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Sample records for 50th percentile male

  1. Dosimetric impacts of microgravity: an analysis of 5th, 50th and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Baalen, Mary Van; Shavers, Mark R; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-02-21

    Computational phantoms serve an important role in organ dosimetry and risk assessment performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A previous study investigated the impact on organ dose equivalents and effective doses from the use of the University of Florida hybrid adult male (UFHADM) and adult female (UFHADF) phantoms at differing height and weight percentiles versus those given by the two existing NASA phantoms, the computerized anatomical man (CAM) and female (CAF) (Bahadori et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 1671-94). In the present study, the UFHADM and UFHADF phantoms of different body sizes were further altered to incorporate the effects of microgravity. Body self-shielding distributions are generated using the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT), and the results are combined with depth dose data from the NASA codes BRYNTRN and HZETRN to yield organ dose equivalents and their rates for a variety of space radiation environments. It is found that while organ dose equivalents are indeed altered by the physiological effects ofmicrogravity, the magnitude of the change in overall risk (indicated by the effective dose) is minimal for the spectra and simplified shielding configurations considered. The results also indicate, however, that UFHADMand UFHADF could be useful in designing dose reduction strategies through optimized positioning of an astronaut during encounters with solar particle events.

  2. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50(th) percentile male ATD.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag ("airbelt") into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student's t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system also

  3. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  4. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  5. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  6. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding. PMID:21346276

  7. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  8. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  9. 50th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a collection of 29 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 50th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 11-13 July 2001 at the Salt Lake City Marriott Hotel in Salt Lake City, Utah.

  10. ESO 50th Anniversary Gala Dinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirey, R.

    2012-12-01

    To formally mark the 50th anniversary of the signing of the ESO Convention, a gala dinner was held in the Munich Residenz. A brief report of the event is presented and the speeches are reproduced. The speakers were the President of the Council, Xavier Barcons; the German Minister for Education and Research, Prof. Dr Annette Schavan; the Bavarian State Minister for Science, Research and the Arts, Dr Wolfgang Heubisch; physics Nobel Laureate, Brian Schmidt; the current Director General, Tim de Zeeuw and the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Alfredo Moreno Charme.

  11. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26–42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  12. Percentile-based assessment of craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Wilbrand, Jan-Falco; Bierther, Uta; Nord, Thomas; Reinges, Marcus; Hahn, Andreas; Christophis, Petros; Streckbein, Philipp; Kähling, Christopher; Howaldt, Hans-Peter

    2014-07-01

    Perioperative assessment of craniosynostosis is based mostly on subjective scores. In this study, we sought to find an objective method to assess cranial deformation based on normative craniofacial percentiles. Anthropometric datasets from 104 (79 males, 25 females) patients with craniosynostoses were included. Anthropometric data were compared with normative age-dependent percentiles. Deviations above the 90th or below the 10th percentile were defined as significant cranial deformation. The cohort comprised 69 children with sagittal, 22 metopic, nine coronal, two bicoronal, one lambdoid, and one with coronal + lambdoid craniosynostosis. Most children with sagittal synostosis were above the 90th percentile for cranial circumference and length, whereas only 27.9% were below the 10th percentile for cranial width. Most (83%) children with scaphocephaly had cranial indices below the 10th percentile. For trigonocephaly, we found normal cranial circumference values in most patients (10th-90th percentile), 40.9% were above the 90th percentile for cranial length, and 63.1% and 57.9% were above the 90th percentiles for sagittal and transverse circumferences. For unicoronal synostosis transverse circumference was above the 90th percentile in 83.3% of children. Matching of anthropometric data of craniosynostosis patients with craniofacial norms could be useful in grading the clinical picture and potentially adapting the operative procedure. PMID:24717668

  13. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  14. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were

  15. Birth Weight Reference Percentiles for Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Deng, Changfei; Li, Yanhua; Zhu, Jun; Mu, Yi; Deng, Ying; Mao, Meng; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Ma, Shuangge; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese. Methods Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006–2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves. Results Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants. Conclusion There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25127131

  16. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

  17. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined. PMID:17096277

  18. [50th anniversary--cheers to the internship?].

    PubMed

    Brinchmann-Hansen, Ase

    2004-08-26

    This year the mandatory internship scheme for Norwegian doctors celebrates its 50th anniversary. Internships were instituted by a Decree in Council in 1954 and implemented the year after. History shows that there has been and still is a lack of commitment to the organisation as well as the content of internships. It also shows that there has been a lack of adequately formulated objectives and how detrimental this state of affairs is to the educational quality of internships. Today we face threats that the scheme may be abolished altogether. Among the reasons for this is a lack of commitment among senior doctors to supervision and mentoring, inadequate funding and, probably the most important single reason, a lack of thorough evaluation of the existent scheme. New models for internship content have been proposed by the medical authorities, but in the view of the Norwegian Medical Association the existent model should be evaluated before new models are tried out. This article shows what an important asset the internship scheme is and the necessity of arguing for keeping it.

  19. AFTI/F-16 50th flight team photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An early (1983) photograph of the AFTI F-16 team, commemorating the aircraft's 50th flight. It shows the initial configuration and paint finish of the AFTI F-16, as well as the forward mounted canards and the spin chute. During the 1980s and 1990s, NASA and the U.S. Air Force participated in a joint program to integrate and demonstrate new avionics technologies to improve close air support capabilities in next-generation aircraft. The testbed aircraft, seen here in flight over the desert at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was called the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16. The tests demonstrated technologies to improve navigation and the pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. The aircraft--an F-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial #75-0750)--underwent numerous modifications. A relatively low-cost testbed, it evaluated the feasability of advanced, intergrated-sensor, avionics, and flight control technologies. During the first phase of the AFTI/F-16 program, which began in 1983, the aircraft demonstrated voice-actuated commands, helmet-mounted sights, flat turns, and selective fuselage pointing using forward-mounted canards and a triplex digital flight control computer system. The second phase of research, which began in the summer of 1991, demonstrated advanced technologies and capabilities to find and destroy ground targets day or night, and in adverse weather while using maneuverability and speed at low altitude. This phase was known as the close air support and battlefield air interdiction (CAS/BAI) phase. Finally, the aircraft was used to assess the Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto - GCAS), a joint project with the Swedish Government. For these tests, the pilot flew the aircraft directly toward the ground, simulating a total loss of control. The GCAS was designed to take command in such emergencies and bring the aircraft back to level flight. The AFTI F

  20. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-05-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  1. 75 FR 33995 - Safety Zone; Michigan Orthopaedic Society 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan Orthopaedic Society 50th... Society 50th Anniversary Fireworks display, June 19, 2010. This temporary safety zone is necessary to..., alcohol use, and debris falling into the water presents a significant risk of serious injuries...

  2. 50th Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (Scottsdale, Arizona, December 2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V., Ed.; Schallert, Diane L., Ed.; Fairbanks, Colleen M., Ed.; Worthy, Jo, Ed.; Maloch, Beth, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    At the 2000 conference in Scottsdale, Arizona, the National Reading Conference celebrated its 50th anniversary, and with this issue, the editors offer to the readership the "50th Yearbook" of the conference. This Yearbook begins with a preface and presents profiles of two awardees, Lee Gunderson and Michael Pressley. Included in this Yearbook are…

  3. Shaping academic task engagement with percentile schedules.

    PubMed

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; Pipkin, Claire C St Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used.

  4. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used. PMID:17970261

  5. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time. PMID:19721903

  6. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on…

  7. 3 CFR 8829 - Proclamation 8829 of May 25, 2012. Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... November 11, 2025, as the Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War. I call upon Federal... the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War 8829 Proclamation 8829 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8829 of May 25, 2012 Proc. 8829 Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam WarBy...

  8. Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the "Merrill-Palmer Quarterly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    The academic year 2004-2005 marks the 50th anniversary of the "Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: A Journal of Developmental Psychology." This occasion provides an opportunity to celebrate the journal's heritage, its long history of scholarly contributions to the human developmental sciences, and its current and future mission as a purveyor of scientific…

  9. National Association for Research in Science Teaching. 50th Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    This publication provides abstracts of papers presented at the 50th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching held in Cincinnati, Ohio March 22-24, 1977. The entries represent a wide range of topics in the field of science education. Topics include instruction, teacher education, learning, enrollments, concept…

  10. Digest of Education Statistics 2014, 50th Edition. NCES 2016-006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas D.; de Brey, Cristobal; Dillow, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 50th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The Digest has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American…

  11. Frontiers: Research Highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1996-01-01

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  12. Celebrating Human Rights: The 50th Anniversary of the U.N. Declaration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Carol E.

    1998-01-01

    Responds to the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) by arguing that elementary school is an appropriate place to begin teaching about human rights. Outlines the rights enumerated in the UDHR, provides related activities for primary and intermediate grades, and suggests related Web sites. (DSK)

  13. Frontiers: Research highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  14. 78 FR 53235 - 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-21189 Filed 8-27-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9004 of August 23, 2013 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs... remember that the March on Washington was a demonstration for jobs as well as freedom. The coalition...

  15. The State of the World's Children, 1996 (50th Anniversary Issue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This special issue of "The State of the World's Children" marks the 50th anniversary year of UNICEF and its work on behalf of children. Chapter 1 examines how wars and civil conflicts are taking an enormous toll on children. The chapter outlines a proposed anti-war agenda as a vital step to prevent and alleviate the suffering of children in armed…

  16. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper.

  17. Evaluating Additive Interaction Using Survival Percentiles.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Andrea; Bottai, Matteo; Orsini, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of statistical interaction in time-to-event analysis is usually limited to the study of multiplicative interaction, via inclusion of a product term in a Cox proportional-hazard model. Measures of additive interaction are available but seldom used. All measures of interaction in survival analysis, whether additive or multiplicative, are in the metric of hazard, usually assuming that the interaction between two predictors of interest is constant during the follow-up period. We introduce a measure to evaluate additive interaction in survival analysis in the metric of time. This measure can be calculated by evaluating survival percentiles, defined as the time points by which different subpopulations reach the same incidence proportion. Using this approach, the probability of the outcome is fixed and the time variable is estimated. We also show that by using a regression model for the evaluation of conditional survival percentiles, including a product term between the two exposures in the model, interaction is evaluated as a deviation from additivity of the effects. In the simple case of two binary exposures, the product term is interpreted as excess/decrease in survival time (i.e., years, months, days) due to the presence of both exposures. This measure of interaction is dependent on the fraction of events being considered, thus allowing evaluation of how interaction changes during the observed follow-up. Evaluation of interaction in the context of survival percentiles allows deriving a measure of additive interaction without assuming a constant effect over time, overcoming two main limitations of commonly used approaches.

  18. Highlights from the 50th seminar of the korean society of gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon; Dong, Seok Ho; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2014-07-01

    The July issue of Clinical Endoscopy deals with selected articles covering the state-of-the-art lectures delivered during the 50th seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 30, 2014, highlighting educational contents pertaining to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, which contain fundamental and essential points in GI endoscopy. KSGE is very proud of its seminar, which has been presented twice a year for the last 25 years, and hosted more than 3,500 participants at the current meeting. KSGE seminar is positioned as one of premier state-of-the-art seminars for endoscopy, covering topics for novice endoscopists and advanced experts, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The 50th KSGE seminar consists of more than 20 sessions, including a single special lecture, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. Nine articles were selected from these prestigious lectures, and invited for publication in this special issue. This introductory review, prepared by the editors of Clinical Endoscopy, highlights core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized topic sessions, including live demonstrations and hands-on courses.

  19. Highlights from the 50th Seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon; Dong, Seok Ho

    2014-01-01

    The July issue of Clinical Endoscopy deals with selected articles covering the state-of-the-art lectures delivered during the 50th seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 30, 2014, highlighting educational contents pertaining to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, which contain fundamental and essential points in GI endoscopy. KSGE is very proud of its seminar, which has been presented twice a year for the last 25 years, and hosted more than 3,500 participants at the current meeting. KSGE seminar is positioned as one of premier state-of-the-art seminars for endoscopy, covering topics for novice endoscopists and advanced experts, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The 50th KSGE seminar consists of more than 20 sessions, including a single special lecture, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. Nine articles were selected from these prestigious lectures, and invited for publication in this special issue. This introductory review, prepared by the editors of Clinical Endoscopy, highlights core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized topic sessions, including live demonstrations and hands-on courses. PMID:25133113

  20. 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Angela E

    2010-08-01

    The 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology was notable, not only for its golden anniversary, but also because it coincided with the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, and the ensuing travel chaos. In total, 28 speakers from overseas were unable to reach Edinburgh, including a significant number of British speakers who were stranded. However, owing to the superb efforts of the conference organisers and Edinburgh International Conference Centre staff, teleconferencing equipment was installed and all speakers were contacted and able to give their talks on time. The program, consisting of simultaneous sessions and plenary lectures, covered not only recent advances in clinical and laboratory hematology, but also reflected on the contribution of British hematology to the international arena over the past 50 years.

  1. 50(th) Anniversary of the Central Dental Library of School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Borić, Vesna

    2014-12-01

    Libraries have an exceptional place in the history, culture, education and scientific life of a nation. They collect all aspects of our linguistics and literacy, all out theoretical assumptions as well as all the results of experience and practice. The importance of a library is not mirrored only in the national and historical role and heritage, but in a more permanent, informational role, since a modern library must, above all, be an effective information system. Since a library of a university operates as a part of its matrix, it is easily shadowed by other forms of educational and scientific infrastructure. 50(th) anniversary of the Central Dental Library of the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb is an excellent opportunity to make a call to the institution and public to its unique and irreplaceable role.

  2. 50th Anniversary of the Central Dental Library of School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Libraries have an exceptional place in the history, culture, education and scientific life of a nation. They collect all aspects of our linguistics and literacy, all out theoretical assumptions as well as all the results of experience and practice. The importance of a library is not mirrored only in the national and historical role and heritage, but in a more permanent, informational role, since a modern library must, above all, be an effective information system. Since a library of a university operates as a part of its matrix, it is easily shadowed by other forms of educational and scientific infrastructure. 50th anniversary of the Central Dental Library of the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb is an excellent opportunity to make a call to the institution and public to its unique and irreplaceable role.

  3. Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in

  4. Blood pressure percentiles by age and height for non-overweight Chinese children and adolescents: analysis of the china health and nutrition surveys 1991–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important health problem in China and raised blood pressure in children may lead to future hypertension. Accordingly we aimed to provide a reference blood pressure table for age, gender and height in Chinese children. Methods A reference sample of subjects was drawn from the Chinese Health and National Survey 1999–2009 aged 7–17 years after excluding overweight and obese children, the 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)are presented corrected for height and age by gender. These values are compared with existing Chinese and US recommendations. Results Results for the 50th, 90th and 95th percentile of SBP and DBP for 6245 boys and 5707 girls were presented by age and height percentiles. These observations were lower than existing Chinese recommendations before 13 years of age at median heightbut went higher in those >13 years old. At same age and height, SBP levels of American children were overall higher than Chinese counterparts from this study by average 9–10 mm Hg, but DBP did not show overall or significant difference. Conclusions The first height-specific blood pressure reference values are proposed for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years. These are lower than existing US reference values and current Chinese cutoffs. PMID:24274040

  5. 50th Year Anniversary of Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University.

    PubMed

    Lertakyamanee, Jariya

    2016-05-01

    Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, has started to be a formal anesthesia division, divided from division of Surgery in 1965; hence our 50th year anniversary in 2015. Research is now a priority and mandatory mission, according to the vision of Mahidol University. Second mission is to teach and train, and we produce the highest number of states-of-the-art anesthesiologists and anesthetic nurses each year Curriculum and training are being continuously improved. From a small unit, now it is one of the largest departments and extends the service, our third mission, to more than only in the operating theaters. We look after pre-anesthesia assessment, inside and outside operating room anesthesia, post-operative pain relief Intensive Care Unit, and chronic pain management. The number of patients and their diseases increase; so do the complexities of surgeries. There are tremendous changes in drugs and equipment. There is the fourth mission on administration, IT and resource management. And the fifth mission which is corporate social responsibility. However, we still believe that compassion, responsibility and integrity are most important. We have taught and tried to live by the teaching of HRH the King's Father. And these will contribute to our progress and shine in the next 50 years.

  6. 50th Year Anniversary of Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University.

    PubMed

    Lertakyamanee, Jariya

    2016-05-01

    Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, has started to be a formal anesthesia division, divided from division of Surgery in 1965; hence our 50th year anniversary in 2015. Research is now a priority and mandatory mission, according to the vision of Mahidol University. Second mission is to teach and train, and we produce the highest number of states-of-the-art anesthesiologists and anesthetic nurses each year Curriculum and training are being continuously improved. From a small unit, now it is one of the largest departments and extends the service, our third mission, to more than only in the operating theaters. We look after pre-anesthesia assessment, inside and outside operating room anesthesia, post-operative pain relief Intensive Care Unit, and chronic pain management. The number of patients and their diseases increase; so do the complexities of surgeries. There are tremendous changes in drugs and equipment. There is the fourth mission on administration, IT and resource management. And the fifth mission which is corporate social responsibility. However, we still believe that compassion, responsibility and integrity are most important. We have taught and tried to live by the teaching of HRH the King's Father. And these will contribute to our progress and shine in the next 50 years. PMID:27501620

  7. 50th anniversary of the discovery of ibuprofen: an interview with Dr Stewart Adams.

    PubMed

    Halford, Gayle M; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Watson, Steve P

    2012-01-01

    2011 marks the 50th anniversary of the discovery of ibuprofen. This article is a focus on the personal reflections and career of Dr Stewart Adams OBE, the scientist whose research lead to the discovery of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor. When Dr Adams discovered ibuprofen, he was working as a pharmacologist in the Research Department for the Boots Pure Drug Company Ltd. Dr Adams was assigned to work on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chose in 1953 to search for a drug that would be effective in RA but would not be a corticosteroid. He was one of the first workers in this field that later became known as NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs). In 1961, Dr Adams with John Nicholson, the organic chemist, filed a patent for the compound 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid, later to become one of the most successful NSAIDs in the modern world, ibuprofen. In this article, Dr Adams gives his modest insight into the early stages and initial observations which led to this world-wide success.

  8. 50th anniversary of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine--a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Körber, Friedrich; Plebani, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Joachim Brugsch, one of the founders of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) (then Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie), had the idea to found a journal in the upcoming field of clinical chemistry. He approached Ernst Schütte, who was associated with the De Gruyter publishing house through another journal, to participate, and Schütte thus became the second founder of this Journal. The aim was to create a vehicle allowing the experts to express their opinions and raise their voices more clearly than they could in a journal that publishes only original experimental papers, a laborious and difficult, but important endeavor, as the profession of clinical chemistry was still in the early stages of development at this time. The first issue of this Journal was published in early 1963, and today, we are proud to celebrate the 50th anniversary of CCLM. This review describes the development of this Journal in light of the political situation of the time when it was founded, the situation of the publisher Walter De Gruyter after the erection of the Berlin Wall, and the development of clinical chemistry, and later on, laboratory medicine as a well-acknowledged discipline and profession.

  9. Contrasting OLS and Quantile Regression Approaches to Student "Growth" Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Katherine Elizabeth; Ho, Andrew Dean

    2013-01-01

    Regression methods can locate student test scores in a conditional distribution, given past scores. This article contrasts and clarifies two approaches to describing these locations in terms of readily interpretable percentile ranks or "conditional status percentile ranks." The first is Betebenner's quantile regression approach that results in…

  10. Alternative Statistical Frameworks for Student Growth Percentile Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; Castellano, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests two alternative statistical approaches for estimating student growth percentiles (SGP). The first is to estimate percentile ranks of current test scores conditional on past test scores directly, by modeling the conditional cumulative distribution functions, rather than indirectly through quantile regressions. This would…

  11. World War II never ended in my house: interviews of 12 Office of Strategic Services veterans of wartime espionage on the 50th anniversary of WW II.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Susan

    2006-07-01

    The author conducted sociological interviews of 12 OSS spies (7 male, 5 female) who were operatives in France during World War II (WW II). The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) existed from 1941 to 1945 and was later renamed the CIA in 1947. This paper includes family studies of six close relatives of OSS vets and observation of 400 OSS veterans at the 50th anniversary of WW II. Three of the 12 OSS veterans who had been tortured by the Gestapo still suffered from PTSD-startle symptoms after 50 years; those three also suffered massive strokes in later life. The majority of OSS vets, regardless of gender, exhibited "war excitement" when talking about the war 50 years later. Most saw the war as the highpoint of their lives. War excitement needs more careful study within PTSD circles.

  12. Symposium--Perspectives on Motivation for Second Language Learning on the 50th Anniversary of Gardner & Lambert (1959)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    With the 50th anniversary of Robert C. Gardner and Wallace Lambert's seminal paper "Motivational variables in second language acquisition" (Gardner & Lambert 1959), we paused to reflect on the contributions the work has inspired and the state of the art in the study of motivation research.

  13. 3 CFR 8613 - Proclamation 8613 of December 6, 2010. 50th Anniversary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reflect our history, culture, and deep respect for wild and beautiful places. As we celebrate the 50th... cherished green spaces in our local communities, are truly a hallmark of our American identity. In... all Americans to recognize the beauty and diversity of all of America's open spaces. We are...

  14. Research in the Service of Education. Papers presented at the SCRE 50th Anniversary Conference (London, December, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, W. B.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Scottish Council for Research in Education's 50th anniversary conference in 1978 are included. "Are Standards Rising?," by W. Bryan Dockrell, examines the use of national performance assessment surveys in Scottish schools. "Better Reports," by Patricia M. Broadfoot, describes the need for a comprehensive assessment…

  15. NRAO Salutes Past, Looks to Future In 50th-Anniversary Science Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    Radio telescopes now in operation or under construction will be indispensible to scientists wrestling with the big, unanswered questions of 21st-Century astrophysics. That was the conclusion of a wide-ranging scientific meeting held in Charlottesville, Virginia, June 18-21, to mark the 50th anniversary of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). 1957 Dedication Dedication of NRAO, 17 October 1957. Left to right: R.M. Emberson, L.V. Berkner, G.A. Nay, J.W. Findlay (seated in front of 140ft telescope model), N.L. Ashton, D.S. Heeschen, H. Hockenberry. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on Image for Larger File ALMA Artist's conception of completed ALMA. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/ESO Click on Image for Larger File (2.4 MB) Nearly 200 scientists from around the world heard presentations about the frontiers of astrophysics and how the challenges at those frontiers will be met. In specialties as disparate as seeking the nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that is speeding the Universe's expansion to unraveling the details of how stars and planets are formed, more than 70 presenters looked toward future research breakthroughs. "NRAO's telescopes have made landmark contributions to the vast explosion of astronomical knowledge of the past half- century, and we look eagerly to making even more important contributions in the coming decades," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO's director. Over the four days of the meeting, discussions ranged from recollections of radio astronomy's pioneering days of vacuum-tube equipment and paper chart recorders to the design of telescopes that will produce amounts of data that will strain today's computers. Presenters pointed out that, in the coming decades, radio telescope observations will advance not only astronomy but also fields of basic physics such as gravitational radiation, particle physics, and the fundamental physical constants. "This meeting provided a great overview of where astrophysics stands today and where the challenges and opportunities of

  16. The 50th Anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J.

    2013-12-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) that was held at Purdue University on 11-15 November 1963. The conference was a historic event in that it brought together for the first time the leading researchers and practitioners from North America and other countries that had diverse interests and activities in the study and applications of perennially frozen ground, cold regions engineering and related laboratory investigations. The 285 registered participants represented engineers, researchers, manufacturers and builders from the USA (231), Canada (42), the USSR (5), Sweden (3) and Argentina, Austria, Great Britain, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and West Germany. The conference was organized by the Building Research Advisory Board of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC). The carefully edited volume, published in 1966 by the NAS, is considered to be the first multi-national, English-language collection of papers devoted entirely to permafrost topics. The 100 published papers followed closely the actual conference venue and panel discussions: soils and vegetation (9), massive ground ice (10), geomorphology (16), phase equilibrium and transition (8), thermal aspects (8), physico-mechanical properties (7), exploration and site selection (11), sanitary and hydraulic engineering (14), and earthwork and foundations (17). This 1963 Purdue conference essentially broke the 'ice' between East and West permafrost researchers and set the stage for the Second ICOP that was held in 1973 in Yakutsk, Siberia, and represented the first large international conference held in the restricted area of Siberia. All subsequent conferences maintained the interdisciplinary principles set forth at Purdue: two more in the United States (Fairbanks 1983, 2008), two in Canada (Edmonton 1978, Yellowknife 1998), and one in Trondheim, Norway (1988), Beijing, China (1993), and Zurich, Switzerland (2003

  17. Commemorating Toxicology at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences on the Occasion of Its 50th Anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, John R.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In 1978, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established and headquartered at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. On the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the NIEHS, this article documents some of the historical and current NTP programs and scientific advances that have been made possible through this long-standing relationship. PMID:27801649

  18. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  19. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  20. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth.

  1. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions.

  2. Percentile ranks of sonar fetal abdominal circumference measurements.

    PubMed

    Tamura, R K; Sabbagha, R E

    1980-11-01

    We present the percentile ranks of sonar fetal abdominal circumference (AC) measurements from 18 to 41 weeks' gestation. The ACs are derived from both longitudinal and cross-sectional ultrasonic studies of 200 low-risk pregnant women. The reproducibility of sonar AC falls within 2% of the mean value; this variation permits antenatal distinction of the fetus with a small AC (less than twenty-fifth percentile) or large (greater than eightieth percentile) reading. The fetal AC measurements add another dimension to the interpretation of cephalic growth, particularly in identifying macrosomic fetuses as well as those who are either asymmetrically or symmetrically undergrown. Additionally fetal AC measurements are useful as adjuncts to the diagnosis of hydrocephalus by quantitating the difference between cephalic and body size. In the presence of fetal ascites the AC also can be used to assess the severity and progression of the abnormality.

  3. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  4. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2005-06-01

    To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men.

  5. I Can Do Maths: Changing Children's Mathematics Percentile Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Bonny; Mabin, Tony; Graham, Sue

    Three groups of children aged 8-10 who scored below the 22nd percentile on the PATests were taught basic math skills for 16 hours. One group received individual instruction using Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction, the second group received group instruction using Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction, and the third group received group…

  6. Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may…

  7. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... position incapable of seating a 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572... torso of the 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart E, fitted... percentile female Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart O is positioned according to...

  8. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... position incapable of seating a 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572... torso of the 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart E, fitted... percentile female Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart O is positioned according to...

  9. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... position incapable of seating a 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572... torso of the 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart E, fitted... percentile female Hybrid III test dummy specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart O is positioned according to...

  10. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cinthya Lee; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Torres, Jose Sulla; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-07-09

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  11. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  12. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions. PMID:22444086

  13. The 50th Anniversary of the International Indian Ocean Expedition: An Update on Current Planning Efforts and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Raleigh; D'Adamo, Nick; Burkill, Peter; Urban, Ed; Bhikajee, Mitrasen

    2014-05-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. In the 50 years since the IIOE three fundamental changes have taken place in ocean science. The first is the deployment of a broad suite of oceanographic sensors on satellites that have dramatically improved the characterization of both physical and biological oceanographic variability. The second is the emergence of new components of the ocean observing system, most notably remote sensing and Argo floats. And the third is the development of ocean modeling in all its facets from short-term forecasting to seasonal prediction to climate projections. These advances have revolutionized our understanding of the global oceans, including the Indian Ocean. Compared to the IIOE era, we now have the capacity to provide a much more integrated picture of the Indian Ocean, especially if these new technologies can be combined with targeted and well-coordinated in situ measurements. In this presentation we report on current efforts to motivate an IIOE 50th Anniversary Celebration (IIOE-2). We envision this IIOE-2 as a 5-year expedition and effort beginning in 2015 and continuing through to 2020. An important objective of our planning efforts is assessing ongoing and planned research activities in the Indian Ocean in the 2015 to 2020 time frame, with the goal of embracing and

  14. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  15. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-06-15

    female phantoms were further developed from the 50th percentile phantoms through adjustments in the body contour to match the total body masses given in CDC pediatric growth curves. The resulting six NURBS phantoms, male and female phantoms representing their 10th, 50th, and 90th weight percentiles, were used to investigate the influence of body fat distributions on internal organ doses following CT imaging. The phantoms were exposed to multislice chest and abdomen helical CT scans, and in-field organ absorbed doses were calculated. The results demonstrated that the use of traditional stylized phantoms yielded organ dose estimates that deviate from those given by the UF reference hybrid phantoms by up to a factor of 2. The study also showed that use of reference, or 50th percentile, phantoms to assess organ doses in underweight 15-year-old children would not lead to significant organ dose errors (typically less than 10%). However, more significant errors were noted (up to {approx}30%) when reference phantoms are used to represent overweight children in CT imaging dosimetry. These errors are expected to only further increase as one considers CT organ doses in overweight and obese individuals of the adult patient population, thus emphasizing the advantages of patient-sculptable phantom technology.

  16. Binorm-a fortran subroutine to calculate the percentiles of a standardized binormal distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCammon, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    BINORM is a FORTRAN subroutine for calculating the percentiles of a standardized binormal distribution. By using a linear transformation, the percentiles of a binormal distribution can be obtained. The percentiles of a binormal distribution are useful for plotting purposes, for establishing confidence intervals, and for sampling from a mixed population that consists of two normal distributions. ?? 1977.

  17. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  18. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  19. Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Michael F; Terrebonne, Jennifer; Fields, Victoria; Nodurft, Danielle; Runfalo, Cori; Latimer, Brian; Ingram, Donald K

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related bradykinesia affects ∼ 15% of those reaching age 65 and 50% of those reaching their 80s. Given this high risk and lack of pharmacologic therapeutics, noninvasive lifestyle strategies should be identified to diminish its risk and identify the neurobiological targets to reduce aging-related bradykinesia. Early-life, long-term calorie restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related bradykinesia in rodents. Here, we addressed whether CR initiation at middle age could attenuate aging-related bradykinesia and motoric decline measured as rotarod performance. A 30% CR regimen was implemented for 6 months duration in 12-month-old male Brown-Norway Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats after establishing individual baseline locomotor activities. Locomotor capacity was assessed every 6 weeks thereafter. The ad libitum group exhibited predictably decreased locomotor activity, except movement speed, out to 18 months of age. In contrast, in the CR group, movement number and horizontal activity did not decrease during the 6-month trial, and aging-related decline in rotarod performance was attenuated. The response to CR was influenced by baseline locomotor activity. The lower the locomotor activity level at baseline, the greater the response to CR. Rats in the lower 50th percentile surpassed their baseline level of activity, whereas rats in the top 50th percentile decreased at 6 weeks and then returned to baseline by 12 weeks of CR. We hypothesized that nigrostriatal dopamine tissue content would be greater in the CR group and observed a modest increase only in substantia nigra with no group differences in striatum, nucleus accumbens, or ventral tegmental area. These results indicate that initiation of CR at middle age may reduce aging-related bradykinesia, and, furthermore, subjects with below average locomotor activity may increase baseline activity. Sustaining nigral dopamine neurotransmission may be one component of preserving locomotor capabilities during aging.

  20. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Eckert, J

    2013-08-01

    In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high

  1. The Long Good-Bye: Why B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" Is Alive and Well on the 50th Anniversary of Its Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    The year 2007 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", a book that by Skinner's own account was his most important. The received view, however, is that a devastating review by a young linguist not only rendered Skinner's interpretation of language moot but was also a major factor in ending the hegemony…

  2. Claremont Reading Conference. Forty-Seventh Yearbook. Proceedings of the Claremont Reading Conference (50th, Claremont, California, January 14-15, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Malcolm P., Ed.

    The continuing theme of these conferences is: "Reading, the Process of Creating Meaning for Sensed Stimuli." The special theme of this 1983 anniversary conference is: "Reading Reading: 50th Anniversary Perspectives." The proceedings in this yearbook reflect the retrospective and prospective emphasis of the special theme. Following an introduction,…

  3. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch…

  4. MABAHISS/John Murray 50th Anniversary: Marine Science of the North West Indian Ocean and Adjacent Waters. Report of a Symposium on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the MABAHISS/John Murray Expedition (1933/34) (Alexandria, Egypt, September 3-7, 1983). Unesco Reports in Marine Science, No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    An international symposium was convened to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the John Murray Expedition to the Indian Ocean on board the Egyptian research vessel Mabahiss (1933-1934). This report describes the symposium and provides abstracts and syntheses of the papers presented in the various marine scientific disciplines covering the areas of…

  5. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key points A higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents. Children’s BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one

  6. Summary of the Workshop on Molten Salt Reactor Technologies Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Startup of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Mays, Gary T

    2016-01-01

    A workshop on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) technologies commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on October 15 16, 2015. The MSRE represented a pioneering experiment that demonstrated an advanced reactor technology: the molten salt eutectic-fueled reactor. A multinational group of more than 130 individuals representing a diverse set of stakeholders gathered to discuss the historical, current, and future technical challenges and paths to deployment of MSR technology. This paper provides a summary of the key messages from this workshop.

  7. Shaping in the 21st century: Moving percentile schedules into applied settings

    PubMed Central

    Galbicka, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    The present paper provides a primer on percentile reinforcement schedules, which have been used for two decades to study response differentiation and shaping in the laboratory. Arranged in applied settings, percentile procedures could be used to specify response criteria, standardizing treatment across subjects, trainers, and times to provide a more consistent training environment while maintaining the sensitivity to the individual's repertoire that is the hallmark of shaping. Percentile schedules are also valuable tools in analyzing the variables of which responding is a function, both inside and outside the laboratory. Finally, by formalizing the rules of shaping, percentile schedules provide a useful heuristic of the processes involved in shaping behavior, even for those situations that may not easily permit their implementation. As such, they may help further sensitize trainers and researchers alike to variables of critical importance in behavior change. ImagesFigure 6 PMID:16795849

  8. Menstruation disorders in adolescents with eating disorders – target body mass index percentiles for their resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Beatriz; Brito, Sara; Paulos, Lígia; Moleiro, Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyse the progression of body mass index in eating disorders and to determine the percentile for establishment and resolution of the disease. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Review of clinical files of adolescents with eating disorders. Results: Of the 62 female adolescents studied with eating disorders, 51 presented with eating disorder not otherwise specified, 10 anorexia nervosa, and 1 bulimia nervosa. Twenty-one of these adolescents had menstrual disorders; in that, 14 secondary amenorrhea and 7 menstrual irregularities (6 eating disorder not otherwise specified, and 1 bulimia nervosa). In average, in anorectic adolescents, the initial body mass index was in 75th percentile; secondary amenorrhea was established 1 month after onset of the disease; minimum weight was 76.6% of ideal body mass index (at 4th percentile) at 10.2 months of disease; and resolution of amenorrhea occurred at 24 months, with average weight recovery of 93.4% of the ideal. In eating disorder not otherwise specified with menstrual disorder (n=10), the mean initial body mass index was at 85th percentile; minimal weight was in average 97.7% of the ideal value (minimum body mass index was in 52nd percentile) at 14.9 months of disease; body mass index stabilization occured at 1.6 year of disease; and mean body mass index was in 73rd percentile. Considering eating disorder not otherwise specified with secondary amenorrhea (n=4); secondary amenorrhea occurred at 4 months, with resolution at 12 months of disease (mean 65th percentile body mass index). Conclusion: One-third of the eating disorder group had menstrual disorder – two-thirds presented with amenorrhea. This study indicated that for the resolution of their menstrual disturbance the body mass index percentiles to be achieved by female adolescents with eating disorders was 25–50 in anorexia nervosa, and 50–75, in eating disorder not otherwise specified. PMID:25003922

  9. Changes of the time-varying percentiles of daily extreme temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Fang; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xinrui

    2016-09-01

    Identifying the air temperature frequency distributions and evaluating the trends in time-varying percentiles are very important for climate change studies. In order to get a better understanding of the recent temporal and spatial pattern of the temperature changes in China, we have calculated the trends in temporal-varying percentiles of the daily extreme air temperature firstly. Then we divide all the stations to get the spatial patterns for the percentile trends using the average linkage cluster analysis method. To make a comparison, the shifts of trends percentile frequency distribution from 1961-1985 to 1986-2010 are also examined. Important results in three aspects have been achieved: (1) In terms of the trends in temporal-varying percentiles of the daily extreme air temperature, the most intense warming for daily maximum air temperature (Tmax) was detected in the upper percentiles with a significant increasing tendency magnitude (>2.5 °C/50year), and the greatest warming for daily minimum air temperature (Tmin) occurred with very strong trends exceeding 4 °C/50year. (2) The relative coherent spatial patterns for the percentile trends were found, and stations for the whole country had been divided into three clusters. The three primary clusters were distributed regularly to some extent from north to south, indicating the possible large influence of the latitude. (3) The most significant shifts of trends percentile frequency distribution from 1961-1985 to 1986-2010 was found in Tmax. More than half part of the frequency distribution show negative trends less than -0.5 °C/50year in 1961-1985, while showing trends less than 2.5 °C/50year in 1986-2010.

  10. Edited by Bolling and WFB Emotion Awareness Predicts Body Mass Index Percentile Trajectories in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Diana J.; Belden, Andrew C.; Barch, Deanna; Luby, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the rate of change in BMI percentile across three years in relation to emotion identification ability and brain-based reactivity in emotional processing regions. Study design A longitudinal sample of 202 youth completed three fMRI-based facial processing tasks and behavioral emotion differentiation tasks. We examined the rate of change in youth's BMI percentile as a function of reactivity in emotional processing brain regions and behavioral emotion identification tasks using multilevel modeling. Results Lower correct identification of both happiness and sadness measured behaviorally predicted increases in BMI percentiles across development whereas higher correct identification of both happiness and sadness predicted decreases in BMI percentiles, while controlling for children's pubertal status, gender, ethnicity, IQ score, exposure to antipsychotic medication, family income-to-needs ratio, externalizing, internalizing, and depressive symptoms. Greater neural activation in emotion reactivity regions to sad faces also predicted increases in BMI percentiles during development, also controlling for the above-mentioned covariates. Conclusions Findings provide longitudinal developmental data demonstrating a link between both emotion identification ability and greater neural reactivity in emotional processing regions with trajectories of BMI percentiles across childhood. PMID:26227437

  11. Introduction to the special issue: 50th anniversary of APA Division 28: The past, present, and future of psychopharmacology and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Sigmon, Stacey C; Evans, Suzette M

    2016-08-01

    This is an introduction to the special issue "50th Anniversary of APA Division 28: The Past, Present, and Future of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse." Taken together, the scholarly contributions included in this special issue serve as a testament to the important work conducted by our colleagues over the past five decades. Division 28 and its members have advanced and disseminated knowledge on the behavioral effects of drugs, informed efforts to prevent and treat substance abuse, and influenced education and policy issues more generally. As past and current leaders of the division, we are excited to celebrate 50 years of Division 28 and look forward to many more successful decades for our division and its members. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454671

  12. A report from the European Association for the Study of the Liver's 50th International Liver Congress (April 22-26 - Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2015-04-01

    While Vienna's Prater park offers a varied selection of options, from theme parks to lush gardens and prairies to enjoy the sun, the nearby Messe Wien convention center was the focus of attention in April 2015 for all the scientists, researchers and clinicians interested in viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma and a variety of other liver diseases. Treatments and potential new therapeutic strategies for these hepatopathies were discussed during the 50th International Liver Congress organized by the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Echoing epidemiological facts and a high social interest for hepatitis C virus infection, new findings with investigational and potential new therapies for the disease centered much of the attention at the conference. Nevertheless, new research was also reported related to potential improvements in how other liver diseases, particularly hepatitis B virus infection, hepatocellular carcinoma and a range of inflammatory and immune-mediated liver diseases, including rare hereditary diseases that should never be forgotten.

  13. Introduction to the special issue: 50th anniversary of APA Division 28: The past, present, and future of psychopharmacology and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Sigmon, Stacey C; Evans, Suzette M

    2016-08-01

    This is an introduction to the special issue "50th Anniversary of APA Division 28: The Past, Present, and Future of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse." Taken together, the scholarly contributions included in this special issue serve as a testament to the important work conducted by our colleagues over the past five decades. Division 28 and its members have advanced and disseminated knowledge on the behavioral effects of drugs, informed efforts to prevent and treat substance abuse, and influenced education and policy issues more generally. As past and current leaders of the division, we are excited to celebrate 50 years of Division 28 and look forward to many more successful decades for our division and its members. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of the modified 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel as measured in a 1/50th-scale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Naumowicz, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center were measured by using a 1/50th-scale facility. The model was configured to closely simulate the features of the full-scale facility when it became operational in 1986. The items measured include the aerodynamic effects due to changes in the total-pressure-loss characteristics of the intake and exhaust openings of the air-exchange system, total-pressure distributions in the flow field at locations around the wind tunnel circuit, the locations of the maximum total-pressure contours, and the aerodynamic changes caused by the installation of the acoustic barrier in the southwest corner of the wind tunnel. The model tests reveal the changes in the aerodynamic performance of the 1986 version of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel compared with the performance of the 1982 configuration.

  15. Impact of percentile computation method on PM 24-h air quality standard.

    PubMed

    Salako, Gbenga Oladoyin; Hopke, Philip K

    2012-09-30

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) introduced a percentile form of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). Studies had shown that a specified percentile in the frequency distribution of measured values of PM increased the probability of detecting non-attainment areas (power) and decreased the likelihood of misclassification of attainment areas as being non-attainment (type 2 error). However, this new NAAQS used a percentile form that was different from a standard percentile in a distribution. Instead of taking the percentile of the distribution of the required 3 years of measurements, the PM(2.5) values for the selected percentile for each year were determined and the average of these 3 values was used as the NAAQS indicator value. However, no studies have been made of this average of the 3 years method and compared to a standard percentile in the multiyear data. The relationships between the values obtained using these two approaches have been explored. PM data measured at selected US EPA Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) website from January 2004 to December 2008 at 20 sites in 20 different states in United States were utilized. PM samples were collected for 24-h periods from midnight to midnight every third day for PM(2.5) and every sixth day for PM(10). At some sites, continuous measurements of PM(2.5) were made and averaged to provide 24-hr values. Using these data, the NAAQS percentile values were compared with the actual 98th percentile values of the three years of data. Regression and t-test analyses were used to compare these two methods and found high correlation coefficients and no significant difference in most cases. Overall, the two methods showed substantial agreement such that either of the two approaches could serve as the statistical form of the 24-h standard. In exploring the PM(10) standard, an arbitrarily chosen standard value of 85 μg/m(3) was used to explore the

  16. Evaluation and projection of daily temperature percentiles from statistical and dynamical downscaling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanueva, A.; Herrera, S.; Fernández, J.; Frías, M. D.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    The study of extreme events has become of great interest in recent years due to their direct impact on society. Extremes are usually evaluated by using extreme indicators, based on order statistics on the tail of the probability distribution function (typically percentiles). In this study, we focus on the tail of the distribution of daily maximum and minimum temperatures. For this purpose, we analyse high (95th) and low (5th) percentiles in daily maximum and minimum temperatures on the Iberian Peninsula, respectively, derived from different downscaling methods (statistical and dynamical). First, we analyse the performance of reanalysis-driven downscaling methods in present climate conditions. The comparison among the different methods is performed in terms of the bias of seasonal percentiles, considering as observations the public gridded data sets E-OBS and Spain02, and obtaining an estimation of both the mean and spatial percentile errors. Secondly, we analyse the increments of future percentile projections under the SRES A1B scenario and compare them with those corresponding to the mean temperature, showing that their relative importance depends on the method, and stressing the need to consider an ensemble of methodologies.

  17. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623

  18. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one.

  19. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one. PMID:23225621

  20. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. PMID:26880623

  1. 50th Anniversary: Freedom 7

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard was propelled into space aboard the Mercury capsule Freedom 7. His 15-minute suborbital flight was part of Project Mercury, the United States' first man-in-space progra...

  2. EDITORIAL: 50th anniversary issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddoe, Alun H.

    2006-07-01

    In July 1956, 50 years ago, the first issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) was published. It was subtitled The Journal of the Hospital Physicists' Association and published in association with the Philosophical Magazine by Taylor and Francis. Subscriptions were £1 per part or £3 10s for an annual subscription. The Editor, Professor J E Roberts, prefaced the first issue with a cautious editorial noting: The appearance of a new journal is usually greeted with mixed feelings by scientific workers, a common response being that there are far too many journals already. Justification for a new publication is only possible if there is a clearly defined gap in the publishing facilities available to workers in a particular scientific field.... Professor Roberts ended by seeking support from the scientific community for the new venture. He certainly got it! From a tentative few hundred pages in four issues a year for the first few years, the journal is now issued twice monthly with nearly 8000 pages expected in volume 51. In this anniversary issue we have invited some 28 senior authors to submit papers on a range of subjects spanning the discipline. We decided that to be an author one had to be old, but age was not to be the only criterion! Indeed readers will recognize all names as major contributors to both the development of medical physics and the success of PMB. Authors were not asked to write formal topical reviews of the state-of-the-art of the sub-disciplines which make up medical physics, but rather to present short historical reviews, didactic in style, perhaps highlighting the role of PMB in the development of their fields. Nevertheless, other than a page limit (which many subsequently ignored!) no formal format was imposed on authors, so what follows is a range of contributions from the almost conversational, personal statement to the more formal and familiar scientific paper. Whatever the writing style we are confident that readers will gain some appreciation of the development of our wide-ranging discipline over the last half century. Some readers may feel that one or two subjects have not been represented, and for that I can only apologise. We did ask for contributions to several other topics (for example radiation metrology and optical techniques) but inevitably there were authors who for various reasons were unable to meet the deadline. Inevitably we will also have missed contributions from excellent potential authors (who satisfied the age criterion!). As Guest Editor I must bear the responsibility for those omissions. While page limits do not permit me to discuss the contributions to this issue individually I would like to mention the first contribution by Dr J E (Bob) Burns. Dr Burns was on the Editorial Board in the early sixties working with the second Editor, Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat. Both in his article and in personal communications Dr Burns has emphasized the important role of Professor Rotblat in the early years. I did write to Professor Rotblat seeking a contribution from him but, sadly, received a reply saying that he was not well enough to contribute `at present'; he died a few weeks later at the age of 96 years (please refer to www.pugwash.org for tributes from Mikhail Gorbachev, Kofi Annan and many others). Dr Burns wrote a short note to me shortly after his death including the following comment which is reproduced below: Although many people have contributed to the success of PMB over the last 50 years it was Rotblat's restless energy, power of persuasion and already existing fame (he was well known both scientifically and to the public at the time) that enabled him to rescue the journal from an early death. After discussions with colleagues around the UK, including Dr Burns, and with the Editorial Board, we all felt that it would be highly appropriate to dedicate this anniversary issue to the memory of Professor Rotblat. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOP) took over the publishing of PMB in 1972, firstly on behalf of the Hospital Physicists' Association and then on behalf of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). I wish to pay tribute to the staff at the IOP Publishing Office for the continuing excellent quality and short publication times for articles appearing in PMB. There can be no doubt that this contributes to the popularity with authors and readers alike. It almost goes without saying but I should also thank all the contributors, referees, Editorial Board members and International Advisory Board members who have, collectively, made PMB the success that it is. For historical interest I list below the 11 editors of PMB since its inception. Three of these editors have contributed papers to this issue. 1956-1961 Professor J E Roberts, Middlesex Hospital, London 1961-1972 Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London 1973-1978 Professor H A B Simons, Royal Free Hospital, London 1979-1982 Mr J Clifton, University College Hospital, London 1983-1985 Professor R P Parker, University of Leeds, Leeds 1986-1987 Dr M J Day, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle 1988-1991 Professor S C Lillicrap, Royal United Hospital, Bath 1992-1995 Professor B L Diffey, Dryburn Hospital, Durham 1996-1999 Professor M O Leach, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London 2000-2005 Professor A H Beddoe, University Hospital, Birmingham 2006- Professor S Webb, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London Finally, apart from noting the usual caveat that the Guest Editor, Editor-in Chief, IOP and IPEM take no responsibility for opinions expressed by authors, I would like to conclude by wishing Professor Steve Webb and future editors every success. While I may not be around for the centenary issue in July 2056 I have every reason to believe that it will be a good one.

  3. Sonar biparietal diameter. I. Analysis of percentile growth differences in two normal populations using same methodology.

    PubMed

    Sabbagha, R E; Barton, F B; Barton, B A

    1976-10-15

    BPD measurements were obtained from 107 white and 91 black normal gravid women, with established dates, between weeks 16 to 40 of pregnancy. The sonar methodology used is uniform, employing nonpersistent image scanning with electronic calipers. It is noted that the BPD percentile growth patterns derived from these racially different fetuses are alike. Similarly, the fetal age distributions corresponding to white vs. black fetal BPD's show minor differences. From a clinical standpoint, therefore, one percentile curve is constructed for both populations. It is concluded that the BPD differences observed in the currently used growth curves, reported by different investigators, are related to nonuniformity in sonar BPD methodology.

  4. User Guide for the 2014-15 Teacher Median Student Growth Percentile Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    On March 22, 2016, the New Jersey Department of Education ("the Department") published a broadcast memo sharing secure district access to 2014-15 median Student Growth Percentile (mSGP) data for all qualifying teachers. These data describe student growth from the last school year, and comprise 10% of qualifying teachers' 2014-15…

  5. Problems with Percentiles: Student Growth Scores in New York's Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Drew

    2016-01-01

    New York State has used the Growth Model for Educator Evaluation ratings since the 2011-2012 school year. Since that time, student growth percentiles have been used as the basis for teacher and principal ratings. While a great deal has been written about the use of student test scores to measures educator effectiveness, less attention has been…

  6. A Comparison of Growth Percentile and Value-Added Models of Teacher Performance. Working Paper #39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and state departments of education frequently must choose between a variety of methods to estimating teacher quality. This paper examines under what circumstances the decision between estimators of teacher quality is important. We examine estimates derived from student growth percentile measures and estimates derived from commonly…

  7. Student Growth Percentiles Based on MIRT: Implications of Calibrated Projection. CRESST Report 842

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li; Choi, Kilchan

    2014-01-01

    This research concerns a new proposal for calculating student growth percentiles (SGP, Betebenner, 2009). In Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is used to estimate the SGPs. However, measurement error in the score estimates, which always exists in practice, leads to bias in the QR-­based estimates (Shang, 2012). One way to address this…

  8. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  9. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  10. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  11. Acculturation determines BMI percentile and noncore food intake in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Wiley, James F; Cloutier, Michelle M; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hernandez, Dominica B; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Gorin, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.01). Additionally, children of mothers with greater acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P < 0.0001) and had higher BMI percentiles (P < 0.04). However, mothers with greater Hispanic acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P < 0.0001). In the Puerto Rican subgroup of mothers, Puerto Rican mothers with greater acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P < 0.0001), but there was no association between acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0.01) compared with non-Puerto Rican mothers, and this may have negated the effect of noncore food consumption on BMI percentile. These data suggest a complex relation between acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican

  12. A portrait of the C4 photosynthetic family on the 50th anniversary of its discovery: species number, evolutionary lineages, and Hall of Fame.

    PubMed

    Sage, Rowan F

    2016-07-01

    Fifty years ago, the C4 photosynthetic pathway was first characterized. In the subsequent five decades, much has been learned about C4 plants, such that it is now possible to place nearly all C4 species into their respective evolutionary lineages. Sixty-one independent lineages of C4 photosynthesis are identified, with additional, ancillary C4 origins possible in 12 of these principal lineages. The lineages produced ~8100 C4 species (5044 grasses, 1322 sedges, and 1777 eudicots). Using midpoints of stem and crown node dates in their respective phylogenies, the oldest and most speciose C4 lineage is the grass lineage Chloridoideae, estimated to be near 30 million years old. Most C4 lineages are estimated to be younger than 15 million years. Older C4 lineages tend to be more speciose, while those younger than 7 million years have <43 species each. To further highlight C4 photosynthesis for a 50th anniversary snapshot, a Hall of Fame comprised of the 40 most significant C4 species is presented. Over the next 50 years, preservation of the Earth's C4 diversity is a concern, largely because of habitat loss due to elevated CO2 effects, invasive species, and expanded agricultural activities. Ironically, some members of the C4 Hall of Fame are leading threats to the natural C4 flora due to their association with human activities on landscapes where most C4 plants occur.

  13. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2010-06-01

    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and international governmental testing guidelines. The Segment II (developmental toxicity) study design, described in rodents and rabbits, has evolved with additional enhanced endpoints and better descriptions, mechanistic insights, range-finding studies, and toxico/pharmacokinetic ADME information (especially for pharmaceuticals). Society members were also involved in the development of the current screening assays and tests for endocrine disruptors (beginning in 1996) and are now involved with developing new testing guidelines (e.g., the extended one-generation protocol), and evaluating the current test guidelines and new initiatives under ILSI/HESI sponsorship. New initiatives include ToxCast from the U.S. EPA to screen, prioritize, and predict toxic chemicals by high throughput and high-content in vitro assays, bioinformation, and modeling to reduce (or eliminate) in vivo whole animal studies. Our Society and its journal have played vital roles in the scientific and regulatory accomplishments in birth defects research over the past 50 years and will continue to do so in the future. Happy 50th anniversary!

  14. [Calculating critical loads of acid deposition with different percentiles in China].

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming; Zhou, Zhongping; Xie, Shaodong

    2002-09-01

    While mapping critical loads of acid deposition in China, the 1 degree (latitude) x 1 degree (longitude) resolution was always adopted in critical load calculation. However, the results of mapping can not show the difference of sensitivity of ecosystems to acid deposition within a 1 degree x 1 degree grid. For the convenience of policy-makers to formulate acid deposition control strategies based on critical loads, and to improve the representation and practicability of 1 degree x 1 degree results, a series of critical load maps with different percentiles were compiled, which may be accordance with a given economic or technological level, and allows some degree of damage. Based on the cumulative distribution function, the critical load exceedance maps with different percentiles and the maximum allowable deposition of each province was also derived.

  15. Plotting equation for gaussian percentiles and a spreadsheet program for generating probability plots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balsillie, J.H.; Donoghue, J.F.; Butler, K.M.; Koch, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional plotting tools can be of invaluable assistance in analytical scientific pursuits, and have been widely used in the analysis and interpretation of sedimentologic data. We consider, in this work, the use of arithmetic probability paper (APP). Most statistical computer applications do not allow for the generation of APP plots, because of apparent intractable nonlinearity of the percentile (or probability) axis of the plot. We have solved this problem by identifying an equation(s) for determining plotting positions of Gaussian percentiles (or probabilities), so that APP plots can easily be computer generated. An EXCEL example is presented, and a programmed, simple-to-use EXCEL application template is hereby made publicly available, whereby a complete granulometric analysis including data listing, moment measure calculations, and frequency and cumulative APP plots, is automatically produced.

  16. Statewide analysis of the drainage-area ratio method for 34 streamflow percentile ranges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio

  17. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  18. Estimated monthly percentile discharges at ungaged sites in the Upper Yellowstone River Basin in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Once-monthly streamflow measurements were used to estimate selected percentile discharges on flow-duration curves of monthly mean discharge for 40 ungaged stream sites in the upper Yellowstone River basin in Montana. The estimation technique was a modification of the concurrent-discharge method previously described and used by H.C. Riggs to estimate annual mean discharge. The modified technique is based on the relationship of various mean seasonal discharges to the required discharges on the flow-duration curves. The mean seasonal discharges are estimated from the monthly streamflow measurements, and the percentile discharges are calculated from regression equations. The regression equations, developed from streamflow record at nine gaging stations, indicated a significant log-linear relationship between mean seasonal discharge and various percentile discharges. The technique was tested at two discontinued streamflow-gaging stations; the differences between estimated monthly discharges and those determined from the discharge record ranged from -31 to +27 percent at one site and from -14 to +85 percent at the other. The estimates at one site were unbiased, and the estimates at the other site were consistently larger than the recorded values. Based on the test results, the probable average error of the technique was + or - 30 percent for the 21 sites measured during the first year of the program and + or - 50 percent for the 19 sites measured during the second year. (USGS)

  19. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  20. Percentiles of the product of uncertainty factors for establishing probabilistic reference doses.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, D W; Kodell, R L

    2000-04-01

    Exposure guidelines for potentially toxic substances are often based on a reference dose (RfD) that is determined by dividing a no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL), or benchmark dose (BD) corresponding to a low level of risk, by a product of uncertainty factors. The uncertainty factors for animal to human extrapolation, variable sensitivities among humans, extrapolation from measured subchronic effects to unknown results for chronic exposures, and extrapolation from a LOAEL to a NOAEL can be thought of as random variables that vary from chemical to chemical. Selected databases are examined that provide distributions across chemicals of inter- and intraspecies effects, ratios of LOAELs to NOAELs, and differences in acute and chronic effects, to illustrate the determination of percentiles for uncertainty factors. The distributions of uncertainty factors tend to be approximately lognormally distributed. The logarithm of the product of independent uncertainty factors is approximately distributed as the sum of normally distributed variables, making it possible to estimate percentiles for the product. Hence, the size of the products of uncertainty factors can be selected to provide adequate safety for a large percentage (e.g., approximately 95%) of RfDs. For the databases used to describe the distributions of uncertainty factors, using values of 10 appear to be reasonable and conservative. For the databases examined the following simple "Rule of 3s" is suggested that exceeds the estimated 95th percentile of the product of uncertainty factors: If only a single uncertainty factor is required use 33, for any two uncertainty factors use 3 x 33 approximately 100, for any three uncertainty factors use a combined factor of 3 x 100 = 300, and if all four uncertainty factors are needed use a total factor of 3 x 300 = 900. If near the 99th percentile is desired use another factor of 3. An additional factor may be needed for

  1. A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS SCORING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE OR BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURRY, JOHN

    IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF A CUT-OFF SCORE FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT NORTH TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCORES OF 1,346 STUDENTS WHO EITHER PLACED ABOVE THE 80TH PERCENTILE (N-672) OR BELOW THE 20TH PERCENTILE (N-674) ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING WERE…

  2. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (P<0.001). Ten subjects had a BMI of < or = 10th age percentile. Post hoc comparisons revealed that BMI percentiles were (a) reduced to a similar extent in patients with schizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  3. Validation of the global reference for fetal weight and birth weight percentiles.

    PubMed

    Badade, Anirudh B; Bhide, Amar; Satoskar, Purnima; Wadekar, Darshan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference curves fit the population in India and to validate the reference curves. The data were retrieved retrospectively from the records of women registration for antenatal care at a charitable maternity hospital in Mumbai, India. All pregnancies were dated on CRL obtained before 14 weeks. Births before 34(th) week were excluded. The expected frequencies of birth weights below the 1(st), 5(th), 10(th), 50(th), 90(th), 95(th) and 99(th) centiles from three reference ranges were compared with observed frequencies. It was found that the WHO generic reference adapted to India significantly underpredicted the birth weights and that the Hadlock reference ranges significantly overpredicted the birth weights. The use of generic reference adapted to Sri Lanka showed a better fit to the observed data. We concluded that global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference ranges do not fit all the population in India and the charts need validation. Reference charts modified on the basis of data for Sri Lankan population show a better fit to the observed data, and therefore are more appropriate for use in clinical practice in South India. PMID:24347860

  4. State disparities in time trends of adolescent body mass index percentile and weight-related behaviors in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to whether youth obesity prevalence has reached a plateau in the United States overall. Trends vary by state, and experts recommend exploring whether trends in weight-related behaviors are associated with changes in weight status trends. Thus, our objective was to estimate between-state variation in time trends of adolescent body mass index (BMI) percentile and weight-related behaviors from 2001 to 2007. A time series design combined cross-sectional Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 272,044 adolescents in 29 states from 2001 to 2007. Self-reported height, weight, sports participation, physical education, television viewing, and daily consumption of 100% fruit juice, milk, and fruits and vegetables were collected. Linear mixed models estimated state variance in time trends of behaviors and BMI percentile. Across states, BMI percentile trends were consistent despite differences in behavioral trends. Boys experienced a modest linear increase in BMI percentile (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.30); girls experienced a non-linear increase, as the rate of increase declined over time from 1.02 units in 2001-2002 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.36) to 0.23 units in 2006-2007 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.56). States in which BMI percentile decreased experienced a greater decrease in TV viewing than states where BMI percentile increased. Otherwise, states with disparate BMI percentile trends did not differ with respect to behaviors. Future research should explore the role of other behaviors (e.g., soda consumption), measurement units (e.g., portion size), and societal trends (e.g., urban sprawl) on state and national adiposity trends. PMID:21773818

  5. Regression Equations for Monthly and Annual Mean and Selected Percentile Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2015-12-03

    The largest average errors of prediction are associated with regression equations for the lowest streamflows derived for months during which the lowest streamflows of the year occur (such as the 5 and 1 monthly percentiles for August and September). The regression equations have been derived on the basis of streamflow and basin characteristics data for unregulated, rural drainage basins without substantial streamflow or drainage modifications (for example, diversions and (or) regulation by dams or reservoirs, tile drainage, irrigation, channelization, and impervious paved surfaces), therefore using the equations for regulated or urbanized basins with substantial streamflow or drainage modifications will yield results of unknown error. Input basin characteristics derived using techniques or datasets other than those documented in this report or using values outside the ranges used to develop these regression equations also will yield results of unknown error.

  6. Using Laplace Regression to Model and Predict Percentiles of Age at Death When Age Is the Primary Time Scale.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Andrea; Discacciati, Andrea; Bottai, Matteo; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Increasingly often in epidemiologic research, associations between survival time and predictors of interest are measured by differences between distribution functions rather than hazard functions. For example, differences in percentiles of survival time, expressed in absolute time units (e.g., weeks), may complement the popular risk ratios, which are unitless measures. When analyzing time to an event of interest (e.g., death) in prospective cohort studies, the time scale can be set to start at birth or at study entry. The advantages of one time origin over the other have been thoroughly explored for the estimation of risks but not for the estimation of survival percentiles. In this paper, we analyze the use of different time scales in the estimation of survival percentiles with Laplace regression. Using this regression method, investigators can estimate percentiles of survival time over levels of an exposure of interest while adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings may help to improve modeling strategies and ease interpretation in the estimation of survival percentiles in prospective cohort studies.

  7. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  8. [Influence of age on blood glucose levels: percentile reference intervals determined on ambulatory patients].

    PubMed

    Sapigni, T; Astolfi, G; Cavallini, L; Cremonini, F

    1981-06-15

    Data of routine chemical and hematological laboratory tests regarding outpatients were collected in four different hospitals of the provinces of Ferrara, Rovigo and Bologna. Data of about 1500 subjects per hospital were cumulated without preliminary selection of patients; sex, age and pregnancy status were also recorded. At the end of the collection, the second (and third) record of the same patient was discarded; only those referring to the first examination were retained. In this report we consider only the values of the blood sugar level which were obtained by enzymatic methods. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were performed utilizing a CDC CYBER 70/76 computer. The means and the variances of the data collected at the four hospital laboratories were very similar (Tab 1). The interlaboratory analysis of variance was poorly significant. All frequency distributions were leptocurtic and skewed to the right (Fig. 1). The blood sugar level tend to increase with age (Tab. 2). This correlation is graphically depicted in a two-dimensional plot (Fig 2) in which the regression line and the 2, 5 and 97,5 percentile levels corrected for age were also reported. We think that this diagram may be more helpful to the clinicians interpreting laboratory results than the usual "normal values". PMID:7284101

  9. Using Beta Distributions to Estimate Percentile Ranks and Accumulate Norms for Student Opinion of Teaching Items. Research Report No. 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; And Others

    Members of the beta family of distributions were used to estimate percentile ranks and to accumulate normative data collected in a university-wide system for gathering student opinions about teaching--including the areas of course content, objectives, instructor's behavior, teaching methods and materials, and outcomes of instruction. The fitted…

  10. Analysis of the Stability of Teacher-Level Growth Scores from the Student Growth Percentile Model. REL 2016-104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Andrea; Makkonen, Reino; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study, undertaken at the request of the Nevada Department of Education, examined the stability over years of teacher-level growth scores from the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) model, which many states and districts have selected as a measure of effectiveness in their teacher evaluation systems. The authors conducted a generalizability study…

  11. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2009-01-01

    Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

  12. National primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. Analysis of occurrences of very low 90th percentile lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-06

    This report contains an analysis of 90th percentile lead levels reported to the Federal Reporting Data System (FRDS) between 1992 and March 20, 1995 to estimate the number of large and medium-size water systems with very low levels of lead (i.e., less than or equal to 5 parts per billion) at the tap.

  13. 75 FR 59674 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities, Side...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). For access to the docket to read background documents or comments... percentile adult female and a 50th percentile adult male and enhanced injury criteria. \\1\\ 72 FR 51908, September 11, 2007; response to petitions for reconsideration, 73 FR 32473, June 9, 2003; 75 FR 12123,...

  14. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  15. 50th project Air Force, 1946 - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Contents: a partnership of trust 47 analytic methods, 11 out of the box, 53 systems training program, 17 space, 57 defense economics, 23 strategy for the nuclear era, 61 manpower, 29 theater air operation, 61 logistics, 33 computing, 71 acquisition policy, 39 international studies, 75 the post-cold war world, 43 arms control, 79 the new challenge.

  16. 50th anniversary of the laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, M.

    2010-09-01

    On July, 7, 1960 a press conference at Huyghes announced that Maiman had assembled and put into operation the first laser. It was the very pulsed ruby laser that everybody knows today. The announcement came as a bomb. Nobody expected that in an unknown laboratory, new to the race to build a laser, this result could be obtained. It was such an unexpected result that many still today mantain that the true laser was discovered at Bell by Shawlow. This result was achieved through a long story which passed by the Townes maser and many tentative experiments and discussions both in the USA and Soviet Union. In this special issue we present a collection of papers which provide further information as to what happened after Einstein introduced the concept of stimulated emission. The first paper is a short paper by Townes on the development of the physics of microwaves following the creation of the maser. When the laser came on the stage one of its properties was the inherent coherence of the emitted light. Emil Wolf's contribution enlights the early days of coherence to which he so much contributed and the very timely first Rochester Conference which was held on June 27-29, 1960 a few days before the Times announcement of the Maiman achievement. Important contributions were given by Soviet Scientists and, Svetlana Lukishova's contributions helps us understand the work of Valentin Fabrikant which was mostly unknown to western scientists. At the end of his life, Maiman went to Vancouver in Canada and Andrew H. Rawicz gives his testimoniancy of his friendship there. Coherence and the statistical properties of laser light were much studied and we have two exceptional papers by Roy Pike and Jan Perina discussing these arguments. The issue also contains three more papers presenting some earlier achievements in the construction of multiquantumwell laser (M. L. Dotor, P. Huertas, P. A. Postigo, D. Golmayo and F. Briones), the first measurements on very short pulses (H. P. Weber and R. Dandliker) and spatial coherence (D. P. Barato and M. L. Calvo).

  17. 50th Anniversary of Acta stomatologica Croatica.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2016-03-01

    Acta stomatologica Croatisa (ASCRO) is scientific-professional magazine whose first issue was published back in 1966. Ever since the magazine publishers were the School of Dental Medicine of the University of Zagreb and the Croatian Dental Association of the Croatian Medical Association. Over the past fifty years two hundred regular editions were pubslihed along with three additions. The magazine has been internationally indexed and it was granted the DOI number. In this way by means of CrossCheck possible plagiarisms are being checked which aims at obtaining originality of the published results. Another peculiarity of ASCRO is bilingualism throughout the whole edition, international recognizability, open source and tradition based on sound foundations. PMID:27688420

  18. 50th Anniversary of Acta stomatologica Croatica

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Acta stomatologica Croatisa (ASCRO) is scientific-professional magazine whose first issue was published back in 1966. Ever since the magazine publishers were the School of Dental Medicine of the University of Zagreb and the Croatian Dental Association of the Croatian Medical Association. Over the past fifty years two hundred regular editions were pubslihed along with three additions. The magazine has been internationally indexed and it was granted the DOI number. In this way by means of CrossCheck possible plagiarisms are being checked which aims at obtaining originality of the published results. Another peculiarity of ASCRO is bilingualism throughout the whole edition, international recognizability, open source and tradition based on sound foundations.

  19. 50th Anniversary of Acta stomatologica Croatica

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Acta stomatologica Croatisa (ASCRO) is scientific-professional magazine whose first issue was published back in 1966. Ever since the magazine publishers were the School of Dental Medicine of the University of Zagreb and the Croatian Dental Association of the Croatian Medical Association. Over the past fifty years two hundred regular editions were pubslihed along with three additions. The magazine has been internationally indexed and it was granted the DOI number. In this way by means of CrossCheck possible plagiarisms are being checked which aims at obtaining originality of the published results. Another peculiarity of ASCRO is bilingualism throughout the whole edition, international recognizability, open source and tradition based on sound foundations. PMID:27688420

  20. 50th anniversary of the word "allosteric".

    PubMed

    Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2011-07-01

    A brief historical account on the origin and meaning of the word "allosteric" is presented. The word was coined in an attempt to qualify the chemical mechanism of the feedback inhibition of bacterial enzymes by regulatory ligands. The data lead to the proposal that, at variance with the classical mechanism of mutual exclusion by steric hindrance, the inhibition takes place through an "allosteric" interaction between "no overlapping", stereospecifically distinct, sites for substrate and feedback inhibitor, mediated by a discrete reversible alteration of the molecular structure of the protein. PMID:21574197

  1. The 2014 Surgeon General's report: commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the 1964 Report of the Advisory Committee to the US Surgeon General and updating the evidence on the health consequences of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Shopland, Donald R; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-02-15

    The question of whether cigarette smoking was associated with lung cancer was central to the expansion of epidemiology into the study of chronic diseases in the 1950s. The culmination of this era was the 1964 report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General, a landmark document that included an objective synthesis of the evidence of the health consequences of smoking according to causal criteria. The report concluded that cigarette smoking was a cause of lung cancer in men and sufficient in scope that "remedial action" was warranted at the societal level. The 2014 Surgeon General's report commemorates the 50th anniversary of the 1964 report. The evidence on the health consequences of smoking has been updated many times in Surgeon General's reports since 1964. These have summarized our increasingly greater understanding of the broad spectrum of the deleterious health effects of exposure to tobacco smoke across most major organ systems. In turn, this evidence has been translated into tobacco control strategies implemented to protect the public's health. The Surgeon General report process is an enduring example of evidence-based public health in practice. Substantial progress has been made, but cigarette smoking remains one of the most pressing global health issues of our time.

  2. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the current available options for male contraception. PMID:23226635

  3. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  4. Relation between precipitation and the 25th percentile of June and September flows in streams in the Great Lakes, Ohio, and Upper Mississippi River Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winterstein, Thomas A.; Lorenz, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Regression models were developed for the 25th percentile of June and September flows (first quartile of flow) for 47 streamflow-gaging stations (gaging stations) in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio, and Great Lakes drainage basins. The gaging stations that were selected for this analysis are on unregulated rivers, have at least 40 years of record, and have a nearby weather station with at least 70 years of precipitation record. Regression models were developed for each gaging station relating annual 25th percentile of June and September flows to selected precipitation variables. The explanatory variables are monthly precipitation (April-June, July-September) for each year of record, precipitation for the previous year, and average precipitation for the preceding 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-, and 30-year periods. Short-term precipitation (April-June or July-September monthly precipitation) variables are the most common significant variables in the regression equations for the 25th percentile of June and September streamflows. May and June monthly precipitation are the most common significant variables among the regression models of the 25th percentile of June flows. August and September monthly precipitation are the most common significant variables in the regression models of the 25th percentile of September streamflow. July precipitation also is a significant explanatory variable in regression models of September streamflow. The 25th-percentile flows in this study also are related to intermediate- and long-term precipitation variables. The intermediate-term precipitation variable (previous-year's precipitation) has a more distinct spatial pattern than the long-term precipitation variable (multiyear running averages of annual precipitation) and is more likely to be significant in the western part than in the eastern part of the study area.

  5. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification. PMID:27023153

  6. Head Impact Exposure in Male and Female Collegiate Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Flashman, Laura A.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify head impact exposure (frequency, location and magnitude of head impacts) for individual male and female collegiate ice hockey players and to investigate differences in exposure by sex, player position, session type, and team. Ninety-nine (41 male, 58 female) players were enrolled and 37,411 impacts were recorded over three seasons. Frequency of impacts varied significantly by sex (males: 287 per season, females: 170, p<0.001) and helmet impact location (p<0.001), but not by player position (p=0.088). Head impact frequency also varied by session type; both male and female players sustained more impacts in games than in practices (p<0.001), however the magnitude of impacts did not differ between session types. There was no difference in 95th percentile peak linear acceleration between sexes (males: 41.6g, females: 40.8g), but 95th percentile peak rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were greater for males than females (4424, 3409 rad/s2, and 25.6, 22.3, respectively). Impacts to the back of the helmet resulted in the greatest 95th percentile peak linear accelerations for males (45.2g) and females (50.4g), while impacts to the side and back of the head were associated with the greatest 95th percentile peak rotational accelerations (males: 4719, 4256 rad/sec2, females: 3567, 3784 rad/sec2 respectively). It has been proposed that reducing an individual’s head impact exposure is a practical approach for reducing the risk of brain injuries. Strategies to decrease an individual athlete’s exposure need to be sport and gender specific, with considerations for team and session type. PMID:24210478

  7. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Isidori, Andrea M; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis regulates the development, endocrine and reproductive function of the gonads throughout all phases of life. Male hypogonadism is defined an inadequate gonadal function, as manifested by deficiency in gametogenesis and/or secretion of gonadal hormones. In most cases, male hypogonadism is diagnosed through detailed history, physical examination and a few basic hormonal evaluations. In selected cases, however, additional tests are needed to define the aetiology and the extent of HPG axis dysfunction. These include semen analysis, pituitary imaging studies, genetic studies, bone densitometry, testicular ultrasonography, testicular biopsy and hormonal dynamic testing. The stimulation tests of the HPG are of particular importance in the differential diagnosis of congenital delayed puberty versus pre-pubertal hypogonadism in children. This review will focus on the methods, indications and limitations of endocrine testing in the characterisation and differential diagnosis of male hypogonadism at various ages. A practical hands-on guide on how to perform these tests is also provided.

  8. [Placental weight percentiles and its relationship with fetal weight according to gestational age in an urban area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Roman, Estela; Dipierri, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: El peso placentario (PP) y los índices de su relación con el peso al nacer (PN) (PN/PP, PP/PN) predicen morbi-mortalidad perinatal y resultados alejados de la salud. Objetivos: Calcular percentilos del PP e índices por sexo y edad gestacional correspondientes a 867 RNV de la Maternidad Sardá de Buenos Aires, Argentina y compararlos con referencias internacionales. Material y métodos: Se excluyeron feto muerto, embarazo múltiple, edad gestacional <22 y >42 semanas y PP<100g y >2500g. Características maternas y fetales: edad, educación, tabaco, paridad, diabetes, preeclampsia, corioamnionitis, restricción del crecimiento, malformación congénita y prematurez. Se calcularon estadísticos de resumen y percentilos con el método LMS. Las comparaciones se realizaron con test t-Student, ANOVA y referencias internacionales. Resultados: Edad materna media 24 años, educación 10.1 años, 24.5% primíparas, 12.6% fumadoras, 4.9% presentaron diabetes, 8.7% preeclampsia, 7.9% corioamnionitis y 13.0% restricción del crecimiento fetal. El 55.3% de los RN fueron varones, 51.6% prematuros, 18.9% PEG y 7.1% malformados. El PN y EG promedio fue de 2581g y 35.6 semanas respectivamente. Elevada correlación positiva de la EG con PP y PN/PP y negativa con PP/PN (p%lt;0.001); el peso de la placenta e índices fueron mayores en varones. Se presentan los percentiles de PP, PN/PP y PP/PN. Las diferencias con las referencias oscilaron de 0.46% -13%, 4.91% -12.1% y 5.81% -14% para el PP, PN/PP y PP/PN respectivamente. Conclusiones: los percentilos generados son aplicables en investigaciones sobre la relación de la placenta con resultados perinatales y la salud durante el ciclo vital.

  9. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test...,” containing 9 pages, incorporated by reference, see § 572.180, (3) A listing of available...

  10. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash...,” containing 9 pages, incorporated by reference, see § 572.180, (3) A listing of available...

  11. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test... transducers-crash test sensors for the ES-2re Crash Test Dummy is shown in drawing 175-0000 sheet 4 of...

  12. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash...,” containing 9 pages, incorporated by reference, see § 572.180, (3) A listing of available...

  13. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  14. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  15. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  16. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  17. 49 CFR 572.188 - Pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pelvis. 572.188 Section 572.188 Transportation..., 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.188 Pelvis. (a) The pelvis (175-6000) is part of the torso assembly shown in drawing 175-0000. The pelvis is equipped with a pubic symphysis load sensor in conformance...

  18. 49 CFR 572.188 - Pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pelvis. 572.188 Section 572.188 Transportation..., 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.188 Pelvis. (a) The pelvis (175-6000) is part of the torso assembly shown in drawing 175-0000. The pelvis is equipped with a pubic symphysis load sensor in conformance...

  19. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  20. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000...(e). When subjected to tests procedures specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  1. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000...(e). When subjected to tests procedures specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  2. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is...). When subjected to tests procedures specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the abdomen...

  3. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is...). When subjected to tests procedures specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the abdomen...

  4. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is...). When subjected to tests procedures specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the abdomen...

  5. 49 CFR 572.185 - Thorax (upper torso) assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.185 Thorax (upper torso) assembly. (a) The... for a full-body thorax impact test. (b) Individual rib drop test. For purposes of this test, the rib... the impacted side of the rib facing up; (iii) The drop test fixture contains a free fall guided...

  6. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  7. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  8. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad

    2014-04-01

    Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

  9. Diagnostic Significance of CA15-3 with Combination of HER-2/neu Values at 85th Percentiles in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thriveni, Karuvaje; Deshmane, Vijayalaxmi; Ramaswamy, Girija; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2013-04-01

    The human epidermal receptor-2/neu (HER-2/neu) oncogene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. This molecule could have a diagnostic value since the extracellular domain of c-erbB-2 (HER-2) transmembrane is shed into the blood as a circulating antigen. The diagnostic value of serum HER-2/neu was calculated along with the conventional marker carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) at 85th percentiles. Serum levels of breast carcinoma antigens HER-2/neu, CEA and CA15-3 were determined in 175 normal individuals and 268 malignant patients. The soluble form of serum HER-2/neu, CEA and CA15-3 was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in control and breast cancer patients prior to treatment. Serum levels of the tested tumor markers HER-2/neu and CA15-3 and CEA were significantly higher in cancer patients compared to controls. At 85th percentile the sensitivity of HER-2/neu was 51.12 %; the specificity was 86.29 % and the overall accuracy was 64.56 %. The sensitivity of CA15-3 was 73.13 %; the specificity was 85.14 % and the overall accuracy was 77.88 %. The sensitivity of the combined testing was 82.84 %; the specificity was 73.71 % and the overall accuracy was 80.01 %. The sensitivity and the overall accuracy of combined testing were higher than those of HER-2/neu and CA15-3 testing single. The combined testing of HER-2/neu and CA15-3 can increase the sensitivity and overall accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that the use of multiple tumor markers may be employed as combination and at 85th percentiles to assess the prognosis.

  10. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  11. Fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy for energy intake at school meals differs by social desirability and body mass index percentile in a study concerning retention interval.

    PubMed

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hardin, James W; Mackelprang, Alyssa J; Smith, Albert F

    2010-05-01

    Data from a study concerning retention interval and school-meal observation on children's dietary recalls were used to investigate relationships of social desirability score (SDS) and body mass index percentile (BMI%) to recall accuracy for energy for observed (n = 327) children, and to reported energy for observed and unobserved (n = 152) children. Report rates (reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS and BMI%. Correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS. Inflation ratios (overreported/observed) correlated negatively with BMI%. The relationship between reported energy and each of SDS and BMI% did not depend on observation status. Studies utilizing children's dietary recalls should assess SDS and BMI%. PMID:20460407

  12. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  13. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  14. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  15. Association of percentile ranking with citation impact and productivity in a large cohort of de novo NIMH-funded R01 grants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J M; Quinn, K; Bodenstein, Y A; Wu, C O; Danthi, N; Lauer, M S

    2015-09-01

    Previous reports from National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation have suggested that peer review scores of funded grants bear no association with grant citation impact and productivity. This lack of association, if true, may be particularly concerning during times of increasing competition for increasingly limited funds. We analyzed the citation impact and productivity for 1755 de novo investigator-initiated R01 grants funded for at least 2 years by National Institute of Mental Health between 2000 and 2009. Consistent with previous reports, we found no association between grant percentile ranking and subsequent productivity and citation impact, even after accounting for subject categories, years of publication, duration and amounts of funding, as well as a number of investigator-specific measures. Prior investigator funding and academic productivity were moderately strong predictors of grant citation impact. PMID:26033238

  16. Reference data and percentile curves of body composition measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Xu, Yi; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Xu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have evident value in evaluating skeletal and muscular status in growing children and adolescents. This study aimed to generate age-related trends for body composition in Chinese children and adolescents, and to establish gender-specific reference percentile curves for the assessment of muscle-bone status. A total of 1541 Chinese children and adolescents aged from 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured for total body and total body less head (TBLH). After 14 years, total body LM was significantly higher in boys than girls (p < 0.001). However, total body FM was significantly higher in girls than boys in age groups 13-19 years (p < 0.01). Both LM and FM were consistent independent predictors of total body and subcranial bone mass in both sexes, even after adjustment for the well-known predictors of BMC. The results of multiple linear regression identified LM as the stronger predictor of total body and subcranial skeleton BMC while the fat mass contributed less. For all the subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between total body LM, height, total body BMC and subcranial BMC (p < 0.01). Subcranial BMC had a better correlation with LM than total body BMC. We have also presented gender-specific percentile curves for LM-for-height and BMC-for-LM which could be used to evaluate and follow various pediatric disorders with skeletal manifestations in this population. PMID:25319556

  17. Appropriate Technology for Sustainable Living. 50th Yearbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert C., Ed.

    These eleven papers focus on the need for technology education (TE) to address technological problem solving from a more holistic and appropriate level--less high tech, more thoughtful, and using available resources. "Philosophical Rationale for Appropriate Technology (AT)" (Robert C. Wicklein, Charles J. Kachmar) discusses concerns and issues…

  18. A 50th anniversary guidebook for the desert project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Desert Project encompasses a 400 square mile areas studied by a team of soil scientists and geologists from 1957 to 1972. The project was staffed by personnel of the Soil Survey Investigations, U.S. Soil Conservation Service, and work was done in cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment Stat...

  19. 76 FR 11933 - 50th Anniversary of the Peace Corps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... continue to strengthen partnerships with leaders and countries around the world. This year, we also mourn... Executive Order establishing the Peace Corps, forever changing the way America sees the world and the world... respect and understanding throughout the world. Over the past five decades, Peace Corps Volunteers...

  20. 76 FR 26923 - 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... and women were intimidated, arrested, and brutally beaten. The publicity generated by the courageous... America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-11488 Filed 5-6-11; 11:15...

  1. History of aldosterone on its 50th birthday.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Cristina; Calò, Lorenzo A; Colombo, Lorenzo; Grimm, Clarence E; Armanini, Decio

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of mineralocorticoid substances on water regulation from Theophrastus (IV century B.C.) to Thomas Addison (1849). It also opens to the missed discovery of aldosterone of I.A. Macchi. PMID:16874725

  2. Fracture faces of frozen membranes: 50th anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Branton, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In 1961, the development of an improved freeze-etching (FE) procedure to prepare rapidly frozen biological cells or tissues for electron microscopy raised two important questions. How does a frozen cell membrane fracture? What do the extensive face views of the cell’s membranes exposed by the fracture process of FE tell us about the overall structure of biological membranes? I discovered that all frozen membranes tend to split along weakly bonded lipid bilayers. Consequently, the fracture process exposes internal membrane faces rather than either of the membrane’s two external surfaces. During etching, when ice is allowed to sublime after fracturing, limited regions of the actual membrane surfaces are revealed. Examination of the fractured faces and etched surfaces provided strong evidence that biological membranes are organized as lipid bilayers with some proteins on the surface and other proteins extending through the bilayer. Membrane splitting made it possible for electron microscopy to show the relative proportion of a membrane’s area that exists in either of these two organizational modes. PMID:26823391

  3. Silent Spring, the 50th anniversary of Rachel Carson's book.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, David

    2012-09-27

    David Pimentel is a professor of ecology and agricultural sciences at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-0901. His Ph.D. is from Cornell University and had postdoctoral research at the University of Chicago, MIT, and fellowship at Oxford University (England). He was awarded a distinguished honorary degree from the University of Massachusetts. His research spans the fields of energy, population ecology, biological pest control, pesticides, sustainable agriculture, land and water conservation, livestock, and environmental policy. Pimentel has published more than 700 scientific papers and 37 books and has served on many national and government committees including the National Academy of Sciences; President's Science Advisory Council; U.S Department of Agriculture; U.S. Department of Energy; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare; Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress; and the U.S. State Department. He is currently Editorial Advisor for BMC Ecology. In this article, he reflects on 50 years since the publication of Rachel Carson's influential book, Silent Spring.

  4. 'Focus on Marshall' Marks Milestone With 50th Episode

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hard to believe, but it's been five years since the Marshall Space Flight Center began a video program called "Focus on Marshall." In those five years, co-hosts Bill Hubscher and Lori Meggs, have t...

  5. 50th anniversary of the first public observatory in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisskinova, Nadya; Stoev, Alexey; Stoeva, Penka

    A brief history of the creating and developing of the public observatories in Bulgaria, and especially of the first of them, the Observatory in Stara Zagora, is presented. Being propagator of positive knowledge about the nature and the universe, this institution has been educated thousands young people and directed them to become scientists, engineers, teachers and other intellectuals. Today the graduates of the Observatory are working in the whole Bulgaria and the whole world.

  6. Magnus Strandqvist: 50th anniversary of his doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Kajanti, M J

    1994-01-01

    This article is dedicated to Magnus Strandqvist's famous doctoral thesis "Studien über die kumulative Wirkung der Röntgenstrahlen bei Fraktionierung. Erfahrungen aus dem Radiumhemmet an 280 Haut- und Lippenkarzinomen" published in Acta Radiologica in 1944. After a short biography of Strandqvist some central points of his work and their influence on future development of modern radiotherapy are presented. PMID:7993639

  7. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    PubMed

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented.

  8. PARASITIC INFECTIONS: IS MALE AND FEMALE DIFFERENCE FOR ANEMIA AND GROWTH RETARDATION EVIDENT?

    PubMed

    Safar, Hebatalla H; Eldash, Hanaa H

    2015-12-01

    Parasitoses are the commonest health problem among school age clildren, which impair children's growth and development and causing anemia. To detect the role of parasitic infections and both anemia and growth affection, on one hand, and if so the common complications among males and females on the other hand, a cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among the outpatient attended the Pediatrics Clinic, Al-Fayoum University's Hospitals. A total of 314 children aged from 1 to 13 years were subjected to clinical examination as well as stool analysis and CBC examination. The detected parasites were Entameba histolytica, Giardia lamblia (Protozoa) and Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lambricoides and Ancylostoma duodenale (Helminthes). There was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding E. histolytica in females (60%) as to G. lamblia and H. nana in males (16.1%, & 11.5% respecttively). Also, there was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding to hemoglobin level, and weight percentiles with anemia (92%) and underweight& borderline weight (34.5%) in males. The overall anemia was 89.8%. However, there was no significance difference (P<0.05) regarding to height percentiles. PMID:26939224

  9. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  10. Evaluation of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level and its impact on muscle and bone mineral density in frail elderly male.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Magda I; Khater, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Decrease in IGF-1 level is a major endocrine dysregulation that has been implicated in frailty, disability, and mortality in older adults. Our aim was to clarify the effect of IGF-1 on muscle and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail males. One hundred elderly males were included and divided into frail group (n=50) and robust group (n=50) based on the study of osteoporotic fractures (SOF) frailty index. Anthropometric measures, femoral BMD, and serum IGF-1 level were measured. Our results showed that the IGF-1 level was significantly lower in the frail males in comparison to the robust with mean value 37.1±24.2 versus 68.5±18.4ng/ml (P<0.05). Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis of the IGF-1 level revealed that sensitivity was 88.5%, specificity was 100%, cutoff value was 46.5ng/ml and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.897 (P<0.05). Participants with low IGF-1 percentile had significantly higher odds ratio of being frail compared to those with high IGF-1 percentile (odds ratio=12.8, 95% CI: 4.2-38.8, P-value<0.05). Subjects with low IGF-1 percentile had 13.5 times the odds of having an abnormal BMD than those with middle IGF-1 percentile (95% CI: 3.4-53.3, P<0.05). In multivariate analysis BMD, mid arm circumference (MAC), mid calf circumference (MCC), and handgrip strength were significantly affected by IGF-1 percentiles with age and co-morbid diseases adjustment. Male subjects with a low IGF-1 level may be at risk of being frail and having abnormal BMD. 16.8% and 15% of variability in MCC and BMD may be attributed to IGF-1 level respectively. PMID:25240725

  11. The use of the percentile method for searching empirical relationships between compression strength (UCS), Point Load (Is50) and Schmidt Hammer (RL) Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Bobbo, Luigi; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Is50 and RL indices are commonly used to indirectly estimate the compression strength of a rocky deposit by in situ and in laboratory devices. The widespread use of Point load and Schmidt hammer tests is due to the simplicity and the speediness of the execution of these tests. Their indices can be related to the UCS by means of the ordinary least square regression analyses. Several researchers suggest to take into account the lithology to build high correlated empirical expressions (R2 >0.8) to draw UCS from Is50 or RL values. Nevertheless, the lower and upper bounds of the UCS ranges of values that can be estimated by means of the two indirect indices are not clearly defined yet. Aydin (2009) stated that the Schmidt hammer test shall be used to assess the compression resistance of rocks characterized by UCS>12-20 MPa. On the other hand, the Point load measures can be performed on weak rocks but upper bound values for UCS are not suggested. In this paper, the empirical relationships between UCS, RL and Is50 are searched by means of the percentile method (Bruno et al. 2013). This method is based on looking for the best regression function, between measured data of UCS and one of the indirect indices, drawn from a subset sample of the couples of measures that are the percentile values. These values are taken from the original dataset of both measures by calculating the cumulative function. No hypothesis on the probability distribution of the sample is needed and the procedure shows to be robust with respect to odd values or outliers. In this study, the carbonate sedimentary rocks are investigated. According to the rock mass classification of Dobereiner and De Freitas (1986), the UCS values for the studied rocks range between 'extremely weak' to 'strong'. For the analyzed data, UCS varies between 1,18-270,70 MPa. Thus, through the percentile method the best empirical relationships UCS-Is50 and UCS-RL are plotted. Relationships between Is50 and RL are drawn, too

  12. Mining in low coal. Volume 2. anthropometry. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.

    1982-01-15

    This report covers the anthropometric study of low coal miners. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. The miners tended to be heavier and have greater circumferences. The measurements made in this study were used to develop 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile, quarter- and half-scale, male and female mannequins. The mannequins can be used in work place and equipment design and redesign.

  13. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box-Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  14. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  15. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-09-24

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box-Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  16. Dosimetry of infant exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields: variation of 99th percentile induced electric field value by posture and skin-to-skin contact.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    Infant exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields from power lines was numerically analyzed in this study. Dosimetric variability due to posture and skin-to-skin contact was evaluated using human anatomical models including a recently developed model of a 12-months-old infant. As proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the induced E-field strength (99th percentile value, E99 ) for the central nerve systems (E99_CNS ) and peripheral nerve system (E99_PNS ), were used as metrics. Results showed that the single (free of contact with others) infant model has lower E99 (E99_CNS and E99_PNS inclusive) compared with single adult and child models when exposed to the same power-frequency magnetic field. Also, studied postures of sitting, standing, or arm-up, would not change E99 _PNS . However, skin-to-skin contact with other models could significantly raise induced E-field strength in the infant (e.g., contact on 0.93% of the infant's total surface increased E99_PNS by 213%). Simulations with canonical models were conducted to assess different factors contributing to the E99 enhancement. Results indicated the importance of thoroughly investigating the conservativeness of current safety guidelines in the case of skin-to-skin contact, especially with infants.

  17. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series of ...

  18. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  19. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility.

  20. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs.

  1. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  2. Predictors of male microchimerism.

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed. PMID:22926759

  3. Predictors of male microchimerism.

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed.

  4. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  5. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  6. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  7. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  8. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  9. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  10. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePlus

    Chlamydia infection in males is an infection of the urethra (the tube that drains urine from the ... and passes through the penis). This type of chlamydia infection is passed from one person to another ...

  11. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  13. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  14. Osteopenia and Male Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, Kendall; Dobs, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    A 34-year-old male, with a history of chronic myelogenous lymphoma (CML) previously successfully treated 20 years earlier with chemotherapy, bone marrow transplants, and donor lymphocyte infusion therapy, presented with fatigue and low serum testosterone level. Evaluation revealed male hypogonadism from primary testicular failure due to prior CML therapy in addition to osteopenia. The patient received supplementary calcium, vitamin D, and testosterone; improvement in serum testosterone level was noted in 6 weeks, along with increased energy level and good libido and erectile function. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan showed improvement in bone status. Male hypogonadism is associated with increased risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Supplemental testosterone therapy, because of its direct effect and its aromatization to estrogen, can improve bone density in these patients. PMID:16985910

  15. Male contraceptives under trial.

    PubMed

    1975-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation held its 4th biological workshop in New Delhi on October 17-19, 1974. The topic of this meeting was "Agents affecting fertility in the male." 10 internationally known experts in the field of male reproductive physiology attended and each presented an up-to-the-minute account of their work in the field, followed by a full discussion. Much basic work was described, and the results of the latest human trials of male contraceptives were reported. Dr. F. Neumann of the Schering Company, Berlin, reported on clinical trials of the drug cyproterone acetate. This drug has been in the news for some time as a possible male contraceptive. It is found that small doses prevent sperm from maturing in the epididymis. This drug is already on the British market as Androcur. In large doses it is useful for curbing libido, and in this format it is used to control "sexual offenders." In the small doses at which it is useful as a contraceptive, the effects on libido are negligible, and the drug is at present undergoing human trials as a contraceptive agent. However, much work has still be done on, for example, long-term side effects. Another approach described by Dr. J. Frick from Innsbruck, Austria, is that of giving men a progestagen combined with testosterone. Whereas the progestagen has the effect of inhibiting sperm production in the testis, the testosterone compensates for androgen loss and maintains libido and male characteristics. Dr. Frick reported studies using 15 progestagen combinations, including a new drug provisionally titled R2323. The overall conclusion of the meeting was that there are still many problems to be solved, and it will be some years before a male contraceptive will be commercially available. PMID:12333962

  16. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters.

  17. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  18. Male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, E

    2010-01-01

    The principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis has been established over the last three decades. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Current clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel, DMPA, or nestorone. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. PMID:20839093

  19. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  20. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-21

    Sexual behavior between males is observed in many species, but the biological factors involved are poorly known. In mammals, manipulation of dopamine has revealed the role of this neuromodulator on male sexual behavior. We used genetic and pharmacological approaches to manipulate the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male-male courtship behavior. Males with increased dopamine level showed enhanced propensity to court other males but did not change their courtship toward virgin females, general olfactory response, general gustatory response, or locomotor activity. Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males.

  1. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-21

    Sexual behavior between males is observed in many species, but the biological factors involved are poorly known. In mammals, manipulation of dopamine has revealed the role of this neuromodulator on male sexual behavior. We used genetic and pharmacological approaches to manipulate the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male-male courtship behavior. Males with increased dopamine level showed enhanced propensity to court other males but did not change their courtship toward virgin females, general olfactory response, general gustatory response, or locomotor activity. Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males. PMID:18495888

  2. Male infertility: biomolecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Foresta, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    Male infertility is a problem that faces increasing interest, and the continuous development of assisted reproduction techniques solicits attempts to identify a precise diagnosis, in particular for idiopathic infertile couples and those undergoing assisted reproductive technique cycles. To date, diagnosis of male infertility is commonly based on standard semen analysis, but in many cases, this is not enough to detect any sperm abnormality. A better understanding of biomolecular issues and mechanism of damaged spermatogenesis and the refinement of the molecular techniques for sperm evaluation and selection are important advances that can lead to the optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic management of male and couple infertility. Faced with a growing number of new proposed techniques and diagnostic tests, it is fundamental to know which tests are already routinely used in the clinical practice and those that are likely to be used in the near future. This review focuses on the main molecular diagnostic techniques for male infertility and on newly developed methods that will probably be part of routine sperm analysis in the near future.

  3. Lycopene and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  4. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…

  5. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  6. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  7. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  8. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  9. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced.

  10. Newborn male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male.

  11. Newborn male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  12. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  13. Spermatids as male gametes.

    PubMed

    Ogura, A; Yanagimachi, R

    1995-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is becoming increasingly popular in human infertility clinics as an efficient method for the treatment of male infertility. It is proposed that spermatids can be used as substitutes for spermatozoa if men are unable to produce sperm in their testes. At least in the hamster and mouse, the nuclei of round spermatids were capable of participating in syngamy when incorporated into homologous mature oocytes either by microsurgical ICSI or electrofusion. Normal mouse offspring were born after after electrofusion of oocytes with round spermatids. When culture in vitro of spermatogonia and spermatocytes is perfected, then spermatids, transforming spermatids and spermatozoa will all be able to be used as male gametes. PMID:7480833

  14. Male osteoporosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  15. Male endocrine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Zamip

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation for endocrine function is a pivotal part of the male infertility workup. Endocrine dysfunction may result from endogenous and exogenous sources. This article describes the traditional roles that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis plays in spermatogenesis and testicular dysfunction, as well as other insults that may contribute to hypospermatogenesis. Recent research into the role alternative hormonal axes play in spermatogenesis and promising new technologies that may correct inborn or acquired endocrinopathies leading to impaired sperm growth and maturation are discussed.

  16. Advances in Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  17. [Urethrocele in males].

    PubMed

    el Mrini, M; Bennani, S; Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; Benjelloun, S

    1993-01-01

    Concerning one case of male urethral diverticulum, the characteristics of this rare affection are reviewed. Long standing urethral catheter and urethroplasty are the more frequent etiologies of this affection. The diagnosis is clinical, based on the discovery of tumefaction on the urethral track which pression makes spring up urine through urethral meatus. The urethrogram confirms the diagnosis. Surgical approach consists on the resection of the diverticulum and urethrography in one or two stages, based on diverticular neck size and tissue vascularization. PMID:8163849

  18. Male Body Contouring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  19. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  20. Developments in male contraception.

    PubMed

    Bialy, G; Alexander, N J

    1992-01-01

    Relevant research efforts in male contraception involve: 1) hormonal approaches to block sperm production by inhibiting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, 2) disruption of sperm production by drugs that act directly on the testes, 3) interruption of sperm transport, and 4) alteration of secretions of the accessory sex glands and their subsequent effect on the spermatozoa. Both agonistic and antagonistic synthetic analogs of the hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) factor cost too much and lack an effective mode of administration. Recent studies indicate that over 90% of Chinese and Indonesian men can develop complete azoospermia following either a testosterone or a progestin and an androgen combination treatment. Vaccines that utilize GnRH and follicle stimulating hormone as the active antigens have been introduced in clinical studies in the US and India. Drugs such as sulfasalazine, pyrimethamine, nitrofurane, and bis(di-chloracytal) diamines reduce male fertility but side effects make them unacceptable. Dinitropyrroles, halopropanedils, chlorosugars, and indazole carboxylic acids have been tried in laboratory animals. Gossypol rendered men infertile in large-scale clinical studies conducted in China but synthesis of safer analogs has not succeeded. Extracts of another plant, tripterigium wilfordii, are used in China as a popular herbal medicine. Vasectomy has improved with no-scalpel vasectomy and by the novel technique of blocking the vas with cured in situ polymeric plugs. Preliminary data suggest that men prefer condoms made from polyurethane as opposed to latex rubber increasingly used to protect against AIDs and sexually transmitted diseases. The antifungal agents, imidazoles, have spermicidal activity and synthetic variants may reduce undesirable side effects. Research on male-oriented methods has intensified during the last 10-15 years, but a new product is not likely to appear in the next 5-10 years.

  1. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    PubMed

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success.

  2. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    PubMed

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. PMID:27037514

  3. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  4. [Urethrocele in males].

    PubMed

    el Mrini, M; Bennani, S; Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; Benjelloun, S

    1993-01-01

    Concerning one case of male urethral diverticulum, the characteristics of this rare affection are reviewed. Carriage for long time of urethral catheter and urethroplasty are the more frequent etiologies of this affection. The diagnosis is clinic, based on the discovery of tumefaction on the urethral track which pression makes spring up urine through urethral meatus. The urethrography confirms the diagnosis. Surgical approach consists on the resection of the diverticulum and urethrorrhaphy in one or two stages, based on diverticular neck size and sheet quality. PMID:8253886

  5. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  6. The President's Challenge Physical Fitness Program Packet, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The President's Challenge Physical Fitness Awards Program makes four awards: The Presidential Physical Fitness Award recognizes those students who score at or about the 85th percentile on all five tests; the National Physical Fitness Award for those in the 50th to 84th percentile; the Participant Award for those who fall below the 50th percentile…

  7. Male adolescent fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jared L; Choi, Andrew Wonho; Fitzgerald Keeter, Mary Kate; Brannigan, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Until the 1960s, few adolescents and young adults (AYAs) survived their initial cancer diagnoses. Now, ∼12,400 AYA patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, and almost 80% will now achieve a long-term cure. This dramatic improvement in survival is primarily due to multimodal treatments and combined chemotherapeutic regimens. Unfortunately, the increase in survival is often accompanied by treatment-related toxicities due to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical procedures. Despite guidelines published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and numerous other professional organizations, high percentages of male AYA oncology patients are not properly counseled regarding their fertility preservation options before cancer treatment. Although administering fertility preservation care to adolescent males can be challenging in many ways, numerous studies show that this care can be delivered with high degrees of success and high levels of patient and parent satisfaction. The key to this success at many institutions has been the implementation of formalized integrated fertility preservation programs with infrastructure geared toward the delivery of comprehensive expedited care.

  8. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified.

  9. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

  10. Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Björn G

    2006-03-22

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male-female, as compared to male-male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male-male signalling.

  11. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  12. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  13. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  14. Population density influences male-male competition in guppies.

    PubMed

    Jirotkul

    1999-12-01

    This study tested the general prediction that population density affects male-male competition, female mate choice and the opportunity for sexual selection. By manipulating the density of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, while keeping the sex ratio constant, I found that male mating tactics were phenotypically plastic with respect to density. As density increased, males decreased their courtship displays. Male-male competition and mate searching were highest at intermediate densities. Population density had no significant effect on the total number of copulations, copulatory tactics or the percentage of postcopulatory guarding. Female preference for males with a higher percentage of orange coloration was similar at all density levels. The 'opportunity for sexual selection', which estimates the upper limit to which a selected trait can shift if directional selection is operating and was calculated as the variance in number of copulations per male divided by the square of the mean number of copulations, was negatively associated with population density. This may be due to the decrease in male-male competition at high density rather than female preference which was similar across density treatments. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10600137

  15. A study of anthropometric characteristics between Malaysian and Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years.

    PubMed

    Taha, Zahari; Jomoah, Ibrahim M; Zadry, Hilma Raimona

    2009-06-01

    This study presents a comparison of the anthropometric characteristics of 241 Malaysian and 646 Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years. The mean values, standard deviation (SD), and 5th and 95th percentile values of 26 measurements and 22 proportions of each group were given. The results showed that there were significant differences in a number of body dimensions between these populations, except for eye height and elbow height (standing) and height, eye height, shoulder height, and elbow height (sitting). These results are important for the ergonomic design of workstations, personal protective equipment, tools, interface systems and furniture: The presented data may be useful for providing a safer, more productive and user-friendly workplace for Malaysian and Saudi Arabian populations.

  16. The effects of fructose-containing sugars on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors when consumed at up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2014-08-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010). Sucrose (SUC) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) have been singled out for particular concern, because of their fructose content, which has been specifically implicated for its atherogenic potential and possible role in elevating blood pressure through uric acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. This study explored the effects when these sugars are consumed at typical population levels up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Three hundred fifty five overweight or obese individuals aged 20-60 years old were placed on a eucaloric diet for 10 weeks, which incorporated SUC- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 8%, 18% or 30% of calories. There was a slight change in body weight in the entire cohort (169.1 ± 30.6 vs. 171.6 ± 31.8 lbs, p < 0.01), a decrease in HDL (52.9 ± 12.2 vs. 52.0 ± 13.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and an increase in triglycerides (104.1 ± 51.8 vs. 114.1 ± 64.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001). However, total cholesterol (183.5 ± 42.8 vs. 184.4 mg/dL, p > 0.05), LDL (110.3 ± 32.0 vs. 110.5 ± 38.9 mg/dL, p > 0.05), SBP (109.4 ± 10.9 vs. 108.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, p > 0.05) and DBP (72.1 ± 8.0 vs. 71.3 ± 8.0 mmHg, p > 0.05) were all unchanged. In no instance did the amount or type of sugar consumed affect the response to the intervention (interaction p > 0.05). These data suggest that: (1) when consumed as part of a normal diet, common fructose-containing sugars do not raise blood pressure, even when consumed at the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose (five times the upper level recommended by the AHA and three times the upper level recommended by WHO); (2) changes in the lipid profile are mixed, but modest. PMID:25111121

  17. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior.

  18. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  19. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  20. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  1. Parasites make male pipefish careless.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, D

    2004-05-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection is expected to favour the avoidance of matings with infected individuals. However, the extent to which the costs and benefits of discriminating against parasitized mates trade off may depend upon numerous factors. I investigated the effects of sex and infection status on choosiness in sex-role reversed deep-snouted pipefish (Syngnathus typhle L.) that were either artificially infected with the trematode parasite Cryptocotyle sp. or sham-infected. Sham-infected males were significantly more likely to associate with a sham-infected female rather than with a Cryptocotyle-infected female. Infected males failed to discriminate against infected potential partners. Males were choosier the larger they were relative to the females available for choice. Females were not discriminatory, regardless of their infection status. Given an inverse relation between female fecundity and parasite load, choosy unparasitized males may gain enhanced reproductive success from their choice decisions. In contrast, more heavily infected wild-caught males gave birth to slightly fewer, but not smaller offspring than did uninfected or lightly infected males, suggesting only a low direct premium on choosy females. The detrimental effects of parasitism on male choosiness, and the lack of female discrimination against infected males likely have profound repercussions on the strength of sexual selection acting on the two sexes and on the dynamics of host-parasite interactions in this system.

  2. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  3. When hymenopteran males reinvented diploidy.

    PubMed

    Aron, Serge; de Menten, Ludivine; Van Bockstaele, Dirk R; Blank, Stephan M; Roisin, Yves

    2005-05-10

    In most plants and animals, a consistent relationship exists between the DNA content of a cell and its metabolic activity. The male-haploid sex determination of Hymenoptera and other arthropods may therefore impose a particular selective pressure upon males, which must evolve adaptations to cope with a genomic DNA reduced by half compared with that of females. Here, we show that a nuclear DNA content similar to that of females is restored in muscles of males in all hymenopteran lineages tested except the most basal one (Xyelidae). This doubling of DNA content in males does not occur in other haplodiploid insects, such as thrips (Thysanoptera) and whiteflies (Sternorrhyncha). These results indicate that this adaptation probably occurred early in hymenopteran history, possibly because males acquired strong flying and dispersal abilities.

  4. Endocrine causes of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P

    2003-02-01

    Although endocrinopathies are not often seen in infertile men, these disorders are clinically significant; they often have potentially serious medical significance, regardless of fertility issues. Correction of these disorders represents a possible way to restore normal fertility for the male partner. Male fertility is critically dependent upon a normal hormonal milieu. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is quite sensitive to disruption by endocrine disorders and other generalized medical disorders. Thus, male infertility is occasionally the presenting sign for significant underlying medical disease; it is important to properly evaluate these patients.

  5. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  6. Medical treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Dabaja, Ali A; Schlegel, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    The majority of male infertility is idiopathic. However, there are multiple known causes of male infertility, and some of these causes can be treated medically with high success rates. In cases of idiopathic or genetic causes of male infertility, medical management is typically empirical; in most instances medical therapy represents off-label use that is not specifically approved by the FDA. Understanding the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the effect of estrogen excess is critical for the assessment and treatment of male infertility. The use of certain medical treatment has been associated with an increase in sperm production or motility, and primarily focuses on optimizing testosterone (T) production from the Leydig cells, increasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels to stimulate Sertoli cells and spermatogenesis, and normalizing the T to estrogen ratio.

  7. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  8. Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161569.html Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility Study found too little ... appears to be 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night, said study author Lauren Wise, a ...

  9. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nanagas, Vivian C.; Stolfi, Adrienne; Nanagas, Maria T.; Eberhart, Gregory M.; Alter, Sherman J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1) uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice. PMID:27336012

  10. Cost Drivers for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Using Primary Source Data from Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Lori; Adesina, Adebiyi; Forsythe, Steven; Godbole, Ramona; Reuben, Elan; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background As voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs scale up, there is a pressing need for information about the important cost drivers, and potential efficiency gains. We examine those cost drivers here, and estimate the potential efficiency gains through an econometric model. Methods and Findings We examined the main cost drivers (i.e., personnel and consumables) associated with providing VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa along a number of dimensions, including facility type and service provider. Primary source facility level data from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were utilized throughout. We estimated the efficiency gains by econometrically estimating a cost function in order to calculate the impact of scale and other relevant factors. Personnel and consumables were estimated at 36% and 28%, respectively, of total costs across countries. Economies of scale (EOS) is estimated to be eight at the median volume of VMMCs performed, and EOS falls from 23 at the 25th percentile volume of VMMCs performed to 5.1 at the 75th percentile. Conclusions The analysis suggests that there is significant room for efficiency improvement as indicated by declining EOS as VMMC volume increases. The scale of the fall in EOS as VMMC volume increases suggests that we are still at the ascension phase of the scale-up of VMMC, where continuing to add new sites results in additional start-up costs as well. A key aspect of improving efficiency is task sharing VMMC procedures, due to the large percentage of overall costs associated with personnel costs. In addition, efficiency improvements in consumables are likely to occur over time as prices and distribution costs decrease. PMID:24802593

  11. A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  12. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide.

  13. Estimating the influence of neckform compliance on brain tissue strain during a Helmeted impact.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D; Post, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a change in neckform compliance could influence maximum principal strain in the brain white and grey matter, the brain stem and the cerebellum. This was done by impacting a Hybrid III headform with a 16.6 kg impactor arm at 5 m/s. Three different Hybrid III neckforms were used: 1) one 50th percentile male neckform - standard neckform; 2) one 50th percentile male neckform plus 30 per cent compliance - soft neckform; 3) one 50th percentile male neckform minus 30 per cent compliance - stiff neckform. The kinematic data obtained was then used to drive a finite element model developed by University College Dublin. The results showed that a decrease in neckform compliance had a significant effect on maximal principal strain in the cerebellum, where the stiff neck (0.050 ± 0.004) generated higher maximum principal strains than the standard neck (0.036 ± 0.003) and the soft neck (0.037 ± 0.001). There were no significant differences between the stiff (0.122 ± 0.013), standard (0.114 ± 0.020) and soft neck (0.119 ± 0.019) in the white matter; the stiff (0.168 ± 0.011), standard (0.176 ± 0.011) and soft neck (0.176 ± 0.007) in the grey matter; or the stiff (0.080 ± 0.003), standard (0.081 ± 0.006) and soft neck (0.085 ± 0.009) in the brain stem. The results were not linked to brain injury due to the absence of a commonly accepted threshold.

  14. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  15. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  17. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    PubMed

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  18. Commentary on "The 50th Anniversary of the Thayer Conference: Historical Perspectives and Accomplishments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Having reaped the benefits of the Thayer Conference in my school psychology career, it is a pleasure to provide a comment about Dr. Fagan's article. I began my career as a master's-level school psychologist in the state of Wisconsin just prior to the passage of 94-142, now called IDEA. I am now a trainer of school psychologists at the doctoral…

  19. A resolution commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Cape May-Lewes Ferry.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Coons, Christopher A. [D-DE

    2014-06-26

    06/26/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S4190; text as passed Senate: CR S4165) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. The 50th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Development of new mass spectrometers and implementation of new analytical methods were the central themes of the conference. The majority of oral presentations and posters were concerned with the application of mass spectrometry to pharmaceutical and biotechnological research. PMID:18629048

  1. The 50th anniversary of gene therapy: beginnings and present realities.

    PubMed

    Szybalski, Waclaw

    2013-08-10

    Applying my experience in microbial genetics, especially in the genetic transformation/transduction of Bacilus subtilis bacteria, I decided around 1956 to develop a similar system for eukaryotic, especially human cell cultures. I believed it would permit the development of clinical applications for replacing defective genes to treat or cure some of the genetic diseases.

  2. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Alaska Federation of Natives.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK

    2016-09-26

    09/26/2016 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6089; text passed Senate: CR S6084) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. [Marine science in Revista de Biologia Tropical in its 50th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jorge; Nielsen, Vanessa

    2002-01-01

    The first paper published in the Revista de Biología Tropical (RBT) on anything related to marine science was in 1963. Since then the number of marine-related papers has increased to 637, which represents 27% of the total production of RBT (excluding the Supplements), and 33% since 1979. Most publications are Full Articles on Ecology (135 papers). The marine ecosystem of which there is more publications is the coral reefs (28); and fish is the most studied taxonomic group (165). Almost half of the Supplements are marine related (12). The RBT must continue its efforts to maintain itself as a leading marine science publication in Latin America.

  4. A resolution recognizing the 50th anniversary of North Mississippi Rural Legal Services in Oxford, Mississippi.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wicker, Roger F. [R-MS

    2016-09-29

    09/29/2016 Referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6281) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. 77 FR 32873 - Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13514 Filed 5-31-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... memories, but in the hearts of all Americans, who are forever grateful for their service, valor,...

  6. A resolution recognizing the Defense Intelligence Agency on its 50th Anniversary.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2011-03-01

    05/12/2011 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S2970) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. A resolution celebrating the 50th anniversary of the 1962 Seattle World's Fair.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Cantwell, Maria [D-WA

    2012-04-19

    04/19/2012 Referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2553-2554) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Historical review: another 50th anniversary--new periodicities in coiled coils.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Markus; Lupas, Andrei N

    2003-12-01

    In 1953, Francis Crick and Linus Pauling both proposed models of supercoiled alpha helices ('coiled coils') for the structure of keratin. These were the first attempts at modelling the tertiary structure of a protein. Crick emphasized the packing mode of the side-chains ('knobs-into-holes'), which required a periodicity of seven residues over two helical turns (7/2) and a supercoil in the opposite sense of the constituent helices. By contrast, Pauling envisaged a broader set of periodicities (4/1, 7/2, 18/5, 15/4, 11/3) and supercoils of both senses. Crick's model became canonical and the 'heptad repeat' essentially synonymous with coiled coils, but 50 years later new crystal structures and protein sequences show that the less common periodicities envisaged by Pauling also occur in coiled coils, adding a variant packing mode ('knobs-to-knobs') to the standard model. Pauling's laboratory notebooks suggest that he searched unsuccessfully for this packing mode in 1953.

  9. 3 CFR 8668 - Proclamation 8668 of May 3, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the..., and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth.BARACK OBAMA...

  10. 75 FR 76611 - 50th Anniversary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... protect their indigenous traditions and way of life. Today, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge remains... American identity. In commemorating five decades of protection and conservation of the Arctic National... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc....

  11. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Federal Executive Boards.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Akaka, Daniel K. [D-HI

    2011-11-10

    11/10/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S7391-7392; text as passed Senate: CR S7391-7392; text of measure as introduced: CR S7385) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP..., NY in the Federal Register (77 FR 34894). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  13. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  14. Vision research 1961-2011: retrospects and prospects on the 50th anniversary of vision research.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2011-04-13

    Viewing the trajectory of the discipline through the first half-century of VISION RESEARCH it is of interest to sketch what it is was like to conduct vision research at the time of the founding of the journal and counterpoise that with the situation at present. The most notable change has been the increase in the number of researchers, in the volume of publication and in the incorporation of computers into the research enterprise at every level. A few topics that were cutting-edge at the earlier time turned out to have led into culs-de-sac, others have been forgotten because their solution opened up new territories, others yet have remained unanswered, challenging researchers now as they did 50years ago.

  15. 76 FR 72821 - 50th Anniversary of the United States Agency for International Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... to a safer, more peaceful world. ] IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-first... prosperity for the developing world and the American people. Since President John F. Kennedy founded USAID in... communities and countries as they build a better future. By promoting sustainable growth in the...

  16. 3 CFR 8631 - Proclamation 8631 of February 28, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the Peace Corps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... serve, volunteers help address changing and complex global needs in education, health and HIV/AIDS... each family empowered to prevent disease because of the service of a Peace Corps Volunteer,...

  17. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Combined Federal Campaign.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Akaka, Daniel K. [D-HI

    2011-10-18

    11/16/2011 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S7627; text as passed Senate: CR S7627) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. [On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of A. M. Ugolev's current theory of digestion].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, A I

    2010-01-01

    In 1958, A. M. Ugolev (1926-1991) discovered parietal (membrane) digestion (MD) that differs fundamentally from cavity and intracellular digestion in the strictly directed arrangement of active centers of enzymes and in coupling to the membrane transport systems. The three-stage sequential triad: cavity digestion--MD--absorption has given an insight into the mechanism responsible for an extremely high food assimilation rate in the gastrointestinal tract and become as the basis of the current digestion theory stated by Academician A. M. Ugolev. Membrane maldigestion results from atrophic changes in the small bowel mucosa in gluten-sensitivity celiac disease, enteric infections, excessive small intestinal microflora growth, and intestinal damages induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, some antibiotics, and antimetabolites. Clinically, it presents with poor tolerability of nutrients containing oligomers, whose digestion is impaired, and with malabsorption symptoms. Indirect (load) and direct (perfusion) tests, as well as biochemical and histological studies of the activity of membrane enzymes are proposed for the diagnosis of membrane maldigestion. The detection and elimination of agents that damage the intestinal mucosa (gluten, lactose, pathogenic microflora, and pharmacologicals) form the basis for the etiotropic treatment of patients with impaired MD. A. M. Ugolev's discovery has led not only to the major general biological generalization--the current theory of digestion, but also to the revision of the pathogenesis, clinical signs, and treatment of diseases accompanied by enteric food malassimilation. PMID:20387666

  19. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Wilderness Act.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2014-09-18

    09/18/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5880; text as passed Senate: CR S5799-5800) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Commending and congratulating the California State University system on the occasion of its 50th anniversary.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lofgren, Zoe [D-CA-16

    2010-02-25

    03/22/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Succeed or Else!: Reflections on the 50th Anniversary of the "Journal of Educational Administration"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, A. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the key individuals, associations and significant events contributing to the establishment and first 50 years of successful publication of the "Journal of Educational Administration". Design/methodology/approach: This paper is historical in design. Information relevant to its 50 years of…

  2. The 50th Anniversary of "Brown": Is There Any Reason to Celebrate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Suzanne E.

    2004-01-01

    The "Brown v. Board of Education" decision remains one of the most important legal decisions in history. Although there were local schemes used to avoid desegregating public schools after the decision, black students experienced declining segregation from the 1950s to the late 1980s. During the 1990s, however, a series of Supreme Court decisions…

  3. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Alaska Federation of Natives.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK

    2016-09-26

    09/26/2016 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6089; text as passed Senate: CR S6084) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Alaska Federation of Natives.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK

    2016-09-26

    09/26/2016 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. [The cradle of the Russian radioecology (to the 50th anniversary of the Kyshtym radiation accident)].

    PubMed

    Aleksakhin, R M; Prister, B S

    2008-01-01

    On September 29, 1957, at a nuclear industry facility (Production Association "Mayak"), there was a large radiation accident resulting in the release of radioactive wastes into the environment and the formation of the East-Urals Radioactive Trail (EURT). Within the EURT and there established in 1958 an Experimental Scientific Research Station (ESRS) which came to be known as alma mater of domestic radioecology, various comprehensive long-term investigations had been carried out. The main results of these 50-year investigations have been summarized for a broad range of problems on radionuclide migration in the natural environment and ionizing radiation effects on biota, as well as problems of environmental protection. In addition to the studies of the in situ behavior of released during the accident anthropogenic radionuclides (primarily 90Sr, the main dose-forming radionuclide within the EURT), at the ESRS large experiment have been performed to study migration and biological effects on agricultural plants and animals of man-made radionuclides (especially fresh mixtures of fission products) introduced to the natural environment. Results of ESRS experiments are described on irradiation of natural biogeocenoses from a powerful source of ionizing radiation (1.2 x 10(15) Bq 137Cs). The first unique experience is described of remediation of radioactively contaminated areas with emphasis on agricultural radioecology. The importance of the EURT and ESRS radioecological studies for the development of radioecology as a science is stressed. PMID:18666658

  6. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the publication of "To Kill a Mockingbird".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Sessions, Jeff [R-AL

    2010-08-05

    08/05/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6981; text as passed Senate: CR S6981; text of measure as introduced: CR S6908) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. 77 FR 63203 - 50th Anniversary of the Office of the United States Trade Representative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... United States Trade Representative (USTR) continues to play a vital role in advancing trade policy that... Trade Representative By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On October 11, 1962, President John F. Kennedy signed the Trade Expansion Act--a landmark piece of legislation that established...

  8. 'Focus on Marshall' Features Marshall’s 50th Anniversary

    NASA Video Gallery

    On March 15, 1960, President Dwight Eisenhower issued an executive order designating NASA's first field center as the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. On the November episode of “Focus on ...

  9. Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Marianne Horney

    2006-01-01

    On the occasion of its 50 anniversary, the members of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry can look back with pride and be aware that this professional society has been true to its original goal and passionate mission. Thanks for this momentous accomplishment goes to its founding fathers and mothers, who were clear in their purpose and whose wisdom is manifest in the Academy's constitution. In the 1930s, the orthodoxy of the American Psychoanalytic Association created a ferment of rebellion in most of its institutes, which led to secessions, sister institutes, and a greater open-mindedness in institutes residing in Chicago, Washington, New Orleans, and Detroit. The quest for a new national forum that would be open to an exchange of new ideas began in 1951 and culminated in the formation of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis in 1956. The spirit of the Academy is highlighted by relating the successful struggle of communication among its members in a dream workshop that existed for six years. PMID:16548742

  10. Genetic causes of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Stouffs, Katrien; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Male infertility, affecting around half of the couples with a problem to get pregnant, is a very heterogeneous condition. Part of patients are having a defect in spermatogenesis of which the underlying causes (including genetic ones) remain largely unknown. The only genetic tests routinely used in the diagnosis of male infertility are the analyses for the presence of Yq microdeletions and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. Yet, their causative effect often remains to be proven. The recent evolution in the development of whole genome-based techniques may help in clarifying the role of genes and other genetic factors involved in spermatogenesis and spermatogenesis defects.

  11. Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: A Theory of Male Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theory of male identity developed to address the question of why men vary in their masculinity ideology and in their conformity to standards of masculinity. An overview of relevant masculinity research, theoretical foundations for the construct of reference group identity dependence, theoretical postulates, associated behavioral, and…

  12. Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice. PMID:12204128

  13. Male contraception: history and development.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception.

  14. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors.

  15. Applicability of Two Universally Accepted Mixed Dentition Analysis on a Sample from Southeastern Region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Shobha, MB; AJS, Sai; Manoj, KMG; Srideevi, E; Sridhar, M; Pratap, GMJS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the universally accepted mixed dentition analyses are based on the data derived from northwestern European descent. However, the accuracy of these methods when applied to different ethnic population is questionable. Aim: The present study is aimed to evaluate the applicability of Tanaka and Johnston (TJ) and Moyers (50th and 75th percentile) mixed dentition analysis in a sample from south-eastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Study models were prepared from a sample of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) in the age range of 13-15 years. The mesio-distal dimension of the teeth was measured using a Digital Vernier calipers. The actual values of permanent canine and premolars on the casts were compared with the predicted values from TJ and Moyers analysis. The values derived from this study were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Pearson's coefficients were used to evaluate the correlations between the groups of teeth. Results: Overestimated values were noticed in males and females of both arches with TJ equation; Males showed no significant difference at Moyers 50th percentile (50/100), in both the arches where as females showed higher values in mandibular arch and underestimated values in maxillary arch. At Moyers 75th percentile, overestimated values were noticed in males for both the arches whereas in females lesser values were observed. Conclusion: As the values showed significant deviation from TJ and Moyers both at 50 and 75 percentile, its applicability to the present population is limited. So, new regression equations were derived. PMID:27398250

  16. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  17. Black Male Images in Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Francis

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the "super" image of the black male in films served three essential purposes: it gave blacks whatever therapy they needed from films; it had hot box office appeal; and it kept white in control of the images blacks have had of themselves. (Author/JM)

  18. Promoting Flexibility in Male Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Charles D., Comp.; Linn, Eleanor, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    In this publication issues are discussed which pertain to male roles and fatherhood. "From the Desk of the Director" (Charles D. Moody, Sr.) discusses the need for increased role flexibility for men in general and black men in particular. The lead article, "Equity: A Question in Balance" (D. Groves Dugger), delves into the causes and consequences…

  19. Male infertility. 3. Endocrine causes.

    PubMed

    McNally, M R

    1987-02-01

    Endocrine causes of male infertility range from easily manageable disorders such as hypothyroidism to complex problems such as pituitary tumors. Proper management requires a thorough understanding of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Hormonal evaluation is performed only when the patient's history and results of physical examination indicate an endocrine problem. With proper identification and treatment, most of these problems can be successfully managed.

  20. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice.

  1. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  2. Prolactinemia in exercising male athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisson, G R; Ledoux, M; Péronnet, F; Dulac, S; DeCarufel, D; Volle, M A; Rainville, J; Audet, A

    1981-01-01

    8 male collegial athletes were submitted at random to three (55, 70 and 85% of VO2 max) ergocycle exercises of 20-min duration. Venous blood samples were obtained before, during and after ergocycling sessions by antecubital catheterization. Serum prolactin was measured by RIA using specific antiserum. The exercise treatments induced a blood prolactin response proportional to the intensity of the work loads.

  3. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Native Males by Age Group, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2013 Hispanic Males ... Native Males by Age Group, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2011 Hispanic Males ...

  4. Males adjust their signalling behaviour according to experience of male signals and male-female signal duets.

    PubMed

    Rebar, D; Rodríguez, R L

    2016-04-01

    Sexual signals are conspicuous sources of information about neighbouring competitors, and species in which males and females signal during pair formation provide various sources of public information to which individuals can adjust their behaviour. We performed two experiments with a duetting vibrational insect, Enchenopa binotata treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae), to ask whether males adjust their signalling behaviour according to (1a) their own experience of competitors' signals, (1b) how females adjust their mate preferences on the basis of their experience of male signals (described in prior work), and/or (2) their own experience of female response signals to competitors' signals. We presented males with synthetic male signals of different frequencies and combinations thereof for 2 weeks. We recorded males a day after their last signal exposure, finding that (1a) male signal rate increased in response to experience of attractive competitors, but that (1b) male signal frequency did not shift in a manner consistent with how females adjust their mate preferences in those experience treatments. Second, we presented males with different male-female duets for 2 weeks, finding that (2) male signal length increased from experience of female duets with attractive competitors. Males thus make two types of adjustment according to two sources of public information: one provided by experience of male signals and another by experience of female responses to male signals. Signalling plasticity can generate feedback loops between the adjustments that males and females make, and we discuss the potential consequences of such feedback loops for the evolution of communication systems.

  5. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  6. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    PubMed

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810

  7. Frequency of extrasystoles in healthy male employees.

    PubMed Central

    Orth-Gomér, K; Hogstedt, C; Bodin, L; Söderholm, B

    1986-01-01

    To determine reference values for ectopic activity 147 actively employed healthy men aged from 15 to 65 years were examined by 24 hour Holter monitoring during their ordinary daily activities. Age was the only risk factor significantly associated with supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles. During a six year follow up only two men died. In both the frequency of ventricular extrasystoles had been high, but neither of them died from cardiovascular disease. Because the distribution of the frequency of extrasystoles in the study group was highly skewed a percentile distribution was used to determine normal values. This distribution showed that 95% of men aged 15-39 years had less than 2.9 ventricular extrasystoles per hour and the same proportion of men aged 40 years or older had less than 36 ventricular extrasystoles per hour. For field studies values above the 90th percentile (that is more than 10 ventricular extrasystoles per hour for men 40 years or older) may be a more appropriate cut off point. PMID:2420346

  8. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed

    Beatty, Christopher D; Andrés, José A; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  9. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Christopher D.; Andrés, José A.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a “scramble”. An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  10. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  11. The ageing male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Sampson, N; Untergasser, G; Plas, E; Berger, P

    2007-01-01

    Ageing of the male reproductive system is characterized by changes in the endocrine system, hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction and proliferative disorders of the prostate gland. Stochastic damage accumulating within ageing leads to progressive dysregulation at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and in local auto/paracrine interactions, thereby inducing morphological changes in reproductive target organs, such as the prostate, testis and penis. Despite age-related changes in the HPG axis, endocrine functions are generally sufficient to maintain fertility in elderly men. Ageing of the male reproductive system can give rise to clinically relevant manifestations, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PCa) and erectile dysfunction (ED). In this review, we discuss morphological/histological changes occurring in these organs and current views and concepts of the underlying pathology. Moreover, we emphasize the molecular/cellular pathways leading to reduced testicular/penile function and proliferative disorders of the prostate gland.

  12. Clomiphene treatment in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schellen, T M

    1982-01-01

    After the discovery that Clomiphene-citrate (Clomid) increased the secretion of gonadotropins, it was first used to induce ovulation and later on it was also used in males in certain cases of infertility. The effects of Clomid on the hypothalamic-pituitary level made it also possible to use it for a dynamic evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in both females and males. The results obtained with Clomid are reviewed. The results are widely divergent because of the fact that the selection of the patients, the dosage, and the length of the therapy are not always appropriate. However, the experience with Clomid appears to show sufficient effectiveness in oligozoospermic men, who have a low or normal FSH-level.

  13. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  14. Male breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, IS

    2009-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare, with the peak age of onset at 71 years. BRCA2 mutations are more frequent than BRCA1 with 20% of cases giving a family history. Risk factors for MBC are poorly understood and include working in high-ambient temperatures and exhaust fume exposure. MBC is associated with hyperoestrogenic states found in liver disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, gonadal dysfunction or obesity. Most information on treatment of MBC is derived from large randomized trials carried out in female patients. The small numbers of MBC seen in any unit annually has precluded significant trials being carried out. Diagnosis and treatment of MBC is similar to that of female patients, but men tend to be treated with mastectomy rather than breast-conserving surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment for advanced disease is endocrine, mostly tamoxifen. Prognosis of male patients is equal to that of stage-matched women, but men tend to fare worse because of delay in presentation, leading to a large proportion of patients presenting with stage III or IV disease. Increased input is needed for psychological support for male breast cancer patients. Specific therapeutic questions about MBC need international trials to obtain meaningful answers. PMID:22276005

  15. Endocrinology of the aging male.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Andre B; Wittert, Gary A

    2011-04-01

    The endocrinology of the aging male is complex, with multiple hormones along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis interacting with one another in feedback. As men age, there is a small and progressive (not precipitous, as in women) decline in several sex hormones, in particular testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and related increases in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin. The importance of these changes is wide-ranging because of the ubiquitous role of sex hormones in male physiology. This chapter discusses the endocrinology of the aging male. We provide an overview of the regulation of the HPT axis with an emphasis on the changes that occur with aging and the measurement of gonadal steroids, including hormone pulsatility, within-subject and circadian variations. The difficulties of assessing the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism are highlighted. There is a comprehensive discussion of the epidemiology of sex hormone changes, including their age associations, prevalence of symptomatic hypogonadism, secular changes, risk factors, and the association of sex hormones with outcomes.

  16. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  17. Male-mediated developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  18. Y chromosome and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Krausz, C; McElreavey, K

    1999-01-15

    Male factor infertility accounts for about half the cases of couple infertility. In more than 60% of cases the origin of reduced testicular function is unknown but they may have an unidentified genetic anomaly. Microdeletions of the long arm of the human Y chromosome are associated with spermatogenic failure and have been used to define three regions of Yq (AZFa, AZFb and AZFc) that are recurrently deleted in infertile males. Several genes have been identified within this region and have been proposed as candidates for infertility. Many of these genes encode proteins involved in post-transcriptional gene expression and therefore could participate in the sperm maturation process. About 10-15% of azoospermic and about 5-10% of severely oligozoospermic men have Yq microdeletions. The deletions are associated with a wide range of histological pictures ranging from Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS) to spermatogenic arrest and severe hypospermatogenesis. Assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) alone, or in association with testicular sperm retrieval, represent an efficient therapy for these patients. However the potential of these techniques to transmit genetic defects causing male infertility raises the need for a systematic genetic screening and genetic counselling of these patients.

  19. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  20. Male-male and male-female aggression may influence mating associations in wild octopuses (Abdopus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Huffard, Christine L; Caldwell, Roy L; Boneka, Farnis

    2010-02-01

    Abdopus aculeatus engages in frequent aggression and copulation, exhibits male mate-choice, and employs multiple mating tactics. Here we draw upon established hypotheses to compare male-male aggression (MMA) and male-female aggression (MFA), as they relate to their mating behavior in the wild. When contesting for females, males appear to balance mate preference (resource value) with perceived chances of winning contests (resource holding potential). Although males spent more time mating with and contesting for large "Adjacent Guarded" females (those occupying a den within arm's reach of a large "Adjacent Guarding" male), they exhibited higher rates of aggression over nonadjacent "Temporarily Guarded" females that may be more accessible. The major determinant of male-male aggressive success was size, and this factor may dictate the expression of conditional mating tactics in males. "Adjacent Guarding" males were the largest and most aggressively successful males, earning the most time copulating with females. They are considered to have the highest resource holding potential (RHP) in MMA. By contrast, in MFA, some larger individuals fled from smaller individuals, indicating that RHP appears to be a function of both size and sex in intersexual aggression. This result suggests variation in aggressiveness, or potential for severe injury-even sexual cannibalism during MFA. Male-female aggression may also be influenced by the sexual nonreceptivity of some individuals, or attempts by both sexes to increase foraging behavior by delaying mate-guarding activity.

  1. Influence of stiffness and shape of contact surface on skull fractures and biomechanical metrics of the human head of different population underlateral impacts.

    PubMed

    Shaoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Yoganandan, Narayan; Willinger, Rémy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses of 5th-percentile female, and 50th- and 95th-percentile male human heads during lateral impacts at different velocities and determine the role of the stiffness and shape of the impacting surface on peak forces and derived skull fracture metrics. A state-of-the-art validated finite element (FE) head model was used to study the influence of different population human heads on skull fracture for lateral impacts. The mass of the FE head model was altered to match the adult size dummies. Numerical simulations of lateral head impacts for 45 cases (15 experiments×3 different population human heads) were performed at velocities ranging from 2.4 to 6.5m/s and three impacting conditions (flat and cylindrical 90D; and flat 40D padding). The entire force-time signals from simulations were compared with experimental mean and upper/lower corridors at each velocity, stiffness (40 and 90 durometer) and shapes (flat and cylindrical) of the impacting surfaces. Average deviation of peak force from the 50th male to 95th male and 5th female were 6.4% and 10.6% considering impacts on the three impactors. These results indicate hierarchy of variables which can be used in injury mitigation efforts.

  2. Contact chemoreceptors mediate male-male repulsion and male-female attraction during Drosophila courtship.

    PubMed

    Thistle, Robert; Cameron, Peter; Ghorayshi, Azeen; Dennison, Lisa; Scott, Kristin

    2012-05-25

    The elaborate courtship ritual of Drosophila males is dictated by neural circuitry established by the transcription factor Fruitless and triggered by sex-specific sensory cues. Deciphering the role of different stimuli in driving courtship behavior has been limited by the inability to selectively target appropriate sensory classes. Here, we identify two ion channel genes belonging to the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel/pickpocket (ppk) family, ppk23 and ppk29, which are expressed in fruitless-positive neurons on the legs and are essential for courtship. Gene loss-of-function, cell-inactivation, and cell-activation experiments demonstrate that these genes and neurons are necessary and sufficient to inhibit courtship toward males and promote courtship toward females. Moreover, these cells respond to cuticular hydrocarbons, with different cells selectively responding to male or female pheromones. These studies identify a large population of pheromone-sensing neurons and demonstrate the essential role of contact chemosensation in the early courtship steps of mate selection and courtship initiation. PMID:22632976

  3. Male-Male Clasping May Be Part of an Alternative Reproductive Tactic in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Heather J.; Stevenson, Rachel J.; Ego, Courtney L.

    2014-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs have been observed to clasp other males in a sustained, amplectant position, the purpose of which is unknown. We examined three possible hypotheses for this counter-intuitive behavior: 1) clasping males fail to discriminate the sex of the frogs they clasp; 2) male-male clasping is an aggressive or dominant behavior; or 3) that males clasp other males to gain proximity to breeding events and possibly engage in sperm competition. Our data, gathered through a series of behavioral experiments in the laboratory, refute the first two hypotheses. We found that males did not clasp indiscriminately, but showed a sex preference, with most males preferentially clasping a female, but a proportion preferentially clasping another male. Males that clasped another male when there was no female present were less likely to “win” reproductive access in a male-male-female triad, indicating that they did not establish dominance through clasping. However, those males did gain proximity to oviposition by continued male-male clasping in the presence of the female. Thus, our findings are consistent with, but cannot confirm, the third hypothesis of male-male clasping as an alternative reproductive tactic. PMID:24849114

  4. Microcephaly in a 14-month male with minimal developmental delay (speech) and mild dysmorphology with unusual mosaicism involving a ring chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, V.; Lieber, E.; Yu, M.T.

    1994-09-01

    This male at birth weighed 5 lbs, 14 oz and was full term. His mother was G3 P2012. His height and weight follow the 3rd percentile; however, his head circumference is below the 3rd percentile. His hearing is age-appropriate; however, his speech is poor to absent. His hearing is intact. He had 2-5 cafe-au-lait spots (0.5 to 1.0 cm) on his trunk and extremities. His face showed mild dysmorphology (non-specific). His tone and central nervous system are intact. Because of the microcephaly, a chromosome study was performed. A skin fibroblast culture was performed because of his appropriate milestones. One cell in the peripheral blood and one cell in the skin biopsy demonstrated two normal chromosome 5s. FISH studies using chromosome 5 painting probe confirmed the observations of routine cytogenetic studies. The marker chromosome was identified as part of chromosome 5. At 14 months, the patient does not have the appearance associated with the Cri-du-chat syndrome. Additional studies with probes for the specific region associated with this syndrome are planned.

  5. Proposed Method for Development of Small Female and Midsize Male Thorax Dynamic Response Corridors in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    PubMed

    Baudrit, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. Several methods are available in the literature to refine the biofidelity corridors or to extrapolate them to other populations (eg: children, small females, large males). Because of the lack of concrete cases, the relevance of the assumptions is rarely investigated. In 2014, Baudrit et al. published data on thorax dynamic responses of small female and midsize male Post Mortem Human Subjects in side and forward oblique impact tests. The impactor mass was 23.4 kg for all the tests and the nominal impact speed was 4.3 m/s. The diameter of the rigid disk was 130 and 152 mm respectively for the small female specimens and for the midsize male specimens. The authors found that the maximum impact force was a function of the total body mass for each loading. They also reported that the ratio of dissipated energy on total deformation energy was almost constant and equal to 0.88. From these observations, a method was developed to aggregate data of the whole PMHS sample and to construct force time history and deflection time history corridors, for the 50th male and the 5th female, in pure lateral and in forward oblique tests. These corridors are provided in the paper and compared to the literature. Scaling factors derived from the corridors are also provided and used to evaluate the assumptions associated with the corridors provided in the literature.

  6. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana . E-mail: d.anderson1@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F{sub 1} generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F{sub 1} male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from

  7. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  8. 24 CFR 982.503 - Voucher tenancy: Payment standard amount and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deconcentration objectives. Paragraph (f) of this section applies only to a PHA with jurisdiction in an FMR area... 50th percentile rent if the PHA scored the maximum number of points on the deconcentration...

  9. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  10. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  11. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  12. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  13. Vitamin D and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile signalling molecule with a well-established role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone health. The spectrum of vitamin D target organs has expanded and the reproductive role of vitamin D is highlighted by expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and enzymes that metabolize vitamin D in testis, male reproductive tract and human spermatozoa. The expression levels of VDR and CYP24A1 in human spermatozoa serve as positive predictive markers of semen quality, and VDR mediates a nongenomic increase in intracellular calcium concentration that induces sperm motility. Interestingly, functional animal models show that vitamin D is important for estrogen signalling and sperm motility, while cross-sectional studies support the positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and sperm motility in both fertile and infertile men. Expression of VDR and enzymes that metabolize vitamin D in fetal testis indicates a yet unknown role during development, which may be extrapolated from invasive testicular germ cell tumours where 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D induces a mesodermal differentiation of the pluripotent testicular cancer cells. Taken together, vitamin D signalling has a positive effect on semen quality, increases estrogen responsiveness and differentiates germ cell tumours. Future studies are needed to determine when 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D acts in a paracrine manner and whether systemic changes, which are subject to pharmacological modulation, could influence male reproductive function.

  14. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  15. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  16. Childless Males and Their Childbearing Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birky, Ian T.

    Heretofore, researchers have perceived women as the ones concerned with having children, generally excluding males from their samples. In order to look at male attitudes on childbearing, an investigation was conducted on personality differences between childless males preferring children within five years of marriage and those preferring to delay…

  17. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martha L; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B

    2010-11-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male-male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linearity. Linear dominance across the group is stable for about 2 weeks; rank is dynamic. Males engage in physical interactions (clasping) while paired but clasping and vocal rank are not correlated. Playbacks of advertisement calls suppress calling and calls from high- and low-ranking males are equally effective. Thus, auditory cues alone suffice to suppress vocal behavior. Playback intensities equivalent to a nearby male advertising effectively suppress calling while low-intensity playbacks are either ineffective or stimulate vocal behavior. X. laevis advertisement calls are biphasic, composed of alternating fast and slow click trills. Approximately half the males tested are more vocally suppressed by all slow than by all fast trills; thus, these males can distinguish between the two phases. The fully aquatic family Pipidae diverged from terrestrial ancestors approximately 170 mya. Vocal suppression in the X. laevis mating system may represent the translation of an ancient anuran social strategy to underwater life. PMID:21442049

  18. Male Puberty Rites: A Path Analytic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitahara, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Studies two determinants of male puberty rites: communitywide exclusive male work groups and polygyny which act as an extension of male subculture; and sexual integration in the division of labor and distant father-child relationship which act to reduce the distance between the sexes. (Author/RC)

  19. [Role of estrogen in male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi-Qing; Xu, Chen

    2005-11-01

    Estrogen plays an essential role in male reproduction. In human and other mammalians, a number of tissues express aromatase and hence synthesize estrogen. ERs and aromatase are present at all developmental stages of the male reproductive organs in many mammalian species. Estrogen is important in different aspects in male reproductive physiology, including its effects on germ cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and epididymal functions.

  20. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  1. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  2. Effect of faecal soiling on skatole and androstenone occurrence in organic entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, R; Edwards, S A; Jensen, B B; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2015-09-01

    Production of entire male pigs could be a future strategy for organic pig production. However, production of entire males leads to increased risk of carcasses with elevated boar taint levels. It is hypothesized that skatole levels in pig meat are affected by faecal soiling and that organic housing facilities can increase the risk of pigs being heavily soiled. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to investigate if increased pig and pen soiling increases skatole concentration in entire male pigs. In five herds, 1174 organic entire male pigs were reared in four batches across two seasons, summer and winter. Measurements of pig and pen soiling, as well as fat skatole and androstenone concentration and human nose sensory tests of fat odour, were performed. Skatole and androstenone concentrations varied greatly within and between herds with a 10% and 90% percentile for the overall population of 0.02 and 2.25 µg/g for skatole and 0.53 and 4.84 µg/g for androstenone. Human nose positive tests averaged 18.3% with great variation between herds and seasons. Pen soiling had significant effects on pig soiling. Moreover, outdoor pen soiling significantly affected skatole concentration in interactions with herd and season (P<0.001 and P=0.003) and affected human nose positive risk in interaction with herd (P=0.005). Soiling on indoor pen areas did not affect skatole levels and no effect on androstenone was found for any pen area. Soiling of pigs affected both skatole and androstenone levels, with the size of the head and abdomen body areas covered in manure showing significant positive effects on skatole concentration. No effect of density of the manure layer was found on either boar taint measure. Herd significantly affected both skatole and androstenone in fat as well as the human nose positive risk. The human nose test revealed no effect from pig soiling. A large variation in the different boar taint measures was found for both high and low scores of pen and pig

  3. An overview of anorexia nervosa in males.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Tom; Lytle, Pauline Polly

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an integrative overview of existing research on anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescent males. AN is commonly thought of as a female disorder. Even though as much as 25% of the clinical population is male, research on AN in males is limited. Additionally, most conceptualizations of male AN emphasize a single etiological factor and, therefore, produce treatments that fail to address it as a global phenomenon. In contrast, an integrative understanding that incorporates research on the familial, biological, cultural, and psychodynamic elements involved in male AN encourages treatment that comprehensively addresses the disorder.

  4. Evolution of Female Preference for Younger Males

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christopher W.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has suggested that females should prefer to mate with older males, as older males should have higher fitness than the average fitness of the cohort into which they were born. However, studies in humans and model organisms have shown that as males age, they accumulate deleterious mutations in their germ-line at an ever-increasing rate, thereby reducing the quality of genes passed on to the next generation. Thus, older males may produce relatively poor-quality offspring. To better understand how male age influences female mate preference and offspring quality, we used a genetic algorithm model to study the effect of age-related increases in male genetic load on female mate preference. When we incorporate age-related increases in mutation load in males into our model, we find that females evolve a preference for younger males. Females in this model could determine a male's age, but not his inherited genotype nor his mutation load. Nevertheless, females evolved age-preferences that led them to mate with males that had low mutation loads, but showed no preference for males with respect to their somatic quality. These results suggest that germ-line quality, rather than somatic quality, should be the focus of female preference in good genes models. PMID:17895980

  5. Why Do Cuckolded Males Provide Paternal Care?

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Ashleigh S.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Cornwallis, Charlie K.

    2013-01-01

    In most species, males do not abandon offspring or reduce paternal care when they are cuckolded by other males. This apparent lack of adjustment of paternal investment with the likelihood of paternity presents a potential challenge to our understanding of what drives selection for paternal care. In a comparative analysis across birds, fish, mammals, and insects we identify key factors that explain why cuckolded males in many species do not reduce paternal care. Specifically, we show that cuckolded males only reduce paternal investment if both the costs of caring are relatively high and there is a high risk of cuckoldry. Under these circumstances, selection is expected to favour males that reduce paternal effort in response to cuckoldry. In many species, however, these conditions are not satisfied and tolerant males have outcompeted males that abandon young. PMID:23555193

  6. Male-Male Sexual Behavior in the Parasitic Wasp Psyttalia concolor

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni; Canale, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The role of male-male courtship in parasitic Hymenoptera is poorly known. A laboratory study was conducted to assess if Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male courtship can be affected by a previous experience in courting young conspecifics of both sexes. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of experience in courting young wasps on both male courtship and male-male competition behavior. Results showed that a courting experience on both sexes can modify some sexual traits in a P. concolor male, without affecting its success in mating. When approaching virgin females, a P. concolor male that had a previous courtship experience with young wasps of either sex showed shorter latency times, more wing fanning, and longer courtship durations with respect to the control male. The hypothesis that a previous courting experience may allow a P. concolor male to refine its courtship behavior and to enhance courtship intensity in subsequent encounters with females was discussed. PMID:23895402

  7. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  8. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds.

  9. Zomepirac kinetics in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Nayak, R K; Ng, K T; Gottlieb, S; Plostnieks, J

    1980-03-01

    Kinetics of zomepirac, an oral, nonnarcotic analgesic, were studied in healthy males in 3 clinical experiments. In study A, zomepirac 100 mg was taken as tablet, capsule, and solution. Bioavailability of zomepirac from the 3 dosage forms was much the same. Zomepirac absorption was rapid, peak plasma concentrations being reached within 1 to 1 hr. Plasma concentration profile could be described by the 2-compartmentoral absorption model with an absorption rate constant (Ka) of 7.66 hr-1 t 1/2 = 0.09 hr), a rapid disposition rate constant (alpha) of 0.75 hr-1 (t 1/2 = 0.94 hr), and a slow disposition rate constant (beta) of 0.16 hr-1 (t 1/2 = 4.3 hr). In study B, safety and acceptability were established with 100 mg 4 times a day for 14 days followed by 150 mg 4 times a day for 14 days. Zomepirac plasma levels indicated attainment of steady state within less than 3 days of treatment. There was little drug accumulation on the regimens studied. There was no change in plasma kinetics after 14 days on either regimen. In study C, dose/bioavailability response was followed at 50-, 100-, and 200-mg dose levels. There were linear correlations between dose and peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and urinary excretion of intact and total (intact + glucuronide conjugate) zomepirac during the 12 hr following drug administration.

  10. Androgens and the aging male.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Stuart N

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to women, men do not experience a sudden cessation of gonadal function comparable to menopause. However, there is a progressive reduction in male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function: testosterone levels decline through both central (pituitary) and peripheral (testicular) mechanisms, and there is a loss of the circadian rhythm of testosterone secretion. The progressive decline in testosterone levels has been demonstrated in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and overall at least 25% of men over age 70 meet laboratory criteria for hypogonadism (ie, testosterone deficiency). Such age-associated HPG hypofunctioning, which has been termed "andropause," is thought to be responsible for a variety of symptoms experienced by elderly men, including weakness, fatigue, reduced muscle and bone mass, impaired hematopoiesis, sexual dysfunction (including erectile dysfunction and loss of libido), and depression. Although, it has been difficult to establish correlations between these symptoms and plasma testosterone levels, there is some evidence that testosterone replacement leads to symptom relief, particularly with respect to muscle strength, bone mineral density, and erectile dysfunction. There is little evidence of a link between the HPG axis hypofunctioning and depressive illness, and exogenous androgens have not been consistently shown to have antidepressant activity. This article reviews the relationship between androgens, depression, and sexual function in aging men.

  11. Scratchcard gambling among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    Playing instant scratchcards has become a popular activity among a significant minority of the UK population since their introduction by the National Lottery operators (Camelot) on March 21, 1995. This study examined scratchcard gambling in a group of adolescent males. A total of 204 boys from two secondary schools in Birmingham (aged 11 to 16 years; mean age 13.6 years) were administered a questionnaire on their scratchcard gambling behaviour. Ten classes (five in each school) took part in the survey with one class from each year group selected at random by the headteacher. Within each class almost all the children took part. Forty-two percent of the sample (n=86) had bought their own scratchcards since their introduction in March 1995. Ten children (12% of the gamblers who had bought scratchcards themselves) met an adapted version of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling on scratchcards. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between parents buying scratchcards and the child's scratchcard purchasing behaviour. PMID:14634322

  12. Emerging molecular methods for male infertility investigation.

    PubMed

    Benkhalifa, Moncef; Montjean, Debbie; Belloc, Stephanie; Dalleac, Alain; Ducasse, Michel; Boyer, Pierre; Merviel, Philippe; Copin, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Male factors account for approximately 50% of reproductive pathology. Different disorders, including urogenital and endocrine system development abnormalities, lead to testicular and gametogenesis defects. Parallely, studies have reported that somatic and germ cell genome decay are a major cause of male infertility. It has been shown that in somatic karyotype, there is a higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations in infertile men than neonatal population and significant chromosome Y microdeletion or specific gene alterations in affected spermatogenesis. Karyotyping and FISH application at somatic and germ cell levels are no longer sufficient to investigate the potential contribution of genome disorders on male infertility. A wide range of molecular methods are required for better understanding of male infertility causes. Molecular omes and omics techniques have become a great tool to investigate male infertility from chromosome to protein. This review reports different molecular tests and methods that can be offered for male infertility investigation.

  13. Introduction: Ejaculatory problems and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There are a variety of dysfunctions of the ejaculatory process which may negatively impact male fertility but are not commonly discussed. The meanings of the terms used to describe these conditions are often unclear. This month's Views and Reviews define the commonly used and confused terms. The initial article explains normal male function with an emphasis on the ejaculatory process. Following articles discuss the causes, evaluation and management of the male with ejaculatory dysfunction.

  14. [Imaging of male infertility: techniques and results].

    PubMed

    Eiss, D; Cornud, F; Thiounn, N; Wolf, J-P; Amar, E; Ghouadni, M; Hélénon, O

    2012-09-01

    Assessment of male infertility includes clinical examination, laboratory tests (semen analysis, hormones dosage) and sonographic examination of the urogenital tract. Male infertility is due to testicular abnormalities (secretory type) or obstructive disorder (excretory type). Imaging should provide accurate definition of anatomical causes of infertility in order to deliver appropriate treatment. Testicular Doppler ultrasound with transrectal ultrasound is the gold standard imaging technique to explore male infertility. MRI, because of its high resolution, provides a multiplanar study especially in congenital and inflammatory abnormalities of the urogenital tract. This pictorial review illustrates the most frequent causes of male infertility.

  15. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility.

  16. Brood care by male bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Cameron, S A

    1985-10-01

    Male Bombus griseocollis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) share in the brood care of nestmates by incubating pupae (usually during the first few days after they emerge as adults). Male posture during incubation of a pupa is identical to that observed for females. Pupae incubated by males were 4 degrees C-6 degrees C above the temperature of unincubated pupae. Although this increase was not as great as that caused by workers or queens, it was an important factor in warming pupae. Incubating males may benefit nestmates incidentally without lowering their own individual fitness.

  17. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    PubMed

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  18. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    PubMed

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  19. Sexy Faces in a Male Paper Wasp

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; Santos do Nascimento, Fabio; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  20. Endocrinology of the aging male.

    PubMed

    Lunenfeld, B

    2006-04-01

    Despite enormous medical progress during the past few decades, the last years of life are still accompanied by increasing ill health and disability. The ability to maintain active and independent living for as long as possible is a crucial factor for ageing healthily and with dignity. The most important and drastic gender differences in aging are related to the reproductive organs. In distinction to the course of reproductive ageing in women, with the rapid decline in sex hormones expressed by the cessation of menses, men experience a slow and continuous decline. This decline in endocrine function involves: a decrease of testosterone, dehydro epiandrosterone (DHEA), oestrogens, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), IGF1, and melatonin. The decrease of sex hormones is concomitant with a temporary increase of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In addition sex hormone binding globulins (SHBG) increase with age resulting in further lowering the concentrations of free biologically active androgens. These hormonal changes are directly or indirectly associated with changes in body constitution, fat distribution (visceral obesity), muscle weakness, osteopenia, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. The laboratory and clinical findings of partial endocrine deficiencies in the aging male will be described and discussed in detail. With the prolongation of life expectancy both women and men today live 1/3 of their life with endocrine deficiencies. Interventions such as hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing the preventable and delaying the inevitable. PMID:16582870

  1. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  2. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  3. The association between environmental exposure to pyrethroids and sperm aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Piskunowicz, Marta; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hawuła, Wanda; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether the environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with males sperm chromosome disomy. The study population consisted of 195 men who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 20-300×10(6) mL(-1) or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20×10(6) mL(-1)) (WHO, 1999). Participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA) and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analysed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor FISH (DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13, 21). Our results showed that CDCCA >50th percentile was associated with disomy of chromosome 18 (p=0.05) whereas the level of TDCCA in urine >50th percentile was related to XY disomy (p=0.04) and disomy of chromosome 21 (p=0.05). Urinary 3PBA level ⩽50 and >50 percentile was related to disomy of sex chromosomes: XY disomy (p=0.05 and p=0.02 respectively), Y disomy (p=0.04 and 0.02 respectively), disomy of chromosome 21 (p=0.04 and p=0.04 respectively) and total disomy (p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). Additionally disomy of chromosome 18 was positively associated with urinary level of 3PBA >50 percentile (p=0.03). The results reported here are found that pyrethroids may be a sperm aneugens. These findings may be of concern due to increased pyrethroid use and prevalent human exposure.

  4. Blood pressure regulation by CCR genes.

    PubMed

    Mettimano, Marco; Specchia, Maria Lucia; La Torre, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Savi, Luigi; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2006-10-01

    New genetic evidence strongly supports a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH) through chemokines and their receptors (CCR) involvement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible relation between CCR2 and CCR5 alleles and blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive subjects. In all, 118 essential hypertensive outpatients (male 90, female 28; stage I and II; age 27-54 years; not previously treated with antihypertensive drugs) were selected for the study. All of the subjects underwent office BP measurement. Subsequently, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) was performed with a Spacelabs 90207 monitor during a regular working day. CCR264I and CCR5Delta32 polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), following the standard molecular biology protocols. Allelic frequencies were the following: CCR5Delta32= 0.097, CCR264I=0.101. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between the CCR5Delta32 allele and the following: 24-h systolic BP (SBP >140 mmHg; p = 0.027), values over the 50th percentile of 24-h SBP (p = 0.032), and the values over the 50th percentile of nighttime SBP (p = 0.039). Office BP showed an association with the Delta32 allele in a range over the 75th percentile of SBP (p = 0.087) and the 75th percentile of DBP (p = 0.085). No significant association was observed for CCR264I and BP levels or between physiological nocturnal BP decline and genotype. The observed results not only support the role of the immune system in the development and maintenance of hypertension, but they also indicate an influence of CCR5Delta32 polymorphism on the establishment of BP levels. PMID:17060059

  5. Rogue Males: Sex Differences in Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary study into the commitment and academic confidence of male students in undergraduate psychology, prompted by our own observations of the performance of male students and the literature on sex differences in education. Method: Using an analytical survey, level 1 psychology students at a new university…

  6. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  7. Male Acceptance of Female Career Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollender, John; Schafer, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two White, male university students rated five written female role statements matched with videotaped females on an 11-point probability of marriage scale. Preference was given to family-oriented women with some career involvement. Results also indicated interaction among work roles, female physical attractiveness, and male self-esteem. (JCD)

  8. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  9. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  10. Female choice for male motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

  11. Uncommon Caring: Primary Males and Implicit Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James R.

    The caring and nurturing of children, which characterize primary education culture, have tended to shape a public perception of primary teaching as "women's work." Several social factors influence men's underrepresentation in the profession of primary education, such as parents not wanting their children exposed to "soft" males. Male primary…

  12. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  13. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  14. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  15. Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Craig J.; Goessling, Deborah Peters

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of male students who complete an undergraduate degree in the field of special education continues to be much lower than that of female graduates. Low status, low salaries, the perception of teaching as women's work, potential complaints of child abuse and sexual harassment, and a lack of male peer groups factor into this low…

  16. Enhancing Minority Male Enrollment: Students as Mentors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolar, Steven M.; Cowles, James

    During the 1991-92 academic year, Cumberland County College (CCC), in New Jersey, initiated a mentor program to encourage enrollment of male minority high school seniors in postsecondary institutions. Twenty Black and Hispanic males in their senior year of high school participated in the program; all 20 were accepted to an accredited college…

  17. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  18. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  19. Male Communication Problems in the Student Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borisoff, Deborah

    This paper summarizes seven "truths" imparted about male sex traits and sex-role stereotypes that stem from extant research reflecting primarily a dual-culture perspective. The paper includes relevant research findings and insights from male students that suggest that some of the conclusions about men's communication should be revisited. The…

  20. Flirtation reduces males' fecundity but not longevity.

    PubMed

    Esfandi, Kambiz; He, Xiong Zhao; Wang, Qiao

    2015-08-01

    Theory predicts that due to limited resources males should strategically adjust their investment in reproduction and survival. Based on different conceptual framework, experimental designs, and study species, many studies support while others contradict this general prediction. Using a moth Ephestia kuehniella whose adults do not feed and thus have fixed resources for their lifetime fitness, we investigated whether males adjusted their investment in various life activities under dynamic socio-sexual environment. We allowed focal males to perceive rivals or additional females without physical contact. We show that males do not adjust the number of sperm they transfer to mates in a given copulation at different immediate or both immediate and mean sperm competition levels. Contradictory to general predictions, our results demonstrate that cues from additional females increase males' investment in courtship and reduce their lifetime number of copulations and sperm ejaculated, whereas cues from rivals have no effect on these parameters. Males have similar longevity in all treatments. We suggest that the sex pheromone produced by multiple females overstimulate males, increasing males' costly flirtations, and reducing their lifetime copulation frequency and fecundity. This finding offers a novel explanation for the success of mating disruption strategy using sex pheromones in pest management. PMID:26133013

  1. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. PMID:22913441

  2. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  3. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage.

  4. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  5. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  6. Intraductal papilloma of the male breast

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Fleur E.E.; Walter, Armin W.; Vrouenraets, Bart C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a painless lump of his left breast that was found to be an intraductal papilloma. This is an extremely rare, but benign disease in the male breast. We subsequently discuss radiologic tests and treatment options. PMID:26860828

  7. Intraductal papilloma of the male breast.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Fleur E E; Walter, Armin W; Vrouenraets, Bart C

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a painless lump of his left breast that was found to be an intraductal papilloma. This is an extremely rare, but benign disease in the male breast. We subsequently discuss radiologic tests and treatment options. PMID:26860828

  8. Changing Views on Male Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the changing views on the role and status of male early childhood education teachers in the forties and fifties (male prohibition), the sixties and early seventies (the macho image), and the late seventies and early eighties (the age of androgyny).

  9. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  10. The Voices of Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Tracey; Sparrow, Abby

    2012-01-01

    What do young black males say about what stands in the way of their academic success? Rather than rely on scholarly researchers to answer this question, the authors talked with a number of black males between ages 13 and 22 in Washington D.C., and Milwaukee, Wis., to learn what they had to say. These young men rarely talked about schools or…

  11. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  12. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  13. Relevance of genetic investigation in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Asero, P; Calogero, A E; Condorelli, R A; Mongioi', L; Vicari, E; Lanzafame, F; Crisci, R; La Vignera, S

    2014-05-01

    Genetic causes can be directly responsible for various clinical conditions of male infertility and spermatogenic impairment. With the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies our understanding of genetic basis of male infertility has large implications not only for understanding the causes of infertility but also in determining the prognosis and management of such couples. For these reasons, the genetic investigations represent today an essential and useful tool in the treatment of male infertility. Several evidences are available for the clinical practice regarding the diagnosis; however, there are less information relative to the treatment of the genetic causes of male infertility. Focus of this review is to discuss the main and more common genetic causes of male infertility to better direct the genetics investigation in the treatment of spermatogenic impairment.

  14. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  15. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-08-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species.

  16. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna L; Levitan, Don R; Hosken, David J; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  17. Relative importance of male and territory quality in pairing success of male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Earnst, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    We studied pairing success in male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) in northern Alaska to learn whether males obtaining more females possessed phenotypic traits that influenced female choice directly, whether these traits permitted males to obtain territories favored by females, or whether both processes occurred. The number of females per male varied from zero to three. Several male and territory traits were significantly correlated with number of females per male. We used multiple regression to obtain a single measure of male quality and a single measure of territory quality. These measures of male and territory quality correlated with each other and with male pairing success. We used path analysis to separate direct effects of male quality on pairing success from indirect effects due to high-quality males obtaining high-quality territories. Both direct and indirect pathways had significant effects on pairing success, and direct and indirect effects of male traits on pairing success were about equal. This study illustrates an analytical approach for estimating the relative importance of direct and indirect causal relationships in natural systems.

  18. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted.

  19. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  20. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  1. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  2. Suicidal behaviors in homosexual and bisexual males.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Tremblay, P

    1997-01-01

    A stratified random sample of 750 males in Calgary, Canada, aged 18-27 years, were given questions on sexual activity and orientation. Mental health questions included a measure of suicidality and of acts of deliberate self-harm. A computerized response format, which has been established as a good method for eliciting sensitive personal data, ensured anonymity. Almost 13% of the males were classified as homosexual or bisexual on the basis of being currently homosexually active or by self-identification. Significantly higher rates of previous suicidal ideas and actions were reported by homosexually oriented males than by heterosexual males. Homosexually oriented males accounted for 62.5% of suicide attempters. These findings, which indicate that homosexual and bisexual males are 13.9 times more at risk for a serious suicide attempt, are consonant with previous findings. The predominant reason for the suicidality of these young males may be linked to the process of "coming out," especially for those who currently have high levels of depression. These results underscore the need for qualified services rarely available to homosexually oriented youth. PMID:9141776

  3. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.

  4. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm. PMID:25215634

  5. The Relationship between the High School's Performance and Students' College Attendance Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Gary; Tanner, David

    2012-01-01

    Declining college admission test scores during the 1970s raised concerns that America's primary schools were inadequately preparing students for college or the workforce. Rock's (1985) analysis of SAT scores indicated that seniors in 1980 scoring at the 50th percentile for vocabulary would have placed at the 41st percentile in 1972. Mathematics…

  6. The Impact of Metacognition Strategies on Reading Comprehension Levels of Nonproficient High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderville, Tonya Butler

    2012-01-01

    At one high school, the goal for nonproficient reading students was to score at or above the 50th percentile to meet adequate yearly progress objectives. In 2010, the performance levels of nonproficient reading students tested with the state reading test in Grades 9 and 10 declined from the 47th to the 46th percentile. The purpose of this research…

  7. Inbreeding effect on male and female fertility and inheritance of male sterility in Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Nadilia N; Shaw, Ruth G

    2006-05-01

    Models of the evolution of gynodioecy assume that inbreeding affects male and female fertility equally and ignore quantitative variation in sex expression. The objectives of this study were to assess inbreeding effects, genetic background, and plant maturity on male and female fertility and the mechanism of male sterility inheritance for Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae). Frequency of male-sterile flowers, number of anthers and ovules, and percentage of viable pollen were measured on plants from different pedigrees and five inbreeding levels (F = 0, 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75). Quantitative variation in male sterility was evident. As inbreeding increased, anther and ovule number decreased; the effect on anther number was greater than on ovule number. Pedigrees varied in number of male-sterile flowers and inbreeding effects. Frequency of male-sterile flowers was greatest among first flowers. No trade-off between male and female fertility was detected. A model attributing male sterility to a cytoplasmic locus and restoration to male fertility to a nuclear locus accounted for the distribution of complete sterility and hermaphroditism over the pedigrees. This study suggests that models of the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy should allow for quantitative variation in male and female fertility components due to inbreeding, pedigree, and plant maturity. PMID:21642137

  8. Male mammals respond to a risk of sperm competition conveyed by odours of conspecific males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2004-09-01

    Sperm competition occurs when a female copulates with two or more males and the sperm of those males compete within the female's reproductive tract to fertilize her eggs. The frequent occurrence of sperm competition has forced males of many species to develop different strategies to overcome the sperm of competing males. A prevalent strategy is for males to increase their sperm investment (total number of sperm allocated by a male to a particular female) after detecting a risk of sperm competition. It has been shown that the proportion of sperm that one male contributes to the sperm pool of a female is correlated with the proportion of offspring sired by that male. Therefore, by increasing his sperm investment a male may bias a potential sperm competition in his favour. Here we show that male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm investment when they mate in the presence of another male's odours. Such an increase in sperm investment does not occur by augmenting the frequency of ejaculations, but by increasing the amount of sperm in a similar number of ejaculations.

  9. A Case of Male Goltz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Bhaswati; Lahiri, Subhrajit; Nandi, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a boy with a clinical diagnosis of Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia), a rare genodermatosis characterized by widespread dysplasia of mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. A 9-year-old male patient with Goltz syndrome presented with typical skin lesions along with progressive dimness of vision and mental retardation since birth. It is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion and is normally lethal in male patients, and so very few male patients, like the index case, have been reported. PMID:23119212

  10. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues. PMID:26746134

  11. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues.

  12. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  13. Longer lifespan in male mice treated with a weakly estrogenic agonist, an antioxidant, an α-glucosidase inhibitor or a Nrf2-inducer.

    PubMed

    Strong, Randy; Miller, Richard A; Antebi, Adam; Astle, Clinton M; Bogue, Molly; Denzel, Martin S; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Flurkey, Kevin; Hamilton, Karyn L; Lamming, Dudley W; Javors, Martin A; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Martinez, Paul Anthony; McCord, Joe M; Miller, Benjamin F; Müller, Michael; Nelson, James F; Ndukum, Juliet; Rainger, G Ed; Richardson, Arlan; Sabatini, David M; Salmon, Adam B; Simpkins, James W; Steegenga, Wilma T; Nadon, Nancy L; Harrison, David E

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program (ITP) evaluates agents hypothesized to increase healthy lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice. Each compound is tested in parallel at three sites, and all results are published. We report the effects of lifelong treatment of mice with four agents not previously tested: Protandim, fish oil, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and metformin - the latter with and without rapamycin, and two drugs previously examined: 17-α-estradiol and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), at doses greater and less than used previously. 17-α-estradiol at a threefold higher dose robustly extended both median and maximal lifespan, but still only in males. The male-specific extension of median lifespan by NDGA was replicated at the original dose, and using doses threefold lower and higher. The effects of NDGA were dose dependent and male specific but without an effect on maximal lifespan. Protandim, a mixture of botanical extracts that activate Nrf2, extended median lifespan in males only. Metformin alone, at a dose of 0.1% in the diet, did not significantly extend lifespan. Metformin (0.1%) combined with rapamycin (14 ppm) robustly extended lifespan, suggestive of an added benefit, based on historical comparison with earlier studies of rapamycin given alone. The α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, at a concentration previously tested (1000 ppm), significantly increased median longevity in males and 90th percentile lifespan in both sexes, even when treatment was started at 16 months. Neither fish oil nor UDCA extended lifespan. These results underscore the reproducibility of ITP longevity studies and illustrate the importance of identifying optimal doses in lifespan studies.

  14. Longer lifespan in male mice treated with a weakly estrogenic agonist, an antioxidant, an α-glucosidase inhibitor or a Nrf2-inducer.

    PubMed

    Strong, Randy; Miller, Richard A; Antebi, Adam; Astle, Clinton M; Bogue, Molly; Denzel, Martin S; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Flurkey, Kevin; Hamilton, Karyn L; Lamming, Dudley W; Javors, Martin A; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Martinez, Paul Anthony; McCord, Joe M; Miller, Benjamin F; Müller, Michael; Nelson, James F; Ndukum, Juliet; Rainger, G Ed; Richardson, Arlan; Sabatini, David M; Salmon, Adam B; Simpkins, James W; Steegenga, Wilma T; Nadon, Nancy L; Harrison, David E

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program (ITP) evaluates agents hypothesized to increase healthy lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice. Each compound is tested in parallel at three sites, and all results are published. We report the effects of lifelong treatment of mice with four agents not previously tested: Protandim, fish oil, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and metformin - the latter with and without rapamycin, and two drugs previously examined: 17-α-estradiol and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), at doses greater and less than used previously. 17-α-estradiol at a threefold higher dose robustly extended both median and maximal lifespan, but still only in males. The male-specific extension of median lifespan by NDGA was replicated at the original dose, and using doses threefold lower and higher. The effects of NDGA were dose dependent and male specific but without an effect on maximal lifespan. Protandim, a mixture of botanical extracts that activate Nrf2, extended median lifespan in males only. Metformin alone, at a dose of 0.1% in the diet, did not significantly extend lifespan. Metformin (0.1%) combined with rapamycin (14 ppm) robustly extended lifespan, suggestive of an added benefit, based on historical comparison with earlier studies of rapamycin given alone. The α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, at a concentration previously tested (1000 ppm), significantly increased median longevity in males and 90th percentile lifespan in both sexes, even when treatment was started at 16 months. Neither fish oil nor UDCA extended lifespan. These results underscore the reproducibility of ITP longevity studies and illustrate the importance of identifying optimal doses in lifespan studies. PMID:27312235

  15. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  16. The conventional management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Lenzi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Although the male reproductive function is impaired in about half of infertile couples, the evaluation of male infertility is underrated or neglected even today. In addition to a physical examination and imaging techniques, semen analysis as well as endocrine and genetic analyses should be part of the routine investigation. Few disorders have become subjects of rational treatment of the infertile male, even though, as examples, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is treatable by gonadotropins and obstructive azoospermia by reconstructive surgery. Early treatment of maldescended testes and sexually transmitted diseases can prevent infertility. Similar pregnancy rates from patients with varicocele following surgery or counseling demonstrate the important role of the physician in the treatment of infertility. In the age of evidence-based medicine, most empirical treatments have been demonstrated to be ineffective. Instead, symptomatic treatment by assisted reproductive techniques has become a central tool to overcome otherwise untreatable male infertility.

  17. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... PATIENT FACT SHEET Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility When a couple has trouble having a baby, ... to find out what may be causing your infertility. Semen analysis Semen analysis is probably the first ...

  18. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed. PMID:27698683

  19. Unexplained male infertility: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C; Nizza, Mark; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  20. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed.

  1. Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaz

    2012-08-23

    Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration.

  2. Pharmacologic development of male hormonal contraceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Roth, M Y; Amory, J K

    2011-01-01

    The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing un intended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in preventing conception and were not associated with serious adverse events.

  3. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

  4. Clomiphene for the treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Willets, Amy E; Corbo, Jason M; Brown, Jamie N

    2013-07-01

    Male infertility is a relatively common condition caused by low sperm production, immobile sperm, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. This condition can be caused by a variety of illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices, other factors, or idiopathic, in which abnormal semen parameters occur without an identifiable cause. Medical management traditionally focuses on correcting endocrine abnormalities related to hormone deficiencies. Clomiphene citrate is an antiestrogen thought to increase sperm parameters in males attempting to conceive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate in the treatment of male patients with infertility. A literature search of MEDLINE (1966-June 2012) and EMBASE (1980-June 2012) was conducted using the medical terms clomiphene and male infertility and 9 clinical studies were identified. Overall, only 1 study detected a statistically significant benefit on the pregnancy rate in the clomiphene group; however, the majority of the studies demonstrated a statistically significant increase in sperm concentrations. At doses used to treat male infertility, clomiphene was well tolerated with no identified serious adverse effects. Based on the reviewed studies there is insufficient evidence to indicate that clomiphene is effective for the treatment of male infertility.

  5. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    PubMed Central

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  6. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  7. Non-therapeutic infant male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Elabd, Kossay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of the benefits and harms of infant male circumcision, and the legal and ethical perspectives of infant male circumcision. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library up to June 2015. We searched the medical law literature using the Westlaw and Lexis Library law literature resources up to June 2015. Results: Male circumcision significantly reduced the risk of urinary tract infections by 87%. It also significantly reduced transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among circumcised men by 70%. Childhood and adolescent circumcision is associated with a 66% reduction in the risk of penile cancer. Circumcision was associated with 43% reduction of human papilloma virus infection, and 58% reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women with circumcised partners compared with women with uncircumcised partners. Male infant circumcision reduced the risk of foreskin inflammation by 68%. Conclusion: Infant male circumcision should continue to be allowed all over the world, as long as it is approved by both parents, and performed in facilities that can provide appropriate sterilization, wound care, and anesthesia. Under these conditions, the benefits of infant male circumcision outweigh the rare and generally minor potential harms of the procedure. PMID:27570848

  8. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict.

  9. Roaring function in male goitered gazelles.

    PubMed

    Blank, D A; Ruckstuhl, K; Yang, W

    2014-07-01

    Most of the vocalizations of Antilopinae males are soft and usually only heard from a very close distance. The goitered gazelle is a rare exception to this rule, and during the rutting period territorial males of this species are among the noisiest antelopes. Rutting vocalization is such an essential part of the rutting behavior in goitered gazelle that adult males have a hypertrophic larynx, the muscle tissues of which increase considerably in size during the rut. We were interested in the frequency and variance with which male goitered gazelles emit their calls depending on an animal's age, reproductive status and time of the year in order to understand the main function of the rutting vocalizations. We found that roaring was mostly related to courting displays, while vocalizations during aggressive displays were less frequent in male-male interactions. Acoustic signals likely enhance courtship displays and also may aid in accelerating female ovulation, promoting synchronization of breeding cycles during the mating and birthing periods, which last only several days for most of the females in our population. We discuss the potential benefits of such behaviors and compare it to other species living in similarly extreme environments. PMID:24915642

  10. Roaring function in male goitered gazelles.

    PubMed

    Blank, D A; Ruckstuhl, K; Yang, W

    2014-07-01

    Most of the vocalizations of Antilopinae males are soft and usually only heard from a very close distance. The goitered gazelle is a rare exception to this rule, and during the rutting period territorial males of this species are among the noisiest antelopes. Rutting vocalization is such an essential part of the rutting behavior in goitered gazelle that adult males have a hypertrophic larynx, the muscle tissues of which increase considerably in size during the rut. We were interested in the frequency and variance with which male goitered gazelles emit their calls depending on an animal's age, reproductive status and time of the year in order to understand the main function of the rutting vocalizations. We found that roaring was mostly related to courting displays, while vocalizations during aggressive displays were less frequent in male-male interactions. Acoustic signals likely enhance courtship displays and also may aid in accelerating female ovulation, promoting synchronization of breeding cycles during the mating and birthing periods, which last only several days for most of the females in our population. We discuss the potential benefits of such behaviors and compare it to other species living in similarly extreme environments.

  11. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

  12. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  13. Impact of Metformin on Male Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carolina; Sousa, Mário; Rabaça, Ana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G; Sá, Rosália

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility has been increasing over the last decades being nowadays a pressing health problem. Diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute directly or indirectly to male infertility due to an abnormal spermatogenesis, which results in a decreased sperm quality. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is responsible for the vast majority of DM cases, being frequently treated with oral antidiabetic drugs. Metformin is the most cost-effective therapy for the treatment of T2DM. This biguanide is an oral insulin-sensitizing agent capable of increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing plasma fasting insulin levels. The main metabolic action of this drug occurs in the liver. However, it has been shown that metformin acts on a variety of organs including the male reproductive system. With the rising numbers of diabetic individuals among younger populations, there is an increase in the consumption of metformin in individuals of this age group. As a result, it is important to discuss the role of metformin in male fertility. This review presents the most recent data available from studies on the effects of metformin on male reproductive system. Together with the discussion of these effects, their significance to male fertility is also debated.

  14. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males’ nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  15. Incorporation of CPR Data into ATD Chest Impact Response Requirements.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Matthew R; Arbogast, Kristy B; Nadkarni, Vinay; Berg, Robert; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Seacrist, Thomas; Kent, Richard W; Parent, Daniel P; Craig, Matthew; Ridella, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric and adult ATD's are key tools for the development of motor vehicle crash safety systems. Previous researchers developed size-based scaling methods to adapt blunt chest impact data from adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) for pediatric ATD chests design requirements, using skull or femur elastic modulus ratios to estimate the change in whole chest stiffness during maturation. Recently, the mechanics of chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of patients spanning the pediatric and elderly ages have been reported. Our objective was to integrate these pediatric and adult chest stiffness data from CPR into the established scaling methods to 1) compare new CPR-based and existing pediatric ATD chest biofidelity response requirements and 2) develop new CPR-based corridors for ages 12 and 20 years, which do not currently exist. Compared to the current 6-year-old ATD corridor, the maximum force of the CPR-based 6-year-old corridor was 7% less and the maximum displacement was 8% greater, indicating a softer chest. Compared to the current 10-year-old corridor, the new 10-year-old corridor peak force was 12% higher and the peak displacement was 11% smaller, suggesting a stiffer chest. The 12-year-old corridor developed in this paper was 10% higher in maximum force and 4% lower in maximum displacement compared with the adult 5(th) percentile female (AF05). Finally, the 20-year-old 50(th) percentile male (AM50(20)) corridor was 24% higher in maximum force and 19% lower in maximum displacement than 63-year old 50(th) percentile adult male (AM50(63)) corridor, suggesting a stiffer chest. We consider all the new corridors preliminary, as data collection is ongoing for CPR subjects under age 8 years and in the young and middle adult age ranges.

  16. Incorporation of CPR Data into ATD Chest Impact Response Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Berg, Robert; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Seacrist, Thomas; Kent, Richard W.; Parent, Daniel P.; Craig, Matthew; Ridella, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric and adult ATD’s are key tools for the development of motor vehicle crash safety systems. Previous researchers developed size-based scaling methods to adapt blunt chest impact data from adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) for pediatric ATD chests design requirements, using skull or femur elastic modulus ratios to estimate the change in whole chest stiffness during maturation. Recently, the mechanics of chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of patients spanning the pediatric and elderly ages have been reported. Our objective was to integrate these pediatric and adult chest stiffness data from CPR into the established scaling methods to 1) compare new CPR-based and existing pediatric ATD chest biofidelity response requirements and 2) develop new CPR-based corridors for ages 12 and 20 years, which do not currently exist. Compared to the current 6-year-old ATD corridor, the maximum force of the CPR-based 6-year-old corridor was 7% less and the maximum displacement was 8% greater, indicating a softer chest. Compared to the current 10-year-old corridor, the new 10-year-old corridor peak force was 12% higher and the peak displacement was 11% smaller, suggesting a stiffer chest. The 12-year-old corridor developed in this paper was 10% higher in maximum force and 4% lower in maximum displacement compared with the adult 5th percentile female (AF05). Finally, the 20-year-old 50th percentile male (AM5020) corridor was 24% higher in maximum force and 19% lower in maximum displacement than 63-year old 50th percentile adult male (AM5063) corridor, suggesting a stiffer chest. We consider all the new corridors preliminary, as data collection is ongoing for CPR subjects under age 8 years and in the young and middle adult age ranges. PMID:21050593

  17. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  18. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  19. How does lead induce male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Smith, Derek R.; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2011-01-01

    An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects. PMID:25356074

  20. Vomeronasal neuroepithelium and forebrain Fos responses to male pheromones in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Halem, H A; Cherry, J A; Baum, M J

    1999-05-01

    Male urinary pheromones modulate behavioral and neuroendocrine function in mice after being detected by sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) neuroepithelium. We used nuclear Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) as a marker of changes in neuronal activity to examine the processing of male pheromones throughout the VNO projection pathway to the hypothalamus. Sexually naive male and female Balb/c mice were gonadectomized and treated daily with estradiol benzoate (EB) or oil vehicle for 3 weeks. Subjects were then exposed to soiled bedding from gonadally intact Balb/c males or to clean bedding for 90 min prior to sacrifice and processing of their VNOs and forebrains for Fos-IR. Male pheromones induced similar numbers of Fos-IR cells in the VNO neuroepithelium of oil-treated male and female subjects; however, EB-treated females had significantly more Fos-IR neurons in the VNO than any other group. There was an equivalent neuronal Fos response to male odors in the mitral and granule cells of the anterior and posterior accessory olfactory bulb of males and females, regardless of hormone treatment. In central portions of the VNO projection pathway (i.e., bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic area) neuronal Fos responses to male pheromones were present in female but absent in male subjects, regardless of hormone treatment. In a separate experiment, mating induced neuronal Fos-IR in these brain regions at levels in gonadally intact male subjects which were equal to or greater than those seen in ovariectomized females primed with estrogen and progesterone. This suggests that neurons in the central portions of the male's VNO pathway are capable of expressing Fos. Our results suggest that sexually dimorphic central responses to pheromones exist in mice that may begin in the VNO neuroepithelium.

  1. Solar particle event organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews: variations due to body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, E. N.; Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to critical body organs of spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation require accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through the spacecraft and overlying tissue. When estimating astronaut radiation organ doses and dose equivalents it is customary to use the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model of human geometry to account for body self-shielding. Usually, the distribution for the 50th percentile man (175 cm height; 70 kg mass) is used. Most male members of the U.S. astronaut corps are taller and nearly all have heights that deviate from the 175 cm mean. In this work, estimates of critical organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews exposed to an event similar to the October 1989 solar particle event are presented for male body sizes that vary from the 5th to the 95th percentiles. Overall the results suggest that calculations of organ dose and dose equivalent may vary by as much as approximately 15% as body size is varied from the 5th to the 95th percentile in the population used to derive the CAM model data. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  3. Variably male-biased sex ratio in a marine bird with females larger than males.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Drummond, H

    1999-01-01

    When the costs of rearing males and females differ progeny sex ratios are expected to be biased toward the less expensive sex. Blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) females are larger and roughly 32% heavier than males, thus presumably more costly to rear. We recorded hatching and fledging sex ratios in 1989, and fledging sex ratios during the next 5 years. In 1989, the sample of 751 chicks showed male bias at hatching (56%) and at fledging (57% at 90 days). Fledging sex ratios during the five subsequent reproductive seasons were at unity (1 year) or male-biased, varying from 56% to 70%. Male bias was greater during years when mean sea surface temperature was warmer and food was presumably in short supply. During two warm-water years (only) fledging sex ratio varied with hatching date. Proportions of male fledglings increased with date from 0.48 to 0.73 in 1994, and from 0.33 to 0.79 in 1995. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was repeated using only broods with no nestling mortality, suggesting that the overall increase in the proportion of males over the season was the result of sex ratio adjustments at hatching. The male-biased sex ratio, and the increased male bias during poor breeding conditions supports the idea that daughters may be more costly than sons, and that their relative cost increases in poor conditions. PMID:20135156

  4. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  6. [Protamine gene polymorphisms and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-jun; Zhang, Jing; Xia, Xin-yi; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-12-01

    Protamine (PRM) is one of the most abundant arginine-rich nucleoproteins in sperm and plays an important role in spermatogenesis. In the late stage of spermatogenesis, the replacement of PRM by histone prompts the closer combination between the nuclear matrix of sperm and nucleoprotein in order for high enrichment and condensation of nuclear chromatin in addition to preventing the sperm genome from mutation induced by internal and external factors. With the development of DNA sequencing techniques, researches on the association between PRM polymorphisms and male fertility are surfacing as a hot field. Many studies show that rs2301365 polymorphism is a risk factor for male infertility and increases the risk of male infertility by 27 - 66%, that rs737008 polymorphism of PRM1 and rs1646022 polymorphism of PRM2 are protective factors against Asian infertility, and that the ratio of PRM1 to PRM2 is intensively associated with male infertility. This review presents an update on the association between PRM gene polymorphisms and male infertility.

  7. Adult male chimpanzees inherit maternal ranging patterns.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carson M; Gilby, Ian C; Mane, Sandeep V; Pusey, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    Space use often correlates with reproductive success [1, 2]. Individual site fidelity is ubiquitous across a variety of taxa, including birds, mammals, insects, and reptiles [3-9]. Individuals can benefit from using the same area because doing so affords access to known resources, including food and/or breeding sites. The majority of studies on site fidelity have focused upon strictly territorial species in which individuals range in well-defined, exclusive areas (e.g., [4, 9]). By comparison, the transient groups that define fission-fusion species allow for considerable flexibility in individual space use. Although there is evidence that individual space use can influence reproductive success [2], relatively little is known about individual ranging patterns in fission-fusion species. Here, we investigate three potential correlates of male site fidelity (age, habitat quality, and maternal space use) in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that when alone, each male preferentially concentrated his space use near the area where his mother ranged when he was dependent. We suggest that solitary ranging allows males to avoid direct competition with conspecifics and that foraging in familiar areas maximizes foraging efficiency. These results highlight the importance of male foraging strategies in a species in which male ranging is typically explained in terms of mating access to females.

  8. Male pregnancy and biparental immune priming.

    PubMed

    Roth, Olivia; Klein, Verena; Beemelmanns, Anne; Scharsack, Jörn P; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2012-12-01

    In vertebrates, maternal transfer of immunity via the eggs or placenta provides offspring with crucial information on prevailing pathogens and parasites. Males contribute little to such transgenerational immune priming, either because they do not share the environment and parasite pressure of the offspring or because sperm are too small for transfer of immunity. In the teleost group of Syngnathids (pipefish, seahorses, and sea dragons), males brood female eggs in a placenta-like structure. Such sex-role-reversed species provide a unique opportunity to test for adaptive plasticity in immune transfer. Here, males and females should both influence offspring immunity. We experimentally tested paternal effects on offspring immunity by examining immune cell proliferation and immune gene expression. Maternal and paternal bacterial exposure induced offspring immune defense 5 weeks after hatching, and this effect persisted in 4-month-old offspring. For several offspring immune traits, double parental exposure (maternal and paternal) enhanced the response, whereas for another group of immune traits, the transgenerational induction already took place if only one parent was exposed. Our study shows that sex role reversal in connection with male pregnancy opens the door for biparental influences on offspring immunity and may represent an additional advantage for the evolution of male pregnancy. PMID:23149404

  9. Relaxin and related peptides in male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2007-01-01

    The relaxin hormone is renowned for its function in pregnancy, parturition and other aspects of female reproduction. At the same time, the role of relaxin in male reproduction is still debated. Relaxin is prominently expressed in prostate and its receptors are found in several male reproductive organs; however, the data indicative of its contribution to differentiation and functioning of prostate or testis are contradictory. Prostate relaxin is a main source of this peptide in the seminal plasma. The relaxin effects on sperm motility and fertilization have been reported. The expression of other relaxin related peptides, such as INSL5 and INSL6 was described in testis; yet, currently there are no experimental data to pinpoint their biological functions. The other member of relaxin peptide family, insulin-like 3 peptide (INSL3), is a major player in male development. The INSL3 peptide is expressed in testicular fetal and adult Leydig cells and is directly responsible for the process of abdominal testicular descent (migration of the testes towards the scrotum during male development). Genetic targeting of the Insl3 gene or INSL3 GPCR receptor Lgr8/Rxfp2 causes high intra-abdominal cryptorchidism due to a differentiation failure of testicular ligaments, the gubernacula. Several mutations of these two genes rendering nonfunctional proteins have been described in human patients with testicular maldescent. Thus, in this chapter we review the data related to the expression and function of relaxin and related peptides in male reproduction.

  10. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    PubMed

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  11. High male fertility in males of a subdioecious shrub in hand-pollinated crosses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Matsushita, Michinari; Tomaru, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Female reproductive success in females versus hermaphrodites has been well documented. However, documenting a potential advantage in male fertility of male versus hermaphrodite individuals in subdioecious species is also essential for understanding the evolutionary pathway toward dioecy from hermaphroditism via gynodioecy. Siring success in terms of fruit set, fruit mass, number of seeds and mean seed mass was compared by hand-pollinated crosses in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica. The pollen was from male and hermaphrodite individuals, and the pollen recipients were females and hermaphrodites. Seed quality was also evaluated in terms of seed germination rate, seed germination day and seedling survival. Overall, pollen from males sired more fruits of larger size and more seeds than did pollen from hermaphrodites. The male advantage was observed when pollen recipients were females, whereas no effect was found in hermaphrodite recipients. Pollen from males also produced better quality seeds with higher germination rate and sooner germination day. Although these results could also be explained by a higher pollen load for crosses with male pollen donors, we took care to saturate the stigma regardless of the pollen donor. Therefore, these results suggest that male individuals of E. japonica have advantages in male fertility in terms of both quantity and quality. Our previous studies indicated that females exhibit higher female reproductive success compared with hermaphrodites. Thus, both the female and male functions of hermaphrodites are outperformed by females and males, respectively, raising the possibility that the subdioecious E. japonica at this study site is entering the transitional phase to dioecy along the gynodioecy–dioecy pathway. PMID:27658818

  12. Natural Variation in plep-1 Causes Male-Male Copulatory Behavior in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Noble, Luke M; Chang, Audrey S; McNelis, Daniel; Kramer, Max; Yen, Mimi; Nicodemus, Jasmine P; Riccardi, David D; Ammerman, Patrick; Phillips, Matthew; Islam, Tangirul; Rockman, Matthew V

    2015-10-19

    In sexual species, gametes have to find and recognize one another. Signaling is thus central to sexual reproduction and involves a rapidly evolving interplay of shared and divergent interests [1-4]. Among Caenorhabditis nematodes, three species have evolved self-fertilization, changing the balance of intersexual relations [5]. Males in these androdioecious species are rare, and the evolutionary interests of hermaphrodites dominate. Signaling has shifted accordingly, with females losing behavioral responses to males [6, 7] and males losing competitive abilities [8, 9]. Males in these species also show variable same-sex and autocopulatory mating behaviors [6, 10]. These behaviors could have evolved by relaxed selection on male function, accumulation of sexually antagonistic alleles that benefit hermaphrodites and harm males [5, 11], or neither of these, because androdioecy also reduces the ability of populations to respond to selection [12-14]. We have identified the genetic cause of a male-male mating behavior exhibited by geographically dispersed C. elegans isolates, wherein males mate with and deposit copulatory plugs on one another's excretory pores. We find a single locus of major effect that is explained by segregation of a loss-of-function mutation in an uncharacterized gene, plep-1, expressed in the excretory cell in both sexes. Males homozygous for the plep-1 mutation have excretory pores that are attractive or receptive to copulatory behavior of other males. Excretory pore plugs are injurious and hermaphrodite activity is compromised in plep-1 mutants, so the allele might be unconditionally deleterious, persisting in the population because the species' androdioecious mating system limits the reach of selection. PMID:26455306

  13. Solar particle dose rate buildup and distribution in critical body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1993-01-01

    Human body organs have varying degrees of radiosensitivity as evidenced by radioepidemiologic tables. The major critical organs for both the male and female that have been identified include the lung, thyroid, stomach, and breast (female). Using computerized anatomical models of the 50th percentile United States Air Force male and female, we present the self-shielding effects of these various body organs and how the shielding effects change as the location (dose point) in the body varies. Several major solar proton events from previous solar cycles and several events from the current 22nd solar cycle have been analyzed. The solar particle event rise time, peak intensity, and decay time vary considerably from event to event. Absorbed dose and dose equivalent rate calculations and organ risk assessment data are presented for each critical body organ. These data are compared with the current NASA astronaut dose limits as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  14. [Male reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-jiao; Qiao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine disruptors has attracted substantial attention from researchers in recent years. Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the most prominent environmental estrogens worldwide, demonstrated to be related with the impairment of male reproductive function as well as other health problems, such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. BPA acts primarily by mimicking antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects, disturbing the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and modulating gene expressions and enzyme activities in the hormone biosynthesis affecting steroids or its receptors. BPA is also involved in DNA methylation and the effects of epigenetics, resulting in dyszoospermia, oligoasthenoteratospermia/azoospermia and/or infertility in males. This review addresses the effects of BPA on male reproductive function, focusing on the mechanisms of its toxicity on spermatogenesis, semen quality, and the reproductive system. PMID:26738332

  15. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    PubMed

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  16. Antidepressant medications, mood and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, V; Gitlin, M; Altshuler, L; Korenman, S

    2000-01-01

    By modulating the activity of central neurotransmitters, psychotropic agents may affect reproductive functioning in men and women. Many neurotransmitters influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and can consequently affect menstrual cycling in women and spermatogenesis in men. Emotional state similarly may disrupt reproductive functioning through the effects of stress hormones on the HPG axis. While some data exist on the relationship between stress and menstrual cyclicity in women of reproductive age, little is known regarding the potential effect of emotional state on reproductive function in men. This paper will review: (1) aspects of male reproductive function that may be vulnerable to medication-induced influences; (2) the impact of emotional state on male reproductive function; and (3) the literature on the possible effects of antidepressant medications on male fertility.

  17. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Iaccarino, Vittorio Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  18. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables.

  19. Male pelvic floor: history and update.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Grace

    2005-08-01

    Our understanding of the male pelvic floor has evolved over more than 2,000 years. Gradually medical science has sought to dispel ancient myths and untruths. The male pelvic floor has many diverse functions. Importantly, it helps to support the abdominal contents, maintains urinary and fecal continence, and plays a major role in gaining and maintaining penile erection. Weakness of the male pelvic floor muscles may cause urinary and fecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Function may be restored in each of these areas by a comprehensive pelvic floor muscle training program. Spasm of the pelvic floor muscles may produce pain and require relaxation techniques. Additional research is needed to add further evidence to our knowledge base.

  20. Vesicoureteric reflux in the adult male.

    PubMed

    Chapple, C R; Christmas, T J; Turner-Warwick, R T

    1990-02-01

    The main prevalence of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is in the adult female population. Although recognised as a clinical entity in adult males, little detailed information is available on this subject. A retrospective analysis was carried out on the results of 1519 consecutive videocystometrograms performed on male patients. VUR had an overall incidence of 8.6% within this population, with a range of 5.1% in patients with normal urodynamics to 15.6% in those with detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. The common denominator between VUR and urodynamic measurement appears to be the generation of high intravesical pressures. These findings suggest that VUR is not uncommon in the male population, is usually asymptomatic and should respond to the treatment of any underlying bladder abnormality.

  1. Craniofrontonasal dysplasia in two male sibs.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, U; Baraitser, M; Nicolaides, K; Gosden, C

    1993-10-01

    Craniofrontonasal dysplasia (CFND) was diagnosed in a male child who had bilateral coronal craniosynostosis, midline facial clefting with cleft lip and palate, a broad and high forehead, and hypertelorism. The parents were normal and there was no family history suggestive of CFND. A small recurrence risk was counselled and prenatal ultrasound was recommended in the next pregnancy. At 23 weeks, the ultrasound scan detected a number of dysmorphic features and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy of the aborted male foetus showed the following features: High arched palate, a sloping forehead, flattened nose and receding chin, multiple joint contractures, particularly of the mid phalangeal joints, elbows and ankles. This report highlights the occurrence of CFND in two male siblings born to normal parents, and therefore the need to perform prenatal ultrasound in a subsequent pregnancy, even if CFND is diagnosed in an isolated case.

  2. A resolution commemorating John Lewis on the 50th anniversary of his chairmanship of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Isakson, Johnny [R-GA

    2013-06-13

    06/19/2013 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. 75 FR 29658 - Safety Zone; America's Discount Tire 50th Anniversary, Fireworks Display, South Lake Tahoe, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... ensure the safety of participants and spectators from the dangers associated with the pyrotechnics... rulemaking process before the event occurs. Because of the dangers posed by the pyrotechnics used in...

  4. 3 CFR 8886 - Proclamation 8886 of October 9, 2012. 50th Anniversary of the Office of the United States Trade...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and thirty-seventh.BARACK OBAMA ... best place in the world to innovate, invest, work, and build a business. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by...

  5. 3 CFR 9004 - Proclamation 9004 of August 23, 2013. 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a mighty stream.” NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by... thirteen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-eighth.BARACK OBAMA...

  6. Landau ghost pole problem in quantum field theory: From 50th of last century to the present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarov, Rauf G.; Mutallimov, Mutallim M.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present our results of the investigation of asymptotical behavior of amplitude at short distances in four-dimensional scalar field theory with ϕ4 interaction. To formulate of our calculating model - two-particle approximation of the mean-field expansion we have used an Rochev's iteration scheme of solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equations with the fermion bilocal source. We have considered the nonlinear integral equations in deep-inelastic region of momenta. As result we have a non-trivial behavior of amplitude at large momenta.

  7. 77 FR 21893 - Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary Celebration Fireworks, St Mary's River, U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select ``Proposed Rule'' and insert ``USCG-2012... , click on the ``read comments'' box, which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Keyword'' box... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting, but you...

  8. [The 50th anniversary of the first liver transplantation: from myth to reality. Tributes to Thomas Starzl, 2012 Lasker Prize].

    PubMed

    Launois, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Chemical immunosuppression and the reversal of rejection permit to develop kidney transplantation and were incitative to start liver transplantation in 1963. However, the difficulties were many: wrong operative indications, inadequate immunosuppression, difficulty of etiologic diagnosis of jaundice, poor preservation of the graft. Cyclosporine was the key-step of the success.

  9. The 50th Anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education: Continued Impacts on Minority Life Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Irelene

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of affirmative action in the United States. The author describes the impact of the "Brown v. Board of Education" on minority life science education. She also discusses how The American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) Minorities Affairs Committee (MAC) can improve the minority science pipeline. (Contains 1…

  10. A resolution recognizing the 50th anniversary of the sinking of the U.S.S. Thresher (SSN 593).

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Shaheen, Jeanne [D-NH

    2013-04-09

    04/09/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2508; text as passed Senate: CR S2507) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Remembering Charles B. Huggins' Nobel Prize for Hormonal Treatment of Prostatic Cancer at its 50th Anniversary.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Moll, Friedrich; Schultheiss, Dirk; Krischel, Matthis

    2016-06-01

    Charles B. Huggins received the Nobel Prize in 1966. Based on archival sources from the Nobel archive we have found that nominators emphasised the practical therapeutic applications of his discoveries that were showing 25 yr after his key publications. PMID:26838478

  12. Happy 50th, Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Meryl

    In 1994, Smokey Bear turns 50! For a half century, Smokey has been helping children and adults protect forests and wildlands from careless fire. With this kit students can celebrate Smokey's message using a variety of activities that include dramatic play, stories, games, and things to make and do. Through these activities, students learn about…

  13. Happy 50th Birthday Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Meryl

    For over 50 years, the primary goal of Smokey Bear has been to introduce the forest fire prevention message to young children. This learning kit provides the K-3 teacher with activities and resources to help students learn about Smokey Bear and fire safety, about forests as habitats, and about what they can do to protect forests. Students are…

  14. 3 CFR 8759 - Proclamation 8759 of November 21, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the United States Agency for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Anniversary of the United States Agency for International Development 8759 Proclamation 8759 Presidential... States Agency for International DevelopmentBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This year, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) commemorates 50 years...

  15. 77 FR 33094 - Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary Celebration Fireworks, St. Mary's River, U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Locks, Sault Sainte Marie, MI; in the Federal Register (76 FR 22064). We received 1 public submission...'s River, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Locks, Sault Sainte Marie, MI; in the Federal Register (76 FR.... Army Corps of Engineers Locks, Sault Sainte Marie, MI; in the Federal Register (76 FR 22064)....

  16. Remembering Charles B. Huggins' Nobel Prize for Hormonal Treatment of Prostatic Cancer at its 50th Anniversary.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Moll, Friedrich; Schultheiss, Dirk; Krischel, Matthis

    2016-06-01

    Charles B. Huggins received the Nobel Prize in 1966. Based on archival sources from the Nobel archive we have found that nominators emphasised the practical therapeutic applications of his discoveries that were showing 25 yr after his key publications.

  17. [Causes and Factors of Male Infertility].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Kurashova, N A; Bairova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The preservation of reproductive health of the population is an important factor of demographic policy of the state. According to some authors from 14 to 30% of couples of reproductive age suffer from infertility, malefactor in such marriages is detected in more than half of the cases. As you know, in recent years there has been a significant deterioration in the main indicators of reproductive function of men. Increased the number of andrological diseases, morphological disorders of the male reproductive system, almost halved the production of sperm in men of reproductive age. The reason probably lies behind a whole range ofstressfactors, such as medical ignorance, uncontrolled and inappropriate use of medication, metabolic disturbances, lack of vitamins and minerals, the impact of industrial pollutants, as well as the growth of addictive disorders (alcoholism, smoking and drug addiction). The forms of infertility differ according to its etiology and severity from minor changes to complete spermatogenesis dysfunction of the gonads, and can also occur due to genetic disorders. The lack of analysis of the relationship between clinical and genetic-biochemical components in men with infertility makes it impossible to understand the pathogenesis of infertility and to assess the risks of male infertility. High level of current medicine does not always guarantee an identification of the cause of male infertility. The article analyzes data from the review of specialized literature on the diagnosis and etiopathogenesis of male infertility. Frequency and clinical signs of pathology of the male reproductive system depend on the combinatorial effects of environmental influences, manifested most often in mutually reinforcing effect. A combination of several, seemed to be imperceptible factors makes the risk of development of male reproductive pathology very high. This situation compels specialists to conduct comprehensive studies on the men reproductive potential. PMID

  18. Alcohol and the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, M A; Emanuele, N

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol use affects all three parts of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, a system of endocrine glands and hormones involved in male reproduction. Alcohol use is associated with low testosterone and altered levels of additional reproductive hormones. Researchers are investigating several potential mechanisms for alcohol's damage. These mechanisms are related to alcohol metabolism, alcohol-related cell damage, and other hormonal reactions associated with alcohol consumption. Chronic alcohol use in male rats also has been shown to affect their reproductive ability and the health of their offspring.

  19. [Progresses on macrophages of male reproductive tract].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Geng-Xin

    2002-12-01

    The review summarized the recent progress on macrophages of male reproductive tract and the action of macrophages on male reproductive physiology and pathology. The close correlation and effect between testicular macrophages and Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, germ cells, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis were introduced, respectively. At the same time, it pointed out the changes of macrophages' morphology and function in immune orchitis, and their regulation on the development of orchitis. So the complex immune regulation network in testes and testicular macrophages playing an important role on spermatogenesis and the stableness of spermatogenetic microenvironment in testes were further illuminated, which can provide theoretical basis for clinic therapy.

  20. Hate crimes against gay males: an overview.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G

    2004-03-01

    As the United States has become more multicultural and diverse, there has been an increase in violence motivated by hate. Hate crimes against gay males are the most prevalent of the hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Hate crimes have their roots in normative, individual, and societal attitudes and ideologies that lead to intimidation, bullying, teasing, physical assault, rape, and murder. This paper provides an overview of the issues specific to hate crime assaults against gay males. Mental health nurses may find this knowledge useful in developing further nursing inquiry, education, and clinical practice related to hate crime and violence prevention.