect. Typically, the transverse voltage is the quantity investigated in LSSE measurements (in the range of μV). Here, we present the directly detected DC current (in the range of nA) as an alternative quantity. Furthermore, we investigate the resistance of the Pt layer in the LSSE configuration. We found an influence of the test current on the resistance. The typical shape of the LSSE curve varies for increasing test currents.

  4. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  5. Vacuum interrupters and thyratrons as opening switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honig, E. M.

    High power opening switches for inductive storage for large scale energy storage applications are described. The triggered vacuum interrupter and the magnetically quenched thyratrons are discussed. By electrically retriggering the discharge in the vacuum interrupter between pulses, the dependence on mechanical motion is eliminated. This should enable repetition rate operation at 10 to 15 kHz while still maintaining the vacuum interrupter's proven interrupting performance of tens of kiloamps at tens of kilovolts. The magnetically quenched thyratron uses a cross magnetic field to raise the switch impedance by decreasing the electron mobility and driving the discharge into an arc chute wall where it is quenched. Attempts to understand the basic mechanisms involved and to increase the switch, ratings, and particularly the conduction time, are discussed.

  6. Practice Increases Procedural Errors After Task Interruption.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Erik M; Hambrick, David Z

    2017-03-16

    Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption. We found this effect, with practice generally improving speed and accuracy, but impairing accuracy after interruptions. The results show that positive effects of practice can interact with architectural constraints on episodic memory to have negative effects on performance. In practical terms, the results suggest that practice can be a risk factor for procedural errors in task environments with a high incidence of task interruption. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Checklist interruption and resumption: A linguistic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    This study forms part of a project investigating the relationships among the formal structure of aviation procedures, the ways in which the crew members are taught to execute them, and the ways in which thet are actually performed in flight. Specifically, this report examines the interactions between the performance of checklists and interruptions, considering both interruptions by radio communications and by other crew members. The data consists of 14 crews' performance of a full mission simulation of a higher ratio of checklist speech acts to all speech acts within the span of the performance of the checklist. Further, it is not number of interruptions but length of interruptions which is associated with crew performance quality. Use of explicit holds is also associated with crew performance.

  8. Ressox Control of QZSS During Communication Interruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    communication interruption (CI) above the equator occurs twice a day because of the need to avoid interference with other geostationary earth orbit...due to distance (orbit estimation), delay due to relativity effects, and errors caused by Earth’s motion, such as daily rotation, nutation , and... nutation 41 st Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 436 Elapsed numbers since interruption began (every 1.5 s) A p p lie d v o lt a

  9. Vacuum interrupters and thyratrons as opening switches

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The clear advantages of inductive storage for large scale energy storage applications are creating an increasing interest in the research and development of the opening switches required. Opening switches for single-shot inductive transfers have received considerable attention and are fairly well advanced. The problem addressed by this workshop of high power opening switches for high repetition rate applications is much more severe, however, and may well require a major research and development effort. Two candidates for such an opening switch, the triggered vacuum interrupter and the magnetically quenched thyratron, are discussed. By electrically retriggering the discharge in the vacuum interrupter between pulses, the dependence on mechanical motion is eliminated. This should enable repetition rate operation at 10 to 15 kHz while still maintaining the vacuum interrupter's proven interrupting performance of tens of kiloamps at tens of kilovolts. The magnetically quenched thyratron, on the other hand, uses a cross magnetic field to raise the switch impedance by decreasing the electron mobility and driving the discharge into an arc chute wall where it is quenched. Successful interruptions of 1 kA at 15 kV and 100 A at 50 kV after conduction for 10 ..mu..s have been demonstrated by previous researchers. Work at Los Alamos is directed toward understanding the basic mechanisms involved and increasing the switch ratings, particularly the conduction time.

  10. Interruption as a test of the user-computer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Mccarthy, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the effects different logic systems might have on interrupted operation, an algebraic calculator and a reverse polish notation calculator were compared when trained users were interrupted during problem entry. The RPN calculator showed markedly superior resistance to interruption effects compared to the AN calculator although no significant differences were found when the users were not interrupted. Causes and possible remedies for interruption effects are speculated. It is proposed that because interruption is such a common occurrence, it be incorporated into comparative evaluation tests of different logic system and control/display system and that interruption resistance be adopted as a specific design criteria for such design.

  11. Development of an in situ calibration method for current-to-voltage converters for high-accuracy SI-traceable low dc current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Yoon, Howard W.; Jarrett, Dean G.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    For photocurrent measurements with low uncertainties, wide dynamic range reference current-to-voltage converters and a new converter calibration method have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The high-feedback resistors of a reference converter were in situ calibrated on a high-resistivity, printed circuit board placed in an electrically shielded box electrically isolated from the operational amplifier using jumpers. The feedback resistors, prior to their installation, were characterized, selected and heat treated. The circuit board was cleaned with solvents, and the in situ resistors were calibrated using measurement systems for 10 kΩ to 10 GΩ standard resistors. We demonstrate that dc currents from 1 nA to 100 µA can be measured with uncertainties of 55 × 10-6 (k = 2) or lower, which are lower in uncertainties than any commercial device by factors of 10 to 30 at the same current setting. The internal (NIST) validations of the reference converter are described.

  12. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  13. Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kolbeinsson, Ari; Thorvald, Peter; Lindblom, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  14. Observation of self-magnetic field relaxations in Bi2223 and Y123 HTS tapes after over-current pulse and DC current operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallouli, M.; Sun, J.; Chikumoto, N.; Otabe, E. S.; Shyshkin, O.; Charfi-Kaddour, S.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The development of power transmission lines based on long-length HTS tapes requires the production of high quality tapes. Due to fault conditions, technical mistakes and human errors during the operation of a DC power transmission line, an over-current pulse, several times larger than the rated current, could occur. To study the effect of such over-current pulses on the transport current density distribution in the HTS tapes, we simulated two start-up scenarios for one BSCCO and two YBCO tapes. The first start-up scenario is an initial over-current pulse during which the transport current was turned on rapidly, rising to 900 A during the first milliseconds, then reduced to a 100 A DC current. The second start-up scenario is normal operation, and involved increasing the transport current slowly from 0 A to 100 A at a rate of 1 A/s. For both scenarios, we then measured the vertical component of the self-magnetic field by means of a Hall probe above the tape, and afterward, by solving a linear equation of the inverse problem we obtain the current density profiles. We observe a change of the self-magnetic field above the edge of the BSCCO and YBCO tapes during 30 min after the 5 ms of over-current pulse and during the normal operation. The current density profiles are peaked in the centre for over-current pulse, and more peaked around the edge of the HTS tape for normal operation, which means that the limited time over-current pulse changes the current density profiles of the HTS tapes. We observe also a loop of current for YBCO tapes and we show the role of the HTS tape stabilizer.

  15. Analysis of variable-frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC Links in stressing turbine-generator-exciter shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Bremner, J.J.

    1995-03-01

    Ripple currents on the DC side of both HVDC asynchronous and synchronous Links can excite in some circumstances onerous torsional vibrations in large steam generator shafts. The problem has assumed importance in recent months on account of the HVDC Link between Scotland and Northern Ireland going ahead, on account of the proposed Eire/Wales Link, because AC/DC/AC couplers are to be installed to interconnect the East and West European Grid Systems, and because resonances have been observed on machines in close proximity to AC/DCIAC couplers and HVDC Links. This paper discusses and analyses excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous Links. It presents technical knowledge not arranged for convenient reference heretofore in studying possible excitation of turbine-generator-v/ exciter shaft torsional vibrations by non-characteristic HVDC converter harmonic currents if a machine should be considered to be at risk. Shaft torques in multi-machine networks are evaluated by proportioning HVDC Link disturbance currents to each machine at risk using system network data, generator data and fault analysis data considering frequency dependence of the system parameters. This scaling factor is calculated for different scenarios of system operation and load. Equivalent circuits for the synchronous generator are employed appropriately to correlate HVDC Link disturbance current impressed on the generator stator with s state torque excitation from which magnitude of turbine-generator-exciter shaft torque is deduced.

  16. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  17. Interruptions in the wild: Development of a sociotechnical systems model of interruptions in the emergency department through a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Holden, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Interruptions are unavoidable in the "interrupt driven" Emergency Department (ED). A critical review and synthesis of the literature on interruptions in the ED can offer insight into the nature of interruptions in complex real-world environments. Fifteen empirical articles on interruptions in the ED were identified through database searches. Articles were reviewed, critiqued, and synthesized. There was little agreement and several gaps in conceptualizing sociotechnical system factors, process characteristics, and interruption outcomes. While multiple outcomes of interruptions were mentioned, few were measured, and the relationship between multiple outcomes was rarely assessed. Synthesizing the literature and drawing on ergonomic concepts, we present a sociotechnical model of interruptions in complex settings that motivates new directions in research and design. The model conceptualizes interruptions as a process, not a single event, that occurs within and is shaped by an interacting socio-technical system and that results in a variety of interrelated outcomes.

  18. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Geller, Aaron M.; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Binary mass transfer (MT) is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including SNe Ia, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this timescale to the mean time for stable MT to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing MT that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster properties. We find that for lower-mass clusters (≲ {10}4 {M}⊙ ), on the order of a few to a few tens of percent of binaries undergoing MT are expected to be interrupted by an interloping single, or more often binary, star, over the course of the cluster lifetime, whereas in more massive globular clusters we expect \\ll 1% to be interrupted. Furthermore, using numerical scattering experiments performed with the FEWBODY code, we show that the probability of interruption increases if perturbative fly-bys are considered as well, by a factor ˜2.

  19. Interrupting long periods of sitting: good STUFF

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour is in itself a health risk, regardless of the daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Therefore, sedentary behaviour should be targeted as important health behaviour. It is known that even relatively small changes of health behaviour often require serious efforts from an individual and from people in their environment to become part of their lifestyle. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy behaviours should ideally be simple, easy to perform and easily available. Since sitting is likely to be highly habitual, confrontation with an intervention should almost automatically elicit a reaction of getting up, and thus break up and reduce sitting time. One important prerequisite for successful dissemination of such an intervention could be the use of a recognisable term relating to sedentary behaviour, which should have the characteristics of an effective brand name. To become wide spread, this term may need to meet three criteria: the “Law of the few”, the “Stickiness factor”, and the “Power of context”. For that purpose we introduce STUFF: Stand Up For Fitness. STUFF can be defined as “interrupting long sitting periods by short breaks”, for instance, interrupting sitting every 30 min by standing for at least five minutes. Even though we still need evidence to test the health-enhancing effects of interrupted sitting, we hope that the introduction of STUFF will facilitate the testing of the social, psychological and health effects of interventions to reduce sitting time. PMID:23281722

  20. Interrupting long periods of sitting: good STUFF.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Geert M; Savelberg, Hans H; Biddle, Stuart J H; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-01-02

    There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour is in itself a health risk, regardless of the daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Therefore, sedentary behaviour should be targeted as important health behaviour. It is known that even relatively small changes of health behaviour often require serious efforts from an individual and from people in their environment to become part of their lifestyle. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy behaviours should ideally be simple, easy to perform and easily available. Since sitting is likely to be highly habitual, confrontation with an intervention should almost automatically elicit a reaction of getting up, and thus break up and reduce sitting time. One important prerequisite for successful dissemination of such an intervention could be the use of a recognisable term relating to sedentary behaviour, which should have the characteristics of an effective brand name. To become wide spread, this term may need to meet three criteria: the "Law of the few", the "Stickiness factor", and the "Power of context". For that purpose we introduce STUFF: Stand Up For Fitness. STUFF can be defined as "interrupting long sitting periods by short breaks", for instance, interrupting sitting every 30 min by standing for at least five minutes. Even though we still need evidence to test the health-enhancing effects of interrupted sitting, we hope that the introduction of STUFF will facilitate the testing of the social, psychological and health effects of interventions to reduce sitting time.

  1. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine. A... the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be acceptable....

  2. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine. A... the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be acceptable....

  3. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine. A... the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be acceptable....

  4. Assessing Individual-Level Impact of Interruptions during Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Wan, Ping; Choi, Seung W.; Kim, Dong-In

    2015-01-01

    With an increase in the number of online tests, the number of interruptions during testing due to unexpected technical issues seems to be on the rise. For example, interruptions occurred during several recent state tests. When interruptions occur, it is important to determine the extent of their impact on the examinees' scores. Researchers such as…

  5. Determining the Overall Impact of Interruptions during Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Wan, Ping; Whitaker, Mike; Kim, Dong-In; Zhang, Litong; Choi, Seung W.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the number of online tests, interruptions during testing due to unexpected technical issues seem unavoidable. For example, interruptions occurred during several recent state tests. When interruptions occur, it is important to determine the extent of their impact on the examinees' scores. There is a lack of research on this…

  6. Testing of a 50 kA, 50 kV current interrupter with I sup 2 t preheating and long recovery voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Melton, J.G. )

    1989-01-01

    The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) presently being constructed at Los Alamos in a next generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma experiment. An inductive energy transfer system, employing a 50 kA, 50 kV dc current interrupter, is being utilized for initiating the plasma current. These performance requirements (50 kA, 50 kV) had yet to be realized in a reliable switching system, development of this current interrupter system was initiated. A switch test bay with a 50 kA battery bank has been built at Los Alamos to test the interrupter in conditions which will exist in the CPRF experiment. Many switch parameters were measured to provide information on the current interrupting characteristics and reliability. Some of these diagnostics include voltage, current, pre and post I{sup 2}t contact resistance, opening speed and position, arc voltage, and stem temperature. To determine any long term changes, all shots and data channels are computer indexed, and may be easily recalled for review. Extensive testing was performed on Siemens D-10 vacuum interrupter. Test parameter space included 55 kA, 40 kV (per bottle); di/dt of 2250 A/{mu}s, I{sup 2}t of 5 {times} 10{sup 9} amp{sup 2} sec; and 20 kV-200 msec RC recovery decay. Circuit parameters effect opening reliability. Circuit data and the associated testing results will be presented along with long term trends of switch performance under normal'' conditions. 12 figs.

  7. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  8. Gentle interruptions: transformative approaches to clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; Tower, Marion; Walker, Rachel

    2007-07-01

    This conceptual article, drawn from the authors' shared teaching experiences and recent student and clinician evaluation data, set out to reveal and then address some common problems faced by clinical educators and nursing students in the time-constrained, complex, specialized field of clinical learning. We explain and argue the benefits of transformative learning and outline specific strategies for building skills in transformative education, such as interrogating clinical routines and habits, teaching diplomacy skills, and using a process of interruption. Clinical educators can use these strategies to move beyond unwittingly serving the status quo toward consciously contributing to change.

  9. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, Joseph H.; Mikesell, Harvey E.; Jha, Kamal N.

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  10. Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

  11. Pulsed interrupter and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Joel Lawton; Kratz, Robert

    2015-06-09

    Some embodiments provide interrupter systems comprising: a first electrode; a second electrode; a piston movably located at a first position and electrically coupled with the first and second electrodes establishing a closed state, the piston comprises an electrical conductor that couples with the first and second electrodes providing a conductive path; an electromagnetic launcher configured to, when activated, induce a magnetic field pulse causing the piston to move away from the electrical coupling with the first and second electrodes establishing an open circuit between the first and second electrodes; and a piston control system comprising a piston arresting system configured to control a deceleration of the piston following the movement of the piston induced by the electromagnetic launcher such that the piston is not in electrical contact with at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode when in the open state.

  12. Interrupting Intergenerational Cycles of Maternal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Factors operating in the preconception and prenatal periods, such as maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes, predict a substantial fraction of childhood obesity as well as lifelong adverse health consequences in the mother. These periods may lend themselves to successful intervention to reduce such risk factors because parents may be especially willing to change behavior if it confers health advantages to their children. If effective interventions started before or during pregnancy can be maintained after birth, they have the potential to lower the risk of both maternal obesity in the next pregnancy and obesity in the growing child, thus helping to interrupt maternal and child intergenerational vicious cycles of obesity, diabetes and related cardiometabolic health consequences. While this paradigm is appealing, challenges include determining the magnitude, causality and modifiability of these risk factors, and quantifying any adverse consequences of intervention.

  13. Operational Failures and Interruptions in Hospital Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Anita L; Spear, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the work environment of hospital nurses with particular focus on the performance of work systems supplying information, materials, and equipment for patient care. Data Sources Primary observation, semistructured interviews, and surveys of hospital nurses. Study Design We sampled a cross-sectional group of six U.S. hospitals to examine the frequency of work system failures and their impact on nurse productivity. Data Collection We collected minute-by-minute data on the activities of 11 nurses. In addition, we conducted interviews with six of these nurses using questions related to obstacles to care. Finally, we created and administered two surveys in 48 nursing units, one for nurses and one for managers, asking about the frequency of specific work system failures. Principal Findings Nurses we observed experienced an average of 8.4 work system failures per 8-hour shift. The five most frequent types of failures, accounting for 6.4 of these obstacles, involved medications, orders, supplies, staffing, and equipment. Survey questions asking nurses how frequently they experienced these five categories of obstacles yielded similar frequencies. For an average 8-hour shift, the average task time was only 3.1 minutes, and in spite of this, nurses were interrupted mid-task an average of eight times per shift. Conclusions Our findings suggest that nurse effectiveness can be increased by creating improvement processes triggered by the occurrence of work system failures, with the goal of reducing future occurrences. Second, given that nursing work is fragmented and unpredictable, designing processes that are robust to interruption can help prevent errors. PMID:16704505

  14. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  15. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  16. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  17. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  18. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  3. The Interrupted Intercourse in the Election Communication: Pragmatic Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andryuchshenko, Olga K.; Suyunova, Gulnara S.; Nygmetova, Bibigul Dz.; Garanina, Ekaterina P.

    2016-01-01

    The article provides analysis of the interrupted communication as part of the communication in the election discourse. The authors explored the most typical reasons for the interrupted communication in the electoral discourse analyzed communication failures as a kind of ineffective communication. Communication failures are presented as a result of…

  4. "Don't Interrupt!": Preschoolers' Entry into Ongoing Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Jacqueline

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which preschoolers have acquired some of the rules governing politeness when they interrupt conversations. (An interruption was defined as an utterance by a child to two or more people who were already engaged in conversation, and where the topic of the child utterance was unrelated to the…

  5. Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, James W.; Edin, Per-Anders; Sundstrom, Marianne; Vroman, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional and panel estimations of Swedish data reveal that different types of career interruptions have different effects on wages, varying by gender. Therefore, human capital depreciation does not entirely account for the negative effect of career interruptions on subsequent wages. (SK)

  6. Gender and Aggression in the Recognition of Interruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresnahan, Mary I.; Cai, Deborah H.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on whether women and men have different perceptions about when simultaneous talk becomes interruptive. Asks participants to judge whether 20 overlaps are interruptive when presented with a conflictive interview between a high-power female and a low-power male. Suggests that verbal aggressiveness is a better predictor of recognition of…

  7. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  8. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  9. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  10. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  11. The Effect of Interruptions on Part 121 Air Carrier Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, Diane L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relative priorities of various events and activities by examining the probability that a given activity was interrupted by a given event. The analysis will begin by providing frequency of interruption data by crew position (captain versus first officer) and event type. Any differences in the pattern of interruptions between the first officers and the captains will be explored and interpreted in terms of standard operating procedures. Subsequent data analyses will focus on comparing the frequency of interruptions for different types of activities and for the same activities under normal versus emergency conditions. Briefings and checklists will receive particular attention. The frequency with which specific activities are interrupted under multiple- versus single-task conditions also will be examined; because the majority of multiple-task data were obtained under laboratory conditions, LOFT-type tapes offer a unique opportunity to examine concurrent task performance under 'real-world' conditions. A second purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the interruptions on performance. More specifically, when possible, the time to resume specific activities will be compared to determine if pilots are slower to resume certain types of activities. Errors in resumption or failures to resume specific activities will be noted and any patterns in these errors will be identified. Again, particular attention will be given to the effects of interruptions on the completion of checklists and briefings. Other types of errors and missed events (i.e., the crew should have responded to the event but did not) will be examined. Any methodology using interruptions to examine task prioritization must be able to identify when an interruption has occurred and describe the ongoing activities that were interrupted. Both of these methodological problems are discussed In detail in the following section,

  12. INTERRUPTED STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Aaron M.; Leigh, Nathan W. C. E-mail: nleigh@amnh.org

    2015-07-20

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single–binary and binary–binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be “interrupted” by an interloping star or binary may be 20%–40% (or higher) in the core, though for typical globular clusters we expect ≲1% of encounters to be interrupted. Thus, the assumption that strong encounters occur in relative isolation breaks down for certain clusters. Instead, many strong encounters develop into more complex “mini-clusters,” which must be accounted for in studying, for example, the internal dynamics of star clusters, and the physical stellar collision rate.

  13. 3C 236: Radio Source, Interrupted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Baum, Stefi A.; Sparks, William B.; Martel, André R.; Allen, Mark G.; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; Miley, George K.

    2001-04-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph MAMA near-UV images and archival Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) V- and R-band images that reveal the presence of four star-forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C 236. Two of the star-forming regions are relatively young, with ages of order ~107 yr, while the other two are older, with ages of order ~108-109 yr, which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the active galactic nucleus (AGN) was interrupted for ~107 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc-scale radio source. This timescale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star-forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is nonsteady and that this produces the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk, as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star-forming region are related by the same event of gas transport, the gas must be transported from the hundreds of parsec scale to the subparsec scale on a timescale of ~107 yr, which is similar to the dynamical timescale of the gas on the hundreds of parsec scale.

  14. 3C236: Radio Source, Interrupted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, C. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Baum, S. A.; Sparks, W. B.

    We present highlights of the results of new HST STIS/MAMA near-UV images and archival WFPC2 V- and R-band images which reveal the presence of four apparently star forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C236. Two of the star forming regions are relatively young with ages of order ~107 yr, while the other two are older with ages of order ~108 -- 109 yr, which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the AGN was interrupted for ~107 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc scale radio source. This time scale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is non-steady and that this produces both the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star forming region are related by the same event of gas transport, the gas must be transported from the hundreds of pc scale to the sub-parsec scale on a time scale of ~107 yr, which is similar to the dynamical timescale of the gas on the hundreds of pc scales.

  15. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    SciTech Connect

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  16. Interrupting Chagas disease transmission in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Aché, A; Matos, A J

    2001-01-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in Venezuela is attributed to the combined effects of ongoing entomoepidemiological surveillance, ongoing house spraying with residual insecticides and the concurrent building and modification of rural houses in endemic areas during almost five decades. The original endemic areas which totaled 750,000 km(2), have been reduced to 365,000 km(2). During 1958-1968, initial entomological evaluations carried out showed that the house infestation index ranged between 60-80%, the house infection index at 8-11% and a house density index of 30-50 triatomine bugs per house. By 1990-98, these indexes were further reduced to 1.6-4.0%, 0.01-0.6% and 3-4 bugs per house respectively. The overall rural population seroprevalence has declined from 44.5% (95% C.I.: 43.4-45.3%) to 9.2% (95% C.I.: 9.0-9.4%) for successive grouped periods from 1958 to 1998. The annual blood donor prevalence is firmly established below 1%. The population at risk of infection has been estimated to be less than four million. Given that prevalence rates are stable and appropriate for public health programmes, consideration has been given to potential biases that may distort results such as: a) geographical differences in illness or longevity of patients; b) variations in levels of ascertainment; c) variations in diagnostic criteria; and d) variations in population structure, mainly due to appreciable population migration. The endemic areas with continuous transmission are now mainly confined to piedmonts, as well as patchy foci in higher mountainous ranges, where the exclusive vector is Rhodnius prolixus. There is also an unstable area, of which landscapes are made up of grasslands with scattered broad-leaved evergreen trees and costal plains, where transmission is very low and occasional outbreaks are reported.

  17. Aggregation Kinetics of Interrupted Polyglutamine Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robert H.; Murphy, Regina M.

    2011-01-01

    Abnormally expanded polyglutamine domains are associated with at least nine neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s disease. Expansion of the glutamine region facilitates aggregation of the impacted protein, and aggregation has been linked to neurotoxicity. Studies of synthetic peptides have contributed substantially to our understanding of the mechanism of aggregation, because the underlying biophysics of polyglutamine-mediated association can be probed independent of their context within a larger protein. In this report, interrupting residues were inserted into polyglutamine peptides (Q20), and the impact on conformational and aggregation properties was examined. A peptide with 2 alanine residues formed laterally-aligned fibrillar aggregates which were similar to the uninterrupted Q20 peptide. Insertion of 2 proline residues resulted in soluble, nonfibrillar aggregates, which did not mature into insoluble aggregates. In contrast, insertion of a β-turn template DPG rapidly accelerated aggregation and resulted in a fibrillar aggregate morphology with little lateral alignment between fibrils. These results are interpreted to indicate that (a) long-range nonspecific interactions lead to the formation of soluble oligomers, while maturation of oligomers into fibrils requires conformational conversion, and (b) that soluble oligomers dynamically interact with each other, while insoluble aggregates are relatively inert. Kinetic analysis revealed that the increase in aggregation caused by the DPG insert is inconsistent with the nucleation-elongation mechanism of aggregation featuring a monomeric β-sheet nucleus. Rather, the data support a mechanism of polyglutamine aggregation by which monomers associate into soluble oligomers, which then undergo slow structural rearrangement to form sedimentable aggregates. PMID:21821045

  18. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E-3, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.

  19. A framework of interruptions in distributed team environments.

    PubMed

    Rukab, Jamie A; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Malin, Jane; Zhang, Jiajie

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we developed a framework for the study of interruptions in distributed team environments from the perspectives of distributed cognition and activity theory. The core of this framework is the Action Coding System (ACS) that provides a language for the description, representation, categorization, and analysis of interruptions at the level of activities that are meaningful for team performance. We demonstrated the practical utility and theoretical significance of ACS in an its application to a real-world, complex, dynamic, and mission critical environment--the Biomedical Engineer (BME) console in the Mission Control Center at NASA's Johnson Space Center. We discussed the potentials of our framework for the design of interruption management systems that could potentially eliminate some interruptions by information redesign, delegate others to autonomous agents, and help human agents to better manage the rest.

  20. Resistance Welder Using 480-Vac Ground-Fault Interrupter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Steven W.; Kroy, Ralph E.; Macfarlane, Douglas I.

    1989-01-01

    Use of ground-fault interrupters in 480-Vac power supplies of portable resistance welding machines proposed. Enhances safety and quality of welds by detecting damage in long power cable to portable resistance welder.

  1. The effect of threat on attentional interruption by pain.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Pain is known to interrupt attention. This interruption is highly sensitive to the extent of involvement of both attentional control and the level of threat associated with the sensation. However, few studies have examined these factors together. This study aimed to examine the interruptive effect of pain on higher-order attentional tasks under conditions of low and high threat. Fifty participants completed an n-back task, an attentional switching task, and a divided attention task, once in pain and once without pain. Twenty-five participants were given standard task instructions (control condition), and the remainder were given additional verbal information designed to increase threat (threat condition). Pain interrupted participant performance on both the n-back and attentional switching task, but not on the divided attention task. The addition of the threat manipulation did not seem to significantly alter the effect of pain on these attentional tasks. However, independent of pain, threat did moderate performance on the divided attention task. These findings support the robustness of the effect of pain on performance on higher-order attention tasks. Future research is needed to examine what factors alter the cognitive interruption caused by pain.

  2. The Effect of Interruption Duration and Demand on Resuming Suspended Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Christopher A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    The time to resume task goals after an interruption varied depending on the duration and cognitive demand of interruptions, as predicted by the memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Three experiments using an interleaved tasks interruption paradigm showed that longer and more demanding interruptions led to longer resumption times in a…

  3. Prediction of DC current flow between the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions, using 3D DC resistivity forward modelling and magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric data recorded during SAMTEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Fourie, S.; Webb, S. J.; Thunehed, H.

    2009-12-01

    hypothesized that the return path of DC current, flowing along the path of least resistance between the two electrodes, is most likely to lie somewhere within, or in the vicinity of, the DMB. To obtain a better understanding of the current flow we propose using geological information, previous results of studies of the conductivity of the DMB and surrounding regions and 2D and 3D inversion results from the AMT and MT data recorded during SAMTEX in northern Botswana and Namibia, as input to a 3D DC resistivity forward modelling code, and to try to predict the return path that the DC current will follow.

  4. The Nature of Procedural Interrupts in Ground Operations in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Cheryl M.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology for characterizing the causal context and consequences of procedural interrupts in ground operations tasks. Behavioral science researchers observed 26 tasks at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. From these tasks, 81 procedural interrupts were identified and coded for the following information: source of the interrupt, circumstances surrounding the interrupt, and consequences of the interrupt. We found that more interrupts were equipment or personnel-related than procedure-related. More interrupts were due to unavailable resources or resources being incorrect than resources being inaccessible, and most interrupts resulted in some action being taken. Variation in duration of procedural interrupts across causal categories was also examined. The characterization process helps to identify those interrupts that are disruptive, those that cannot be avoided, and those that may have been prevented through better planning or scheduling of resources. Implications for the use of the methodology and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  5. Reconstruction of interrupted SAR imagery for persistent surveillance change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Ivana; Karl, W. C.; Novak, Les

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we apply a sparse signal recovery technique for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation from interrupted phase history data. Timeline constraints imposed on multi-function modern radars result in interrupted SAR data collection, which in turn leads to corrupted imagery that degrades reliable change detection. In this paper we extrapolate the missing data by applying the basis pursuit denoising algorithm (BPDN) in the image formation step, effectively, modeling the SAR scene as sparse. We investigate the effects of regular and random interruptions on the SAR point spread function (PSF), as well as on the quality of both coherent (CCD) and non-coherent (NCCD) change detection. We contrast the sparse reconstruction to the matched filter (MF) method, implemented via Fourier processing with missing data set to zero. To illustrate the capabilities of the gap-filling sparse reconstruction algorithm, we evaluate change detection performance using a pair of images from the GOTCHA data set.

  6. Interruption of breastfeeding by child death and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Edmonston, B

    1990-01-01

    This paper estimates the mean monthly losses and proportionate interruptions of breastfeeding intervals due to child death and pregnancy. The paper uses a microanalytic model with stochastic risks for the basic processes of human reproduction. The model results show that a high proportion of women, depending upon mortality level and length of breastfeeding, have their breastfeeding interrupted by either child death or pregnancy. The results of this work suggest the need for caution in interpreting observed durations of breastfeeding. Child death and pregnancy causes bias in the reported length of breastfeeding, and this bias needs to be taken into account in statistical analysis.

  7. Interrupted aortic arch: A misdiagnosed cause of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Marta; Dias, Adelaide; Dias Ferreira, Nuno; Fonseca, Conceição; Mota, João Carlos; Gama, Vasco

    2014-06-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man with hypertension for over 20 years, referred to our hospital due to mild aortic dilatation detected on a transthoracic echocardiogram. On physical examination weak lower limb pulses and a blood pressure differential of >50 mmHg between arms and legs were detected. Complete interruption of the aortic arch below the left subclavian artery was diagnosed by computed tomography angiography. With this case we aim to draw attention to aortic coarctation and interrupted aortic arch as potential causes of hypertension and to highlight the importance of the physical examination in the diagnosis of secondary causes of hypertension.

  8. The Needs of Others: Gender and Sleep Interruptions for Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgard, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Received wisdom, some sociological theory and a handful of qualitative studies suggest that the "night shift" of caregiving work that interrupts sleep is a burden borne disproportionately by women. However, there is no broadly representative evidence to substantiate claims about who takes the night shift in contemporary American households.…

  9. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES General Provisions and Conditions § 284.9 Interruptible transportation service....

  10. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  11. Toy Modification Note: Build It Yourself Battery Interrupter. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; Brandenburg, S.

    This toy modification note presents illustrated instructions on how to build a battery interrupter that permits on/off control of battery-operated toys without modification of the toys themselves. The device allows for a separate control switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Information on the construction and use…

  12. Effect of unloading time on interrupted creep in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, H.D. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The effect of unloading time on the interrupted creep behavior of polycrystalline copper specimens was investigated over the temperature range 298--773 K. Up to 553 K, cyclic creep acceleration could be explained in terms of deformation and hardening using a dislocation glide model with recovery during unloading being due to dislocation climb. At higher temperatures, recrystallization effects probably influence behavior.

  13. Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations

    PubMed Central

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana MH; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Summary The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations. PMID:25606365

  14. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional... manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must mail or deliver, before the end of the 10th...

  15. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  16. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  17. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  18. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  19. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  20. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a... hand pressure is released. (e) A machine designed to operate from both trolley wire and portable...

  1. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section 650.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be...

  2. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section 650.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be...

  3. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section 650.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be...

  4. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section 650.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be...

  5. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section 650.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be...

  6. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  7. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  8. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  9. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  10. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interruption to conserve entitlement. 21.5078 Section 21.5078 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  11. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    PubMed

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available.

  12. 76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason...

  13. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final... the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products...: (1) a general exclusion order prohibiting the unlicensed entry of ground fault circuit...

  14. Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    Pressure-induced, focal axonal transport abnormalities were studied in 14 cat eyes by the examination of serial step-section tissue radioautogram. Although the patterns of the transport interruption at the lamina cribrosa varied from eye to eye, the temporal sectors of the nerve head were most often involved by this abnormality. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa was studied in adjacent (6 micrometers) cross-sectional specimens. The thickness of the extra-bundle trabeculae and the nerve fiber bundle dimensions including the cross-sectional area and the number and the shape (the ratio of the major and the minor axis diameters) of the laminar pores were measured by computer-assisted perimeter analysis. There was no correlation between the location of the transport interruption and any of these anatomic measurements.

  15. Assessing Motion Induced Interruptions Using a Motion Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    same way that cars have shock absorbers to decrease jolt from potholes and bumps in the road, ships may have the potential to be designed to better...Integration (HSI) seeks to assure human performance to reduce operating costs. This thesis seeks to develop a model for ship design in relation to Motion...Induced Interruptions (MII). The model is based on the premise that MIIs affect specific domains of HSI in an adverse way. Future ship design

  16. Interrupted searches in the BBMCSFilter context for MINLP problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Florbela P.; Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

    2016-06-01

    The BBMCSFilter method was developed to solve mixed integer nonlinear programming problems. This kind of problems have integer and continuous variables and they appear very frequently in process engineering problems. The objective of this work is to analyze the performance of the method when the coordinate searches are interrupted in the context of the multistart strategy. From the numerical experiments, we observed a reduction on the number of function evaluations and on the CPU time.

  17. Interrupted aorta diagnosed in a 51-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Nik; Bullock, Andrew; Erickson, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    A 51-year-old lady presented with increasing heart failure symptoms and palpitations. She had recently been diagnosed with a congenital ventricular septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, and Eisenmenger's syndrome. There was clinical evidence of right heart failure and differential clubbing and cyanosis affecting the feet but not hands. A cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated interruption of the aortic arch beyond the left subclavian artery, with the descending aorta perfused entirely through a large patent ductus arteriosus.

  18. Interruption Phenomenon in Intermediate-Frequency Vacuum Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    In the condition of the 3 mm gap, experiments for 360 Hz intermediate-frequency vacuum arc are carried out in interrupters with the diameters being 41 mm and with the contact materials being CuCr50 and Cu-W-WC alloy respectively. The results indicate that the contacts material is closely related to the breaking capacity of the vacuum interrupters and characteristics of an intermediate-frequency vacuum arc. For contacts with the same diameter, the breaking capacity of CuCr50 is better than that of Cu-W-WC. When the current fails to be interrupted, the arcs overflow the gap and present irregular performances in the first half wave. Consequently a voltage spike appears. More macroscopic metal droplets can be seen in the arc column between CuCr50 contacts because of the lower melting point. It is observed that the droplet emission is much more severe during arc reignition than that in the first half wave. It is much more conspicuous that the high frequency arc voltage noises appear in Cu-W-WC contacts when the vacuum arcs reignite, for higher temperature and stronger electronic emission ability of Cu-W-WC contacts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377007), Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20131102130006), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  19. Self-interrupted synthesis of sterically hindered aliphatic polyamide dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Jishkariani, Davit; MacDermaid, Christopher M; Timsina, Yam N; Grama, Silvia; Gillani, Syeda S; Divar, Masoumeh; Yadavalli, Srujana S; Moussodia, Ralph-Olivier; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Berrios Camacho, Angely M; Walter, Ricardo; Goulian, Mark; Klein, Michael L; Percec, Virgil

    2017-03-21

    2,2-Bis(azidomethyl)propionic acid was prepared in four steps and 85% yield from the commercially available 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid and used as the starting building block for the divergent, convergent, and double-stage convergent-divergent iterative methods for the synthesis of dendrimers and dendrons containing ethylenediamine (EDA), piperazine (PPZ), and methyl 2,2-bis(aminomethyl)propionate (COOMe) cores. These cores have the same multiplicity but different conformations. A diversity of synthetic methods were used for the synthesis of dendrimers and dendrons. Regardless of the method used, a self-interruption of the synthesis was observed at generation 4 for the dendrimer with an EDA core and at generation 5 for the one with a PPZ core, whereas for the COOMe core, self-interruption was observed at generation 6 dendron, which is equivalent to generation 5 dendrimer. Molecular modeling and molecular-dynamics simulations demonstrated that the observed self-interruption is determined by the backfolding of the azide groups at the periphery of the dendrimer. The latter conformation inhibits completely the heterogeneous hydrogenation of the azide groups catalyzed by 10% Pd/carbon as well as homogeneous hydrogenation by the Staudinger method. These self-terminated polyamide dendrimers are enzymatically and hydrolytically stable and also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Thus, these nanoscale constructs open avenues for biomedical applications.

  20. This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence.

  1. Dental surgery in anticoagulated patients--stop the interruption.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Pinto, Andres; Kilham, Jessica; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2015-02-01

    In a literature review, the incidence and morbidity of bleeding complications after dental surgery in anticoagulated patients was compared with embolic complications when anticoagulation was interrupted. Over 99% of anticoagulated patients had no postoperative bleeding that required more than local hemostatic measures. Of more than 5431 patients undergoing more than 11,381 surgical procedures, with many patients at higher than present therapeutic intenational normalized ratio (INR) levels, only 31 (∼0.6% of patients) required more than local hemostasis to control the hemorrhage; none died due to hemorrhage. Among at least 2673 patients whose warfarin dose was reduced or withdrawn for at least 2775 visits for dental procedures, there were 22 embolic complications (0.8% of cessations), including 6 fatal events (0.2% of cessations). The embolic morbidity risk in patients whose anticoagulation is interrupted for dental surgery exceeds that of significant bleeding complications in patients whose anticoagulation is continued, even when surgery is extensive. Warfarin anticoagulation, therefore, should not be interrupted for most dental surgery.

  2. Interruption Management in the Intensive Care Unit: Predicting Resumption Times and Assessing Distributed Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Sanderson, Penelope; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Interruptions are frequent in many work domains. Researchers in health care have started to study interruptions extensively, but their studies usually do not use a theoretically guided approach. Conversely, researchers conducting theoretically rich laboratory studies on interruptions have not usually investigated how effectively their findings…

  3. 77 FR 66080 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same AGENCY: U.S. International... the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and... fault circuit interrupters that infringe the '809 patent and cease and desist orders against...

  4. Individual Differences in Working-Memory Capacity and Task Resumption Following Interruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foroughi, Cyrus K.; Werner, Nicole E.; McKendrick, Ryan; Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that there is a time cost (i.e., a resumption lag) associated with resuming a task following an interruption and that the longer the duration of the interruption, the greater the time cost (i.e., resumption lag increases as interruption duration increases). The memory-for-goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002)…

  5. The effect of interruption probability in lattice model of two-lane traffic flow with passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan

    2016-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking into account the interruption probability with passing for two-lane freeway. The effect of interruption probability with passing is investigated about the linear stability condition and the mKdV equation through linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Furthermore, numerical simulation is carried out to study traffic phenomena resulted from the interruption probability with passing in two-lane system. The results show that the interruption probability with passing can improve the stability of traffic flow for low reaction coefficient while the interruption probability with passing can destroy the stability of traffic flow for high reaction coefficient on two-lane highway.

  6. No evidence of relation between working memory and perception of interrupted speech in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Naveen K; Knapp, Andrea N

    2015-08-01

    Understanding interrupted speech requires top-down linguistic and cognitive restoration mechanisms. To investigate the relation between working memory (WM) and perception of interrupted speech, 20 young adults were asked to recognize sentences interrupted at 2 Hz, 8 Hz, and a combination of 2 and 8 Hz. WM was measured using automated reading and operation span tasks. Interestingly, the results presented here revealed no statistical relation between any of the interrupted speech recognition scores and WM scores. This finding is in agreement with previous findings that suggest greater reliance on linguistic factors relative to cognitive factors during perception of interrupted speech.

  7. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  8. Interruptions of nurses' activities and patient safety: an integrative literature review1

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Cintia; Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics related to the interruption of nurses in professional practice, as well as to assess the implications of interruptions for patient safety. METHOD: integrative literature review. The following databases were searched: Pubmed/Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, using the descriptors interruptions and patient safety. An initial date was not established, but the final date was December 31, 2013. A total of 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: all the papers included describe interruptions as a harmful factor for patient safety. Data analysis revealed three relevant categories: characteristics of interruptions, implications for patient safety, and interventions to minimize interruptions. CONCLUSION: interruptions favor the occurrence of errors in the health field. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to understand such a phenomenon and its effects on clinical practice. PMID:25806646

  9. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  10. The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity.

  11. Interrupting Sitting Time with Regular Walks Attenuates Postprandial Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, M; Edamoto, K; Kidokoro, T; Yanaoka, T; Kashiwabara, K; Takahashi, M; Burns, S

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of prolonged sitting with the effects of sitting interrupted by regular walking and the effects of prolonged sitting after continuous walking on postprandial triglyceride in postmenopausal women. 15 participants completed 3 trials in random order: 1) prolonged sitting, 2) regular walking, and 3) prolonged sitting preceded by continuous walking. During the sitting trial, participants rested for 8 h. For the walking trials, participants walked briskly in either twenty 90-sec bouts over 8 h or one 30-min bout in the morning (09:00-09:30). Except for walking, both exercise trials mimicked the sitting trial. In each trial, participants consumed a breakfast (08:00) and lunch (11:00). Blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after breakfast. The serum triglyceride incremental area under the curve was 15 and 14% lower after regular walking compared with prolonged sitting and prolonged sitting after continuous walking (4.73±2.50 vs. 5.52±2.95 vs. 5.50±2.59 mmol/L∙8 h respectively, main effect of trial: P=0.023). Regularly interrupting sitting time with brief bouts of physical activity can reduce postprandial triglyceride in postmenopausal women.

  12. Interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines: immunological considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Ghendon, Y.; Robertson, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly set the goal of global poliomyelitis eradication by the year 2000. Substantial progress has been made, and 143 countries reported no poliomyelitis cases associated with the wild virus in 1993. This article reviews the immunological considerations relevant to interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines. Although serum immunity prevents poliomyelitis in the individual, it is local immunity that is important in preventing the transmission of polioviruses in the community. Natural infection and vaccination with oral polioviruses vaccine (OPV) produce local immunity in the intestine and the nasopharynx in about 70-80% of individuals. In contrast, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) produces local intestinal immunity in only 20-30% of the individuals. With either vaccine, however, a substantial proportion of the immunized population can transmit the wild virus. Moreover, although serum immunity is long-lasting, limited data suggest that local immunity may not be as persistent. To interrupt the transmission of wild polioviruses efforts should be made to achieve and sustain high levels of poliovirus vaccine coverage. Recent outbreaks show that wild poliovirus poses a risk for unimmunized individuals, even when overall coverage levels are high. Delivery of poliovirus vaccine to hard-to-reach populations will be of increasing importance as countries progress toward the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication. The immunization status of persons from poliomyelitis-free countries should be updated prior to travel to poliomyelitis-endemic areas. PMID:7867144

  13. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Codeª (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  14. Effect of Redundant Haptic Information on Task Performance during Visuo-Tactile Task Interruption and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Seung; Baek, Jongsoo; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that interruption induces disruptive influences on the performance of cognitive tasks. While much research has focused on the use of multimodal channels to reduce the cost of interruption, few studies have utilized haptic information as more than an associative cue. In the present study, we utilized a multimodal task interruption scenario involving the simultaneous presentation of visual information and haptic stimuli in order to investigate how the combined stimuli affect performance on the primary task (cost of interruption). Participants were asked to perform a two-back visuo-tactile task, in which visual and haptic stimuli were presented simultaneously, which was interrupted by a secondary task that also utilized visual and haptic stimuli. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: (1) paired information (visual stimulus + paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; (2) paired information without interruption; (3) non-paired information (visual stimulus + non-paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; and (4) non-paired information without interruption. Our findings indicate that, within a visuo-tactile task environment, redundant haptic information may not only increase accuracy on the primary task but also reduce the cost of interruption in terms of accuracy. These results suggest a new way of understanding the task recovery process within a multimodal environment. PMID:28008321

  15. Effect of Redundant Haptic Information on Task Performance during Visuo-Tactile Task Interruption and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee-Seung; Baek, Jongsoo; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that interruption induces disruptive influences on the performance of cognitive tasks. While much research has focused on the use of multimodal channels to reduce the cost of interruption, few studies have utilized haptic information as more than an associative cue. In the present study, we utilized a multimodal task interruption scenario involving the simultaneous presentation of visual information and haptic stimuli in order to investigate how the combined stimuli affect performance on the primary task (cost of interruption). Participants were asked to perform a two-back visuo-tactile task, in which visual and haptic stimuli were presented simultaneously, which was interrupted by a secondary task that also utilized visual and haptic stimuli. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: (1) paired information (visual stimulus + paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; (2) paired information without interruption; (3) non-paired information (visual stimulus + non-paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; and (4) non-paired information without interruption. Our findings indicate that, within a visuo-tactile task environment, redundant haptic information may not only increase accuracy on the primary task but also reduce the cost of interruption in terms of accuracy. These results suggest a new way of understanding the task recovery process within a multimodal environment.

  16. Distraction in diagnostic radiology: How is search through volumetric medical images affected by interruptions?

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren H; Drew, Trafton

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have shown that interruptions are a frequent occurrence in diagnostic radiology. The present study used an experimental design in order to quantify the cost of these interruptions during search through volumetric medical images. Participants searched through chest CT scans for nodules that are indicative of lung cancer. In half of the cases, search was interrupted by a series of true or false math equations. The primary cost of these interruptions was an increase in search time with no corresponding increase in accuracy or lung coverage. This time cost was not modulated by the difficulty of the interruption task or an individual's working memory capacity. Eye-tracking suggests that this time cost was driven by impaired memory for which regions of the lung were searched prior to the interruption. Potential interventions will be discussed in the context of these results.

  17. Missing mediated interruptions in manual assembly: Critical aspects of breakpoint selection.

    PubMed

    Kolbeinsson, Ari; Lindblom, Jessica; Thorvald, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The factory of the future aims to make manufacturing more effective and easily customisable, using advanced sensors and communications to support information management. In this paper, we examine how breakpoint selection during interruption management can fail, even when using recommendations for interruption management from existing research. We present an experiment based on prior work where mediated interruptions (i.e. smart interruptions that should interrupt at opportune moments) were missed by participants when sent at one of two pre-defined breakpoints. These breakpoints were selected based on existing research to minimise the cost of interruption, which can involve longer times to complete tasks as well as making errors on tasks. Missing mediated interruptions in this way was unexpected, and the prior study was not configured to measure this effect, which has led to the experiment detailed here. We strive to explore whether there is a risk of missing notifications when mediated interruptions are used, and how this is affected by breakpoint selection. This was investigated through an experiment that uses tasks and environments that simulate a manufacturing assembly facility. The results indicate that the effect exists, i.e. that participants miss significantly more notifications when interrupted at fine breakpoints than when interrupted at coarse breakpoints. An embodied cognition perspective was used for analysis of the tasks to understand the cause of the effect. This analysis shows that an overlap between "action" and "anticipation of action" can account for why participants miss notifications at fine breakpoints. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems that minimise the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  18. Interruption of measles transmission in Brazil, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Prevots, D Rebecca; Parise, M Salet; Segatto, Teresa Cristina V; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; dos Santos, Elizabeth D; Ganter, Bernardus; Perreira, Maria Carolina C Q; Domingues, Carla A; Lanzieri, Tatiana; Da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa

    2003-05-15

    In 1992, Brazil adopted the goal of measles elimination by the year 2000; however, in 1997, after a 4-year period of good control, there was a resurgence of measles in Brazil. In 1999, to achieve the elimination goal, Brazil implemented the Supplementary Emergency Measles Action plan, with one measles surveillance technician designated to each state. Of 10,007 suspected measles cases reported during 1999, 908 (9.1%) were confirmed, and of them 378 (42%) were confirmed by laboratory analysis. Of 8358 suspected measles cases reported in 2000, 36 (0.4%) were confirmed (30 [83%] by laboratory); 92% of the discarded cases were classified on the basis of laboratory testing. In 2001, only 1 of 5599 suspected measles cases was confirmed, and it was an imported case from Japan. The last outbreak occurred in February 2000, with 15 cases. Current data suggest interruption of indigenous measles transmission in Brazil.

  19. Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, C-Z; Guo, L-L; Han, B-Y; Su, X; Guo, Q-H; Mu, Y-M

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare congenital defect manifesting with varying degrees of pituitary hormone deficiency. The signs and symptoms of PSIS during the neonatal period and infancy are often overlooked and therefore diagnosis is delayed. The typical manifestations of PSIS can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Several genes in the Wnt, Notch and Shh signalling pathways related to hypothalamic-pituitary development, such as PIT1, PROP1, LHX3/LHX4, PROKR2, OTX2, TGIF and HESX1, have been found to be associated with PSIS. Nevertheless, the aetiology in the majority of cases still remains unknown. In the present review, we provide an overview of clinical features of PSIS and summarise our current understanding of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms for this rare syndrome. Furthermore, we propose future research directions that may help our understanding of the aetiology of PSIS.

  20. Surgical repair of truncus arteriosus associated with interrupted aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Lacour-Gayet, François; Goldberg, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The surgical repair of truncus arteriosus associated with an interrupted aortic arch (TAC-IAA) requires performing two major procedures at the same time. Due to the small number of patients, there is nearly no surgical learning curve. The surgical technique has greatly improved since the introduction of a homograft patch enlargement of the small ascending aorta. The association with a severe truncal regurgitation is a major risk factor as well as the presence of preoperative multiple organs failure. The series published by single centers are ≪10 patients, which make statistical analysis troublesome. The mortality varies from 0% to 50%. The multicentric study published in 2006 by the Congenital Heart Surgeons Society (CHSS) reports a 68% mortality (34/50). Nevertheless, the results can be excellent in experienced centers using a modern one stage surgical technique, undertaken in the first week of life.

  1. Immunological biomarkers predict HIV-1 viral rebound after treatment interruption

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jacob; Hoffmann, Matthias; Pace, Matthew; Williams, James P.; Thornhill, John; Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Chris; Koelsch, Kersten K.; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David A.; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Phillips, Rodney E.; Frater, John

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the weeks following transmission may induce a state of ‘post-treatment control' (PTC) in some patients, in whom viraemia remains undetectable when ART is stopped. Explaining PTC could help our understanding of the processes that maintain viral persistence. Here we show that immunological biomarkers can predict time to viral rebound after stopping ART by analysing data from a randomized study of primary HIV-1 infection incorporating a treatment interruption (TI) after 48 weeks of ART (the SPARTAC trial). T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Tim-3 and Lag-3 measured prior to ART strongly predict time to the return of viraemia. These data indicate that T-cell exhaustion markers may identify those latently infected cells with a higher proclivity to viral transcription. Our results may open new avenues for understanding the mechanisms underlying PTC, and eventually HIV-1 eradication. PMID:26449164

  2. Immunological biomarkers predict HIV-1 viral rebound after treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jacob; Hoffmann, Matthias; Pace, Matthew; Williams, James P; Thornhill, John; Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Chris; Koelsch, Kersten K; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David A; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Kelleher, Anthony D; Phillips, Rodney E; Frater, John

    2015-10-09

    Treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the weeks following transmission may induce a state of 'post-treatment control' (PTC) in some patients, in whom viraemia remains undetectable when ART is stopped. Explaining PTC could help our understanding of the processes that maintain viral persistence. Here we show that immunological biomarkers can predict time to viral rebound after stopping ART by analysing data from a randomized study of primary HIV-1 infection incorporating a treatment interruption (TI) after 48 weeks of ART (the SPARTAC trial). T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Tim-3 and Lag-3 measured prior to ART strongly predict time to the return of viraemia. These data indicate that T-cell exhaustion markers may identify those latently infected cells with a higher proclivity to viral transcription. Our results may open new avenues for understanding the mechanisms underlying PTC, and eventually HIV-1 eradication.

  3. Interrupted self-organization of SiGe pyramids.

    PubMed

    Aqua, Jean-Noël; Gouyé, Adrien; Ronda, Antoine; Frisch, Thomas; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the morphological evolution of SiGe quantum dots deposited on Si(100) during long-time annealing. At low strain, the dots' self-organization begins by an instability and interrupts when (105) pyramids form. This evolution and the resulting island density are quantified by molecular-beam epitaxy. A kinetic model accounting for elasticity, wetting, and anisotropy is shown to reproduce well the experimental findings with appropriate wetting parameters. In this nucleationless regime, a mean-field kinetic analysis explains the existence of nearly stationary states by the vanishing of the coarsening driving force. The island size distribution follows in both experiments and theory the scaling law associated with a single characteristic length scale.

  4. Improving Catastrophe Modeling for Business Interruption Insurance Needs.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam; Huyck, Charles K

    2016-10-01

    While catastrophe (CAT) modeling of property damage is well developed, modeling of business interruption (BI) lags far behind. One reason is the crude nature of functional relationships in CAT models that translate property damage into BI. Another is that estimating BI losses is more complicated because it depends greatly on public and private decisions during recovery with respect to resilience tactics that dampen losses by using remaining resources more efficiently to maintain business function and to recover more quickly. This article proposes a framework for improving hazard loss estimation for BI insurance needs. Improved data collection that allows for analysis at the level of individual facilities within a company can improve matching the facilities with the effectiveness of individual forms of resilience, such as accessing inventories, relocating operations, and accelerating repair, and can therefore improve estimation accuracy. We then illustrate the difference this can make in a case study example of losses from a hurricane.

  5. Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Eva; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Baker, Jason V.; Somboonwit, Charurut; Llibre, Josep M.; Palfreeman, Adrian; Chini, Maria; Lundgren, Jens D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow-up analyses of stored plasma samples demonstrated increased activation of both inflammatory and coagulation pathways after stopping ART. Design SMART patients from sites that determined platelets routinely. Methods Platelet counts were retrospectively collected from 2206 patients from visits at study entry, and during follow-up. D-dimer levels were measured at study entry, month 1, and 2. Results Platelet levels decreased in the drug conservation group following randomization, but remained stable in the viral suppression group [median (IQR) decline from study entry to month 4: −24 000/µl (−54 000 to 4000) vs. 3000 (−22 000 to 24 000), respectively, P < 0.0001)] and the rate of developing thrombocytopenia (<100 000/µl) was significantly higher in the drug conservation vs. the viral suppression arm (unadjusted drug conservation/viral suppression [HR (95%CI) = 1.8 (1.2–2.7)]. The decline in platelet count among drug conservation participants on fully suppressive ART correlated with the rise in D-dimer from study entry to either month 1 or 2 (r = −0.41; P = 0.02). Among drug conservation participants who resumed ART 74% recovered to their study entry platelet levels. Conclusion Interrupting ART increases the risk of thrombocytopenia, but reinitiation of ART typically reverses it. Factors contributing to declines in platelets after interrupting ART may include activation of coagulation pathways or HIV-1 replication itself. The contribution of platelets in HIV-related procoagulant activity requires further study. PMID:23018440

  6. Resistance to the impact of interruptions during multitasking by healthy adults and dysexecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna S; Logie, Robert H; Pearson, David G; Cantagallo, Anna; Moretti, Eva; Dimarco, Francesca

    2004-07-01

    Two experiments (one with healthy adult volunteers and the other with controls and dysexecutive patients) assessed the impact of interruptions on a novel test of multitasking. The test involved switching repeatedly between four tasks (block construction, bead threading, paper folding, alphabetical searching) over a 10 min period. In Experiment 1, there were four groups of 20 healthy participants. One group attempted multitasking with no interruption, a second group was interrupted early in the test, a third group late in the test and a fourth group was interrupted both early and late. Interruption involved carrying out a fifth, unexpected task for a period of 1 min before returning to the four main tasks. There was no difference in multitasking performance between the groups. In Experiment 2 the participants were seven dysexecutive patients and 14 age-matched controls. A repeated measures approach was employed to assess the impact of two interruptions (early and late) for both groups. Contrary to predictions, the patients as well as controls were resistant to the effects of interruptions, despite their clearly impaired multitasking performance. These results suggest that the ability to deal with interruptions may be separable from the ability to organise and execute multiple tasks within a limited time frame.

  7. 78 FR 73562 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final Commission... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit... entry of ground fault circuit interrupters ] that infringe certain claims of the '809 patent....

  8. Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

  9. Effects of Modality on Interrupted Flight Deck Performance: Implications for Data Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1997-01-01

    Externally-imposed tasks frequently interrupt ongoing task performance in the commercial flight deck. While normally managed without consequence, basic research as well as aviation accident and incident investigations show that interruptions can negatively affect performance and safety. This research investigates the influence of interruption and interrupted task modality on pilot performance in a simulated commercial flight deck. Fourteen current commercial airline pilots performed approach scenarios in a fixed-base flight simulator. Air traffic control instructions, conveyed either aurally or visually (via a data link system) interrupted a visual task (obtaining information from the Flight Management System) and an auditory task (listening to the automated terminal information service recording). Some results confirm the hypothesized performance advantage of cross-modality conditions, more compelling nature of auditory interruptions, and interruption-resistance of auditory ongoing tasks. However, taken together, results suggest the four interaction conditions had different effects on pilot performance. These results have implications for the design of data link systems, and for facilitating interruption management through interface design, aiding, and training programs.

  10. Towards a Hybrid Method to Categorize Interruptions and Activities in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Brixey, Juliana J.; Robinson, David J.; Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Todd R.; Turley, James P.; Patel, Vimla L.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objective Interruptions are known to have a negative impact on activity performance. Understanding how an interruption contributes to human error is limited because there is not a standard method for analyzing and classifying interruptions. Qualitative data are typically analyzed by either a deductive or an inductive method. Both methods have limitations. In this paper a hybrid method was developed that integrates deductive and inductive methods for the categorization of activities and interruptions recorded during an ethnographic study of physicians and registered nurses in a Level One Trauma Center. Understanding the effects of interruptions is important for designing and evaluating informatics tools in particular and for improving healthcare quality and patient safety in general. Method The hybrid method was developed using a deductive a priori classification framework with the provision of adding new categories discovered inductively in the data. The inductive process utilized line-by-line coding and constant comparison as stated in Grounded Theory. Results The categories of activities and interruptions were organized into a three-tiered hierarchy of activity. Validity and reliability of the categories were tested by categorizing a medical error case external to the study. No new categories of interruptions were identified during analysis of the medical error case. Conclusions Findings from this study provide evidence that the hybrid model of categorization is more complete than either a deductive or an inductive method alone. The hybrid method developed in this study provides the methodical support for understanding, analyzing, and managing interruptions and workflow. PMID:17110161

  11. Causal Inference and the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design: Findings from Within-Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using comparative interrupted time series (CITS) designs to estimate the effects of programs and policies when randomized controlled trials are not feasible. In a simple interrupted time series design, researchers compare the pre-treatment values of a treatment group time series to post-treatment values in order to…

  12. Interruptions of activities experienced by nursing professionals in an intensive care unit 1

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Daniele de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the interruptions experienced by nursing professionals while undertaking care activities. Method: an observational study undertaken in two intensive care units. Two nurses observed 33 nursing professionals for three hours. The data were recorded in real time, using a semistructured instrument. Results: after 99 hours of observation of 739 activities, it was identified that 46.82% were interrupted, resulting in 7.85 interruptions per hour. On average, the interruptions compromised 9.42% of the nursing professionals' worktime. The activities geared towards indirect care of the patient suffered the highest number of interruptions (56.65%), with the nursing records being the activity interrupted most. The principal source of the interruptions was external, coming from the health professionals (51%), and the main causes were those related to the patients (34.70%) and to interpersonal communication (26.47%). Conclusion: the activity of nursing suffers a high number of interruptions, mainly caused by the health professionals themselves, indicating that the work environment needs to undergo interventions aiming to reduce the risk of compromising of the professional's performance and to increase the patients' safety. PMID:27627123

  13. Response to Interrupted Hyperopia after Restraint of Axial Elongation in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine if early restraint of axial elongation in response to plus lenses increases the subsequent response to interrupted hyperopia. Methods The normal, interrupted hyperopia group (n=5) had normal visual exposure until 24 days of visual experience (VE). Then, from 24 to 45 days of VE, the animals wore binocular −4 D lenses which shifted the refractive state of the eyes in the direction of hyperopia. Interrupted hyperopia was produced by removing the lenses for 2 hours per day. The early restraint, interrupted hyperopia group (n=5) wore binocular +4 D lenses continuously from 11 to 24 days of VE, becoming emmetropic with the lenses in place and hyperopic when they were removed. Then, from 24 to 45 days of VE, the lenses were removed 22 hours per day and replaced for 2 hours per day. This created the same initial regimen of interrupted hyperopia as in the normal, interrupted hyperopia group. A plus-lens control group wore binocular +4 D lenses (n=5) continuously from 11 to 45 Days of VE to assess the stability of the refractive compensation. Results In the normal, interrupted hyperopia animals, 2 hours of relief from the imposed hyperopia was sufficient to prevent myopia development. In the early restraint, interrupted hyperopia animals, 2 hours of relief from the hyperopia did not prevent myopia development; the eyes became myopic while wearing the lens. The control animals compensated for the +4 D lenses and maintained a stable with-the-lens emmetropia through 45 days of VE, demonstrating that the myopic shift in the early-restraint group was due to the interrupted hyperopia. Conclusions Compensation for plus lenses, involving slowed axial elongation, increases the response to subsequent interrupted hyperopia. Similar to previous reports of an eye-size factor in elongated eyes, these data provide evidence for an eye-size mechanism operating, in this case, in eyes that have restrained their axial length. PMID:23314128

  14. Heterochromatin assembly by interrupted Sir3 bridges across neighboring nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Reza; Lu, Chenning; Currie, Mark A; Jih, Gloria; Iglesias, Nahid; Moazed, Danesh

    2016-01-01

    Heterochromatin is a conserved feature of eukaryotic chromosomes with central roles in regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genome stability. Heterochromatin formation involves spreading of chromatin-modifying factors away from initiation points over large DNA domains by poorly understood mechanisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heterochromatin formation requires the SIR complex, which contains subunits with histone-modifying, histone-binding, and self-association activities. Here, we analyze binding of the Sir proteins to reconstituted mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleosomal chromatin templates and show that key Sir-Sir interactions bridge only sites on different nucleosomes but not sites on the same nucleosome, and are therefore 'interrupted' with respect to sites on the same nucleosome. We observe maximal binding affinity and cooperativity to unmodified di-nucleosomes and propose that nucleosome pairs bearing unmodified histone H4-lysine16 and H3-lysine79 form the fundamental units of Sir chromatin binding and that cooperative binding requiring two appropriately modified nucleosomes mediates selective Sir recruitment and spreading. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17556.001 PMID:27835568

  15. [Ethical dilemmas in medicine. The interruption of pregnancy in woman].

    PubMed

    Gual-Castro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates. To avoid this undesirable situation, it has been proposed to follow the established WHO guidelines and adopt national health policies to re-orientate population goals on life quality, gender equity, universal public health services, and to promote the new holistic concepts of reproductive and sexual health such as: family planning, use of anti-fertility methods, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and newborn health, peri- and post-menopausal women's health, and prevention, diagnosis, and opportune treatment of mammary, cervical-uterine, and ovarian cancers. Finally, it is recommended to revise our national health policies and existing laws on abortion de-penalization.

  16. University students' attitudes towards Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Martínez-Silva, Isabel María; Soto, José Luis; Concheiro, Luis; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    An evaluation of the future professional trends was performed by analyzing the attitudes of university students to the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy (VIP). An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 300 students (Medicine, Nursing and Law) of the University of Santiago de Compostela, with questions on their personal beliefs, opinion on the law and intention to participate in VIP. Of the 245 respondents (response rate 82%), 66.5% were pro-abortion and their attitudes towards VIP were consistent with their opinion on the beginning of life and with the ethical arguments related to the fetus and the mother. No differences were found with age, sex or degree. The students showed to be well informed on the VIP law, and the majority of them considered unsuitable termination of pregnancy in minors without parental consent. Students' intentions to take part in abortion provision were influenced by their views on abortion, level of participation and circumstances of pregnancy. Although the majority of participants would be willing to perform VIP in situations that affect fetus and mother's life or health (87-66%), their intentions clearly diminished in other situations, such as abortion on demand (17%). These data suggest that conscientious objection of health professionals can even increase with the new policy, a fact that might affect VIP availability. It is important to stress the need of ethical training to help in the solution of conflicts between patient and health professional values.

  17. ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vezina, James M.

    1990-01-01

    The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

  18. Structured antiretroviral treatment interruptions in chronically HIV-1-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Gabriel M.; Wellons, Melissa; Brancato, Jason; Vo, Ha T. T.; Zinn, Rebekah L.; Clarkson, Daniel E.; Van Loon, Katherine; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Miralles, G. Diego; Montefiori, David; Bartlett, John A.; Nixon, Douglas F.

    2001-01-01

    The risks and benefits of structured treatment interruption (STI) in HIV-1-infected subjects are not fully understood. A pilot study was performed to compare STI with continuous highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in chronic HIV-1-infected subjects with HIV-1 plasma RNA levels (VL) <400 copies per ml and CD4+ T cells >400 per μl. CD4+ T cells, VL, HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies, and IFN-γ-producing HIV-1-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were measured in all subjects. STIs of 1-month duration separated by 1 month of HAART, before a final 3-month STI, resulted in augmented CD8+ T cell responses in all eight STI subjects (P = 0.003), maintained while on HAART up to 22 weeks after STI, and augmented neutralization titers to autologous HIV-1 isolate in one of eight subjects. However, significant decline of CD4+ T cell count from pre-STI level, and VL rebound to pre-HAART baseline, occurred during STI (P = 0.001 and 0.34, respectively). CD4+ T cell counts were regained on return to HAART. Control subjects (n = 4) maintained VL <400 copies per ml and stable CD4+ T cell counts, and showed no enhancement of antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. Despite increases in antiviral immunity, no control of VL was observed. Future studies of STI should proceed with caution. PMID:11687611

  19. Interrupted time-series analysis: studying trends in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ricky H; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Pan, I-Wen; Lam, Sandi K

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Neurosurgery studies traditionally have evaluated the effects of interventions on health care outcomes by studying overall changes in measured outcomes over time. Yet, this type of linear analysis is limited due to lack of consideration of the trend's effects both pre- and postintervention and the potential for confounding influences. The aim of this study was to illustrate interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) as applied to an example in the neurosurgical literature and highlight ITSA's potential for future applications. METHODS The methods used in previous neurosurgical studies were analyzed and then compared with the methodology of ITSA. RESULTS The ITSA method was identified in the neurosurgical literature as an important technique for isolating the effect of an intervention (such as a policy change or a quality and safety initiative) on a health outcome independent of other factors driving trends in the outcome. The authors determined that ITSA allows for analysis of the intervention's immediate impact on outcome level and on subsequent trends and enables a more careful measure of the causal effects of interventions on health care outcomes. CONCLUSIONS ITSA represents a significant improvement over traditional observational study designs in quantifying the impact of an intervention. ITSA is a useful statistical procedure to understand, consider, and implement as the field of neurosurgery evolves in sophistication in big-data analytics, economics, and health services research.

  20. Effects of age and hearing loss on the intelligibility of interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert; Gygi, Brian

    2015-02-01

    How age and hearing loss affect the perception of interrupted speech may vary based on both the physical properties of preserved or obliterated speech fragments and individual listener characteristics. To investigate perceptual processes and interruption parameters influencing intelligibility across interruption rates, participants of different age and hearing status heard sentences interrupted by silence at either a single primary rate (0.5-8 Hz; 25%, 50%, 75% duty cycle) or at an additional concurrent secondary rate (24 Hz; 50% duty cycle). Although age and hearing loss significantly affected intelligibility, the ability to integrate sub-phonemic speech fragments produced by the fast secondary rate was similar in all listener groups. Age and hearing loss interacted with rate with smallest group differences observed at the lowest and highest interruption rates of 0.5 and 24 Hz. Furthermore, intelligibility of dual-rate gated sentences was higher than single-rate gated sentences with the same proportion of retained speech. Correlations of intelligibility of interrupted speech to pure-tone thresholds, age, or measures of working memory and auditory spectro-temporal pattern discrimination were generally low-to-moderate and mostly nonsignificant. These findings demonstrate rate-dependent effects of age and hearing loss on the perception of interrupted speech, suggesting complex interactions of perceptual processes across different time scales.

  1. Addressing the problem of interruptability in the construction of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Morgenthaler, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Large scale space missions of the near future will depend upon successful multi-launch coordination and construction in the space environment. One of the main challenges is how to accomplish a valid global analysis of a construction project with the intent of improving safety, reducing overall mission cost, and total construction time. These three items are dependent on the interruptability of the project, which is the ability of the project to recover from unplanned interruptions; such as failure of the launch vehicle; sudden, on-orbit, crew illness; or damage from a space debris impact on the partially completed space structure. A new method for addressing and analyzing this type of problem is being developed. The method is called Program Interruptability and Risk Evaluation Technique, or PIRET. PIRET has been developed in order to model and analyze potential interruptability concerns of the construction of the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF), although PIRET is applicable to any complex, multi-launch structural assembly. This paper is a progress report on the continuing research of the NASA Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado, Boulder into this area of space construction interruptability. The paper will define the problem of interruptability, will diagram the PIRET approach to space construction, will share results from a preliminary PIRET analysis of SSF, and will show that PIRET is a useful tool for modelling space construction interruptability.

  2. Localization of single-chain interruptions in bacteriophage T5 DNA I. Electron microscopic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Scheible, P P; Rhoades, E A; Rhoades, M

    1977-01-01

    Bacteriophage T5 DNA was examined in an electron microscope after limited digestion with exonuclease III from Escherichia coli. The effect of the exonuclease treatment was to convert each naturally occurring single-chain interruption in T5 DNA into a short segment of single-stranded DNA. The locations of these segments were determined for T5st(+) DNA, T5st(0) DNA, and fragments of T5st(0) DNA generated by EcoRI restriction endonuclease. The results indicate that single-chain interruptions occurr in a variable, but nonrandom, manner in T5 DNA. T5st(+) DNA has four principal interruptions located at sites approximately 7.9, 18.5, 32.6, and 64.8% from one end of the molecule. Interruptions occur at these sites in 80 to 90% of the population. A large number of additional sites, located primarily at the ends of the DNA, contain interruptions at lower frequencies. The average number of interruptions per genome, as determined by this method, is 8. A similar distribution of breaks occurs in T5st(0) DNA, except that the 32.6% site is missing. At least one of the principal interruptions is reproducibly located within an interval of 0.2% of the entire DNA. Images PMID:330881

  3. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  4. Management of antipsychotic treatment discontinuation and interruptions using model-based simulations

    PubMed Central

    Samtani, Mahesh N; Sheehan, John J; Fu, Dong-Jing; Remmerie, Bart; Sliwa, Jennifer Kern; Alphs, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication nonadherence is a well described and prevalent clinical occurrence in schizophrenia. These pharmacokinetic model-based simulations analyze predicted antipsychotic plasma concentrations in nonadherence and treatment interruption scenarios and with treatment reinitiation. Methods Starting from steady state, pharmacokinetic model-based simulations of active moiety plasma concentrations of oral, immediate-release risperidone 3 mg/day, risperidone long-acting injection 37.5 mg/14 days, oral paliperidone extended-release 6 mg/day, and paliperidone palmitate 117 mg (75 mg equivalents)/28 days were assessed under three treatment discontinuation/interruption scenarios, ie, complete discontinuation, one week of interruption, and four weeks of interruption. In the treatment interruption scenarios, pharmacokinetic simulations were performed using medication-specific reinitiation strategies. Results Following complete treatment discontinuation, plasma concentrations persisted longest with paliperidone palmitate, followed by risperidone long-acting injection, while oral formulations exhibited the most rapid decrease. One week of oral paliperidone or risperidone interruption resulted in near complete elimination from the systemic circulation within that timeframe, reflecting the rapid elimination rate of the active moiety. After 1 and 4 weeks of interruption, minimum plasma concentrations were higher with paliperidone palmitate than risperidone long-acting injection over the simulated period. Four weeks of treatment interruption followed by reinitiation resulted in plasma levels returning to predicted therapeutic levels within 1 week. Conclusion Due to the long half-life of paliperidone palmitate (25–49 days), putative therapeutic plasma concentrations persisted longest in simulated cases of complete discontinuation or treatment interruption. These simulations may help clinicians better conceptualize the impact of antipsychotic nonadherence on plasma

  5. 14 CFR 323.14 - Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign government, emergency measures, strikes, weather conditions, construction work on airports, or... the type of equipment last regularly used to serve the place. (b) In the case of an interruption...

  6. Functional Interrupts and Destructive Failures from Single Event Effect Testing of Point-Of-Load Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Swonger, James; Musil, Paul; LaBel, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We show examples of single event functional interrupt and destructive failure in modern POL devices. The increasing complexity and diversity of the design and process introduce hard SEE modes that are triggered by various mechanisms.

  7. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors and the U.S. Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2003-05-16

    Distributed energy resources (DER) have been promoted as the least-cost approach to meeting steadily increasing energy demand. However, it is unclear whether DER deployment can maintain or improve the electric power supply reliability and quality currently available to consumers. This report addresses two key factors relating to this question: 1) characteristics of existing power supply reliability, and 2) costs resulting from supply interruptions characteristic of the existing power grid. Interruption cost data collected by the University of Saskatchewan was used in conjunction with data generated by the United States Department of Energy’s Annual Survey of Manufacturers, along with industry shares of gross domestic product (GDP) and gross output to derive interruption cost estimates for U.S. industries at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. Interruption cost estimates are presented as a function of outage duration (e.g., 20 minutes, 1-hour, 3-hour), and are normalized in terms of dollars per peak kW.

  8. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: Case report of three cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Kumar, Sukriti; Razi, Syed Mohd; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, Keshav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pickardt syndrome (Pickardt-Fahlbusch syndrome) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by tertiary hypothyroidism caused by the interruption of the portal veins between hypothalamus and adenohypophysis. Typical features of this syndrome are tertiary hypothyroidism with low thyroid stimulating hormone, hyperprolactinemia and other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is characterized by a triad of thin or interrupted pituitary stalk, aplasia or hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary and absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a congenital anomaly of pituitary whose exact prevalence is unknown. In some cases, it is restricted to EPP or pituitary stalk interruption. We are presenting the case history along with MRI finding of three children's who presented with short stature and delayed puberty. PMID:25250085

  9. How do interruptions impact nurses' visual scanning patterns when using barcode medication administration systems?

    PubMed

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna L; Henneman, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    While barcode medication administration (BCMA) systems have the potential to reduce medication errors, they may introduce errors, side effects, and hazards into the medication administration process. Studies of BCMA systems should therefore consider the interrelated nature of health information technology (IT) use and sociotechnical systems. We aimed to understand how the introduction of interruptions into the BCMA process impacts nurses' visual scanning patterns, a proxy for one component of cognitive processing. We used an eye tracker to record nurses' visual scanning patterns while administering a medication using BCMA. Nurses either performed the BCMA process in a controlled setting with no interruptions (n=25) or in a real clinical setting with interruptions (n=21). By comparing the visual scanning patterns between the two groups, we found that nurses in the interruptive environment identified less task-related information in a given period of time, and engaged in more information searching than information processing.

  10. How do Interruptions Impact Nurses’ Visual Scanning Patterns When Using Barcode Medication Administration Systems?

    PubMed Central

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    While barcode medication administration (BCMA) systems have the potential to reduce medication errors, they may introduce errors, side effects, and hazards into the medication administration process. Studies of BCMA systems should therefore consider the interrelated nature of health information technology (IT) use and sociotechnical systems. We aimed to understand how the introduction of interruptions into the BCMA process impacts nurses’ visual scanning patterns, a proxy for one component of cognitive processing. We used an eye tracker to record nurses’ visual scanning patterns while administering a medication using BCMA. Nurses either performed the BCMA process in a controlled setting with no interruptions (n=25) or in a real clinical setting with interruptions (n=21). By comparing the visual scanning patterns between the two groups, we found that nurses in the interruptive environment identified less task-related information in a given period of time, and engaged in more information searching than information processing. PMID:25954449

  11. The role of prediction in perception: Evidence from interrupted visual search.

    PubMed

    Mereu, Stefania; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Kurby, Christopher A; Lleras, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies of rapid resumption-an observer's ability to quickly resume a visual search after an interruption-suggest that predictions underlie visual perception. Previous studies showed that when the search display changes unpredictably after the interruption, rapid resumption disappears. This conclusion is at odds with our everyday experience, where the visual system seems to be quite efficient despite continuous changes of the visual scene; however, in the real world, changes can typically be anticipated based on previous knowledge. The present study aimed to evaluate whether changes to the visual display can be incorporated into the perceptual hypotheses, if observers are allowed to anticipate such changes. Results strongly suggest that an interrupted visual search can be rapidly resumed even when information in the display has changed after the interruption, so long as participants not only can anticipate them, but also are aware that such changes might occur.

  12. Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interruption of Free-Operant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P; Bruzek, Jennifer L; Bowman, Lynn G; Jennett, Heather K

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using “do” requests (Study 1) as well as “do” and “don't” requests (Study 2) occasioned problem behavior. Initially, treatment involved differential and noncontingent reinforcement without interruption. To make the intervention more sustainable in the natural environment (where interruptions are unavoidable), a two-component multiple-schedule arrangement was used to progressively increase the period of time in which ongoing activities would be interrupted. During generalization sessions, the intervention was applied across a variety of contexts and therapists. PMID:17471795

  13. Interruption in the maintenance of compulsive sexual disorder: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Konopacki, W P; Oei, T P

    1988-10-01

    Sexual offenses and disorders are at times compulsive in nature. It is hypothesized that compulsive sexuality is a function of a history of interrupted or frustrated approach behavior. Two case studies involving compulsive features were treated by preventing such interruptions and delays. An A-B-A-B single-case experimental design on one of the two case studies provided some support for the hypothesized relationship. Implications for assessment and treatment are examined and the mechanisms underlying the hypothesized relationship are discussed.

  14. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Fischer, Paul H; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship between long- and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children. Lung function was measured using the interrupter resistance method in children participating in a Dutch birth cohort study. Long-term average air pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and soot at the residential address at birth were assessed using land-use regression models. Daily average air pollution concentrations on the day of clinical examination were obtained from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Significant associations were found between long-term average air pollution concentrations and interrupter resistance. Interrupter resistance increased by 0.04 kPa·s·L(-1) (95% CI 0.01-0.07) per interquartile range increase (3.3 μg·m(-3)) in fine particle concentration. Short-term exposure was not associated with interrupter resistance. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with increased interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children, supporting previous birth cohort studies reporting effects of air pollution on subjectively reported respiratory symptoms in preschool children.

  15. Common origin of pure and interrupted repeat expansions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Martins, Sandra; Alonso, Isabel; Emmel, Vanessa E; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Coutinho, Paula; Sequeiros, Jorge; Silveira, Isabel

    2010-03-05

    The spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by gait and limb ataxia. This disease is caused by the expansion of a (CAG)(n) located in the ATXN2, that encodes a polyglutamine tract of more than 34 repeats. Lately, alleles with 32-33 CAGs have been associated to late-onset disease cases. Repeat interruptions by CAA triplets are common in normal alleles, while expanded alleles usually contain a pure repeat tract. To investigate the mutational origin and the instability associated to the ATXN2 repeat, we performed an extensive haplotype study and sequencing of the CAG/CAA repeat, in a cohort of families of different geographic origins and phenotypes. Our results showed (1) CAA interruptions also in expanded ATXN2 alleles; (2) that pathological CAA interrupted alleles shared an ancestral haplotype with pure expanded alleles; and (3) higher genetic diversity in European SCA2 families, suggesting an older European ancestry of SCA2. In conclusion, we found instability towards expansion in interrupted ATXN2 alleles and a shared ancestral ATXN2 haplotype for pure and interrupted expanded alleles; this finding has strong implications in mutation diagnosis and counseling. Our results indicate that interrupted alleles, below the pathological threshold, may be a reservoir of mutable alleles, prone to expansion in subsequent generations, leading to full disease mutation.

  16. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, L.B.

    1998-08-18

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

  17. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Lowell B.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

  18. Repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions are strongly associated with epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Karen N; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Zeng, Desmond; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M; Ochoa, Adriana; Teive, Hélio A G; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2014-03-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is the result of a non-coding, pentanucleotide repeat expansion within intron 9 of the Ataxin 10 gene. SCA10 patients present with pure cerebellar ataxia; yet, some families also have a high incidence of epilepsy. SCA10 expansions containing penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs, termed "ATCCT interruptions," experience large contractions during germline transmission, particularly in paternal lineages. At the same time, these alleles confer an earlier age at onset which contradicts traditional rules of genetic anticipation in repeat expansions. Previously, ATCCT interruptions have been associated with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures in one Mexican-American SCA10 family. In a large cohort of SCA10 families, we analyzed whether ATCCT interruptions confer a greater risk for developing seizures in these families. Notably, we find that the presence of repeat interruptions within the SCA10 expansion confers a 6.3-fold increase in the risk of an SCA10 patient developing epilepsy (6.2-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only) and a 13.7-fold increase in having a positive family history of epilepsy (10.5-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only). We conclude that the presence of repeat interruptions in SCA10 repeat expansion indicates a significant risk for the epilepsy phenotype and should be considered during genetic counseling.

  19. Differential effects of traffic sign stimuli upon speeding in school zones following a traffic light interruption.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Bree; Irwin, Julia D; Faulks, Ian J; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Motorists whose journey has been interrupted by signalized traffic intersections in school zones resume their journey at a faster vehicle speed than motorists who have not been required to stop. Introducing a flashing "check speed" sign 70m after the traffic intersections counteracts this interruptive effect. The present study examined which aspects of a reminder sign are responsible for reducing the speeding behavior of interrupted motorists. When a sign that combines both written text and flashing lights was introduced, interrupted motorists did not speed, traveling on average 0.82km/h below the 40km/h speed limit when measured 100m from traffic intersections. Alternatively, when only the flashing lights were visible the interrupted motorists sped 3.36km/h over the 40km/h speed limit. Similar vehicular speeds were observed when only the written text was visible and when no sign was present (7.67 and 7.49km/h over the 40km/h speed limit, respectively). This indicates that static reminder signs add little value over the absence of a school zone reminder sign; the presence of both cues is necessary to fully offset the interruptive effect. This study also highlights the benefit of using exogenous visual cues in traffic signs to capture drivers' attention. These findings have practical implications for the design and use of traffic signs to increase compliance with posted speed limits.

  20. Deleterious effects of interruption followed by reintroduction of enzyme replacement therapy on a lysosomal storage disorder.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ana Paula; Matte, Ursula; Pasqualim, Gabriela; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Martinelli, Barbara; Ribas, Graziela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme

    2016-10-01

    Temporary interruption of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with different lysosomal storage disorders may happen for different reasons (adverse reactions, issues with reimbursement, logistic difficulties, and so forth), and the impact of the interruption is still uncertain. In the present work, we studied the effects of the interruption of intravenous ERT (Laronidase, Genzyme) followed by its reintroduction in mice with the prototypical lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I, comparing to mice receiving continuous treatment, untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice, and normal mice. In the animals which treatment was temporarily interrupted, we observed clear benefits of treatment in several organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney, and testis) after reintroduction, but a worsening in the thickness of the aortic wall was detected. Furthermore, these mice had just partial improvements in behavioral tests, suggesting some deterioration in the brain function. Despite worsening is some disease aspects, urinary glycosaminoglycans levels did not increase during interruption, which indicates that this biomarker commonly used to monitor treatment in patients should not be used alone to assess treatment efficacy. The deterioration observed was not caused by the development of serum antienzyme antibodies. All together our results suggest that temporary ERT interruption leads to deterioration of function in some organs and should be avoided whenever possible.

  1. Conformational effects of Gly-X-Gly interruptions in the collagen triple helix.

    PubMed

    Bella, Jordi; Liu, Jingsong; Kramer, Rachel; Brodsky, Barbara; Berman, Helen M

    2006-09-15

    The collagen model peptide with sequence (Pro-Hyp-Gly)4-Pro-Gly-(Pro-Hyp-Gly)5 contains a central Gly-Pro-Gly interruption in the consensus collagen sequence. Its high-resolution crystal structure defines the molecular consequences of such an interruption for the collagen triple-helical conformation, and provides insight into possible structural and biological roles of similar interruptions in the -Gly-X-Y- repeating pattern found in non-fibrillar collagens. The peptide (denoted as the Hyp minus peptide or Hyp-) forms a rod-like triple helix structure without any bend or kink, and crystallizes in a quasi-hexagonal lattice. The two Pro-Hyp-Gly zones adopt the typical triple-helical collagen conformation with standard Rich and Crick II hydrogen bonding topology. Notably, the central zone containing the Gly-Pro-Gly interruption deviates from the standard structure in terms of hydrogen bonding topology, torsion angles, helical, and superhelical parameters. These deviations are highly localized, such that the standard features are regained within one to two residues on either side. Conformational variations and high temperature factors seen for the six chains of the asymmetric unit in the zone around the interruption point to the presence of a local region of considerable plasticity and flexibility embedded within two highly rigid and ordered standard triple-helical segments. The structure suggests a role for Gly-X-Gly interruptions as defining regions of flexibility and molecular recognition in the otherwise relatively uniform repeating collagen conformation.

  2. Recovering from an interruption: investigating speed-accuracy trade-offs in task resumption behavior.

    PubMed

    Brumby, Duncan P; Cox, Anna L; Back, Jonathan; Gould, Sandy J J

    2013-06-01

    Interruptions are disruptive because they take time to recover from, in the form of a resumption lag, and lead to an increase in the likelihood of errors being made. Despite an abundance of work investigating the effect of interruptions on routine task performance, little is known about whether there is a link between how quickly a task is resumed following an interruption (i.e., the duration of the postinterruption resumption lag) and the likelihood that an error is made. Two experiments are reported in which participants were interrupted by a cognitively demanding secondary mental arithmetic task while working on a routine sequential data-entry task. In Experiment 1 the time-cost of making an error on the primary task was varied between conditions. When errors were associated with a high time-cost penalty, participants made fewer errors and resumed the primary task more slowly than when errors were associated with a low time-cost penalty. In Experiment 2 participants were prohibited from resuming the primary task quickly by a 10-s system lockout period following the completion of the interrupting task. This lockout period led to a significant reduction in resumption errors because the lockout prohibited fast, inaccurate task resumptions. Taken together, our results suggest that longer resumption lags following an interruption are beneficial in terms of reducing the likelihood of errors being made. We discuss the practical implications of how systems might be designed to encourage more reflective task resumption behavior in situations where interruptions are commonplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Mehta, Vivek; Blough, David; Tock, Lauri; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

  4. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  5. The ordnance transfer interrupter: A new type of S & A device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenslade, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given in this paper of a new approach to the Safing and Arming of aerospace ordnance systems interconnected by detonation transfer lines, in which the conventional type of S&A device normally used for this purpose is replaced by a relatively simple electro-mechanical switching device, referred to as an 'Interrupter.' In this approach the Interrupter, which is interposed in the transfer line between the system initiator and output device, is completely passive in that it contains no pyrotechnic devices or materials. Being passive (therefore, non-initiating), the Interrupter is much less hazardous to handle and install, as well as being significantly less complex and costly than conventional S&A devices containing EED's and explosive leads. Details are presented relative to the design, development and qualification, by PS/EDD, of an ordnance transfer Interrupter intended for use on a commercial launch missile. This device, which is capable of simultaneously 'switching' multiple detonation transfer lines, incorporates a rod-type rotary barrier with independent transverse apertures for each transfer line. Barrier actuation is bi-modal, i.e., the barrier can be driven from safe-to-arm or from arm-to-safe positions by independent electro-mechanical actuators. The Interrupter described also features visual and remote status monitoring provisions and, in common with range-approved conventional S&A devices, a pre-flight safety locking mechanism functioned by a removable safing key.

  6. Presidential Address 2014: The more-or-less interrupting effects of the startle response.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Terry D

    2015-11-01

    The startle response can be used to assess differences in a variety of ongoing processes across species, sensory modalities, ages, clinical conditions, and task conditions. Startle serves defensive functions, but it may also interrupt ongoing processes, allowing for a reorientation of resources to potential danger. A wealth of research suggests that prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) is an indicator of the protection of the processing of the prepulse from interruption by the startle response. However, protection against interruption by suppressing the startle response may extend to many other ongoing processes, including the higher processing of the startle stimulus itself. Proof of protection would require measuring ongoing processing, which has very rarely been reported. The idea that PPI represents the protection of the earliest stages of prepulse processing can be challenged, since those earliest stages are completed by the time the startle response occurs, so they are not threatened by interruption and need not be protected. The conception of low PPI as indicative of a "gating deficit" in schizophrenia should be made with caution, since low PPI is seen in some, but not all studies of schizophrenia, but also in a range of other disorders and conditions. Finally, startle is often used to probe ongoing processes, but the response also modifies those processes, interrupting some processes but perhaps facilitating others. A deeper understanding of the function of startle and PPI might improve the precision of application of these measures in the investigation of a range of research topics.

  7. Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.

    PubMed

    Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders.

  8. Viral re-suppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive NNRTI-based regimen

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Zoe; Phillips, Andrew; Cohen, Cal; Neuhaus, Jacquie; Baxter, John; Emery, Sean; Hirschel, Bernard; Hullsiek, Kathy Huppler; Stephan, Christoph; Lundgren, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Background Interruption of an NNRTI-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use. Methods Patients in the drug-conservation arm of SMART who interrupted a fully suppressive NNRTI-regimen were evaluated. From 2003, SMART recommended interruption of an NNRTI by: a staggered-interruption, where the NNRTI was stopped before the NRTIs; or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous-interruption of all ARVs was discouraged. Re-suppression rates four-to-eight months after re-initiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within two months of the treatment interruption in a subset (N=141). Results Overall, 601/688 (87.4%) patients who re-started an NNRTI achieved viral re-suppression. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for achieving re-suppression was 1.94 (1.02-3.69) for patients with a staggered-interruption and 3.64 (1.37-9.64) for those with a switched-interruption compared to patients with a simultaneous-interruption. At least one NNRTI-mutation was detected in the virus of 16.4% patients with simultaneous-interruption, 12.5% patients with staggered-interruption and 4.2% patients with switched-interruption. Fewer patients with detectable mutations (i.e. 69.2%) achieved HIV-RNA≤400 copies/mL compared to those in whom no mutations were detected (i.e. 86.7%), p=0.05. Conclusions In patients who interrupt a suppressive NNRTI-regimen, the choice of interruption-strategy may influence re-suppression rates when re-starting a similar regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered- or switched-interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs. PMID:18981767

  9. Activation and inhibition of posterior parietal cortex have bi-directional effects on spatial errors following interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi, Cyrus K.; Blumberg, Eric J.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance. PMID:25628543

  10. Behavior of the Siemens Virtual Wedge following an interruption to beam delivery.

    PubMed

    Richmond, N D; Walker, C P

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made into the beam profile shape and dose delivered by the Siemens Virtual Wedge trade mark under standard operational conditions compared with those following delivery interruption on two Siemens Primus linear accelerators (Type 7445 and 8067) running different versions of control software (7.2 and 7.0, respectively). The shape of the Virtual Wedge trade mark profiles was found to be unaffected by beam delivery interruption. An increase in the dose delivered to the central axis was found when delivery was interrupted and subsequently resumed using information recorded in a recall data file on one of the accelerators. This dose increase was attributed to a difference in delivered monitor units recorded in the recall data file compared to those displayed on the linear accelerator control console.

  11. How much should customers be compensated for interruptions in the drinking water supply?

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2017-05-15

    Water supply interruptions directly affect customers, and customers should be compensated accordingly. However, few water regulators have applied compensation policies given the difficulty of estimating the economic value of compensation to customers. In this study, a pioneering approach based on the concept of shadow prices is proposed to determine the compensation that customers should receive for unplanned water interruptions. The Chilean water industry was selected as a case study because there is an ongoing policy discussion between the use of penalties or compensation as an incentive to prevent water supply interruptions. The estimated results indicate that for 2014, the value of compensation ranges between 2.4% and 35.4% of the fixed charge of the water tariff. The methodology and findings of this study are of great relevance to water regulators in defining incentives to prompt water companies to provide reliable water service.

  12. Dynamic response of an accelerator driven system to accelerator beam interruptions for criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, A.; Abanades, A.; Leon, P. T.; Sordo, F.; Martinez-Val, J. M.

    2008-06-01

    Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by intense neutron sources can be very suitable tools for nuclear waste transmutation, particularly in the case of minor actinides with very low fractions of delayed neutrons. A proper control of these systems needs to know at every time the absolute value of the reactor subcriticality (negative reactivity), which must be measured by fully reliable methods, usually conveying a short interruption of the accelerator beam in order to assess the neutron flux reduction. Those interruptions should be very short in time, for not disturbing too much the thermal magnitudes of the reactor. Otherwise, the cladding and the fuel would suffer from thermal fatigue produced by those perturbations, and the mechanical integrity of the reactor would be jeopardized. It is shown in this paper that beam interruptions of the order of 400 μs repeated every second would not disturb significantly the reactor thermal features, while enabling for an adequate measurement of the negative reactivity.

  13. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chuan; Sun, Di-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Considering the effects that the probability of traffic interruption and the friction between two lanes have on the car-following behaviour, this paper establishes a new two-lane microscopic car-following model. Based on this microscopic model, a new macroscopic model was deduced by the relevance relation of microscopic and macroscopic scale parameters for the two-lane traffic flow. Terms related to lane change are added into the continuity equations and velocity dynamic equations to investigate the lane change rate. Numerical results verify that the proposed model can be efficiently used to reflect the effect of the probability of traffic interruption on the shock, rarefaction wave and lane change behaviour on two-lane freeways. The model has also been applied in reproducing some complex traffic phenomena caused by traffic accident interruption.

  14. On the electrical arc interruption by using PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddapaneni, Venkatesh; Saleemi, Mohsin; Ye, Fei; Gati, Rudolf; Toprak, Muhammet S.

    2016-10-01

    An experimental study is undertaken on the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/iron oxide nanocomposites to determine their potential use for electrical arc interruption in the electrical switching applications such as circuit breakers. Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of average size ∼11 nm are synthesized via thermal decomposition method and then homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix by in situ polymerization. PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites with different nanoparticle loading have been fabricated to study the effect of loading content on the thermal energy absorption. Detailed physicochemical characterizations on synthesized material are performed using x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry at different processing stages. A test-setup was designed to evaluate the quality of the nanocomposites for electric arc interruption capability. The results showed that PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites have a clear impact on the electric arc interruption and therefore should be considered as promising candidates for electrical switching applications.

  15. The Role of Prediction In Perception: Evidence From Interrupted Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Mereu, Stefania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Lleras, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of rapid resumption—an observer’s ability to quickly resume a visual search after an interruption—suggest that predictions underlie visual perception. Previous studies showed that when the search display changes unpredictably after the interruption, rapid resumption disappears. This conclusion is at odds with our everyday experience, where the visual system seems to be quite efficient despite continuous changes of the visual scene; however, in the real world, changes can typically be anticipated based on previous knowledge. The present study aimed to evaluate whether changes to the visual display can be incorporated into the perceptual hypotheses, if observers are allowed to anticipate such changes. Results strongly suggest that an interrupted visual search can be rapidly resumed even when information in the display has changed after the interruption, so long as participants not only can anticipate them, but also are aware that such changes might occur. PMID:24820440

  16. Interrupting the balance: reconsidering the complexities of conflict in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pendle, Naomi

    2014-04-01

    By the start of 2014, violent conflict had erupted across much of South Sudan following initial violence in Juba on 15 December 2013. The speed with which the fighting has spread raises questions regarding the impact of national-level politics on violence at the local level. This article develops a framework in which violent conflict can be comprehended as a response to the interruption of the negotiation of the balance of power between groups; the negotiation is interrupted when that balance tips in favour of one group, such as through changes in the national political market or government reforms. The article provides two cases studies of attempts to strengthen the state that inadvertently interrupted local power relations between groups. In response, the groups engaged in violent conflict to reinstate a balance of power. Both examples involve conflict among Dinka groups from 2005 to 2008.

  17. Electric circuit breaker comprising a plurality of vacuum interrupters simultaneously operated by a common operator

    DOEpatents

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1980-01-01

    This circuit breaker comprises a plurality of a vacuum-type circuit interrupters, each having a movable contact rod. A common operating device for the interrupters comprises a linearly-movable operating member. The interrupters are mounted at one side of the operating member with their movable contact rods extending in a direction generally toward the operating member. Means is provided for mechanically coupling the operating member to the contact rods, and this means comprises a plurality of insulating operating rods, each connected at one end to the operating member and at its opposite end to one of the movable contact rods. The operating rods are of substantially equal length and have longitudinal axes that converge and intersect at substantially a common point.

  18. Investigation on X-Radiation for 126 kV Vacuum Interrupters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yingyao

    2016-05-01

    When subjected to high voltages between opened contacts, vacuum interrupters may emit X-rays. In order to ensure that these are of an acceptable level, vacuum interrupters should comply with the limits for X-ray emission and the test procedures to be carried out to verify this based on relevant standards and specifications. In this paper, a comprehensive experimental study has been performed for 126 kV vacuum interrupters used in a transmission system to understand the X-radiation level and its influence by three main parameters, namely applied power-frequency voltage, contact gap and power-frequency voltage conditioning. The radiation instrument is an FJ347 radiometer and the X-radiation dose was measured at the power-frequency test voltage. These tests demonstrated that the X-radiation emission level for a 126 kV vacuum interrupter did not exceed the following: 5 μSv per hour at a rated voltage of 126 kV and 150 μSv per hour at a power-frequency voltage of 230 kV at 1 m distance. The X-radiation dose increased with the applied power-frequency voltage increasing and decreased with the contact gap increasing. The X-radiation dose for 126 kV vacuum interrupters decreased by 57% after the conditioning procedure with a certain power-frequency voltage. During the conditioning procedure, the average value of the X-radiation dose was 4.49 mSv, which means if a professional conditions 180 interrupters per year, it will be safe at the 6.4 m distance. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251002)

  19. Mediated interruptions of anaesthesia providers using predictions of workload from anaesthesia information management system data.

    PubMed

    Epstein, R H; Dexter, F

    2012-09-01

    Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable.

  20. Arch Reconstruction with Autologous Pulmonary Artery Patch in Interrupted Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Young

    2014-01-01

    Various surgical techniques have been developed for the repair of an interrupted aortic arch. However, tension and Gothic arch formation at the anastomotic site have remained major problems for these techniques: Excessive tension causes arch stenosis and left main bronchus compression, and Gothic arch configuration is related to cardiovascular complications. To resolve these problems, we adopted a modified surgical technique of distal aortic arch augmentation using an autologous main pulmonary artery patch. The descending aorta was then anastomosed to the augmented aortic arch in an end-to-side manner. Here, we report two cases of interrupted aortic arch that were repaired using this technique. PMID:24782962

  1. Interrupted aortic arch type B in A patient with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C S P; Hacker, April M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2009-05-01

    We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  2. Interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos termination associated with congenital absence of portal vein.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, J; Paineau, J; Hamy, A; Dupas, B; Lerat, F; Raoul, S; Hamel, A; Robert, R; Armstrong, O; Rogez, J M

    2000-01-01

    The authors report an exceptional and well-documented case of interruption of the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava with an "azygos continuation", combined with absence of the portal vein. The only known combination of congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava and the portal vein was that of an "azygos continuation" and a preduodenal portal vein. The double interruption, portal and inferior caval, may be associated with a disturbance of preferential flows induced by the left umbilical thrust. According to hemodynamic theory, the left umbilical flow is the determining factor in organogenesis of the portal vein and the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava.

  3. Liver transplantation in a patient with developmental interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos substitution.

    PubMed

    Zinser, M J; Hanto, D W

    2012-06-01

    Infrahepatic interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos or hemiazygos substitution has been reported frequently in children with biliary atresia where this venous abnormality is associated with other venous abnormalities such as preduodenal portal vein or congenital heart disease. It is important to recognize this anomaly pretransplant because the hepatic vein may drain directly into the right atrium rather than into the suprahepatic vena cava. We describe herein the first report of an orthotopic deceased donor liver transplant in an adult patient with an interrupted IVC and azygos continuation. We also review the embryological development of the IVC and the vascular anomalies that can occur.

  4. The importance of choosing the right feeding aids to maintain breast-feeding after interruption.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Antonio; Silvestri, Raffaele; Montinaro, Carlo

    2006-11-01

    Publications throughout the world attribute to the artificial teat and the pacifier (dummy) the reason why some mothers, who suspend breast-feeding for a while, are unable to resume it afterwards. The authors wanted to evaluate the specific characteristics of the various commercially made teats and pacifiers. This evaluation examined the physical characteristics of such commercially available teats. It has been possible to affirm that the specific features of the various teats tested are important in the resumption of breast-feeding after such an interruption. It's easier to resume breast-feeding after interruption if artificial teats are prescribed with an understanding of the muscular movements during swallowing.

  5. Arch reconstruction with autologous pulmonary artery patch in interrupted aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Young; Park, Jeong-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Various surgical techniques have been developed for the repair of an interrupted aortic arch. However, tension and Gothic arch formation at the anastomotic site have remained major problems for these techniques: Excessive tension causes arch stenosis and left main bronchus compression, and Gothic arch configuration is related to cardiovascular complications. To resolve these problems, we adopted a modified surgical technique of distal aortic arch augmentation using an autologous main pulmonary artery patch. The descending aorta was then anastomosed to the augmented aortic arch in an end-to-side manner. Here, we report two cases of interrupted aortic arch that were repaired using this technique.

  6. Influence of the traffic interruption probability on traffic stability in lattice model for two-lane freeway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan; Liu, Changqing; Tuo, Manxian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new lattice model is proposed with the traffic interruption probability term in two-lane traffic system. The linear stability condition and the mKdV equation are derived from linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis by introducing the traffic interruption probability of optimal current for two-lane traffic freeway, respectively. Numerical simulation shows that the traffic interruption probability corresponding to high reaction coefficient can efficiently improve the stability of two-lane traffic flow as traffic interruption occurs with lane changing.

  7. Recognition of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded sentences with additional unprocessed low-frequency speech

    PubMed Central

    Başkent, Deniz; Chatterjee, Monita

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of periodically interrupted sentences (with an interruption rate of 1.5 Hz, 50% duty cycle) was investigated under conditions of spectral degradation, implemented with a noiseband vocoder, with and without additional unprocessed low-pass filtered speech (cutoff frequency 500 Hz). Intelligibility of interrupted speech decreased with increasing spectral degradation. For all spectral-degradation conditions, however, adding the unprocessed low-pass filtered speech enhanced the intelligibility. The improvement at 4 and 8 channels was higher than the improvement at 16 and 32 channels: 19% and 8%, on average, respectively. The Articulation Index predicted an improvement of 0.09, in a scale from 0 to 1. Thus, the improvement at poorest spectral-degradation conditions was larger than what would be expected from additional speech information. Therefore, the results implied that the fine temporal cues from the unprocessed low-frequency speech, such as the additional voice pitch cues, helped perceptual integration of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded speech, especially when the spectral degradations were severe. Considering the vocoder processing as a cochlear-implant simulation, where implant users’ performance is closest to 4 and 8-channel vocoder performance, the results support additional benefit of low-frequency acoustic input in combined electric-acoustic stimulation for perception of temporally degraded speech. PMID:20817081

  8. Interrupted Experiences: Reflection, Listening and "Negativity" in the Practice of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This inquiry explores the educative meaning of interruptions or breaks in teacher's experiences by looking at their role in reflection and listening. Reflection and listening are not only two vital and distinct aspects of teaching, but are also interrelated and as such can serve to productively inform one another. In this context, I develop the…

  9. The Effects of Matched Stimulation and Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica J.; Miguel, Caio F.; Fernand, Jonathan K.; LaBrie, Jillian K.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

  10. Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals Associated with Left Pulmonary Artery Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Da-Na; Park, Chun Soo; Kim, Young-Hwue; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2016-01-01

    A multistage plan and multidisciplinary approach are the keys to successful repair in patients with pulmonary atresia (PA) with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this article, we present a multidisciplinary approach adopted to treat a patient with PA with VSD and MAPCAs associated with left pulmonary artery interruption. PMID:27733998

  11. Using a stopwatch to assess pelvic muscle strength in the urine stream interruption test.

    PubMed

    Sampselle, C M

    1993-01-01

    Pelvic muscle strength is important in maintaining urinary continence. The urine stream interruption test provides a simple measure of pelvic muscle strength. This study evaluated the accuracy of the test as adapted for clinical use. Women (n = 75) were tested according to standardized protocol. The test was simultaneously timed using a uroflowmeter (for research purposes) and a stopwatch (a technique more feasible in the practice setting). The stopwatch-timed urine stream interruption test was consistent with the uroflowmeter score (r = 0.90, p < 0.00) and demonstrated adequate repeatability (r = -0.69, p < 0.00). The stopwatch test was related to a digital measure of pelvic muscle strength (r = -0.49, p = 0.00), i.e., women with greater pelvic muscle strength were able to interrupt the stream of urine more quickly. Significantly less involuntary urine loss was seen in women whose stopwatch test score was two seconds or less as compared with those whose scores were greater than two seconds (t = -4.83, p = < 0.00, df = 73). Clinicians can use the urine stream interruption test as a baseline measure and as a tool to assess changes in pelvic muscle strength.

  12. Recovery of Damaged Solid Propellants by Interrupting Burning and Crack-Propagaton Processes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    area and local pressurization rates. This may sometimes lead to deflagration-to- detonation transition (DDT) or detonation due to some unresolved...mechanisms ( XDT ). In order to obtain direct evidence of structural damage of the propellant sample during crack propagation and branching, an interrupted

  13. Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Search Is Independent of Age-Related Improvements in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Alejandro; Porporino, Mafalda; Burack, Jacob A.; Enns, James T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 7-19-year-olds performed an interrupted visual search task in two experiments. Our question was whether the tendency to respond within 500 ms after a second glimpse of a display (the "rapid resumption" effect ["Psychological Science", 16 (2005) 684-688]) would increase with age in the same way as overall search efficiency. The…

  14. 33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power interruption: Type I and II devices. 159.89 Section 159.89 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.89...

  15. 33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power interruption: Type I and II devices. 159.89 Section 159.89 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.89...

  16. 33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power interruption: Type I and II devices. 159.89 Section 159.89 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.89...

  17. 33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power interruption: Type I and II devices. 159.89 Section 159.89 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.89...

  18. 33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power interruption: Type I and II devices. 159.89 Section 159.89 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.89...

  19. Pardon the Interruption: Enhancing Communication Skills for Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayes, Daniel A.; Heath, Amy K.; Williams, Carol; Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides teachers and parents with a description of the behavior chain interruption strategy (BCIS), an evidence-based intervention for increasing requesting behaviors in individuals with moderate to severe disabilities. A review of the relevant literature is provided, as well as a description of the behavioral principles that…

  20. The Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy: A Review of Research and Discussion of Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Grunsell, Julie

    2001-01-01

    A review of 10 studies that utilize the behavior chain interruption strategy (BCIS) to teach communication skills to individuals with severe disabilities found that BCIS has been successfully applied to individuals across a wide range of ages and levels of disability, including learners with multiple disabilities. Generalization concerns are…

  1. Preparing School Leaders to Interrupt Racism at Various Levels in Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2015-01-01

    This narrative inquiry seeks to advance the field of educational leadership preparation by exploring ways to interrupt personal, interpersonal, and institutional racism through the senses--ways in which people perceive their experiences and relation to others. Findings suggest that participants engage in actions aligned with revelations from their…

  2. Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: A Systematic Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M.; Sidener, David W.; Progar, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD…

  3. Further Evaluation of Response Interruption and Redirection as Treatment for Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Erin N.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S.; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)--motor RIRD and vocal RIRD--were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were…

  4. Mitigating Disruptive Effects of Interruptions through Training: What Needs to Be Practiced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Monk, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on…

  5. Workflow interruptions, cognitive failure and near-accidents in health care.

    PubMed

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone; Ebener, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Errors are frequent in health care. A specific model was tested that affirms failure in cognitive action regulation to mediate the influence of nurses' workflow interruptions and safety conscientiousness on near-accidents in health care. One hundred and sixty-five nurses from seven Swiss hospitals participated in a questionnaire survey. Structural equation modelling confirmed the hypothesised mediation model. Cognitive failure in action regulation significantly mediated the influence of workflow interruptions on near-accidents (p < .05). An indirect path from conscientiousness to near-accidents via cognitive failure in action regulation was also significant (p < .05). Compliance with safety regulations was significantly related to cognitive failure and near-accidents; moreover, cognitive failure mediated the association between compliance and near-accidents (p < .05). Contrary to expectations, compliance with safety regulations was not related to workflow interruptions. Workflow interruptions caused by colleagues, patients and organisational constraints are likely to trigger errors in nursing. Work redesign is recommended to reduce cognitive failure and improve safety of nurses and patients.

  6. Teachers Who Interrupt Their Careers: Characteristics of Those Who Return to the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Barbara Q.

    1993-01-01

    Through maximum likelihood logistic regression analysis, assesses characteristics distinguishing teachers who return to the classroom after career interruptions from those who do not. Among 3,060 teachers, those most likely to return have fewer opportunities for better-paying employment, with more experience and master's degrees, and interrupted…

  7. Effects of undulator interruptions on the performance of high-gain FEL amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.; Pelligrini, C.

    1995-12-31

    The high-gain amplifiers for short wavelength free electron lasers (FELs) such as the LCLS project require a long undulator. The construction of the undulator as well as the FEL operation would become easier if the undulator could be interrupted with drift sections every few gain lengths. We have investigated the influence of such interruption on the FEL performances. Three effects are considered: (i) the diffraction loss, (ii) the phase mismatch and, (iii) the phase smearing due to velocity spread and to dispersion errors. The effect (i) is the loss during the process in which the optical mode in a section of the undulator leaves the undulator, propagates through the free space and then re-enters and re-adjusts in the next section. The effect (ii) is the fact that the phase of the optical beam is displaced with respect to the electrons density modulation for optical FEL interaction due to the slippage of the electron beam in the interruption region. The effect (iii) is the fact that electrons velocity spread, emittance, and dispersion due to misalignment of the quadrupoles used for additional focusing lead to a reduction of the bunching factor. We present an approximate analysis of these effects. When applied to the LCLS parameters, we find that the effect (i) is negligible, the effect (ii) gives a condition on the length of the drift section, and the effects (iii) are small, but could be non-negligible if there are sufficient number of interruptions.

  8. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  9. Comparison Groups in Short Interrupted Time-Series: An Illustration Evaluating No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Interrupted time-series (ITS) are often used to assess the causal effect of a planned or even unplanned shock introduced into an on-going process. The pre-intervention slope is supposed to index the causal counterfactual, and deviations from it in mean, slope or variance are used to indicate an effect. However, a secure causal inference is only…

  10. Interruptions between the triple helix peptides can promote the formation of amyloid-like fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Avanish; Hwang, Eileen; Brodsky, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    It has been reported that collagen can initiate or accelerate the formation of amyloid fibrils. Non-fibrillar collagen types have sites where the repeating (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequences are interrupted by non- Gly-Xaa-Yaa sequences, and we are investigating the hypothesis that some of these interruptions can promote amyloid formation. Our experimental data show that model peptides containing an 8 or 9 residue interruption sequence between (Gly-Pro-Hyp)n domains have a strong propensity for self association to form fibrous structures. A peptide containing only the 9-residue interruption sequence forms amyloid like fibrils with anti-parallel β sheet. Computational analysis predicts that 33 out of 374 naturally occurring human non-fibrillar collagen sequences within or between triple-helical sequences have significant cross-β aggregation potential, including the 8 and 9 residue sequences studied in peptides. Further studies are in progress to investigate whether a triple-helix peptide promotes amyloidogenesis and whether amyloid interferes with collagen fibrillogenesis.

  11. RTtxGap: An android radiobiological tool for compensation of radiotherapy treatment interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, A. L.; Mohamad, M.; Abdullah, R.; Bhavaraju, V. M. K.; Nik Idris, N. R.

    2016-03-01

    Treatment interruption is not uncommon in radiotherapy. Common reasons for treatment interruption include machine breakdown, holidays and patient severe radiation reactions. Here RTtxGap, an Android application to assist calculations of compensation for treatment gap, is reported. It uses linear quadratic (LQ) model to calculate the biological effective dose (BED) that is used to solve for treatment gap compensations. Solutions are calculated using BED equation, with consideration for tissue proliferation. The accuracy of results has been verified using LQL Equiv software to be accurate within 1%. Five treatment interruption examples were used to illustrate the capability of the software to calculate the treatment compensation schedules. Solving these examples also illustrates the general consensus regarding compensating for unscheduled treatment interruptions, which ultimately involves balancing the BEDs of tumour and organ at risk. In addition to compensation for treatment gap, RTtxGap can also be used to calculate equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction (EQD2), to modify treatment schedule and to calculate alternative dose prescriptions having the same isoeffect.

  12. Improving Memory after Interruption: Exploiting Soft Constraints and Manipulating Information Access Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Phillip L.; Patrick, John; Waldron, Samuel M.; King, Sophia L.; Patrick, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Forgetting what one was doing prior to interruption is an everyday problem. The recent soft constraints hypothesis (Gray, Sims, Fu, & Schoelles, 2006) emphasizes the strategic adaptation of information processing strategy to the task environment. It predicts that increasing information access cost (IAC: the time, and physical and mental effort…

  13. The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on…

  14. Relational Identity Making on the Professional Landscape as a Substitute Teacher: Interruptions and Continuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driedger-Enns, Lynnette M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, which comes out of a research project exploring teaching as intellectual work, focuses specifically on a young woman who worked as a substitute teacher after she graduated from a two-year teacher education program at her local university. For Penny, substitute teaching was an interruption as she shaped a professional life moving…

  15. Evaluation of the Immediate and Subsequent Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Brittany I.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated 2 3-component multiple-schedule sequences--a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) treatment sequence and a no-interaction control sequence--using a multielement design. With this design, we were able to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on 2 participants' vocal stereotypy. For both participants, RIRD…

  16. Acoustic Predictors of Intelligibility for Segmentally Interrupted Speech: Temporal Envelope, Voicing, and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information--namely, consonants and vowels. Method: Young listeners with normal hearing…

  17. The Reasons for the Interruption of Vocational Training in Estonian Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilmann, Mai; Espenberg, Kerly

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of school before achieving any qualification is a serious problem both at an individual and societal level. This study provides an insight into the lives of young people who have dropped out or are at a risk of dropping out of vocational schools in Estonia and gives an overview of the reasons behind the interruption of their studies.…

  18. Motion-Induced Interruptions and Postural Equilibrium in Linear Lateral Accelerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    induced interruptions aboard ship: Model development and application to ship design . Occupational Ergonomics , 7(3), 183–199. Dijkstra, T. M. H...experimental design and Jesse Huston performed data entry services. Jeffrey Weekley and Jeff Malnick managed the Vicon Motion Capture system. LT Greg Gehl...9 A. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

  19. OCTL Laser Beam Transmission Interruptions due to Aircraft and Predictive Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Roberts, W. T.; Kovalik, J. M.; Wright, M. W.

    2012-11-01

    Laser beam transmission from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at Table Mountain, California, is required in order to provide a beacon source for optical link acquisition between spacecraft carrying laser communication terminals and OCTL. The laser transmission must be regulated in order to avoid inadvertent irradiation of overflying aircraft or spacecraft. In this article, we present an analysis and data to determine the frequency and duration of laser transmission interruptions so that future laser communication operations can be planned. A week's worth of aircraft flight-path data in the vicinity of OCTL was obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The FAA data were analyzed, along with simulated Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft predicted orbital data, in order to determine the frequency of laser transmission interruptions. An upper bound of five interruptions per 15-min period was observed due to aircraft overflights. Under more favorable conditions, a 15-min pass to the LADEE spacecraft could encounter no interruptions due to aircraft. The analysis was corroborated with "ground-truth" measurements at OCTL, using the existing laser safety system sensors and radar, to monitor aircraft that intercept a plus-or-minus 2.5-deg exclusion zone around the boresight axis of the OCTL telescope. The frequency of interruptions obtained from this data was in agreement with the predictions obtained using the FAA data analysis. Furthermore, the ground observation confirmed typical interrupt durations of 3 to 5 s due to overflying aircraft. This sets a lower bound for the fractional duration of the shoot window to be approximately 98 percent. Predictive avoidance (PA) data obtained from the Laser Clearing House (LCH) for approximately one month with the Moon as a target was analyzed. Note that the difference between using the Moon as a target versus simulated LADEE spacecraft orbital data is that the Moon

  20. Measuring the relationship between interruptions, multitasking and prescribing errors in an emergency department: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Raban, Magdalena Z; Walter, Scott R; Douglas, Heather E; Strumpman, Dana; Mackenzie, John; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interruptions and multitasking are frequent in clinical settings, and have been shown in the cognitive psychology literature to affect performance, increasing the risk of error. However, comparatively less is known about their impact on errors in clinical work. This study will assess the relationship between prescribing errors, interruptions and multitasking in an emergency department (ED) using direct observations and chart review. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in an ED of a 440-bed teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Doctors will be shadowed at proximity by observers for 2 h time intervals while they are working on day shift (between 0800 and 1800). Time stamped data on tasks, interruptions and multitasking will be recorded on a handheld computer using the validated Work Observation Method by Activity Timing (WOMBAT) tool. The prompts leading to interruptions and multitasking will also be recorded. When doctors prescribe medication, type of chart and chart sections written on, along with the patient's medical record number (MRN) will be recorded. A clinical pharmacist will access patient records and assess the medication orders for prescribing errors. The prescribing error rate will be calculated per prescribing task and is defined as the number of errors divided by the number of medication orders written during the prescribing task. The association between prescribing error rates, and rates of prompts, interruptions and multitasking will be assessed using statistical modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the hospital research ethics committee. Eligible doctors will be provided with written information sheets and written consent will be obtained if they agree to participate. Doctor details and MRNs will be kept separate from the data on prescribing errors, and will not appear in the final data set for analysis. Study results will be disseminated in publications and feedback to the ED. PMID

  1. Long-term outcome of patients after a single interruption of antiretroviral therapy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To describe the long term outcome of patients who interrupted highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) once, identify the variables associated with earlier need to re-start HAART, and the response when therapy was resumed. A retrospective observational cohort of 66 adult patients with HIV-1 infection who interrupted HAART with a CD4+cell count ≥350 cells/μL and undetectable viral load (VL) was performed. The pre-established CD4+ cell count for restarting therapy was 300cells/μL. Cox regression was used to analyse the variables associated with earlier HAART reinitiation. Results The median follow-up was 209 weeks (range, 64–395). Rates of HIV-related or possible HIV-related events were 0.37 (one case of acute retroviral syndrome) and 1.49 per 100 patient-years, respectively. Two patients died after re-starting therapy and having reached undetectable VL. Three patients suffered a sexually transmitted disease while off therapy. Fifty patients (76%) resumed therapy after a median of 97 weeks (range, 17–267). Age, a nadir of CD4+ <250 cells/μL, and a mean VL during interruption of >10,000 copies/ml were independent predictors for earlier re-start. The intention-to-treat success rate of the first HAART resumed regimen was 85.4%. There were no differences by regimen used, nor between regimens that were the same as or different from the one that had been interrupted. Conclusions Our data suggest highly active antiretroviral therapy may be interrupted in selected patients because in these patients, when the HAART is restarted, the viral and clinical response may be achieved. PMID:23095460

  2. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same. The...

  3. 76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same. The...

  4. 76 FR 17670 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason...

  5. Effectiveness of an improvement programme to prevent interruptions during medication administration in a paediatric hospital: a preintervention–postintervention study

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Oglio, Immacolata; Fiori, Martina; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo; Tiozzo, Emanuela; Mascolo, Rachele; Bianchi, Natalia; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Ferracci, Antonella; Gawronski, Orsola; Pomponi, Manuel; Raponi, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of an improvement programme to reduce the number of interruptions during the medication administration process in a paediatric hospital. Design and methods A prestudy–post study design was used to monitor nursing interruptions during medication cycles in a paediatric hospital. Interruptions were reported on an observation sheet (MADOS-P) adapted to the paediatric context. Setting A 600-bed tertiary paediatric research hospital in Italy. Intervention The interventions included a yellow sash worn by nurses during medication cycles, a yellow-taped floor area indicating the ‘No interruption area’, visual notices in the medication areas, education sessions for healthcare providers and families, patient and parent information material. Results 225 medication cycles were observed before the intervention (T0) and 261 after the intervention (T1). The median of interruptions occurring in each cycle decreased significantly from baseline to postintervention (8.0 vs 2.0, p=0.002), as the rate ratios (interruptions/patient post–pre ratio: 0.34; interruptions/medication post–pre ratio: 0.37; interruptions/hour of medication cycle post–pre ratio: 0.53, p<0.001). During preintervention, the main causes of interruptions were ‘other patients’ (19.9%), ‘other nurses’ (17.2%) and ‘conversation’ (15.7%); during postintervention, they were ‘other nurses’ (26.1%), ‘conversation’ (18.2%) and ‘other patients’ (17.4%). Conclusions This bundle of interventions proved to be an effective improvement programme to prevent interruptions during medication administration in a paediatric context. PMID:28062470

  6. Use and Outcomes Associated With Bridging During Anticoagulation Interruptions in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Eric D.; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Gersh, Bernard J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Sherwood, Matthew W.; Chang, Paul; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Ansell, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Background— Temporary interruption of oral anticoagulation for procedures is often required, and some propose using bridging anticoagulation. However, the use and outcomes of bridging during oral anticoagulation interruptions in clinical practice are unknown. Methods and Results— The Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) registry is a prospective, observational registry study of US outpatients with atrial fibrillation. We recorded incident temporary interruptions of oral anticoagulation for a procedure, including the use and type of bridging therapy. Outcomes included multivariable-adjusted rates of myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, cause-specific hospitalization, and death within 30 days. Of 7372 patients treated with oral anticoagulation, 2803 overall interruption events occurred in 2200 patients (30%) at a median follow-up of 2 years. Bridging anticoagulants were used in 24% (n=665), predominantly low-molecular-weight heparin (73%, n=487) and unfractionated heparin (15%, n=97). Bridged patients were more likely to have had prior cerebrovascular events (22% versus 15%; P=0.0003) and mechanical valve replacements (9.6% versus 2.4%; P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in CHA2DS2-VASc scores (scores ≥2 in 94% versus 95%; P=0.5). Bleeding events were more common in bridged than nonbridged patients (5.0% versus 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.84; P<0.0001). The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, hospitalization, or death within 30 days was also significantly higher in patients receiving bridging (13% versus 6.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.94; P=0.0001). Conclusions— Bridging anticoagulation is used in one quarter of anticoagulation interruptions and is associated with higher risk for bleeding and adverse events. These data do not support the use of routine bridging, and additional data are needed to identify best practices concerning

  7. Cyst and encystment in protozoan parasites: optimal targets for new life-cycle interrupting strategies?

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Díaz, Hugo; Carrero, Julio César; Argüello-García, Raúl; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Certain protozoan parasites use survival strategies to reside outside the host such as the formation of cysts. This dormant and resistant stage results from the complex process of encystment that involves diverse molecular and cellular modifications. The stimuli and changes associated with cyst biogenesis are a matter of ongoing studies in human and animal protozoan parasites such as amoeba and Giardia species because blocking every step in the encystment pathway should, in theory, interrupt their life cycles. The present review thoroughly examines this essential process in those protozoan parasites and discusses the possibility of using that information to develop new kinds of anti-parasite specific and life cycle-interrupting drugs, aimed at holding back the dissemination of these infections.

  8. A hybrid metalloarsenate 3D framework-1D interrupted metal oxide.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert W; Gerrard, Lee A; Price, Daniel J; Weller, Mark T

    2003-06-30

    Complex metal arsenates of the stoichiometry M(1)(-)(x)()M'(6)(OH)(3)(AsO(4)H(2)(x)()(/3))(3)(HAsO(4)), M = M' = Co, Ni, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The two compounds display a very similar structural topology to that of the mineral dumortierite, an uncommon complex oxyborosilicate of aluminum. The hybrid structures consist of well separated, vacancy interrupted chains of face sharing MO(6) octahedra, with short M.M distances near 2.5 A, embedded in a metalloarsenate 3D framework having the topology of the aluminosilicate cancrinite. The framework also contains a quadruply bridging hydroxide ion. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal a strong antiferromagnetic interaction and magnetic transition to low temperature spin canted phases below 51 K (Co) and 42 K (Ni). The material may be considered as a zeotype framework structure templated by an interrupted one-dimensional metal oxide.

  9. [Progress towards the interruption of transmission of Chagas disease in the southern countries].

    PubMed

    Moncayo, A

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiological and entomological data and the trends observed in the decreasing of the incidence of infection in young age groups indicate that only ninety years after the discovery of Chagas disease, the control of vectorial and transfusional transmission has reduced the incidence by 70% in the Southern Cone countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). This has been accomplished thanks to the political and financial engagement of the concerned governments who have invested US$340 millions since 1991 to the present. The initiatives to interrupt transmission of Chagas in the Andean countries and the Central American countries have begun their activities in 1997 and the evolution of the control operations allows to forecast the complete interruption in these areas before the year 2010 to comply with the mandate of Resolution WHA. 52.14 of the World Health Assembly in May 1998.

  10. Parametric analysis of response interruption and redirection as treatment for stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Valdeep; Gregory, Meagan K; Uran, Kirstin J; Fantetti, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Response interruption and redirection (RIRD), a procedure in which demands are delivered contingent on stereotypy, has been shown to reduce vocal and motor stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. However, RIRD can be time consuming and can interrupt ongoing activities and access to reinforcement for appropriate behavior. We attempted to address these limitations by comparing the effectiveness of RIRD using the standard 3-demand procedure to RIRD using just 1 demand. Results showed that RIRD with 1 demand was effective in reducing stereotypy for all participants, required fewer demands overall, and resulted in shorter implementation time. In addition, 2 participants showed an increase in appropriate play during RIRD. These results suggest RIRD with 1 demand may be an effective and less intrusive procedure for reducing stereotypy.

  11. The effect of contact angle on triangular shape interrupted microchannel heat sinks performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Azmi, Mohd Irwan; Chuan, Yeoh Chit; Tokit, Ernie Mat; Razali, Nadlene; Munir, Fudhail Abd; Azmi Nordin, Mohd Nur; Mat Nuri, Nur Rashid

    2012-06-01

    The effect of different contact angle on triangular shaped interrupted microchannel performance was studied by simulation using FLUENT software. The investigated effects were pressure drop and platinum film temperature. The flow in microchannel is laminar and single phase. Water was used as the working fluid and the interrupted microchannel is made of silicon. A thin platinum film plate was deposited to provide uniform heat flux. The geometry dimension of the heat sink is 30 mm in length, width of 7 mm and the thickness of 0.525 mm. The chosen contact angles that were investigated are 48.13°, 51.27° and 58.48°. From the simulation result, pressure drop and thermal dissipation is the highest for contact angle 58.48° and 48.13° respectively. Reducing the contact angle reduces the pressure drop and increases the thermal dissipation.

  12. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOEpatents

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  13. LSI Design for Sensing Data Transmission by Interruption in Tactile Sensor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muroyama, Masanori; Makihata, Mitsutoshi; Matsuzaki, Sakae; Yamada, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ui; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nonomura, Yutaka; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    This paper proposes a novel tactile sensor system, which acquires sensing data by interrupt data transmission from each tactile sensor element. The interrupt makes decentralized sensing data transmission. Compared with existing centralized tactile sensor systems, the system can handle a large amount of tactile sensor elements and attach the elements on the arbitrary surface of the robot, because decentralized serial bus communication and the integration of a MEMS sensor and a signal processing LSI realize low power consumption, high speed response and flexible network morphology. In this paper, we focus on system analysis and LSI design for the system. Experimental results show that response time and power consumption of a tactile sensor element, which is composed of a MEMS capacitive force sensor and a signal processing LSI, are 21μs and 2mW, respectively. The computational experiments proved that more than thousands of the elements can be mounted in the system.

  14. Phased Array Ghost Elimination (PAGE) for Segmented SSFP Imaging With Interrupted Steady-State

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; Guttman, Michael A.; Herzka, Daniel A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state free precession (SSFP) has recently proven to be valuable for cardiac imaging due to its high signal-to-noise ratio and blood-myocardium contrast. Data acquired using ECG-triggered, segmented sequences during the approach to steady-state, or return to steady-state after interruption, may have ghost artifacts due to periodic k-space distortion. Schemes involving several preparatory RF pulses have been proposed to restore steady-state, but these consume imaging time during early systole. Alternatively, the phased-array ghost elimination (PAGE) method may be used to remove ghost artifacts from the first several frames. PAGE was demonstrated for cardiac cine SSFP imaging with interrupted steady-state using a simple alpha/2 magnetization preparation and storage scheme and a spatial tagging preparation. PMID:12465121

  15. Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-02-16

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

  16. When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively.

    PubMed

    Agrasada, Grace V; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (p<0.001). Exclusive breastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.

  17. Interrupted Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWell, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Article described a project in the electronic music idiom for use in the intermediate grades that was different, that involved no complicated or expensive apparatus, and that showed an interesting relationship between measurement and rhythm. (Author/RK)

  18. Response interruption and redirection for vocal stereotypy in children with autism: a systematic replication.

    PubMed

    Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M; Sidener, David W; Progar, Patrick R

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD produced substantial decreases in vocal stereotypy. Limitations of this study were that behavior reduction did not generalize to novel settings or with novel instructors and that appropriate vocalizations did not improve.

  19. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Interrupted Click Reaction: Synthesis of Diverse 5-Hetero-Functionalized Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiguo; Peng, Xianglong; Wei, Fang; Tung, Chen-Ho; Xu, Zhenghu

    2016-01-11

    The 5-heterofunctionalized triazoles are important scaffolds in bioactive compounds, but current click reactions (CuAAC) cannot produce these core structures. A copper(I)-catalyzed interrupted click reaction to access diverse 5-functionalized triazoles is reported. Various 5-amino-, thio-, and selenotriazoles were readily assembled in one step in high yields. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions with complete regioselectivity. It also features a broad substrate scope and good functional group compatibility.

  20. Safety Profile of Nifurtimox and Treatment Interruption for Chronic Chagas Disease in Colombian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Mario Javier; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Nifurtimox (NFX) is one of the approved drugs used to treat Chagas disease. Safety profile studies and models on risk factors for treatment interruption in adults are scarce in Latin America. This study evaluated retrospectively the medical records of adult Chagas disease patients treated with NFX between 2007 and 2012 in Bogotá, Colombia. An accelerated failure time model was used, and associations were expressed as time ratio (TR). In total, 76 adult patients with NFX were included: 60 (79.0%) completed 60 days of treatment, 61 (80.3%) presented adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and 16 (21.0%) required treatment interruption. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (23.7%), nauseas (18.4%), sleep disturbances (18.4%), loss of appetite (17.1%), and temporary loss of memory (15.2%). ADRs were classified as mild (64.5%), moderate (30.4%), and severe (5.1%). Time of treatment was significantly longer when presenting ≤ 3 ADRs (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04–3.03), presence of non-severe ADRs (TR: 6.52; 95% CI: 3.24–13.1), doses of NFX ≤ 8 mg/kg/day (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.90–3.49), and age < 48 years (TR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.90–2.74). Treatment with NFX in adults caused a high frequency of ADRs, but most of the cases were mild and did not require treatment interruption. Severity and number of ADRs were the main predictors for treatment interruption. PMID:26392162

  1. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Onbas, Omer Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-06-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT.

  2. Sedation protocols versus daily sedation interruption: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nassar Junior, Antonio Paulo; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that compared a mild target sedation protocol with daily sedation interruption and to perform a meta-analysis with the data presented in these studies. Methods We searched Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify randomized clinical trials comparing sedation protocols with daily sedation interruption in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was mortality in the intensive care unit. Results Seven studies were included, with a total of 892 patients. Mortality in the intensive care unit did not differ between the sedation protocol and daily sedation interruption groups (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60 - 1.10; I2 = 0%). Hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay did not differ between the groups either. Sedation protocols were associated with an increase in the number of days free of mechanical ventilation (mean difference = 6.70 days; 95%CI 1.09 - 12.31 days; I2 = 87.2%) and a shorter duration of hospital length of stay (mean difference = -5.05 days, 95%CI -9.98 - -0.11 days; I2 = 69%). There were no differences in regard to accidental extubation, extubation failure and the occurrence of delirium. Conclusion Sedation protocols and daily sedation interruption do not appear to differ in regard to the majority of analyzed outcomes. The only differences found were small and had a high degree of heterogeneity. PMID:28099642

  3. Before-and-After Study of Interruptions in a Pharmacy Department

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Aurélie; Caron, Élaine; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few data exist on interruptions in the drug-use process in hospital pharmacies and their effects on patient care. Objective: The primary objective was to compare the hourly number of stimuli received and emitted (i.e., generated) by pharmacists and pharmacy technicians before and after implementation of measures intended to reduce interruptions. The secondary objective was to evaluate the impact of the corrective measures on 4 specific stimuli. Methods: This before-and-after cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the main dispensing area of the pharmacy department of a Canadian university hospital centre. Stimuli received and emitted by pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were counted before (2010) and after (2012) implementation of corrective measures designed to limit interruptions. The effect of corrective measures on targeted stimuli was measured with a t test. Results: Data were collected during a total of 93 randomly scheduled 30-min observation periods: 62 periods in 2010 (n = 2663 stimuli) and 31 periods in 2012 (n = 1217 stimuli). The average hourly stimulus rate (± standard deviation) was unchanged after implementation of corrective measures: 85.9 ± 22.2 in 2010 and 78.5 ± 20.1 in 2012 (p = 0.06). However, a significant decline was observed for many individual stimuli, including the number of face-to-face nonprofessional conversations among pharmacists (4.4 ± 4.2 in 2010 versus 1.2 ± 1.8 in 2012, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Despite the implementation of corrective measures, there was no statistically significant change in the hourly stimulus rates from 2010 to 2012. Other studies are needed to better characterize the nature and repercussions of stimuli, distractions, and interruptions. PMID:23467669

  4. Interrupting Nazarov Reaction with Different Trapping Modality: Utilizing Potassium Alkynyltrifluoroborate as a σ-Nucleophile.

    PubMed

    William, Ronny; Wang, Siming; Mallick, Asadulla; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2016-09-16

    The putative oxyallyl cation intermediate generated following Nazarov cyclization of dienone has been successfully intercepted with potassium alkynyltrifluoroborates which act as σ-nucleophiles in the presence of BF3·Et2O. This new trapping modality allowed unprecedented introduction of an alkynyl moiety to the cyclopentanone framework by means of an interrupted Nazarov reaction. The α-alkynyl cyclopentanone product can be further transformed into an array of densely functionalized cyclic compounds.

  5. Brief Lags in Interrupted Sequential Performance: Evaluating a Model and Model Evaluation Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Task interruption Sequence errors Cognitive modeling Goodness-of- fit testing a b s t r a c t We examined effects of adding brief (1 second) lags...rehearsal mechanism in the model. To evaluate the model we developed a simple new goodness-of- fit test based on analysis of variance that offers an...andweincorporatearehearsalmechanisminthemodel.Toevaluatethemodelwe developed asimplenewgoodness-of- fit testbasedonanalysisofvariancethatoffersaninferentialbasis for

  6. Interrupted coarsening in the zero-temperature kinetic Ising chain driven by a periodic external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Su Do; Baek, Seung Ki

    2015-06-01

    If quenched to zero temperature, the one-dimensional Ising spin chain undergoes coarsening, whereby the density of domain walls decays algebraically in time. We show that this coarsening process can be interrupted by exerting a rapidly oscillating periodic field with enough strength to compete with the spin-spin interaction. By analyzing correlation functions and the distribution of domain lengths both analytically and numerically, we observe nontrivial correlation with more than one length scale at the threshold field strength.

  7. Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2014-01-01

    Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability. PMID:25148297

  8. Biological evaluation of the toxicity and the cell cycle interruption by some benzimidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Błaszczak-Świątkiewicz, Katarzyna; Sikora, Joanna; Szymański, Jacek; Danilewicz, Marian; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the in vitro tests of biological activity of benzimidazoles were conducted. This group of benzimidazole derivatives was evaluated as potential bioreductive agents and their characteristic pro-apoptosis activity and cell cycle interruption on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were discussed. Their toxicity on the healthy human erythrocytes and their influence on the healthy human erythrocytes acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) were established. Their apoptosis activity on A549 cells line was determined by Annexin V-APC test, and it was visualized by Hoechst test. In the next stage, their influence on the cell cycle interruption was determined by using the ribonuclease reagent. The AChE inhibition test was defined by the Ellman method, and the red blood cell lysis was defined by erythrotoxicity test. The results proved the pro-apoptosis properties of all tested compounds in normoxia and hypoxia. The DNA content assay showed that the benzimidazoles possess the ability to interrupt S phase of tumor cell cycle. The best activity in this action was presented by compound 1, especially in hypoxia, and it proves that the N-oxide analogs are predispositioned to the hypoxic target. In this study, the benzimidazoles were found as potentially biocompatible and their inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was lower than tirapazamine and much lower than tacrine which constitutes their desired effect of potential biological activity.

  9. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Bentancor, Ana; Hernández, Ana Laura; Godoy, Yamile; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1) historical background; 2) implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3) functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices. PMID:27384969

  10. INTERRUPTION OF TIDAL-DISRUPTION FLARES BY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. K.; Li, S.; Chen Xian E-mail: lis@bac.pku.edu.c

    2009-11-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are products of galaxy mergers, and are important in testing LAMBDA cold dark matter cosmology and locating gravitational-wave-radiation sources. A unique electromagnetic signature of SMBHBs in galactic nuclei is essential in identifying the binaries in observations from the IR band through optical to X-ray. Recently, the flares in optical, UV, and X-ray caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) tidally disrupting nearby stars have been successfully used to observationally probe single SMBHs in normal galaxies. In this Letter, we investigate the accretion of the gaseous debris of a tidally disrupted star by a SMBHB. Using both stability analysis of three-body systems and numerical scattering experiments, we show that the accretion of stellar debris gas, which initially decays with time propor tot {sup -5/3}, would stop at a time T{sub tr} approx = etaT{sub b}. Here, eta approx 0.25 and T{sub b} is the orbital period of the SMBHB. After a period of interruption, the accretion recurs discretely at time T{sub r} approx = xi{sub b}, where xi approx 1. Both eta and xi sensitively depend on the orbital parameters of the tidally disrupted star at the tidal radius and the orbit eccentricity of SMBHB. The interrupted accretion of the stellar debris gas gives rise to an interrupted tidal flare, which could be used to identify SMBHBs in non-active galaxies in the upcoming transient surveys.

  11. Fully kinetic model of breakdown during sheath expansion after interruption of vacuum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Haoran; Zhou, Zhipeng; Tian, Yunbo; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    Research on sheath expansion is critical to the understanding of the dielectric recovery process in a vacuum interrupter after interruption of vacuum arcs. In this paper, we investigated how residual plasma affects breakdown in the sheath expansion period after the current zero. To simulate sheath expansion and breakdown, we developed a fully kinetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision model with one spatial dimension and three velocity dimensions. The model accounted for various collisions, including ionization, excitation, elastic collisions, charge exchange, and momentum exchange, and we added an external circuit to the model to make the calculations self-consistent. The existence of metal vapor slowed the sheath expansion in the gap and caused high electric field formation in front of the cathode surface. The initial residual plasma, which was at sufficiently low density, seemed to have a limited impact on breakdown, and the metal vapor dominated the breakdown in this case. Additionally, the breakdown probability was sensitive to the initial plasma density if the value exceeded a specific threshold, and plasma at sufficiently high density could mean that breakdown would occur more easily. We found that if the simulation does not take the residual plasma into account, it could overestimate the critical value of the metal vapor density, which is always used to describe the boundary of breakdown after interruption of vacuum arcs. We discussed the breakdown mechanism in sheath expansion, and the breakdown is determined by a combination of metal vapor, residual plasma, and the electric field in front of the cathode surface.

  12. HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Johannes F; Horwitz, Joshua A; Bar-On, Yotam; Kreider, Edward F; Lu, Ching-Lan; Lorenzi, Julio C C; Feldmann, Anna; Braunschweig, Malte; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago; Shimeliovich, Irina; Patel, Roshni; Burke, Leah; Cohen, Yehuda Z; Hadrigan, Sonya; Settler, Allison; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; West, Anthony P; Juelg, Boris; Keler, Tibor; Hawthorne, Thomas; Zingman, Barry; Gulick, Roy M; Pfeifer, Nico; Learn, Gerald H; Seaman, Michael S; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Klein, Florian; Schlesinger, Sarah J; Walker, Bruce D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-07-28

    Interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals leads to rapid viral rebound. Here we report the results of a phase IIa open label clinical trial evaluating 3BNC117,a broad and potent neutralizing antibody against the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 Env protein, during analytical treatment interruption in 13 HIV-1-infected individuals. Participants with 3BNC117-sensitive virus outgrowth cultures were enrolled. Results show that two or four 30 mg kg(-1) 3BNC117 infusions,separated by 3 or 2 weeks, respectively, are generally well tolerated.Infusions are associated with a delay in viral rebound of 5-9 weeks after two infusions, and up to 19 weeks after four infusions, or an average of 6.7 and 9.9 weeks, respectively, compared with 2.6 weeks for historical controls (P < 0.00001). Rebound viruses arise predominantly from a single provirus. In most individuals,emerging viruses show increased resistance, indicating escape.However, 30% of participants remained suppressed until antibody concentrations waned below 20 μg ml(-1), and the viruses emerging in all but one of these individuals showed no apparent resistance to 3BCN117, suggesting failure to escape over a period of 9-19 weeks.We conclude that the administration of 3BNC117 exerts strong selective pressure on HIV-1 emerging from latent reservoirs during analytical treatment interruption in humans.

  13. HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Johannes F.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Bar-On, Yotam; Kreider, Edward F.; Lu, Ching-Lan; Lorenzi, Julio C. C.; Feldmann, Anna; Braunschweig, Malte; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago; Shimeliovich, Irina; Patel, Roshni; Burke, Leah; Cohen, Yehuda Z.; Hadrigan, Sonya; Settler, Allison; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; West, Anthony P.; Juelg, Boris; Keler, Tibor; Hawthorne, Thomas; Zingman, Barry; Gulick, Roy M.; Pfeifer, Nico; Learn, Gerald H.; Seaman, Michael S.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Klein, Florian; Schlesinger, Sarah J.; Walker, Bruce D.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Caskey, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals leads to rapid viral rebound. Here we report the results of a phase IIa open label clinical trial evaluating 3BNC117, a broad and potent neutralizing antibody (bNAb) against the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 Env1, in the setting of analytical treatment interruption in 13 HIV-1-infected individuals. Participants with 3BNC117-sensitive virus outgrowth cultures were enrolled. Two or four 30 mg kg−1 infusions of 3BNC117, separated by 3 or 2 weeks, respectively, are generally well tolerated. Infusions are associated with a delay in viral rebound for 5–9 weeks after two infusions, and up to 19 weeks after four infusions, or an average of 6.7 and 9.9 weeks respectively, compared with 2.6 weeks for historical controls (P < 0.00001). Rebound viruses arise predominantly from a single provirus. In most individuals, emerging viruses show increased resistance, indicating escape. However, 30% of participants remained suppressed until antibody concentrations waned below 20 μg ml−1, and the viruses emerging in all but one of these individuals showed no apparent resistance to 3BCN117, suggesting failure to escape over a period of 9–19 weeks. We conclude that administration of 3BNC117 exerts strong selective pressure on HIV-1 emerging from latent reservoirs during analytical treatment interruption in humans. PMID:27338952

  14. The role of continuous low-frequency harmonicity cues for interrupted speech perception in bimodal hearing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Donaldson, Gail S; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have been shown to enhance speech perception by cochlear-implant users, particularly when target speech occurs in a competing background. The present study examined the extent to which a continuous representation of low-frequency harmonicity cues contributes to bimodal benefit in simulated bimodal listeners. Experiment 1 examined the benefit of restoring a continuous temporal envelope to the low-frequency ear while the vocoder ear received a temporally interrupted stimulus. Experiment 2 examined the effect of providing continuous harmonicity cues in the low-frequency ear as compared to restoring a continuous temporal envelope in the vocoder ear. Findings indicate that bimodal benefit for temporally interrupted speech increases when continuity is restored to either or both ears. The primary benefit appears to stem from the continuous temporal envelope in the low-frequency region providing additional phonetic cues related to manner and F1 frequency; a secondary contribution is provided by low-frequency harmonicity cues when a continuous representation of the temporal envelope is present in the low-frequency, or both ears. The continuous temporal envelope and harmonicity cues of low-frequency speech are thought to support bimodal benefit by facilitating identification of word and syllable boundaries, and by restoring partial phonetic cues that occur during gaps in the temporally interrupted stimulus.

  15. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  16. Children's Avoidance of Interrupting Others' Activities in Requesting Help: Cultural Aspects of Considerateness.

    PubMed

    Ruvalcaba, Omar; Rogoff, Barbara; López, Angélica; Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Gutiérrez, Kris

    2015-01-01

    To be able to collaborate skillfully, people need to coordinate well with others, taking into account how their actions fit with those of their partners. This is a key aspect of an approach to learning called Learning by Observing and Pitching In, hypothesized to be common in many Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. This chapter considers cultural values that emphasize considerateness and awareness of how one's actions impact others such as the Mexican cultural value of respeto and cultural differences in children's efforts to avoid interrupting others' activity. US Mexican-heritage children showed more evidence of avoiding interrupting the ongoing activity of an adult when they requested help, compared with European American children from families with extensive schooling experience. Most of the Mexican-heritage children's requests for help that gave evidence of avoiding interruption were made nonverbally, which may facilitate unobtrusive requests. There were no significant differences among children from two US Mexican-heritage backgrounds varying in experience with Western schooling and likely experience with Indigenous-American practices, suggesting that the Mexican cultural value of respeto and associated considerateness is widespread even among US Mexican-heritage families with extensive experience with Western schooling and life in the United States.

  17. Influence of metalorganic precursors flow interruption timing on green InGaN multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmukauskas, M.; Kadys, A.; Malinauskas, T.; Grinys, T.; Reklaitis, I.; Badokas, K.; Skapas, M.; Tomašiūnas, R.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Stanionytė, S.; Pietzonka, I.; Strassburg, M.; Lugauer, H.-J.

    2016-12-01

    The paper reports on fully strained green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, using metal precursor multiple flow interruptions during InGaN quantum well growth. Optimization of the interruption timing (pulse t 1  =  20 s, pause t 2  =  12 s) lets us reach the integrated photoluminescence enhancement for the growth at temperature 780 ºC. The enhancement, as a function of pause duration, appeared to be pulse duration dependent: a lower enhancement can be achieved using shorter pulses with optimized relatively shorter pauses. Indium evaporation during the interruption time was interpreted as the main issue to keep the layers intact. Quantum wells revealing the highest photoluminescence enhancement were inspected for interface quality, layer thickness, growth speed, strain, surface morphology and roughness by TEM, XRD and AFM techniques, and compared with the one grown in the conventional mode.

  18. Interruption of pacemaker signals by a diencephalic nucleus in the African electric fish, Gymnarchus niloticus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2006-05-01

    The African electric fish Gymnarchus niloticus rhythmically emits electric organ discharges (EODs) for communication and navigation. The EODs are generated by the electric organ in the tail in response to the command signals from the medullary pacemaker complex, which consists of a pacemaker nucleus (PN), two lateral relay nuclei (LRN) and a medial relay nucleus (MRN). The premotor structure and its modulatory influences on the pacemaker complex have been investigated in this paper. A bilateral prepacemaker nucleus (PPn) was found in the area of the dorsal posterior nucleus (DP) of the thalamus by retrograde labeling from the PN. No retrogradely labeled neurons outside the pacemaker complex were found after tracer injection into the LRN or MRN. Accordingly, anterogradely labeled terminal fibers from PPn neurons were found only in the PN. Iontophoresis of L-glutamate into the region of the PPn induced EOD interruptions. Despite the exclusive projection of the PPn neurons to the PN, extracellular and intracellular recordings showed that PN neurons continue their firing while MRN neurons ceased their firing during EOD interruption. This mode of EOD interruption differs from those found in any other weakly electric fishes in which EOD cessation mechanisms have been known.

  19. Occurrence and Duration of Interruptions During Nurses' Work in Surgical Wards: Findings From a Multicenter Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Dante, Angelo; Andrigo, Isabella; Barone, Francesca; Bonamico, Rossella; De Chiara, Antonio; Nait, Michela; Toci, Ergyseda; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-01-01

    This was an observational multicenter study of 50 registered nurses, randomly selected, on 5 surgical wards in 5 Italian hospitals. There were on average 5.6 interruptions per hour. Interruptions occurred more frequently during the afternoon shift (n = 1061; 52.8%), were caused mainly by the staff members (n = 978; 48.7%) during medication administration (n = 1075; 53.5%), and were managed directly by the nurses (n = 1639; 81.6%). The average duration of an interruption was 32.7 seconds (95% confidence interval, 30.7-34.7).

  20. Functional communication training and chained schedules of reinforcement to treat challenging behavior maintained by terminations of activity interruptions.

    PubMed

    Falcomata, Terry S; Roane, Henry S; Muething, Colin S; Stephenson, Kasey M; Ing, Anna D

    2012-09-01

    In this article, the authors evaluated functional communication training (FCT) and a chained schedule of reinforcement for the treatment of challenging behavior exhibited by two individuals diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and autism, respectively. Following a functional analysis with undifferentiated results, the authors demonstrated that challenging behavior was occasioned by interruptions of ongoing activities and maintained by terminations of interruptions. Next, they demonstrated the effectiveness of a treatment consisting of FCT with a chained schedule of reinforcement. Last, they modified the chained schedule procedure to increase ease of implementation and promote toleration of activity interruptions, and academic tasks were incorporated into the treatment.

  1. Correlation of shape changes of grain surfaces and reversible stress evolution during interruptions of polycrystalline film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hang Z.; Thompson, Carl V.

    2014-04-07

    Short interruptions of the growth of polycrystalline films often lead to stress evolution that is reversed when growth is resumed. Correlated in situ stress measurements and ex situ transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations of grain boundary surface grooves as a function of the interruption time are reported for films deposited at different temperatures and held for different times before quenching to room temperature. These studies suggest that during film deposition surface grooves at grain boundaries are kinetically constrained to be shallow, while during a growth interruption surface diffusion allows grain boundary grooves to deepen and approach their equilibrium depth. The latter relieves a component of the compressive stress associated with trapped atoms in the grain boundaries. When growth is resumed, the non-equilibrium surface morphology is reestablished and the compressive stress increases to its pre-interruption value.

  2. Interrupt Driven RS-232, Pulse Width Modulation, and Control Processing on a Single 8-bit PIC Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    generate pulse-width modulation ( PWM ) signals for four servos, and process a control algorithm on a single 8-bit PIC chip. The GPS sensor received data...any new interrupts that may have occurred during the servicing of the current interrupt. Both PWM and RS-232 generate pulses many times per second... Generate a PWM signal for 20ms low and (0.5-2.5ms) high * using an integer [0..100] */ if (io.pwm_cycle == -1) { 10

  3. The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment with Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-26

    The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment With Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours R.R. Leslie-Holt and V. W...EFFECT ON APHERESIS PLATELET QUALITY DURING SHIPMENT WITH CONTINUED INTERRUPTION OF AGITATION FOR 24 AND 48 HOURS. 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT LESLIEHOLT RONNI...maintaining an oxidative metabolism. Key Words: Agitation, apheresis , lactate, pH, platelet , quality 4 INTRODUCTION The Armed Services Blood Program

  4. Effects of Hydrogen-Only Interrupts on InGaAs/InP Superlattices Grown by OMVPE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    only growth interrupts to eliminate intermixing of hydride gases at the heterojunction interfaces. Changes in lattice strain resulting from interlayer...alloying were measured by X-ray diffraction. The changes in strain are small and consistent with decomposition of the surfaces when exposed to the...nonequilibrium H2 vapor. Possible interface smoothing is seen with 112 interrupt at the InGaAs to InP transition. A large compressive strain contribution

  5. Chemotherapy Interruptions in Relation to Symptom Severity in Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gwen; Sikorskii, Alla; Tesnjak, Irena; Victorson, David; Srkalovic, Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interruptions in medical treatment such as dose delays, reductions, or stoppages can lead to suboptimal treatment of cancer. Knowing how and for whom symptom severity and symptom interference with activities of daily living (ADL) are associated with treatment interruptions can guide behavioral interventions for supportive care. The purpose of this analysis is to inform research and clinical practice by bringing attention to specific patient symptoms that may hinder dose completion. Methods A secondary analysis of data collected in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of reflexology for symptom management was performed. The trial enrolled women with advanced breast cancer undergoing treatment (N=385). Outcome data were collected at baseline, weeks 5 and 11 using a valid and reliable measure. Medical records provided data on treatment interruptions and metastasis. The association between alterations in medical treatment during the study period with symptom severity, symptom interference with ADL and metastatic status were tested using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models. Results The relationship between dose delays and dose reductions and symptom severity was differential according to metastatic status, with the higher strength of association among women with distant metastasis compared to those with loco-regional disease (p=0.02). The interaction of symptom interference and metastatic status was also significantly related to dose delays and reductions (p=0.04). Severity of pain was a stronger predictor of dose delays or reductions among patients with distant metastasis compared to those with loco-regional disease (p<0.01). Conclusion The analysis highlights the importance of understanding symptom outcomes that impact research, practice, and treatment decisions. PMID:25805451

  6. Successful Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala Focus, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Rizzo, Nidia; Richards, Jane; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Domínguez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Catú, Eduardo; Oliva, Orlando; Richards, Frank O.; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum) were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin) within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (≥7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years) was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0–0.9%). The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16) in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old) was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0–0.05%). Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0–0.01%). The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. Conclusions/Significance Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus. PMID:19333366

  7. What might interrupt men's suicide? Results from an online survey of men

    PubMed Central

    Shand, Fiona L; Proudfoot, Judy; Player, Michael J; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Wilhelm, Kay; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; McTigue, Isabel; Spurrier, Michael; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men are almost two times more likely to die by suicide than women, yet little research has focused on what is required to prevent suicide among men. This paper aims to investigate what factors interrupt suicidal behaviour in men, and to examine differences according to known suicide risk factors. Setting Australia. Participants 251 Australian men aged 18 years and over who had made a suicide attempt 6–18 months prior to completing the survey. Outcomes The survey canvassed the language men use to describe their depression and suicidality, warning signs, barriers to accessing help and what is needed to interrupt a suicide attempt. ORs and χ2 were used to test for differences by age, geographic location and current depression severity. Results Of 299 men screened and eligible to participate, 251 completed all or part of the survey. Participants identified different words and warning signs for depression compared with suicidality. The most commonly endorsed barriers to accessing help were not wanting to burden others (66%) and having isolated themselves (63%). Men overwhelmingly endorsed ‘I thought about the consequences for my family’ as the factor which stopped a suicide attempt (67%). ‘I need support from someone I really trust and respect’ was also strongly endorsed. There were few differences by age, region or depression severity. Conclusions Participants were able to identify signs, albeit often subtle ones, that they were becoming depressed or suicidal. Similarly, most were able to identify active strategies to interrupt this downward spiral. Men wanted others to notice changes in their behaviour, and to approach them without judgement. PMID:26474936

  8. Fabrication of InGaN quantum dots by periodically interrupted growth in MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Min; Yi, Sung-Hak; Kim, Jung-A.; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2008-03-01

    Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots are fabricated in a two-flow horizontal MOCVD reactor maintained at the pressure of 200 torr. The precursors were trimethyl-gallium (TMG) and trimethyl-indium (TMI) and ammonia (NH 3), and the carrier gas was N II and H II. The optimum condition for periodically interrupted growth (PIG) mode was deduced to fabricate the InGaN quantum dots. NH 3 was supplied in PIG mode with the interval of 3 seconds and 5 seconds while TMG and TMI were supplied continuously. The carrier gas was N II in QDs growth, while H II in nucleation and buffer layer growth. The influence of number of periodic interrupted NH 3 on the structural and optical properties of InGaN quantum dots was investigated by AFM, FE-SEM and low temperature photoluminescence (LT-PL). The AFM images give the size of InGaN QDs with diameter of 20 ~ 50 nm, height of 3 ~ 10 nm and density of 10 10 #/cm2 ~ 10 11 #/cm2. A strong peak at 362.2 nm (3.41eV) and broad emission peak in 435 nm (2.86 eV) were evolved in the photoluminescence measurement using Nd-YAG laser. The composition of QDs was estimated to be In 0.14Ga 0.86N from the relation between peak energy and indium content. Hence. The periodic interruption growth enables the fabrication of self- assembled InGaN QDs with high density and uniform size.

  9. Mechanism of interrupted saccades in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Optican, Lance M; Rucker, Janet C; Keller, Edward L; Leigh, R John

    2008-01-01

    In late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS), saccades are interrupted by one or more transient decelerations. Some saccades reaccelerate and continue on before eye velocity reaches zero, even in darkness. Intervals between successive decelerations are not regularly spaced. Peak decelerations of horizontal and vertical components of oblique saccades in LOTS is more synchronous than those in control subjects. We hypothesize that these decelerations are caused by dysregulation of the fastigial nuclei (FN) of the cerebellum, which fire brain stem inhibitory burst neurons (IBNs).

  10. Aortic Arch Interruption and Persistent Fifth Aortic Arch in Phace Syndrome: Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Course.

    PubMed

    Chiappa, Enrico; Greco, Antonella; Fainardi, Valentina; Passantino, Silvia; Serranti, Daniele; Favilli, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    PHACE is a rare congenital neurocutaneous syndrome where posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, cerebrovascular anomalies, aortic arch anomalies, cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities are variably associated. We describe the prenatal detection and the postnatal course of a child with PHACE syndrome with a unique type of aortic arch anomaly consisting of proximal interruption of the aortic arch and persistence of the fifth aortic arch. The fifth aortic arch represented in this case a vital systemic-to-systemic connection between the ascending aorta and the transverse portion of the aortic arch allowing adequate forward flow through the aortic arch without surgical treatment.

  11. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2002-02-27

    During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

  12. Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. )

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

  13. A rare association of interrupted aortic arch type C and microdeletion 22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Cuturilo, Goran; Drakulic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Milena; Jovanovic, Ida; Djukic, Milan; Miletic-Grkovic, Slobodanka; Atanaskovic-Markovic, Marina

    2008-10-01

    Microdeletion 22q11.2 is associated with a variety of findings, and the most common are cardiac defects. It is very frequently associated with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) type B and very rarely with type A and type C. Here we report the first case of IAA type C associated with 22q11.2 deletion in Serbia and, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth case described worldwide so far. By this report we would like to point out that all patients with IAA type C who have additional features specific for 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome should be screened for the presence of this deletion.

  14. Pressure-induced optic nerve axonal transport interruption in cat eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1981-12-01

    After intravitreal injection of tritiated leucine, optic nerve axonal transport was studied in 30 cat eyes by tissue radioautography. Twenty-five experimental eyes were examined after four hours of acute pressure elevation with perfusion pressures maintained at 20 to 70 mm Hg. In five control specimens, intraocular pressures were maintained at 10 mm Hg for the four-hour interval. The extent of leucine accumulation, as seen by radioautographs, was inversely proportional to the perfusion pressure. Accumulation was limited to the region fo the lamina cribrosa. The anatomic distribution and pressure response of this transport interruption were similar to those seen in primate eyes studied under similar conditions.

  15. Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

    2004-09-01

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and industry to jointly under take the

  16. Interrupted and continuous strip technique for tip surgery during traditional rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Micheli-Pellegrini, V; Ponti, L; Ponti, G; Guidarelli, P

    1996-10-01

    The authors report their experience in corrective surgery of the tip during traditional closed rhinoplasty. After a critical revision of the proposed techniques by other authors, the advantages of the "Doberman's ears" and "Butterfly" are given. The choice of the corrective techniques of the tip next to Tardy's algorithm can use a "sequential criterium" after having used a delivery approach. During rhinoplasty it is possible to perform a system of "progression" from one method to another maintaining or interrupting the cartilaginous arch and having as a goal the increasing or the decreasing of the tip.

  17. Interrupted Magnetic First Order Transitions and Kinetic Arrest probed with In-field Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siruguri, V.; Kaushik, S. D.; Rayaprol, S.; Babu, P. D.; Chaddah, P.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Hoser, A.; Ritter, C.

    2016-09-01

    In-field neutron diffraction studies were carried out on two compounds that exhibit magnetic first order phase transitions (FOPT). It is shown that the FOPT can be interrupted by an external magnetic field, resulting in a coexistence of kinetically arrested metastable states and equilibrium phases. Use of a novel protocol CHUF (Cooling and Heating under Unequal Fields) helps to determine the coexisting phase fractions and also to observe the devitrification of the kinetically arrested phase into the equilibrium phase, in a manner similar to that found in structural glassy systems.

  18. Pre-conditioned place preference treatment of chloral hydrate interrupts the rewarding effect of morphine.

    PubMed

    Sun, YongMei; Zong, Wei; Zhou, MuRu; Ma, YuanYe; Wang, JianHong

    2015-08-01

    The medical use of morphine as a pain killer is hindered by its side effects including dependence and further addiction. As the prototypical μ receptor agonist, morphine's rewarding effect can be measured by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms in animals. Chloral hydrate is a clinical sedative. Using a morphine CPP paradigm that mainly contains somatosensory cues, we found that pre-CPP treatment in rats using chloral hydrate for 6 consecutive days could disrupt the establishment of CPP in a U shape. Chloral hydrate had no effect on the body weight of rats. Our results indicate that prior treatment with chloral hydrate can interrupt the rewarding effect of morphine.

  19. A Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Model Demonstrates That Nocturnal Hot Flashes Interrupt Objective Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Hadine; Crawford, Sybil; Economou, Nicole; Kim, Semmie; Regan, Susan; Hall, Janet E.; White, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep interruption is often reported by women with hot flashes and night sweats (or vasomotor symptoms, VMS). Although women report that VMS awaken them, polysomnography (PSG) studies have not consistently supported this contention. Design: We mimicked menopause using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to investigate whether VMS increase awakenings and wake after sleep onset (WASO). VMS, serum estradiol, and at-home PSGs (two pretreatment, two posttreatment) were measured before and after 4 weeks on GnRHa. Regression models were used to determine the effect of increasing VMS frequency on awakenings and WASO, as measured objectively and subjectively. Participants: Twenty-nine healthy women (mean 27.3 y). Setting: Academic medical center. Interventions: Depot GnRHa (leuprolide 3.75-mg). Results: Serum estradiol was rapidly and uniformly suppressed on GnRHa. Persistent VMS were reported by 69% of women. The number of nighttime VMS correlated directly with the degree of sleep disturbance. Each additional reported nighttime VMS was associated with a 62% increase from baseline in PSG-measured WASO (P = 0.007), a 3% increase in awakenings (P = 0.05), and 6% increase in %N1 sleep (P = 0.02). Nighttime VMS were also associated with increased perceived WASO (312%; P = 0.02), awakenings (16%; P = 0.007), Insomnia Severity Index (P = 0.03), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03) scores, and decreased perceived sleep efficiency (P = 0.01). Objectively recorded nighttime VMS correlated with PSG-measured WASO (rs = 0.45, P = 0.02). Conclusions: This menopause model demonstrates that nighttime vasomotor symptoms correlate with increased sleep fragmentation. These findings are consistent with a specific contribution of vasomotor symptoms to polysomnography-measured sleep interruption suggesting that nighttime vasomotor symptoms interrupt sleep in the setting of menopause. Citation: Joffe H; Crawford S; Economou N; Kim S; Regan S; Hall JE; White D. A

  20. Hydrogen-Borrowing and Interrupted-Hydrogen-Borrowing Reactions of Ketones and Methanol Catalyzed by Iridium**

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Poole, Darren L; Shotton, Camilla C; Kornahrens, Anne F; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of catalytic [{Ir(cod)Cl}2] to facilitate hydrogen-borrowing reactions of ketone enolates with methanol at 65 °C. An oxygen atmosphere accelerates the process, and when combined with the use of a bulky monodentate phosphine ligand, interrupts the catalytic cycle by preventing enone reduction. Subsequent addition of pro-nucleophiles to the reaction mixture allowed a one-pot methylenation/conjugate addition protocol to be developed, which greatly expands the range of products that can be made by this methodology. PMID:25491653

  1. Interrupted Genes in Extremophilic Archaea: Mechanisms of Gene Expression in Early Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Rossi, Mosè; Moracci, Marco

    2006-12-01

    Extremophilic Archaea populate biotopes previously considered inaccessible for life. This feature, and the possibility that they are the extant forms of life closest to the last common ancestor, make these organisms excellent candidates for the study of evolution on Earth and stimulate the exobiological research in planets previously considered totally inhospitable. Among the other aspects of the physiology of these organisms, the study of the molecular genetics of extremophilic Archaea can give hints on how the genetic information is transmitted and propagated in ancient forms of life. We review here the expression of interrupted genes in a recently discovered nanoarchaeon and the mechanisms of reprogrammed genetic decoding in Archaea.

  2. [Standards of social welfare in pregnancy and with voluntary pregnancy interruption].

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    This article reproduces verbatim the text of law 194, promulga ted in Italy on May 22, 1978. After stating that abortion is not to be considered a contraceptive method, and that, on the other hand, responsible procreation is to be encouraged, and information and services of contraception obtained in maternal-infant health centers, the law states the modalities for voluntary interruption of pregnancy. Abortion is legal within the first 3 months of pregnancy when requested directly by the woman, and when a doctor testifies, in writing, that the pregnancy could be dangerous to the woman's physical or mental health, or that it would be totally unadvisable for social or economic conditions, or that there is danger of congenital anomalies for the infant. If the doctor does not consider the abortion to be urgent the woman is strongly encouraged to ponder the matter for an extra week. Doctors and sanitary personnel may conscientiously object to performing the abortion, unless the life of the woman is in danger. Minors need the written consent of parents, unless a judge decides otherwise. In the case of mentally retarded women authorization for abortion can be asked by the husband or the tutor. Anybody causing interruption of pregnancy without the woman's consent will be punished with fines and/or imprisonment.

  3. Interrupting autocrine ligand-receptor binding: comparison between receptor blockers and ligand decoys.

    PubMed Central

    Forsten, K E; Lauffenburger, D A

    1992-01-01

    Stimulation of cell behavioral functions by ligand/receptor binding can be accomplished in autocrine fashion, where cells secrete ligand capable of binding to receptors on their own surfaces. This proximal secretion of autocrine ligands near the surface receptors on the secreting cell suggests that control of these systems by inhibitors of receptor/ligand binding may be more difficult than for systems involving exogenous ligands. Hence, it is of interest to predict the conditions under which successful inhibition of cell receptor binding by the autocrine ligand can be expected. Previous theoretical work using a compartmentalized model for autocrine cells has elucidated the conditions under which addition of solution decoys for the autocrine ligand can interrupt cell receptor/ligand binding via competitive binding of the secreted molecules (Forsten, K. E., and D. A. Lauffenburger. 1992. Biophys. J. 61:1-12.) We now apply a similar modeling approach to examine the addition of solution blockers targeted against the cell receptor. Comparison of the two alternative inhibition strategies reveals that a significantly lower concentration of receptor blockers, compared to ligand decoys, will obtain a high degree of inhibition. The more direct interruption scheme characteristic of the receptor blockers may make them a preferred strategy when feasible. PMID:1330038

  4. Primary repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions in newborns.

    PubMed

    Tláskal, T; Chaloupecky, V; Marek, J; Hŭcín, B; Kostelka, M; Tax, P; Kucera, V; Janousek, J; Skovránek, J; Reich, O

    1997-04-01

    Primary repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions was performed in 13 patients aged from 1 to 85 days. The surgery was performed through the midline sternotomy approach in extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermia. Hypothermic circulatory arrest at 14 to 19 degrees C was used for reconstruction of the aortic arch. In all patients it was possible to perform a direct anastomosis between the ascendent and descendent aorta. At the same time closure of the ventricular septal defect was performed in 11 patients, closure of the atrial septal defect in 4, correction of persistent truncus arteriosus in 3, resection of subaortic stenosis in 2, arterial switch repair of transposition of the great arteries in 1, correction of double outlet right ventricle in 1 and patch closure of aortico-pulmonary window in 1 patient. Three (23.1%) newborns died in the early postoperative period: two from sepsis and one from multiple organ failure. Ten patients (76.9%) were followed up for 1 to 29 months postoperatively. All of them are in very good condition with a nonrestrictive aortic anastomosis. Primary one-stage repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions is preferred to the two-stage repair in all newborns with this critical congenital heart disease.

  5. Fast and interrupted expansion in cyclic void growth in dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Brooimans, R. J. C.; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Low-pressure acetylene plasmas are able to spontaneously form dust particles. This will result in a dense cloud of solid particles that is levitated in the plasma. The formed particles can grow up to micrometers. We observed a spontaneous interruption in the expansion of the so-called dust void. A dust void is a macroscopic region in the plasma that is free of nanoparticles. The phenomenon is periodical and reproducible. We refer to the expansion interruption as ‘hiccup’. The expanding void is an environment in which a new cycle of dust particle formation can start. At a certain moment in time, this cycle reaches the (sudden) coagulation phase and as a result the void will temporarily shrink. To substantiate this reasoning, the electron density is determined non-intrusively using microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, video imaging of laser light scattering of the dust particles provides their spatial distribution. The emission intensity of a single argon transition is measured similarly. Our results support the aforementioned hypothesis for what happens during the void hiccup. The void dynamics preceding the hiccup are modeled using a simple analytical model for the two dominant forces (ion drag and electric) working on a nanoparticle in a plasma. The model results qualitatively reproduce the measurements.

  6. [Strategy for determining a baseline in areas of vector interruption for Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Diego; Vera, Mauricio; Zuleta, Liliana; Llanos, Violeta; Junqueira, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Present a strategy to determine the baseline in endemic areas in the process of vector interruption for Chagas disease (CHD). Methods A social and environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey evaluated the physical conditions of dwellings, the inhabitants' knowledge of CHD, the entomological triatomine indicators and the statistical relationship among these variables. Results Colonization and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi exist in Rhodnius prolixus, the principal vector of CHD in Colombia. Colonization was related to palm-thatched houses constructed with adobe or wattle and daub. The Panstrongylus geniculatus vector was found to be colonizing. Almost 50% of the surveyed population associated the term CHD with human disease and 37%, with triatomines. Conclusions R. prolixus can be considered to be the principal vector of T. cruzi in domestic environments and the process of interruption is feasible within the prioritized municipality. New studies are needed to verify the existence of wild populations of R. prolixus that could affect future stages of the process and demonstrate whether P. geniculatus is a factor in the transmission of T. cruzi. These scenarios can be made viable by including the inhabitants throughout the process, since they have been highly sensitive in vector detection inside their houses. The study design presented here can be adapted to other endemic areas of the Region of the Americas.

  7. Characterization of cryobiological responses in TF-1 cells using interrupted freezing procedures.

    PubMed

    Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2010-04-01

    Cryopreservation currently is the only method for long-term preservation of cellular viability and function for uses in cellular therapies. Characterizing the cryobiological response of a cell type is essential in the approach to designing and optimizing cryopreservation protocols. For cells used in therapies, there is significant interest in designing cryopreservation protocols that do not rely on dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) as a cryoprotectant, since this cryoprotectant has been shown to have adverse effects on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant patients. This study characterized the cryobiological responses of the human erythroleukemic stem cell line TF-1, as a model for HSC. We measured the osmotic parameters of TF-1 cells, including the osmotically-inactive fraction, temperature-dependent membrane hydraulic conductivity and the membrane permeability to 1M Me(2)SO. A two-step freezing procedure (interrupted rapid cooling with hold time) and a graded freezing procedure (interrupted slow cooling without hold time) were used to characterize TF-1 cell recovery during various phases of the cooling process. One outcome of these experiments was high recovery of TF-1 cells cryopreserved in the absence of traditional cryoprotectants. The results of this study of the cryobiology of TF-1 cells will be critical for future understanding of the cryobiology of HSC, and to the design of cryopreservation protocols with specific design criteria for applications in cellular therapies.

  8. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  9. Influence of the molecular structure of steroids on their ability to interrupt gap junctional communication.

    PubMed

    Hervé, J C; Pluciennik, F; Verrecchia, F; Bastide, B; Delage, B; Joffre, M; Délèze, J

    1996-02-01

    17 beta-estradiol propionate was found to reduce the gap junctional communication in a concentration range similar to that of testosterone propionate, in primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells and cardiac myocytes. Uncoupling was reversible on washing out and occurred without concomitant rise in the intracellular calcium concentration. Esterification was prerequisite for the activity of extracellularly applied steroid compounds (for example, testosterone was ineffective even at external concentrations up to 100 microM, whereas its intracellular application at 1 microM totally interrupted intercellular communication), but their uncoupling efficiency did not depend on the nature of the ester chain nor on its position on the steroid nucleus. The derivatives of two other androgen hormones (derivatives of the androstane nucleus) were also efficient as junctional uncouplers. Among five steroid molecules belonging to the pregnane family, only one (pregnanediol diacetate) interrupted the junctional communication. Neither cholic acid nor cholesteryl acetate or ouabain showed this effect. Altogether, no correlation with the presence or position of double bonds nor with the trans- or cis-fusion of the A and B rings could be recognized. These results suggest that this reversible, nondeleterious uncoupling effect of steroids is independent of the shape of the molecules and is more probably related to their size and liposolubility, that condition their insertion into the lipid bilayer. Their incorporation into the membrane could disturb the activity of the membrane proteins by a physical mechanism.

  10. Reversible interruption of gap junctional communication by testosterone propionate in cultured Sertoli cells and cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Pluciennik, F; Verrecchia, F; Bastide, B; Hervé, J C; Joffre, M; Délèze, J

    1996-02-01

    A direct cell-to-cell exchange of ions and molecules occurs through specialized membrane channels built by the interaction of two half channels, termed connexons, contributed by each of the two adjacent cells. The electrical and diffusional couplings have been investigated by monitoring respectively the cell-to-cell conductance and the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, in Sertoli and cardiac cells of young rat. In both cell types, a rapid impairment of the intercellular coupling has been observed in the presence of testosterone propionate. This interruption of the cell-to-cell communication through gap junction channels was dose-dependent, observed in the concentration range 1 to 25 microM and was progressively reversed after withdrawing the testosterone ester. Pretreatment with cyproterone acetate, an antiandrogen which blocks the nuclear testosterone receptor by binding, did not prevent the uncoupling action of the androgen ester. This observation, together with the rapid time course of the uncoupling and recoupling, and the rather high effective concentration (micromolar) of the steroid compound, suggests a nongenomic mechanism of action. The uncoupling concentrations were very similar to those of other steroid compounds known to interrupt gap junctional communication. The uncoupling could result from a direct interaction of the steroid with the proteolipidic structure of the membrane, that might alter the conformation of the gap junction channels and their functional state.

  11. A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions.

    PubMed

    Janowich, Jacki; Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-07-16

    Goal-directed behavior is often impaired by interference from the external environment, either in the form of distraction by irrelevant information that one attempts to ignore, or by interrupting information that demands attention as part of another (secondary) task goal. Both forms of external interference have been shown to detrimentally impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM). Emerging evidence suggests that these different types of external interference exert different effects on behavior and may be mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. Better characterizing the distinct neuro-behavioral impact of irrelevant distractions versus attended interruptions is essential for advancing an understanding of top-down attention, resolution of external interference, and how these abilities become degraded in healthy aging and in neuropsychiatric conditions. This manuscript describes a novel cognitive paradigm developed the Gazzaley lab that has now been modified into several distinct versions used to elucidate behavioral and neural correlates of interference, by to-be-ignored distractors versus to-be-attended interruptors. Details are provided on variants of this paradigm for investigating interference in visual and auditory modalities, at multiple levels of stimulus complexity, and with experimental timing optimized for electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. In addition, data from younger and older adult participants obtained using this paradigm is reviewed and discussed in the context of its relationship with the broader literatures on external interference and age-related neuro-behavioral changes in resolving interference in working memory.

  12. Modulation of IL-1β reprogrammes the tumor microenvironment to interrupt oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Hong, Yun; Jia, Lihua; Wu, Jie; Xia, Juan; Wang, Juan; Hu, Qinchao; Cheng, Bin

    2016-02-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) development is a multistage process includes the normal, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) stages. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that the tumor microenvironment (TME) is an integral part of malignant transformation. Exploring certain key node genes in TME for future intervention in dysplasia to interrupt oral carcinogenesis was the primary goal of this research. To achieve this goal, systems biology approaches were first applied to the epithelia and fibroblasts collected at sequential stages in a 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) -induced rat oral carcinogenesis model. Through bioinformatics network construction, IL-1β was identified as one of the key node genes in TME during carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining of human and rat samples demonstrated that IL-1β expression patterns were parallel to the stages of malignant transformation. Silencing IL-1β with lentivirus-delivered shRNA significantly inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that IL-1β may be a chemoprevention target in TME during oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, we targeted IL-1 in the TME by oral mucosal injection of an IL-1 receptor antagonist in 4NQO rats. The results demonstrated that targeting IL-1 could interrupt oral carcinogenesis by reprogramming the TME.

  13. Unemployment and work interruption among African American single mothers: effects on parenting and adolescent socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    McLoyd, V C; Jayaratne, T E; Ceballo, R; Borquez, J

    1994-04-01

    Using interview data from a sample of 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tests a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influence adolescent socioemotional functioning. In general, these economic stressors affected adolescent socioemotional functioning indirectly, rather than directly, through their impact on mothers' psychological functioning and, in turn, parenting behavior and mother-child relations. Current unemployment, but not past work interruption, had a direct effect on depressive symptomatology in mothers. As expected, depressive symptomatology in mothers predicted more frequent maternal punishment of adolescents, and this relation was fully mediated by mothers' negative perceptions of the maternal role. More frequent maternal punishment was associated with increased cognitive distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents, and consistent with predictions, these relations were partially mediated by adolescents' perceptions of the quality of relations with their mothers. Increased availability of instrumental support, as perceived by mothers, predicted fewer depressive symptoms in mothers, less punishment of adolescents, and less negativity about the maternal role. Both economic stressors were associated with higher levels of perceived financial strain in mothers, which in turn predicted adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship. Adolescents who perceived their families as experiencing more severe economic hardship reported higher anxiety, more cognitive distress, and lower self-esteem.

  14. Abortifacient metapristone (RU486 derivative) interrupts CXCL12/CXCR4 axis for ovarian metastatic chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning; Chen, Jiahang; Li, Tao; Liu, Weiqun; Liu, Jian; Chen, Hongning; Wang, Jichuang; Jia, Lee

    2017-03-09

    Recent global epidemiological studies revealed the lower ovarian cancer death from long-term use of oral contraceptives. However, the underlying mechanism of action is not clear. Here, we use the abortifacient metapristone (RU486 derivative) to test the hypothesis that the contraceptives might interrupt CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis to inhibit ovarian cancer metastasis. Metapristone at concentrations (interrupts the cellular filamentous actin polymerization and the related chemotaxis. Metapristone also concentration-dependently inhibits the events of cellular invasion, migration, and adhesion. The inhibition is related to down-regulation of the invasive molecules MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, and VEGF without affecting the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, integrins α1, α3, α5, α6, and β1. Six-week in vivo xenograft study confirms the anti-metastatic effect of metapristone on mouse ascites and metastatic foci induced by intraperitoneal IGROV-1 and CXCL12. The present studies, for the first time, reveal the therapeutic effect of metapristone on ovarian metastasis and the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis-related mechanisms of actions.

  15. Reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions during the past 50 ka from the biogeochemical record of Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, A.; Rosén, P.; Kliem, P.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2011-12-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) are used to reconstruct the environmental history during the past 50kyrs in high resolution from Laguna Potrok Aike. During the Holocene warmer conditions lead to an increased productivity reflected in higher TOC and BSi contents. Calcite precipitation initiated around 9 ka cal. BP probably due to supersaturation induced by lake level lowering. It is assumed that prior to this time period sediments are carbonate-free because high lake-level conditions prevailed. During the Glacial, increased runoff linked to permafrost, precipitation related to stronger cyclonic activity and reduced evaporation have caused higher lake levels. Moreover, during cold glacial conditions lake productivity was low and organic matter mainly of algal or cyanobacterial origin as indicated by generally low TOC and C/N values. During interstadials, such as the Antarctic A-events and the Younger Dryas, TOC contents appear to rise. The glacial C/N ratios and their correlation with TOC concentrations indicate that aquatic moss blooms probably induce these increases in TOC. Aquatic mosses grow if surface water temperatures rise due to warmer climatic conditions and/or development of a lake water stratification. The latter may occur if wind speeds are low and melt water inflow caused higher density gradients. Prevailing permafrost thawing during warmer periods could lead to considerable rises of lake levels, which would contribute to the preservation of organic material. This may explain why higher C/N and TOC values occur at the end of Antarctic A-events. For the uppermost 25 m, the BSi profile shows a high correlation with the TOC profile. In deeper horizons, however, there are indications that the BSi/TOC ratio increased. This part of the record is dominated by mass movement events, which may have supplied nutrients and thus triggered diatom blooms.

  16. Expansion, mosaicism and interruption: mechanisms of the CAG repeat mutation in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

    PubMed

    Kraus-Perrotta, Cara; Lagalwar, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the cerebellum and brainstem. The genetic mutation is an expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats within the coding region of the ataxin-1 gene, characterizing SCA1 as a polyglutamine expansion disease like Huntington's. As with most polyglutamine expansion diseases, SCA1 follows the rules of genetic anticipation: the larger the expansion, the earlier and more rapid the symptoms. Unlike the majority of polyglutamine expansion diseases, the presence of histidine interruptions within the polyglutamine tract of ataxin-1 protein can prevent or mitigate disease. The present review aims to synthesize three decades of research on the ataxin-1 polyglutamine expansion mutation that causes SCA1. Data from genetic population studies and case studies is gathered along with data from manipulation studies in animal models. Specifically, we examine the molecular mechanisms that cause tract expansions and contractions, the molecular pathways that confer instability of tract length in gametic and somatic cells resulting in gametic and somatic mosaicism, the influence of maternal or paternal factors in inheritance of the expanded allele, and the effects of CAT/histidine interruptions to the ataxin-1 allele and protein product. Our review of existing data supports the following conclusions. First, polyCAG expansion of gametic alleles occur due to the failure of gap repair mechanisms for single or double strand breaks during the transition from an immature haploid spermatid to a mature haploid sperm cell. Equivalent failures were not detected in female gametic cells. Second, polyCAG expansion of somatic alleles occur due to hairpins formed on Okazaki fragments and slipped strand structures due to failures in mismatch repair and transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair mechanisms. Third, CAT trinucleotide interruptions, which code for histidines in the translated

  17. Better managing technology-mediated interruptions in the ICU: Examining the role of patient information for improving text message notifications

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Preethi; Reddy, Madhu C; Faiola, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified the need for managing wanted and unwanted interruptions from technology- mediated notifications (TMN) in the intensive care units (ICUs). Current solutions are focused on mobile, asynchronous and context-aware mechanisms that consider a minimal number of factors (location and activity of the receiver). These factors are insufficient for a receiver to effectively decide on whether or not to interrupt their ongoing activities to immediately respond to a TMN. We propose a mobile device solution, known as “patient- enhanced notifications “ that presents a preview of TMN with additional patient information. A study comprising of user evaluations and interview sessions helped ascertain that patient vital signs coupled with the actual text message assisted receiving ICU providers in deciding on when to respond to the TMN. We conclude that patient- enhanced notifications has the potential to help ICU clinicians better manage interruptions generated from mobile devices. PMID:28269913

  18. Better managing technology-mediated interruptions in the ICU: Examining the role of patient information for improving text message notifications.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Preethi; Reddy, Madhu C; Faiola, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified the need for managing wanted and unwanted interruptions from technology- mediated notifications (TMN) in the intensive care units (ICUs). Current solutions are focused on mobile, asynchronous and context-aware mechanisms that consider a minimal number of factors (location and activity of the receiver). These factors are insufficient for a receiver to effectively decide on whether or not to interrupt their ongoing activities to immediately respond to a TMN. We propose a mobile device solution, known as "patient- enhanced notifications " that presents a preview of TMN with additional patient information. A study comprising of user evaluations and interview sessions helped ascertain that patient vital signs coupled with the actual text message assisted receiving ICU providers in deciding on when to respond to the TMN. We conclude that patient- enhanced notifications has the potential to help ICU clinicians better manage interruptions generated from mobile devices.

  19. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days--Implications for HIV Remission.

    PubMed

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin; Grimm, Andrew J; Cooper, David A; Lewin, Sharon R; Søgaard, Ole S; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Kent, Stephen J; Kelleher, Anthony D; Davenport, Miles P

    2015-07-01

    HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to 'purge' the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days). This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different 'reactivation founder' viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in approaches to prolong

  20. Successful total correction of congenital interruption of the aortic arch and ventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M. P.; Bentall, H. H.; Oakley, C. M.

    1970-01-01

    Successful surgical correction of the complex anomaly of interruption of the aortic arch and intracardiac ventricular septal defect is reported. The patient was a boy 5 years old when he first came under treatment. The total correction was performed in two stages. At the first operation, at the age of 7 years, continuity of the aortic arch was achieved by insertion of a Teflon graft, employing left heart bypass. The ventricular septal defect was closed at the age of 13 years on total cardiopulmonary bypass. Two and half years after the total correction the boy is alive and well. The difficulties in diagnosing the condition are discussed. The role of left heart bypass is emphasized. Images PMID:5489187

  1. The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology

    PubMed Central

    White, Tracy K.; Whitaker, Paul; Gonya, Terri; Hein, Richard; Kroening, Dubear; Lee, Kevin; Lee, Laura; Lukowiak, Andrea; Hayes, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis. PMID:23653687

  2. Brief Report: Relationship Among Viral Load Outcomes in HIV Treatment Interruption Trials.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Graham C; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J; Mellors, John W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Li, Jonathan Z

    2016-07-01

    Viral load (VL) rebound timing and set point were analyzed in 235 participants undergoing analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies. There was no significant association between rebound timing and ATI VL set point for those who rebounded ≤12 weeks. VL set points were lower in participants with rebound >12 weeks (P < 0.001) and participants treated during early infection (P < 0.001). Pre-antiretroviral therapy VL correlated with set point, though 68% of participants had a set point lower than pre-antiretroviral therapy VL. These results illustrate complex relationships between post-ATI virologic outcomes and the potential presence of biological factors mediating rebound timing and set point.

  3. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    DOE PAGES

    Nicholas W. Brady; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Knehr, K. W.; ...

    2016-04-24

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism.more » Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. As a result, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.« less

  4. Immediate and subsequent effects of response interruption and redirection on targeted and untargeted forms of stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Pastrana, Sarah J; Rapp, John T; Frewing, Tyla M

    2013-07-01

    A number of studies have shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) decreases immediate engagement in targeted stereotypic behaviors; however, its effects on untargeted stereotypy have not yet been studied, and its effects following removal of treatment are unclear. We evaluated the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on targeted motor stereotypy, as well as untargeted but higher probability vocal stereotypy, of two participants diagnosed with autism, using a three-component multiple-schedule design. Treatment with RIRD decreased immediate engagement in motor stereotypy for both participants, and did not increase subsequent engagement above baseline levels for either participant. In addition, RIRD produced modest changes in immediate engagement in untargeted vocal stereotypy for both participants. We briefly discuss the clinical implications and limitations of the findings from this study.

  5. Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and “the art of the possible”

    PubMed Central

    Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in the Reader’s Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly “the art of the possible.” PMID:24626310

  6. Rapid axonal transport in primate optic nerve. Distribution of pressure-induced interruption.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1981-04-01

    Six primate eyes were studied after four hours of elevated intraocular pressure. Tissue specimens from the region of the lamina cribrosa were examined in cross section by transmission electron microscopy. Interruption in fast orthograde and retrograde axonal transport was identified in individual axons by noting accumulation of membraneous microorganelles, such as mitochondria and microvesicles within axon cylinders. Although organelle accumulation varied from bundle to bundle, involvement of individual axons was diffuse across the extent of a specific axon bundle. This observation contradicts the apparent association of axonal transport block with crosswise-oriented trabecular beams at the level of the lamina cribrosa as seen in tissue specimens examined in longitudinal section. It also fails to support the notion that blocked axonal transport with elevated pressure is produced by kinking of axons at the lamina.

  7. Further evaluation of response interruption and redirection as treatment for stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Erin N; Lerman, Dorothea C; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)-motor RIRD and vocal RIRD-were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared for 2 participants. In Experiment 2, the effects of both RIRD procedures on both vocal and motor stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared with 2 additional participants. Results suggested that RIRD was effective regardless of the procedural variation or topography of stereotypy and that vocal RIRD functioned as a punisher. This mechanism was further explored with 1 participant by manipulating the schedule of RIRD in Experiment 3. Results were consistent with the punishment interpretation.

  8. Creating a Fontan fenestration in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Charlagorla, Pradeepkumar; Breinholt, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of the Fontan operation. Transcatheter Fontan fenestration can ameliorate symptoms by decompressing elevated venous pressures. Transcatheter creation of a fenestration can be technically challenging in cases with complex venous anatomy. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with heterotaxy, dextrocardia with unbalanced atrioventricular canal (AVC), atrial and visceral situs inversus, left-sided superior vena cava (SVC), and left-sided interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos continuation. With few modifications to the equipment, a successful Fontan fenestration with stent implantation was performed via transjugular approach. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms of plastic bronchitis improved significantly. PMID:27212858

  9. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas W. Brady; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; West, Alan C.

    2016-04-24

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism. Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. As a result, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.

  10. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Nicholas W.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; West, Alan C.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism. Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. Furthermore, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.

  11. Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

    2009-01-01

    The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for “more of the same” solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply “less of the same” solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients. PMID:19997533

  12. [Interrupted alcohol treatment and liver: free radical homeostasis, nitric oxide, adaptive mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Miskevich, D A; Borodinskiĭ, A N; Petushok, N E; Konovalenko, O V; Lelevich, V V

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol administration can result in liver damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and their interaction are crucial factors in this process. The aim of work was to investigate, free radical state and mechanisms of adaptation of the antioxidant system (AOS) to stress, caused by interrupted alcohol intake. Repeated cycles of alcoholization caused an imbalance between production and utilization of various ROS. This imbalance was due to impairments in the system superoxide dismutase/catalase. Nevertheless, in most experimental groups there was clear reduction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. This might be attributed to the antioxidant effect of NO. However, there was an increased level of transaminases in blood plasma. After 28 days of this experimental scheme all the parameters studied normalized.

  13. Interrupted aortic arch with isolated persistent left superior vena cava in patient with Turners syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kattea, M. Obadah; Smettei, Osama A.; Kattea, Abdulrahman; Abazid, Rami M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of 13-year-old female with Turner syndrome (TS), who presented with unexplained lower limbs swelling and ejection systolic murmur at the left second intercostal space. Suspicion of mild aortic coarctation was made by echocardiography. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed a complete interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) below the left subclavian artery with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) and absent right SVC, defined as an isolated PLSVC. The patient underwent successful surgical correction after unsuccessful trial of transcatheter stent placement. We present this case of asymptomatic IAA to draw attention to the importance of CTA in diagnosing such rare anomalies and ruling out asymptomatic major cardiovascular abnormalities in patient with TS. PMID:27843801

  14. Joint reconstruction of interrupted SAR imagery for persistent surveillance change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Ivana; Novak, Les; Karl, W. C.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present a new method for restoring multi-pass synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images containing arbitrary gaps in SAR phase history data. Frequency and aspect gaps in SAR image spectrum manifest themselves as artifacts in the associated SAR imagery. Our approach, which we term LDREG for the (cursive ell);1 difference regularization, jointly processes multi-pass interrupted data using sparse magnitude and sparse magnitude difference constraints, and results in improved quality imagery. We find that the joint processing of LDREG results in coherent change detection gains over independent processing of each data pass. To illustrate the capabilities of LDREG, we evaluate coherent change detection performance using images from the Gotcha SAR.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF VERBAL OPERANT TRAINING AND RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION ON APPROPRIATE AND INAPPROPRIATE VOCALIZATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Colón, Candice L; Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathleen M; Masalsky, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although appropriate vocalizations were not targeted directly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of directly targeting appropriate language (i.e., verbal operant training) on vocal stereotypy and appropriate speech in 3 children with an autism spectrum disorder. The effects of verbal operant (i.e., tact) training were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. In addition, RIRD was implemented with 2 of the 3 participants to further decrease levels of vocal stereotypy. Verbal operant training alone produced slightly lower levels of stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants; however, RIRD was required to produce acceptably low levels of stereotypy for 2 of the 3 participants. PMID:22403453

  16. The effect of hyperthermic treatment on electroencephalographic recovery after interruption of respiration in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, S L; Jing, S H; Chen, S S; Chen, T J; Yang, R C

    1994-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) was utilized for investigating the effect of hyperthermia followed by apneic hypoxia in rats. They were heated whole-bodily to 41 degrees C for 15 min under the control of an artificial rodent ventilator, after drug-induced generalized paralysis. A transcutaneous oxygen saturation monitor was applied to detect the hypoxic condition. EEG was monitored with bipolar needle electrodes. The 72-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP72) in brain was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, followed by immunostaining with an anti-HSP72 antibody. There was no difference in the time interval from onset of apneic hypoxia to flat EEG between the hyperthermic and control groups, but cortical electrical activity appeared earlier in the hyperthermia group than the control group, after 90 s of ventilation interruption. The cardiac function did not change in the two groups. The HSP72 synthesis significantly increased in the brain of the rats with hyperthermic treatment.

  17. Entry of parainfluenza virus into cells as a target for interrupting childhood respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Moscona, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses cause several serious respiratory diseases in children for which there is no effective prevention or therapy. Parainfluenza viruses initiate infection by binding to cell surface receptors and then, via coordinated action of the 2 viral surface glycoproteins, fuse directly with the cell membrane to release the viral replication machinery into the host cell’s cytoplasm. During this process, the receptor-binding molecule must trigger the viral fusion protein to mediate fusion and entry of the virus into a cell. This review explores the binding and entry into cells of parainfluenza virus type 3, focusing on how the receptor-binding molecule triggers the fusion process. There are several steps during the process of binding, triggering, and fusion that are now understood at the molecular level, and each of these steps represents potential targets for interrupting infection. PMID:16007245

  18. Finite Buffer GI/M(n)/1 Queue with Bernoulli-Schedule Vacation Interruption under N-Policy

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya Laxmi, P.; Suchitra, V.

    2014-01-01

    We study a finite buffer N-policy GI/M(n)/1 queue with Bernoulli-schedule vacation interruption. The server works with a slower rate during vacation period. At a service completion epoch during working vacation, if there are at least N customers present in the queue, the server interrupts vacation and otherwise continues the vacation. Using the supplementary variable technique and recursive method, we obtain the steady state system length distributions at prearrival and arbitrary epochs. Some special cases of the model, various performance measures, and cost analysis are discussed. Finally, parameter effect on the performance measures of the model is presented through numerical computations. PMID:27355076

  19. Wearable interrupter module for home-based applications in a telemedical system dedicated to respiratory mechanics measurements.

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    The mobile interrupter module, dedicated to the enhanced interrupter (EIT) measurement of respiratory mechanics in a home environment and capable of cooperation with a telemedical system, is presented. Characterized by noninvasiveness and minimal requirements regarding patient cooperation, the EIT algorithm is especially suitable for newborns, preschool children, and patients suffering from respiratory muscle impairment. Furthermore, this device enables access to raw data--without initial preprocessing--in a fully flexible measurement protocol (which is not available in any commercial apparatus), and the EIT procedure improves insight (the number and precision of assessed parameters) into the physiological system with respect to the classical occlusive methods.

  20. The Size of the Expressed HIV Reservoir Predicts Timing of Viral Rebound after Treatment Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Etemad, Behzad; Ahmed, Hayat; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J.; Mellors, John W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Lederman, Michael M.; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Therapies to achieve sustained antiretroviral therapy-free HIV remission will require validation in analytic treatment interruption (ATI) trials. Identifying biomarkers that predict time to viral rebound could accelerate the development of such therapeutics. Design A pooled analysis of participants from 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group ATI studies to identify predictors of viral rebound. Methods Cell-associated DNA (CA-DNA) and CA-RNA were quantified in pre-ATI PBMC samples, and residual plasma viremia (RV) was measured using the single-copy assay. Results Participants who initiated ART during acute/early HIV infection and those on an NNRTI-containing regimen had significantly delayed viral rebound. Participants who initiated ART during acute/early infection had lower levels of pre-ATI CA-RNA (acute/early vs. chronic-treated: median <92 vs. 156 HIV-1 RNA copies/106 CD4+ cells, P<0.01). Higher pre-ATI CA-RNA levels were significantly associated with shorter time to viral rebound (≤4 wks vs. 5–8 wks vs. >8 wks: median 182 vs. 107 vs. <92 HIV-1 RNA copies/106 CD4+ cells, Kruskal-Wallis P<0.01). The proportion of participants with detectable RV prior to ATI was significantly higher among those with shorter time to viral rebound. Conclusions Higher levels of HIV expression while on ART are associated with shorter time to HIV rebound after treatment interruption. Quantification of the active HIV reservoir may provide a biomarker of efficacy for therapies that aim to achieve ART-free HIV remission. PMID:26588174

  1. [Causes of interruption of dental studies and subsequent change in careers].

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, N

    1989-08-01

    During recent years an increasing number of dental students at the University of Oslo used prolonged student time and graduated with mediocre results, or interrupted studies without graduation Jacobsen, Acta Odontol Scand 45:399-408, 1987). The present investigation aimed at clarifying the reasons for interrupted studies and at getting information about subsequent career. Semistructured questionnaires on curricular and socioeconomic causes for drop-out and on subsequent career were mailed to 98 persons who had quit dental studies during a 10-year period. Free comments on circumstances relevant to their drop-out were encouraged. The following findings are based on 68 replies (69 per cent): Sixty-three students (93 per cent) quit dental school for different curricular reasons, a majority of which was "more interest in other subjects". Contributory factors of socioeconomic nature, mostly future unemployment concern, were often mentioned. Forty-five (66 per cent) later graduated with university degrees in medicine, economics, veterinary medicine, science, technology, law etc, and the remainder, except two persons, finished up to 4 years of studies at regional colleges or similar institutions. Free comments focused on curricular, pedagogical, and social shortcomings at the dental faculty. The findings indicated that a large majority of the students who dropped out did so for lack of stimulation by the dental curriculum and not for lack of academic potential. Only a few students quit because, in their own description, they were immature for university studies at the time, or because they had "academic" difficulties with the early science/biology courses or with the preclinical technique courses.

  2. Syndrome d'interruption de la tige pituitaire à révélation tardive

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Héla; Graja, Samah; Arfa, Sondes; Boubaker, Fadia; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome d'interruption de la tige pituitaire est une cause assez fréquente de déficit en hormone de croissance et d'hypopituitarisme souvent révélé pendant la période néonatale et l'enfance. Cette observation illustre les particularités d'une révélation tardive de ce syndrome. Il s'agit d'une patiente âgée de 17ans hospitalisée pour aménorrhée primaire et impubérisme. Elle n'a pas d'antécédent d'incident néonatal. L'examen clinique révèle un retard de croissance sévère. L'hypophysiogramme a montré un hypopituitarisme complet sans diabète insipide. L'imagerie par résonnance magnétique a montré une interruption de la tige pituitaire avec une post hypophyse ectopique. Une malformation rénale a été objectivée, ce qui est en faveur d'une origine congénitale malformative de ce syndrome. Une substitution hormonale a été administrée à cette patiente. Cette forme clinique tardive souligne la nécessité de diagnostic précoce d'impubérisme et/ou de retard de croissance révélant une pathologie à potentiel de gravité important. PMID:27231511

  3. Immunological and virological effects of structured treatment interruptions following exposure to hydroxyurea plus didanosine.

    PubMed

    Benito, José Miguel; López, Mariola; Ballesteros, Celia; Lozano, Sara; Capa, Laura; Barreiro, Pablo; Sempere, José; Gonzalez-Lahoz, Juan; Soriano, Vincent

    2006-08-01

    Both hydroxyurea (HU) and structured treatment interruptions (STI) have been investigated as therapeutic approaches to enhance immune responses in chronically HIV-infected individuals. HIV-specific T cell responses as well as T cell activation were analyzed longitudinally in 31 HIV-infected individuals who had been treated for the prior 12 months with didanosine (ddI) plus HU and thereafter completed three STI cycles consisting of 2 months off and 2 months on ddI-HU. Similar increases in plasma HIV-RNA were seen in each of the three cycles off therapy, whereas CD4 counts remained fairly stable along the study period. T cell activation paralleled the evolution of plasma HIV-RNA during the first STI cycle and waned afterward. At baseline most patients presented a high level of CD8+ responses to different HIV peptide pools and 23% of them had CD4+ responses to Gag and/or Env. The level of CD8+ responses against each pool was stable and did not increase during STI cycles, while CD4 responses tended to decline. However, the contribution of Nef-specific response to the total CD8 response tended to increase. In a multivariate model, both a higher baseline plasma HIV-RNA and a higher level of Nef-specific response contribution to the total CD8+ response were independently associated with lower plasma HIV-RNA increases during each of the three STI cycles. Nef-specific CD8+ responses might contribute to a better virological control of HIV replication following treatment interruptions in HIV-infected individuals and might be boosted by the immunomodulatory effect of HU.

  4. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell and functional HIV Gag p55-specific T cells before treatment interruption can inform set-point plasma HIV viral load after treatment interruption in chronically suppressed HIV-1+ patients

    PubMed Central

    Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Foulkes, Andrea; Yin, Xiangfan; Joseph, Jocelin; Ross, Brian; Azzoni, Livio; Kostman, Jay R; Mounzer, Karam; Shull, Jane; Montaner, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    The identification of immune correlates of HIV control is important for the design of immunotherapies that could support cure or antiretroviral therapy (ART) intensification-related strategies. ART interruptions may facilitate this task through exposure of an ART partially reconstituted immune system to endogenous virus. We investigated the relationship between set-point plasma HIV viral load (VL) during an ART interruption and innate/adaptive parameters before or after interruption. Dendritic cell (DC), natural killer (NK) cell and HIV Gag p55-specific T-cell functional responses were measured in paired cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained at the beginning (on ART) and at set-point of an open-ended interruption from 31 ART-suppressed chronically HIV-1+ patients. Spearman correlation and linear regression modeling were used. Frequencies of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and HIV Gag p55-specific CD3+ CD4− perforin+ IFN-γ+ cells at the beginning of interruption associated negatively with set-point plasma VL. Inclusion of both variables with interaction into a model resulted in the best fit (adjusted R2 = 0·6874). Frequencies of pDC or HIV Gag p55-specific CD3+ CD4− CSFElo CD107a+ cells at set-point associated negatively with set-point plasma VL. The dual contribution of pDC and anti-HIV T-cell responses to viral control, supported by our models, suggests that these variables may serve as immune correlates of viral control and could be integrated in cure or ART-intensification strategies. PMID:25684333

  5. Use of Transnational Services to Prevent Treatment Interruption in Tuberculosis-Infected Persons Who Leave the United States

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Zuroweste, Edward; Razavi, Moaven; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    A major problem resulting from interrupted tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the development of drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), a more deadly and costly-to-treat form of the disease. Global health systems are not equipped to diagnose and treat the current burden of MDR TB. TB-infected foreign visitors and temporary US residents who leave the country during treatment can experience treatment interruption and, thus, are at greater risk for drug-resistant TB. Using epidemiologic and demographic data, we estimated TB incidence among this group, as well as the proportion of patients referred to transnational care–continuity and management services during relocation; each year, ≈2,827 visitors and temporary residents are at risk for TB treatment interruption, 222 (8%) of whom are referred for transnational services. Scale up of transnational services for persons at high risk for treatment interruption is possible and encouraged because of potential health gains and reductions in healthcare costs for the United States and receiving countries. PMID:26886720

  6. A group IIC-type intron interrupts the rRNA methylase gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain 10.

    PubMed

    Moretz, Samuel E; Lampson, Bert C

    2010-10-01

    Group IIC introns insert next to the stem-loop structure of rho-independent transcription terminators, thus avoiding intact genes. The insertion sites of 17 copies of the G.st.I1 intron from Geobacillus stearothermophilus were compared. One copy of the intron was found to interrupt an open reading frame (ORF) encoding an rRNA methylase.

  7. Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

  8. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  9. Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the experiment…

  10. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  11. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  12. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  13. Use of Transnational Services to Prevent Treatment Interruption in Tuberculosis-Infected Persons Who Leave the United States.

    PubMed

    Tschampl, Cynthia A; Garnick, Deborah W; Zuroweste, Edward; Razavi, Moaven; Shepard, Donald S

    2016-03-01

    A major problem resulting from interrupted tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the development of drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), a more deadly and costly-to-treat form of the disease. Global health systems are not equipped to diagnose and treat the current burden of MDR TB. TB-infected foreign visitors and temporary US residents who leave the country during treatment can experience treatment interruption and, thus, are at greater risk for drug-resistant TB. Using epidemiologic and demographic data, we estimated TB incidence among this group, as well as the proportion of patients referred to transnational care-continuity and management services during relocation; each year, ≈2,827 visitors and temporary residents are at risk for TB treatment interruption, 222 (8%) of whom are referred for transnational services. Scale up of transnational services for persons at high risk for treatment interruption is possible and encouraged because of potential health gains and reductions in healthcare costs for the United States and receiving countries.

  14. When Interrupted Intervention Leads to Failure: A Correlation Study of the Three-Tiered Reading Model in Grades K-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Beverly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The three-tiered reading model is a widely practiced instructional scheme that moves students in and out of reading intervention groups during the school year. Though designed to treat students who need extra help learning to read, this interruption of reading interventions may hinder some students' progress. The purpose of this study was to…

  15. Perception of interrupted speech: Effects of dual-rate gating on the intelligibility of words and sentencesa

    PubMed Central

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Perception of interrupted speech and the influence of speech materials and memory load were investigated using one or two concurrent square-wave gating functions. Sentences (Experiment 1) and random one-, three-, and five-word sequences (Experiment 2) were interrupted using either a primary gating rate alone (0.5−24 Hz) or a combined primary and faster secondary rate. The secondary rate interrupted only speech left intact after primary gating, reducing the original speech to 25%. In both experiments, intelligibility increased with primary rate, but varied with memory load and speech material (highest for sentences, lowest for five-word sequences). With dual-rate gating of sentences, intelligibility with fast secondary rates was superior to that with single rates and a 25% duty cycle, approaching that of single rates with a 50% duty cycle for some low and high rates. For dual-rate gating of words, the positive effect of fast secondary gating was smaller than for sentences, and the advantage of sentences over word-sequences was not obtained in many dual-rate conditions. These findings suggest that integration of interrupted speech fragments after gating depends on the duration of the gated speech interval and that sufficiently robust acoustic-phonetic word cues are needed to access higher-level contextual sentence information. PMID:21973362

  16. Paying the price works: increasing goal-state access cost improves problem solving and mitigates the effect of interruption.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip L; Patrick, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether it was possible to induce more internal planning in the four-disk Tower of Hanoi (ToH) in order not only to produce more efficient problem solving but also to make it more resistant to the negative effect of interruption. The theoretical frameworks of soft constraints and the memory for goals model underpinned Experiments 1 and 2. In both experiments, three goal-state access cost conditions were used: high (mouse movements and 2.5-s delay), medium (mouse movements) and low (goal state always available). In Experiment 1, more memory-based planning was induced by the high cost condition, which resulted in fewer moves to solution and the gradual development of an efficient subgoaling strategy, resulting in more perfect solutions. In Experiment 2, the same condition protected performance against a 10-s interruption irrespective of the interrupting task (blank screen, mental arithmetic, or three-disk ToH). The more memory-based planning strategy, induced by high access cost, presumably strengthened participants' goals during planning and problem solving, making them less susceptible to decay and interference from interruption. These novel results are discussed in the context of other recent studies.

  17. Peek-a-What? Infants' Response to the Still-Face Task after Normal and Interrupted Peek-a-Boo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Best, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Infants' sensitivity to the vitality or tension envelope within dyadic social exchanges was investigated by examining their responses following normal and interrupted games of peek-a-boo embedded in a Still-Face Task. Infants 5-6 months old engaged in two modified Still-Face Tasks with their mothers. In one task, the initial interaction ended with…

  18. Reframing the Conversation about Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education: From Achievement Gap to Cultural Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCapua, Andrea; Marshall, Helaine W.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. schools face increasing pressure to ensure that all students succeed, yet the dropout rate for English learners is alarmingly high, especially for those with limited or interrupted formal schooling (SLIFE). Serving SLIFE can be challenging because they not only need to master language and content but also need to develop literacy skills and…

  19. An interrupted vinylogous iso-Nazarov reaction: cycloisomerization of conjugated trienones to cyclopenta[b]furan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Riveira, Martín J; Mischne, Mirta P

    2014-09-05

    Iron(III) chloride-catalyzed cyclopentannulation of π-conjugated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is described. An interrupted vinylogous iso-Nazarov reaction of trienones was established in which cyclopenta[b]furan derivatives are obtained as single diastereomers.

  20. Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ∼26,000–40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases α, β, or η. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase α, β, δ, κ, and η error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The

  1. Inbox Messaging: an effective tool for minimizing non-urgent paging related interruptions in hospital medicine provider workflow

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Alice; Aaronson, Barry; Anuradhika, Anuradhika

    2016-01-01

    Communication is one of the foundations on which safe, high quality care is built.1, 3, 6, 17, 20 The nature of hospital medicine requires that nurses and providers be efficient and effective in communicating with multiple disciplines.17 This need for timely communication must continually be balanced with the need to minimize interruptions in workflow.1,2 3,4,6,7,9,13,15,17,18 Interruptions not only lead to distraction, they also add inefficiency to the care process and have been shown to contribute to an increased risk of medical error.2,3,4,7,17,18 A major source of interruptions are pagers that emit an audible tone with each message received.3,9,10,17,18 This interruptive nature makes pagers a less-than-ideal tool for communicating non-urgent (address within one hour) messages received.3,9,10,17,18 In addition to increasing interruptions, pagers do not facilitate closed loop communication, another feature that has been shown to improve safety.14,17,25 Inbox Messaging is intended to provide a less disruptive closed-loop method of communication for non-urgent messages. Inbox Messaging is an interface within the electronic health record (EHR) that functions similarly to e-mail. A multi-disciplinary communication workgroup identified this interface as having potential to not only decrease interruptions, but to also facilitate closed-loop communication. Inbox is currently utilized between the hours of 0700 and 1800 for non-urgent nurse-provider communication about patients on the hospital medicine service. The number of RN non-urgent pages per day was 103 (SD=19, n=97) prior to the Inbox intervention, with a significant decrease (p<.001) during follow-up to 38 (SD=14, n=354) pages per day. At the same time, the number of messages per day increased from 0 to 80 (SD=20, n=354) messages during follow-up. As desired, the mean number of RN urgent pages was unchanged from 13 per day to 13 per day (p=.52). Cerner Inbox Messaging decreases the frequency of non-urgent pager

  2. Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

  3. Caring Is Not Enough: Teachers' Enactment of Ethical Care for Adolescent Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE) in a Newcomer Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    The educational landscape for schools in the United States is continuing to shift with the arrival of refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education, especially at the secondary schools. As refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE) adjust to schools in the United States, they may experience acculturative…

  4. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S.; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  5. Effect of HIV Antibody VRC01 on Viral Rebound after Treatment Interruption.

    PubMed

    Bar, Katharine J; Sneller, Michael C; Harrison, Linda J; Justement, J Shawn; Overton, Edgar T; Petrone, Mary E; Salantes, D Brenda; Seamon, Catherine A; Scheinfeld, Benjamin; Kwan, Richard W; Learn, Gerald H; Proschan, Michael A; Kreider, Edward F; Blazkova, Jana; Bardsley, Mark; Refsland, Eric W; Messer, Michael; Clarridge, Katherine E; Tustin, Nancy B; Madden, Patrick J; Oden, KaSaundra; O'Dell, Sijy J; Jarocki, Bernadette; Shiakolas, Andrea R; Tressler, Randall L; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Bailer, Robert T; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Capparelli, Edmund V; Lynch, Rebecca M; Graham, Barney S; Moir, Susan; Koup, Richard A; Mascola, John R; Hoxie, James A; Fauci, Anthony S; Tebas, Pablo; Chun, Tae-Wook

    2016-11-24

    Background The discovery of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has made passive immunization a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. We sought to determine whether passive administration of VRC01, a bNAb targeting the HIV CD4-binding site, can safely prevent or delay plasma viral rebound after the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods We conducted two open-label trials (AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] A5340 and National Institutes of Health [NIH] 15-I-0140) of the safety, side-effect profile, pharmacokinetic properties, and antiviral activity of VRC01 in persons with HIV infection who were undergoing interruption of ART. Results A total of 24 participants were enrolled, and one serious alcohol-related adverse event occurred. Viral rebound occurred despite plasma VRC01 concentrations greater than 50 μg per milliliter. The median time to rebound was 4 weeks in the A5340 trial and 5.6 weeks in the NIH trial. Study participants were more likely than historical controls to have viral suppression at week 4 (38% vs. 13%, P=0.04 by a two-sided Fisher's exact test in the A5340 trial; and 80% vs. 13%, P<0.001 by a two-sided Fisher's exact test in the NIH trial) but the difference was not significant at week 8. Analyses of virus populations before ART as well as before and after ART interruption showed that VRC01 exerted pressure on rebounding virus, resulting in restriction of recrudescent viruses and selection for preexisting and emerging antibody neutralization-resistant virus. Conclusions VRC01 slightly delayed plasma viral rebound in the trial participants, as compared with historical controls, but it did not maintain viral suppression by week 8. In the small number of participants enrolled in these trials, no safety concerns were identified with passive immunization with a single bNAb (VRC01). (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious

  6. Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean Sapropel S1 deposits during Formation and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Filippidi, Amalia; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period and vegetated Sahara. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1sediments determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary diagenetic Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably during the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation

  7. Common interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence of non-fibrillar collagens: sequence analysis and structural studies on triple-helix peptide models.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Geetha; Li, Yingjie; Mohs, Angela; Strafaci, Christopher; Popiel, Magdalena; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara

    2008-02-22

    Interruptions in the repeating (Gly-X1-X2)(n) amino acid sequence pattern are found in the triple-helix domains of all non-fibrillar collagens, and perturbations to the triple-helix at such sites are likely to play a role in collagen higher-order structure and function. This study defines the sequence features and structural consequences of the most common interruption, where one residue is missing from the tripeptide pattern, Gly-X1-X2-Gly-AA(1)-Gly-X1-X2, designated G1G interruptions. Residues found within G1G interruptions are predominantly hydrophobic (70%), followed by a significant amount of charged residues (16%), and the Gly-X1-X2 triplets flanking the interruption are atypical. Studies on peptide models indicate the degree of destabilization is much greater when Pro is in the interruption, GP, than when hydrophobic residues (GF, GY) are present, and a rigid Gly-Pro-Hyp tripeptide adjacent to the interruption leads to greater destabilization than a flexible Gly-Ala-Ala sequence. Modeling based on NMR data indicates the Phe residue within a GF interruption is located on the outside of the triple helix. The G1G interruptions resemble a previously studied collagen interruption GPOGAAVMGPO, designated G4G-type, in that both are destabilizing, but allow continuation of rod-like triple helices and maintenance of the single residue stagger throughout the imperfection, with a loss of axial register of the superhelix on both sides. Both kinds of interruptions result in a highly localized perturbation in hydrogen bonding and dihedral angles, but the hydrophobic residue of a G4G interruption packs near the central axis of the superhelix, while the hydrophobic residue of a G1G interruption is located on the triple-helix surface. The different structural consequences of G1G and G4G interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence pattern suggest a physical basis for their differential susceptibility to matrix metalloproteinases in type X collagen.

  8. Human Trafficking: The Role of Medicine in Interrupting the Cycle of Abuse and Violence.

    PubMed

    Macias-Konstantopoulos, Wendy

    2016-10-18

    Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society. Victims are cared for in emergency departments, primary care offices, urgent care centers, community health clinics, and reproductive health clinics. In addition, they are unknowingly being treated in hospital inpatient units. Injuries and illnesses requiring medical attention thus represent unique windows of opportunity for trafficked persons to receive assistance from trusted health care professionals. With education and training, health care providers can recognize signs and symptoms of trafficking, provide trauma-informed care to this vulnerable population, and respond to exploited persons who are interested and ready to receive assistance. Multidisciplinary response protocols, research, and policy advocacy can enhance the impact of antitrafficking health care efforts to interrupt the cycle of abuse and violence for these victims.

  9. Syndactyly in a Novel FRAS1rdf Mutant Results from Interruption of Signals for Interdigital Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Elizabeth A.; Verheyden, Jamie M.; Lashua, Amber J.; Larson, Sarah C.; Branchfield, Kelsey; Domyan, Eric T.; Gao, Juan; Harvey, Julie F.; Herriges, John C.; Hu, Linghan; McCulley, David J.; Throckmorton, Kurt; Yokoyama, Shigetoshi; Ikeda, Akihiro; Xu, Guoliang; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Fras1 encodes an extracellular matrix protein that is critical for the establishment of the epidermal basement membrane during gestation. In humans, mutations in FRAS1 cause Fraser Syndrome (FS), a pleiotropic condition with many clinical presentations such as limb, eye, kidney, and craniofacial deformations. Many of these defects are mimicked by loss of Fras1 in mice, and are preceded by the formation of epidermal blisters in utero. In this study, we identified a novel ENU-derived rounded foot (rdf) mouse mutant with highly penetrant hindlimb soft-tissue syndactyly among other structural defects. Mapping and sequencing revealed that rdf is a novel loss-of-function nonsense allele of Fras1 (Fras1rdf). Focusing on the limb, we found that the Fras1rdf syndactyly phenotype originates from loss of interdigital cell death (ICD). Despite normal expression of BMP ligands and their receptors, the BMP downstream target gene Msx2, which is also necessary and sufficient to promote ICD, was downregulated in the interdigital regions of Fras1rdf hindlimb buds. The close correlation between limb bud epidermal blistering, decreased Msx2 expression and reduced ICD suggest that epithelium detachment from the mesenchyme may create a physical gap that interrupts the transmission of BMP among other signals, resulting in soft tissue syndactyly. PMID:26813283

  10. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Pozhitkov, Alex E.; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y.; Leroux, Brian G.; Hunter, Colby M.; Flemmig, Thomas F.; Noble, Peter A.; Bryers, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient’s mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4–5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients. PMID:26461491

  11. Data analysis of response interruption and redirection as a treatment for vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Kara L; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Vocal stereotypy, or repetitive, noncontextual vocalizations, is a problematic form of behavior exhibited by many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has evaluated the efficacy of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) in the reduction of vocal stereotypy. Research has indicated that RIRD often results in reductions in the level of vocal stereotypy; however, many previous studies have only presented data on vocal stereotypy that occurred outside RIRD implementation. The current study replicated the procedures of previous studies that have evaluated the efficacy of RIRD and compared 2 data-presentation methods: inclusion of only data collected outside RIRD implementation and inclusion of all vocal stereotypy data from the entirety of each session. Subjects were 7 children who had been diagnosed with ASD. Results indicated that RIRD appeared to be effective when we evaluated the level of vocal stereotypy outside RIRD implementation, but either no reductions or more modest reductions in the level of vocal stereotypy during the entirety of sessions were obtained for all subjects. Results suggest that data-analysis methods used in previous research may overestimate the efficacy of RIRD.

  12. Framework for evaluating the risks of paralytic poliomyelitis after global interruption of wild poliovirus transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, R. Bruce; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    With the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission globally, the need for new policies to deal with the post-certification era will rapidly arise. New policies will be required in four areas: detection and notification of circulating polioviruses; biocontainment of wild, vaccine-derived and attenuated strains of poliovirus; vaccine stockpiles and response mechanisms; and routine immunization against polioviruses. A common understanding of the potential risks of paralytic poliomyelitis in the post-certification period is essential to the development of these policies. Since 2000, there has been increasing international consensus that the risks of paralytic poliomyelitis in the post-certification era fall into two categories: those due to the continued use of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and those due to future improper handling of wild polioviruses. The specific risks within both categories have now been defined, and an understanding of the frequency and potential burden of disease associated with each is rapidly improving. This knowledge and clarity have provided a framework that is already proving valuable for identifying research priorities and discussing potential policy options with national authorities. However, this framework must be regarded as a dynamic tool, requiring regular updating as additional information on these risks becomes available through further scientific research, programmatic work, and policy decisions. PMID:15106299

  13. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  14. Dolphins Can Maintain Vigilant Behavior through Echolocation for 15 Days without Interruption or Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  15. A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome.

  16. Reduction in Male Suicide Mortality Following the 2006 Russian Alcohol Policy: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Andreev, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We took advantage of a natural experiment to assess the impact on suicide mortality of a suite of Russian alcohol policies. Methods. We obtained suicide counts from anonymous death records collected by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techniques to model the effect of the alcohol policy (implemented in January 2006) on monthly male and female suicide counts between January 2000 and December 2010. Results. Monthly male and female suicide counts decreased during the period under study. Although the ARIMA analysis showed no impact of the policy on female suicide mortality, the results revealed an immediate and permanent reduction of about 9% in male suicides (Ln ω0 = −0.096; P = .01). Conclusions. Despite a recent decrease in mortality, rates of alcohol consumption and suicide in Russia remain among the highest in the world. Our analysis revealed that the 2006 alcohol policy in Russia led to a 9% reduction in male suicide mortality, meaning the policy was responsible for saving 4000 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to suicide. Together with recent similar findings elsewhere, our results suggest an important role for public health and other population level interventions, including alcohol policy, in reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:24028249

  17. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  18. Modelling interrupted time series to evaluate prevention and control of infection in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Gebski, V; Ellingson, K; Edwards, J; Jernigan, J; Kleinbaum, D

    2012-12-01

    The most common methods for evaluating interventions to reduce the rate of new Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in hospitals use segmented regression or interrupted time-series analysis. We describe approaches to evaluating interventions introduced in different healthcare units at different times. We compare fitting a segmented Poisson regression in each hospital unit with pooling the individual estimates by inverse variance. An extension of this approach to accommodate potential heterogeneity allows estimates to be calculated from a single statistical model: a 'stacked' model. It can be used to ascertain whether transmission rates before the intervention have the same slope in all units, whether the immediate impact of the intervention is the same in all units, and whether transmission rates have the same slope after the intervention. The methods are illustrated by analyses of data from a study at a Veterans Affairs hospital. Both approaches yielded consistent results. Where feasible, a model adjusting for the unit effect should be fitted, or if there is heterogeneity, an analysis incorporating a random effect for units may be appropriate.

  19. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Finneran, James J; Fletcher, Elizabeth A; Weisman, Brian C; Ridgway, Sam H

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation.

  20. Improving Malaria Control in West Africa: Interruption of Transmission as a Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Doumbia, Seydou O.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Koita, Ousmane A.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Nwakanma, Davis; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Traoré, Sekou F.; Keating, Joseph; Milner, Danny A.; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Sene, Papa Diogoye; Ahouidi, Ambroise; Dieye, Tandakha N.; Gaye, Oumar; Okebe, Joseph; Ceesay, Serign J.; Ngwa, Alfred; Oriero, Eniyou C.; Konaté, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Jawara, Musa; Faye, Ousmane; Kéita, Moussa; Cissé, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Poudiougou, Belco; Diawara, Sory; Sangaré, Lansana; Coulibaly, Tinzana; Seck, Ibrahima; Abubakar, Ismaela; Gomis, Jules; Mather, Frances J.; Sissako, Aliou; Diarra, Ayouba; Kandeh, Balla; Whalen, Christopher; Moyer, Brian; Nnedu, Obinna; Thiero, Oumar; Bei, Amy K.; Daniels, Rachel; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Conway, David J.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Valim, Clarissa; Wirth, Dyann F.; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    With the paradigm shift from the reduction of morbidity and mortality to the interruption of transmission, the focus of malaria control broadens from symptomatic infections in children ≤ 5 years of age to include asymptomatic infections in older children and adults. In addition, as control efforts intensify and the number of interventions increases, there will be decreases in prevalence, incidence and transmission with additional decreases in morbidity and mortality. Expected secondary consequences of these changes include upward shifts in the peak ages for infection (parasitemia) and disease, increases in the ages for acquisition of antiparasite humoral and cellular immune responses and increases in false-negative blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests. Strategies to monitor these changes must include: 1] studies of the entire population (that are not restricted to children ≤ 5 or ≤ 10 years of age), 2] study sites in both cities and rural areas (because of increasing urbanization across sub-Saharan Africa) and 3] innovative strategies for surveillance as the prevalence of infection decreases and the frequency of false-negative smears and rapid diagnostic tests increases. PMID:22142790

  1. Acceptability of smartphone technology to interrupt sedentary time in adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Hoffman, Sara A; Daly, Elyse R; Murillo, Manuel; Iakovlev, Gleb; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-09-01

    Breaking up sitting time with light- or moderate-intensity physical activity may help to alleviate some negative health effects of sedentary behavior, but few studies have examined ways to effectively intervene. This feasibility study examined the acceptability of a new technology (NEAT!) developed to interrupt prolonged bouts (≥20 min) of sedentary time among adults with type 2 diabetes. Eight of nine participants completed a 1-month intervention and agreed that NEAT! made them more conscious of sitting time. Most participants (87.5 %) expressed a desire to use NEAT! in the future. Sedentary time decreased by 8.1 ± 4.5 %, and light physical activity increased by 7.9 ± 5.5 % over the 1-month period. The results suggest that NEAT! is an acceptable technology to intervene on sedentary time among adults with type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to examine the use of the technology among larger samples and determine its effects on glucose and insulin levels.

  2. Warfarin continuation vs interruption during procedures of cardiac rhythm devices: A Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huan; Du, Beibei; Liu, Xueyan; Yang, Sibao; Yang, Ping

    2016-04-01

    To compare the safetyand efficacy of warfarin treatment continuation and heparin-bridging therapy during cardiac rhythm device (CRD) implantation in patients chronically treated with anticoagulants.We performed a search and analysis of peer-reviewed studies Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs)were included in our analysis with 941 patients. The bleeding risk in patients continuing warfarin perioperatively was lower than those interrupting warfarin and using a heparin-bridge (RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.02, p< 0.05). There was no significant difference in ischaemic risk between two methods (RD 0, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.02, p=1.00). Hence, in patients undergoing long-term warfarin therapy, continuation of warfarin treatment is a safe and efficacious perioperative strategy for during CRD implantations, while interruption of warfarin with a heparin bridge may increase the bleeding risk in these patients.

  3. Surface-morphology evolution during growth-interrupt in situ annealing on GaAs(110) epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.

    2007-05-01

    Temperature and surface-coverage dependence of the evolution of surface morphology during growth-interrupt in situ annealing on GaAs epitaxial layers grown on the singular (110) cleaved edges by the cleaved-edge overgrowth method with molecular-beam epitaxy has been studied by means of atomic force microscopy. Annealing at substrate temperatures below 630 °C produced atomically flat surfaces with characteristic islands or pits, depending on the surface coverage. The atomic flatness of the surfaces is enhanced with increasing annealing temperature owing to the enhanced adatom migration. At a higher annealing temperature of about 650 °C, however, 2-monolayer-deep triangular pits with well-defined step edges due to Ga-atom desorption from the crystal appeared in the atomically flat surface. The growth-interrupt annealing temperature optimal for the formation of atomically flat GaAs(110) surfaces is therefore about 630 °C.

  4. Development of a Discharge Channel upon Electric Explosion of a Wire in Interrupted- and Uninterrupted-Current Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanova, Vera; Tkachenko, Svetlana; Mingaleev, Albert; Agafonov, Alexey; Ter-Oganesyan, Alexey; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergey

    2009-01-21

    Experimental results on the electrical explosion of thin W, Cu and Ni wires with a current density of {approx}10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, a current rise rate (dI/dt){approx}40 A/ns and a current pulse with amplitude 9 kA are presented. The structures of the discharge channels developed in single wire explosions in air and vacuum using laser shadow and schlieren imaging have been studied under the condition that the current in the circuit was interrupted. A difference in the shock wave propagation in air and the expansion of the exploded wire dense core in interrupted- and uninterrupted-current regimes has been observed. Analysis of the optical images has been performed in a shunting breakdown scenario.

  5. Cheyne-Stokes respiration: hypoxia plus a deep breath that interrupts hypoxic drive, initiating cyclic breathing.

    PubMed

    Guntheroth, Warren G

    2011-11-01

    In the 19th Century, Cheyne and Stokes independently reported cycles of respiration in patients with heart failure, beginning with apnea, followed by a few breaths. However Cheyne-Stokes respiration (C-SR) can also occur in healthy individuals with sleep, and was demonstrated in 1908 with voluntary hyperventilation, followed by apnea that Haldane blamed on hypoxia, subsequently called post-hyperventilation apnea. Additional theories explaining C-SR did not appear until 1954, based on control theory, specifically a feed-back regulator controlling CO(2). This certainly describes control of normal respiration, but to produce an unstable state such as C-SR requires either a very long transit time (3½ min) or an increase of the controller gain (13 times), physiologically improbable. There is general agreement that apnea initiates C-SR but that has not been well explained except for post-hyperventilation apnea, and that explanation is not compatible with a study by Nielsen and Smith in 1951. They plotted the effects of diminished oxygen on ventilation (V) in relation to CO(2) (Fig. 1). They found that the slope of V/CO(2) (gain) increased with hypoxia, but it flattened at a moderate CO(2) level and had nointercept with zero (apnea). It is also incompatible with our published findings in 1975 that showed that apnea did not occur until an extreme level of hypoxia occurred (the PO(2) fell below 10 mmHg), followed shortly by gasping. Much milder hypoxia underlies most cases of C-SR, when hypoxic drive replaces the normal CO(2)-based respiratory drive, in a failsafe role. I hypothesize that the cause of apnea is a brief interruption of hypoxic drive caused by a pulse of oxygen from a stronger than average breath, such as a sigh. The rapidity of onset of apnea in response to a pulse of oxygen, reflects the large pressure gradient for oxygen from air to lung with each breath, in contrast to CO(2). With apnea, there is a gradual fall in oxygen, resulting in a resumption of

  6. Effect of an evidence-based website on healthcare usage: an interrupted time-series study

    PubMed Central

    Spoelman, Wouter A; Bonten, Tobias N; de Waal, Margot W M; Drenthen, Ton; Smeele, Ivo J M; Nielen, Markus M J; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Healthcare costs and usage are rising. Evidence-based online health information may reduce healthcare usage, but the evidence is scarce. The objective of this study was to determine whether the release of a nationwide evidence-based health website was associated with a reduction in healthcare usage. Design Interrupted time series analysis of observational primary care data of healthcare use in the Netherlands from 2009 to 2014. Setting General community primary care. Population 912 000 patients who visited their general practitioners 18.1 million times during the study period. Intervention In March 2012, an evidence-based health information website was launched by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. It was easily accessible and understandable using plain language. At the end of the study period, the website had 2.9 million unique page views per month. Main outcomes measures Primary outcome was the change in consultation rate (consultations/1000 patients/month) before and after the release of the website. Additionally, a reference group was created by including consultations about topics not being viewed at the website. Subgroup analyses were performed for type of consultations, sex, age and socioeconomic status. Results After launch of the website, the trend in consultation rate decreased with 1.620 consultations/1000 patients/month (p<0.001). This corresponds to a 12% decline in consultations 2 years after launch of the website. The trend in consultation rate of the reference group showed no change. The subgroup analyses showed a specific decline for consultations by phone and were significant for all other subgroups, except for the youngest age group. Conclusions Healthcare usage decreased by 12% after providing high-quality evidence-based online health information. These findings show that e-Health can be effective to improve self-management and reduce healthcare usage in times of increasing healthcare costs. PMID:28186945

  7. Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Díaz, Aníbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. PMID:24970956

  8. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Gina M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI) as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of an ATI is not ideal

  9. Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

    1993-01-01

    Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8390817

  10. Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodríguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval = 0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. PMID:23556018

  11. Reducing Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: An Interrupted Time Series Quality Improvement Study

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G.; McNaughton, Candace D.; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B.; Talbot, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. Methods The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure, to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique), and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. Results During the baseline period, 321 out of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% CI = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. Conclusions A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate

  12. Immunological predictors of CD4+ T cell decline in antiretroviral treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Elena; Resino, Salvador; Moreno, Santiago; de Quiros, Juan Carlos Lopez Bernaldo; Moreno, Ana; Rubio, Rafael; Gonzalez-García, Juan; Arribas, José Ramón; Pulido, Federico; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Background The common response to stopping anti-HIV treatment is an increase of HIV-RNA load and decrease in CD4+, but not all the patients have similar responses to this therapeutic strategy. The aim was to identify predictive markers of CD4+ cell count declines to < 350/μL in CD4-guided antiretroviral treatment interruptions. Methods 27 HIV-infected patients participated in a prospective multicenter study in with a 24 month follow-up. Patients on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), with CD4+ count > 600/μL, and HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml for at least 6 months were offered the option to discontinue antiretroviral therapy. The main outcome was a decline in CD4+ cell count to < 350/μL. Results After 24 months of follow-up, 16 of 27 (59%) patients (who discontinued therapy) experienced declines in CD4+ cell count to < 350/μL. Patients with a CD4+ nadir of < 200 cells/μL had a greater risk of restarting therapy during the follow-up (RR (CI95%): 3.37 (1.07; 10.36)). Interestingly, lymphoproliferative responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) below 10000 c.p.m. at baseline (4.77 (1.07; 21.12)), IL-4 production above 100 pg/mL at baseline (5.95 (1.76; 20.07)) in PBMC cultured with PPD, and increased IL-4 production of PBMC with p24 antigen at baseline (1.25 (1.01; 1.55)) were associated to declines in CD4+ cell count to < 350/μL. Conclusion Both the number (CD4+ nadir) and the functional activity of CD4+ (lymphoproliferative response to PPD) predict the CD4+ decrease associated with discontinuation of ART in patients with controlled viremia. PMID:18302775

  13. The influence of afferent lymphatic vessel interruption on vascular addressin expression

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Tissue-selective lymphocyte homing is directed in part by specialized vessels that define sites of lymphocyte exit from the blood. These vessels, the post capillary high endothelial venules (HEV), are found in organized lymphoid tissues, and at sites of chronic inflammation. Lymphocytes bearing specific receptors, called homing receptors, recognize and adhere to their putative ligands on high endothelial cells, the vascular addressins. After adhesion, lymphocytes enter organized lymphoid tissues by migrating through the endothelial cell wall. Cells and/or soluble factors arriving in lymph nodes by way of the afferent lymph supply have been implicated in the maintenance of HEV morphology and efficient lymphocyte homing. In the study reported here, we assessed the influence of afferent lymphatic vessel interruption on lymph node composition, organization of cellular elements; and on expression of vascular addressins. At 1 wk after occlusion of afferent lymphatic vessels, HEV became flat walled and expression of the peripheral lymph node addressin disappeared from the luminal aspect of most vessels, while being retained on the abluminal side. In addition, an HEV-specific differentiation marker, defined by mAb MECA-325, was undetectable at 7-d postocclusion. In vivo homing studies revealed that these modified vessels support minimal lymphocyte traffic from the blood. After occlusion, we observed dramatic changes in lymphocyte populations and at 7-d postsurgery, lymph nodes were populated predominantly by cells lacking the peripheral lymph node homing receptor LECAM-1. In addition, effects on nonlymphoid cells were observed: subcapsular sinus macrophages, defined by mAb MOMA-1, disappeared; and interdigitating dendritic cells, defined by mAb NLDC- 145, were dramatically reduced. These data reveal that functioning afferent lymphatics are centrally involved in maintaining normal lymph node homeostasis. PMID:1918141

  14. Prospective Study to Assess Progression of Renal Markers after Interruption of Tenofovir due to Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Alvarez, Núria; Estany, Carla; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Prospective studies about the reversibility of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate- (TDF-) related renal impairment remain scarce. Methods. This is an observational prospective study including all patients that presented at our HIV Unit who interrupted TDF owing to nephrotoxicity. We assessed the evolution of renal parameters after discontinuation of this drug. Results. We included 59 patients, who were followed up for 72 weeks. Most were male (41, 69.5%), median (IQR) age was 53 (44; 58) years, and median time receiving TDF-containing regimens was 55.4 (28; 87.7) months. Most patients were receiving PI-based treatments (67%). At the final visit, most of the subjects showed complete recovery (35, 59.3%) or improvement (13 subjects, 22%). Significant improvements were observed in creatinine levels (from 84.9 [73.8; 97.5] to 78 [69.6; 91] μmol/L, p = 0.013), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD EPI equation, from 87.7 [67; 99] to 89.9 [73.6; 99.3] mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.017), and number of patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (from 9 [15.3%] to 1 [1.7%], p = 0.031). A trend toward significance was observed in abnormal urine proteinuria/creatinine ratio (from 22 [37%] to 8 [13.6%], p = 0.057). Conclusions. Our results corroborate the high frequency of complete or partial renal recovery in patients receiving TDF-containing regimens who discontinued therapy owing to nephrotoxicity. PMID:28078289

  15. The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part I: Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohm, A.; Mayr, G. J.; Darby, L. S.; Banta, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    The propagation of a cold front and its interaction with foehn winds is investigated in an Alpine valley, based on observations collected during the field campaign of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) on 6 November 1999. The key instrument of this study is a Doppler lidar that had been operated in the Wipp Valley (Austria). The cold front approached the European Alps from the northwest, became distorted at the mountain barrier and entered the east-west aligned Inn Valley near the town of Innsbruck primarily via two passes. It continued to propagate towards Innsbruck from both valley directions as two separate fronts that eventually collided east of Innsbruck after part of the cold air had entered the adjacent north-south aligned Wipp Valley. In the Inn and Wipp Valley, the front caused the interruption of foehn winds. A synthesis of Doppler lidar measurements with conventional meteorological data, including automatic weather stations and radiosondes, leads to the conclusion that the cold front in the Wipp Valley was an atmospheric density current characterized by an elevated head, a front-relative feeder flow and a typical propagation speed of 7 m s-1. The foehn flow on top of the density current caused strong wind shear and triggered shear-flow instability that led to the formation of a turbulent wake behind the head. As the density current propagated towards the Brenner Pass, it slowed down. The shape of the frontal surface varied in time. Its inclination of about 10"-20" is steeper than previously reported for the Inn Valley but is consistent with other observations of atmospheric density currents. In a follow-up presentation (part 2) this observational study is complemented by high-resolution numerical simulations.

  16. Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Mocroft, A; Wyatt, C; Szczech, L; Neuhaus, J; El-Sadr, W; Tracy, R; Kuller, L; Shlipak, M; Angus, B; Klinker, H; Ross, M

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of renal function. We sought to determine if participants randomized to episodic use of antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4+ count (drug conservation; DC) had altered cystatin C levels compared to those randomised to continuous antiretroviral therapy (viral suppression; VS) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Trial, and to identify factors associated with increased cystatin C. Methods Cystatin C was measured in plasma collected at randomization, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months after randomization in a random sample of 249 and 250 participants in the DC and VS groups respectively. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of ≥ 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C (1 standard deviation [SD]) in the first month after randomisation, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results At randomisation, mean (SD) cystatin C level was 0.99 (0.26 mg/dl) and 1.01 (0.28 mg/dl) in the DC and VS arms respectively (p=0.29). In the first month after randomisation, 21.8% and 10.6% had ≥0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the DC and VS arm respectively (p=0.0008). The difference in cystatin C between the treatment arms was maintained through 1 year after randomisation. After adjustment, participants in the VS arm had significantly reduced odds of ≥0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the first month (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23–0.74, p=0.0023). Conclusions These results demonstrate that interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in cystatin C, which may reflect worsened renal function. PMID:19050388

  17. Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Theresa M; Bertelsen, David C; Crimmins, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

  18. Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Bertelsen, C. David; Crimmins, Michael A.

    2014-05-01

    Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

  19. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Meghan K; Keele, Brandon F; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Fletcher, Courtney V; Beilman, Gregory J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P; Schmidt, Thomas E; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G; Utay, Netanya S; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C; Haase, Ashley T; Schacker, Timothy W

    2015-03-10

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV.

  20. Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephen T; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Keen, Phillip; McDonald, Ann; Middleton, Melanie; Woolley, Ian; Kelly, Mark; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. Methods We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Results Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural–regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007–2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007–2012 versus 1996–2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Conclusions Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods. PMID:25865372

  1. Medium voltage breaker rehabilitation: A life-cycle cost analysis of replacement, retrofit and interrupter technology options

    SciTech Connect

    Rinck, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Upgrading of obsolete, medium voltage, air-magnetic, metal-clad switchgear to vacuum or SF{sub 6} circuit breakers may be accomplished by replacement or retrofit. This paper represents a case study for upgrading the Station Service switchgear at The Dalles Lock & Dam. The life-cycle costs associated with the options of breaker replacement and retrofit, as well as costs resulting from the choice of interrupter, will be examined and compared.

  2. Formation of the space charge region in diffusion p- n junctions under high-density current interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekhov, I. V.; Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2005-07-01

    The recovery of diodes with diffusion p- n junctions in the case of high reverse current density j is analyzed. A condition for quasi-neutrality breaking in the diffusion layers with allowance for the dependence of charge carrier mobility μ on electric field strength E is obtained that is valid for a wide range of j. The problem of formation of the space charge region in a circuit with inductance L and resistance R is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations. Approximation of a numerical solution to this system makes it possible to derive crude analytical relationships between interrupted current density {ie88-1}, circuit parameters, diode parameters, and parameters of a forming voltage pulse (with amplitude V m and pulse rise time t p). The limiting parameters of a pulser with an inductive energy storage and current interrupter based on diffusion diodes are studied. The critical density of interrupted current {ie88-2} is determined at which the field in the space charge region near the anode reaches breakdown value E b and intense impact ionization by holes begins. The impact ionization decreases the rates of current decay and voltage increase in the space charge region. As a result, at {ie88-3}, t p starts increasing and the overvoltage factor of the pulser decreases. The value of V m corresponding to {ie88-4} is roughly given by {ie88-5}, where m is the number of diodes in the interrupter, ɛ is the permittivity of the semiconductor, {ie88-6} is the saturated drift velocity of holes, and l p is the depth of the p- n junction (diffusion depth). Theoretical predictions are confirmed by exact numerical simulation of the recovery process and qualitatively agree with the available experimental data.

  3. Influences of noise-interruption and information-bearing acoustic changes on understanding simulated electric-acoustic speech.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian; Donaldson, Gail; Oh, Soohee; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2016-11-01

    In simulations of electrical-acoustic stimulation (EAS), vocoded speech intelligibility is aided by preservation of low-frequency acoustic cues. However, the speech signal is often interrupted in everyday listening conditions, and effects of interruption on hybrid speech intelligibility are poorly understood. Additionally, listeners rely on information-bearing acoustic changes to understand full-spectrum speech (as measured by cochlea-scaled entropy [CSE]) and vocoded speech (CSECI), but how listeners utilize these informational changes to understand EAS speech is unclear. Here, normal-hearing participants heard noise-vocoded sentences with three to six spectral channels in two conditions: vocoder-only (80-8000 Hz) and simulated hybrid EAS (vocoded above 500 Hz; original acoustic signal below 500 Hz). In each sentence, four 80-ms intervals containing high-CSECI or low-CSECI acoustic changes were replaced with speech-shaped noise. As expected, performance improved with the preservation of low-frequency fine-structure cues (EAS). This improvement decreased for continuous EAS sentences as more spectral channels were added, but increased as more channels were added to noise-interrupted EAS sentences. Performance was impaired more when high-CSECI intervals were replaced by noise than when low-CSECI intervals were replaced, but this pattern did not differ across listening modes. Utilizing information-bearing acoustic changes to understand speech is predicted to generalize to cochlear implant users who receive EAS inputs.

  4. Failure of unilateral carotid artery ligation to affect pressure-induced interruption of rapid axonal transport in primate optic nerves.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Schwartz, E L; Anderson, D R

    1980-02-01

    Previous experiments showed that optic nerve axonal transport can be blocked at the level of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure. In an effort to discover if this blockage might be secondary to pressure-induced ischemia, we studied the effect of unilateral common carotid artery ligation upont the pressure-induced interruption of axonal transport. In 13 owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus), the right common carotid artery was ligated within the anterior cervical triangle. Three days later, ophtalmodynomometry was performed on all experimental eyes. In nine of the 13 animals, this estimate of ophthalmic artery pressure was 10 to 20 mm Hg less in the right compared to the left eye. Optic nerve axonal transport was studied in right and left eyes during 5 hours of increased intraocular pressure (ocular pressure 35 mm Hg less than mean femoral artery blood pressure). No significant difference in the extent to which the transport mechanisms were interrupted could be demonstrated when comparing right and left eyes of the experimental animals. These observations fail to support a vascular mechanism for this pressure-induced interruption of axonal transport.

  5. Work–Family Conflict, Task Interruptions, and Influence at Work Predict Musculoskeletal Pain in Operating Room Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Nützi, Marina; Koch, Patricia; Baur, Heiner; Elfering, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in Swiss operating room (OR) nurses, and to investigate how work–family conflict, work interruptions, and influence at work are related to lumbar and cervical back pain. Methods Participants in this correlational questionnaire study included 116 OR nurses from eight different hospitals in Switzerland. Results We found that 66% of the OR staff suffered from musculoskeletal problems. The most prevalent musculoskeletal complaints were lumbar (52.7%) and cervical pain (38.4%). Furthermore, 20.5% reported pain in the mid spine region, 20.5% in the knees and legs, and 9.8% in the hands and feet. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that work–family conflict (p < 0.05) and interruptions (p < 0.05) significantly predicted lumbar and cervical pain in OR nurses, while influence at work (p < 0.05) only predicted lumbar pain. Conclusion These results suggest that reducing the work–family conflict and interruptions at work, as well as offering opportunities to influence one's workplace, help to promote OR nurses' health. PMID:26929846

  6. A pilot study on the vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupter using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. H.; Yuan, H.; Liu, D. X.; Yang, A. J.; Liu, P.; Gao, L.; Ding, H. B.; Wang, W. T.; Rong, M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupter has been a great challenge for decades. In this letter, a novel approach based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed to solve this tough problem, which is suitable for non-intrusive, electro-magnetic interference free and remote detection. The spectral lines of Cu, H, N and O elements from the interrupter shield were detected for a large gas pressure range from p  =  1  ×  10-3 Pa to 1  ×  105 Pa. It was found that the spectral intensities of O and H increase monotonically with gas pressure, in contrast the spectral intensity of Cu first decreases slightly and then increases. Their intensity ratios, especially for that of Cu to O, change dramatically and monotonically with the gas pressure when p  ⩽  0.1 Pa, indicating that they can be used for determining the vacuum degree values. Spectral ratio method fundamentally reduces the influences of the possible variation in measuring distance and the laser power fluctuation, making LIBS a promising method for vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupters.

  7. The effect of visual cues on top-down restoration of temporally interrupted speech, with and without further degradations.

    PubMed

    Benard, Michel R; Başkent, Deniz

    2015-10-01

    In complex listening situations, cognitive restoration mechanisms are commonly used to enhance perception of degraded speech with inaudible segments. Profoundly hearing-impaired people with a cochlear implant (CI) show less benefit from such mechanisms. However, both normal hearing (NH) listeners and CI users do benefit from visual speech cues in these listening situations. In this study we investigated if an accompanying video of the speaker can enhance the intelligibility of interrupted sentences and the phonemic restoration benefit, measured by an increase in intelligibility when the silent intervals are filled with noise. Similar to previous studies, restoration benefit was observed with interrupted speech without spectral degradations (Experiment 1), but was absent in acoustic simulations of CIs (Experiment 2) and was present again in simulations of electric-acoustic stimulation (Experiment 3). In all experiments, the additional speech information provided by the complementary visual cues lead to overall higher intelligibility, however, these cues did not influence the occurrence or extent of the phonemic restoration benefit of filler noise. Results imply that visual cues do not show a synergistic effect with the filler noise, as adding them equally increased the intelligibility of interrupted sentences with or without the filler noise.

  8. Successful surgical treatment of descending aorta interruption in a 29-year-old woman with acute paraplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shutang; Wang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Hongdu; Zhuang, Huanwei; Cao, Xianjun; Liang, Liming; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-06-06

    Interruption of the descending aorta is an extremely rare great vessel malformation. In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a 29-year-old female with a 13-year history of hypertension who was found to have an interruption of the descending aorta when she was hospitalized with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms of acute paraplegia. We successfully surgically corrected the defect using a Gore-Tex® graft to bypass the aortic interruption. The patient's blood pressure postoperatively returned to normal, and the patient recovered completely from her paraplegia by the time of her 5-month follow-up visit.

  9. Baseline and post-bronchodilator interrupter resistance and spirometry in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Beydon, Nicole; Mahut, Bruno; Maingot, L; Guillo, H; La Rocca, M C; Medjahdi, N; Koskas, M; Boulé, M; Delclaux, Christophe

    2012-10-01

    In children unable to perform reliable spirometry, the interrupter resistance (R(int) ) technique for assessing respiratory resistance is easy to perform. However, few data are available on the possibility to use R(int) as a surrogate for spirometry. We aimed at comparing R(int) and spirometry at baseline and after bronchodilator administration in a large population of asthmatic children. We collected retrospectively R(int) and spirometry results measured in 695 children [median age 7.8 (range 4.8-13.9) years] referred to our lab for routine assessment of asthma disease. Correlations between R(int) and spirometry were studied using data expressed as z-scores. Receiver operator characteristic curves for the baseline R(int) value (z-score) and the bronchodilator effect (percentage predicted value and z-score) were generated to assess diagnostic performance. At baseline, the relationship between raw values of R(int) and FEV(1) was not linear. Despite a highly significant inverse correlation between R(int) and all of the spirometry indices (FEV(1) , FVC, FEV(1) /FVC, FEF(25-75%) ; P < 0.0001), R(int) could detect baseline obstruction (FEV(1) z-score ≤ -2) with only 42% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Post-bronchodilator changes in R(int) and FEV(1) were inversely correlated (rhô = -0.50, P < 0.0001), and R(int) (≥35% predicted value decrease) detected FEV(1) reversibility (>12% baseline increase) with 70% sensitivity and 69% specificity (AUC = 0.79). R(int) measurements fitted a one-compartment model that explained the relationship between flows and airway resistance. We found that R(int) had poor sensitivity to detect baseline obstruction, but fairly good sensitivity and specificity to detect reversibility. However, in order to implement asthma guidelines for children unable to produce reliable spirometry, bronchodilator response measured by R(int) should be systematically studied and further assessed in conjunction with clinical outcomes.

  10. Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: Effective Management Requires a Careful Balancing Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Sumwalt, Robert L., III; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Managing several tasks concurrently is an everyday part of cockpit operations. For the most part, crews handle concurrent task demands efficiently, yet crew preoccupation with one task to the detriment of performing other tasks is one of the more common forms of error in the cockpit. Most pilots are familiar with the December 1972 L1011 crash that occurred when the crew became preoccupied with a landing gear light malfunction and failed to notice that someone had inadvertently bumped off the autopilot. More recently a DC-9 landed gear-up in Houston when the crew, preoccupied with an stabilized approach, failed to recognize that the gear was not down because they had not switched the hydraulic pumps to high. We have recently started a research project to study why crews are vulnerable to these sorts of errors. As part of that project we reviewed NTSB reports of accidents attributed to crew error; we concluded that nearly half of these accidents involved lapses of attention associated with interruptions, distractions, or preoccupation with one task to the exclusion of another task. We have also analyzed 107 ASRS reports involving competing tasks; we present here some of our conclusions from those ASRS reports. These 107 reports involved 21 different types of routine tasks crews neglected at a critical moment while attending to another task. Sixty-nine percent of the neglected tasks involved either failure to monitor the current status or position of the aircraft or failure to monitor the actions of the pilot flying or taxiing. Thirty-four different types of competing activities distracted or preoccupied the pilots. Ninety percent of these competing activities fell into one of four broad categories: communication (e.g., discussion among crew or radio communication), heads-down work (e.g., programming the FMS or reviewing approach plates), responding to abnormals, or searching for VMC traffic. We will discuss examples of each of these four categories and suggest things

  11. The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part II: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautz, E.; Gohm, A.

    2010-09-01

    In this work the interaction of Alpine foehn winds with a cold front is investigated. Despite the wealth of studies on south foehn in the region of Innsbruck during the last century not much is known about the dynamics of foehn breakdown. In most cases, the interruption of foehn is connected with a cold front, which approaches the Alps from northerly or northwesterly directions. The resulting change of warm and dry southerly winds to a cold and moist airmass may occur within less than an hour. The objective of this study is to receive a better understanding of the dynamical processes connected with the collision of two airflows from opposing directions in an Alpine valley by means of numerical simulations conducted with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, Version 3.1. For this purpose a foehn event at the Special Observing Period (SOP) of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) has been chosen. On 6 November 1999 a cold front impinged on the Alps and caused the breakdown of the foehn flow. The investigations are mainly focused on the Austrian Inn- and Wipp Valley, which has been one of the target areas during the MAP SOP. The results from the mesoscale model are compaired against the large available observational data set, including surface station, radiosonde and lidar measurements. Nested model runs provide the ability to investigate a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. The model is able to capture the blocking of moist air south of the Alps during foehn and the deformation of the cold front by the mountain range north of the Alps. To quantitatively describe the exchange of air masses in a given box near Innsbruck a mass budget calculation has been accomplished. The most prominent feature is a sudden increase of the inflow from the west during the cold front passage. The fine-scale structure of the cold front, which shows the nature of a density current, is determined with an additional one-way nested high-resolution simulation in the Wipp

  12. Training emergency services’ dispatchers to recognise stroke: an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is a time-dependent medical emergency in which early presentation to specialist care reduces death and dependency. Up to 70% of all stroke patients obtain first medical contact from the Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Identifying ‘true stroke’ from an EMS call is challenging, with over 50% of strokes being misclassified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the training package on the recognition of stroke by Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs). Methods This study took place in an ambulance service and a hospital in England using an interrupted time-series design. Suspected stroke patients were identified in one week blocks, every three weeks over an 18 month period, during which time the training was implemented. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of stroke (EMS or hospital). The effect of the intervention on the accuracy of dispatch diagnosis was investigated using binomial (grouped) logistic regression. Results In the Pre-implementation period EMDs correctly identified 63% of stroke patients; this increased to 80% Post-implementation. This change was significant (p=0.003), reflecting an improvement in identifying stroke patients relative to the Pre-implementation period both the During-implementation (OR=4.10 [95% CI 1.58 to 10.66]) and Post-implementation (OR=2.30 [95% CI 1.07 to 4.92]) periods. For patients with a final diagnosis of stroke who had been dispatched as stroke there was a marginally non-significant 2.8 minutes (95% CI −0.2 to 5.9 minutes, p=0.068) reduction between Pre- and Post-implementation periods from call to arrival of the ambulance at scene. Conclusions This is the first study to develop, implement and evaluate the impact of a training package for EMDs with the aim of improving the recognition of stroke. Training led to a significant increase in the proportion of stroke patients dispatched as such by EMDs; a small reduction in time from call to arrival at scene by the ambulance also

  13. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  14. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  15. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  16. NMR studies demonstrate a unique AAB composition and chain register for a heterotrimeric type IV collagen model peptide containing a natural interruption site.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianxi; Sun, Xiuxia; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2015-10-02

    All non-fibrillar collagens contain interruptions in the (Gly-X-Y)n repeating sequence, such as the more than 20 interruptions found in chains of basement membrane type IV collagen. Two selectively doubly labeled peptides are designed to model a site in type IV collagen with a GVG interruption in the α1(IV) and a corresponding GISLK sequence within the α2(IV) chain. CD and NMR studies on a 2:1 mixture of these two peptides support the formation of a single-component heterotrimer that maintains the one-residue staggering in the triple-helix, has a unique chain register, and contains hydrogen bonds at the interruption site. Formation of hydrogen bonds at interruption sites may provide a driving force for self-assembly and chain register in type IV and other non-fibrillar collagens. This study illustrates the potential role of interruptions in the structure, dynamics, and folding of natural collagen heterotrimers and forms a basis for understanding their biological role.

  17. Results of Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption and Intensification in Advanced Multi-Drug Resistant HIV Infection from the OPTIMA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; Brown, Sheldon T.; Cameron, D. William; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Angus, Brian; Babiker, Abdel; Singer, Joel; Owens, Douglas K.; Anis, Aslam; Goodall, Ruth; Hudson, Fleur; Piaseczny, Mirek; Russo, John; Schechter, Martin; Deyton, Lawrence; Darbyshire, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidance is needed on best medical management for advanced HIV disease with multidrug resistance (MDR) and limited retreatment options. We assessed two novel antiretroviral (ARV) treatment approaches in this setting. Methods and Findings We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized open label controlled trial in patients with a CD4 count ≤300 cells/µl who had ARV treatment (ART) failure requiring retreatment, to two options (a) re-treatment with either standard (≤4 ARVs) or intensive (≥5 ARVs) ART and b) either treatment starting immediately or after a 12-week monitored ART interruption. Primary outcome was time to developing a first AIDS-defining event (ADE) or death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. From 2001 to 2006, 368 patients were randomized. At baseline, mean age was 48 years, 2% were women, median CD4 count was 106/µl, mean viral load was 4.74 log10 copies/ml, and 59% had a prior AIDS diagnosis. Median follow-up was 4.0 years in 1249 person-years of observation. There were no statistically significant differences in the primary composite outcome of ADE or death between re-treatment options of standard versus intensive ART (hazard ratio 1.17; CI 0.86–1.59), or between immediate retreatment initiation versus interruption before re-treatment (hazard ratio 0.93; CI 0.68–1.30), or in the rate of non-HIV associated serious adverse events between re-treatment options. Conclusions We did not observe clinical benefit or harm assessed by the primary outcome in this largest and longest trial exploring both ART interruption and intensification in advanced MDR HIV infection with poor retreatment options. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00050089 PMID:21483491

  18. Real-Time Predictions of Reservoir Size and Rebound Time during Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption Trials for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, Daniel I. S.; Goldstein, Edward; Hanhauser, Emily; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of novel reservoir-reducing treatments for HIV is challenging. The limited ability to sample and quantify latent infection means that supervised antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption studies are generally required. Here we introduce a set of mathematical and statistical modeling tools to aid in the design and interpretation of ART-interruption trials. We show how the likely size of the remaining reservoir can be updated in real-time as patients continue off treatment, by combining the output of laboratory assays with insights from models of reservoir dynamics and rebound. We design an optimal schedule for viral load sampling during interruption, whereby the frequency of follow-up can be decreased as patients continue off ART without rebound. While this scheme can minimize costs when the chance of rebound between visits is low, we find that the reservoir will be almost completely reseeded before rebound is detected unless sampling occurs at least every two weeks and the most sensitive viral load assays are used. We use simulated data to predict the clinical trial size needed to estimate treatment effects in the face of highly variable patient outcomes and imperfect reservoir assays. Our findings suggest that large numbers of patients—between 40 and 150—will be necessary to reliably estimate the reservoir-reducing potential of a new therapy and to compare this across interventions. As an example, we apply these methods to the two “Boston patients”, recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants who experienced large reductions in latent infection and underwent ART-interruption. We argue that the timing of viral rebound was not particularly surprising given the information available before treatment cessation. Additionally, we show how other clinical data can be used to estimate the relative contribution that remaining HIV+ cells in the recipient versus newly infected cells from the donor made to the residual reservoir

  19. Real-Time Predictions of Reservoir Size and Rebound Time during Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption Trials for HIV.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alison L; Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Goldstein, Edward; Hanhauser, Emily; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Siliciano, Robert F; Henrich, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of novel reservoir-reducing treatments for HIV is challenging. The limited ability to sample and quantify latent infection means that supervised antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption studies are generally required. Here we introduce a set of mathematical and statistical modeling tools to aid in the design and interpretation of ART-interruption trials. We show how the likely size of the remaining reservoir can be updated in real-time as patients continue off treatment, by combining the output of laboratory assays with insights from models of reservoir dynamics and rebound. We design an optimal schedule for viral load sampling during interruption, whereby the frequency of follow-up can be decreased as patients continue off ART without rebound. While this scheme can minimize costs when the chance of rebound between visits is low, we find that the reservoir will be almost completely reseeded before rebound is detected unless sampling occurs at least every two weeks and the most sensitive viral load assays are used. We use simulated data to predict the clinical trial size needed to estimate treatment effects in the face of highly variable patient outcomes and imperfect reservoir assays. Our findings suggest that large numbers of patients-between 40 and 150-will be necessary to reliably estimate the reservoir-reducing potential of a new therapy and to compare this across interventions. As an example, we apply these methods to the two "Boston patients", recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants who experienced large reductions in latent infection and underwent ART-interruption. We argue that the timing of viral rebound was not particularly surprising given the information available before treatment cessation. Additionally, we show how other clinical data can be used to estimate the relative contribution that remaining HIV+ cells in the recipient versus newly infected cells from the donor made to the residual reservoir that

  20. Mechanism of Fast Current Interruption in p -π -n Diodes for Nanosecond Opening Switches in High-Voltage-Pulse Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharabani, Y.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Eger, D.

    2015-07-01

    Step-recovery diodes operating in the snappy recovery regime are used as opening switches for generating narrow pulses with high-voltage amplitude. Physical modeling of the switching process is complex due to the large number of parameters involved, including diode structure, the extreme physical conditions, and the effect of external driving conditions. In this work, we address the problem by using a physical device simulator for solving the coupled device and electrical driving circuit equations. This method allows deciphering of the physical processes to take place in the diode during the fast current interruption phase. Herein we analyze the complete hard (snappy) reverse recovery process in short-base devices and determine the fast-transition-phase mechanism. It was found that the fast current interruption phase is constructed of two processes; the main parameters governing the switching time duration and the prepulse magnitude are the diode's reverse current density and its base-doping concentration. We describe the dependence of the switching performance in these parameters.

  1. Independence of long-term contextual memory and short-term perceptual hypotheses: Evidence from contextual cueing of interrupted search.

    PubMed

    Schlagbauer, Bernhard; Mink, Maurice; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Observers are able to resume an interrupted search trial faster relative to responding to a new, unseen display. This finding of rapid resumption is attributed to short-term perceptual hypotheses generated on the current look and confirmed upon subsequent looks at the same display. It has been suggested that the contents of perceptual hypotheses are similar to those of other forms of memory acquired long-term through repeated exposure to the same search displays over the course of several trials, that is, the memory supporting "contextual cueing." In three experiments, we investigated the relationship between short-term perceptual hypotheses and long-term contextual memory. The results indicated that long-term, contextual memory of repeated displays neither affected the generation nor the confirmation of short-term perceptual hypotheses for these displays. Furthermore, the analysis of eye movements suggests that long-term memory provides an initial benefit in guiding attention to the target, whereas in subsequent looks guidance is entirely based on short-term perceptual hypotheses. Overall, the results reveal a picture of both long- and short-term memory contributing to reliable performance gains in interrupted search, while exerting their effects in an independent manner.

  2. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous GPR161 Mutation in a Family with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O.; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M.; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare, congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk—characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: WES was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G protein–coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

  3. Graphical Data Analysis on the Circle: Wrap-Around Time Series Plots for (Interrupted) Time Series Designs.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Beasley, William Howard; Schuelke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Many data structures, particularly time series data, are naturally seasonal, cyclical, or otherwise circular. Past graphical methods for time series have focused on linear plots. In this article, we move graphical analysis onto the circle. We focus on 2 particular methods, one old and one new. Rose diagrams are circular histograms and can be produced in several different forms using the RRose software system. In addition, we propose, develop, illustrate, and provide software support for a new circular graphical method, called Wrap-Around Time Series Plots (WATS Plots), which is a graphical method useful to support time series analyses in general but in particular in relation to interrupted time series designs. We illustrate the use of WATS Plots with an interrupted time series design evaluating the effect of the Oklahoma City bombing on birthrates in Oklahoma County during the 10 years surrounding the bombing of the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City. We compare WATS Plots with linear time series representations and overlay them with smoothing and error bands. Each method is shown to have advantages in relation to the other; in our example, the WATS Plots more clearly show the existence and effect size of the fertility differential.

  4. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them.

  5. Partial interruption of axonal transport due to microtubule breakage accounts for the formation of periodic varicosities after traumatic axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Tang-Schomer, Min D; Johnson, Victoria E; Baas, Peter W; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H

    2012-01-01

    Due to their viscoelastic nature, white matter axons are susceptible to damage by high strain rates produced during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common features of TBI, characterized by the hallmark pathological profiles of axonal bulbs at disconnected terminal ends of axons and periodic swellings along axons, known as "varicosities." Although transport interruption underlies axonal bulb formation, it is unclear how varicosities arise, with multiple sites accumulating transported materials along one axon. Recently, axonal microtubules have been found to physically break during dynamic stretch injury of cortical axons in vitro. Here, the same in vitro model was used in parallel with histopathological analyses of human brains acquired acutely following TBI to examine the potential role of mechanical microtubule damage in varicosity formation post-trauma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following in vitro stretch injury revealed periodic breaks of individual microtubules along axons that regionally corresponded with undulations in axon morphology. However, typically less than a third of microtubules were broken in any region of an axon. Within hours, these sites of microtubule breaks evolved into periodic swellings. This suggests axonal transport may be halted along one broken microtubule, yet can proceed through the same region via other intact microtubules. Similar axonal undulations and varicosities were observed following TBI in humans, suggesting primary microtubule failure may also be a feature of DAI. These data indicate a novel mechanism of mechanical microtubule damage leading to partial transport interruption and varicosity formation in traumatic axonal injury.

  6. Thirty-year experience with surgical interruption of the inferior vena cava for prevention of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, M C; Wirthlin, L S; Donaldson, G A

    1980-01-01

    Case records of 237 patients treated by inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation (154), suture plication (27) or clip application (56) were reviewed. Indications for surgery included failure of anticoagulation or femoral vein ligation to control embolism and threat of potentially massive, septic or paradoxical emboli. Overall hospital mortality was 15% and recent operative mortality was 2%. The incidence of early postoperative leg swelling was 36% and late venous sequellae occurred in 50% of the follow-up group of 140 cases followed an average of 44.3 months. Morbidity secondary to IVC interruption was decreased by use of the prosthetic lip, but clip application was still associated with early leg swelling in 21% and late mild swelling in 24%. The incidence of proven or suspected recurrent emboli was 7.6% with no significant variation by type of IVC procedure, and recurrent emboli were fatal in 2.5%. Refinement of indications, operative methods and perioperative care for IVC interruption procedures over the years has substantially improved the surgical approach to prevention of life-threatening pulmonary embolism. PMID:7362302

  7. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  8. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  9. Hosed vs. unhosed: interruptions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a global coupled model, with and without freshwater forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicolas; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that glacial periods were punctuated by abrupt climate changes, with large impacts on air temperature, precipitation, and ocean circulation across the globe. However, the long-held idea that freshwater forcing, caused by massive iceberg discharges, was the driving force behind these changes has been questioned in recent years. This throws into doubt the abundant literature on modelling abrupt climate change through "hosing" experiments, whereby the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is interrupted by an injection of freshwater to the North Atlantic: if some, or all, abrupt climate change was not driven by freshwater input, could its character have been very different than the typical hosed experiments? Here, we describe spontaneous, unhosed oscillations in AMOC strength that occur in a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model when integrated under a particular background climate state. We compare these unhosed oscillations to hosed oscillations under a range of background climate states in order to examine how the global imprint of AMOC variations depends on whether or not they result from external freshwater input. Our comparison includes surface air temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the intermediate-depth ocean, and marine export production. The results show that the background climate state has a significant impact on the character of the freshwater-forced AMOC interruptions in this model, with particularly marked variations in tropical precipitation and in the North Pacific circulation. Despite these differences, the first-order patterns of response to AMOC interruptions are quite consistent among all simulations, implying that the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere dynamics associated with an AMOC weakening dominate the global response, regardless of whether or not freshwater input is the cause. Nonetheless, freshwater addition leads to a more complete shutdown of the AMOC than occurs in the unhosed oscillations

  10. Fabrication and characterization of self-assembled InGaN quantum dots by periodic interrupted growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Min; Yi, Sung-Hak; Kim, Jung-A.; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2007-02-01

    Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots are fabricated in a two-flow horizontal MOCVD reactor maintained at the pressure of 200torr. The precursors were trimethyl-gallium (TMG) and trimethyl-indium (TMI) and ammonia (NH 3), and the carrier gas was N II and H II. The optimum condition was deduced to fabricate the InGaN quantum dots. GaN nucleation layer was grown at 500°C with thickness of 25nm, and then 2~3 μm thick GaN buffer-layer was deposited at 1050 °C. InGaN quantum dots were grown on GaN buffer layer. Carrier gas was changed with N II instead of H II in QD growth. In the growth of InGaN quantum dots, NH 3 was supplied in cyclic periodic interrupted mode with the interval of 5 seconds. The influence of number of periodic interrupted NH3 on the structural and optical properties of InGaN quantum dots was investigated by AFM, FE-SEM and photoluminescence (PL). The InGaN quantum dots are grown by 2 periods growth and have 0.4nm in height and 31nm lateral size. The height of quantum dots was increased with increase of growth periods, and the lateral size was decreased after 3 periods and then increased in 4 periods. The density of InGaN quantum dots with 3 periods and 4 periods was measured to be 1.51×10 11/cm2 and 8.91×10 10/cm2. Density of InGaN quantum dots was decreased after 3 periods, and this is attributed to the coalescence. A strong peak at 362.2 nm (3.41eV) and broad emission peak in 532.9~663.9nm (2.33~1.86eV) were evolved in the photoluminescence measurement using Nd-YAG laser with wavelength of 266nm. Addition emission peak was found in the range 433.7nm~462.2nm (2.85eV~2.68eV) in the samples with 3 periods and 4 periods interruption, and this peak was identified as the InGaN quantum dots with low indium concentration.

  11. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  12. Transcription of the SCL/TAL1 Interrupting Locus (Stil) Is Required for Cell Proliferation in Adult Zebrafish Retinas*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell L.; Gorsuch, Ryne; Yarka, Clare; Li, Jingling; Bartlett, Michael; Pfister, Delaney; Hyde, David R.; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in vertebrate species. Previously, we identified a homolog of the Stil gene in zebrafish mutant (night blindness b, nbb), which showed neural defects in the retina (e.g. dopaminergic cell degeneration and/or lack of regeneration). In this research, we examined the roles of Stil in cell proliferation after degeneration in adult zebrafish retinas. We demonstrated that knockdown of Stil gene expression or inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction decreases the rate of cell proliferation. In contrast, activation of Shh signal transduction promotes cell proliferation. In nbb+/− retinas, inhibition of SUFU (a repressor in the Shh pathway) rescues the defects in cell proliferation due to down-regulation of Stil gene expression. The latter data suggest that Stil play a role in cell proliferation through the Shh signal transduction pathway. PMID:24469449

  13. Transcription of the SCL/TAL1 interrupting Locus (Stil) is required for cell proliferation in adult Zebrafish Retinas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell L; Gorsuch, Ryne; Yarka, Clare; Li, Jingling; Bartlett, Michael; Pfister, Delaney; Hyde, David R; Li, Lei

    2014-03-07

    The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in vertebrate species. Previously, we identified a homolog of the Stil gene in zebrafish mutant (night blindness b, nbb), which showed neural defects in the retina (e.g. dopaminergic cell degeneration and/or lack of regeneration). In this research, we examined the roles of Stil in cell proliferation after degeneration in adult zebrafish retinas. We demonstrated that knockdown of Stil gene expression or inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction decreases the rate of cell proliferation. In contrast, activation of Shh signal transduction promotes cell proliferation. In nbb(+/-) retinas, inhibition of SUFU (a repressor in the Shh pathway) rescues the defects in cell proliferation due to down-regulation of Stil gene expression. The latter data suggest that Stil play a role in cell proliferation through the Shh signal transduction pathway.

  14. Development of a noise prediction model under interrupted traffic flow conditions: a case study for Jaipur city.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Swami, Bajrang L; Gupta, Akhilendra Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an empirical noise prediction model for the evaluation of equivalent noise levels (Leq) under interrupted traffic flow conditions. A new factor tendency to blow horn (AH) was introduced in the conventional federal highway administrative noise prediction (FHWA) model and a comparative study was made between FHWA and modified FHWA models to evaluate the best suitability of the model. Monitoring and modeling of Leq were carried out at four selected intersections of Jaipur city. After comparison of the results, it was found that the modified FHWA model could be satisfactorily applied for Indian conditions as it gives acceptable results with a deviation of +/-3 dB (A). In addition, statistical analysis of the data comprising measured and estimated values shows a good agreement. Hence, the modified FHWA traffic noise prediction model can be applied to the cities having similar traffic conditions as in Jaipur city.

  15. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, Andrew P.; Zeiri, Offer M.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2017-02-01

    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data.

  16. Functional expression of SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) protects retinal dopaminergic cells from neurotoxin-induced degeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingling; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell; Wang, Xiaokai; DeLaPaz, April; Sun, Lei; Lee, Eric; Tomei, Erika; Li, Lei

    2013-01-11

    We previously isolated a dominant mutation, night blindness b (nbb), which causes a late onset of retinal dopaminergic cell degeneration in zebrafish. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish nbb locus. Sequencing results revealed that nbb is a homolog of the vertebrate SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil). The Stil gene has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of vertebrate embryonic neural development and human cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that functional expression of Stil is also required for neural survival. In zebrafish, decreased expression of Stil resulted in increased toxic susceptibility of retinal dopaminergic cells to 6-hydroxydopamine. Increases in Stil-mediated Shh signaling transduction (i.e. by knocking down the Shh repressor Sufu) prevented dopaminergic cell death induced by neurotoxic insult. The data suggest that the oncogene Stil also plays important roles in neural protection.

  17. An atomtronic flux qubit: a ring lattice of Bose-Einstein condensates interrupted by three weak links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamalyan, D.; Nguyen, N. T.; Auksztol, F.; Gan, K. S.; Martinez Valado, M.; Condylis, P. C.; Kwek, L.-C.; Dumke, R.; Amico, L.

    2016-07-01

    We study a physical system consisting of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to a ring shaped lattice potential interrupted by three weak links. The system is assumed to be driven by an effective flux piercing the ring lattice. By employing path integral techniques, we explore the effective quantum dynamics of the system in a pure quantum phase dynamics regime. Moreover, the effects of the density’s quantum fluctuations are studied through exact diagonalization analysis of the spectroscopy of the Bose-Hubbard model. We demonstrate that a clear two-level system emerges by tuning the magnetic flux at degeneracy. The lattice confinement, platform for the condensate, is realized experimentally employing a spatial light modulator.

  18. Influence of electrode surface microstructures on the state of short vacuum gaps after interruption of high-frequency currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niayesh, Kaveh

    2000-09-01

    In this paper the influences of electrode surface microstructures on the electrical field near the new cathode surface and on the distribution of ion density and velocity in the space-charge region after interruption of high-frequency currents in short vacuum gaps have been studied. To investigate these effects, the equations of conservation of mass and momentum are solved two dimensionally in the space-charge region. The results indicate a considerable increase in ion density at the points with high electrical fields, which results in an enhancement of the electrical field at these points compared with one-dimensional calculations. Considering the calculated electrical field near the cathode surface and the power density deposited into the cathode surface by ions, the initiation of a breakdown during the post arc period under the mechanism of explosive electron emission may be possible.

  19. Metabolic and Immune Activation Effects of Treatment Interruption in Chronic HIV-1 Infection: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tebas, Pablo; Henry, William Keith; Matining, Roy; Weng-Cherng, Deborah; Schmitz, John; Valdez, Hernan; Jahed, Nasreen; Myers, Laurie; Powderly, William G.; Katzenstein, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Concern about costs and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated toxicities led to the consideration of CD4 driven strategies for the management of HIV. That approach was evaluated in the SMART trial that reported an unexpected increase of cardiovascular events after treatment interruption (TI). Our goal was to evaluate fasting metabolic changes associated with interruption of antiretroviral therapy and relate them to changes of immune activation markers and cardiovascular risk. Methodology ACTG 5102 enrolled 47 HIV-1-infected subjects on stable ART, with <200 HIV RNA copies/mL and CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µL. Subjects were randomly assigned to continue ART for 18 weeks with or without 3 cycles of interleukin-2 (IL-2) (cycle = 4.5 million IU sc BID x 5 days every 8 weeks). After 18 weeks ART was discontinued in all subjects until the CD4 cell count dropped below 350 cells/µL. Glucose and lipid parameters were evaluated every 8 weeks initially and at weeks 2, 4, 8 and every 8 weeks after TI. Immune activation was evaluated by flow-cytometry and soluble TNFR2 levels. Principal Findings By week 8 of TI, levels of total cholesterol (TC) (median (Q1, Q3) (−0.73 (−1.19, −0.18) mmol/L, p<0.0001), LDL, HDL cholesterol (−0.36(−0.73,−0.03)mmol/L, p = 0.0007 and −0.05(−0.26,0.03), p = 0.0033, respectively) and triglycerides decreased (−0.40 (−0.84, 0.07) mmol/L, p = 0.005). However the TC/HDL ratio remained unchanged (−0.09 (−1.2, 0.5), p = 0.2). Glucose and insulin levels did not change (p = 0.6 and 0.8, respectively). After TI there was marked increase in immune activation (CD8+/HLA-DR+/CD38+ cells, 34% (13, 43), p<0.0001) and soluble TNFR2 (1089 ng/L (−189, 1655), p = 0.0008) coinciding with the rebound of HIV viremia. Conclusions Our data suggests that interrupting antiretroviral therapy does not reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as the improvements in lipid parameters are modest and overshadowed

  20. [Micropump infusion of gonadorelin in the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: cases analysis and literature review].

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei-min; Bai, Wen-jun; Chen, Yi-min; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yu-jie

    2014-08-18

    Two cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome treated by pulse infusion of gonadorelin via micropump were reported, and their clinical features and the treatment process of pulse infusion of gonadorelin via micropump summarized. Both of the 2 patients were presented primarily with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After the treatment with pulse infusion of gonadorelin via micropump, their syndrome of androgen deficiency improved and the gonadotropin levels promoted at the end of 12 weeks' follow-up. Pulse infusion of gonadorelin via micropump is an alternative to treat hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.

  1. Gallium-Arsenide Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition with Alkyl Arsenic Sources: Temperature and Gas-Switched Interrupted Growth Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vook, Dietrich Werner

    A major hindrance to the wide application of Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) for III-V device fabrication is the toxicity of the group V hydrides, arsine and phosphine. The ability to fabricate structures with composition changes which are arbitrarily abrupt without the use of extremely high flow rates and associated quantities of toxic gasses is also desirable. This work contains an investigation of the growth of GaAs with four different organometallic substitutes for arsine. Decomposition mechanisms for two of these sources are given. A precracking method used to produce the highest quality GaAs layers grown with one of the sources is also given. A major portion of this work examines the interrupted growth interfaces between successive layers of GaAs grown by MOCVD using two fundamentally different layer growth switching methods, both aimed at increasing the interface abruptness. The first technique, which is the conventional gas switching method, controls the growth rate through the supply of the column III precursors. The second method, known as "Limited Reaction Processing", controls the growth kinetically, by changing the substrate temperature quickly. For both cases, the chemical impurities and deep levels at the interfaces are investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). A method for calculating the sheet trap concentrations from the DLTS data is developed. In general, conventional gas flow switching produces interfaces free of electronic defects under a wider variety of growth conditions than temperature switched growth. Both techniques yield high quality (trap free) interfaces at low GaAs growth rates. For temperature switched growth, the data suggests that there is a direct relationship between the thickness of GaAs deposited at low temperatures during the temperature transients and the sheet trap concentration of electrical defects at the interrupted growth interface. Our results

  2. Partial Interruption of Axonal Transport Due to Microtubule Breakage Accounts for the Formation of Periodic Varicosities after Traumatic Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang-Schomer, Min D.; Johnson, Victoria E.; Baas, Peter W.; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to their viscoelastic nature, white matter axons are susceptible to damage by high strain rates produced during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common features of TBI, characterized by the hallmark pathological profiles of axonal bulbs at disconnected terminal ends of axons and periodic swellings along axons, known as “varicosities.” Although transport interruption underlies axonal bulb formation, it is unclear how varicosities arise, with multiple sites accumulating transported materials along one axon. Recently, axonal microtubules have been found to physically break during dynamic stretch-injury of cortical axons in vitro. Here, the same in vitro model was used in parallel with histopathological analyses of human brains acquired acutely following TBI to examine the potential role of mechanical microtubule damage in varicosity formation post-trauma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following in vitro stretch-injury revealed periodic breaks of individual microtubules along axons that regionally corresponded with undulations in axon morphology. However, typically less than a third of microtubules were broken in any region of an axon. Within hours, these sites of microtubule breaks evolved into periodic swellings. This suggests axonal transport may be halted along one broken microtubule, yet can proceed through the same region via other intact microtubules. Similar axonal undulations and varicosities were observed following TBI in humans, suggesting primary microtubule failure may also be a feature of DAI. These data indicate a novel mechanism of mechanical microtubule damage leading to partial transport interruption and varicosity formation in traumatic axonal injury. PMID:22079153

  3. Pressure support-ventilation versus spontaneous breathing with "T-Tube" for interrupting the ventilation after cardiac operations

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Isabela Scali; Franco, Aline Marques; Bassetto, Solange; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare pressure-support ventilation with spontaneous breathing through a T-tube for interrupting invasive mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Adults of both genders were randomly allocated to 30 minutes of either pressure-support ventilation or spontaneous ventilation with "T-tube" before extubation. Manovacuometry, ventilometry and clinical evaluation were performed before the operation, immediately before and after extubation, 1h and 12h after extubation. Results Twenty-eight patients were studied. There were no deaths or pulmonary complications. The mean aortic clamping time in the pressure support ventilation group was 62 ± 35 minutes and 68 ± 36 minutes in the T-tube group (P=0.651). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass duration in the pressure-support ventilation group was 89 ± 44 minutes and 82 ± 42 minutes in the T-tube group (P=0.75). The mean Tobin index in the pressure support ventilation group was 51 ± 25 and 64.5 ± 23 in the T-tube group (P=0.153). The duration of intensive care unit stay for the pressure support ventilation group was 2.1 ± 0.36 days and 2.3 ± 0.61 days in the T-tube group (P=0.581). The atelectasis score in the T-tube group was 0.6 ± 0.8 and 0.5 ± 0.6 (P=0.979) in the pressure support ventilation group. The study groups did not differ significantly in manovacuometric and ventilometric parameters and hospital evolution. Conclusion The two trial methods evaluated for interruption of mechanical ventilation did not affect the postoperative course of patients who underwent cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:24598949

  4. Peroxiredoxin-6 Negatively Regulates Bactericidal Activity and NF-κB Activity by Interrupting TRAF6-ECSIT Complex

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yoon; Wi, Sae M.; Shin, Dongwoo; Chun, Eunyoung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2017-01-01

    A TRAF6-ECSIT complex is crucial for the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation induced by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6) as a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes is involved in antioxidant protection and cell signaling. Here, we report on a regulatory role of Prdx6 in mROS production and NF-κB activation by TLR4. Prdx6 was translocated into the mitochondria by TLR4 stimulation and Prdx6-knockdown (Prdx6KD) THP-1 cells had increased level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels and were resistant to Salmonella typhimurium infection. Biochemical studies revealed Prdx6 interaction with the C-terminal TRAF-C domain of TRAF6, which drove translocation into the mitochondria. Interestingly, Prdx6 competitively interacted with ECSIT to TRAF6 through its C-terminal TRAF-C domain, leading to the interruption of TRAF6-ECSIT interaction. The inhibitory effect was critically implicated in the activation of NF-κB induced by TLR4. Overexpression of Prdx6 led to the inhibition of NF-κB induced by TLR4, whereas Prdx6KD THP-1 cells displayed enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 and -1β, and the up-regulation of NF-κB-dependent genes induced by TLR4 stimulation. Taken together, the data demonstrate that Prdx6 interrupts the formation of TRAF6-ECSIT complex induced by TLR4 stimulation, leading to suppression of bactericidal activity because of inhibited mROS production in mitochondria and the inhibition of NF-κB activation in the cytoplasm. PMID:28393051

  5. The Impact of Sex Work Interruption on Blood-Derived T Cells in Sex Workers from Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omollo, Kenneth; Boily-Larouche, Geneviève; Lajoie, Julie; Kimani, Makobu; Cheruiyot, Julianna; Kimani, Joshua; Oyugi, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Unprotected sexual intercourse exposes the female genital tract (FGT) to semen-derived antigens, which leads to a proinflammatory response. Studies have shown that this postcoital inflammatory response can lead to recruitment of activated T cells to the FGT, thereby increasing risk of HIV infection. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sex work on activation and memory phenotypes of peripheral T cells among female sex workers (FSW) from Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Thirty FSW were recruited from the Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort, 10 in each of the following groups: HIV-exposed seronegative (at least 7 years in active sex work), HIV positive, and New Negative (HIV negative, less than 3 years in active sex work). Blood was obtained at three different phases (active sex work, abstinence from sex work–sex break, and following resumption of sex work). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stained for phenotypic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161), memory phenotype markers (CD45RA and CCR7), activation markers (CD69, HLA-DR, and CD95), and the HIV coreceptor (CCR5). T-cell populations were compared between groups. Results: In HIV-positive women, CD8+CCR5+ T cells declined at the sex break period, while CD4+CD161+ T cells increased when returning to sex work. All groups showed no significant changes in systemic T-cell activation markers following the interruption of sex work, however, significant reductions in naive CD8+ T cells were noted. For each of the study points, HIV positives had higher effector memory and CD8+CD95+ T cells and lower naive CD8+ T cells than the HIV-uninfected groups. Conclusions: Interruption of sex work had subtle effects on systemic T-cell memory phenotypes. PMID:26879184

  6. Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

    2006-01-01

    Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

  7. Responses of plant growth rate to nitrogen supply: a comparison of relative addition and N interruption treatments.

    PubMed

    Walker, R L; Burns, I G; Moorby, J

    2001-02-01

    This paper investigates the effects of uptake of nitrate and the availability of internal N reserves on growth rate in times of restricted supply, and examines the extent to which the response is mediated by the different pools of N (nitrate N, organic N and total N) in the plant. Hydroponic experiments were carried out with young lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) to compare responses to either an interruption in external N supply or the imposition of different relative N addition rate (RAR) treatments. The resulting relationships between whole plant relative growth rate (RGR) and N concentration varied between linear and curvilinear (or possibly bi-linear) forms depending on the treatment conditions. The relationship was curvilinear when the external N supply was interrupted, but linear when N was supplied by either RAR methods or as a supra-optimal external N supply. These differences resulted from the ability of the plant to use external sources of N more readily than their internal N reserves. These results show that when sub-optimal sources of external N were available, RGR was maintained at a rate which was dependent on the rate of nitrate uptake by the roots. Newly acquired N was channelled directly to the sites of highest demand, where it was assimilated rapidly. As a result, nitrate only tended to accumulate in plant tissues when its supply was essentially adequate. By comparison, plants forced to rely solely on their internal reserves were never able to mobilize and redistribute N between tissues quickly enough to prevent reductions in growth rate as their tissue N reserves declined. Evidence is presented to show that the rate of remobilization of N depends on the size and type of the N pools within the plant, and that changes in their rates of remobilization and/or transfer between pools are the main factors influencing the form of the relationship between RGR and N concentration.

  8. Spontaneous dc Current Generation in a Resistively Shunted Semiconductor Superlattice Driven by a Terahertz Field

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, K.N.; Cannon, E.H.; McKinney, J.C.; Campbell, D.K.; Alekseev, K.N.; Kusmartsev, F.V.; Alekseev, K.N.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1998-03-01

    We study a resistively shunted semiconductor superlattice subject to a high-frequency electric field. Using a balance equation approach that incorporates the influence of the electric circuit, we determine numerically a range of amplitude and frequency of the ac field for which a dc bias and current are generated {ital spontaneously} and show that this region is likely accessible to current experiments. Our simulations reveal that the Bloch frequency corresponding to the spontaneous dc bias is approximately an integer multiple of the ac field frequency. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos/hemiazygos continuation accompanied by distinct renal vein anomalies: MRA and CT assessment.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, E; Gulcu, A; Sal, S; Obuz, F

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos/hemiazygos continuation and additional variations of the renal veins, an uncommon developmental anomaly. Magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography, in association with clinical awareness, can be used to diagnose this entity.

  10. CD and NMR investigation of collagen peptides mimicking a pathological Gly-Ser mutation and a natural interruption in a similar highly charged sequence context.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuxia; Liu, Songqing; Yu, Wenyuan; Wang, Shaoru; Xiao, Jianxi

    2016-02-01

    Even a single Gly substitution in the triple helix domain of collagen leads to pathological conditions while natural interruptions are suggested to play important functional roles. Two peptides-one mimicking a pathological Gly-Ser substitution (ERSEQ) and the other one modeling a similar natural interruption sequence (DRSER)-are designed to facilitate the comparison for elucidating the molecular basis of their different biological roles. CD and NMR investigation of peptide ERSEQ indicates a reduction of the thermal stability and disruption of hydrogen bonding at the Ser mutation site, providing a structural basis of the OI disease resulting from the Gly-Ser mutation in the highly charged RGE environment. Both CD and NMR real-time folding results indicate that peptide ERSEQ displays a comparatively slower folding rate than peptide DRSER, suggesting that the Gly-Ser mutation may lead to a larger interference in folding than the natural interruption in a similar RSE context. Our studies suggest that unlike the rigid GPO environment, the abundant R(K)GE(D) motif may provide a more flexible sequence environment that better accommodates mutations as well as interruptions, while the electrostatic interactions contribute to its stability. These results shed insight into the molecular features of the highly charged motif and may aid the design of collagen biomimetic peptides containing important biological sites.

  11. Community mapping of sex work criminalization and violence: impacts on HIV treatment interruptions among marginalized women living with HIV in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Deering, Kathleen; Amram, Ofer; Guillemi, Silvia; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions. Analyses were restricted to 66 ART-exposed women who contributed 208 observations and 83 ART interruption events. In adjusted multivariable models, heightened density of displacement due to policing independently correlated with HIV treatment interruptions (AOR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.04); density of legal restrictions (AOR: 1.30, 95%CI: 0.97-1.76) and a combined measure of criminalization/violence (AOR: 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01) were marginally correlated. The social geography of sex work criminalization may undermine access to essential medicines, including HIV treatment. Interventions to promote 'enabling environments' (e.g. peer-led models, safer living/working spaces) should be explored, alongside policy reforms to ensure uninterrupted treatment access.

  12. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design and the Difference-in-Difference Design in Educational Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andrée; Zhu, Pei; Jacob, Robin; Bloom, Howard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the validity and precision of two nonexperimental study designs (NXDs) that can be used in educational evaluation: the comparative interrupted time series (CITS) design and the difference-in-difference (DD) design. In a CITS design, program impacts are evaluated by looking at whether the treatment group deviates from its…

  13. Honoring Counterstories: Utilizing Digital Storytelling in the Culturally Responsive Classroom to Investigate the Community Cultural Wealth and Resiliency of Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnography seeks to identify the strengths that students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE), a unique subpopulation of English Language Learners (ELLs), possess and explore how those strengths may be utilized in the secondary classroom. This research aims to shift the focus from "eliminating deficits" to working…

  14. 42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital. 412.531 Section 412.531 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL...

  15. [The comparative characteristics of the bone marrow cellular composition in rats after the prolonged continuous or interrupted action of a low geomagnetic field].

    PubMed

    Azarenko, V V; Smirnov, R V

    1992-01-01

    Bone marrow cell composition in male Wistar rats exposed to long-term continuous (Run 1) or interrupted (Run 2) hypo-geomagnetic field (HGMF) with an attenuation coefficient of 172.5 generating in a permalloic chamber has been studied. When comparing the rat myelograms of the two test runs, a significant increase of lymphoid cell content, less pronounced during an interrupted exposure to HGMF by 10.1 and 6.5%, respectively, was noted. Analysis of myeloid cell response indicated that on a continuous exposure to HGMF the percentage of neutrophilic promyelocytes and myelocytes is somewhat declined. The levels of mature relating to stab and nuclear-segmental neutrophils in bone marrow during both modes of HGMF exposures practically remained unchanged. A certain decrease in cell fractions of erythroblastic shoot (chiefly at the cost of polychromatophilic normocytes), to a lesser extent manifested during an interrupted exposure to HGMF (by 5.8 and 2.4%, respectively) was noted. Long-term exposure of the animals to a weak terrestrial magnetic field causes a particular eosinophilia of bone marrow due to an increased fraction of mature eosinophils approximately similar on both HGMF profiles (by 2.1 and 2.0% respectively). On an interrupted HGMF exposure there was a significant myelogram elevation of the mast cell counts by 1.4%.

  16. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by Verbenone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the ability of verbenone, a bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, to interrupt the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg / d at 25 oC reduced the attraction of Anisandr...

  17. The effect of high temperature interruptions during inductive period on the extent of flowering and on metabolic responses in olives (Olea europaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the duration of high temperature interruption and the timing of it’s occurrence during inductive period on the extent of inhibition of inflorescence production in ‘Arbequina’ olive trees was investigated. Trees kept under inductive conditions in different growth chambers were subjected...

  18. 20 CFR 1002.153 - If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, is the employee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, is the employee permitted upon request to use accrued vacation, annual or similar leave with pay during the service? Can the employer require the employee to use accrued leave during a period of service?...

  19. An Interrupted Time Series Analysis of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an Assessment of Rental Property Managers as Place Manager/Intimate Handler of Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehle, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    This research involves a legal impact study of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an assessment of State College Rental Property Managers in the role of place manager/intimate handler of offender. The impact of the Ordinance was assessed by employing an interrupted time series design which examined five years of pre-ordinance…

  20. The Use of Piecewise Growth Models to Estimate Learning Trajectories and RtI Instructional Effects in a Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvoch, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Piecewise growth models (PGMs) were used to estimate and model changes in the preliteracy skill development of kindergartners in a moderately sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. PGMs were applied to interrupted time-series (ITS) data that arose within the context of a response-to-intervention (RtI) instructional framework. During the…

  1. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  2. 47 CFR 64.1507 - Prohibition on disconnection or interruption of service for failure to remit pay-per-call and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... service for failure to remit pay-per-call and similar service charges. 64.1507 Section 64.1507... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1507 Prohibition on disconnection or interruption of service for failure to remit pay-per-call and similar...

  3. Oceanic Density Fronts Steering Bottom-Current Induced Sedimentation Deduced from a 50 ka Contourite-Drift Record and Numerical Modeling (off NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Zhang, W.; Hofmann, A. L.; Lowemark, L. A.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    How bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters remains widely speculative. The geological approach of this study uses a transect of sediment cores and sediment echosounder profiles across a whole contourite system off NW Spain. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep moat has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Past deposition was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: < 4 cal ka BP) led to slightly current-influenced deposition of fine-grained sediments (10 µm) over the entire basin. In contrast, waxing-and-waning high-energy conditions (D/O events during Marine Isotope Stage 3; the Deglacial/early Holocene time interval at 17-4 cal ka BP) resulted in coarse grained (70 µm) deposition. Process-based numerical modelling demonstrates that pulse-like oceanic density fronts travelling within the transition zone of two water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sand from the moat and to subsequent upward transport over the crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose a conceptual model to explain how seafloor obstacles redirect and perturbate bottom currents. This model proposes water mass transition zone as an important high-energy medium, for oceanic density fronts to travel. On the respective time scale, the moat itself seems to act as the main source for those sands, making a remote source and a long-distance sediment transport unnecessary.

  4. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary

    2010-08-01

    We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels <6.7 or <6.3 on days 5 or 7, respectively, the pH in the matched product stored in the 1.3 L container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation.

  5. Structured Treatment Interruptions and Low Doses of IL-2 in Patients with Primary HIV Infection. Inflammatory, Virological and Immunological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nicolás, David; Manzardo, Christian; Agüero, Fernando; Claramonte, Xavier; Plana, Montserrat; Tuset, Montserrat; Pumarola, Tomás; Gallart, Teresa; Gatell, José María; Miró, José María

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions during primary HIV infection (PHI) can modify the clinical course during the chronic phase. The long-term effect of structured treatment interruptions (STI) followed by low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in treated PHI patients is unknown. Methods Twelve PHI patients with viral load (VL) <20 copies/mL, CD4 cells >500 cells/mm3, and CD4/CD8 ratio >1, on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated within the first 90 days of infection and continued for at least 12 months were included. They underwent four STI and were then allocated (week 0 of the study) to ART alone or ART plus low doses of IL-2. ART was stopped once VL <20 copies/mL ('final stop'). Primary endpoints were VL<3000 copies/mL and CD4 cells >500 cells/mm3 at 48 weeks; secondary endpoints were immune activation, inflammatory markers until 48 weeks and the time before resuming ART (CD4 <350 cells/mm3 or AIDS) after ‘final stop’, compared between groups. Results Ten out of 12 patients were males, median age was 35 years and the main risk was men-who-have-sex-with-men. Only one out of 12 patients (in the STI group) maintained VL<3000 copies/mL and CD4 cells >500 cells/mm3 without ART at 48 weeks. All other virological and immunological parameters were comparable between groups at week 0, 'final stop' and week 48. However, the proportion of CD8-CD38+ cells, tumor necrosis factor and srIL-2 were higher in the IL-2 group at 'final stop' and week 24. All these differences vanished during follow-up. At 5 years after the final stop 3 out of 6 patients in the IL-2 group and 6 out of 6 patients in the STI group have resumed ART (P = 0.19). Conclusions STI and IL-2 failed to achieve virological control after ART interruption. STI were not deleterious in long-term follow-up, an important issue for eradication and functional cure trials. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02300623 PMID:26186440

  6. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease

  7. Peri-procedural interrupted oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation ablation: comparison of aspirin, warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban

    PubMed Central

    Winkle, Roger A.; Mead, R. Hardwin; Engel, Gregory; Kong, Melissa H.; Patrawala, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation ablation requires peri-procedural oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent thromboembolic events. There are several options for OAC. We evaluate peri-procedural AF ablation complications using a variety of peri-procedural OACs. Methods and results We examined peri-procedural OAC and groin, bleeding, and thromboembolic complications for 2334 consecutive AF ablations using open irrigated-tip radiofrequency (RF) catheters. Pre-ablation OAC was warfarin in 1113 (47.7%), dabigatran 426 (18.3%), rivaroxaban 187 (8.0%), aspirin 472 (20.2%), and none 136 (5.8%). Oral anticoagulation was always interrupted and intraprocedural anticoagulation was unfractionated heparin (activated clotting time, ACT = 237 ± 26 s). Pre- and post-OAC drugs were the same for 1591 (68.2%) and were different for 743 (31.8%). Following ablation, 693 (29.7%) were treated with dabigatran and 291 (12.5%) were treated with rivaroxaban. There were no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. Complications included 12 (0.51%) pericardial tamponades [no differences for dabigatran (P = 0.457) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.163) compared with warfarin], 12 (0.51%) groin complications [no differences for rivaroxaban (P = 0.709) and fewer for dabigatran (P = 0.041) compared with warfarin]. Only 5 of 2334 (0.21%) required blood transfusions. There were two strokes (0.086%) and no transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) in the first 48 h post-ablation. Three additional strokes (0.13%), and two TIAs (0.086%) occurred from 48 h to 30 days. Only one stroke had a residual deficit. Compared with warfarin, the neurologic event rate was not different for dabigatran (P = 0.684) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.612). Conclusion Using interrupted OAC, low target intraprocedural ACT, and irrigated-tip RF, the rate of peri-procedural groin, haemorrhagic, and thromboembolic complications was extremely low. There were only minimal differences between OACs. Low-risk patients may remain on aspirin

  8. Relationship between Regulatory T Cells and Immune Activation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients Interrupting Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Laurence; Piketty, Christophe; Assoumou, Lambert; Didier, Céline; Caccavelli, Laure; Donkova-Petrini, Vladimira; Levy, Yves; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Burgard, Marianne; Viard, Jean-Paul; Rouzioux, Christine; Costagliola, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Persistent immune activation plays a central role in driving Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease progression. Whether CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are harmful by suppressing HIV-specific immune responses and/or beneficial through a decrease in immune activation remains debatable. We analysed the relationship between proportion and number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immune activation in HIV-infected patients interrupting an effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Twenty-five patients were included in a substudy of a prospective multicenter trial of treatment interruption (TI) (ANRS 116). Proportions and numbers of Tregs and the proportion of activated CD4 and CD8 T cells were assessed at baseline and month 12 (M12) of TI. Specific anti-HIV CD4 and CD8 responses were investigated at baseline and M12. Non parametric univariate analyses and multivariate linear regression models were conducted. At baseline, the proportion of Tregs negatively correlated with the proportion of HLA-DR+CD8+T cells (r = −0.519). Following TI, the proportion of Tregs increased from 6.3% to 7.2% (p = 0.029); absolute numbers of Tregs decreased. The increase in the proportion of HLA-DR+CD38+CD8+T cells was significantly related to the increase in proportion of Tregs (p = 0.031). At M12, the proportion of Tregs did not negatively correlate with CD8 T-cell activation. Nevertheless, Tregs retain a suppressive function since depletion of Treg-containing CD4+CD25+ cells led to an increase in lymphoproliferative responses in most patients studied. Our data suggest that Tregs are efficient in controlling residual immune activation in patients with ART-mediated viral suppression. However, the insufficient increase in the proportion and/or the decrease in the absolute number of Tregs result in a failure to control immune activation following TI. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00118677 PMID:20657770

  9. Morphogenesis, Flowering, and Gene Expression of Dendranthema grandiflorum in Response to Shift in Light Quality of Night Interruption.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Gyeong; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-07-21

    The impact of shifts in the spectral quality of light on morphogenesis, flowering, and photoperiodic gene expression during exposure to light quality of night interruption (NI) was investigated in Dendranthema grandiflorum. The circadian rhythms of plants grown in a closed walk-in growth chamber were interrupted at night for a total of 4 h, using light-emitting diodes with an intensity of 10 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ PPF. The light quality of the NI was shifted from one wavelength to another after the first 2 h. Light treatments consisting of all possible pairings of blue (B), red (R), far-red (Fr), and white (W) light were tested. Plants in the NI treatment groups exposed to Fr light grew larger than plants in other treatment groups. Of plants in NI treatment groups, those in the NI-WB treatment grew the least. In addition, the impact of shifts in the light quality of NI on leaf expansion was greater in treatment groups exposed to a combination of either B and R or R and W light, regardless of their order of supply. Flowering was observed in the NI-RB, NI-FrR, NI-BFr, NI-FrB, NI-WB, NI-FrW, NI-WFr, NI-WR, and SD (short-day) treatments, and was especially promoted in the NI-BFr and NI-FrB treatments. In a combined shift treatment of B and R or B and W light, the NI concluded with B light (NI-RB and NI-WB) treatment induced flowering. The transcriptional factors phyA, cry1 and FTL (FLOWERING LOCUS T) were positively affected, while phyB and AFT were negatively affected. In conclusion, morphogenesis, flowering, and transcriptional factors were all significantly affected either positively or negatively by shifts in the light quality of NI. The light quality of the first 2 h of NI affected neither morphogenesis nor flowering, while the light quality of the last 2 h of NI significantly affected both morphogenesis and flowering.

  10. Electrical impedance tomography for assessing ventilation/perfusion mismatch for pulmonary embolism detection without interruptions in respiration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan Trang; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Barry, Michael A; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Jin, Craig; McEwan, Alistair L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown high correlation between pulmonary perfusion mapping with impedance contrast enhanced Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and standard perfusion imaging methods such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT). EIT has many advantages over standard imaging methods as it is highly portable and non-invasive. Contrast enhanced EIT uses hypertonic saline bolus instead of nephrotoxic contrast medium that are utilized by CT and nuclear Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) scans. However, current implementation of contrast enhanced EIT requires induction of an apnea period for perfusion measurement, rendering it disadvantageous compared with current gold standard imaging modalities. In the present paper, we propose the use of a wavelet denoising algorithm to separate perfusion signal from ventilation signal such that no interruption in patient's ventilation would be required. Furthermore, right lung to left lung perfusion ratio and ventilation ratio are proposed to assess the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion for detection of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The proposed methodology was validated on an ovine model (n=3, 83.7±7.7 kg) with artificially induced PE in the right lung. The results showed a difference in right lung to left lung perfusion ratio between baseline and diseased states in all cases with all paired t-tests between baseline and PE yielding p <; 0.01, while the right lung to left lung ventilation ratio remained unchanged in two out of three experiments. Statistics were pooled from multiple repetitions of measurements per experiment.

  11. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-04-01

    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn–Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation, so this migration was mostly caused by superheating of primary Ni3Sn2 phase below TP, leading to nucleation and migration of liquid film at this interface. This migration can be classified as a kind of liquid film migration (LFM), and the migration velocity at the horizontal direction has been confirmed to be much faster than that along the direction of temperature gradient. Analytical prediction has shown that the migration of liquid film could be divided into two stages depending on whether primary phase exists below TP. If the isothermal annealing time is not long enough, both the liquid film and the primary/peritectic interface migrate towards the primary phase until the superheated primary phase has all been dissolved. Then, this migration process towards higher temperature is controlled by temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM).

  12. Influences of Cross-Border Mobility on Tuberculosis Diagnoses and Treatment Interruption Among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Deiss, Robert; Garfein, Richard S.; Lozada, Remedios; Burgos, Jose Luis; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Moser, Kathleen S.; Zuniga, Maria Luisa; Rodwell, Timothy C.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify correlates of reported lifetime diagnoses of TB among injection drug users in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. Methods. Injection drug users in Tijuana were recruited into a prospective cohort study during 2006 and 2007. We used weighted multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of TB diagnoses. Results. Of the 1056 participants, 103 (9.8%) reported a history of TB, among whom 93% received anti-TB medication and 80% were diagnosed in the United States. Treatment was prematurely halted among 8% of patients; deportation from the United States was the cause of half of these treatment interruptions. History of travel to (odds ratio [OR] = 6.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.53, 27.20) or deportation from (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.12) the United States and incarceration (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.06, 4.58) were independently associated with a reported lifetime diagnosis of TB. Conclusions. Mobility and migration are important factors in identifying and treating TB patients diagnosed in the US–Mexico border region. Strengthening capacity on both sides of the border to identify, monitor, and treat TB is a priority. PMID:19542040

  13. Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a new tool to interrupt seizures after cortical injury

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Davidson, Thomas J.; Frechette, Eric S.; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrocortical injuries, such as stroke, are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, yet mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. Here we report in rats the first evidence that the thalamus – a structure remote from but connected to the injured cortex – is required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex undergo changes in HCN channel expression and become hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy demonstrates that reducing their activity in real-time is sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, since it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast to existing treatments such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

  14. Design and implementation of embedded un-interruptible power supply system (EUPSS) for web-based mobile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-gan; Zhang, Xiao-dan

    2012-11-01

    With the growth of the amount of information manipulated by embedded application systems, which are embedded into devices and offer access to the devices on the internet, the requirements of saving the information systemically is necessary so as to fulfil access from the client and the local processing more efficiently. For supporting mobile applications, a design and implementation solution of embedded un-interruptible power supply (UPS) system (in brief, EUPSS) is brought forward for long-distance monitoring and controlling of UPS based on Web. The implementation of system is based on ATmega161, RTL8019AS and Arm chips with TCP/IP protocol suite for communication. In the embedded UPS system, an embedded file system is designed and implemented which saves the data and index information on a serial EEPROM chip in a structured way and communicates with a microcontroller unit through I2C bus. By embedding the file system into UPS system or other information appliances, users can access and manipulate local data on the web client side. Embedded file system on chips will play a major role in the growth of IP networking. Based on our experiment tests, the mobile users can easily monitor and control UPS in different places of long-distance. The performance of EUPSS has satisfied the requirements of all kinds of Web-based mobile applications.

  15. SNP Profile within the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Reveals an Extreme and Interrupted Level of Nucleotide Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gaudieri, Silvana; Dawkins, Roger L.; Habara, Kaori; Kulski, Jerzy K.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is characterized by polymorphic multicopy gene families, such as HLA and MIC (PERB11); duplications; insertions and deletions (indels); and uneven rates of recombination. Polymorphisms at the antigen recognition sites of the HLA class I and II genes and at associated neutral sites have been attributed to balancing selection and a hitchhiking effect, respectively. We, and others, have previously shown that nucleotide diversity between MHC haplotypes at non-HLA sites is unusually high (>10%) and up to several times greater than elsewhere in the genome (0.08%–0.2%). We report here the most extensive analysis of nucleotide diversity within a continuous sequence in the genome. We constructed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profile that reveals a pattern of extreme but interrupted levels of nucleotide diversity by comparing a continuous sequence within haplotypes in three genomic subregions of the MHC. A comparison of several haplotypes within one of the genomic subregions containing the HLA-B and -C loci suggests that positive selection is operating over the whole subgenomic region, including HLA and non-HLA genes. [The sequence data for the multiple haplotype comparisons within the class I region have been submitted to DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession nos. AF029061, AF029062, and AB031005–AB031010. Additional sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ data library under accession nos. AB031005–AB03101 and AF029061–AF029062.] PMID:11042155

  16. Measurements and Modeling of Stress in Precipitation-Hardened Aluminum Alloy AA2618 during Gleeble Interrupted Quenching and Constrained Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobaut, Nicolas; Carron, Denis; Saelzle, Peter; Drezet, Jean-Marie

    2016-11-01

    Solutionizing and quenching are the key steps in the fabrication of heat-treatable aluminum parts such as AA2618 compressor impellers for turbochargers as they highly impact the mechanical characteristics of the product. In particular, quenching induces residual stresses that can cause unacceptable distortions during machining and unfavorable stresses in service. Predicting and controlling stress generation during quenching of large AA2618 forgings are therefore of particular interest. Since possible precipitation during quenching may affect the local yield strength of the material and thus impact the level of macroscale residual stresses, consideration of this phenomenon is required. A material model accounting for precipitation in a simple but realistic way is presented. Instead of modeling precipitation that occurs during quenching, the model parameters are identified using a limited number of tensile tests achieved after representative interrupted cooling paths in a Gleeble machine. This material model is presented, calibrated, and validated against constrained coolings in a Gleeble blocked-jaws configuration. Applications of this model are FE computations of stress generation during quenching of large AA2618 forgings for compressor impellers.

  17. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-01-01

    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn–Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation, so this migration was mostly caused by superheating of primary Ni3Sn2 phase below TP, leading to nucleation and migration of liquid film at this interface. This migration can be classified as a kind of liquid film migration (LFM), and the migration velocity at the horizontal direction has been confirmed to be much faster than that along the direction of temperature gradient. Analytical prediction has shown that the migration of liquid film could be divided into two stages depending on whether primary phase exists below TP. If the isothermal annealing time is not long enough, both the liquid film and the primary/peritectic interface migrate towards the primary phase until the superheated primary phase has all been dissolved. Then, this migration process towards higher temperature is controlled by temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM). PMID:27075006

  18. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Storey, Andrew P; Zeiri, Offer M; Ray, Steven J; Hieftje, Gary M

    2017-02-01

    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome from Infancy to Adulthood: Clinical, Hormonal, and Radiological Assessment According to the Initial Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Céline; Zadro, Charline; Diene, Gwenaelle; Oliver, Isabelle; Pienkowski, Catherine; Jouret, Béatrice; Cartault, Audrey; Ajaltouni, Zeina; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Sevely, Annick; Tauber, Maithé; Edouard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) are initially referred for hypoglycemia during the neonatal period or growth retardation during childhood. PSIS is either isolated (nonsyndromic) or associated with extra-pituitary malformations (syndromic). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and long-term evolution in patients with PSIS according to the initial presentation. Study Design Sixty-seven patients with PSIS were included. Data from subgroups were compared: neonates (n = 10) versus growth retardation patients (n = 47), and syndromic (n = 32) versus nonsyndromic patients (n = 35). Results Neonates displayed a more severe hormonal and radiological phenotype than children referred for growth retardation, with a higher incidence of multiple hormonal deficiencies (100% versus 34%; P = 0.0005) and a nonvisible anterior pituitary lobe (33% versus 2%; P = 0.0017). Regular follow-up of growth might have allowed earlier diagnosis in the children with growth retardation, as decreased growth velocity and growth retardation were present respectively 3 and 2 years before referral. We documented a progressive worsening of endocrine impairment throughout childhood in these patients. Presence of extra-pituitary malformations (found in 48%) was not associated with more severe hormonal and radiological characteristics. Growth under GH treatment was similar in the patient groups and did not vary according to the pituitary MRI findings. Conclusions PSIS diagnosed in the neonatal period has a particularly severe hormonal and radiological phenotype. The progressive worsening of endocrine impairment throughout childhood justifies periodic follow-up to check for additional hormonal deficiencies. PMID:26562670

  20. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Suzuki, M.; Hawkins, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if the