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Sample records for 50th percentile male

  1. Dosimetric impacts of microgravity: an analysis of 5th, 50th and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2012-02-01

    Computational phantoms serve an important role in organ dosimetry and risk assessment performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A previous study investigated the impact on organ dose equivalents and effective doses from the use of the University of Florida hybrid adult male (UFHADM) and adult female (UFHADF) phantoms at differing height and weight percentiles versus those given by the two existing NASA phantoms, the computerized anatomical man (CAM) and female (CAF) (Bahadori et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 1671-94). In the present study, the UFHADM and UFHADF phantoms of different body sizes were further altered to incorporate the effects of microgravity. Body self-shielding distributions are generated using the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT), and the results are combined with depth dose data from the NASA codes BRYNTRN and HZETRN to yield organ dose equivalents and their rates for a variety of space radiation environments. It is found that while organ dose equivalents are indeed altered by the physiological effects of microgravity, the magnitude of the change in overall risk (indicated by the effective dose) is minimal for the spectra and simplified shielding configurations considered. The results also indicate, however, that UFHADM and UFHADF could be useful in designing dose reduction strategies through optimized positioning of an astronaut during encounters with solar particle events.

  2. Thoracic response targets for a computational model: a hierarchical approach to assess the biofidelity of a 50th-percentile occupant male finite element model.

    PubMed

    Poulard, David; Kent, Richard W; Kindig, Matthew; Li, Zuoping; Subit, Damien

    2015-05-01

    Current finite element human thoracic models are typically evaluated against a limited set of loading conditions; this is believed to limit their capability to predict accurate responses. In this study, a 50th-percentile male finite element model (GHBMC v4.1) was assessed under various loading environments (antero-posterior rib bending, point loading of the denuded ribcage, omnidirectional pendulum impact and table top) through a correlation metric tool (CORA) based on linearly independent signals. The load cases were simulated with the GHBMC model and response corridors were developed from published experimental data. The model was found to be in close agreement with the experimental data both qualitatively and quantitatively (CORA ratings above 0.75) and the response of the thorax was overall deemed biofidelic. This study also provides relevant corridors and an objective rating framework that can be used for future evaluation of thoracic models. PMID:25681717

  3. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  4. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  5. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  6. Abdominal Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage for the 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile Males and Females in the Supine and Seated Posture using Multi-Modality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Ashley R.; Gayzik, F. Scott; Moreno, Daniel P.; Martin, R. Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use data from a multi-modality image set of males and females representing the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (n=6) to examine abdominal organ location, morphology, and rib coverage variations between supine and seated postures. Medical images were acquired from volunteers in three image modalities including Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and upright MRI (uMRI). A manual and semi-automated segmentation method was used to acquire data and a registration technique was employed to conduct a comparative analysis between abdominal organs (liver, spleen, and kidneys) in both postures. Location of abdominal organs, defined by center of gravity movement, varied between postures and was found to be significant (p=0.002 to p=0.04) in multiple directions for each organ. In addition, morphology changes, including compression and expansion, were seen in each organ as a result of postural changes. Rib coverage, defined as the projected area of the ribs onto the abdominal organs, was measured in frontal, lateral, and posterior projections, and also varied between postures. A significant change in rib coverage between postures was measured for the spleen and right kidney (p=0.03 and p=0.02). The results indicate that posture affects the location, morphology and rib coverage area of abdominal organs and these implications should be noted in computational modeling efforts focused on a seated posture. PMID:24406951

  7. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  8. Injury risk curves for the WorldSID 50th male dummy.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Audrey; Trosseille, Xavier; Petit, Philippe; Irwin, Annette; Hassan, Joe; Praxl, Norbert

    2009-11-01

    The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonised dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria). In 2008, the ACEA- Dummy Task Force (TFD) decided to contribute to this work and offered resources for a project manager to coordinate of the effort of a group of volunteer biomechanical experts from international institutions (ISO, EEVC, VRTC/NHTSA, JARI, Transport Canada), car manufacturers (ACEA, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Toyota, Chrysler) and universities (Wayne State University, Ohio State University, John Hopkins University, Medical College of Wisconsin) to develop harmonized injury risk curves. An in-depth literature review was conducted. All the available PMHS datasets were identified, the test configurations and the quality of the results were checked. Criteria were developed for inclusion or exclusion of PMHS tests in the development of the injury risk curves. Data were processed to account for differences in mass and age of the subjects. Finally, injury risk curves were developed using the following statistical techniques, the certainty method, the Mertz/Weber method, the

  9. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults

  10. Application of Radial Basis Function Methods in the Development of a 95th Percentile Male Seated FEA Model.

    PubMed

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-11-01

    Human body finite element models (FEMs) are a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. However, the traditional model development process can be time-consuming. Scaling and morphing an existing FEM is an attractive alternative for generating morphologically distinct models for further study. The objective of this work is to use a radial basis function to morph the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) to the body habitus of a 95th percentile male (M95) and to perform validation tests on the resulting model. The GHBMC M50 model (v. 4.3) was created using anthropometric and imaging data from a living subject representing a 50th percentile male. A similar dataset was collected from a 95th percentile male (22,067 total images) and was used in the morphing process. Homologous landmarks on the reference (M50) and target (M95) geometries, with the existing FE node locations (M50 model), were inputs to the morphing algorithm. The radial basis function was applied to morph the FE model. The model represented a mass of 103.3 kg and contained 2.2 million elements with 1.3 million nodes. Simulations of the M95 in seven loading scenarios were presented ranging from a chest pendulum impact to a lateral sled test. The morphed model matched anthropometric data to within a rootmean square difference of 4.4% while maintaining element quality commensurate to the M50 model and matching other anatomical ranges and targets. The simulation validation data matched experimental data well in most cases. PMID:26192960

  11. [World War II 50th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeniffer, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This edition of "Loblolly," a periodical published by Texas high school students, commemorates the 50th anniversary of World War II. The volume features remembrances of the War by veterans of Panola County, Texas. In addition to transcriptions of conversations with veterans, reproductions of photographs--some from the war period, some from more…

  12. 50th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a collection of 29 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 50th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 11-13 July 2001 at the Salt Lake City Marriott Hotel in Salt Lake City, Utah.

  13. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3(rd), 10(th), 25(th), 50(th), 75(th), 90(th), 97(th) percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26-42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  14. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26–42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  15. ESO 50th Anniversary Gala Dinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirey, R.

    2012-12-01

    To formally mark the 50th anniversary of the signing of the ESO Convention, a gala dinner was held in the Munich Residenz. A brief report of the event is presented and the speeches are reproduced. The speakers were the President of the Council, Xavier Barcons; the German Minister for Education and Research, Prof. Dr Annette Schavan; the Bavarian State Minister for Science, Research and the Arts, Dr Wolfgang Heubisch; physics Nobel Laureate, Brian Schmidt; the current Director General, Tim de Zeeuw and the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Alfredo Moreno Charme.

  16. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  17. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were

  18. 76 FR 26923 - 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 76 Monday, No. 89 May 9, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8668--50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 89 / Monday, May 9, 2011 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ]...

  19. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

  20. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined. PMID:17096277

  1. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-04-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  2. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-05-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  3. The Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer: a 50th birthday tribute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthill, Peter G.

    2014-07-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary since the first scientific measurements were produced with the Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer, which was constructed in the early 1960's by Robert Hanbury Brown and Richard Twiss. A collaboration between the Universities of Sydney and Manchester, the interferometer was the culmination of a series of experiments which pioneered the technique of intensity interferometry. The immediate controversy surrounding the quantum implications of the technique enveloped some of the most eminent physicists of the day, sparking a debate about nonlocal effects and optical coherence. A full explanation of the workings of the intensity interferometer in a quantum context was finally put forward by Roy Glauber, ultimately earning him the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics. The intensity interferometer rekindled the field of high resolution stellar imaging, which had been extinguished for a half century (following the failure of Pease's 50-foot beam on Mt Wilson), while delivering the first ever measurements of the sizes of normal stars - establishing an effective temperature scaling relationship which has underpinned stellar astronomy for 50 years. This directly paved the way for the next generation of Michelson Stellar Interferometers. Intensity interferometry itself has found application in several fields (notably particle physics), and plans are in active development for modern reprises within stellar interferometry. However undoubtedly the greatest legacy lies in the Hanbury Brown Twiss (HBT) effect being the foundational experiment for what is now known as Quantum Optics - a field which underpins a huge sector of the technology which enables our modern world. This invited review discuses the development of the interferometer, including the controversy that its underlying principles generated within the contemporary physics community. The core scientific output generated by the instrument is presented, together with the impact of the

  4. AFTI/F-16 50th flight team photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An early (1983) photograph of the AFTI F-16 team, commemorating the aircraft's 50th flight. It shows the initial configuration and paint finish of the AFTI F-16, as well as the forward mounted canards and the spin chute. During the 1980s and 1990s, NASA and the U.S. Air Force participated in a joint program to integrate and demonstrate new avionics technologies to improve close air support capabilities in next-generation aircraft. The testbed aircraft, seen here in flight over the desert at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was called the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16. The tests demonstrated technologies to improve navigation and the pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. The aircraft--an F-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial #75-0750)--underwent numerous modifications. A relatively low-cost testbed, it evaluated the feasability of advanced, intergrated-sensor, avionics, and flight control technologies. During the first phase of the AFTI/F-16 program, which began in 1983, the aircraft demonstrated voice-actuated commands, helmet-mounted sights, flat turns, and selective fuselage pointing using forward-mounted canards and a triplex digital flight control computer system. The second phase of research, which began in the summer of 1991, demonstrated advanced technologies and capabilities to find and destroy ground targets day or night, and in adverse weather while using maneuverability and speed at low altitude. This phase was known as the close air support and battlefield air interdiction (CAS/BAI) phase. Finally, the aircraft was used to assess the Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto - GCAS), a joint project with the Swedish Government. For these tests, the pilot flew the aircraft directly toward the ground, simulating a total loss of control. The GCAS was designed to take command in such emergencies and bring the aircraft back to level flight. The AFTI F

  5. Urinary iodine percentile ranges in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie Porat; Soldin, Steven J.; Pezzullo, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The status of iodine nutrition of a population can be determined by measurement of urinary iodine concentrations since it is thought to indicate dietary iodine intake. Normally, these results are compared to population-based criteria, since there are no reference ranges for urinary iodine. Objective To determine the percentile ranges for urinary iodide (UI) concentrations in normal individuals in the United States. Materials and methods The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988–1994) database of the civilian, non-institutionalized, iodine-sufficient US population was used. The 2.5th to 97.5th percentile ranges for urinary iodine and for urinary iodine per gram creatinine ratio (UI/Cr) (μg/g) were calculated for females and males, 6–89 years of age, each stratified by age groups. Results and conclusions We calculated the percentile ranges for urinary iodine. After exclusions of subjects with goiter or thyroid disease, the study sample included 21,530 subjects; 10,439 males and 11,091 females. For women of childbearing age (14–44 years), urinary iodine concentration 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles are 1.8–65 μg/dl or 36–539 μg/g creatinine. For pregnant women, the ranges are 4.2–55 μg/dl or 33–535 μg/g creatinine. PMID:12559616

  6. 75 FR 33995 - Safety Zone; Michigan Orthopaedic Society 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan Orthopaedic Society 50th... Society 50th Anniversary Fireworks display, June 19, 2010. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... vessels during the setup and launching of fireworks in conjunction with the Michigan Orthopaedic...

  7. 50th Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (Scottsdale, Arizona, December 2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V., Ed.; Schallert, Diane L., Ed.; Fairbanks, Colleen M., Ed.; Worthy, Jo, Ed.; Maloch, Beth, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    At the 2000 conference in Scottsdale, Arizona, the National Reading Conference celebrated its 50th anniversary, and with this issue, the editors offer to the readership the "50th Yearbook" of the conference. This Yearbook begins with a preface and presents profiles of two awardees, Lee Gunderson and Michael Pressley. Included in this Yearbook are…

  8. 3 CFR 8668 - Proclamation 8668 of May 3, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8668 of May 3, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides 8668 Proclamation 8668 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8668 of May 3, 2011 Proc. 8668 50th Anniversary of the Freedom RidesBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Fifty years ago,...

  9. 3 CFR 8631 - Proclamation 8631 of February 28, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the Peace Corps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8631 of February 28, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the Peace Corps 8631 Proclamation 8631 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8631 of February 28, 2011 Proc. 8631 50th Anniversary of the Peace CorpsBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In...

  10. 75 FR 29658 - Safety Zone; America's Discount Tire 50th Anniversary, Fireworks Display, South Lake Tahoe, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Discount Tire 50th Anniversary... support of America's Discount Tire 50th Anniversary Fireworks Display. This safety zone is established to... Discount Tire will sponsor their 50th Anniversary Celebration Fireworks Display on July 11 and 13, 2010,...

  11. 3 CFR 8829 - Proclamation 8829 of May 25, 2012. Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War 8829 Proclamation 8829 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8829 of May 25, 2012 Proc. 8829 Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam WarBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As we observe the 50th anniversary of the...

  12. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper.

  13. 78 FR 53235 - 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-21189 Filed 8-27-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9004 of August 23, 2013 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs... remember that the March on Washington was a demonstration for jobs as well as freedom. The coalition...

  14. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long... is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity... all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately after the...

  15. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during,...

  16. Frontiers: Research Highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1996-01-01

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  17. Frontiers: Research highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  18. Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the "Merrill-Palmer Quarterly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    The academic year 2004-2005 marks the 50th anniversary of the "Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: A Journal of Developmental Psychology." This occasion provides an opportunity to celebrate the journal's heritage, its long history of scholarly contributions to the human developmental sciences, and its current and future mission as a purveyor of scientific…

  19. The State of the World's Children, 1996 (50th Anniversary Issue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This special issue of "The State of the World's Children" marks the 50th anniversary year of UNICEF and its work on behalf of children. Chapter 1 examines how wars and civil conflicts are taking an enormous toll on children. The chapter outlines a proposed anti-war agenda as a vital step to prevent and alleviate the suffering of children in armed…

  20. Digest of Education Statistics 2014, 50th Edition. NCES 2016-006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas D.; de Brey, Cristobal; Dillow, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 50th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The Digest has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American…

  1. 3 CFR 8613 - Proclamation 8613 of December 6, 2010. 50th Anniversary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8613 of December 6, 2010. 50th Anniversary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 8613 Proclamation 8613 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8613 of December 6, 2010 Proc. 8613 50th Anniversary of the Arctic National Wildlife RefugeBy the President of the United States...

  2. 77 FR 21893 - Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary Celebration Fireworks, St Mary's River, U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting, but you may.... 165.T09-0200 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0200 Safety Zone International Bridge 50th...

  3. Highlights from the 50th Seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon; Dong, Seok Ho

    2014-01-01

    The July issue of Clinical Endoscopy deals with selected articles covering the state-of-the-art lectures delivered during the 50th seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 30, 2014, highlighting educational contents pertaining to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, which contain fundamental and essential points in GI endoscopy. KSGE is very proud of its seminar, which has been presented twice a year for the last 25 years, and hosted more than 3,500 participants at the current meeting. KSGE seminar is positioned as one of premier state-of-the-art seminars for endoscopy, covering topics for novice endoscopists and advanced experts, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The 50th KSGE seminar consists of more than 20 sessions, including a single special lecture, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. Nine articles were selected from these prestigious lectures, and invited for publication in this special issue. This introductory review, prepared by the editors of Clinical Endoscopy, highlights core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized topic sessions, including live demonstrations and hands-on courses. PMID:25133113

  4. Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in

  5. Alternative Statistical Frameworks for Student Growth Percentile Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; Castellano, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests two alternative statistical approaches for estimating student growth percentiles (SGP). The first is to estimate percentile ranks of current test scores conditional on past test scores directly, by modeling the conditional cumulative distribution functions, rather than indirectly through quantile regressions. This would…

  6. 50th Year Anniversary of Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University.

    PubMed

    Lertakyamanee, Jariya

    2016-05-01

    Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, has started to be a formal anesthesia division, divided from division of Surgery in 1965; hence our 50th year anniversary in 2015. Research is now a priority and mandatory mission, according to the vision of Mahidol University. Second mission is to teach and train, and we produce the highest number of states-of-the-art anesthesiologists and anesthetic nurses each year Curriculum and training are being continuously improved. From a small unit, now it is one of the largest departments and extends the service, our third mission, to more than only in the operating theaters. We look after pre-anesthesia assessment, inside and outside operating room anesthesia, post-operative pain relief Intensive Care Unit, and chronic pain management. The number of patients and their diseases increase; so do the complexities of surgeries. There are tremendous changes in drugs and equipment. There is the fourth mission on administration, IT and resource management. And the fifth mission which is corporate social responsibility. However, we still believe that compassion, responsibility and integrity are most important. We have taught and tried to live by the teaching of HRH the King's Father. And these will contribute to our progress and shine in the next 50 years. PMID:27501620

  7. 77 FR 33094 - Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary Celebration Fireworks, St. Mary's River, U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary..., Sault Sainte Marie, MI; in the Federal Register (77 FR 21893). We received 1 public submission... Locks, Sault Sainte Marie, MI; in the Federal Register (76 FR 22064). We received 1 public...

  8. Symposium--Perspectives on Motivation for Second Language Learning on the 50th Anniversary of Gardner & Lambert (1959)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    With the 50th anniversary of Robert C. Gardner and Wallace Lambert's seminal paper "Motivational variables in second language acquisition" (Gardner & Lambert 1959), we paused to reflect on the contributions the work has inspired and the state of the art in the study of motivation research.

  9. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  10. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  11. NRAO Salutes Past, Looks to Future In 50th-Anniversary Science Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    Radio telescopes now in operation or under construction will be indispensible to scientists wrestling with the big, unanswered questions of 21st-Century astrophysics. That was the conclusion of a wide-ranging scientific meeting held in Charlottesville, Virginia, June 18-21, to mark the 50th anniversary of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). 1957 Dedication Dedication of NRAO, 17 October 1957. Left to right: R.M. Emberson, L.V. Berkner, G.A. Nay, J.W. Findlay (seated in front of 140ft telescope model), N.L. Ashton, D.S. Heeschen, H. Hockenberry. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on Image for Larger File ALMA Artist's conception of completed ALMA. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/ESO Click on Image for Larger File (2.4 MB) Nearly 200 scientists from around the world heard presentations about the frontiers of astrophysics and how the challenges at those frontiers will be met. In specialties as disparate as seeking the nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that is speeding the Universe's expansion to unraveling the details of how stars and planets are formed, more than 70 presenters looked toward future research breakthroughs. "NRAO's telescopes have made landmark contributions to the vast explosion of astronomical knowledge of the past half- century, and we look eagerly to making even more important contributions in the coming decades," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO's director. Over the four days of the meeting, discussions ranged from recollections of radio astronomy's pioneering days of vacuum-tube equipment and paper chart recorders to the design of telescopes that will produce amounts of data that will strain today's computers. Presenters pointed out that, in the coming decades, radio telescope observations will advance not only astronomy but also fields of basic physics such as gravitational radiation, particle physics, and the fundamental physical constants. "This meeting provided a great overview of where astrophysics stands today and where the challenges and opportunities of

  12. The 50th Anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J.

    2013-12-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) that was held at Purdue University on 11-15 November 1963. The conference was a historic event in that it brought together for the first time the leading researchers and practitioners from North America and other countries that had diverse interests and activities in the study and applications of perennially frozen ground, cold regions engineering and related laboratory investigations. The 285 registered participants represented engineers, researchers, manufacturers and builders from the USA (231), Canada (42), the USSR (5), Sweden (3) and Argentina, Austria, Great Britain, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and West Germany. The conference was organized by the Building Research Advisory Board of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC). The carefully edited volume, published in 1966 by the NAS, is considered to be the first multi-national, English-language collection of papers devoted entirely to permafrost topics. The 100 published papers followed closely the actual conference venue and panel discussions: soils and vegetation (9), massive ground ice (10), geomorphology (16), phase equilibrium and transition (8), thermal aspects (8), physico-mechanical properties (7), exploration and site selection (11), sanitary and hydraulic engineering (14), and earthwork and foundations (17). This 1963 Purdue conference essentially broke the 'ice' between East and West permafrost researchers and set the stage for the Second ICOP that was held in 1973 in Yakutsk, Siberia, and represented the first large international conference held in the restricted area of Siberia. All subsequent conferences maintained the interdisciplinary principles set forth at Purdue: two more in the United States (Fairbanks 1983, 2008), two in Canada (Edmonton 1978, Yellowknife 1998), and one in Trondheim, Norway (1988), Beijing, China (1993), and Zurich, Switzerland (2003

  13. Percentile Curves for Anthropometric Measures for Canadian Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kuhle, Stefan; Maguire, Bryan; Ata, Nicole; Hamilton, David

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to assess a child's weight status but it does not provide information about the distribution of body fat. Since the disease risks associated with obesity are related to the amount and distribution of body fat, measures that assess visceral or subcutaneous fat, such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), or skinfolds thickness may be more suitable. The objective of this study was to develop percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and sum of 5 skinfolds (SF5) in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The analysis used data from 4115 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age that participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 were measured using standardized procedures. Age- and sex-specific centiles were calculated using the LMS method and the percentiles that intersect the adult cutpoints for BMI, WC, and WHtR at age 18 years were determined. Percentile curves for all measures showed an upward shift compared to curves from the pre-obesity epidemic era. The adult cutoffs for overweight and obesity corresponded to the 72nd and 91st percentile, respectively, for both sexes. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The percentile curves presented are meant to be descriptive rather than prescriptive as associations with cardiovascular disease markers or outcomes were not assessed. PMID:26176769

  14. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  15. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Kyoung; Jang, Hye Lim; Kang, Byung Ho; Lee, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Yong-Sung; Shim, Kye Shik; Lim, Jae Woo; Bae, Chong-Woo; Chung, Sung-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010-2012), smoothed percentile curves (3(rd)-97(th)) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22-23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  16. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2005-06-01

    To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men.

  17. Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may…

  18. Punching Wholes into Parts, or Beating the Percentile Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carwile, Nancy R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a facetious, ingenious resolution to the percentile dilemma concerning above- and below-average test scores. If schools enrolled the same number of pigs as students and tested both groups, the pigs would fill up the bottom half and all children would rank in the top 50 percent. However, some wrinkles need to be ironed out! (MLH)

  19. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  20. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cinthya Lee; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Torres, Jose Sulla; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  1. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... position incapable of seating a 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572... torso of the 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart E, fitted... percentile female Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart O is positioned according to...

  2. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... position incapable of seating a 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572... torso of the 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart E, fitted... percentile female Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart O is positioned according to...

  3. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions. PMID:22444086

  4. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  5. The 50th Anniversary of the International Indian Ocean Expedition: An Update on Current Planning Efforts and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Raleigh; D'Adamo, Nick; Burkill, Peter; Urban, Ed; Bhikajee, Mitrasen

    2014-05-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. In the 50 years since the IIOE three fundamental changes have taken place in ocean science. The first is the deployment of a broad suite of oceanographic sensors on satellites that have dramatically improved the characterization of both physical and biological oceanographic variability. The second is the emergence of new components of the ocean observing system, most notably remote sensing and Argo floats. And the third is the development of ocean modeling in all its facets from short-term forecasting to seasonal prediction to climate projections. These advances have revolutionized our understanding of the global oceans, including the Indian Ocean. Compared to the IIOE era, we now have the capacity to provide a much more integrated picture of the Indian Ocean, especially if these new technologies can be combined with targeted and well-coordinated in situ measurements. In this presentation we report on current efforts to motivate an IIOE 50th Anniversary Celebration (IIOE-2). We envision this IIOE-2 as a 5-year expedition and effort beginning in 2015 and continuing through to 2020. An important objective of our planning efforts is assessing ongoing and planned research activities in the Indian Ocean in the 2015 to 2020 time frame, with the goal of embracing and

  6. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-01-01

    female phantoms were further developed from the 50th percentile phantoms through adjustments in the body contour to match the total body masses given in CDC pediatric growth curves. The resulting six NURBS phantoms, male and female phantoms representing their 10th, 50th, and 90th weight percentiles, were used to investigate the influence of body fat distributions on internal organ doses following CT imaging. The phantoms were exposed to multislice chest and abdomen helical CT scans, and in-field organ absorbed doses were calculated. The results demonstrated that the use of traditional stylized phantoms yielded organ dose estimates that deviate from those given by the UF reference hybrid phantoms by up to a factor of 2. The study also showed that use of reference, or 50th percentile, phantoms to assess organ doses in underweight 15-year-old children would not lead to significant organ dose errors (typically less than 10%). However, more significant errors were noted (up to ∼30%) when reference phantoms are used to represent overweight children in CT imaging dosimetry. These errors are expected to only further increase as one considers CT organ doses in overweight and obese individuals of the adult patient population, thus emphasizing the advantages of patient-sculptable phantom technology. PMID:18649470

  7. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-06-15

    female phantoms were further developed from the 50th percentile phantoms through adjustments in the body contour to match the total body masses given in CDC pediatric growth curves. The resulting six NURBS phantoms, male and female phantoms representing their 10th, 50th, and 90th weight percentiles, were used to investigate the influence of body fat distributions on internal organ doses following CT imaging. The phantoms were exposed to multislice chest and abdomen helical CT scans, and in-field organ absorbed doses were calculated. The results demonstrated that the use of traditional stylized phantoms yielded organ dose estimates that deviate from those given by the UF reference hybrid phantoms by up to a factor of 2. The study also showed that use of reference, or 50th percentile, phantoms to assess organ doses in underweight 15-year-old children would not lead to significant organ dose errors (typically less than 10%). However, more significant errors were noted (up to {approx}30%) when reference phantoms are used to represent overweight children in CT imaging dosimetry. These errors are expected to only further increase as one considers CT organ doses in overweight and obese individuals of the adult patient population, thus emphasizing the advantages of patient-sculptable phantom technology.

  8. Binorm-a fortran subroutine to calculate the percentiles of a standardized binormal distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCammon, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    BINORM is a FORTRAN subroutine for calculating the percentiles of a standardized binormal distribution. By using a linear transformation, the percentiles of a binormal distribution can be obtained. The percentiles of a binormal distribution are useful for plotting purposes, for establishing confidence intervals, and for sampling from a mixed population that consists of two normal distributions. ?? 1977.

  9. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  10. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  11. 50th Anniversary of the first successful permanent pacemaker implantation in the United States: historical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Beck, Hiroko; Boden, William E; Patibandla, Sushmitha; Kireyev, Dmitriy; Gutpa, Vipul; Campagna, Franklin; Cain, Michael E; Marine, Joseph E

    2010-09-15

    June 2010 marks the 50th anniversary of the first successful human cardiac pacemaker implantation in the United States. On June 6, 1960, in Buffalo, New York, Dr. William Chardack implanted a pacemaker, designed and built by Wilson Greatbatch, an electrical engineer and inventor, in a 77-year old man with complete atrioventricular block, extending the patient's life by 18 months. This landmark event ushered in a new era of implantable cardiac pacemakers with batteries and leads of high reliability and increasing durability. Over the past half century, the field of electrophysiology and implantable devices for the management of cardiac conduction disturbances has evolved dramatically. Today's pacemakers include increasingly complex features such as telemetry monitoring, auto programmability, and hemodynamic sensors. New-generation leads present a sophisticated design with improved geometry and steroid-eluting tips to reduce chronic inflammation, maintaining a low pacing threshold and high sensing capability. The lithium iodide battery remains the mainstay of implantable pacemaker systems, exhibiting a multiple-year lifespan, slow terminal decay, and a reduced size and cost of production. Although Greatbatch's first successful pacemaker implantation remains a seminal scientific contribution to modern cardiovascular disease management, emerging developments in this field may challenge its preeminence. Important challenges such as imaging compatibility, lead durability, and infection prevention are being addressed. Novel concepts such as leadless and biologic pacing are under active investigation. In conclusion, Greatbatch's historic achievement 50 years ago reminds us that technologic progress is timeless, as efforts to enhance clinical outcomes and the quality of life continue unimpeded into the 21st century. PMID:21391322

  12. Educating Black Librarians. Papers from the 50th Anniversary Celebration of the School of Library and Information Sciences, North Carolina Central University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speller, Benjamin F., Jr., Ed.

    This document assembles 16 papers given at a 1989 symposium in honor of the 50th anniversary of the School of Library and Information Sciences at North Carolina Central University, Durham (NCCU). The papers examine the past, present, and future of the participation of African Americans in the field of library and information service. Titles…

  13. The Long Good-Bye: Why B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" Is Alive and Well on the 50th Anniversary of Its Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    The year 2007 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", a book that by Skinner's own account was his most important. The received view, however, is that a devastating review by a young linguist not only rendered Skinner's interpretation of language moot but was also a major factor in ending the hegemony…

  14. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch…

  15. MABAHISS/John Murray 50th Anniversary: Marine Science of the North West Indian Ocean and Adjacent Waters. Report of a Symposium on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the MABAHISS/John Murray Expedition (1933/34) (Alexandria, Egypt, September 3-7, 1983). Unesco Reports in Marine Science, No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    An international symposium was convened to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the John Murray Expedition to the Indian Ocean on board the Egyptian research vessel Mabahiss (1933-1934). This report describes the symposium and provides abstracts and syntheses of the papers presented in the various marine scientific disciplines covering the areas of…

  16. Hypothesis Testing of Population Percentiles via the Wald Test with Bootstrap Variance Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, William D.; Romer, Jacob E.

    2016-01-01

    Testing the equality of percentiles (quantiles) between populations is an effective method for robust, nonparametric comparison, especially when the distributions are asymmetric or irregularly shaped. Unlike global nonparametric tests for homogeneity such as the Kolmogorv-Smirnov test, testing the equality of a set of percentiles (i.e., a percentile profile) yields an estimate of the location and extent of the differences between the populations along the entire domain. The Wald test using bootstrap estimates of variance of the order statistics provides a unified method for hypothesis testing of functions of the population percentiles. Simulation studies are conducted to show performance of the method under various scenarios and to give suggestions on its use. Several examples are given to illustrate some useful applications to real data. PMID:27034909

  17. Shaping in the 21st century: Moving percentile schedules into applied settings

    PubMed Central

    Galbicka, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    The present paper provides a primer on percentile reinforcement schedules, which have been used for two decades to study response differentiation and shaping in the laboratory. Arranged in applied settings, percentile procedures could be used to specify response criteria, standardizing treatment across subjects, trainers, and times to provide a more consistent training environment while maintaining the sensitivity to the individual's repertoire that is the hallmark of shaping. Percentile schedules are also valuable tools in analyzing the variables of which responding is a function, both inside and outside the laboratory. Finally, by formalizing the rules of shaping, percentile schedules provide a useful heuristic of the processes involved in shaping behavior, even for those situations that may not easily permit their implementation. As such, they may help further sensitize trainers and researchers alike to variables of critical importance in behavior change. ImagesFigure 6 PMID:16795849

  18. Comparison of daily percentiles of streamflow and rainfall to investigate stream aquifer connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, Ross S.; Hostetler, Stephen; Slatter, Emily

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA frequency analysis approach was used to investigate the hydraulic connectivity between streams and aquifers, by comparing daily percentiles of streamflow and rainfall. Three Australian streams were examined - a dominantly gaining stream (Wilsons River, NSW), a dominantly gaining stream modified by significant water extraction (Ovens River, Victoria) and a dominantly losing stream (Mooki River, NSW). For the gaining stream examples, a lag is observed between the seasonal peak in the low-flow percentile curves and the seasonal peak in the daily rainfall percentile curve. Cross-correlation was used to calculate the time-shift that provides the best fit between the streamflow and rainfall percentile curves. There is a good correlation ( r2 > 0.8) between the reference rainfall percentile curve and the shifted streamflow percentile curves for gaining streams. The lags evident between the rainfall and streamflow percentile curves represent the processes of first replenishing catchment storages (such as soil moisture and groundwater) and subsequent release to the stream. This is largely a function of catchment hydrogeology as well as climate, notably the magnitude and regularity of rainfall events. Catchment size is not a controlling factor. Analysis of these lags provides insights into the dynamics of groundwater recharge, storage and release. Changes in the lag times over the flow percentiles can reflect changes in the dominant catchment storage contributing to streamflow. For the Wilsons River, the contribution from a groundwater system with longer flow paths increases at lower flow percentiles. This can be critical when protecting minimum streamflows, as near-stream groundwater flow may not be the only determining factor. The impact of water extraction can be recognised in this analysis. For the Ovens River, streamflow deficits relative to the rainfall percentile curve correspond to the summer period of high irrigation demand. Such a deficit was also observed

  19. Analysis of extreme top event frequency percentiles based on fast probability integration

    SciTech Connect

    Staple, B.; Haskin, F.E.

    1993-10-01

    In risk assessments, a primary objective is to determine the frequency with which a collection of initiating and basic events, E{sub e} leads to some undesired top event, T. Uncertainties in the occurrence rates, x{sub t}, assigned to the initiating and basic events cause uncertainty in the top event frequency, z{sub T}. The quantification of the uncertainty in z{sub T} is an essential part of risk assessment called uncertainty analysis. In the past, it has been difficult to evaluate the extreme percentiles of output variables like z{sub T}. Analytic methods such as the method of moments do not provide estimates of output percentiles and the Monte Carlo (MC) method can be used to estimate extreme output percentiles only by resorting to large sample sizes. A promising altemative to these methods is the fast probability integration (FPI) methods. These methods approximate the integrals of multi-variate functions, representing percentiles of interest, without recourse to multi-dimensional numerical integration. FPI methods give precise results and have been demonstrated to be more efficient than MC methods for estimating extreme output percentiles. FPI allows the analyst to choose extreme percentiles of interest and perform sensitivity analyses in those regions. Such analyses can provide valuable insights as to the events driving the top event frequency response in extreme probability regions. In this paper, FPI methods are adapted a) to precisely estimate extreme top event frequency percentiles and b) to allow the quantification of sensitivity measures at these extreme percentiles. In addition, the relative precision and efficiency of alternative methods for treating lognormally distributed inputs is investigated. The methodology is applied to the top event frequency expression for the dominant accident sequence from a risk assessment of Grand Gulf nuclear power plant.

  20. Summary of the Workshop on Molten Salt Reactor Technologies Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Startup of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Mays, Gary T

    2016-01-01

    A workshop on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) technologies commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on October 15 16, 2015. The MSRE represented a pioneering experiment that demonstrated an advanced reactor technology: the molten salt eutectic-fueled reactor. A multinational group of more than 130 individuals representing a diverse set of stakeholders gathered to discuss the historical, current, and future technical challenges and paths to deployment of MSR technology. This paper provides a summary of the key messages from this workshop.

  1. The dawn of open heart surgery: an overview of the symposium that celebrated the 50th anniversary of controlled cross circulation.

    PubMed

    DeWall, Richard

    2005-01-01

    At the 50th Anniversary of Open Heart Surgery symposium sponsored by the Lillehei Heart Institute of the University of Minnesota in October 2004, the following pioneers in open heart surgery development presented papers of historical interest: Drs. Peter Agre, Robert W. Anderson, William Baumgartner, Alain Carpentier, Aldo Casteneda, Randolph Chitwood, Jr., Denton Cooley, Fred Crawford, Michael DeBakey, Richard DeWall, Vincent Gott, Claude Lenfant, Floyd Loop, James Holler, Glen Nelson, Norman Shumway, Manny Villafana, Richard Weisel, and Sir Magdi Yacoub. PMID:16106145

  2. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623

  3. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one. PMID:23225621

  4. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. PMID:26880623

  5. A report from the European Association for the Study of the Liver's 50th International Liver Congress (April 22-26 - Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2015-04-01

    While Vienna's Prater park offers a varied selection of options, from theme parks to lush gardens and prairies to enjoy the sun, the nearby Messe Wien convention center was the focus of attention in April 2015 for all the scientists, researchers and clinicians interested in viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma and a variety of other liver diseases. Treatments and potential new therapeutic strategies for these hepatopathies were discussed during the 50th International Liver Congress organized by the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Echoing epidemiological facts and a high social interest for hepatitis C virus infection, new findings with investigational and potential new therapies for the disease centered much of the attention at the conference. Nevertheless, new research was also reported related to potential improvements in how other liver diseases, particularly hepatitis B virus infection, hepatocellular carcinoma and a range of inflammatory and immune-mediated liver diseases, including rare hereditary diseases that should never be forgotten. PMID:26020068

  6. Introduction to the special issue: 50th anniversary of APA Division 28: The past, present, and future of psychopharmacology and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Sigmon, Stacey C; Evans, Suzette M

    2016-08-01

    This is an introduction to the special issue "50th Anniversary of APA Division 28: The Past, Present, and Future of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse." Taken together, the scholarly contributions included in this special issue serve as a testament to the important work conducted by our colleagues over the past five decades. Division 28 and its members have advanced and disseminated knowledge on the behavioral effects of drugs, informed efforts to prevent and treat substance abuse, and influenced education and policy issues more generally. As past and current leaders of the division, we are excited to celebrate 50 years of Division 28 and look forward to many more successful decades for our division and its members. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454671

  7. Problems with Percentiles: Student Growth Scores in New York's Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Drew

    2016-01-01

    New York State has used the Growth Model for Educator Evaluation ratings since the 2011-2012 school year. Since that time, student growth percentiles have been used as the basis for teacher and principal ratings. While a great deal has been written about the use of student test scores to measures educator effectiveness, less attention has been…

  8. Percentile Norms for the AAHPER Cooperative Physical Education Tests. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Allan G.

    Percentile scores for Vancouver students in grades 9, 10, 11 and 12 on the AAHPER Cooperative Physical Education Tests are presented. Two of the six forms of the tests were used in these administrations. Every form consists of 60 multiple-choice questions to be completed in 40 minutes. A single score, based on the number of questions answered…

  9. Can Percentiles Replace Raw Scores in the Statistical Analysis of Test Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2005-01-01

    Educational and psychological testing textbooks typically warn of the inappropriateness of performing arithmetic operations and statistical analysis on percentiles instead of raw scores. This seems inconsistent with the well-established finding that transforming scores to ranks and using nonparametric methods often improves the validity and power…

  10. A Comparison of Growth Percentile and Value-Added Models of Teacher Performance. Working Paper #39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and state departments of education frequently must choose between a variety of methods to estimating teacher quality. This paper examines under what circumstances the decision between estimators of teacher quality is important. We examine estimates derived from student growth percentile measures and estimates derived from commonly…

  11. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks' gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks' gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks' gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  12. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks’ gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks’ gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks’ gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks’ gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  13. AGE AND GENDER SPECIFIC BMI PERCENTILES ARE LIMITED FOR TRACKING THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...

  14. Student Growth Percentiles Based on MIRT: Implications of Calibrated Projection. CRESST Report 842

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li; Choi, Kilchan

    2014-01-01

    This research concerns a new proposal for calculating student growth percentiles (SGP, Betebenner, 2009). In Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is used to estimate the SGPs. However, measurement error in the score estimates, which always exists in practice, leads to bias in the QR-­based estimates (Shang, 2012). One way to address this…

  15. Risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hispanic Youth with BMI > or = 95th percentile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To characterize children at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to explore possible mechanisms underlying the development of NAFLD in Hispanic youth with a body mass index > or =95th percentile. Hispanic nonoverweight (n = 475) and overweight (n = 517) children, ages 4 to 19 y, wer...

  16. User Guide for the 2014-15 Teacher Median Student Growth Percentile Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    On March 22, 2016, the New Jersey Department of Education ("the Department") published a broadcast memo sharing secure district access to 2014-15 median Student Growth Percentile (mSGP) data for all qualifying teachers. These data describe student growth from the last school year, and comprise 10% of qualifying teachers' 2014-15…

  17. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  18. EDITORIAL: 50th anniversary issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddoe, Alun H.

    2006-07-01

    In July 1956, 50 years ago, the first issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) was published. It was subtitled The Journal of the Hospital Physicists' Association and published in association with the Philosophical Magazine by Taylor and Francis. Subscriptions were £1 per part or £3 10s for an annual subscription. The Editor, Professor J E Roberts, prefaced the first issue with a cautious editorial noting: The appearance of a new journal is usually greeted with mixed feelings by scientific workers, a common response being that there are far too many journals already. Justification for a new publication is only possible if there is a clearly defined gap in the publishing facilities available to workers in a particular scientific field.... Professor Roberts ended by seeking support from the scientific community for the new venture. He certainly got it! From a tentative few hundred pages in four issues a year for the first few years, the journal is now issued twice monthly with nearly 8000 pages expected in volume 51. In this anniversary issue we have invited some 28 senior authors to submit papers on a range of subjects spanning the discipline. We decided that to be an author one had to be old, but age was not to be the only criterion! Indeed readers will recognize all names as major contributors to both the development of medical physics and the success of PMB. Authors were not asked to write formal topical reviews of the state-of-the-art of the sub-disciplines which make up medical physics, but rather to present short historical reviews, didactic in style, perhaps highlighting the role of PMB in the development of their fields. Nevertheless, other than a page limit (which many subsequently ignored!) no formal format was imposed on authors, so what follows is a range of contributions from the almost conversational, personal statement to the more formal and familiar scientific paper. Whatever the writing style we are confident that readers will gain some appreciation of the development of our wide-ranging discipline over the last half century. Some readers may feel that one or two subjects have not been represented, and for that I can only apologise. We did ask for contributions to several other topics (for example radiation metrology and optical techniques) but inevitably there were authors who for various reasons were unable to meet the deadline. Inevitably we will also have missed contributions from excellent potential authors (who satisfied the age criterion!). As Guest Editor I must bear the responsibility for those omissions. While page limits do not permit me to discuss the contributions to this issue individually I would like to mention the first contribution by Dr J E (Bob) Burns. Dr Burns was on the Editorial Board in the early sixties working with the second Editor, Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat. Both in his article and in personal communications Dr Burns has emphasized the important role of Professor Rotblat in the early years. I did write to Professor Rotblat seeking a contribution from him but, sadly, received a reply saying that he was not well enough to contribute `at present'; he died a few weeks later at the age of 96 years (please refer to www.pugwash.org for tributes from Mikhail Gorbachev, Kofi Annan and many others). Dr Burns wrote a short note to me shortly after his death including the following comment which is reproduced below: Although many people have contributed to the success of PMB over the last 50 years it was Rotblat's restless energy, power of persuasion and already existing fame (he was well known both scientifically and to the public at the time) that enabled him to rescue the journal from an early death. After discussions with colleagues around the UK, including Dr Burns, and with the Editorial Board, we all felt that it would be highly appropriate to dedicate this anniversary issue to the memory of Professor Rotblat. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOP) took over the publishing of PMB in 1972, firstly on behalf of the Hospital Physicists' Association and then on behalf of the I

  19. 50th Anniversary: Freedom 7

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard was propelled into space aboard the Mercury capsule Freedom 7. His 15-minute suborbital flight was part of Project Mercury, the United States' first man-in-space progra...

  20. A portrait of the C4 photosynthetic family on the 50th anniversary of its discovery: species number, evolutionary lineages, and Hall of Fame.

    PubMed

    Sage, Rowan F

    2016-07-01

    Fifty years ago, the C4 photosynthetic pathway was first characterized. In the subsequent five decades, much has been learned about C4 plants, such that it is now possible to place nearly all C4 species into their respective evolutionary lineages. Sixty-one independent lineages of C4 photosynthesis are identified, with additional, ancillary C4 origins possible in 12 of these principal lineages. The lineages produced ~8100 C4 species (5044 grasses, 1322 sedges, and 1777 eudicots). Using midpoints of stem and crown node dates in their respective phylogenies, the oldest and most speciose C4 lineage is the grass lineage Chloridoideae, estimated to be near 30 million years old. Most C4 lineages are estimated to be younger than 15 million years. Older C4 lineages tend to be more speciose, while those younger than 7 million years have <43 species each. To further highlight C4 photosynthesis for a 50th anniversary snapshot, a Hall of Fame comprised of the 40 most significant C4 species is presented. Over the next 50 years, preservation of the Earth's C4 diversity is a concern, largely because of habitat loss due to elevated CO2 effects, invasive species, and expanded agricultural activities. Ironically, some members of the C4 Hall of Fame are leading threats to the natural C4 flora due to their association with human activities on landscapes where most C4 plants occur. PMID:27053721

  1. Statewide Analysis of the Drainage-Area Ratio Method for 34 Streamflow Percentile Ranges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio

  2. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  3. Estimated monthly percentile discharges at ungaged sites in the Upper Yellowstone River Basin in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Once-monthly streamflow measurements were used to estimate selected percentile discharges on flow-duration curves of monthly mean discharge for 40 ungaged stream sites in the upper Yellowstone River basin in Montana. The estimation technique was a modification of the concurrent-discharge method previously described and used by H.C. Riggs to estimate annual mean discharge. The modified technique is based on the relationship of various mean seasonal discharges to the required discharges on the flow-duration curves. The mean seasonal discharges are estimated from the monthly streamflow measurements, and the percentile discharges are calculated from regression equations. The regression equations, developed from streamflow record at nine gaging stations, indicated a significant log-linear relationship between mean seasonal discharge and various percentile discharges. The technique was tested at two discontinued streamflow-gaging stations; the differences between estimated monthly discharges and those determined from the discharge record ranged from -31 to +27 percent at one site and from -14 to +85 percent at the other. The estimates at one site were unbiased, and the estimates at the other site were consistently larger than the recorded values. Based on the test results, the probable average error of the technique was + or - 30 percent for the 21 sites measured during the first year of the program and + or - 50 percent for the 19 sites measured during the second year. (USGS)

  4. Establishing percentiles for junior tennis players based on physical fitness testing results.

    PubMed

    Roetert, E P; Piorkowski, P A; Woods, R B; Brown, S W

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of this study was the establishment of a data base. A broad data base allows for data on certain parameters to be greatly expanded and will also enhance the use and interpretation of statistical methods. A longitudinal study of these variables may also assist in monitoring the players' progress over a period of time, and can provide a useful supplement to subjective coaching appraisals. The means and standard deviation for each test were calculated according to the USTA age and gender groups, that is, 12s, 14s, and 16s for each separate gender. Additionally, the mean and standard deviations for the ages, heights, and weights of each grouping were also calculated. Once the means and standard deviations were calculated, percentile tables were developed for each of the USTA groupings (by age and gender). The percentiles for each USTA test are presented in Appendix 1. A percentile is defined as the point on the distribution below which a given percentage of the scores is found. Percentiles can provide a norm-referenced interpretation of an individual score within a distribution that often consists of scores from a comparable group of individuals. Using the USTA protocol, players and coaches now have a set of normative data by which individual player's fitness scores may be compared with participants of the USTA Area Training Centers (See appendix 1). From the test results, coaches and players can determine which fitness areas need to be improved for athletes on an individual basis. Specific training programs can then be designed based on an athlete's fitness testing results. Proper interpretation of the USTA fitness testing data base results can lead to an easy way to determine the relative position of a given fitness score in the distribution, recognizing weaker areas for the purpose of injury prevention and performance enhancement. Each player can be given a profile detailing their percentile rank relative to other area training center

  5. 49 CFR 572.5 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 50th Percentile Male § 572... motion and also under crash impact conditions there is no contact between metallic elements except...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part...

  7. 49 CFR 572.5 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 50th Percentile Male § 572... motion and also under crash impact conditions there is no contact between metallic elements except...

  8. 49 CFR 572.5 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 50th Percentile Male § 572... motion and also under crash impact conditions there is no contact between metallic elements except...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App....

  10. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App....

  12. Rural Sociology: The Wisconsin Contribution, Current Status and Future Directions. Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Symposium of the Department of Rural Sociology, University of Wisconsin (Madison, Wisconsin, May 8-9, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Papers presented at a symposium commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Department of Rural Sociology of the University of Wisconsin-Madison are collected in this volume. The first four papers--by Olaf Larson, Edward Moe, Daryl Hobbs, and Robert Gard--discuss the department's history, emphasizing the contributions of outstanding…

  13. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  14. A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS SCORING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE OR BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURRY, JOHN

    IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF A CUT-OFF SCORE FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT NORTH TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCORES OF 1,346 STUDENTS WHO EITHER PLACED ABOVE THE 80TH PERCENTILE (N-672) OR BELOW THE 20TH PERCENTILE (N-674) ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING WERE…

  15. Percentile-based Empirical Distribution Function Estimates for Performance Evaluation of Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Susan M.; Louis, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates. PMID:21918583

  16. Ensemble hydrological prediction of streamflow percentile at ungauged basins in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-06-01

    Streamflow records with sufficient spatial and temporal coverage at the site of interest are usually scarce in Pakistan. As an alternative, various regional methods have been frequently adopted to derive hydrological information, which in essence attempt to transfer hydrological information from gauged to ungauged catchments. In this study, a new concept of ensemble hydrological prediction (EHP) was introduced which is an improved regional method for hydrological prediction at ungauged sites. It was mainly based on the performance weights (triple-connection weights (TCW)) derived from Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and hydrological variable (here percentiles) calculated from three traditional regional transfer methods (RTMs) with suitable modification (i.e., three-step drainage area ratio (DAR) method, inverse distance weighting (IDW) method, and three-step regional regression analysis (RRA)). The overall results indicated that the proposed EHP method was robust for estimating hydrological percentiles at ungauged sites as compared to traditional individual RTMs. The comparative study based on NSE, percent bias (PBIAS) and the relative error (RE) as performance criteria resulted that the EHP is a constructive alternative for hydrological prediction of ungauged basins.

  17. Validation of the global reference for fetal weight and birth weight percentiles.

    PubMed

    Badade, Anirudh B; Bhide, Amar; Satoskar, Purnima; Wadekar, Darshan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference curves fit the population in India and to validate the reference curves. The data were retrieved retrospectively from the records of women registration for antenatal care at a charitable maternity hospital in Mumbai, India. All pregnancies were dated on CRL obtained before 14 weeks. Births before 34(th) week were excluded. The expected frequencies of birth weights below the 1(st), 5(th), 10(th), 50(th), 90(th), 95(th) and 99(th) centiles from three reference ranges were compared with observed frequencies. It was found that the WHO generic reference adapted to India significantly underpredicted the birth weights and that the Hadlock reference ranges significantly overpredicted the birth weights. The use of generic reference adapted to Sri Lanka showed a better fit to the observed data. We concluded that global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference ranges do not fit all the population in India and the charts need validation. Reference charts modified on the basis of data for Sri Lankan population show a better fit to the observed data, and therefore are more appropriate for use in clinical practice in South India. PMID:24347860

  18. State disparities in time trends of adolescent body mass index percentile and weight-related behaviors in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to whether youth obesity prevalence has reached a plateau in the United States overall. Trends vary by state, and experts recommend exploring whether trends in weight-related behaviors are associated with changes in weight status trends. Thus, our objective was to estimate between-state variation in time trends of adolescent body mass index (BMI) percentile and weight-related behaviors from 2001 to 2007. A time series design combined cross-sectional Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 272,044 adolescents in 29 states from 2001 to 2007. Self-reported height, weight, sports participation, physical education, television viewing, and daily consumption of 100% fruit juice, milk, and fruits and vegetables were collected. Linear mixed models estimated state variance in time trends of behaviors and BMI percentile. Across states, BMI percentile trends were consistent despite differences in behavioral trends. Boys experienced a modest linear increase in BMI percentile (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.30); girls experienced a non-linear increase, as the rate of increase declined over time from 1.02 units in 2001-2002 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.36) to 0.23 units in 2006-2007 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.56). States in which BMI percentile decreased experienced a greater decrease in TV viewing than states where BMI percentile increased. Otherwise, states with disparate BMI percentile trends did not differ with respect to behaviors. Future research should explore the role of other behaviors (e.g., soda consumption), measurement units (e.g., portion size), and societal trends (e.g., urban sprawl) on state and national adiposity trends. PMID:21773818

  19. Percentile Ranking and Citation Impact of a Large Cohort of NHLBI-funded Cardiovascular R01 Grants

    PubMed Central

    Danthi, Narasimhan; Wu, Colin O.; Shi, Peibei; Lauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Funding decisions for cardiovascular R01 grant applications at NHLBI largely hinge on percentile rankings. It is not known whether this approach enables the highest impact science. Objective To conduct an observational analysis of percentile rankings and bibliometric outcomes for a contemporary set of funded NHLBI cardiovascular R01 grants. Methods and results We identified 1492 investigator-initiated de novo R01 grant applications that were funded between 2001 and 2008, and followed their progress for linked publications and citations to those publications. Our co-primary endpoints were citations received per million dollars of funding, citations obtained within 2-years of publication, and 2-year citations for each grant’s maximally cited paper. In 7654 grant-years of funding that generated $3004 million of total NIH awards, the portfolio yielded 16,793 publications that appeared between 2001 and 2012 (median per grant 8, 25th and 75th percentiles 4 and 14, range 0 – 123), which received 2,224,255 citations (median per grant 1048, 25th and 75th percentiles 492 and 1,932, range 0 – 16,295). We found no association between percentile ranking and citation metrics; the absence of association persisted even after accounting for calendar time, grant duration, number of grants acknowledged per paper, number of authors per paper, early investigator status, human versus non-human focus, and institutional funding. An exploratory machine-learning analysis suggested that grants with the very best percentile rankings did yield more maximally cited papers. Conclusions In a large cohort of NHLBI-funded cardiovascular R01 grants, we were unable to find a monotonic association between better percentile ranking and higher scientific impact as assessed by citation metrics. PMID:24406983

  20. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  1. Analysis of the Stability of Teacher-Level Growth Scores from the Student Growth Percentile Model. REL 2016-104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Andrea; Makkonen, Reino; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study, undertaken at the request of the Nevada Department of Education, examined the stability over years of teacher-level growth scores from the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) model, which many states and districts have selected as a measure of effectiveness in their teacher evaluation systems. The authors conducted a generalizability study…

  2. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2009-01-01

    Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

  3. The Association of Weight Percentile and Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Among 3 to 8 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Nelson, Kyle A.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of age-appropriate child restraint systems significantly reduces injury and death associated with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic. Although recent evidence suggests a possible association between pediatric obesity and MVC-related injury, there are potential misclassifications of body mass index from under-estimated height in younger children. Given this limitation, age- and sex-specific weight percentiles can be used as a proxy of weight status. The specific aim of this study was to determine the association between weight percentile and the risk of significant injury for children 3–8 years in MVCs. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 3–8 years in MVCs in 16 US states, with data collected via insurance claims records and a telephone survey from 12/1/98–11/30/07. Parent-reported injuries with an abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2+ indicated a clinically significant injury. Age- and sex-specific weight percentiles were calculated using pediatric norms. The study sample included 9,327 children aged 3–8 years (weighted to represent 157,878 children), of which 0.96% sustained clinically significant injuries. There was no association between weight percentiles and overall injury when adjusting for restraint type (p=0.71). However, increasing weight percentiles were associated with lower extremity injuries at a level that approached significance (p=0.053). Further research is necessary to describe mechanisms for weight-related differences in injury risk. Parents should continue to properly restrain their children in accordance with published guidelines. PMID:21050602

  4. 75 FR 59674 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities, Side...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). For access to the docket to read background documents or comments... percentile adult female and a 50th percentile adult male and enhanced injury criteria. \\1\\ 72 FR 51908, September 11, 2007; response to petitions for reconsideration, 73 FR 32473, June 9, 2003; 75 FR 12123,...

  5. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  6. 50th anniversary of the laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, M.

    2010-09-01

    On July, 7, 1960 a press conference at Huyghes announced that Maiman had assembled and put into operation the first laser. It was the very pulsed ruby laser that everybody knows today. The announcement came as a bomb. Nobody expected that in an unknown laboratory, new to the race to build a laser, this result could be obtained. It was such an unexpected result that many still today mantain that the true laser was discovered at Bell by Shawlow. This result was achieved through a long story which passed by the Townes maser and many tentative experiments and discussions both in the USA and Soviet Union. In this special issue we present a collection of papers which provide further information as to what happened after Einstein introduced the concept of stimulated emission. The first paper is a short paper by Townes on the development of the physics of microwaves following the creation of the maser. When the laser came on the stage one of its properties was the inherent coherence of the emitted light. Emil Wolf's contribution enlights the early days of coherence to which he so much contributed and the very timely first Rochester Conference which was held on June 27-29, 1960 a few days before the Times announcement of the Maiman achievement. Important contributions were given by Soviet Scientists and, Svetlana Lukishova's contributions helps us understand the work of Valentin Fabrikant which was mostly unknown to western scientists. At the end of his life, Maiman went to Vancouver in Canada and Andrew H. Rawicz gives his testimoniancy of his friendship there. Coherence and the statistical properties of laser light were much studied and we have two exceptional papers by Roy Pike and Jan Perina discussing these arguments. The issue also contains three more papers presenting some earlier achievements in the construction of multiquantumwell laser (M. L. Dotor, P. Huertas, P. A. Postigo, D. Golmayo and F. Briones), the first measurements on very short pulses (H. P. Weber and R. Dandliker) and spatial coherence (D. P. Barato and M. L. Calvo).

  7. 50th anniversary of the word "allosteric".

    PubMed

    Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2011-07-01

    A brief historical account on the origin and meaning of the word "allosteric" is presented. The word was coined in an attempt to qualify the chemical mechanism of the feedback inhibition of bacterial enzymes by regulatory ligands. The data lead to the proposal that, at variance with the classical mechanism of mutual exclusion by steric hindrance, the inhibition takes place through an "allosteric" interaction between "no overlapping", stereospecifically distinct, sites for substrate and feedback inhibitor, mediated by a discrete reversible alteration of the molecular structure of the protein. PMID:21574197

  8. Seasonal to decadal forcing of high water level percentiles in the German Bight throughout the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Mudersbach, Christoph; Jensen, Jürgen; Anette, Ganske; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2013-05-01

    For the purpose of coastal planning and management, especially under changing climatic conditions, enhanced knowledge about the evolution of extreme sea levels in the past, present, and future is required. This paper presents statistical analyses of high seasonal water level percentiles of 13 tide gauges in the German Bight, spanning over a period of up to 109 years throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Seasonal and annual high percentile time series of water levels were investigated in comparison to the mean sea level (MSL) for changes on seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal timescales. While throughout the first half of the twentieth century extreme water levels generally followed changes in MSL, during the second half of the century, linear extreme sea level trends exceeded those in MSL in the order of 9-64 cm per century. The largest, although insignificant, contribution to the magnitude of these trends occurs in the winter season (January to March), while smaller but, due to the generally lower atmospheric variability, significant changes are observed during spring (April to June). The observed multi-decadal trends are generally in good agreement with multi-decadal trends in the corresponding percentiles of local zonal surface winds. Only small parts of the trends remain unexplained. It is suggested that these remaining trends result from modifications in the local tidal regime. For the aspects of coastal planning, the findings clarify that in the German Bight, in addition to changes in MSL, potential changes in storminess and in the tidal regime significantly contribute to the development of extreme water levels. Since these factors have influenced the characteristic of extremes throughout the recent past, they also have to be taken into account when estimating design water levels for, e.g., dikes (in a warming climate) under changing greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Genomics in personalized cancer medicine and its impact on early drug development in China: report from the 6th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at the 50th ASCO Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Hou, Li-Fang; Yan, Li; Tong, Yun-Guang

    2014-08-01

    The 6th Annual Meeting of the United States Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) was held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) on May 30, 2014 in Chicago, Illinois, the United States of America. With a focus on personalized medicine, the conference featured novel approaches to investigate genomic aberrations in cancer cells and innovative clinical trial designs to expedite cancer drug development in biomarker-defined patient populations. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing development of personalized cancer medicines in China. The conference also summarized USCACA key initiatives and accomplishments, including two awards designated to recognize young investigators from China for their achievements and to support their training in the United States. As an effort to promote international collaboration, USCACA will team up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session on "Breakthrough Cancer Medicines" at the upcoming CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. PMID:25096543

  10. The 2014 Surgeon General's report: commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the 1964 Report of the Advisory Committee to the US Surgeon General and updating the evidence on the health consequences of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Shopland, Donald R; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-02-15

    The question of whether cigarette smoking was associated with lung cancer was central to the expansion of epidemiology into the study of chronic diseases in the 1950s. The culmination of this era was the 1964 report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General, a landmark document that included an objective synthesis of the evidence of the health consequences of smoking according to causal criteria. The report concluded that cigarette smoking was a cause of lung cancer in men and sufficient in scope that "remedial action" was warranted at the societal level. The 2014 Surgeon General's report commemorates the 50th anniversary of the 1964 report. The evidence on the health consequences of smoking has been updated many times in Surgeon General's reports since 1964. These have summarized our increasingly greater understanding of the broad spectrum of the deleterious health effects of exposure to tobacco smoke across most major organ systems. In turn, this evidence has been translated into tobacco control strategies implemented to protect the public's health. The Surgeon General report process is an enduring example of evidence-based public health in practice. Substantial progress has been made, but cigarette smoking remains one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. PMID:24436362

  11. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  12. Birth Weight Ratio as an Alternative to Birth Weight Percentile to Express Infant Weight in Research and Clinical Practice: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P  0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

  13. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY? If the sperm contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms ... receptacle) on the end of it (to collect semen), place the condom against the top of the ...

  14. Head Impact Exposure in Male and Female Collegiate Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Flashman, Laura A.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify head impact exposure (frequency, location and magnitude of head impacts) for individual male and female collegiate ice hockey players and to investigate differences in exposure by sex, player position, session type, and team. Ninety-nine (41 male, 58 female) players were enrolled and 37,411 impacts were recorded over three seasons. Frequency of impacts varied significantly by sex (males: 287 per season, females: 170, p<0.001) and helmet impact location (p<0.001), but not by player position (p=0.088). Head impact frequency also varied by session type; both male and female players sustained more impacts in games than in practices (p<0.001), however the magnitude of impacts did not differ between session types. There was no difference in 95th percentile peak linear acceleration between sexes (males: 41.6g, females: 40.8g), but 95th percentile peak rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were greater for males than females (4424, 3409 rad/s2, and 25.6, 22.3, respectively). Impacts to the back of the helmet resulted in the greatest 95th percentile peak linear accelerations for males (45.2g) and females (50.4g), while impacts to the side and back of the head were associated with the greatest 95th percentile peak rotational accelerations (males: 4719, 4256 rad/sec2, females: 3567, 3784 rad/sec2 respectively). It has been proposed that reducing an individual’s head impact exposure is a practical approach for reducing the risk of brain injuries. Strategies to decrease an individual athlete’s exposure need to be sport and gender specific, with considerations for team and session type. PMID:24210478

  15. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification. PMID:27023153

  16. RPI-AM and RPI-AF, a pair of mesh-based, size-adjustable adult male and female computational phantoms using ICRP-89 parameters and their calculations for organ doses from monoenergetic photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juying; Hum Na, Yong; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a pair of adult male and adult female computational phantoms that are compatible with anatomical parameters for the 50th percentile population as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The phantoms were designed entirely using polygonal mesh surfaces—a Boundary REPresentation (BREP) geometry that affords the ability to efficiently deform the shape and size of individual organs, as well as the body posture. A set of surface mesh models, from Anatomium™ 3D P1 V2.0, including 140 organs (out of 500 available) was adopted to supply the basic anatomical representation at the organ level. The organ masses were carefully adjusted to agree within 0.5% relative error with the reference values provided in the ICRP Publication 89. The finalized phantoms have been designated the RPI adult male (RPI-AM) and adult female (RPI-AF) phantoms. For the purposes of organ dose calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code, these phantoms were subsequently converted to voxel formats. Monoenergetic photons between 10 keV and 10 MeV in six standard external photon source geometries were considered in this study: four parallel beams (anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral and right lateral), one rotational and one isotropic. The results are tabulated as fluence-to-organ-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients and fluence-to-effective-dose conversion coefficients and compared against those derived from the ICRP computational phantoms, REX and REGINA. A general agreement was found for the effective dose from these two sets of phantoms for photon energies greater than about 300 keV. However, for low-energy photons and certain individual organs, the absorbed doses exhibit profound differences due to specific anatomical features. For example, the position of the arms affects the dose to the lung by more than 20% below 300 keV in the lateral source directions, and the vertical position of the testes

  17. RPI-AM and RPI-AF, a pair of mesh-based, size-adjustable adult male and female computational phantoms using ICRP-89 parameters and their calculations for organ doses from monoenergetic photon beams

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juying; Na, Yong Hum; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a pair of adult male and adult female computational phantoms that are compatible with anatomical parameters for the 50th percentile population as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The phantoms were designed entirely using polygonal mesh surfaces—a Boundary REPresentation (BREP) geometry that affords the ability to efficiently deform the shape and size of individual organs, as well as the body posture. A set of surface mesh models, from Anatomium™ 3D P1 V2.0, including 140 organs (out of 500 available) was adopted to supply the basic anatomical representation at the organ level. The organ masses were carefully adjusted to agree within 0.5% relative error with the reference values provided in the ICRP Publication 89. The finalized phantoms have been designated the RPI adult male (RPI-AM) and adult female (RPI-AF) phantoms. For the purposes of organ dose calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code, these phantoms were subsequently converted to voxel formats. Monoenergetic photons between 10 keV and 10 MeV in six standard external photon source geometries were considered in this study: four parallel beams (anterior–posterior, posterior–anterior, left lateral and right lateral), one rotational and one isotropic. The results are tabulated as fluence-to-organ-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients and fluence-to-effective-dose conversion coefficients and compared against those derived from the ICRP computational phantoms, REX and REGINA. A general agreement was found for the effective dose from these two sets of phantoms for photon energies greater than about 300 keV. However, for low-energy photons and certain individual organs, the absorbed doses exhibit profound differences due to specific anatomical features. For example, the position of the arms affects the dose to the lung by more than 20% below 300 keV in the lateral source directions, and the vertical position of the testes

  18. Male Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk. PMID:22877433

  19. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: On the 50th anniversary of the L F Vereshchagin Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS (Scientific outreach session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stishov, S. M.; Khvostantsev, L. G.; Slesarev, V. N.; Popova, S. V.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Dyuzheva, T. I.; Dzhavadov, L. N.; Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Stepanov, G. N.; Timofeev, Yu A.; Dizhur, E. M.; Venttsel, V. A.; Voronovskii, A. N.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Barabanov, A. F.; Magnitskaya, M. V.; Tareeva, E. E.

    2008-10-01

    A scientific outreach session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on 23 April 2008 at the Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region. The session was devoted to the 50th anniversary of the Institute. The following reports were presented: (1) Stishov S M (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "The Institute for High Pressure Physics is now 50 (opening address)"; (2) Khvostantsev L G and Slesarev V N (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Large-volume high-pressure devices for physical investigations"; (3) Popova S V, Brazhkin V V and Dyuzheva T I (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Structural phase transitions in highly compressed substances and the synthesis of high-pressure phases"; (4) Dzhavadov L N, Gromnitskaya E L, Stepanov G N and Timofeev Yu A (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Studies of the thermodynamic, elastic, superconducting, and magnetic properties of substances at high pressures"; (5) Dizhur E M, Venttsel V A and Voronovskii A N (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region), "Quantum transport at high pressures"; (6) Ryzhov V N, Barabanov A F, Magnitskaya M V and Tareyeva E E (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Theoretical studies of condensed matter"; (7) Bugakov V I, Antanovich A A, Konyaev Yu S and Slesarev V N (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Designing new construction and superhard materials and related tools." An abridged version of reports 1 -6 is presented below. • The Institute for High Pressure Physics is now 50 (opening address), Stishov S M Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 10, Pages 1055-1059 • Large-volume high-pressure devices for physical investigations, Khvostantsev L G and Slesarev V N Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 10, Pages 1059

  20. The Nature of Field Independence: Percentiles and Factor Structure of the Finding Embedded Figures Test--Research Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Janet G.; Thompson, Bruce

    This study investigated the nature of field independence by exploring the structure underlying responses to Forms A and B of a multiple-choice measure of field-independence, the Finding Embedded Figures Test (FEFT). Subjects included 302 students (52.7% male) enrolled in mathematics courses at a university in the southern United States. Students…

  1. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  2. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  3. 78 FR 69943 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Q3s 3-Year-Old Child Side Impact Test Dummy, Incorporation by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical issues: Peter... of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) which NHTSA published on May 2, 2002, 67 FR 21836. In early 2002... Hybrid II 50th percentile male ATD was proposed (40 FR 33466, August 8, 1975). Since then, the agency...

  4. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.40...

  5. 49 CFR 572.5 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General description. 572.5 Section 572.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 50th Percentile Male § 572.5 General description. (a) The...

  6. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at the Department of Transportation, Docket... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials...

  7. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following...

  8. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at the Department of Transportation, Docket... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials...

  9. 49 CFR 572.11 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.11 Section 572.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 50th Percentile Male § 572.11 Test conditions...

  10. 49 CFR 572.11 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.11 Section 572.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 50th Percentile Male § 572.11 Test conditions...

  11. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 572.110 Section 572.110 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male...

  12. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following...

  13. Preliminary anthropometric data of medical students for equipment applications.

    PubMed

    Sutjana, I Dewa Putu; Sutajaya, M; Purnawati, Susy; Adiatmika, P; Tunas, K; Suardana, Ery; Swamardika, I B A

    2008-06-01

    Forty-six measurements were measured on 127 medical students (60 males and 67 females) in Indonesia by using the traditional anthropometric methods. The means, standard deviations and, 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values were calculated and presented. PMID:19157159

  14. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  15. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  16. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  17. Association of percentile ranking with citation impact and productivity in a large cohort of de novo NIMH-funded R01 grants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J M; Quinn, K; Bodenstein, Y A; Wu, C O; Danthi, N; Lauer, M S

    2015-09-01

    Previous reports from National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation have suggested that peer review scores of funded grants bear no association with grant citation impact and productivity. This lack of association, if true, may be particularly concerning during times of increasing competition for increasingly limited funds. We analyzed the citation impact and productivity for 1755 de novo investigator-initiated R01 grants funded for at least 2 years by National Institute of Mental Health between 2000 and 2009. Consistent with previous reports, we found no association between grant percentile ranking and subsequent productivity and citation impact, even after accounting for subject categories, years of publication, duration and amounts of funding, as well as a number of investigator-specific measures. Prior investigator funding and academic productivity were moderately strong predictors of grant citation impact. PMID:26033238

  18. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  19. PARASITIC INFECTIONS: IS MALE AND FEMALE DIFFERENCE FOR ANEMIA AND GROWTH RETARDATION EVIDENT?

    PubMed

    Safar, Hebatalla H; Eldash, Hanaa H

    2015-12-01

    Parasitoses are the commonest health problem among school age clildren, which impair children's growth and development and causing anemia. To detect the role of parasitic infections and both anemia and growth affection, on one hand, and if so the common complications among males and females on the other hand, a cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among the outpatient attended the Pediatrics Clinic, Al-Fayoum University's Hospitals. A total of 314 children aged from 1 to 13 years were subjected to clinical examination as well as stool analysis and CBC examination. The detected parasites were Entameba histolytica, Giardia lamblia (Protozoa) and Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lambricoides and Ancylostoma duodenale (Helminthes). There was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding E. histolytica in females (60%) as to G. lamblia and H. nana in males (16.1%, & 11.5% respecttively). Also, there was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding to hemoglobin level, and weight percentiles with anemia (92%) and underweight& borderline weight (34.5%) in males. The overall anemia was 89.8%. However, there was no significance difference (P<0.05) regarding to height percentiles. PMID:26939224

  20. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    PubMed

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. PMID:27471301

  1. Evaluation of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level and its impact on muscle and bone mineral density in frail elderly male.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Magda I; Khater, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Decrease in IGF-1 level is a major endocrine dysregulation that has been implicated in frailty, disability, and mortality in older adults. Our aim was to clarify the effect of IGF-1 on muscle and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail males. One hundred elderly males were included and divided into frail group (n=50) and robust group (n=50) based on the study of osteoporotic fractures (SOF) frailty index. Anthropometric measures, femoral BMD, and serum IGF-1 level were measured. Our results showed that the IGF-1 level was significantly lower in the frail males in comparison to the robust with mean value 37.1±24.2 versus 68.5±18.4ng/ml (P<0.05). Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis of the IGF-1 level revealed that sensitivity was 88.5%, specificity was 100%, cutoff value was 46.5ng/ml and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.897 (P<0.05). Participants with low IGF-1 percentile had significantly higher odds ratio of being frail compared to those with high IGF-1 percentile (odds ratio=12.8, 95% CI: 4.2-38.8, P-value<0.05). Subjects with low IGF-1 percentile had 13.5 times the odds of having an abnormal BMD than those with middle IGF-1 percentile (95% CI: 3.4-53.3, P<0.05). In multivariate analysis BMD, mid arm circumference (MAC), mid calf circumference (MCC), and handgrip strength were significantly affected by IGF-1 percentiles with age and co-morbid diseases adjustment. Male subjects with a low IGF-1 level may be at risk of being frail and having abnormal BMD. 16.8% and 15% of variability in MCC and BMD may be attributed to IGF-1 level respectively. PMID:25240725

  2. UConn Hosts IACLEA for 50th Annual Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudd, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    The decision that led to the 1992 opening of the University of Connecticut's new public safety complex was excellent timing. Three years after the complex opened, complete with a state-of-the-art Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), an emergency operations/training center and an indoor firing range, the quiet, nearly 4,000-acre UConn campus…

  3. 'Focus on Marshall' Marks Milestone With 50th Episode

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hard to believe, but it's been five years since the Marshall Space Flight Center began a video program called "Focus on Marshall." In those five years, co-hosts Bill Hubscher and Lori Meggs, have t...

  4. Fracture faces of frozen membranes: 50th anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Branton, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In 1961, the development of an improved freeze-etching (FE) procedure to prepare rapidly frozen biological cells or tissues for electron microscopy raised two important questions. How does a frozen cell membrane fracture? What do the extensive face views of the cell’s membranes exposed by the fracture process of FE tell us about the overall structure of biological membranes? I discovered that all frozen membranes tend to split along weakly bonded lipid bilayers. Consequently, the fracture process exposes internal membrane faces rather than either of the membrane’s two external surfaces. During etching, when ice is allowed to sublime after fracturing, limited regions of the actual membrane surfaces are revealed. Examination of the fractured faces and etched surfaces provided strong evidence that biological membranes are organized as lipid bilayers with some proteins on the surface and other proteins extending through the bilayer. Membrane splitting made it possible for electron microscopy to show the relative proportion of a membrane’s area that exists in either of these two organizational modes. PMID:26823391

  5. The Classic Guide to Better Writing. 50th Anniversary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesch, Rudolf; Lass, A. H.

    This handbook, first published 50 years ago, is designed to teach individuals how to write more effectively. It offers step-by-step techniques and exercises to write simply, clearly, and correctly. New features in this edition of the handbook include contemporary examples, and guidelines for computer assisted research and writing and for…

  6. Fracture faces of frozen membranes: 50th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Branton, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    In 1961, the development of an improved freeze-etching (FE) procedure to prepare rapidly frozen biological cells or tissues for electron microscopy raised two important questions. How does a frozen cell membrane fracture? What do the extensive face views of the cell's membranes exposed by the fracture process of FE tell us about the overall structure of biological membranes? I discovered that all frozen membranes tend to split along weakly bonded lipid bilayers. Consequently, the fracture process exposes internal membrane faces rather than either of the membrane's two external surfaces. During etching, when ice is allowed to sublime after fracturing, limited regions of the actual membrane surfaces are revealed. Examination of the fractured faces and etched surfaces provided strong evidence that biological membranes are organized as lipid bilayers with some proteins on the surface and other proteins extending through the bilayer. Membrane splitting made it possible for electron microscopy to show the relative proportion of a membrane's area that exists in either of these two organizational modes. PMID:26823391

  7. 50th International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlike many workshops, the Bormio meeting does not focus on a single topic. Instead, the aim is to bring together researchers and students from related fields in subatomic physics. Addressed topics include hadron physics, heavy ion physics, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure, particle physics, detectors and future projects as well as applications of these fields. Review talks by more senior speakers as well as talks and posters presented by junior researchers are encouraged.

  8. History of aldosterone on its 50th birthday.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Cristina; Calò, Lorenzo A; Colombo, Lorenzo; Grimm, Clarence E; Armanini, Decio

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of mineralocorticoid substances on water regulation from Theophrastus (IV century B.C.) to Thomas Addison (1849). It also opens to the missed discovery of aldosterone of I.A. Macchi. PMID:16874725

  9. A 50th anniversary guidebook for the desert project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Desert Project encompasses a 400 square mile areas studied by a team of soil scientists and geologists from 1957 to 1972. The project was staffed by personnel of the Soil Survey Investigations, U.S. Soil Conservation Service, and work was done in cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment Stat...

  10. Magnus Strandqvist: 50th anniversary of his doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Kajanti, M J

    1994-01-01

    This article is dedicated to Magnus Strandqvist's famous doctoral thesis "Studien über die kumulative Wirkung der Röntgenstrahlen bei Fraktionierung. Erfahrungen aus dem Radiumhemmet an 280 Haut- und Lippenkarzinomen" published in Acta Radiologica in 1944. After a short biography of Strandqvist some central points of his work and their influence on future development of modern radiotherapy are presented. PMID:7993639

  11. 76 FR 11933 - 50th Anniversary of the Peace Corps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-5031 Filed 3-2-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... rededicate ourselves to fulfilling the dream and continuing the work of all those who aspire and yearn...

  12. Mining in low coal. Volume 2. anthropometry. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.

    1982-01-15

    This report covers the anthropometric study of low coal miners. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. The miners tended to be heavier and have greater circumferences. The measurements made in this study were used to develop 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile, quarter- and half-scale, male and female mannequins. The mannequins can be used in work place and equipment design and redesign.

  13. The use of the percentile method for searching empirical relationships between compression strength (UCS), Point Load (Is50) and Schmidt Hammer (RL) Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Bobbo, Luigi; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Is50 and RL indices are commonly used to indirectly estimate the compression strength of a rocky deposit by in situ and in laboratory devices. The widespread use of Point load and Schmidt hammer tests is due to the simplicity and the speediness of the execution of these tests. Their indices can be related to the UCS by means of the ordinary least square regression analyses. Several researchers suggest to take into account the lithology to build high correlated empirical expressions (R2 >0.8) to draw UCS from Is50 or RL values. Nevertheless, the lower and upper bounds of the UCS ranges of values that can be estimated by means of the two indirect indices are not clearly defined yet. Aydin (2009) stated that the Schmidt hammer test shall be used to assess the compression resistance of rocks characterized by UCS>12-20 MPa. On the other hand, the Point load measures can be performed on weak rocks but upper bound values for UCS are not suggested. In this paper, the empirical relationships between UCS, RL and Is50 are searched by means of the percentile method (Bruno et al. 2013). This method is based on looking for the best regression function, between measured data of UCS and one of the indirect indices, drawn from a subset sample of the couples of measures that are the percentile values. These values are taken from the original dataset of both measures by calculating the cumulative function. No hypothesis on the probability distribution of the sample is needed and the procedure shows to be robust with respect to odd values or outliers. In this study, the carbonate sedimentary rocks are investigated. According to the rock mass classification of Dobereiner and De Freitas (1986), the UCS values for the studied rocks range between 'extremely weak' to 'strong'. For the analyzed data, UCS varies between 1,18-270,70 MPa. Thus, through the percentile method the best empirical relationships UCS-Is50 and UCS-RL are plotted. Relationships between Is50 and RL are drawn, too

  14. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  15. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than ...

  16. Dosimetry of infant exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields: variation of 99th percentile induced electric field value by posture and skin-to-skin contact.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    Infant exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields from power lines was numerically analyzed in this study. Dosimetric variability due to posture and skin-to-skin contact was evaluated using human anatomical models including a recently developed model of a 12-months-old infant. As proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the induced E-field strength (99th percentile value, E99 ) for the central nerve systems (E99_CNS ) and peripheral nerve system (E99_PNS ), were used as metrics. Results showed that the single (free of contact with others) infant model has lower E99 (E99_CNS and E99_PNS inclusive) compared with single adult and child models when exposed to the same power-frequency magnetic field. Also, studied postures of sitting, standing, or arm-up, would not change E99 _PNS . However, skin-to-skin contact with other models could significantly raise induced E-field strength in the infant (e.g., contact on 0.93% of the infant's total surface increased E99_PNS by 213%). Simulations with canonical models were conducted to assess different factors contributing to the E99 enhancement. Results indicated the importance of thoroughly investigating the conservativeness of current safety guidelines in the case of skin-to-skin contact, especially with infants. PMID:25708724

  17. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  18. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

  19. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has…

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.000 ER16JN08.006 ER14DE06.002 ER14DE06.003...

  1. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material. PMID:20386192

  2. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  3. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  4. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  5. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  6. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  7. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  8. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  9. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization is accomplished by inserting a catheter (a hollow tube, often with and inflatable balloon tip) into ... catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable ...

  10. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jepson, A S; Fentiman, I S

    1998-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, often with a late presentation and poor prognosis. The mainstay of treatment is modified radical mastectomy, with axillary node dissection to assess stage, prognosis and the need for adjuvant treatment. When matched for age, tumour size, grade and axillary nodal status, the prognosis is similar for males and females. Concerted efforts must be made to educate both the public and health professionals, in order to make earlier diagnoses and thereby improve prognosis. PMID:10622057

  11. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3745498

  12. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  13. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  14. Male-male homosexology: seven short discourses.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2004-09-01

    Homosexology is that branch of the science of sexology that deals with same sex relationships. It is subdivided into ideation, imagery, and praxis. Praxeology is the science of praxis. There are two doctrines by which homosexuality is defined: elective and developmental. Elective is like joining a political party and is more likely bisexual than exclusively homosexual. Complete developmental homosexuality is a state of being and is characteristically immutable. Both types of homosexuality are determined multivariately and sequentially, not univariately. Male and female mammals are phylogenically programmed to be reciprocal, not identical, in the praxeology of their courtship and mating. In primate, notably human, evolution, the eyes have taken over from the nose as organs of erotic arousal, but the molecular biology of how this happens in individual development, gay, straight or ambivalent, remains to be ascertained. The different personal histories of homosexual development also remain to be ascertained and cataloged. PMID:15506674

  15. Techniques of Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

  16. Treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

  17. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in its pathogenesis. Major risk factors include clinical disorders carrying hormonal imbalances, radiation exposure and, in particular, a positive family history (FH) for BC, the latter suggestive of genetic susceptibility. Rare mutations in high-penetrance genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) confer a high risk of BC development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  18. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  19. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  20. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  1. High prevalence of low skeletal muscle mass associated with male gender in midlife and older HIV-infected persons despite CD4 cell reconstitution and viral suppression.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Peter; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Rubin, David S

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic goals for HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy include minimizing risk of future physical disability. Presarcopenia and sarcopenia precede age-associated physical disability. We investigated their prevalence and the predictive value of patient mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for them. Eighty community-dwelling patients ≥45 years old demonstrating durable viral suppression were evaluated. Sarcopenia was defined as low skeletal muscle index (SMI, skeletal muscle kg/height m(2)) and either low strength or poor performance by handgrip dynamometry and gait speed, respectively. Presarcopenia was defined as low SMI only. MUAC was interpreted according to National Health Statistics percentile. Prevalence of sarcopenia and presarcopenia was 5.0% and 20.0%, respectively. Male gender (odds ratio [OR] 10.72; P < .026), recreational psychoactive substance use (OR 5.13; P < .037), and intravenous drug use transmission category (OR 6.94; P <.0327) were associated with presarcopenia. Higher body mass index (OR 0.80; P < .0007), MUAC (OR 0.83; P < .024), and large skeletal frame (OR 0.09; P < .003) were negatively associated with presarcopenia. Finding that a participant did not have a MUAC <25th percentile on physical examination had a 90.4% negative predictive value for presarcopenia. Although sarcopenia was uncommon, presarcopenia was highly prevalent in midlife and older HIV-infected males. Determination of MUAC percentile may identify those least likely to demonstrate skeletal muscle deficit and improve patient selection for mass and function testing. PMID:24067494

  2. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  3. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems. PMID:9385085

  4. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  5. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  6. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…

  7. Impaired reading comprehension and mathematical abilities in male adolescents with average or above general intellectual abilities are associated with comorbid and future psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Nahon, Daniella; Kravitz, Efrat; Lubin, Gad; Knobler, Haim Y; Davidson, Michael; Noy, Shlomo

    2007-11-01

    Research indicates that persons with learning disorders often suffer from psychopathology. We assessed current and future psychopathology in male adolescents with discrete impairments in reading comprehension (IRC) or arithmetic abilities (IAA) but with average or above-average general intellectual abilities. Subjects were a population-based cohort of 174,994 male adolescents screened by the Israeli Draft Board with average or above-average intellectual abilities but with low scores (8.6th and 10th lowest percentile respectively) on reading or arithmetic tests. They were compared with adolescents who scored in the 10th percentile and above on these tests (comparison group). Relative to the comparison group, male adolescents with IRC, IAA, or IRC and IAA (0.69%), had poorer scores on most behavioral assessments and higher prevalence of current psychopathology: 4.2% (comparison group), 8.0% (IRC), 7.0% (IAA), and 9.8% (IRC and IAA). Adolescents with IRC were also at increased risk for later hospitalization for schizophrenia (hazard ratios = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.6). Male adolescents with average and above-average general intellectual abilities but with IRC or IAA are more likely to have current and future psychopathology. Impairments in intellectual functioning and abnormal behaviors leading to mental illnesses may share common neurobiological substrates. The results support screening male adolescents with learning disorders for psychopathology. PMID:18000449

  8. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced. PMID:24414089

  9. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  10. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  11. Newborn male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  12. Male osteoporosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-12-18

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism.Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  13. Male osteoporosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  14. Male Body Contouring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient. PMID:26355627

  15. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  16. Hormone Disruption by PBDEs in Adult Male Sport Fish Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Turyk, Mary E.; Persky, Victoria W.; Imm, Pamela; Knobeloch, Lynda; Chatterton, Robert; Anderson, Henry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), affect endocrine function. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are similar in structure to PCBs, has increased recently, but health effects have not been well studied. Objectives Our goal in this study was to determine whether PBDE body burdens are related to thyroid and steroid hormone levels, thyroid antibodies, and thyroid disease in a cohort of frequent and infrequent adult male sport fish consumers. Methods We tested serum from 405 adult males for PBDE congeners, PCB congeners, testosterone, sex-hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), SHBG-bound testosterone, thyroglobulin antibodies, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and T4-binding globulin (TBG). We collected data on demographics, fish consumption, medical diseases, and medication use. Results The median sum of PBDEs was 38 ng/g lipid. In 308 men without thyroid disease or diabetes, PBDEs were positively related to measures of T4 and reverse T3 and inversely related to total T3 and TSH. PBDEs were positively related to the percentage of T4 bound to albumin, and inversely related to the percentage of T4 bound to TBG. Associations of BDE congeners with hormones varied. BDE-47 was positively associated with testosterone levels. Participants with PBDEs over the 95th percentile were more likely to have thyroglobulin antibodies, although high PBDE exposure was not associated with thyroid disease. PBDE effects were independent of PCB exposure and sport fish consumption. Conclusions PBDE exposure, at levels comparable with those of the general U.S. population, was associated with increased thyroglobulin antibodies and increased T4 in adult males. PMID:19079713

  17. Reproductive toxicity in male mice after exposure to high molybdenum and low copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Bian-Hua; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Er-Jie

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of dietary high molybdenum (HMo) and low copper (LCu) concentrations on reproductive toxicity of male mice, 80 mice were divided into 4 groups of 20. These groups were fed with the following: (1) normal control (NC) diet (NC group); (2) NC and HMo diets (HMo group); (3) LCu diet (LCu group); and (4) HMo and LCu diets (HMoLCu group). On the 50th and 100th day, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were analyzed to determine oxidative stress states. Morphological changes in testicular tissue were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining and ultrastructural changes were monitored by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that administration of HMo, LCu, and HMoLCu not only decreased sperm density and motility but also increased the rate of teratosperm occurrence. A significant increase in MDA content and a decrease in SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC contents were observed in LCu, HMo, and HMoLCu groups. Testicular tissues and cells of mice were damaged by HMo and the damages were more serious in the case of Cu deficiency. Exposure to HMo adversely affected the reproductive system of male mice, and dietary LCu plays key roles in HMo-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:25691499

  18. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  19. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  20. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

  1. [Treatment of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jardin, A

    1995-10-28

    Progress in medically assisted procreation has made it possible to obtain an embryon with a single spermatozoid or even a single spermatid. But such advanced technology must not overshadow the basic principles of patient management since there are many other medical or surgical possibilities for improving male fertility. Although the physiological mechanisms leading to azoospermia are relatively well understood, many questions remain as to the origin of oligo-asthenoteratospermia. Varicocela had been incriminated by many authors: in 25% of the cases, surgical care is followed by pregnancy. Other factors including autoimmunity, infection, environment and drugs also have an effect. Careful history taking can identify the main causes of male infertility before the problem of procreation occurs and in cases of definitive azoospermia the principles of management are relatively simple. The true problem is the fact that new techniques such as in vitro fertilization have acquired popularity in the general population but cannot be accepted as the gold standard by the medical community. It must not be forgotten that these artificial techniques cause a major psychological trauma to the couple and can lead to difficult situations (multiple pregnancies, extra embryos) with no totally satisfactory solution. PMID:8545356

  2. Developmental Transitions in Male Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article defines and elaborates on eight transitions in male sexuality, the first being the gender identity transition, and the last being the male climacteric. It discusses society's lack of support. Originally presented at the American Sociological Association Session on the Male Role in Society, New York City, 1976. (LPG)

  3. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  4. Overactive bladder in males

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowski, Roger R.; Gomelsky, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: α-adrenergic blockers, 5-α reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB. PMID:21789068

  5. Population density influences male-male competition in guppies.

    PubMed

    Jirotkul

    1999-12-01

    This study tested the general prediction that population density affects male-male competition, female mate choice and the opportunity for sexual selection. By manipulating the density of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, while keeping the sex ratio constant, I found that male mating tactics were phenotypically plastic with respect to density. As density increased, males decreased their courtship displays. Male-male competition and mate searching were highest at intermediate densities. Population density had no significant effect on the total number of copulations, copulatory tactics or the percentage of postcopulatory guarding. Female preference for males with a higher percentage of orange coloration was similar at all density levels. The 'opportunity for sexual selection', which estimates the upper limit to which a selected trait can shift if directional selection is operating and was calculated as the variance in number of copulations per male divided by the square of the mean number of copulations, was negatively associated with population density. This may be due to the decrease in male-male competition at high density rather than female preference which was similar across density treatments. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10600137

  6. What makes male mice paternal?

    PubMed

    Elwood, R W

    1986-07-01

    Both copulation and postcopulatory cohabitation with pregnant females reduce infanticide and enhance paternal responsiveness in male CS1 mice. The effectiveness of copulation in this process, however, depends on the number of occasions that males have previously encountered infants. Infanticidal males which have been subordinated in brief encounters with other males are less likely to commit infanticide in subsequent tests than are those which became dominant to other males. Males which copulate and cohabit with a relatively large female are less likely to be infanticidal than are those with a relatively small female. These data suggest that males are subordinated after copulation by their mates and that this subordination is a factor in the reduction of infanticide and the initiation of paternal responsiveness. PMID:3729896

  7. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  8. The President's Challenge Physical Fitness Program Packet, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The President's Challenge Physical Fitness Awards Program makes four awards: The Presidential Physical Fitness Award recognizes those students who score at or about the 85th percentile on all five tests; the National Physical Fitness Award for those in the 50th to 84th percentile; the Participant Award for those who fall below the 50th percentile…

  9. Estimated Daily Phthalate Exposures in a Population of Mothers of Male Infants Exhibiting Reduced Anogenital Distance

    PubMed Central

    Marsee, Kevin; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in animal studies. A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first evidence of subtle developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to phthalates. We used two previously published methods to estimate the daily phthalate exposures for the four phthalates whose urinary metabolites were statistically significantly associated with developmental effects in the 214 mother–infant pairs [di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP)] and for another important phthalate [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)]. We estimated the median and 95th percentile of daily exposures to DBP to be 0.99 and 2.68 μg/kg/day, respectively; for DEP, 6.64 and 112.3 μg/kg/day; for BBzP, 0.50 and 2.47 μg/kg/day; and for DEHP, 1.32 and 9.32 μg/kg/day. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference doses for these chemicals are 100 (DBP), 800 (DEP), 200 (BBzP), and 20 (DEHP) μg/kg/day. The median and 95th percentile exposure estimates for the phthalates associated with reduced anogenital distance in the study population are substantially lower than current U.S. EPA reference doses for these chemicals and could be informative to any updates of the hazard assessments and risk assessments for these chemicals. PMID:16759976

  10. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  11. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    PubMed

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  12. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  13. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  14. Quantitative Genomics of Male Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the review was to establish the current status of quantitative genomics for male reproduction. Genetic variation exists for male reproduction traits. These traits are expensive and time consuming traits to evaluate through conventional breeding schemes. Genomics is an alternative to...

  15. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy. PMID:27346307

  16. The effects of fructose-containing sugars on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors when consumed at up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2014-08-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010). Sucrose (SUC) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) have been singled out for particular concern, because of their fructose content, which has been specifically implicated for its atherogenic potential and possible role in elevating blood pressure through uric acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. This study explored the effects when these sugars are consumed at typical population levels up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Three hundred fifty five overweight or obese individuals aged 20-60 years old were placed on a eucaloric diet for 10 weeks, which incorporated SUC- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 8%, 18% or 30% of calories. There was a slight change in body weight in the entire cohort (169.1 ± 30.6 vs. 171.6 ± 31.8 lbs, p < 0.01), a decrease in HDL (52.9 ± 12.2 vs. 52.0 ± 13.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and an increase in triglycerides (104.1 ± 51.8 vs. 114.1 ± 64.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001). However, total cholesterol (183.5 ± 42.8 vs. 184.4 mg/dL, p > 0.05), LDL (110.3 ± 32.0 vs. 110.5 ± 38.9 mg/dL, p > 0.05), SBP (109.4 ± 10.9 vs. 108.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, p > 0.05) and DBP (72.1 ± 8.0 vs. 71.3 ± 8.0 mmHg, p > 0.05) were all unchanged. In no instance did the amount or type of sugar consumed affect the response to the intervention (interaction p > 0.05). These data suggest that: (1) when consumed as part of a normal diet, common fructose-containing sugars do not raise blood pressure, even when consumed at the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose (five times the upper level recommended by the AHA and three times the upper level recommended by WHO); (2) changes in the lipid profile are mixed, but modest. PMID:25111121

  17. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  18. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  19. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  20. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  1. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  2. MedlinePlus: Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Male Infertility? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Living With How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Related Issues Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar) and ...

  3. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nanagas, Vivian C.; Stolfi, Adrienne; Nanagas, Maria T.; Eberhart, Gregory M.; Alter, Sherman J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1) uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice. PMID:27336012

  4. Cost Drivers for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Using Primary Source Data from Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Lori; Adesina, Adebiyi; Forsythe, Steven; Godbole, Ramona; Reuben, Elan; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background As voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs scale up, there is a pressing need for information about the important cost drivers, and potential efficiency gains. We examine those cost drivers here, and estimate the potential efficiency gains through an econometric model. Methods and Findings We examined the main cost drivers (i.e., personnel and consumables) associated with providing VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa along a number of dimensions, including facility type and service provider. Primary source facility level data from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were utilized throughout. We estimated the efficiency gains by econometrically estimating a cost function in order to calculate the impact of scale and other relevant factors. Personnel and consumables were estimated at 36% and 28%, respectively, of total costs across countries. Economies of scale (EOS) is estimated to be eight at the median volume of VMMCs performed, and EOS falls from 23 at the 25th percentile volume of VMMCs performed to 5.1 at the 75th percentile. Conclusions The analysis suggests that there is significant room for efficiency improvement as indicated by declining EOS as VMMC volume increases. The scale of the fall in EOS as VMMC volume increases suggests that we are still at the ascension phase of the scale-up of VMMC, where continuing to add new sites results in additional start-up costs as well. A key aspect of improving efficiency is task sharing VMMC procedures, due to the large percentage of overall costs associated with personnel costs. In addition, efficiency improvements in consumables are likely to occur over time as prices and distribution costs decrease. PMID:24802593

  5. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  6. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  7. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  9. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    PubMed

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  10. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  11. [Therapeutic issues concerning male fertility].

    PubMed

    Bernard, V; Bouvattier, C; Christin-Maitre, S

    2014-10-01

    Men reproductive health has long been ignored although it is responsible for 50% of couple's infertility. However, in recent years, the understanding of endocrine physiology underlying testis development and spermatogenesis has enabled the development of new therapeutic strategies. Some concern the management of male infertility. Others are dealing with finding an effective male contraceptive. In this review, we first present the management of infertility, in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We then describe the major improvements for Klinefelter patient's infertility. Finally, we review the different hormonal and non-hormonal methods for male contraception, currently in development. Efficacy and safety of the some non-hormonal methods remain to be demonstrated so far in humans. PMID:25617918

  12. Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: A Theory of Male Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theory of male identity developed to address the question of why men vary in their masculinity ideology and in their conformity to standards of masculinity. An overview of relevant masculinity research, theoretical foundations for the construct of reference group identity dependence, theoretical postulates, associated behavioral, and…

  13. Voice deepening under testosterone treatment in female-to-male gender dysphoric individuals.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Dirk; Matulat, Peter; Knief, Arne; Zitzmann, Michael; Rosslau, Ken; Szukaj, Michael; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Schmidt, Claus-Michael

    2016-04-01

    Female-to-male gender dysphoric individuals rarely access medical services for voice problems arising out of hormonal treatment leading to "voice reassignment". The aim of this study was a close monitoring of voice deepening in the first year following the commencement of testosterone treatment. Voice recordings from nine female-to-male (FTM) were analyzed with Praat software and values for speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) were calculated. Audio recordings were made prior to and within the first year (mean 55.2 weeks) of testosterone treatment at a mean of 35.4 different time points. The values for speaking fundamental frequency were compared with values taken from 21 biological men with healthy voices. The 10th to 90th percentile range of FTM overlapped with those of biological men after about 36 weeks. The mean SFF change was a decrease of 8.78 seminotes at week 52 and at this point in time no significant difference between SSF in FTM and biological men was found. Testosterone treatment led to significant voice deepening within the first year with the degree of change decreasing over time. Mean SFF change in the first year was almost a sixth and thus less than one octave but nonetheless reached an SFF comparable with biological men. PMID:26650551

  14. Male chest enhancement: pectoral implants.

    PubMed

    Benito-Ruiz, J; Raigosa, J M; Manzano-Surroca, M; Salvador, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the pectoral muscle implant for male chest enhancement in 21 patients. The markings and technique are thoroughly described. The implants used were manufactured and custom made. The candidates for implants comprised three groups: group 1 (18 patients seeking chest enhancement), group 2 (1 patient with muscular atrophy), and group 3 (2 patients with muscular injuries). Because of the satisfying results obtained, including significant enhancement of the chest contour and no major complications, this technique is used for an increasing number of male cosmetic surgeries. PMID:17676376

  15. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors. PMID:9489379

  16. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Native Males by Age Group, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2013 Hispanic Males ... Native Males by Age Group, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2011 Hispanic Males ...

  17. Black Male Images in Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Francis

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the "super" image of the black male in films served three essential purposes: it gave blacks whatever therapy they needed from films; it had hot box office appeal; and it kept white in control of the images blacks have had of themselves. (Author/JM)

  18. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  19. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  20. Male Osteoporosis in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    D'Amelio, Patrizia; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is now recognized as an important public health problem in elderly men as fragility fractures are complicated by increased morbidity, mortality, and social costs. This review comprises an overview of recent findings in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male osteoporosis, with particular regard to the old population. PMID:26457082

  1. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  2. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  3. Applicability of Two Universally Accepted Mixed Dentition Analysis on a Sample from Southeastern Region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Shobha, MB; AJS, Sai; Manoj, KMG; Srideevi, E; Sridhar, M; Pratap, GMJS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the universally accepted mixed dentition analyses are based on the data derived from northwestern European descent. However, the accuracy of these methods when applied to different ethnic population is questionable. Aim: The present study is aimed to evaluate the applicability of Tanaka and Johnston (TJ) and Moyers (50th and 75th percentile) mixed dentition analysis in a sample from south-eastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Study models were prepared from a sample of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) in the age range of 13-15 years. The mesio-distal dimension of the teeth was measured using a Digital Vernier calipers. The actual values of permanent canine and premolars on the casts were compared with the predicted values from TJ and Moyers analysis. The values derived from this study were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Pearson's coefficients were used to evaluate the correlations between the groups of teeth. Results: Overestimated values were noticed in males and females of both arches with TJ equation; Males showed no significant difference at Moyers 50th percentile (50/100), in both the arches where as females showed higher values in mandibular arch and underestimated values in maxillary arch. At Moyers 75th percentile, overestimated values were noticed in males for both the arches whereas in females lesser values were observed. Conclusion: As the values showed significant deviation from TJ and Moyers both at 50 and 75 percentile, its applicability to the present population is limited. So, new regression equations were derived. PMID:27398250

  4. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Christopher D.; Andrés, José A.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a “scramble”. An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  5. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed

    Beatty, Christopher D; Andrés, José A; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  6. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    PubMed

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810

  7. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  8. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  9. Male-mediated developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  10. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  11. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  12. The 50th Anniversary of the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Specification of Molecular Chirality.

    PubMed

    Helmchen, Günter

    2016-06-01

    "… Just over 50 years ago, Robert S. Cahn, Sir Christopher Ingold, and Vladimir Prelog published the Review 'Specification of Molecular Chirality' in Angewandte Chemie. The article would change the everyday language of the chemist by bringing the term chirality to their attention. Today, the CIP system is the specification tool in organic chemistry …" Read more in the Editorial by Günter Helmchen. PMID:27151758

  13. The 50th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Development of new mass spectrometers and implementation of new analytical methods were the central themes of the conference. The majority of oral presentations and posters were concerned with the application of mass spectrometry to pharmaceutical and biotechnological research. PMID:18629048

  14. A resolution commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Cape May-Lewes Ferry.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Coons, Christopher A. [D-DE

    2014-06-26

    06/26/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S4190; text as passed Senate: CR S4165) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Wilderness Act.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2014-09-18

    09/18/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5880; text as passed Senate: CR S5799-5800) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. 'Focus on Marshall' Features Marshall’s 50th Anniversary

    NASA Video Gallery

    On March 15, 1960, President Dwight Eisenhower issued an executive order designating NASA's first field center as the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. On the November episode of “Focus on ...

  17. 76 FR 72821 - 50th Anniversary of the United States Agency for International Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty- sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-30722 Filed 11-25... 1961, the men and women of USAID have worked on the front lines of poverty and conflict to support... against hunger, poverty, and disease. As USAID continues to shape a brighter future for generations...

  18. 75 FR 76611 - 50th Anniversary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010... Wildlife Refuge, I encourage all Americans to recognize the beauty and diversity of all of America's...

  19. The 50th Anniversary of the Thayer Conference: Historical Perspectives and Accomplishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    2005-01-01

    Information from several historical sources provides a clearer understanding of the Thayer Conference, including little-known background information. Changes in school psychology since the conference are described through comparisons of the field at the time of the conference and at present. Major recommendations and expectations emanating from…

  20. A resolution celebrating the 50th anniversary of the 1962 Seattle World's Fair.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Cantwell, Maria [D-WA

    2012-04-19

    04/19/2012 Referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2553-2554) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. "The upper limits of vegetation on Mauna Loa, Hawaii": a 50th-anniversary reassessment.

    PubMed

    Juvik, James O; Rodomsky, Brett T; Price, Jonathan P; Hansen, Eric W; Kueffer, Christoph

    2011-02-01

    In January 1958, a survey of alpine flora was conducted along a recently constructed access road across the upper volcanic slopes of Mauna Loa, Hawaii (2525-3397 m). Only five native Hawaiian species were encountered on sparsely vegetated historic and prehistoric lava flows adjacent to the roadway. A resurvey of roadside flora in 2008 yielded a more than fourfold increase to 22 species, including nine native species not previously recorded. Eight new alien species have now invaded this alpine environment, although exclusively limited to a few individuals in ruderal habitat along the roadway. Alternative explanations for species invasion and altitudinal change over the past 50 years are evaluated: (1) changes related to continuing primary succession on ameliorating (weathering) young lava substrates; (2) local climate change; and (3) road improvements and increased vehicular access which promote enhanced car-borne dispersal of alien species derived from the expanding pool of potential colonizers naturalized on the island in recent decades. Unlike alpine environments in temperate latitudes, the energy component (warming) in climate change on Mauna Loa does not appear to be the unequivocal driver of plant invasion and range extension. Warming may be offset by other climate change factors including rainfall and evapotranspiration. PMID:21618930

  2. Physical Modeling of Landslide Generated Tsunamis and the 50th Anniversary of the Vajont Dam Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, Brian C.; Mohammed, Fahad; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2013-04-01

    The Vajont river is an affluent of the Piave River located in the Dolomite Alps of the Veneto Region, about 100km north of Venice. A 265.5 m high double curved arch dam was built across a V-shaped gorge creating a reservoir with a maximum storage capacity of 0.169 km3. A maximum water depth of 250 m was reached by early September 1963 during the third filling attempt of the reservoir, but as creeping on the southern flank increased the third reservoir draw down was initiated. By October 9, 1963 the water depth was lowered to 240m as the southern flank of Vajont reservoir catastrophically collapsed on a length of more than 2km. Collapse occurred during reservoir drawdown in a final attempt to reduce flank creeping and the reservoir was only about two-thirds full. The partially submerged rockslide with a volume of 0.24 km3 penetrated into the reservoir at velocities up to 30 m/s. The wave runup in direct prolongation of slide axis reached the lowest houses of Casso 270m above reservoir level before impact corresponding to 245m above dam crest (Müller, 1964). The rockslide deposit came within 50m of the left abutment and towers up to 140m above the dam crest. The lateral spreading of the surge overtopped the dam crest by more than 100m. The thin arch dam withstood the overtopping and sustained no damage to the structural shell and the abutments. The flood wave dropped more than 500m down the Vajont gorge and into the Piave Valley causing utter destruction to the villages of Longarone, Pirago, Villanova, Rivalta and Fae. More than 2000 persons perished. The Vajont disaster highlights an extreme landslide tsunami event in the narrowly confined water body of a reservoir. Landslide tsunami hazards exist even in areas not exposed to tectonic tsunamis. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU). A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with up to 1,350 kg of naturally rounded river gravel which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down the 2H: 1V slope, launching the granular landslide towards the water at velocities of up to 5 m/s. Topographical and bathymetric features can greatly affect wave characteristics and runup heights. Landslide tsunamis are studied in different topographic and bathymetric configurations: far field propagation and runup, a narrow fjord and curved headland configurations, and a conical island setting representing landslides off an island or a volcanic flank collapse. Water surface elevations were measured using an array of resistance wave gauges. The granulate landslide shape and front velocity were measured using above and underwater cameras. Three-dimensional landslide surfaces with surface velocities were reconstruction using a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) setup. The speckled pattern on the surface of the granular landslide allows for cross-correlation based PIV analysis. Wave runup was measured with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance 3-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami and prediction models.

  3. 77 FR 32873 - Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13514 Filed 5-31-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... home. In the reflection of The Wall, we see the military family members and veterans who carry a...

  4. 77 FR 63203 - 50th Anniversary of the Office of the United States Trade Representative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... United States Trade Representative (USTR) continues to play a vital role in advancing trade policy that... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012... Trade Representative By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On October 11,...

  5. A resolution recognizing the Defense Intelligence Agency on its 50th Anniversary.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2011-03-01

    05/12/2011 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S2970) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. The Save-WEFM Case as Reported to the 50th Annual NAEB Convention, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danna, Sammy R.

    The history of Chicago FM radio station WEFM and the activities of the Citizen's Committee to Save WEFM are chronicled. The focus is principally on the actions of the Citizen's Committee to prevent the conversion of the radio station from a classical music format to rock and roll offerings and to block the sale of the station by Zenith to GCC…

  7. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Combined Federal Campaign.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Akaka, Daniel K. [D-HI

    2011-10-18

    11/16/2011 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S7627; text as passed Senate: CR S7627) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. [The cradle of the Russian radioecology (to the 50th anniversary of the Kyshtym radiation accident)].

    PubMed

    Aleksakhin, R M; Prister, B S

    2008-01-01

    On September 29, 1957, at a nuclear industry facility (Production Association "Mayak"), there was a large radiation accident resulting in the release of radioactive wastes into the environment and the formation of the East-Urals Radioactive Trail (EURT). Within the EURT and there established in 1958 an Experimental Scientific Research Station (ESRS) which came to be known as alma mater of domestic radioecology, various comprehensive long-term investigations had been carried out. The main results of these 50-year investigations have been summarized for a broad range of problems on radionuclide migration in the natural environment and ionizing radiation effects on biota, as well as problems of environmental protection. In addition to the studies of the in situ behavior of released during the accident anthropogenic radionuclides (primarily 90Sr, the main dose-forming radionuclide within the EURT), at the ESRS large experiment have been performed to study migration and biological effects on agricultural plants and animals of man-made radionuclides (especially fresh mixtures of fission products) introduced to the natural environment. Results of ESRS experiments are described on irradiation of natural biogeocenoses from a powerful source of ionizing radiation (1.2 x 10(15) Bq 137Cs). The first unique experience is described of remediation of radioactively contaminated areas with emphasis on agricultural radioecology. The importance of the EURT and ESRS radioecological studies for the development of radioecology as a science is stressed. PMID:18666658

  9. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the publication of "To Kill a Mockingbird".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Sessions, Jeff [R-AL

    2010-08-05

    08/05/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6981; text as passed Senate: CR S6981; text of measure as introduced: CR S6908) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Succeed or Else!: Reflections on the 50th Anniversary of the "Journal of Educational Administration"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, A. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the key individuals, associations and significant events contributing to the establishment and first 50 years of successful publication of the "Journal of Educational Administration". Design/methodology/approach: This paper is historical in design. Information relevant to its 50 years of…

  11. The 50th Anniversary of "Brown": Is There Any Reason to Celebrate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Suzanne E.

    2004-01-01

    The "Brown v. Board of Education" decision remains one of the most important legal decisions in history. Although there were local schemes used to avoid desegregating public schools after the decision, black students experienced declining segregation from the 1950s to the late 1980s. During the 1990s, however, a series of Supreme Court decisions…

  12. Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Marianne Horney

    2006-01-01

    On the occasion of its 50 anniversary, the members of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry can look back with pride and be aware that this professional society has been true to its original goal and passionate mission. Thanks for this momentous accomplishment goes to its founding fathers and mothers, who were clear in their purpose and whose wisdom is manifest in the Academy's constitution. In the 1930s, the orthodoxy of the American Psychoanalytic Association created a ferment of rebellion in most of its institutes, which led to secessions, sister institutes, and a greater open-mindedness in institutes residing in Chicago, Washington, New Orleans, and Detroit. The quest for a new national forum that would be open to an exchange of new ideas began in 1951 and culminated in the formation of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis in 1956. The spirit of the Academy is highlighted by relating the successful struggle of communication among its members in a dream workshop that existed for six years. PMID:16548742

  13. Microcephaly in a 14-month male with minimal developmental delay (speech) and mild dysmorphology with unusual mosaicism involving a ring chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, V.; Lieber, E.; Yu, M.T.

    1994-09-01

    This male at birth weighed 5 lbs, 14 oz and was full term. His mother was G3 P2012. His height and weight follow the 3rd percentile; however, his head circumference is below the 3rd percentile. His hearing is age-appropriate; however, his speech is poor to absent. His hearing is intact. He had 2-5 cafe-au-lait spots (0.5 to 1.0 cm) on his trunk and extremities. His face showed mild dysmorphology (non-specific). His tone and central nervous system are intact. Because of the microcephaly, a chromosome study was performed. A skin fibroblast culture was performed because of his appropriate milestones. One cell in the peripheral blood and one cell in the skin biopsy demonstrated two normal chromosome 5s. FISH studies using chromosome 5 painting probe confirmed the observations of routine cytogenetic studies. The marker chromosome was identified as part of chromosome 5. At 14 months, the patient does not have the appearance associated with the Cri-du-chat syndrome. Additional studies with probes for the specific region associated with this syndrome are planned.

  14. Male Infertility: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the subfertile male starts with the basic history and physical examination, which often provide indication of probable cause. Aside from analysis of properly collected semen, most cases require very few tests. Etiology can be classified as pretesticular, testicular, and post-testicular. Treatment can be more specific if a definite cause is found. Unfortunately, about 25% of patients are idiopathic, and non-specific treatments generally yield unacceptably low conception rates. Improvement will occur as more becomes known, through animal research and clinical application, about the physiology of spermatogenesis and the pathological processes that can affect it. PMID:21253072

  15. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  16. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana . E-mail: d.anderson1@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F{sub 1} generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F{sub 1} male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from

  17. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  18. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher Ck; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-07-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  19. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  20. Homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Devlin, P K; Cowan, G A

    1985-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimacy with significant male and female best friends. A questionnaire, administered to 130 adult heterosexual males, included McDonald and Game's homophobia measure (ATHMS), eight intimacy scales, and four scales measuring subjects' recollections of their fathers' parenting styles. Correlations of ATHMS and individual intimacy scales revealed a significant relationship between homophobia and intimacy in male-male relationships. Homophobia was related to male-female intimacy on those measures which reflected subjects' perception of their female partner's sensitivity to them. Although homophobia was related to perception of the father as enforcing sex roles, none of the perceived fathering variables were directly related to intimacy with males. The findings provide evidence for a direct relationship between male homophobia and lack of intimacy in friendships between men. PMID:4067792

  1. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  2. Sperm investment in male meadow voles is affected by the condition of the nearby male conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Sperm competition occurs when 2 or more males copulate with a particular female during the same reproductive cycle, and their sperm compete to fertilize the female's available eggs. One strategy that male voles use to assess the risk and intensity of sperm competition involves responding to the presence of scent marks of conspecific males found near a sexually receptive female. Previously, we have shown that if a male vole copulated with a female while he was in the presence of the odors of another male he increased his sperm investment relative to his investment if another male's odors were not present. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that males assess differences in the relative quality of competing males and adjust their sperm investment accordingly. We did so by allowing males to copulate when they were exposed to the scent mark of a 24-h food-deprived male (low-quality male) or the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived (high-quality male). The data indicate that male meadow voles did not increase their sperm investment during copulation when exposed to the scent mark of a food-deprived male but did so when they were exposed to the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived. The results support the hypothesis that male voles are able to adjust sperm investment when they encounter the scent marks of males that differ in quality. PMID:19529815

  3. Fighting back against male-killers.

    PubMed

    Jaenike, John

    2007-04-01

    Male-killing endosymbionts create a genetic black hole into which host nuclear genes vanish. In a recent paper, Hornett et al. transferred male-killing Wolbachia between different strains of the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina through hybridization and backcrossing. Their results provide unambiguous evidence of genetic variation for resistance to male-killers. A possible consequence of such variation is that male-killing might appear and disappear quickly on an evolutionary timescale. PMID:17276538

  4. Genetic evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Men with severe oligospermia (<5 million sperm/mL ejaculate fluid) or azoospermia should receive genetic testing to clarify etiology of male infertility prior to treatment. Categorization by obstructive azoospermia (OA) or non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is critical since genetic testing differs for the former with normal testicular function, testicular volume (~20 mL), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (1-8 IU/mL) when compared to the latter with small, soft testes and increased FSH. History and physician examination along with laboratory testing (following appropriate genetic counseling) is critical to accurate selection of genetic testing appropriate for azoospermia due to primary testicular failure as compared with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Genetic testing options include cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) testing for men with congenital absence of the vas, while karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions (YCMD), and other specific genetic tests may be warranted depending on the clinical context of severe oligospermia or NOA. The results of genetic testing guide management options. The most recent techniques for genetic analysis, including sperm microRNA (miRNA) and epigenetics, are forming the foundation for future genetic diagnosis and therapeutic targets in male infertility. PMID:26813518

  5. Producing Monosex Male Populations for Catfish Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of uses for the preferential production of male catfish in aquaculture operations. Several studies have demonstrated that male channel catfish grow faster than female fish and would be expected to reach market size faster. Also, in the production of hybrid catfish male blue catf...

  6. Male Puberty Rites: A Path Analytic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitahara, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Studies two determinants of male puberty rites: communitywide exclusive male work groups and polygyny which act as an extension of male subculture; and sexual integration in the division of labor and distant father-child relationship which act to reduce the distance between the sexes. (Author/RC)

  7. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  8. Comparison of EuroSID-2 and SID-IIs in Vehicle Side Impact Tests with the IIHS Barrier.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Raul A; Nolan, Joseph M; Dakin, Gregory J; Lund, Adrian K

    2002-11-01

    The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has recently developed and evaluated a new side impact barrier to represent the front profile of pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles for a new consumer information program. In the development of this program, two dummies were considered for assessing driver injury risk in side-struck vehicles: EuroSID-2 (50th percentile male dummy) and SID-IIs (5th percentile female dummy). The purpose of this study was to compare injury responses and kinematics for these two dummies in side impact crash tests. The findings suggest that SID-IIs will be more effective in driving relevant improvements in side impact crash protection. PMID:17096234

  9. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight)with those for theRPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  10. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  11. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  12. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  13. Penile reconstruction in the male

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Gentile, Vincenzo; Antonini, Gabriele; Tsafrakidis, Petros; Raheem, Amr Abdel; Ralph, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe and review the most recent techniques of male genital reconstruction, identifying relevant material with an unstructured PubMed-based search of previous reports, using the keywords ‘reconstruction’, ‘glans’, ‘shaft’, ‘lymphoedema’, ‘skin graft’, ‘scrotoplasty’, ‘urethroplasty’, and ‘penile prosthesis’. This search produced 22 reports that were analysed in this review. Split-thickness skin grafts are ideal for glans reconstruction, while full-thickness skin grafts should be used to cover defects on the shaft penis, as they tend to heal with less contracture. The radial artery-based free-flap phalloplasty is the technique of total phallic reconstruction associated with the highest satisfaction rates. Further research is required to identify an ideal reconstructive technique that would guarantee superior cosmetic and functional results, minimising donor site morbidity. PMID:26558091

  14. Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Peter N

    2012-12-01

    Some men with severely defective sperm production commonly have excess aromatase activity, reflected by low serum testosterone and relatively elevated estradiol levels. Aromatase inhibitors can increase endogenous testosterone production and serum testosterone levels. Treatment of infertile males with the aromatase inhibitors testolactone, anastrazole, and letrozole has been associated with increased sperm production and return of sperm to the ejaculate in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Use of the aromatase inhibitors anastrazole (1 mg/day) and letrozole (2.5 mg/day) represent off-label use of these agents for impaired spermatogenesis in men with excess aromatase activity (abnormal testosterone/estradiol [T/E] ratios). Side effects have rarely been reported. Randomized controlled trials are needed to define the magnitude of benefit of aromatase inhibitor treatment for infertile men. PMID:23103016

  15. Treatment of hypogonadism in males.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sara; Fuqua, John S; Lee, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    The treatment of adolescent males with hypogonadism using testosterone is dependent on the underlying diagnosis as well as the patient's and family's preferences. Those with testicular failure, always a pathologic condition, begin lifelong therapy, while short-term therapy is often begun for those who have a delayed puberty. There is a wide variety of testosterone formulations available, with differences in adverse events sometimes associated with the method of administration. The goals of treatment involve stimulating physical puberty, including achievement of virilization, a normal muscle mass and bone mineral density for age, and improvement in psychosocial wellbeing. While androgen therapy results in physical changes of puberty, the potential for fertility must be considered for those with permanent gonadotropin deficiency. in this population, therapy with gonadotropins or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be effective. For those with testicular failure, fertility may be possible but requires assisted reproductive procedures. PMID:24683947

  16. Male reproductive health and yoga

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility. PMID:23930026

  17. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. PMID:26947703

  18. [Brain mechanisms of male sexual function].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Dou, Xin; Li, Jun-Fa; Luo, Yan-Lin

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the brain imaging studies of male sexual function in recent years from three aspects: the brain mechanism of normal sexual function, the brain mechanism of sexual dysfunction, and the mechanism of drug therapy for sexual dysfunction. Studies show that the development stages of male sexual activities, such as the excitement phase, plateau phase and orgasm phase, are controlled by different neural networks. The mesodiencephalic transition zone may play an important role in the start up of male ejaculation. There are significant differences between sexual dysfunction males and normal males in activation patterns of the brain in sexual arousal. The medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in the abnormal activation pattern are correlated with sexual dysfunction males in sexual arousal. Serum testosterone and morphine are commonly used drugs for male sexual dysfunction, whose mechanisms are to alter the activating levels of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, claustrum and inferior temporal gyrus. PMID:21899000

  19. Vasopressin Effectively Suppresses Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Yun-Hee; You, Young-Ah; Kim, In Cheul; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2013-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (VP) is neurohypophysial hormone has been implicated in stimulating contractile activity of the male reproductive tract in the testis. Higher levels of VP decrease sperm count and motility. However, very little is known about the involvement of VP in controlling mammalian reproductive process. The goal of this study was to confirm that effect of VP receptor (AVPR2) on sperm function in capacitation condition. Deamino [Cys 1, D-ArgS] vasopressin (dDAVP), an AVPR2 agonist that operates only on AVPR2, was used. Also, Mouse spermatozoa were incubated with various concentrations of dDAVP (10−11–10−5 M) and sperm motility, capacitation status, Protein Kinase A activity (PKA), tyrosine phosphorylation, fertilization, and embryo development were assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis, Combined Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence, Western blotting, and in vitro fertilization, respectively. AVPR2 was placed on the acrosome region and mid-piece in cauda epididymal spermatozoa, but the caput epididymal spermatozoa was mid-piece only. The high dDAVP treatment (10−8 and 10−5 M) significantly decreased sperm motility, intracellular pH and PKA substrates (approximately 55 and 22 kDa) and increased Ca2+ concentration. The highest concentration treatment significantly decreased PKA substrate (approximately 23 kDa) and tyrosine phosphorylation (approximately 30 kDa). VP detrimentally affected capacitation, acrosome reaction, and embryo development. Treatment with the lowest concentration (10−11 M) was not significantly different. Our data have shown that VP stimulates ion transport across sperm membrane through interactions with AVPR2. VP has a detrimental effect in sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development, suggesting its critical role in the acquisition of fertilizing ability of mouse spermatozoa. These research findings will enable further study to determine molecular mechanism associated with fertility in

  20. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress. PMID:18270454

  1. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-09-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

  2. Scratchcard gambling among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    Playing instant scratchcards has become a popular activity among a significant minority of the UK population since their introduction by the National Lottery operators (Camelot) on March 21, 1995. This study examined scratchcard gambling in a group of adolescent males. A total of 204 boys from two secondary schools in Birmingham (aged 11 to 16 years; mean age 13.6 years) were administered a questionnaire on their scratchcard gambling behaviour. Ten classes (five in each school) took part in the survey with one class from each year group selected at random by the headteacher. Within each class almost all the children took part. Forty-two percent of the sample (n=86) had bought their own scratchcards since their introduction in March 1995. Ten children (12% of the gamblers who had bought scratchcards themselves) met an adapted version of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling on scratchcards. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between parents buying scratchcards and the child's scratchcard purchasing behaviour. PMID:14634322

  3. Male hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naifar, M; Rekik, N; Messedi, M; Chaabouni, K; Lahiani, A; Turki, M; Abid, M; Ayedi, F; Jamoussi, K

    2015-06-01

    The role of androgens in cardiovascular disease is still controversial in men. In this study, we investigated metabolic disorders in Tunisian hypogonadal men compared with healthy controls. Forty hypogonadal men and 80 control subjects were enrolled. Patients with a history of pre-existing panhypopituitarism, thyroid dysfunction or inflammatory disease were excluded. Glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipid profile, insulin, testosterone and gonadotrophins were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (Homa IR). Waist circumference, body mass index and blood pressure were significantly higher in patients compared with controls. Glycemia, HbA1c, fasting serum insulin and Homa IR were significantly increased among hypogonadal men. In univariate analysis, testosterone levels were inversely correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycaemia, HbA1C, insulin, Homa IR and hsCRP. In multivariate analysis including all significant variables, initial testosterone level was the only independent risk factor for developing dyslipidaemia. With logistic regression, male hypogonadism was an independent risk factor for MS (P < 0.001). We conclude that low testosterone level plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Further prospective data are required to establish the causative link. PMID:25040289

  4. [Androgenic treatment of male hypogonadism].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Prévost, Gaëtan

    2014-02-01

    The diagnosis of male hypogonadism should be clearly established on a clinical and biological basis before considering the initiation of a substitutive treatment with androgens. A careful evaluation of advantages, constraints and limitations of the treatment should be done previously. The potential advantages of an androgenic substitution include an improvement of the symptoms of hypogonadism and the prevention of its bone and metabolic consequences. Absolute (namely prostatic) or relative contraindications should be detected before starting any substitution. The modalities of treatment will be adapted to both the patient's age and the goals to reach. The different available formulations do not induce a similar pattern of plasma testosterone levels. Patches, gel applications and long-acting intramuscular formulations [injected every 3 months] result in stable plasma levels in the physiologic range. The main limitation to their use is linked to a financial aspect as they are not the object of any refund. A careful survey (on clinical, biological and radiological basis) should be established after starting the substitutive treatment with androgens. PMID:24268959

  5. Male homosexuality: the adolescent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G

    1987-03-01

    Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction. PMID:3822631

  6. Hypogonadism in male cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Burney, Basil O; Garcia, Jose M

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hypogonadism in men with cancer has been reported between 40% and 90%, which is significantly higher than in the general population. Hypogonadism is likely to affect the quality of life in these patients by contributing to non-specific symptoms, including decreased energy, anorexia, sarcopenia, weight loss, depression, insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and sexual dysfunction. Pathogenesis of hypogonadism in cancer patients is thought to be multi-factorial. Inflammation may play an important role, but leptin, opioids, ghrelin, and high-dose chemotherapy through different mechanisms have all been implicated as the cause. Hypogonadism is also associated with poor survival in cancer patients. Data looking into the treatment of hypogonadal male cancer patients with testosterone are limited. However, improvements in body weight, muscle strength, lean body mass, and quality of life have been shown in hypogonadal men with other chronic diseases on testosterone replacement therapy. Prospective and interventional trials are needed to test the efficacy and safety of testosterone treatment in improving quality of life of these patients. PMID:22528986

  7. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Kevin A.; Bonanno, Vanessa L.

    2008-01-01

    Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae) are not known to possess sexually dimorphic weaponry. In a wild population of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, we report sexual dimorphism in head size as well as the size of mouthparts, both of which are used when aggressive contests between males escalate to physical combat. Male G. pennsylvanicus have larger heads, maxillae and mandibles than females when controlling for pronotum length. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that relatively larger weaponry conveys an advantage to males in aggressive contests. Pairs of males were selected for differences in head size and consequently were different in the size of maxillae and mandibles. In the first experiment, males were closely matched for body size (pronotum length), and in the second, they were matched for body mass. Males with proportionately larger weaponry won more fights and increasing differences in weaponry size between males increased the fighting success of the male with the larger weaponry. This was particularly true when contests escalated to grappling, the most intense level of aggression. However, neither contest duration nor intensity was related to weaponry size as predicted by models of contest settlement. These results are the first evidence that the size of the head capsule and mouthparts are under positive selection via male-male competition in field crickets, and validate 800-year-old Chinese traditional knowledge. PMID:19107188

  8. The visible human male: a technical report.

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, V; Ackerman, M J; Scherzinger, A L; Whitlock, D

    1996-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Male data set consists of digital magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and anatomic images derived from a single male cadaver. The data set is 15 gigabytes in size and is available from the National Library of Medicine under a no-cost license agreement. The history of the Visible Human Male cadaver and the methods and technology to produce the data set are described. PMID:8653448

  9. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. PMID:23775386

  10. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    PubMed

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  11. Sexy Faces in a Male Paper Wasp

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; Santos do Nascimento, Fabio; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  12. Sexually Coercive Male Chimpanzees Sire More Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Feldblum, Joseph T.; Wroblewski, Emily E.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Paiva, Thais; Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine; Pusey, Anne E.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In sexually reproducing animals, male and female reproductive strategies often conflict [1]. In some species, males use aggression to overcome female choice [2, 3], but debate persists over the extent to which this strategy is successful. Previous studies of male aggression toward females among wild chimpanzees have yielded contradictory results about the relationship between aggression and mating behavior [4-11]. Critically, however, copulation frequency in primates is not always predictive of reproductive success [12]. We analyzed a 17-year sample of behavioral and genetic data from the Kasekela chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that male aggression toward females increases male reproductive success. We examined the effect of male aggression toward females during ovarian cycling, including periods when the females were sexually receptive (swollen) and periods when they were not. We found that, after controlling for confounding factors, male aggression during a female’s swollen periods was positively correlated with copulation frequency. However, aggression toward swollen females was not predictive of paternity. Instead, aggression by high-ranking males toward females during their nonswollen periods was positively associated with likelihood of paternity. This indicates that long-term patterns of intimidation allow high-ranking males to increase their reproductive success, supporting the sexual coercion hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present genetic evidence of sexual coercion as an adaptive strategy in a social mammal. PMID:25454788

  13. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  14. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius). We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation), among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits. PMID:21827657

  15. Rogue Males: Sex Differences in Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary study into the commitment and academic confidence of male students in undergraduate psychology, prompted by our own observations of the performance of male students and the literature on sex differences in education. Method: Using an analytical survey, level 1 psychology students at a new university…

  16. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. PMID:22913441

  17. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  18. [Changes in bones in the aging males].

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E

    2007-08-01

    The report contains a summary of results on bone changes in aging male, presented during the 2nd CSSAM/ISAM North American Congress on the Aging Male. It was shown that age-related osteoporosis can be slowed in men by substitutive treatment with testosterone. Taking into account such therapy, one should remember about its adverse effects. PMID:18044351

  19. The Voices of Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Tracey; Sparrow, Abby

    2012-01-01

    What do young black males say about what stands in the way of their academic success? Rather than rely on scholarly researchers to answer this question, the authors talked with a number of black males between ages 13 and 22 in Washington D.C., and Milwaukee, Wis., to learn what they had to say. These young men rarely talked about schools or…

  20. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  1. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  2. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males.

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, H R; McIntyre, L

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from the stools of two homosexual males. One was asymptomatic at the time of isolation. The other presented with diarrhea. Both isolates were initially grown at 42 degrees C. This organism should be included among the list of organisms that are found in homosexual males. PMID:6630480

  3. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  4. Black Males in College: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S.; And Others

    Because relatively few black males successfully complete college, this study sought to determine how black male freshmen at a predominantly white university differed from other freshmen in their values, aspirations, and assumptions about college life. In the fall of 1989, the ACT Entering Student Survey, plus 30 locally developed questions, was…

  5. Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Craig J.; Goessling, Deborah Peters

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of male students who complete an undergraduate degree in the field of special education continues to be much lower than that of female graduates. Low status, low salaries, the perception of teaching as women's work, potential complaints of child abuse and sexual harassment, and a lack of male peer groups factor into this low…

  6. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  7. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  8. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  9. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  10. Uncommon Caring: Primary Males and Implicit Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James R.

    The caring and nurturing of children, which characterize primary education culture, have tended to shape a public perception of primary teaching as "women's work." Several social factors influence men's underrepresentation in the profession of primary education, such as parents not wanting their children exposed to "soft" males. Male primary…

  11. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  12. Flirtation reduces males' fecundity but not longevity.

    PubMed

    Esfandi, Kambiz; He, Xiong Zhao; Wang, Qiao

    2015-08-01

    Theory predicts that due to limited resources males should strategically adjust their investment in reproduction and survival. Based on different conceptual framework, experimental designs, and study species, many studies support while others contradict this general prediction. Using a moth Ephestia kuehniella whose adults do not feed and thus have fixed resources for their lifetime fitness, we investigated whether males adjusted their investment in various life activities under dynamic socio-sexual environment. We allowed focal males to perceive rivals or additional females without physical contact. We show that males do not adjust the number of sperm they transfer to mates in a given copulation at different immediate or both immediate and mean sperm competition levels. Contradictory to general predictions, our results demonstrate that cues from additional females increase males' investment in courtship and reduce their lifetime number of copulations and sperm ejaculated, whereas cues from rivals have no effect on these parameters. Males have similar longevity in all treatments. We suggest that the sex pheromone produced by multiple females overstimulate males, increasing males' costly flirtations, and reducing their lifetime copulation frequency and fecundity. This finding offers a novel explanation for the success of mating disruption strategy using sex pheromones in pest management. PMID:26133013

  13. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  14. Female choice for male motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

  15. Recognition Memory for Male and Female Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarmey, A. Daniel

    Sex differences in memory for human faces is reviewed. It is found that research evidence to date is not conclusive, but where differences exist they favor female superiority over males in facial memory. In particular, evidence is cited to suggest that females are reliably superior to males in their recognition memory for other females. This is…

  16. Research directions in male sex work.

    PubMed

    Browne, J; Minichiello, V

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of the literature relating to male sex work and outlines approaches to theorizing about and researching male sex work. The adequacy of these models to explain the male sex work industry is discussed. The literature reveals that earlier studies conceptualized male sex work as deviance and focused on the individual sex worker and his reasons for engaging in sex work. Although the research agenda has recently moved away from the individual sex worker towards the sex work industry, the focus of the investigation continues to be from a deviance rather than a work perspective. A number of aspects of male sex work have received little attention in the literature. These include the interpersonal dialogues and power relations that constitute the commercial sexual negotiation, the role of political and economic forces, and expressions of male sexuality within the practice of commercial sex. The paper suggests future research directions and argues that researchers need to draw on the strengths of the male sex work community in order to promote safe sex practices in commercial researchers need to draw on the strengths of the male sex work community in order to promote safe sex practices in commercial sexual settings. PMID:8905528

  17. Enhancing Minority Male Enrollment: Students as Mentors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolar, Steven M.; Cowles, James

    During the 1991-92 academic year, Cumberland County College (CCC), in New Jersey, initiated a mentor program to encourage enrollment of male minority high school seniors in postsecondary institutions. Twenty Black and Hispanic males in their senior year of high school participated in the program; all 20 were accepted to an accredited college…

  18. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  19. Conditional monogyny: female quality predicts male faithfulness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Male monogyny in the absence of paternal investment is arguably one of the most puzzling mating systems. Recent evidence suggests that males of monogynous species adjust their life-history and their mating decision to shifting spatial and temporal selection regimes. In the cannibalistic wasp spider Argiope bruennichi males can be either monogynous or mate with a maximum of two females. We studied factors underlying male mating decisions in a natural population over a whole mating season. We documented all matings and categorized the males into single-mated and double-mated monogynous as well as bigynous males. Results We found that all categories were continuously present with relatively stable frequencies despite changes in the operational sex ratio. Males were more likely monogynous when copulating with relatively heavy and old females and otherwise bigynous. Conclusion Our results imply that males make conditional mating decisions based on the quality of the first female they encounter but do not adjust their mating tactic to the local selection regime. PMID:22533854

  20. The Male Voice of Emotional Intimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohey, Denise; Ewing, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Inability to hear or understand the male voice of intimacy creates difficulty in relationships. Listening to relational dialogues of intimacy based on feminine relational strengths may preclude understanding or hearing males voices. Reviews special issue of the "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" on counseling men, concluding with several…

  1. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  2. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  3. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna L; Levitan, Don R; Hosken, David J; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  4. Estimation of Male Gene Flow: Use Caution.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Singh, Sujeet; Aspi, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Because male gene flow cannot easily be estimated directly in many organisms, Hedrick et al. (2013) provided an approach to estimate male gene flow given estimates of diploid nuclear and female differentiation. This approach appears to work well when there is lower female than male gene flow. However, in a tiger data set there was less female differentiation observed as estimated by mitochondrial DNA than expected given the observed overall nuclear diploid differentiation. To analyze these data, we suggest an alternative approach which allows incorporation of sex-specific gene flow and sex-specific effective population size. We find that the pattern of differentiation observed in tigers was consistent with a lower male than female effective population size using this alternative approach. Further, this finding is consistent with observed data in tigers where the male effective population size was 33% that of the female effective population size. PMID:26464090

  5. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  6. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  7. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A E

    1984-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa or bulimia in adolescent males occurs ten times less frequently than in adolescent females. When they occur, however, they can be clearly identified and differentiated from disorders also associated with weight loss such as swallowing phobias. Early diagnosis and treatment leads to improved outcome. While the formal psychopathology of male anorectics is similar to that of females, there is often a different motivation for the initial weight loss in males. They are more often concerned with attaining an idealized male body and avoiding teasing or criticism about their appearance. When males become ill, they tend to develop the full anorectic syndrome or not to become ill at all. Recognition of the special needs of adolescent males for individualized treatment increases the change of optimal outcome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the teenage male should be seen as an ineffective method of dealing with developmental crises by gaining a sense of effectiveness and control through weight reduction and food restriction. Treatment seeks to improve quickly the starvation-related aspects of the illness while attempting to find more appropriate methods of dealing with the life crises prompting the illness. The real goal of treatment is to make the anorectic or bulimic illness unnecessary by encouraging the patient to continue the work of individuation and separation so that challenges in development and problems in living are resolved in a direct rather than an indirect way through an eating disorder. PMID:6596548

  8. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  9. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  10. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  11. Conflict over Male Parentage in Social Insects

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Mutual policing is an important mechanism that maintains social harmony in group-living organisms by suppressing the selfish behavior of individuals. In social insects, workers police one another (worker-policing) by preventing individual workers from laying eggs that would otherwise develop into males. Within the framework of Hamilton's rule there are two explanations for worker-policing behavior. First, if worker reproduction is cost-free, worker-policing should occur only where workers are more closely related to queen- than to worker-produced male eggs (relatedness hypothesis). Second, if there are substantial costs to unchecked worker reproduction, worker-policing may occur to counteract these costs and increase colony efficiency (efficiency hypothesis). The first explanation predicts that patterns of the parentage of males (male parentage) are associated with relatedness, whereas the latter does not. We have investigated how male parentage varies with colony kin structure and colony size in 50 species of ants, bees, and wasps in a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis. Our survey revealed that queens produced the majority of males in most of the species and that workers produced more than half of the males in less than 10% of species. Moreover, we show that male parentage does not vary with relatedness as predicted by the relatedness hypothesis. This indicates that intra- and interspecific variation in male parentage cannot be accounted for by the relatedness hypothesis alone and that increased colony efficiency is an important factor responsible for the evolution of worker-policing. Our study reveals greater harmony and more complex regulation of reproduction in social insect colonies than that expected from simple theoretical expectations based on relatedness only. PMID:15328531

  12. Inbreeding effect on male and female fertility and inheritance of male sterility in Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Nadilia N; Shaw, Ruth G

    2006-05-01

    Models of the evolution of gynodioecy assume that inbreeding affects male and female fertility equally and ignore quantitative variation in sex expression. The objectives of this study were to assess inbreeding effects, genetic background, and plant maturity on male and female fertility and the mechanism of male sterility inheritance for Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae). Frequency of male-sterile flowers, number of anthers and ovules, and percentage of viable pollen were measured on plants from different pedigrees and five inbreeding levels (F = 0, 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75). Quantitative variation in male sterility was evident. As inbreeding increased, anther and ovule number decreased; the effect on anther number was greater than on ovule number. Pedigrees varied in number of male-sterile flowers and inbreeding effects. Frequency of male-sterile flowers was greatest among first flowers. No trade-off between male and female fertility was detected. A model attributing male sterility to a cytoplasmic locus and restoration to male fertility to a nuclear locus accounted for the distribution of complete sterility and hermaphroditism over the pedigrees. This study suggests that models of the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy should allow for quantitative variation in male and female fertility components due to inbreeding, pedigree, and plant maturity. PMID:21642137

  13. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. PMID:24455130

  14. Experimentally increased badge size increases male competition and reduces male parental care in the collared flycatcher

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnstroöm, A.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental enlargement of sexually selected traits that are energetically cheap to produce is expected to reveal costs resulting from increased risk of predation or social competition. Given a trade-off between sexually selected traits and life history traits such costs may be expected to affect not only the males themselves but also their offspring. In this study I manipulated the size of the forehead patch, a sexually selected trait that functions as a badge of status in male collared flycatchersFicedula albicollis). First, I found that a male's likelihood to establish a breeding territory with respect to his original badge size was affected by the treatment such that old males (older than or equal to two years) with relatively small original badges enjoyed an increased likelihood of establishing a breeding territory while young males (yearlings) suffered a reduced likelihood of establishment when their badges were enlarged as compared to unchanged. Second, young males with enlarged badges that were able to establish a territory fed their nestlings less in relation to their females compared to the control males. However, the females adjusted their parental effort to such an extent that no significant differences were observed in total feeding rate nor in reproductive success between the two groups of males. These results suggest that experimentally enlarged badge size in the collared flycatcher may result in increased male competition and that males have to trade their effort spent in male contest against their parental effort.

  15. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males' nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  16. Male mammals respond to a risk of sperm competition conveyed by odours of conspecific males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2004-09-01

    Sperm competition occurs when a female copulates with two or more males and the sperm of those males compete within the female's reproductive tract to fertilize her eggs. The frequent occurrence of sperm competition has forced males of many species to develop different strategies to overcome the sperm of competing males. A prevalent strategy is for males to increase their sperm investment (total number of sperm allocated by a male to a particular female) after detecting a risk of sperm competition. It has been shown that the proportion of sperm that one male contributes to the sperm pool of a female is correlated with the proportion of offspring sired by that male. Therefore, by increasing his sperm investment a male may bias a potential sperm competition in his favour. Here we show that male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm investment when they mate in the presence of another male's odours. Such an increase in sperm investment does not occur by augmenting the frequency of ejaculations, but by increasing the amount of sperm in a similar number of ejaculations.

  17. Social modulation of androgens in male birds.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    Most seasonally reproducing vertebrates show pronounced changes in testosterone levels throughout the year. The Challenge Hypothesis [Wingfield, J.C., Hegner, R.E., Dufty, A.M., Ball, G. F., 1990. The "challenge hypothesis": theoretical implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating systems, and breeding strategies. Am. Nat. 136, 829-846] predicts that seasonal patterns in circulating androgen concentrations vary as a function of mating system, male-male aggression and paternal care. In most comparative studies, the predictions of the Challenge Hypothesis have been tested primarily by calculating the ratio between breeding peak and breeding baseline testosterone concentrations, using this ratio as a proxy for the effect that social interactions have on testosterone levels (androgen responsiveness R). Recently, we suggested that it is preferable to separate the seasonal testosterone response (R(season)) from the androgen responsiveness to male-male interactions (R(male-male)), as these two measures do not correlate and can differ both in magnitude and direction [Goymann, W., Landys, M.M., Wingfield, J.C., 2007. Distinguishing seasonal androgen responses from male-male androgen responsiveness-revisiting the Challenge Hypothesis. Horm. Behav. 51, 463-476]. Here, I discuss several methodological and ecological factors that may explain why R(season) and R(male-male) differ. Furthermore, I describe three other kinds of androgen responsiveness, namely the androgen responsiveness of males to receptive females (R(male-female)), to non-social environmental cues (R(environment)), and the potential androgen responsiveness (R(potential)). The latter is measured before and after an injection of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which typically leads to a maximal release of testosterone from the testes. I argue that separation of different kinds of androgen responsiveness and putting them into context with the natural history and ecology of a study species may

  18. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues. PMID:26746134

  19. Overview and trends in male grooming.

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    2012-03-01

    The use of cosmetics and medical cosmetic procedures by men has been widely ignored in dermatological research in the past, but it is finding increasing attention. As men are changing their habits and increasingly tend to use cosmetic products, the dermatologist will be asked for expert advice regarding efficacy and safety of cosmetics for male skin. For this service, dermatologists need to be aware of anatomical and physiological differences between male and female skin, about specific environmental stress factors affecting male skin, about cosmetic practices and product use especially regarding shaving, and about the counselling needs in men relating to protective cosmetic use. PMID:22385028

  20. Male Pectoral Implants: Radiographic Appearance of Complications.

    PubMed

    Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Damitz, Lynn; Burke, Rachael; Hwang, Michael

    2016-03-01

    There has been a significant surge in aesthetic chest surgery for men in the last several years. Male chest enhancement is performed with surgical placement of a solid silicone pectoral implant. In the past, male chest correction and implantation were limited to the treatment of men who had congenital absence or atrophy of the pectoralis muscle and pectus excavatum deformity. But today, the popularization of increased chest and pectoral size fostered by body builders has more men desiring chest correction with implantation for non-medical reasons. We present a case of a 44-year-old, male with a displaced left pectoral implant with near extrusion and with an associated peri-implant soft tissue mass and fluid collection. While the imaging of these patients is uncommon, our case study presents the radiographic findings of male chest enhancement with associated complications. PMID:27200162

  1. Asymptomatic gonorrhoea in a male patient.

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, B.; Teli, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A case of asymptomatic gonorrhoea in a male patient is described. Failure to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoea from his wife possibly demonstrates inhibitory effect of Candida albicans in vivo on the former organism. PMID:6436805

  2. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... PATIENT FACT SHEET Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility When a couple has trouble having a baby, ... to find out what may be causing your infertility. Semen analysis Semen analysis is probably the first ...

  3. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Kaiyumars B; Kaur, Kanchan; Rodrigues, Gabriel S; Kulkarni, Dhananjay M; Singhal, Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease. PMID:18558006

  4. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... decreases. The level of the male sex hormone, testosterone stays the same or decreases gradually. There may ... less intense. This may be related to decreased testosterone level. It may also result from psychological or ...

  5. Dwarf males in the teredinidae (bivalvia, pholadacea).

    PubMed

    Turner, R D; Yakovlev, Y

    1983-03-01

    Extreme sexual dimorphism in the Bivalvia is rare. The occurrence of dwarf males in Zachsia appears to be the first case in the Teredinidae and the first outside the Leptonacea. Female Zachsia release straight-hinge larvae that develop in the plankton and settle on living rhizomes of Phyllospadix. Larvae entering mantle pouches of females become males. Evolution of this life history pattern is tied to problems of living in a fragile, patchy habitat-that is, the rhizomes of Phyllospadix. PMID:17811751

  6. Aesthetic Surgery of the Male Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Gary J.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revision in patients with previous surgery. PMID:22851910

  7. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia.

    PubMed

    Alter, Gary J; Salgado, Christopher J; Chim, Harvey

    2011-08-01

    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revision in patients with previous surgery. PMID:22851910

  8. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males’ nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  9. Self-Exposure to the Male Pheromone ESP1 Enhances Male Aggressiveness in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Tatsuya; Osakada, Takuya; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Matsuo, Naoki; Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Nishida, Takaya; Mori, Yuji; Mogi, Kazutaka; Touhara, Kazushige; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-05-01

    Exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) released into male tear fluids is a male pheromone that stimulates sexually receptive behavior in female mice via the vomeronasal sensory system. ESP1 also induces c-Fos expression in male brain regions distinct from those in females. However, behavior in males following ESP1 exposure has not been examined. In the present study, we show that ESP1, in conjunction with unfamiliar male urine, enhances male aggression via the specific vomeronasal receptor V2Rp5. In addition, male mice that secrete ESP1 but lack V2Rp5 exhibit a lower level of aggressiveness than do mice that express V2Rp5. These results suggest that ESP1 not only acts as a male pheromone in both sexes but also serves as an auto-stimulatory factor that enhances male aggressiveness by self-exposure. Finally, re-activation of ESP1-induced c-Fos-positive neurons by using the designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) approach resulted in enhancement of sexual and aggressive behaviors in female and male mice, respectively, indicating that sexually dimorphic activation in the brain is a neural basis for the sex-specific behavioral responses to ESP1. PMID:27151664

  10. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms.

    PubMed

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  11. Impact of Metformin on Male Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carolina; Sousa, Mário; Rabaça, Ana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G; Sá, Rosália

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility has been increasing over the last decades being nowadays a pressing health problem. Diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute directly or indirectly to male infertility due to an abnormal spermatogenesis, which results in a decreased sperm quality. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is responsible for the vast majority of DM cases, being frequently treated with oral antidiabetic drugs. Metformin is the most cost-effective therapy for the treatment of T2DM. This biguanide is an oral insulin-sensitizing agent capable of increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing plasma fasting insulin levels. The main metabolic action of this drug occurs in the liver. However, it has been shown that metformin acts on a variety of organs including the male reproductive system. With the rising numbers of diabetic individuals among younger populations, there is an increase in the consumption of metformin in individuals of this age group. As a result, it is important to discuss the role of metformin in male fertility. This review presents the most recent data available from studies on the effects of metformin on male reproductive system. Together with the discussion of these effects, their significance to male fertility is also debated. PMID:26166607

  12. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

  13. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    PubMed Central

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  14. Roaring function in male goitered gazelles.

    PubMed

    Blank, D A; Ruckstuhl, K; Yang, W

    2014-07-01

    Most of the vocalizations of Antilopinae males are soft and usually only heard from a very close distance. The goitered gazelle is a rare exception to this rule, and during the rutting period territorial males of this species are among the noisiest antelopes. Rutting vocalization is such an essential part of the rutting behavior in goitered gazelle that adult males have a hypertrophic larynx, the muscle tissues of which increase considerably in size during the rut. We were interested in the frequency and variance with which male goitered gazelles emit their calls depending on an animal's age, reproductive status and time of the year in order to understand the main function of the rutting vocalizations. We found that roaring was mostly related to courting displays, while vocalizations during aggressive displays were less frequent in male-male interactions. Acoustic signals likely enhance courtship displays and also may aid in accelerating female ovulation, promoting synchronization of breeding cycles during the mating and birthing periods, which last only several days for most of the females in our population. We discuss the potential benefits of such behaviors and compare it to other species living in similarly extreme environments. PMID:24915642

  15. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  16. The Relationship between the High School's Performance and Students' College Attendance Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Gary; Tanner, David

    2012-01-01

    Declining college admission test scores during the 1970s raised concerns that America's primary schools were inadequately preparing students for college or the workforce. Rock's (1985) analysis of SAT scores indicated that seniors in 1980 scoring at the 50th percentile for vocabulary would have placed at the 41st percentile in 1972. Mathematics…

  17. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  18. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  19. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  20. Male Courtship in Drosophila: The Conditioned Response to Immature Males and Its Genetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Gailey, Donald A.; Jackson, F. Rob; Siegel, Richard W.

    1982-01-01

    Experimentally naive male Drosophila melanogaster respond to sexually immature males with intense courtship. However, this response decreases markedly in a short period of time, and "experienced" males then avoid further courtship with immature males for 4 hr. This subsequent inhibition of the courtship response is specific to immature males; the response to virgin females remains intact. This experience-dependent modification in courtship behavior is designated as "conditioned courtship." Seven mutant strains isolated for their inability to express avoidance conditioning (on criteria independent of courtship) were all found to be mutant with respect to expression of conditioned courtship. The potential application of this phenomenon to mosaic analysis of these mutations is posed. Other results indicate that immature males constitutively release a chemical signal that is sufficient for the expression of conditioned courtship. The interpretation of conditioned courtship as a component of fitness is discussed. PMID:17246097

  1. Male-on-male sexual assaults: an analysis of crime scene actions.

    PubMed

    Almond, Louise; McManus, Michelle A; Ward, Lydia

    2014-05-01

    While the concept of male victimization is not a new phenomenon, the sexual assault of a male is a relatively new notion, emerging over the last 30 years in social research literature. Studies of female rape, pedophilia, and juvenile sex offenders have suggested that different styles of offending are reflected in the different types of behaviors committed by offenders at the crime scene. These studies suggest that there are three distinct themes of behavior: Control, Hostility, and Involvement. Using the crime scene actions of 305 male-on-male sexual assault from a U.K. national police database, multidimensional analysis was carried out. The proposed framework was found to be a useful way of classifying male-on-male sexual assaulters with 74% displaying a dominant theme. These resulted in 42% classified as displaying hostility, 23% as control, and 9% as involvement. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24255070

  2. Steroid sulfatase gene in XX males.

    PubMed Central

    Mohandas, T K; Stern, H J; Meeker, C A; Passage, M B; Müller, U; Page, D C; Yen, P H; Shapiro, L J

    1990-01-01

    The human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine at their distal short arms during male meiosis. Recent studies indicate that the majority of XX males arise as a result of an aberrant exchange between X and Y chromosomes such that the testis-determining factor gene (TDF) is transferred from a Y chromatid to an X chromatid. It has been shown that X-specific loci such as that coding for the red cell surface antigen, Xg, are sometimes lost from the X chromosome in this aberrant exchange. The steroid sulfatase functional gene (STS) maps to the distal short arm of the X chromosome proximal to XG. We have asked whether STS is affected in the aberrant X-Y interchange leading to XX males. DNA extracted from fibroblasts of seven XX males known to contain Y-specific sequences in their genomic DNA was tested for dosage of the STS gene by using a specific genomic probe. Densitometry of the autoradiograms showed that these XX males have two copies of the STS gene, suggesting that the breakpoint on the X chromosome in the aberrant X-Y interchange is distal to STS. To obtain more definitive evidence, cell hybrids were derived from the fusion of mouse cells, deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, and fibroblasts of the seven XX males. The X chromosomes in these patients could be distinguished from each other when one of three X-linked restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms was used. Hybrid clones retaining a human X chromosome containing Y-specific sequences in the absence of the normal X chromosome could be identified in six of the seven cases of XX males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2301402

  3. How does lead induce male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Smith, Derek R.; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2011-01-01

    An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects. PMID:25356074

  4. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  5. Variably male-biased sex ratio in a marine bird with females larger than males.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Drummond, H

    1999-01-01

    When the costs of rearing males and females differ progeny sex ratios are expected to be biased toward the less expensive sex. Blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) females are larger and roughly 32% heavier than males, thus presumably more costly to rear. We recorded hatching and fledging sex ratios in 1989, and fledging sex ratios during the next 5 years. In 1989, the sample of 751 chicks showed male bias at hatching (56%) and at fledging (57% at 90 days). Fledging sex ratios during the five subsequent reproductive seasons were at unity (1 year) or male-biased, varying from 56% to 70%. Male bias was greater during years when mean sea surface temperature was warmer and food was presumably in short supply. During two warm-water years (only) fledging sex ratio varied with hatching date. Proportions of male fledglings increased with date from 0.48 to 0.73 in 1994, and from 0.33 to 0.79 in 1995. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was repeated using only broods with no nestling mortality, suggesting that the overall increase in the proportion of males over the season was the result of sex ratio adjustments at hatching. The male-biased sex ratio, and the increased male bias during poor breeding conditions supports the idea that daughters may be more costly than sons, and that their relative cost increases in poor conditions. PMID:20135156

  6. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: familial male-limited precocious puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... and luteinizing hormone triggers these cells to produce androgens. Androgens, including testosterone, are the hormones that control male ... chorionic gonadotropin. In males, the overactive receptor causes excess production of testosterone, which triggers male sexual development ...

  9. Male pregnancy and biparental immune priming.

    PubMed

    Roth, Olivia; Klein, Verena; Beemelmanns, Anne; Scharsack, Jörn P; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2012-12-01

    In vertebrates, maternal transfer of immunity via the eggs or placenta provides offspring with crucial information on prevailing pathogens and parasites. Males contribute little to such transgenerational immune priming, either because they do not share the environment and parasite pressure of the offspring or because sperm are too small for transfer of immunity. In the teleost group of Syngnathids (pipefish, seahorses, and sea dragons), males brood female eggs in a placenta-like structure. Such sex-role-reversed species provide a unique opportunity to test for adaptive plasticity in immune transfer. Here, males and females should both influence offspring immunity. We experimentally tested paternal effects on offspring immunity by examining immune cell proliferation and immune gene expression. Maternal and paternal bacterial exposure induced offspring immune defense 5 weeks after hatching, and this effect persisted in 4-month-old offspring. For several offspring immune traits, double parental exposure (maternal and paternal) enhanced the response, whereas for another group of immune traits, the transgenerational induction already took place if only one parent was exposed. Our study shows that sex role reversal in connection with male pregnancy opens the door for biparental influences on offspring immunity and may represent an additional advantage for the evolution of male pregnancy. PMID:23149404

  10. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  11. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Capurro, Margareth L.; Alphey, Luke; Donnelly, Christl A.; McKemey, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings The dispersal ability of released ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8m (95% CI: 49.9m, 56.8m) and Malaysia: 58.0m (95% CI: 51.1m, 71.0m). Conclusions/Significance Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects’ dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti. PMID:26554922

  12. Biochemical endocrinology of the hypogonadal male.

    PubMed

    Belchetz, Paul E; Barth, Julian H; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    Hypogonadism in the male results from inadequate testicular function, especially defects in androgen synthesis and secretion, or action. Androgen action is important throughout normal male development: in the fetus, puberty, adult life and old age. Regulation is by variable activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis at different phases of the life span. Clinical aspects include: genetic aspects presenting at birth and pubertal failure/arrest. Aspects in adult life embrace sexuality, somatic symptoms and osteoporosis. Acquired causes of hypogonadism may arise from various forms of testicular damage (primary hypogonadism), pituitary and hypothalamic disorders, as well as aetiologies acting at several sites. Measurement of testosterone (T) is crucial to the diagnosis of hypogonadism and the technologies continue to develop, with recent major advances. A growing problem relates to the diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. T therapy is available in several forms, with major improvements in more newly available modalities. PMID:20956400

  13. Male rape victim and perpetrator blaming.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-06-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance. Perpetrator blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance and sex-role egalitarianism. Differences were found in victim and perpetrator blaming in terms of stranger and acquaintance rape and also in relation to manipulating the level of rape myths. Findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature on rape victim and perpetrator blaming. PMID:19738198

  14. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male’s reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. PMID:20933122

  15. [Male reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-jiao; Qiao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine disruptors has attracted substantial attention from researchers in recent years. Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the most prominent environmental estrogens worldwide, demonstrated to be related with the impairment of male reproductive function as well as other health problems, such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. BPA acts primarily by mimicking antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects, disturbing the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and modulating gene expressions and enzyme activities in the hormone biosynthesis affecting steroids or its receptors. BPA is also involved in DNA methylation and the effects of epigenetics, resulting in dyszoospermia, oligoasthenoteratospermia/azoospermia and/or infertility in males. This review addresses the effects of BPA on male reproductive function, focusing on the mechanisms of its toxicity on spermatogenesis, semen quality, and the reproductive system. PMID:26738332

  16. [A case of a 46XX male].

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Takaba, H; Miyake, K

    1990-01-01

    A 37-year-old man consulted our hospital with a complaint of male infertility. He was masculine but 159.9 cm in height. His beard, axillary hair and pubic hair were all normal. The penis and scrotum were also normal, but bilateral testes were very small (1 ml. respectively). Semen analysis revealed azoospermia. Endocrinological examination showed elevated serum lactating hormone and follicle stimulating hormone level, and extremely low level of serum testosterone. Testicular biopsy disclosed severely hyalinized seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue could be detected. The chromosomal analysis revealed a karyotype of 46 XX. This case was diagnosed as a case of 46XX male. The Japanese literature of 46XX male is reviewed. PMID:2178370

  17. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables. PMID:15676598

  18. Advances in the management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Haidl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Male infertility can be treated by surgical procedures (e.g., varicocelectomy) or by administration of drugs if causal factors (e.g., seminal tract infections) are detected. In more severe cases, methods of assisted fertilization often have to be applied, but even these have only a limited success rate. Recent studies have demonstrated that disturbances of sperm DNA integrity (determined by the acridine orange test) can explain certain cases of fertilization failure and failure to achieve pregnancy following in vitro fertilisation with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The evaluation of DNA integrity should be considered when diagnosing male infertility as it has been shown to be an independent factor and can be used as a supplement to standard semen analysis. Analysis of DNA integrity may, therefore, provide further information about altered male fertility and lead to administration of more appropriate therapy. PMID:20948685

  19. Japanese male gay and bisexual identity.

    PubMed

    Harada, M

    2001-01-01

    Few studies have ever dealt with Japanese male gay and bisexual identity. This exploratory study investigated gay and bisexual identity through interviews of 34 Japanese gay and bisexual men. Though Japan has unique cultural aspects that are different from Western countries, it can be shown that Western concepts or models of homosexual identity are applicable to a considerable extent to Japanese gay and bisexual men. The results of this study suggest that there are two distinct types of Japanese men sexually interested in men, which the author will call "bisexual" and "gay." These two types are compared in terms of three aspects: self-identity, sexual preference, and social identity and role. A significant number of respondents have careers or vocations in the arts. This study touches on the correlation between art and male-male sexual orientation in Japan. PMID:12013576

  20. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration. PMID:16575710

  1. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Iaccarino, Vittorio Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  2. Solar particle event organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews: variations due to body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, E. N.; Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to critical body organs of spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation require accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through the spacecraft and overlying tissue. When estimating astronaut radiation organ doses and dose equivalents it is customary to use the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model of human geometry to account for body self-shielding. Usually, the distribution for the 50th percentile man (175 cm height; 70 kg mass) is used. Most male members of the U.S. astronaut corps are taller and nearly all have heights that deviate from the 175 cm mean. In this work, estimates of critical organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews exposed to an event similar to the October 1989 solar particle event are presented for male body sizes that vary from the 5th to the 95th percentiles. Overall the results suggest that calculations of organ dose and dose equivalent may vary by as much as approximately 15% as body size is varied from the 5th to the 95th percentile in the population used to derive the CAM model data. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Solar particle event organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews: variations due to body size.

    PubMed

    Zapp, E N; Townsend, L W; Cucinotta, F A

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to critical body organs of spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation require accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through the spacecraft and overlying tissue. When estimating astronaut radiation organ doses and dose equivalents it is customary to use the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model of human geometry to account for body self-shielding. Usually, the distribution for the 50th percentile man (175 cm height; 70 kg mass) is used. Most male members of the U.S. astronaut corps are taller and nearly all have heights that deviate from the 175 cm mean. In this work, estimates of critical organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews exposed to an event similar to the October 1989 solar particle event are presented for male body sizes that vary from the 5th to the 95th percentiles. Overall the results suggest that calculations of organ dose and dose equivalent may vary by as much as approximately 15% as body size is varied from the 5th to the 95th percentile in the population used to derive the CAM model data. PMID:12539772

  4. Differential association of cardiorespiratory fitness and central adiposity among US adolescents and adults: A quantile regression approach.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Samantha M; Ortaglia, Andrew; Bottai, Matteo; Supino, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies assessing the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and waist circumference (WC) have often restricted their evaluation to the association of CRF on average WC. Consequently, the assessment of important variations in the relationship of CRF across the WC distribution was precluded. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the association between CRF and the distribution of WC using quantile regression. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 1999-2004 NHANES. Participants (n=8260) aged 12-49years with complete data on estimated maximal oxygen consumption and WC were included. Quantile regression models were performed to assess the association between CRF and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th WC percentiles and were adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. For male and female adolescents with high CRF compared to low-fit counterparts, significant negative estimates (2.8 to 20.2cm and 2.3 to 11.2cm, respectively) were observed across most WC percentiles. Similarly, among male and female adults, high CRF was associated with significant reductions in WC across all percentiles (9.5 to 12.0cm and 3.7 to 9.2cm, respectively). For both populations, an increasing trend in the magnitude of the association of high CRF across the WC percentiles was observed. CRF appears to have a differential relationship across the WC distribution with the largest reductions in WC were found among high-fit individuals with the greatest amount of central adiposity (WC≥90th percentile). Additionally, this differential association highlights the significant limitations of statistical techniques used in previous analyses which focused on the center of the distribution. PMID:27002254

  5. The importance of female choice, male-male competition, and signal transmission as causes of selection on male mating signals.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Beckers, Laura; Cocroft, Reginald B

    2010-11-01

    Selection on advertisement signals arises from interacting sources including female choice, male-male competition, and the communication channel (i.e., the signaling environment). To identify the contribution of individual sources of selection, we used previously quantified relationships between signal traits and each putative source to predict relationships between signal variation and fitness in Enchenopa binotata treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae). We then measured phenotypic selection on signals and compared predicted and realized relationships between signal traits and mating success. We recorded male signals, then measured lifetime mating success at two population densities in a realistic environment in which sources of selection could interact. We identified which sources best predicted the relationship between signal variation and mating success using a multiple regression approach. All signal traits were under selection in at least one of the two breeding seasons measured, and in some cases selection was variable between years. Female preference was the strongest source of selection shaping male signals. The E. binotata species complex is a model of ecological speciation initiated by host shifts. Signal and preference divergence contribute to behavioral isolation within the complex, and the finding that female mate preferences drive signal evolution suggests that speciation in this group results from both ecological divergence and sexual selection. PMID:20624180

  6. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. PMID:23682065

  7. Hate crimes against gay males: an overview.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G

    2004-03-01

    As the United States has become more multicultural and diverse, there has been an increase in violence motivated by hate. Hate crimes against gay males are the most prevalent of the hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Hate crimes have their roots in normative, individual, and societal attitudes and ideologies that lead to intimidation, bullying, teasing, physical assault, rape, and murder. This paper provides an overview of the issues specific to hate crime assaults against gay males. Mental health nurses may find this knowledge useful in developing further nursing inquiry, education, and clinical practice related to hate crime and violence prevention. PMID:14726266

  8. Hormone-Based Treatments in Subfertile Males.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan P; Chandrapal, Jason C; Hotaling, James M

    2016-08-01

    Subfertility is defined as the condition of being less than normally fertile though still capable of effecting fertilization. When these subfertile couples seek assistance for conception, a thorough evaluation of male endocrine function is often overlooked. Spermatogenesis is a complex process where even subtle alterations in this process can lead to subfertility or infertility. Male endocrine abnormalities may suggest a specific diagnosis contributing to subfertility; however, in many patients, the underlying etiology is still unknown. Optimizing underlying endocrine abnormalities may improve spermatogenesis and fertility. This manuscript reviews reproductive endocrine abnormalities and hormone-based treatments. PMID:27292256

  9. Giant Intraperitoneal Multiloculated Pseudocyst in a Male

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal pseudocysts are rare and may be difficult to differentiate from other malignant neoplasms. Reports of occurrences are mainly associated with long-term intraperitoneal catheter use, intraperitoneal catheter infections, or major pelvic surgery in females, although there are few reported incidences without prior trauma. We present a case of a male patient found to have a 19 × 15 × 9 cm intraperitoneal pseudocyst with other multiloculated areas and a history of a right inguinal hernia repair. After a thorough review of the literature, this is the first multiloculated nonpancreatic pseudocyst reported in a male patient. PMID:27022497

  10. Sexy males and choosy females on exploded leks: correlates of male attractiveness in the Little Bustard.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    In their choice of mates, females may use alternative tactics, including a comparative assessment of males in a population, using one or several relative preference criteria. Traits involved in female choice should presumably be variable between, but not within males, thus potentially providing reliable cues of male identity and quality for prospecting females. In lekking species, sexual selection is usually intense, and females can freely choose mates. Studying the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, a bird with an exploded lek mating system, we first identified male phenotypic traits that showed higher among, than within variation (plumage pattern, display rates and call structure). Among those and other traits (ornaments and their symmetry, body condition, lek spatial organization and territory quality), we identified phenotypic traits that correlated with male attractiveness toward females. At least four phenotypic male traits were correlated with female attraction, i.e. body condition, lek attendance, ornamental symmetry and display rates. Traits related to the initial female attraction on male territory seem to differ from traits related to the decision of females to stay in the territory of attractive males. PMID:24440985

  11. Bodice Rippers without the Bodice: Ten Male-on-Male Romances for a Core Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Devon

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest growing segments of the romance genre is male-on-male (M/M) romance--gay romantic fiction mostly written and read by straight women. Featuring traditional romance conventions, including mistaken identities, star-crossed lovers, and happy endings, these stories show both physical and emotional intimacy between men. M/M builds on…

  12. Self-Concept and Psychological Adjustment Differences Between Self-Identified Male Transexuals and Male Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roback, Howard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)

  13. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  14. Let's Hear It from the Males: Issues Facing Male Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, P.

    2005-01-01

    As the number of male teachers in primary schools continues to decrease, the resultant gender imbalance has become the focus of increased discussion and debate. While the reasons for the decline in the number of males enrolling in teacher education are complex and multi-faceted, four factors which have been identified as contributing to the…

  15. Negotiating the "White Male Math Myth": African American Male Students and Success in School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…

  16. Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities.

    PubMed

    Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de

    2016-09-01

    Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes). PMID:27067711

  17. Rogue Males? Approaches to Study and Academic Performance of Male Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Lalage; Sander, Paul; Mercer, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study explored the approach to study and academic performance of a group of male psychology undergraduates. In induction week, 112 new psychology students completed the survey. Later in the year, some of the males were interviewed in small groups. Performance was measured from marks at the end of Years 1 and 3. In Year…

  18. Distinguishing seasonal androgen responses from male-male androgen responsiveness-revisiting the Challenge Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Landys, Meta M; Wingfield, John C

    2007-04-01

    Androgen levels show strong patterns throughout the year in male vertebrates and play an important role in the seasonal modulation of the frequency, intensity and persistence of aggression. The Challenge Hypothesis (Wingfield, J.C., Hegner, R.E., Dufty, A.M., Ball, G.F., 1990. The "Challenge Hypothesis": Theoretical implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating systems, and breeding strategies. Am. Nat. 136, 829-846) predicts that seasonal patterns in androgen levels vary as a function of mating system, male-male aggression and paternal care. Although many studies have addressed these predictions, investigators have often assumed that the ratio of the breeding season maximum and breeding baseline concentrations (termed "androgen responsiveness") reflects hormonal responses due to social stimulation. However, increasing evidence suggests that seasonal androgen elevations are not necessarily caused by social interactions between males. Here, we separate the seasonal androgen response (R(seasonal)) and the androgen responsiveness to male-male competition (R(male-male)) to begin to distinguish between different kinds of hormonal responses. We demonstrate that R(seasonal) and R(male-male) are fundamentally different and should be treated as separate variables. Differences are particularly evident in single-brooded male birds that show no increase in plasma androgen levels during simulated territorial intrusions (STIs), even though R(seasonal) is elevated. In multiple-brooded species, STIs typically elicit a rise in androgens. We relate these findings to the natural history of single- and multiple-brooded species and suggest a research approach that could be utilized to increase our understanding of the factors that determine different types of androgen responses. This approach does not only include R(seasonal) and R(male-male), but also the androgen responsiveness to receptive females (R(male-female)) and to non-social environmental cues (R

  19. Naltrexone effects on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in stressed male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R

    2009-02-16

    Chronic physical or psychological stress disrupts male reproductive function. Studies in our laboratory have shown that stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) and by electrical foot shocks (EFS) has inhibitory effects on male sexual behavior; these effects do not seem to be mediated by an increase in corticosterone, nor by a decrease in testosterone. On the other hand, it is known that endogenous opioids are released in the brain in response to these same stressors; consequently, they could be participating in the impairment of sexual behavior, as well as in the changes in corticosterone and testosterone caused by stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in both stressed sexually experienced and naive male rats. Sexually experienced adult male rats were assigned to one of the following groups (n=10 each): 1) control group, males without sexual evaluation; 2) control group, rats injected ip with saline, non-stressed; 3) control group, rats injected with NTX (3 mg/kg) non-stressed; 4) rats injected ip with saline, and stressed by EFS; 5) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by EFS; 6) rats injected ip with saline and stressed by ICW; 7) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW; 8) rats injected ip with NTX (3 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW. Naive males were assigned to the same control groups but only stressed by ICW and the NTX dose used was 3 mg/kg. Injections were given 30 min before stress sessions. Stress was applied on 20 consecutive days. Male sexual behavior was assessed 15 min after EFS or 30 min after ICW, on days 1, 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20. Trunk blood was collected at the end of the experiments on day 20 of stress. Corticosterone and testosterone were evaluated by HPLC. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies were longer in control saline naive males compared to control saline sexually experienced males on the

  20. Treatment issues and outcomes for males with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Theodore E; Cornella-Carlson, Tracey; Fitzpatrick, Mary E; Kennington, Brad; Bean, Pamela; Jefferies, Carol

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss critical issues in treating males with eating disorders, and to present assessment and treatment outcome data for 111 males who received residential treatment for moderate to severe eating disorders. Males with eating disorders are often not included in eating disorder research as the population of individuals with eating disorders has historically been predominantly female. Whether this is due to actual lower prevalence of this disorder among males or to fewer males seeking treatment is not clear. In any case, there is limited empirical research on the particular treatment issues of males, and in treatment environments males are frequently in the minority. We have found that an all-male treatment environment is helpful in allowing males to benefit from treatment with less stigma. Data are presented which characterize psychiatric co-morbidity, excessive exercise, body image, sexuality, and spirituality in males. Treatment outcomes for males in this environment are positive. PMID:22985241

  1. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity–parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

  2. Male tolerance and male–male bonds in a multilevel primate society

    PubMed Central

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H.; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male–male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several “units” of males with their associated females form “parties,” which team up as “gangs.” Several gangs of the same “community” use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male–male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  3. Men and masculinities in forensic psychiatric care: an interview study concerning male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and male patients.

    PubMed

    Kumpula, Esa; Ekstrand, Per

    2009-09-01

    Forensic psychiatric care is largely populated by men--as patients, caregivers, and nurses. Previous research has not focused on the meaning of gender in this context. The aim of this study is to analyse male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and attending to male patients in forensic psychiatric care. Data were collected through interviews with six male nurses. The results consist of five themes. Protection and defence are key aspects of care and male caregivers gain status and authority through their physical strength. This could hamper caring and provide male caregivers with a superior position in the department. PMID:19657867

  4. Solar particle dose rate buildup and distribution in critical body organs

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Simonsen, L.C. ||

    1993-12-31

    Human body organs have varying degrees of radiosensitivity as evidenced by radioepidemiologic tables. The major critical organs for both the male and female that have been identified include the lung, thyroid, stomach, and breast (female). Using computerized anatomical models of the 50th percentile United States Air Force male and female, we present the self-shielding effects of these various body organs and how the shielding effects change as the location (dose point) in the body varies. Several major solar proton events from previous solar cycles and several events from the current 22nd solar cycle have been analyzed. The solar particle event rise time, peak intensity, and decay time vary considerably from event to event. Absorbed dose and dose equivalent rate calculations and organ risk assessment data are presented for each critical body organ. These data are compared with the current NASA astronaut dose limits as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  5. Solar particle dose rate buildup and distribution in critical body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1993-01-01

    Human body organs have varying degrees of radiosensitivity as evidenced by radioepidemiologic tables. The major critical organs for both the male and female that have been identified include the lung, thyroid, stomach, and breast (female). Using computerized anatomical models of the 50th percentile United States Air Force male and female, we present the self-shielding effects of these various body organs and how the shielding effects change as the location (dose point) in the body varies. Several major solar proton events from previous solar cycles and several events from the current 22nd solar cycle have been analyzed. The solar particle event rise time, peak intensity, and decay time vary considerably from event to event. Absorbed dose and dose equivalent rate calculations and organ risk assessment data are presented for each critical body organ. These data are compared with the current NASA astronaut dose limits as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  6. Queer Decisions? Gay Male Students' University Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulke-Johnson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the reported influences on the university choices of 17 gay male undergraduate students attending a UK institution. It is argued that this process is strongly mediated by, and, therefore, has to be considered in relation to, class. Data analysis provides insight into the factors gay students say are important in selecting…

  7. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  8. 47,XXX chromosome constitution in a male.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, U; Simoni, G; Montali, E; Dalpra, L; Rossella, F; Piazzini, M; Borghi, A

    1980-02-01

    An 18-year-old boy with a male phenotype was examined because of testicular hypoplasia. Chromosome analysis using Q- and R-banding techniques and BUdR treatment showed a 47,XXX karotype, in both lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Cytogenetic problems raised by this case are discussed in relation to data from previous published reports. PMID:7189218

  9. Effect of Oxidative Stress on Male Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Gurpriya; Ong, Chloe; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2014-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive, and a male factor contributes to roughly half of these cases. Oxidative stress (OS) has been identified as one of the many mediators of male infertility by causing sperm dysfunction. OS is a state related to increased cellular damage triggered by oxygen and oxygen-derived free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). During this process, augmented production of ROS overwhelms the body's antioxidant defenses. While small amounts of ROS are required for normal sperm functioning, disproportionate levels can negatively impact the quality of spermatozoa and impair their overall fertilizing capacity. OS has been identified as an area of great attention because ROS and their metabolites can attack DNA, lipids, and proteins; alter enzymatic systems; produce irreparable alterations; cause cell death; and ultimately, lead to a decline in the semen parameters associated with male infertility. This review highlights the mechanisms of ROS production, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system, and recent advances in diagnostic methods; it also explores the benefits of using antioxidants in a clinical setting. PMID:24872947

  10. Male Psychopaths and Their Criminal Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Robert D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths, exploring time in prison and conviction rates for five-year periods between ages of 16 and 45. Criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over years; activities of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, then declined dramatically. Results are consistent…

  11. Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

  12. City's Black Males Stay in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    School leaders in Baltimore have mounted an offensive over the past three years to keep more students in school and on track. Last month, news came that the effort has produced a welcome dividend: Black male students are driving a marked increase in the district's graduation rate and a decrease in its dropout rate, and showing improvement at a…

  13. Male sexuality in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Male sexuality is a complex phenomenon shaped by personal, cultural,and social factors. This article has argued that male sexual function is an important consideration in conditions such as prostate cancer. There are surely other conditions where it is understood even more poorly. Although theorists tend to explore male sexuality in relation to vague concepts such as power, phallocentrism, and aggression, sexuality becomes a personal reality in illness contexts. Using insights from a study into prostate cancer, it has been suggested that men assess embodied risks, such as impotence, in highly individual ways. The uncertainty that characterizes this cancer further compounds the difficulties involved, despite attempts of professionals to provide adequate levels of information and support. Researchers and practitioners alike should begin to question the gap between theoretical constructions of male sexuality and its reality in healthcare situations. More attention should be paid to understanding the importance of sexual function for men who are living with conditions such as prostate cancer. Those men who face up to the threat of such embodied changes, and who learn to cope with physical and emotional (and sexual) vulnerability, may learn to evaluate their lives in new ways. As Kenneth, one of the participants in this study said of his experience of cancer, "It just seems unnecessary for them to have to go through that to learn and understand themselves and be honest with themselves about what is really important." PMID:15159184

  14. Male gender identity and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chused, J F

    1999-12-01

    One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation. PMID:10669962

  15. The Cultural Bind on the American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenoweth, Gene

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the cultural bind on the American male. The process starts with conception. If the spermatozoid that fertilizes the egg contains only X chromosomes a girl will be produced. If a single Y chromosome out of the 24 produced by the father is included, the baby will be a boy. From this point on the girls have a…

  16. Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski-daRoza, Victoria

    1984-01-01

    The author examines various aspects of male midlife crisis and its effects on the man's career, including the following: What are the implications for an organization, if behavioral changes or dissatisfaction with past patterns extends into the employee's job and leads this same individual to become a dissatisfied employee, to consider a career…

  17. The Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlassie, Richard; Sagal, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of midlife males are frequently disturbed and have a definite impact on job satisfaction. Three major tasks to be worked on during this time are described: (1) terminating early adulthood; (2) dealing with polarities; and (3) initiating middle adulthood. (Author)

  18. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:26855782

  19. Interpersonal polyvictimization and mental health in males.

    PubMed

    Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. PMID:27130979

  20. Differences Abound between Male and Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Daphne J.; Foote, Tom H.

    1990-01-01

    According to recent research, women superintendents have less coaching experience than men, head wealthier districts, work longer hours, are more often single and childless, and obtain the position later in life. They also smoke and drink less. Males and females were equally satisfied with their school board relationships, community stature, and…

  1. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  2. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  3. Male Influences on Fertility: Needs for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciano, Teresa Donati

    1979-01-01

    A study comparing the processes of arriving at fertility decisions in marriage shows that the husband's preference for children or for childlessness controls more often than the wife's preference in either case. Using two childless samples and one sample with children, the strong effect of male preference was found. (Author)

  4. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  5. Suspect osteogenesis imperfecta in a male kitten.

    PubMed

    Evason, Michelle D; Taylor, Susan M; Bebchuk, Trevor N

    2007-03-01

    A 4.5-month-old, male domestic shorthair was presented with bilateral femoral fractures after falling from a low height. Radiographs revealed reduced radio-opacity and thin cortices of all long bones. A presumptive diagnosis of osteodystrophy, secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta, was made on postmortem examination. PMID:17436908

  6. Male Adolescent Bullying and the School Shooter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature reveals that adolescent male victims of peer bullying suffer somatic and emotional consequences from being victimized. Limited research on school shooters found that a significant number of them were adolescents who were targets of bullies and claimed their shootings were in response to their victimization. To…

  7. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone. PMID:15851828

  8. Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Shin-Ying; Barlow, Steven M.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to extend previous published findings in the authors' laboratory using a new automated technology to quantitatively characterize nonparticipatory perioral stiffness in healthy male adults. Method: Quantitative measures of perioral stiffness were sampled during a nonparticipatory task using a…

  9. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality. PMID:18299976

  10. Childhood of Males with the XYY Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Johannes; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigated to determine specific intelligence, personality characteristics, and behavioral patterns of boys with the XYY syndrome (a rare pattern of sex chromosome imbalance) were the childhood and adolescence of 20 males, 6- to 58-years of age at time of diagnosis. (Author/MC)

  11. Preadolescent male perceptions of action figure physiques.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Carlston, David; Wood, Julie; Wyatt, Frank B

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the preference and reasoning of 176 preadolescent and adolescent males when presented with original and current action figures that had statistically different physiques. Current action figures were perceived as significantly more muscular and healthier. Participants also preferred to resemble current action figures citing muscularity and size for their preference. PMID:18023792

  12. Urethral erosion of transobturator male sling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephanie E; Guralnick, Michael L; O'Connor, R Corey

    2009-02-01

    The transobturator male sling has been introduced as an alternative to other surgical methods for the treatment of mild to moderate postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. We report the first published case of mesh erosion into the urethra observed 5 months after placement. The patient was treated with suprapubic tube urinary diversion, suburethral sling explantation, and buccal mucosal grafting of the urethral defect. PMID:18400275

  13. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  14. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  15. Crossing Uncertain Terrain: Messages from Male Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keamy, Ron Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, comments made by a group of senior male academics in Australian universities about their leadership behaviours, are considered. Whereas the majority of the men in the study spoke about gender relations, and sometimes feminism in their workplaces, only two of the men engaged in discourses of gender and/or feminism, as well as…

  16. Genomic Landscape of Developing Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tin-Lap; Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. This process involves many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products whose expressions are strictly regulated. In the past decade the advent of high-throughput gene expression analytical techniques has made functional genomic studies of this process, particularly in model animals such as mice and rats, feasible and practical. These studies have just begun to reveal the complexity of the genomic landscape of the developing male germ cells. Over 50% of the mouse and rat genome are expressed during testicular development. Among transcripts present in germ cells, 40% – 60% are uncharacterized. A number of genes, and consequently their associated biological pathways, are differentially expressed at different stages of spermatogenesis. Developing male germ cells present a rich repertoire of genetic processes. Tissue-specific as well as spermatogenesis stage-specific alternative splicing of genes exemplifies the complexity of genome expression. In addition to this layer of control, discoveries of abundant presence of antisense transcripts, expressed psuedogenes, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) including long ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and retrogenes all point to the presence of multiple layers of expression and functional regulation in male germ cells. It is anticipated that application of systems biology approaches will further our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis.† PMID:19306351

  17. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  19. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  20. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  1. Social Stress and Mortality Among Nonwhite Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth E.

    1977-01-01

    The leading causes of death for young black males are accidents, homicide and suicide. Stress arising from socioeconomic conditions precipitates these events. Heart disease and cancer, other major causes of death, are also thought to be environmentally related. The author proposes the development of new types of social institutions to remedy the…

  2. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  3. Literacy Levels of Male Juvenile Justice Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldall, Kevin; Watkins, Renae

    2004-01-01

    The assessment records detailing the reading and spelling performance of a group of male juvenile justice detainees admitted over a 3-month period were examined in an attempt to quantify the basic literacy levels of juvenile offenders. Results of student self-ratings of their reading ability were also analysed. The participants comprised 68 males…

  4. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  5. Senescent males carry premutagenic lesions in sperm.

    PubMed

    Velando, A; Noguera, J C; Drummond, H; Torres, R

    2011-03-01

    As organisms age, DNA of somatic cells deteriorates, but it is believed that germ cells are protected from DNA-damaging agents. In recent years, this vision has been challenged by studies on humans indicating that genomic instability in germ cells increases with age. However, nothing is known about germ line senescence in wild animals. Here, we examine DNA damage in sperm of a wild vertebrate, the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii. One of the major types of premutagenic DNA damage generated by oxidative stress (a proximal cause of ageing) is loss of single bases resulting in apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). We examined AP sites in the sperm of known-age males sampled during courtship on Isla Isabel, Mexico. We show that damage to the DNA of sperm increases with age of male blue-footed boobies. Moreover, we found that sexual attractiveness (foot colour) declines with age and is correlated with germ line damage of senescent males. By choosing attractive males, females might reduce the probability of their progeny bearing damaged DNA. This study reports the first evidence of senescence in the germ line of a wild vertebrate and future studies should investigate whether this burden of senescence is sidestepped by potential sexual partners. PMID:21332857

  6. The Male Predominance in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased rapidly during the past 4 decades in many Western populations, including North America and Europe. The established etiological factors for EAC include gastroesophageal reflux and obesity, Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco smoking, and consumption of fruit and vegetables. There is a marked male predominance of EAC with a male-to-female ratio in incidence of up to 9:1. This review evaluates the available literature on the reasons for the male predominance, particularly an update on epidemiologic evidence from human studies during the past decade. The striking sex difference does not seem to be explained by established risk factors, given that the prevalence of the etiological factors and the strengths of associations between these factors and EAC risk are similar between the sexes. Sex hormonal factors may play a role in the development of EAC; estrogenic exposures may prevent such development, whereas androgens might increase the risk of EAC. However, continuing research efforts are still needed to fully understand the reasons for the male predominance of EAC. PMID:26484704

  7. The Greeting Behavior of Fragile X Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Peter H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mentally retarded males (N=18) above 12 years of age with a fragile site on the X chromosome exhibited a highly idiosyncratic stereotypic form of gaze avoidance during greeting ceremonies. Results suggest this aberrant greeting behavior may be uniquely associated with this syndrome of mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  8. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R L; Sherins, R J; Lee, I P

    1979-06-01

    Exposure to drinking water containing as much as 500 ppm aluminum chloride for periods of 30, 60, and 90 days had no apparent effect on male reproductive processes. In an attempt to correlate enzyme activity with particular spermatogenic cell types, postnatal development of testicular enzymes was studied. Eight enzymes were selected: hyaluronidase (H), lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-X (LDH-X), dehydrogenases of sorbitol (SDH), alpha-glycerophosphate (GPDH), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PDH), malate (MDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3PDH), and isocitrate (ICDH). Enzyme specific activities in testicular homogenates were determined. Two types of enzyme developmental patterns were observed. One was represented by H, LDH-X, SDH, and GPDH; and the other by G6PDH, MDH, G3PDH, and ICDH. The former was characterized by a change in enzyme activities from low in newborn to high in adult while in the latter this pattern was reversed. The two complementary enzyme systems crossed each other at puberty. Prior to puberty, only spermatogonial cells are present; sperm differentiation initiated at puberty adds spermatocytes and spermatids to the testicular cell population. Male rats were exposed to borax in their diet for periods of 30 and 60 days. Concentrations of boron were 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm. At the end of each experimental period, the specific activities of the selected enzymes were determined in the testis and prostate. Correlations of enzyme activity with testicular histology and androgen activities of the male accessory organs were sought. In addition, plasma FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were measured to assess pituitary-testicular interaction. Plasma and testicular boron concentrations were determined and a minimum boron concentration which induced germinal aplasia and male infertility was estimated. In both 30 and 60 day feeding studies, male rats receiving 500 ppm failed to demonstrate any significant adverse effects. In contrast, male rats receiving 100 and 2000

  9. The visual system of male scale insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbeck, Elke K.; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  10. The Power War: Male Response to Power Loss under Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the male response to anticipated loss of power as women continue to demand equality and equal power. Describes the scope of male power, and analyzes the importance of power to men in terms of the male sex-role stereotype. Hypothesizes some likely male responses to a loss of power. (BH)

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  12. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  13. Reproductive success in wild and hatchery male coho salmon

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Bryan D.; Garner, Shawn R.; Fleming, Ian A.; Gross, Mart R.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon produced by hatcheries have lower fitness in the wild than naturally produced salmon, but the factors underlying this difference remain an active area of research. We used genetic parentage analysis of alevins produced by experimentally mixed groups of wild and hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to quantify male paternity in spawning hierarchies. We identify factors influencing paternity and revise previously published behavioural estimates of reproductive success for wild and hatchery males. We observed a strong effect of hierarchy size and hierarchy position on paternity: in two-male hierarchies, the first male sired 63% (±29%; s.d.) of the alevins and the second male 37% (±29%); in three-male hierarchies, the first male sired 64% (±26%), the second male 24% (±20%) and the third male 12% (±10%). As previously documented, hatchery males hold inferior positions in spawning hierarchies, but we also discovered that hatchery males had only 55–84% the paternity of wild males when occupying the same position within a spawning hierarchy. This paternity difference may result from inferior performance of hatchery males during sperm competition, female mate choice for wild males, or differential offspring survival. Regardless of its cause, the combination of inferior hierarchical position and inferior success at a position resulted in hatchery males having only half (51%) the reproductive success of wild males. PMID:26361548

  14. Sexism in Basal Readers: An Analysis of Male Main Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn-Roberson, Courtney; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated whether positive female traits were attributed to male main characters in six basal readers. Although positive female traits appeared in the male characters, the overall composite and depiction of individual characters indicate that male personalities are dominated by male-linked virtues such as independence and a willingness to take…

  15. Help-Seeking Behavior among Black Males. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

    This study concerns the help-seeking behavior of black males as it relates to mental health and attempts to identify the day-to-day concerns and problems of black males, describe their help seeking patterns, and make suggestions for future research and policy development to improve black males' mental health. The sample was 142 black males, ages…

  16. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  17. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Sato, Kimi N.; Finneran, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking. Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (<12 month) experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV. Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration. Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. PMID:23930144

  18. Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male Mice Differ among Species and Females Show Assortative Preferences for Male Calls

    PubMed Central

    Musolf, Kerstin; Meindl, Stefanie; Larsen, Angela L.; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C.; Penn, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Male house mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during courtship, which attract females, and we aimed to test whether females use these vocalizations for species or subspecies recognition of potential mates. We recorded courtship USVs of males from different Mus species, Mus musculus subspecies, and populations (F1 offspring of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus (and F1 hybrid crosses), and Mus spicilegus), and we conducted playback experiments to measure female preferences for male USVs. Male vocalizations contained at least seven distinct syllable types, whose frequency of occurrence varied among species, subspecies, and populations. Detailed analyses of multiple common syllable types indicated that Mus musculus and Mus spicilegus could be discriminated based on spectral and temporal characteristics of their vocalizations, and populations of Mus musculus were also distinctive regardless of the classification model used. Females were able to discriminate USVs from different species, and showed assortative preferences for conspecific males. We found no evidence that females discriminate USVs of males from a different subspecies or separate populations of the same species, even though our spectral analyses identified acoustic features that differ between species, subspecies, and populations of the same species. Our results provide the first comparison of USVs between Mus species or between Mus musculus subspecies, and the first evidence that male USVs potentially facilitate species recognition. PMID:26309246

  19. Rival assessment among northern elephant seals: evidence of associative learning during male-male contests.

    PubMed

    Casey, Caroline; Charrier, Isabelle; Mathevon, Nicolas; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-08-01

    Specialized signals emitted by competing males often convey honest information about fighting ability. It is generally believed that receivers use these signals to directly assess their opponents. Here, we demonstrate an alternative communication strategy used by males in a breeding system where the costs of conflict are extreme. We evaluated the acoustic displays of breeding male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and found that social knowledge gained through prior experience with signallers was sufficient to maintain structured dominance relationships. Using sound analysis and playback experiments with both natural and modified signals, we determined that males do not rely on encoded information about size or dominance status, but rather learn to recognize individual acoustic signatures produced by their rivals. Further, we show that behavioural responses to competitors' calls are modulated by relative position in the hierarchy: the highest ranking (alpha) males defend their harems from all opponents, whereas mid-ranking (beta) males respond differentially to familiar challengers based on the outcome of previous competitive interactions. Our findings demonstrate that social knowledge of rivals alone can regulate dominance relationships among competing males within large, spatially dynamic social groups, and illustrate the importance of combining descriptive and experimental methods when deciphering the biological relevance of animal signals. PMID:26361553

  20. Male-immature relationships in multi-male groups of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, S; Silk, J B; Stoinski, T S

    2011-04-01

    We examined the pattern and possible functions of social interactions between adult males and immatures in three free-ranging, multi-male groups of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Previous studies conducted during the 1970s when groups contained one to three adult males concluded that male-immature relationships were likely to be a form of low-cost paternal investment [Stewart, Mountain gorillas: three decades of research at Karisoke. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001]. We evaluated whether this hypothesis still held in groups containing six to nine adult males, or if male-immature relationships might serve other functions (e.g. mating effort, kin selection, or alliance building). Overall, we found that immatures spent the most time near, and interacted most with, the alpha silverback. These behaviors peaked during the period when infants were still quite vulnerable but increasing their independence from their mothers. Such findings suggest that parenting effort remains the primary function of male-immature relationships; however, there is some evidence for the mating effort hypothesis as well. PMID:21328594