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Sample records for 51cr neutrino source

  1. Calorimetric method for determination of 51Cr neutrino source activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental study of nonstandard neutrino properties using high-intensity artificial neutrino sources requires the activity of the sources to be determined with high accuracy. In the BEST project, a calorimetric system for measurement of the activity of high-intensity (a few MCi) neutrino sources based on 51Cr with an accuracy of 0.5-1% is created. In the paper, the main factors affecting the accuracy of determining the neutrino source activity are discussed. The calorimetric system design and the calibration results using a thermal simulator of the source are presented.

  2. Calorimetric method for determination of {sup 51}Cr neutrino source activity

    SciTech Connect

    Veretenkin, E. P. Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.

    2015-12-15

    Experimental study of nonstandard neutrino properties using high-intensity artificial neutrino sources requires the activity of the sources to be determined with high accuracy. In the BEST project, a calorimetric system for measurement of the activity of high-intensity (a few MCi) neutrino sources based on {sup 51}Cr with an accuracy of 0.5–1% is created. In the paper, the main factors affecting the accuracy of determining the neutrino source activity are discussed. The calorimetric system design and the calibration results using a thermal simulator of the source are presented.

  3. Current status of new SAGE project with 51Cr neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V.; Cleveland, B.; Danshin, S.; Elliott, S.; Gorbachev, V.; Ibragimova, T.; Kalikhov, A.; Knodel, T.; Kozlova, Yu.; Malyshkin, Yu.; Matveev, V.; Mirmov, I.; Nico, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Shikhin, A.; Sinclair, D.; Veretenkin, E.; Wilkerson, J.

    2015-03-01

    A very short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with an intense 51Cr neutrino source is currently under construction at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research RAS (BNO). The experiment, which is based on the existing SAGE experiment, will use an upgraded Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope (GGNT) and an artificial 51Cr neutrino source with activity ˜3 MCi to search for transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states with Δ m 2 ˜1 eV2. The neutrino source will be placed in the center of a liquid Ga metal target that is divided into two concentric zones, internal and external. The average path length of neutrinos in each zone will be the same and the neutrino capture rate will be measured separately in each zone. The oscillation signature, which comes from the ratio of events in the near and far gallium volumes, will be largely free of systematic errors, such as may occur from cross section and source strength uncertainties, and will provide a clean signal of electron neutrino disappearance into a sterile state at baselines of about 0.6 and 2.0 m. The sensitivity to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is expected to be a few percent. Construction of this set of new facilities, including a two-zone tank for irradiation of 50 tons of Ga metal with the intense 51Cr source, as well as additional modules of the GGNT counting and extraction systems, is close to completion. To check the new facilities they will first be used for SAGE solar neutrino measurements.

  4. Calorimetric system for high-precision determination of activity of the 51Cr neutrino source in the BEST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalashnikova, A. A.; Kozlova, J. P.; Martynov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The calorimetric system based on mass-flow calorimeter for high-precision determination of neutrino flux from 51Cr source with activity 3MCi and higher is created for experiment BEST. The achieved heat release uncertainties are less than 0.25% in the whole range of the heat power and less than 0.1% in the range of 250-500 W. Total value the uncertainty considering the uncertainty of the energy release in the 51Cr decay (0.23%) shows that the activity of 3MCi 51Cr neutrino source can be determined with accuracy better than 0.5%.

  5. Preliminary results from the {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment in GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.

    1996-09-01

    The GALLEX collaboration performed a second {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment during fall 1995. The full results from this second source experiment will not be available before the end of 1996. Meanwhile, we present a short description and preliminary results in this informal note. The (preliminary) value of the activity obtained form direct measurements has been found equal to (68.7 {+-}0.7) PBq (with 1-sigma error). This value, which is about 10% higher than the activity of the first source, was achieved by optimizing the irradiation conditions in the Silo{acute e} reactor and doing a longer irradiation of the enriched chromium. Preliminary results show that the ratio, R, of the radiochemically determined activity from {sup 71}Ge counting (57.1 {+-} PBq) to the directly measured activity is (0.83 {+-} 0.10). The combined value of R for the two source experiments is (0.92 {+-} 0.08).

  6. Measuring the activity of a 51Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 51Cr is presented.

  7. Measuring the activity of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. V. Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 51}Cr is presented.

  8. Investigation of a Possibility of Chromium-51 Accumulation in the SM-3 Reactor to Fabricate a Neutrino Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, E. G.; Gavrin, V. N.; Tarasov, V. A.; Malkov, A. P.; Kupriyanov, A. V.; Danshin, S. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.

    2017-01-01

    Compact high intensity neutrino sources based on 51Cr isotope are demanded for very short baseline neutrino experiments. In particular, a 3 MCi 51Cr neutrino source is needed for the experiment BEST on search for transitions of electron neutrinos to sterile states. The paper presents the results of the analysis of options of the irradiation of highly enriched 50Cr in the existing trap of thermal neutrons of high-flux reactor SM–3, as well as using the most promising variants of the trap after upcoming reconstruction of the reactor. It is shown that it is possible to to obtain the intensity of 51Cr up to 3.85 MCi at the end of irradiation of 50Cr enriched to 97% in the high-flux reactor SM–3 of the JSC “SSC NIIAR”.

  9. Reanalysis of the GALLEX solar neutrino flux and source experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaether, F.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.

    2010-02-01

    After the completion of the gallium solar neutrino experiments at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (GALLEX: 1991-1997; GNO: 1998-2003) we have retrospectively updated the GALLEX results with the help of new technical data that were impossible to acquire for principle reasons before the completion of the low rate measurement phase (that is, before the end of the GNO solar runs). Subsequent high rate experiments have allowed the calibration of absolute internal counter efficiencies and of an advanced pulse shape analysis for counter background discrimination. The updated overall result for GALLEX (only) is 73.4-7.3+7.1 SNU. This is 5.3% below the old value of 77.5-7.8+7.5 SNU (GALLEX Collaboration, W. Hampel et al., 1999 [1]), with a substantially reduced error. A similar reduction is obtained from the reanalysis of the 51Cr neutrino source experiments of 1994/1995.

  10. Chromium-51 calibrating neutrino source

    SciTech Connect

    Demchenko, N.F.; Karasev, V.I.; Karelin, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    The problem for measurement of the sun neutrino flux is resolved at the specially made Baksansk neutrino telescope and calls for calibration of registration system. For this a man made neutrino source is required with the known yield of particles and intensity comparable with the intensity of the measured subject. The most suitable radionuclide for production of this source is chromium-51 the radionuclide decay of which is accompanied with neutrino radiation. At the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (in Dimitrovgrad) the production technology is developed as well as the closed chromium-51 neutrino source is made of 4 x 10{sup 5} Ci activity. The parts of active source made in the form of core of metallic isotope-enriched chromium were irradiated in the high flux neutron trap of the SM-2 reactor. The sources were subsequently assembled at the shield cells with remote equipment application. The source was certificated as a special form radioactive material. Due to low half-life of chromium-51 (T 1/2 - 27 hours) all the operations on assembly, certification and delivery of source to the Baksansk Laboratory were performed at the earliest possible date (less than 3 days).

  11. Determination of activity of 51Cr on gamma radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A method of determining the activity of intensive distributed -sources on the measurement of the continuous spectrum of radiation, for example the internal bremsstrahlung, is developed. The recurrent formula for reconstructing of a continuous spectrum, registered in a Ge detector, at distorting it in the detector. The method of precise measurements of the spectrum of 51Cr internal bremsstrahlung using two point sources of low activity is described.

  12. Probing neutrino nature at Borexino detector with chromium neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobków, W.; Błaut, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we indicate a possibility of utilizing the intense chromium source (˜ 370 PBq) in probing the neutrino nature in low energy neutrino experiments with the ultra-low threshold and background real-time Borexino detector located near the source (˜ 8 m). We analyse the elastic scattering of electron neutrinos (Dirac or Majorana, respectively) on the unpolarised electrons in the relativistic neutrino limit. We assume that the incoming neutrino beam is the superposition of left-right chiral states produced by the chromium source. Left chiral neutrinos may be detected by the standard V - A and non-standard scalar S_L, pseudoscalar P_L, tensor T_L interactions, while right chiral ones partake only in the exotic V + A and S_R, P_R, T_R interactions. Our model-independent study is carried out for the flavour (current) neutrino eigenstates. We compute the expected event number for the standard V-A interaction of the left chiral neutrinos using the current experimental values of standard couplings and in the case of left-right chiral superposition. We show that the significant decrement in the event number due to the interference terms between the standard and exotic interactions for the Majorana neutrinos may appear. We also demonstrate how the presence of the exotic couplings affects the energy spectrum of outgoing electrons, both for the Dirac and Majorana cases. The 90~% C.L. sensitivity contours in the planes of corresponding exotic couplings are found. The presence of interferences in the Majorana case gives the stronger constraints than for the Dirac neutrinos, even if the neutrino source is placed outside the detector.

  13. The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.R.; Abdurashitov, J.N.; Bowles, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69 {+-} 10{sub {minus}7}{sup +5} SNU is to be compared with a standard solar model prediction of 132 SNU. The status of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source irradiation to test the overall operation of the experiment is also presented.

  14. The Russian-American gallium solar neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.R.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Abdurashitov, J.N.

    1995-08-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69 {+-} 10{sub {minus}7}{sup +5} SNU is to be compared with a standard solar model prediction of 132 SNU. The status of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source irradiation to test the overall operation of the experiment is also presented.

  15. Detection of extended galactic sources with an underwater neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Leisos, A.; Tsirigotis, A. G.; Tzamarias, S. E.; Lenis, D.

    2014-11-18

    In this study we investigate the discovery capability of a Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope to Galactic extended sources. We focus on the brightest HESS gamma rays sources which are considered also as very high energy neutrino emitters. We use the unbinned method taking into account both the spatial and the energy distribution of high energy neutrinos and we investigate parts of the Galactic plane where nearby potential neutrino emitters form neutrino source clusters. Neutrino source clusters as well as isolated neutrino sources are combined to estimate the observation period for 5 sigma discovery of neutrino signals from these objects.

  16. Opportunities for Neutrino Physics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    SciTech Connect

    Efremenko, Yuri; Hix, William Raphael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss opportunities for a neutrino program at the Spallation Neutrons Source (SNS) being commissioning at ORNL. Possible investigations can include study of neutrino-nuclear cross sections in the energy rage important for supernova dynamics and neutrino nucleosynthesis, search for neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering, and various tests of the standard model of electro-weak interactions.

  17. Detection of supernova neutrinos at spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2016-07-01

    After considering supernova shock effects, Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, neutrino collective effects, and Earth matter effects, the detection of supernova neutrinos at the China Spallation Neutron Source is studied and the expected numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are calculated with the neutrino energy spectra described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution and the “beta fit” distribution respectively. Furthermore, the numerical calculation method of supernova neutrino detection on Earth is applied to some other spallation neutron sources, and the total expected numbers of supernova neutrinos observed through different reactions channels are given. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205185, 11175020, 11275025, 11575023)

  18. Neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Dave; Cowen, Doug; Selen, Mats; Wiebusch, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos represent a new “window” to the Universe, spanning a large range of energy. We discuss the science of neutrino astrophysics and focus on two energy regimes. At “lower” energies (≈1 MeV), studies of neutrinos born inside the sun, or produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, have allowed the first incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos have mass. At energies typically one thousand to one million times higher, sources further than the sun (both within the Milky Way and beyond) are expected to produce a flux of particles that can be detected only through neutrinos. PMID:10588680

  19. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-18

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Searches for Point-like Sources of Astrophysical Neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feintzeig, Jacob

    Cosmic rays are accelerated to high energies in astrophysical objects, and create neutrinos when interacting with matter or photons. Observing a point source of high-energy astro-physical neutrinos would therefore be a smoking gun signature of cosmic ray acceleration. While evidence for a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos was recently found, the origin of this flux is not yet known. We present three analyses searching for neutrino point sources with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic kilometer Cherenkov detector located at the geographic South Pole. The analyses target astrophysical sources emitting neutrinos of all flavors, and cover energies from TeV to EeV. The first analysis searches point source emission of muon neutrinos using throughgoing muon tracks. The second analysis searches for spatial clustering among high-energy astrophysical neutrino candidate events, and is sensitive to neutrinos of all three flavors. The third analysis selects starting track events, muon neutrinos with interactions vertices inside the detector, to lower the energy threshold in the southern hemisphere. In each analysis, an un-binned likelihood method tests for spatial clustering of events anywhere in the sky as well as for neutrinos correlated with known gamma-ray sources. All results are consistent with the background-only hypothesis, and the resulting upper limits on E-2 neutrino emission are the most stringent throughout the entire sky. In the northern hemisphere, the upper limits are beginning to constrain emission models. In the southern hemisphere, the upper limits in the 100 TeV energy range are an order of magnitude lower than previous IceCube results, but are not yet probing predicted flux levels. By comparing the point source limits to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, we also constrain the minimum number of neutrino sources and investigate the properties of potential source populations contributing to the diffuse flux. Additionally, an a

  1. FEASIBILITY STUDY II OF A MUON BASED NEUTRINO SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    GALLARDO,J.C.; OZAKI,S.; PALMER,R.B.; ZISMAN,M.

    2001-06-30

    The concept of using a muon storage ring to provide a well characterized beam of muon and electron neutrinos (a Neutrino Factory) has been under study for a number of years now at various laboratories throughout the world. The physics program of a Neutrino Factoryis focused on the relatively unexplored neutrino sector. In conjunction with a detector located a suitable distance from the neutrino source, the facility would make valuable contributions to the study of neutrino masses and lepton mixing. A Neutrino Factory is expected to improve the measurement accuracy of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} and provide measurements of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) and the sign of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}. It may also be able to measure CP violation in the lepton sector.

  2. Solar neutrino experiments and a test for neutrino oscillations with radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Rowley, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment are given and compared to the most recent standard solar model calculations. The observations are about a factor of 4 below theoretical expectations. In view of the uncertainties involved in the theoretical models of the sun, the discrepancy is not considered to be evidence for neutrino oscillations. The status of the development of a gallium solar neutrino detector is described. Radiochemical neutrino detectors can be used to search for ..nu../sub e/ oscillations by using megacurie sources of monoenergetic neutrinos like /sup 65/Zn. A quantitative evaluation of possible experiments using the Brookhaven chlorine solar neutrino detector and a gallium detector is given. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Glashow resonance as a window into cosmic neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, V.; Fu, Lingjun; Learned, J. G.; Marfatia, D.; Pakvasa, S.; Weiler, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Glashow resonance at Eν=6.3 PeV is a measure of the ν¯ e content of the astrophysical neutrino flux. The fractional ν¯e content depends on the neutrino production model at the cosmic neutrino source, and the environment at the source. Thus, the strength of the Glashow resonance event rate is a potential window into astrophysical sources. We quantify the "Glashow resonometer" and comment on the significance that no Glashow events are observed in the IceCube three-year data.

  4. Probing neutrino magnetic moments at the Spallation Neutron Source facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, T. S.; Miranda, O. G.; Papoulias, D. K.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2015-07-01

    Majorana neutrino electromagnetic properties are studied through neutral current coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. We focus on the potential of the recently planned COHERENT experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source to probe muon-neutrino magnetic moments. The resulting sensitivities are determined on the basis of a χ2 analysis employing realistic nuclear structure calculations in the context of the quasiparticle random phase approximation. We find that they can improve existing limits by half an order of magnitude. In addition, we show that these facilities allow for standard model precision tests in the low energy regime, with a competitive determination of the weak mixing angle. Finally, they also offer the capability to probe other electromagnetic neutrino properties, such as the neutrino charge radius. We illustrate our results for various choices of experimental setup and target material.

  5. FIRST SEARCH FOR POINT SOURCES OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC NEUTRINOS WITH THE ANTARES NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2011-12-10

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 {+-} 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}(E{sub {nu}}/ GeV){sup -2} GeV{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for the part of the sky that is always visible ({delta} < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed.

  6. First Search for Point Sources of High-energy Cosmic Neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J. A.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-12-01

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 ± 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 × 10-8(E ν/ GeV)-2 GeV-1 s-1 cm-2 for the part of the sky that is always visible (δ < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed. We dedicate this Letter to the memory of our colleague and friend Luciano Moscoso, who passed away during the preparation of this Letter.

  7. Artificial neutrino source based on the 37Ar isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Kotelnikov, N. A.; Markov, S. Yu.; Selin, V. V.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-02-01

    In April 2004, a neutrino source was produced by irradiating a 330-kg piece of pressed calcium oxide at the fast-neutron reactor BN-600 (Zarechny, Russia) for six months. The 37Ar isotope was obtained via the (n, α) reaction on 40Ca, and 37Ar was extracted from an aqueous solution of nitric acid in which the solid target was dissolved. After that, 37Ar was purified and sealed into a capsule. This source was used to measure the neutrino-capture rate in metalic gallium for neutrinos from 37Ar decay, which have an energy close to that of the main line of solar 7Be neutrinos (863 keV). The target of the SAGE Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope was irradiated by using this source at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences). The source activity was measured by several methods during its production, in the course of irradiation, and after its completion. The weighted mean of the activity for six measurements was 409 ± 2 kCi at the beginning of irradiation of the gallium target (04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004). The scatter in the activity values obtained by different methods does not exceed 5%.

  8. Artificial neutrino source based on the {sup 37}Ar isotope

    SciTech Connect

    Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Kotelnikov, N. A.; Markov, S. Yu.; Selin, V. V.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N. Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-02-15

    In April 2004, a neutrino source was produced by irradiating a 330-kg piece of pressed calcium oxide at the fast-neutron reactor BN-600 (Zarechny, Russia) for six months. The {sup 37}Ar isotope was obtained via the (n, {alpha}) reaction on {sup 40}Ca, and {sup 37}Ar was extracted from an aqueous solution of nitric acid in which the solid target was dissolved. After that, {sup 37}Ar was purified and sealed into a capsule. This source was used to measure the neutrino-capture rate in metalic gallium for neutrinos from {sup 37}Ar decay, which have an energy close to that of the main line of solar {sup 7}Be neutrinos (863 keV). The target of the SAGE Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope was irradiated by using this source at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences). The source activity was measured by several methods during its production, in the course of irradiation, and after its completion. The weighted mean of the activity for six measurements was 409 {+-} 2 kCi at the beginning of irradiation of the gallium target (04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004). The scatter in the activity values obtained by different methods does not exceed 5%.

  9. Right-handed neutrinos as the source of density perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Creminelli, Paolo

    2006-05-15

    We study the possibility that cosmological density perturbations are generated by the inhomogeneous decay of right-handed neutrinos. This will occur if a scalar field whose fluctuations are created during inflation is coupled to the neutrino sector. Robust predictions of the model are a detectable level of non-Gaussianity and, if standard leptogenesis is the source of the baryon asymmetry, a baryon isocurvature perturbations at the level of the present experimental constraints.

  10. Dust Obscured Blazars as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, G.; de Vries, K. D.; van Eijndhoven, N.

    2016-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are believed to be among the most promising sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray flux. A hadronic component which is accelerated in the high energy environment of an AGN immediately implies the production of high-energy neutrinos. Nevertheless, no clear correlation between AGN and the high-energy cosmic-neutrino flux obtained by IceCube has been found so-far, putting strong limits on the neutrino production at AGN. We discuss a specific type of AGN for which an enhanced neutrino production is expected. This specific sub-set is given by AGN with their high-energy jet directed toward Earth, which is obscured by surrounding dust or gas, defining Dust Obscured Blazars. This type of AGN is predicted to have an enhanced neutrino emission due to the interaction of a possible hadronic component inside the AGN-jet with the surrounding matter. From two different galaxy catalogs, we have selected a sample of nearby sources with the characteristics of Dust Obscured Blazars. This selection is based on observations in the X-ray and radio bands. The data is consequently used to investigate the column density of the surrounding matter, providing an estimate for the neutrino production enhancement due to the nucleon-matter interactions in a beam dump scenario for various dust or gas compositions.

  11. Constraining high-energy cosmic neutrino sources: Implications and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Waxman, Eli

    2016-11-01

    We consider limits on the local (z =0 ) density (n0) of extragalactic neutrino sources set by the nondetection of steady high-energy neutrino sources producing ≳50 TeV muon multiplets in the present IceCube data, taking into account the redshift evolution, luminosity function, and neutrino spectrum of the sources. We show that the lower limit depends moderately on source spectra and strongly on redshift evolution. We find n0≳10-8- 10-7 Mpc-3 for standard candle sources evolving rapidly, ns∝(1+z ) 3 , and n0≳10-6- 10-5 Mpc-3 for nonevolving sources. The corresponding upper limits on their neutrino luminosity are Lνμ eff≲1 042- 1 043 erg s-1 and Lνμ eff≲1 041- 1 042 erg s-1 , respectively. Applying these results to a wide range of classes of potential sources, we show that powerful "blazar" jets associated with active galactic nuclei are unlikely to be the dominant sources. For almost all other steady candidate source classes (including starbursts, radio galaxies, and galaxy clusters and groups), an order of magnitude increase in the detector sensitivity at ˜0.1 - 1 PeV will enable a detection (as point sources) of the few brightest objects. Such an increase, which may be provided by next-generation detectors like IceCube-Gen2 and an upgraded KM3NET, can improve the limit on n0 by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Future gamma-ray observations (by Fermi, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory, and the Cherenkov Telescope Array) will play a key role in confirming the association of the neutrinos with their sources.

  12. Neutrino Interactions with Matter by a New Neutrino Source From the Isotope Radioactive Decay Produced by the Proton Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Kajino, Toshitaka; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    A new neutrino source for future's neutrino experiments is suggested in this work. Unstable isotope, 27Si, can be produced when 27Al target is bombarded by 15 MeV proton beams. Through the decay of the 27Si, a new electron-neutrino source in the 0-5.0 MeV energy range is obtained. Production of the neutrino source is studied by using GEANT4 code with JENDL-4.0/HE. For radioactive decay processes, we use "G4RadioactiveDecay" model based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). As for the detection system of the new neutrino source, we evaluate reaction or event rates for available radiochemical detectors and LENA type scintillator detector.

  13. Search for neutrino point sources with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan A.

    2013-06-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a kilometer-scale detector located at the South Pole. The full detector comprises 5,160 photomultipliers (PMTs) deployed among 86 strings from 1.5-2.5 km deep within the ice. The constructing phase started in the austral summer of 2004 and ended in December 2010 with the deployment of the last 7 strings that make up the full detector. In this proceeding we present the results of the time integrated and time dependent point source searches corresponding to the years from April 2008 to May 2010 with two different configurations of the IceCube detector (40 and 59 strings). In the northern sky the IceCube neutrino telescope is sensitive to point sources of neutrinos with E spectra mainly in the TeV-PeV energy range. In the opposite hemisphere, due to the higher contamination of high-energy atmospheric muons, the detector is most sensitive to sources with harder spectra, which produce high fluxes of PeV to EeV energies. The combined sensitivity is about a factor ˜2.5 better than the previous 1-year limit. An overview of the sensitivity and discovery potential for the time integrated searches over three years of IceCube, from April 2008 to May 2011, is also shown.

  14. SEARCHES FOR POINT-LIKE AND EXTENDED NEUTRINO SOURCES CLOSE TO THE GALACTIC CENTER USING THE ANTARES NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; Capone, A.; and others

    2014-05-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using six years of data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope has been performed. Clusters of muon neutrinos over the expected atmospheric background have been looked for. No clear signal has been found. The most signal-like accumulation of events is located at equatorial coordinates R.A. = –46.°8 and decl. = –64.°9 and corresponds to a 2.2σ background fluctuation. In addition, upper limits on the flux normalization of an E {sup –2} muon neutrino energy spectrum have been set for 50 pre-selected astrophysical objects. Finally, motivated by an accumulation of seven events relatively close to the Galactic Center in the recently reported neutrino sample of the IceCube telescope, a search for point sources in a broad region around this accumulation has been carried out. No indication of a neutrino signal has been found in the ANTARES data and upper limits on the flux normalization of an E {sup –2} energy spectrum of neutrinos from point sources in that region have been set. The 90% confidence level upper limits on the muon neutrino flux normalization vary between 3.5 and 5.1 × 10{sup –8} GeV cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, depending on the exact location of the source.

  15. Solar neutrinos and the influences of opacity, thermal instability, additional neutrino sources, and a central black hole on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Ezer, D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant quantities that affect the internal structure of the sun are examined for factors that reduce the temperature near the sun's center. The four factors discussed are: opacity, central black hole, thermal instability, and additional neutrino sources.

  16. Ion source issues for the DAEδALUS neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R. Barletta, William A.; Toups, Matthew H.; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y.; Bannister, Mark E.; Havener, C. C.; Vane, Randy

    2014-02-15

    The DAEδALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H{sub 2}{sup +} ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R and D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

  17. Ion source issues for the DAEδALUS neutrino experiment.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jose R; Barletta, William A; Toups, Matthew H; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y; Bannister, Mark E; Havener, C C; Vane, Randy

    2014-02-01

    The DAEδALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H2 (+) ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H2 (+) ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R&D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

  18. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with Crohn's disease and celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Turck, D.; Ythier, H.; Maquet, E.; Deveaux, M.; Marchandise, X.; Farriaux, J.P.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-07-01

    (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was used as a probe molecule to assess intestinal permeability in 7 healthy control adults, 11 control children, 17 children with Crohn's disease, and 6 children with untreated celiac disease. After subjects fasted overnight, 75 kBq/kg (= 2 microCi/kg) /sup 51/Cr-labeled EDTA was given by mouth; 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the total oral dose. Mean and SD were as follows: control adults 1.47 +/- 0.62, control children 1.59 +/- 0.55, and patients with Crohn's disease or celiac disease 5.35 +/- 1.94. The difference between control children and patients was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). These results show that intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA is increased among children with active or inactive Crohn's disease affecting small bowel only or small bowel and colon, and with untreated celiac disease. The (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA permeability test could facilitate the decision to perform more extensive investigations in children suspected of small bowel disease who have atypical or poor clinical and biological symptomatology.

  19. New neutrino source for the study of solar neutrino physics in the vacuum-matter transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Park, Tae-Sun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Production of a neutrino source through a proton-induced reaction is studied by using the particle transport code geant4. Unstable isotopes such as 27Si can be produced when the 27Al target is bombarded by 15-MeV energetic proton beams. Through the β -decay process of the unstable isotope, a new electron-neutrino source in the 0-5.0 MeV energy range is obtained. Proton-induced reactions are simulated with JENDL-4.0 High Energy File (JENDL-4.0/HE). For radioactive decay processes, we use the G4 radioactive decay model based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). We suggest detailed target systems required for future solar neutrino experiments, in particular for the vacuum-matter transition region. As for a detection system of the new neutrino source, we evaluate reaction or event rates for available radiochemical detectors and Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA)-type scintillator detector and discuss effects due to possible sterile neutrinos as an application.

  20. (51Cr)EDTA intestinal permeability in children with cow's milk intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Schrander, J.J.; Unsalan-Hooyen, R.W.; Forget, P.P.; Jansen, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Making use of ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA as a permeability marker, we measured intestinal permeability in a group of 20 children with proven cow's milk intolerance (CMI), a group of 17 children with similar complaints where CMI was excluded (sick controls), and a group of 12 control children. ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test results (mean +/- SD) were 6.85 +/- 3.64%, 3.42 +/- 0.94%, and 2.61 +/- 0.67% in the group with CMI, the sick control, and the control group, respectively. When compared to both control groups, patients with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) showed a significantly increased small bowel permeability. We conclude that the ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test can be helpful for the diagnosis of cow's milk intolerance.

  1. /sup 51/Cr-EDTA: a marker of early intestinal rejection in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.; Lamont, D.; Zhong, R.; Garcia, B.; Wang, P.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J.

    1989-05-01

    Intestinal permeability was studied after accessory intestinal transplantation in Lewis rats. Five groups were evaluated: Group 1--isografts (N = 6); Group 2--Lewis X Brown Norway F1 (LBN-F1) allografts (N = 6); Group 3--isografts treated with CsA 2 mg/kg/day X 10 days (N = 6); Group 4--LBN-F1 allografts treated with CsA 2 mg/kg/day X 10 days (N = 6); Group 5--LBN-F1 allografts treated with CsA 4 mg/kg/day X 28 days (N = 6). Chromium-labeled ethylenedimianetetraacetate (/sup 51/Cr-EDTA) was given through the proximal stoma of the graft. Renal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA and mucosal biopsies were followed post-transplant. The biopsies of the intestinal graft showed no rejection in Groups 1, 3, and 5; fulminant rejection in Group 2; and mild atypical rejection in Group 4. /sup 51/Cr-EDTA clearance was elevated in all groups during the first 7 days post-transplant. Thereafter, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion fell to lower levels in the animals with histologically normal grafts (Groups 1, 3, and 5). /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion in Group 4 was increased with the first histological evidence of rejection on Day 14 and remained elevated until sacrifice (P less than 0.02 compared to Groups 3 and 5). A transient permeability defect occurs after intestinal grafting. Once the graft has recovered from this injury, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA is a sensitive marker for intestinal rejection.

  2. Preliminary results from the Russian-American gallium experiment Cr-neutrino source measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.R.; Abdurashitov, J.N.; Bowles, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Russian-American Gallium Experiment has been collecting solar neutrino data since early 1990. The flux measurement of solar neutrinos is well below that expected from solar models. We discuss the initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93 + 0.15, {minus}0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The Search for Sources of High Energy Astrophysical Neutrinos with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadimi, Ava; Santander, Marcos; VERITAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The IceCube collaboration has reported the detection of an all-sky astrophysical flux of high-energy neutrinos. So far, no neutrino point sources have been detected. The VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) gamma-ray observatory has observed the sky in the direction of muon neutrino events of poten- tial astrophysical origin looking for gamma-ray emission. Hadronic gamma-rays are expected to be produced in the same cosmic-ray interactions that lead to the emission of the high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube. We present results from follow-up VERITAS observations of 28 muon neutrino events detected by IceCube with energies above 100 TeV. No gamma-ray excess was detected at the locations of the neutrino events so gamma-ray flux upper limits were calculated. We will discuss how these results correlate to the all-sky neutrino flux.

  4. Proposed search for a fourth neutrino with a PBq antineutrino source.

    PubMed

    Cribier, Michel; Fechner, Maximilien; Lasserre, Thierry; Letourneau, Alain; Lhuillier, David; Mention, Guillaume; Franco, Davide; Kornoukhov, Vasily; Schönert, Stefan

    2011-11-11

    Several observed anomalies in neutrino oscillation data can be explained by a hypothetical fourth neutrino separated from the three standard neutrinos by a squared mass difference of a few eV(2). We show that this hypothesis can be tested with a PBq (ten kilocurie scale) (144)Ce or (106)Ru antineutrino beta source deployed at the center of a large low background liquid scintillator detector. In particular, the compact size of such a source could yield an energy-dependent oscillating pattern in event spatial distribution that would unambiguously determine neutrino mass differences and mixing angles.

  5. SEARCHES FOR TIME-DEPENDENT NEUTRINO SOURCES WITH ICECUBE DATA FROM 2008 TO 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Baker, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2015-07-01

    In this paper searches for flaring astrophysical neutrino sources and sources with periodic emission with the IceCube neutrino telescope are presented. In contrast to time-integrated searches, where steady emission is assumed, the analyses presented here look for a time-dependent signal of neutrinos using the information from the neutrino arrival times to enhance the discovery potential. A search was performed for correlations between neutrino arrival times and directions, as well as neutrino emission following time-dependent light curves, sporadic emission, or periodicities of candidate sources. These include active galactic nuclei, soft γ-ray repeaters, supernova remnants hosting pulsars, microquasars, and X-ray binaries. The work presented here updates and extends previously published results to a longer period that covers 4 years of data from 2008 April 5 to 2012 May 16, including the first year of operation of the completed 86 string detector. The analyses did not find any significant time-dependent point sources of neutrinos, and the results were used to set upper limits on the neutrino flux from source candidates.

  6. Searches for Time-dependent Neutrino Sources with IceCube Data from 2008 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Baker, M.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In this paper searches for flaring astrophysical neutrino sources and sources with periodic emission with the IceCube neutrino telescope are presented. In contrast to time-integrated searches, where steady emission is assumed, the analyses presented here look for a time-dependent signal of neutrinos using the information from the neutrino arrival times to enhance the discovery potential. A search was performed for correlations between neutrino arrival times and directions, as well as neutrino emission following time-dependent light curves, sporadic emission, or periodicities of candidate sources. These include active galactic nuclei, soft γ-ray repeaters, supernova remnants hosting pulsars, microquasars, and X-ray binaries. The work presented here updates and extends previously published results to a longer period that covers 4 years of data from 2008 April 5 to 2012 May 16, including the first year of operation of the completed 86 string detector. The analyses did not find any significant time-dependent point sources of neutrinos, and the results were used to set upper limits on the neutrino flux from source candidates.

  7. Search for Point-like Sources of Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory and Improved Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Tau Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-08-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E ν between 1017 eV and 1020 eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55° and north of -65° declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of ~3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and ~2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k PS · E -2 ν from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k PS at the level of ≈5 × 10-7 and 2.5 × 10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  8. KM3NeT/ARCA sensitivity and discovery potential for neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, A.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure with a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. Of these, the KM3NeT/ARCA detector, installed in the KM3NeT-It node of the network, is optimised for studying high-energy neutrinos of cosmic origin. Sensitivities to galactic sources such as the supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946 and the pulsar wind nebula Vela X are presented as well as sensitivities to a generic point source with an E-2 spectrum which represents an approximation for the spectrum of extragalactic candidate neutrino sources.

  9. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Leclercq-Foucart, J.; Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1986-05-01

    Intestinal permeability was investigated in 14 children with cystic fibrosis making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. Ten normal young adults and 11 children served as controls. After oral administration of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA, 24 h urine was collected. Urinary radioactivity was calculated and results expressed as percentage of oral dose excreted in 24 h urine. Mean and SEM were as follows: 2.51 +/- 0.21, 2.35 +/- 0.24, and 13.19 +/- 1.72 for control children, normal adults, and cystic fibrosis patients, respectively. The permeability differences between cystic fibrosis patients and either control children or control adults are significant (p less than 0.001).

  10. Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, K.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Neutrinos are electrically neutral ELEMENTARY PARTICLES which experience only the weak nuclear force and gravity. Their existence was introduced as a hypothesis by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain the apparent violation of energy conservation in radioactive beta decay. Chadwick had discovered in 1914 that the energy spectrum of electrons emitted in beta decay was not monoenergetic but continuous...

  11. Differences in immunoglobulin subclasses between dye exclusion and 51Cr release complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity assays

    SciTech Connect

    McConnachie, P.R.; Denegri, J.F.; Lower, F.E.; Torry, D.S.; McIntyre, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    Paradoxical differences previously noted between lymphocytotoxicity detected by dye exclusion at room temperature (CDCE) or by /sup 51/Cr release (CDC/sup 51/Cr) at 37/sup 0/C in maternal antipaternal complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity have suggested that CDCE and CDC/sup 51/Cr at 37/sup 0/C, but not at 20 degrees C, may detect different immunological antibody-antigen interactions. Reactions in the two test systems against the same target cells were compared in sera from known immune dialysis patients, secondary aborting women, and refractory platelet recipients before and after heat treatment of sera, absorption with solid-phase heparin, anti-light-chain augmentation, and the addition of murine monoclonal anti-IgG subclass antibodies. The results demonstrate significant differences between the two tests using the same target and sera. Further, the results imply the presence of an inhibitor and an inhibitor of inhibitor in sera. The involvement of different immunoglobulin subclasses was shown in the two tests. These data demonstrate the necessity for further study of the nature of the differences in the mechanisms of these clinically important antibody-detecting systems.

  12. Studies with nonradioisotopic sodium chromate. II. Single- and double-label sup 52 Cr/ sup 51 Cr posttransfusion recovery estimations

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, W.A.; Keegan, T.; Hanbury, C.M.; Holme, S.; Pleban, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A recently developed nonradioisotopic 52Cr technique was used to measure either red cell volume or posttransfusion recovery of stored red cells. The experimental method uses Zeeman electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure red cell chromium. Results from the 52Cr method were compared with those from 51Cr single-label and 125I-albumin/51Cr double-label procedures using 49-day AS-1 red cell concentrates drawn and prepared according to standard procedures. In the first group of five donors, red cell volume was estimated concurrently with both 52Cr-labeled fresh red cells and 125I-albumin. The latter measured plasma volume from which red cell volume was estimated on the basis of the hematocrit (125I red cell volume). 51Cr-labeled stored red cells were transfused to measure posttransfusion recoveries. The correlation between 52Cr and 125I red cell volumes was significant (r = 0.68, p less than 0.01), and, in this group, the differences were not significant (p less than 0.05). Twenty-four-hour posttransfusion recoveries of 51Cr-labeled stored red cells averaged 66 +/- 5 percent when measured with the 125I/51Cr technique and 69 +/- 8 percent when measured with the 52Cr/51Cr method. In the second group of five donors, red cell volume was estimated by the 125I-albumin technique, and the posttransfusion recovery of stored red cells was quantitated by 51Cr- and 52Cr-labeled stored cells simultaneously. In this group, posttransfusion recoveries with 125I/51Cr averaged 73 +/- 7 percent; with 125I/52Cr, they averaged 75 +/- 10 percent. Using the single-label method of calculation, recoveries averaged 76 +/- 7 and 75 +/- 10 percent for the 51Cr and 52Cr methods, respectively.

  13. A search for cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos with small underground detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.; Castagnoli, C.; Galeotti, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of standard source calculations of high energy neutrino fluxes, some models of astrophysical object (single stars and binary systems) are discussed from which a detectable muon flux is expected in small underground detectors.

  14. Search for Cosmic Neutrino Point Sources with Four Years of Data from the ANTARES Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hamal, M.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leonora, E.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a time-integrated search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos is presented using the data collected from 2007 to 2010 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. No statistically significant signal has been found and upper limits on the neutrino flux have been obtained. Assuming an E -2 ν spectrum, these flux limits are at 1-10 ×10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 for declinations ranging from -90° to 40°. Limits for specific models of RX J1713.7-3946 and Vela X, which include information on the source morphology and spectrum, are also given.

  15. Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Cortez, B.G.; Chrysicopoulou, P.; Claus, R.; Dye, S.T.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.

    1985-07-03

    We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is <0.06 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of <0.009 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Production of neutrinos and secondary electrons in cosmic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.-Y.; Pohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    We study the individual contribution to secondary lepton production in hadronic interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) including resonances and heavier secondaries. For this purpose we use the same methodology discussed earlier [C.-Y. Huang, S.-E. Park, M. Pohl, C.D. Daniels, Astropart. Phys. 27 (2007) 429], namely the Monte-Carlo particle collision code DPMJET3.04 to determine the multiplicity spectra of various secondary particles with leptons as the final decay states, that result from inelastic collisions of cosmic-ray protons and Helium nuclei with the interstellar medium of standard composition. By combining the simulation results with parametric models for secondary particle (with resonances included) for incident cosmic-ray energies below a few GeV, where DPMJET appears unreliable, we thus derive production matrices for all stable secondary particles in cosmic-ray interactions with energies up to about 10 PeV. We apply the production matrices to calculate the radio synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons in a young shell-type SNR, RX J1713.7-3946, which is a measure of the age, the spectral index of hadronic cosmic rays, and most importantly the magnetic field strength. We find that the multi-mG fields recently invoked to explain the X-ray flux variations are unlikely to extend over a large fraction of the radio-emitting region, otherwise the spectrum of hadronic cosmic rays in the energy window 0.1-100 GeV must be unusually hard. We also use the production matrices to calculate the muon event rate in an IceCube-like detector that are induced by muon neutrinos from high-energy γ-ray sources such as RX J1713.7-3946, Vela Jr. and MGRO J2019+37. At muon energies of a few TeV, or in other word, about 10 TeV neutrino energy, an accumulation of data over about 5-10 years would allow testing the hadronic origin of TeV γ-rays.

  17. Angular correlation of cosmic neutrinos with ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and implications for their sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic neutrino events detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with energy 0∼> 3 TeV have poor angular resolutions to reveal their origin. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with better angular resolutions at 0>6 EeV energies, can be used to check if the same astrophysical sources are responsible for producing both neutrinos and UHECRs. We test this hypothesis, with statistical methods which emphasize invariant quantities, by using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array and past cosmic-ray experiments. We find that the arrival directions of the cosmic neutrinos are correlated with 0≥ 10 EeV UHECR arrival directions at confidence level ≈ 90%. The strength of the correlation decreases with decreasing UHECR energy and no correlation exists at energy 0∼ 6 EeV . A search in astrophysical databases within 3{sup o} of the arrival directions of UHECRs with energy 0≥ 10 EeV, that are correlated with the IceCube cosmic neutrinos, resulted in 18 sources from the Swift-BAT X-ray catalog with redshift z≤ 0.06. We also found 3 objects in the Kühr catalog of radio sources using the same criteria. The sources are dominantly Seyfert galaxies with Cygnus A being the most prominent member. We calculate the required neutrino and UHECR fluxes to produce the observed correlated events, and estimate the corresponding neutrino luminosity (25 TeV–2.2 PeV) and cosmic-ray luminosity (500 TeV–180 EeV), assuming the sources are the ones we found in the Swift-BAT and Kühr catalogs. We compare these luminosities with the X-ray luminosity of the corresponding sources and discuss possibilities of accelerating protons to 0∼> 10 EeV and produce neutrinos in these sources.

  18. Sensitivity of neutrinos to the supernova turbulence power spectrum: Point source statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, James P.; Kabadi, Neel V.

    2015-07-16

    The neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star created in a core-collapse supernova must run through a significant amount of turbulence before exiting the star. Turbulence can modify the flavor evolution of the neutrinos imprinting itself upon the signal detected here at Earth. The turbulence effect upon individual neutrinos, and the correlation between pairs of neutrinos, might exhibit sensitivity to the power spectrum of the turbulence, and recent analysis of the turbulence in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a core-collapse supernova indicates the power spectrum may not be the Kolmogorov 5 /3 inverse power law as has been previously assumed. In this paper we study the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence power spectra upon neutrinos from a point source as a function of neutrino energy and turbulence amplitude at a fixed postbounce epoch. We find the two effects of turbulence upon the neutrinos—the distorted phase effect and the stimulated transitions—both possess strong and weak limits in which dependence upon the power spectrum is absent or evident, respectively. Furthermore, since neutrinos of a given energy will exhibit these two effects at different epochs of the supernova each with evolving strength, we find there is sensitivity to the power spectrum present in the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic supernova.

  19. Sensitivity of neutrinos to the supernova turbulence power spectrum: Point source statistics

    DOE PAGES

    Kneller, James P.; Kabadi, Neel V.

    2015-07-16

    The neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star created in a core-collapse supernova must run through a significant amount of turbulence before exiting the star. Turbulence can modify the flavor evolution of the neutrinos imprinting itself upon the signal detected here at Earth. The turbulence effect upon individual neutrinos, and the correlation between pairs of neutrinos, might exhibit sensitivity to the power spectrum of the turbulence, and recent analysis of the turbulence in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a core-collapse supernova indicates the power spectrum may not be the Kolmogorov 5 /3 inverse power law as has been previously assumed. Inmore » this paper we study the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence power spectra upon neutrinos from a point source as a function of neutrino energy and turbulence amplitude at a fixed postbounce epoch. We find the two effects of turbulence upon the neutrinos—the distorted phase effect and the stimulated transitions—both possess strong and weak limits in which dependence upon the power spectrum is absent or evident, respectively. Furthermore, since neutrinos of a given energy will exhibit these two effects at different epochs of the supernova each with evolving strength, we find there is sensitivity to the power spectrum present in the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic supernova.« less

  20. A maximum-likelihood search for neutrino point sources with the AMANDA-II detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, James R.

    Neutrino astronomy offers a new window to study the high energy universe. The AMANDA-II detector records neutrino-induced muon events in the ice sheet beneath the geographic South Pole, and has accumulated 3.8 years of livetime from 2000 - 2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria, we arrive at a sample of 6595 events originating from the Northern Sky, predominantly atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. We search these events for evidence of astrophysical neutrino point sources using a maximum-likelihood method. No excess above the atmospheric neutrino background is found, and we set upper limits on neutrino fluxes. Finally, a well-known potential dark matter signature is emission of high energy neutrinos from annihilation of WIMPs gravitationally bound to the Sun. We search for high energy neutrinos from the Sun and find no excess. Our limits on WIMP-nucleon cross section set new constraints on MSSM parameter space.

  1. Search for neutrino point sources with ANTARES 2007-2012 data

    SciTech Connect

    Zornoza, J. D.

    2014-11-18

    Neutrinos are unique probes to study the high energy Universe, since they are neutral, only interact weakly and are stable. Furthermore, they can provide key information about several fundamental questions in Physics like the origin of cosmic rays and the nature of dark matter. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, installed in the Mediterranean Sea, has been taking data since 2007. In this paper we review the results concerning the search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos, using data of 2007–2012. Two main strategies have been followed: to look towards the direction of sources candidate to emmit neutrinos and to make an all-sky scan. Although no significant cluster has been found above the background, flux limits have been set at the level of E{sup 2}φν{sup 90CL}∼1–2×10{sup −8} GeV cm{sup −}2s{sup −1}.

  2. An Open-source Neutrino Radiation Hydrodynamics Code for Core-collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Evan

    2015-08-01

    We present an open-source update to the spherically symmetric, general-relativistic hydrodynamics, core-collapse supernova (CCSN) code GR1D. The source code is available at http://www.GR1Dcode.org. We extend its capabilities to include a general-relativistic treatment of neutrino transport based on the moment formalisms of Shibata et al. and Cardall et al. We pay special attention to implementing and testing numerical methods and approximations that lessen the computational demand of the transport scheme by removing the need to invert large matrices. This is especially important for the implementation and development of moment-like transport methods in two and three dimensions. A critical component of neutrino transport calculations is the neutrino-matter interaction coefficients that describe the production, absorption, scattering, and annihilation of neutrinos. In this article we also describe our open-source neutrino interaction library NuLib (available at http://www.nulib.org). We believe that an open-source approach to describing these interactions is one of the major steps needed to progress toward robust models of CCSNe and robust predictions of the neutrino signal. We show, via comparisons to full Boltzmann neutrino-transport simulations of CCSNe, that our neutrino transport code performs remarkably well. Furthermore, we show that the methods and approximations we employ to increase efficiency do not decrease the fidelity of our results. We also test the ability of our general-relativistic transport code to model failed CCSNe by evolving a 40-solar-mass progenitor to the onset of collapse to a black hole.

  3. LED based powerful nanosecond light sources for calibration systems of deep underwater neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Poleshuk, R. V.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.; Vyatchin, Y. E.

    2009-04-01

    Powerful nanosecond light sources based on LEDs have been developed for use in calibration systems of deep underwater neutrino telescopes. The light sources use either matrixes of ultra bright blue InGaN LEDs or new generation high power blue LEDs. It is shown that such light sources have light yield of up to 1010-1012 photons per pulse with very fast light emission kinetics. The developed light sources are currently used in a number of astroparticle physics experiments, namely: the lake Baikal neutrino experiment, the TUNKA EAS experiment, etc.

  4. SEARCH FOR POINT-LIKE SOURCES OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY AND IMPROVED LIMIT ON THE DIFFUSE FLUX OF TAU NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-08-10

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E{sub {nu}} between 10{sup 17} eV and 10{sup 20} eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55 Degree-Sign and north of -65 Degree-Sign declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of {approx}3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and {approx}2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k{sub PS} {center_dot} E {sup -2}{sub {nu}} from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k{sub PS} at the level of Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  5. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-11-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no significance. Therefore, in this article we consider a specific subclass of AGN for which an increased neutrino production is expected. This subclass contains AGN for which their high-energy jet is pointing toward Earth. Furthermore, we impose the condition that the jet is obscured by gas or dust surrounding the AGN. A method is presented to determine the total column density of the obscuring medium, which is probed by determining the relative x-ray attenuation with respect to the radio flux as obtained from the AGN spectrum. The total column density allows us to probe the interaction of the jet with the surrounding matter, which leads to additional neutrino production. Finally, starting from two different source catalogs, this method is applied to specify a sample of low redshift radio galaxies for which an increased neutrino production is expected.

  6. Reversibility of increased intestinal permeability to 51Cr-EDTA in patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.T.; Jones, D.B.; Goodacre, R.L.; Collins, S.M.; Coates, G.; Hunt, R.H.; Bienenstock, J.

    1987-11-01

    Intestinal permeability in adults with inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases was investigated by measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of orally administered /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. Eighty controls along with 100 patients with Crohn's disease, 46 patients with ulcerative colitis, 20 patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and 18 patients with other diseases were studied. In controls, the median 24-h excretion was 1.34%/24 h of the oral dose. Patients with Crohn's disease (median 2.96%/24 h), ulcerative colitis (median 2.12%/24 h), and untreated gluten-sensitive enteropathy (median 3.56%/24 h) had significantly elevated urinary excretion of the probe compared to controls (p less than 0.0001). Increased 24-h urinary excretion of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA had a high association with intestinal inflammation (p less than 0.0001). Test specificity and sensitivity were 96% and 57%, respectively. A positive test has a 96% probability of correctly diagnosing the presence of intestinal inflammation, whereas a negative test has a 50% probability of predicting the absence of disease.

  7. Pinpointing extragalactic neutrino sources in light of recent IceCube observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Markus; Halzen, Francis

    2014-08-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has recently reported the observation of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. The angular distribution of events is consistent with an isotropic arrival direction of neutrinos which is expected for an extragalactic origin. We estimate the prospects of detecting individual neutrino sources from a quasidiffuse superposition of many extragalactic sources at the level of the IceCube observation. Unlike previous analyses, we take into account ensemble variations of the source distribution as well as the event statistics of individual sources. We show that IceCube in its present configuration is sensitive to rare ≲10-8 Mpc-3 yr-1 transient source classes within five years of operation via the observation of event clusters. Identification of time-independent sources is more challenging due to larger backgrounds. We estimate that during the same period IceCube is sensitive to sparse sources with densities of ≲10-6 Mpc-3 via association of events with the closest 100 sources of an ensemble. We show that a next-generation neutrino observatory with 5 times the effective area of IceCube and otherwise similar detector performance would increase the sensitivity to source densities and rates by about 2 orders of magnitude.

  8. How Far Away Are the Sources of IceCube Neutrinos? Constraints from the Diffuse Teraelectronvolt Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xiao-Chuan; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-07-01

    The nearly isotropic distribution of teraelectronvolt to petaelectronvolt neutrinos recently detected by the IceCube Collaboration suggests that they come from sources at a distance beyond our Galaxy, but how far away they are is largely unknown because of a lack of any associations with known sources. In this paper, we propose that the cumulative TeV gamma-ray emission accompanying the production of neutrinos can be used to constrain the distance of these neutrino sources, since the opacity of TeV gamma rays due to absorption by the extragalactic background light depends on the distance these TeV gamma rays have traveled. As the diffuse extragalactic TeV background measured by Fermi is much weaker than the expected cumulative flux associated with IceCube neutrinos, the majority of IceCube neutrinos, if their sources are transparent to TeV gamma rays, must come from distances larger than the horizon of TeV gamma rays. We find that above 80% of the IceCube neutrinos should come from sources at redshift z > 0.5. Thus, the chance of finding nearby sources correlated with IceCube neutrinos would be small. We also find that, to explain the flux of neutrinos under the TeV gamma-ray emission constraint, the redshift evolution of neutrino source density must be at least as fast as the cosmic star formation rate.

  9. AN OPEN-SOURCE NEUTRINO RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    O’Connor, Evan

    2015-08-15

    We present an open-source update to the spherically symmetric, general-relativistic hydrodynamics, core-collapse supernova (CCSN) code GR1D. The source code is available at http://www.GR1Dcode.org. We extend its capabilities to include a general-relativistic treatment of neutrino transport based on the moment formalisms of Shibata et al. and Cardall et al. We pay special attention to implementing and testing numerical methods and approximations that lessen the computational demand of the transport scheme by removing the need to invert large matrices. This is especially important for the implementation and development of moment-like transport methods in two and three dimensions. A critical component of neutrino transport calculations is the neutrino–matter interaction coefficients that describe the production, absorption, scattering, and annihilation of neutrinos. In this article we also describe our open-source neutrino interaction library NuLib (available at http://www.nulib.org). We believe that an open-source approach to describing these interactions is one of the major steps needed to progress toward robust models of CCSNe and robust predictions of the neutrino signal. We show, via comparisons to full Boltzmann neutrino-transport simulations of CCSNe, that our neutrino transport code performs remarkably well. Furthermore, we show that the methods and approximations we employ to increase efficiency do not decrease the fidelity of our results. We also test the ability of our general-relativistic transport code to model failed CCSNe by evolving a 40-solar-mass progenitor to the onset of collapse to a black hole.

  10. Prospects for detecting galactic sources of cosmic neutrinos with IceCube: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali; Niro, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    Air-Cherenkov telescopes have mapped the Galactic plane at TeV energies. Here we evaluate the prospects for detecting the neutrino emission from sources in the Galactic plane assuming that the highest energy photons originate from the decay of pions, which yields a straightforward prediction for the neutrino flux from the decay of the associated production of charged pions. Four promising sources are identified based on having a large flux and a flat spectrum. We subsequently evaluate the probability of their identification above the atmospheric neutrino background in IceCube data as a function of time. We show that observing them over the twenty-year lifetime of the instrumentation is likely, and that some should be observable at the 3 σ level with six years of data. In the absence of positive results, we derive constraints on the spectral index and cut-off energy of the sources, assuming a hadronic acceleration mechanism.

  11. Constraining Very High-Energy Gamma Ray Sources Using IceCube Neutrino Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Gregory; Feintzeig, J.; Karle, A.; IceCube Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Modern gamma ray astronomy has revealed the most violent, energetic objects in the known universe, from nearby supernova remnants to distant active galactic nuclei. In an effort to discover more about the fundamental nature of such objects, we present searches for astrophysical neutrinos in coincidence with known gamma ray sources. Searches were conducted using data from IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic-kilometer neutrino detector that is sensitive to astrophysical particles with energies above 1 TeV. The detector is situated at the South Pole, and uses more than 5,000 photomultiplier tubes to detect Cherenkov light from the interactions of particles within the ice. Existing models of proton-proton interactions allow us to link gamma ray fluxes to the production of high-energy neutrinos, so neutrino data from IceCube can be used to constrain the mechanisms by which gamma ray sources create such energetic photons. For a few particularly bright sources, such as the blazar Markarian 421, IceCube is beginning to reach the point where actual constraints can be made. As more years of data are analyzed, the limits will improve and stronger constraints will become possible. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation's REU Program through NSF Award AST-1004881 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  12. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes of neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.

  13. SEARCH FOR COSMIC NEUTRINO POINT SOURCES WITH FOUR YEARS OF DATA FROM THE ANTARES TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2012-11-20

    In this paper, a time-integrated search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos is presented using the data collected from 2007 to 2010 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. No statistically significant signal has been found and upper limits on the neutrino flux have been obtained. Assuming an E {sup -2} {sub {nu}} spectrum, these flux limits are at 1-10 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for declinations ranging from -90 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign . Limits for specific models of RX J1713.7-3946 and Vela X, which include information on the source morphology and spectrum, are also given.

  14. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    DOE PAGES

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes ofmore » neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.« less

  15. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes of neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.

  16. Bioaccumulation of 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in Baltic Sea benthos.

    PubMed

    Kumblad, L; Bradshaw, C; Gilek, M

    2005-03-01

    The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated (51)Cr, (63)Ni and (14)C in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

  17. Searches for Point-like Sources of Neutrinos with the 40-String IceCube Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumm, Jonathan P.

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is the first 1 km3 neutrino telescope. Data were collected using the partially-completed IceCube detector in the 40-string configuration recorded between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20, totaling 375.5 days livetime. An unbinned maximum likelihood ratio method is used to search for astrophysical signals. The data sample contains 36,900 events: 14,121 front the northern sky, mostly muons induced by atmospheric neutrinos and 22,779 from the southern sky, mostly high energy atmospheric muons. The analysis includes time-integrated searches for individual point sources and targeted searches for specific stacked source classes and spatially extended sources. While this analysis is sensitive to TeV-PeV energy neutrinos in the northern sky, it is primarily sensitive to neutrinos with energy greater than about 1 PeV in the southern sky. A number of searches are performed and significances (given as p-values, the chance probability to occur with only background present) calculated: (1) a scan of the entire sky for point sources (p=18%), (2) a predefined list of 39 interesting source candidates (p=62%), (3) stacking 16 sources of TeV gamma rays observed by Milagro and Fermi, along with an unconfirmed hot spot (p=32%), (4) stacking 127 starburst galaxies ( p=100%), and (5) stacking five nearby galaxy clusters (p =78%). No evidence for a signal is found in any of the searches. Limits are set for neutrino fluxes from astrophysical sources over the entire sky and compared to predictions. The sensitivity is at least a factor of two better than previous searches (depending on declination), with 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits being between E 2dN/dE ˜ 2--200 x 10-12 TeV cm-2s-1 in the northern sky and between 3--700 x 10-12 TeV cm-2s-1 in the southern sky. The stacked source searches provide the best limits to specific source classes. For the case of supernova remnants, we are just a factor of three from ruling out realistic

  18. Search for Point Sources of High Energy Neutrinos with Final Data from AMANDA-II

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-03-06

    We present a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos using 3.8 years of data recorded by AMANDA-II during 2000-2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria designed to optimally retain neutrino-induced events originating in the Northern Sky, we arrive at a sample of 6595 candidate events, predominantly from atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. Our search of this sample reveals no indications of a neutrino point source. We place the most stringent limits to date on E{sup -2} neutrino fluxes from points in the Northern Sky, with an average upper limit of E{sup 2}{Phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}+{nu}{sub {tau}}} {le} 5.2 x 10{sup -11} TeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} on the sum of {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} fluxes, assumed equal, over the energy range from 1.9 TeV to 2.5 PeV.

  19. High Energy Gamma Rays and Neutrinos from Star-forming Activities in the Galactic and Extragalactic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaque, Soebur

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the IceCube astrophysical neutrinos is an outstanding question. Star-forming activities which can accelerate particles to very high energies have been suggested as possible origin of these neutrinos. I will present a scenario where a subset of the neutrino events originate from the Galactic center region and Fermi Bubbles, resulting from star-forming activities. Multi-messenger signal in high energy gamma rays and neutrinos can probe this scenario. I will also present an analysis of the statistical association of the star-forming sources in our Galaxy and outside, with astrophysical neutrinos, as well as expected neutrino signal from these sources by fitting gamma-ray data.

  20. Detection prospects for high energy neutrino sources from the anisotropic matter distribution in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Rameez, Mohamed; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-03-01

    Constraints on the number and luminosity of the sources of the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube have been set by targeted searches for point sources. We set complementary constraints by using the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) catalogue, which maps the matter distribution of the local Universe. Assuming that the distribution of the neutrino sources follows that of matter, we look for correlations between ``warm'' spots on the IceCube skymap and the 2MRS matter distribution. Through Monte Carlo simulations of the expected number of neutrino multiplets and careful modelling of the detector performance (including that of IceCube-Gen2), we demonstrate that sources with local density exceeding 10‑6 Mpc‑3 and neutrino luminosity Lν lesssim 1042 erg s‑1 (1041 erg s‑1) will be efficiently revealed by our method using IceCube (IceCube-Gen2). At low luminosities such as will be probed by IceCube-Gen2, the sensitivity of this analysis is superior to requiring statistically significant direct observation of a point source.

  1. Estimating the contribution of Galactic sources to the diffuse neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Paul, Thomas C.; da Silva, Luiz H. M.; Vlcek, Brian J.

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent IceCube observations we reexamine the idea that microquasars are high energy neutrino emitters. By stretching to the maximum the parameters of the Fermi engine we show that the nearby high-mass x-ray binary LS 5039 could accelerate protons up to above about 20 PeV. These highly relativistic protons could subsequently interact with the plasma producing neutrinos up to the maximum observed energies. After that we adopt the spatial density distribution of high-mass x-ray binaries obtained from the deep INTEGRAL Galactic plane survey, and we assume LS 5039 typifies the microquasar population to demonstrate that these powerful compact sources could provide a dominant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux recently observed by IceCube.

  2. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E -2.5 and E -2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  3. FIRST NEUTRINO POINT-SOURCE RESULTS FROM THE 22-STRING ICECUBE DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-05-14

    We present new results of searches for neutrino point sources in the northern sky, using data recorded in 2007-08 with 22 strings of the IceCube detector (approximately one-fourth of the planned total) and 275.7 days of livetime. The final sample of 5114 neutrino candidate events agrees well with the expected background of atmospheric muon neutrinos and a small component of atmospheric muons. No evidence of a point source is found, with the most significant excess of events in the sky at 2.2 {sigma} after accounting for all trials. The average upper limit over the northern sky for point sources of muon-neutrinos with E{sup -2} spectrum is E{sup 2} {Phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}} < 1.4 x 10{sup -1} TeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in the energy range from 3 TeV to 3 PeV, improving the previous best average upper limit by the AMANDA-II detector by a factor of two.

  4. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, Michel; Al Samarai, Imen; Akerlof, Carl; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien; Klotz, Alain; Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand; Vecchi, Manuela; Zheng, Weikang

    2012-11-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5°. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  5. Extending the search for neutrino point sources with IceCube above the horizon

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.

    2009-11-20

    Point source searches with the IceCube neutrino telescope have been restricted to one hemisphere, due to the exclusive selection of upward going events as a way of rejecting the atmospheric muon background. We show that the region above the horizon can be included by suppressing the background through energy-sensitive cuts. This approach improves the sensitivity above PeV energies, previously not accessible for declinations of more than a few degrees below the horizon due to the absorption of neutrinos in Earth. We present results based on data collected with 22 strings of IceCube, extending its field of view and energy reach for point source searches. No significant excess above the atmospheric background is observed in a sky scan and in tests of source candidates. Upper limits are reported, which for the first time cover point sources in the southern sky up to EeV energies.

  6. A very intense neutrino super beam experiment for leptonic CP violation discovery based on the European spallation source linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baussan, E.; Blennow, M.; Bogomilov, M.; Bouquerel, E.; Caretta, O.; Cederkäll, J.; Christiansen, P.; Coloma, P.; Cupial, P.; Danared, H.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Dracos, M.; Ekelöf, T.; Eshraqi, M.; Fernandez Martinez, E.; Gaudiot, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Koutchouk, J.-P.; Lindroos, M.; Loveridge, P.; Matev, R.; McGinnis, D.; Mezzetto, M.; Miyamoto, R.; Mosca, L.; Ohlsson, T.; Öhman, H.; Osswald, F.; Peggs, S.; Poussot, P.; Ruber, R.; Tang, J. Y.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Wurtz, J.

    2014-08-01

    Very intense neutrino beams and large neutrino detectors will be needed in order to enable the discovery of CP violation in the leptonic sector. We propose to use the proton linac of the European Spallation Source currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, to deliver, in parallel with the spallation neutron production, a very intense, cost effective and high performance neutrino beam. The baseline program for the European Spallation Source linac is that it will be fully operational at 5 MW average power by 2022, producing 2 GeV 2.86 ms long proton pulses at a rate of 14 Hz. Our proposal is to upgrade the linac to 10 MW average power and 28 Hz, producing 14 pulses/s for neutron production and 14 pulses/s for neutrino production. Furthermore, because of the high current required in the pulsed neutrino horn, the length of the pulses used for neutrino production needs to be compressed to a few μs with the aid of an accumulator ring. A long baseline experiment using this Super Beam and a megaton underground Water Cherenkov detector located in existing mines 300-600 km from Lund will make it possible to discover leptonic CP violation at 5 σ significance level in up to 50% of the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase range. This experiment could also determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at a significance level of more than 3 σ if this issue will not already have been settled by other experiments by then. The mass hierarchy performance could be increased by combining the neutrino beam results with those obtained from atmospheric neutrinos detected by the same large volume detector. This detector will also be used to measure the proton lifetime, detect cosmological neutrinos and neutrinos from supernova explosions. Results on the sensitivity to leptonic CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy are presented.

  7. Reevaluation of the prospect of observing neutrinos from Galactic sources in the light of recent results in gamma ray and neutrino astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Halzen, F.; Niro, V.

    2014-05-01

    In light of the recent IceCube evidence for a flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos, we revisit the prospect of observing the sources of the Galactic cosmic rays. In particular, we update the predictions for the neutrino flux expected from sources in the nearby star-forming region in Cygnus taking into account recent TeV gamma ray measurements of their spectra. We consider the three Milagro sources: MGRO J2019+37, MGRO J1908+06 and MGRO J2031+41 and calculate the attainable confidence level limits and statistical significance as a function of the exposure time. We also evaluate the prospects for a kilometer-scale detector in the Mediterranean to observe and elucidate the origin of the cosmic neutrino flux measured by IceCube.

  8. IceCube constraints on fast-spinning pulsars as high-energy neutrino sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko; Murase, Kohta; Olinto, Angela V. E-mail: kotera@iap.fr E-mail: olinto@kicp.uchicago.edu

    2016-04-01

    Relativistic winds of fast-spinning pulsars have been proposed as a potential site for cosmic-ray acceleration from very high energies (VHE) to ultrahigh energies (UHE). We re-examine conditions for high-energy neutrino production, considering the interaction of accelerated particles with baryons of the expanding supernova ejecta and the radiation fields in the wind nebula. We make use of the current IceCube sensitivity in diffusive high-energy neutrino background, in order to constrain the parameter space of the most extreme neutron stars as sources of VHE and UHE cosmic rays. We demonstrate that the current non-observation of 10{sup 18} eV neutrinos put stringent constraints on the pulsar scenario. For a given model, birthrates, ejecta mass and acceleration efficiency of the magnetar sources can be constrained. When we assume a proton cosmic ray composition and spherical supernovae ejecta, we find that the IceCube limits almost exclude their significant contribution to the observed UHE cosmic-ray flux. Furthermore, we consider scenarios where a fraction of cosmic rays can escape from jet-like structures piercing the ejecta, without significant interactions. Such scenarios would enable the production of UHE cosmic rays and help remove the tension between their EeV neutrino production and the observational data.

  9. IceCube constraints on fast-spinning pulsars as high-energy neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko; Murase, Kohta; Olinto, Angela V.

    2016-04-01

    Relativistic winds of fast-spinning pulsars have been proposed as a potential site for cosmic-ray acceleration from very high energies (VHE) to ultrahigh energies (UHE). We re-examine conditions for high-energy neutrino production, considering the interaction of accelerated particles with baryons of the expanding supernova ejecta and the radiation fields in the wind nebula. We make use of the current IceCube sensitivity in diffusive high-energy neutrino background, in order to constrain the parameter space of the most extreme neutron stars as sources of VHE and UHE cosmic rays. We demonstrate that the current non-observation of 1018 eV neutrinos put stringent constraints on the pulsar scenario. For a given model, birthrates, ejecta mass and acceleration efficiency of the magnetar sources can be constrained. When we assume a proton cosmic ray composition and spherical supernovae ejecta, we find that the IceCube limits almost exclude their significant contribution to the observed UHE cosmic-ray flux. Furthermore, we consider scenarios where a fraction of cosmic rays can escape from jet-like structures piercing the ejecta, without significant interactions. Such scenarios would enable the production of UHE cosmic rays and help remove the tension between their EeV neutrino production and the observational data.

  10. Development of a compact 20 MeV gamma-ray source for energy calibration at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, A.W.P.; Browne, M.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Waltham, C.E.; Kherani, N.P.

    1995-12-31

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a real-time neutrino detector under construction near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. SNO collaboration is developing various calibration sources in order to determine the detector response completely. This paper describes briefly the calibration sources being developed by the collaboration. One of these, a compact {sup 3}H(p,{gamma}){sup 4}He source, which produces 20-MeV {gamma}-rays, is described.

  11. Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

    The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water Čerenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

  12. Prospects for Detecting Galactic Sources of Cosmic Neutrinos with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheirandish, Ali; Halzen, Francis; Niro, Vivana

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the prospects for detecting the neutrino emission from sources in the Galactic plane assuming that the highest energy photons originate from the decay of pions, which yields a straightforward prediction for the neutrino flux from the decay of the associated production of charged pions. Four promising sources are identified based on having a large flux and a flat spectrum. We subsequently evaluate the probability of their identification in IceCube data as a function of time. We show that observing them over the twenty-year lifetime of the instrumentation is likely, and that some should be observable at the 3 σ level with six years of data. In the absence of positive results, we derive constraints on the spectral index and cut-off energy of the sources, assuming a hadronic acceleration mechanism.

  13. A New Method for Finding Point Sources in High-Energy Neutrino Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovinazzi, Mark; IceCube Neutrino Observatory Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has not yet been able to identify an astrophysical point source from which a high-energy neutrino has originated. In this analysis, we implement a new method for finding such point sources by choosing to examine pairs of detected events rather than individual ones, noting that clusters of events are more likely to come from a single source than those from widely different parts of the sky. We wish to measure the angular distances between all possible pairs of events, scaling each by the pair's angular resolution errors summed in quadrature. Furthermore, we compare this result to statistically generated distributions of both a diffuse and a clustered set of events. Our new method is thus designed to teach us exactly how point-source-like our sample of detected events really is. We propose that our analysis should be able to determine the origins of any given clustering of events within the IceCube data, allowing us to discover the first neutrino point source in history.

  14. Choked jets and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts as hidden neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We consider gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets that are choked by extended material as sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We take into account the jet propagation physics both inside the progenitor star and the surrounding dense medium. Radiation constraints, which are relevant for high-energy neutrino production, are considered as well. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays is possible for sufficiently low-power jets and/or jets buried in a dense, extended wind or outer envelope. Such conditions also favor GRB jets to become stalled, and the necessary conditions for stalling are explicitly derived. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic supernovae (SNe) and low-luminosity (LL) GRBs, giving a unified picture of GRBs and GRB-SNe. Focusing on this unified scenario for GRBs, we calculate the resulting neutrino spectra from choked jets, including the relevant microphysical processes such as multipion production in p p and p γ interactions, as well as the energy losses of mesons and muons. We obtain diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results for the luminosity function of LL GRBs. Although uncertainties are large, we confirm that LL GRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux. Our results are consistent with the present IceCube data and do not violate the stacking limits on classical high-luminosity GRBs. We find that high-energy neutrino production in choked jets is dominated by p γ interactions. These sources are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Assuming stalled jets can launch a quasispherical shock in the dense medium, "precursor" TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout gamma-ray emission can be used as smoking-gun evidence for a choked jet model for LL GRBs. Our results strengthen the relevance of wide field-of-view sky monitors with better sensitivities in the 1-100 keV range.

  15. Choked Jets and Low-Luminosity Gamma-Ray Bursts as Hidden Neutrino Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-03-01

    I will discuss choked gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets as possible sources of very high-energy (VHE) cosmic neutrinos. The jet propagation physics and radiation constraints are taken into account. We find that efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays inside a high density stellar environment is possible for sufficiently low-powered jets and/or jets buried in an extended optically think envelope. Such conditions are favorable also for the GRB jets to become stalled. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic SNe or low-luminosity GRBs by launching quasi-spherical shocks that breakout in the optically thick wind. Focusing on this possibility, we calculate the resulting diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results of the local llGRB rate and luminosity function. We confirm that llGRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the measured neutrino flux. The results are compatible with the IceCube (IC) data around 10-100 TeV without contradicting other IC limits on classical GRBs. Choked and llGRBs are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays, and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Precursor TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout emission can be used as smoking gun evidence for a choked jet model for llGRBs.

  16. Neutrino-Gamma Multi-Messenger Source Detection via the Astrophysical Multi-Messenger Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixelle, Josh; Miles, S.; AMON

    2014-01-01

    The idea of multi-messenger event detection has long been explored in the context of above-threshold analysis performed by the IceCube collaboration using Swift BAT and by the Amanda collaboration using BATSE. While these investigations produced null results, they left the event space of sub-threshold events untouched. This untapped event space, combined with the addition of new observatories for various bands and messenger types, provides the obvious niche for a GBN style network to exist: AMON. We consider Monte-carlo models of pair-wise detection between sub-threshold IceCube neutrino doublets, sub-threshold neutrino-gamma doublets with Swift BAT, and with sub-threshold higher multiplicity neutrino-gamma coincidences with Fermi LAT. Several detection methods were considered and compared to the status quo analyses of neutrino doublets by IceCube, demonstrating significant sensitivity gain. The MC model analysis was followed by an archival doublet analysis between IceCube-40 and Fermi LAT data within their co-temporal window of observation. Several methods for detecting statistical signal excess in the archival analysis were considered, providing an upper limit on source population parameters for the given analysis sensitivity.

  17. A combined study of source, detector and matter non-standard neutrino interactions at DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Choubey, Sandhya; Ohlsson, Tommy; Pramanik, Dipyaman; Raut, Sushant K.

    2016-08-01

    We simultaneously investigate source, detector and matter non-standard neutrino interactions at the proposed DUNE experiment. Our analysis is performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo exploring the full parameter space. We find that the sensitivity of DUNE to the standard oscillation parameters is worsened due to the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions. In particular, there are degenerate solutions in the leptonic mixing angle θ 23 and the Dirac CP-violating phase δ. We also compute the expected sensitivities at DUNE to the non-standard interaction parameters. We find that the sensitivities to the matter non-standard interaction parameters are substantially stronger than the current bounds (up to a factor of about 15). Furthermore, we discuss correlations between the source/detector and matter non-standard interaction parameters and find a degenerate solution in θ 23. Finally, we explore the effect of statistics on our results.

  18. Underground neutrino astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium.

  19. Permeability of the small intestine to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with acute gastroenteritis or eczema

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1985-06-01

    Increased gut permeability to macromolecules is thought to be an important factor in the development of food hypersensitivity. The latter can develop in the course of acute gastroenteritis and could play a role in infantile eczema. The authors studied gut permeability in 10 normal adults, 11 control children, 7 children with acute gastroenteritis, and 8 patients with infantile eczema, making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was given orally (50-100 microCi); 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the oral dose. Mean and standard error were 2.35 +/- 0.24, 2.51 +/- 0.21, 9.96 +/- 3.44, and 10.90 +/- 2.05 in normal adults, control children, and gastroenteritis and eczema patients, respectively. Differences between controls and either gastroenteritis (p less than 0.001) or eczema (p less than 0.001) patients are significant. The results support the hypothesis that increased gut permeability could play a role in food hypersensitivity.

  20. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; ...

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  1. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  2. Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Cardall, Christian Y

    2007-01-01

    A nascent neutron star resulting from stellar collapse is a prodigious source of neutrinos of all flavors. While the most basic features of this neutrino emission can be estimated from simple considerations, the detailed simulation of the neutrinos' decoupling from the hot neutron star is not yet computationally tractable in its full glory, being a time-dependent six-dimensional transport problem. Nevertheless, supernova neutrino fluxes are of great interest in connection with the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism and supernova nucleosynthesis, and as a potential probe of the supernova environment and of some of the neutrino mixing parameters that remain unknown; hence, a variety of approximate transport schemes have been used to obtain results with reduced dimensionality. However, none of these approximate schemes have addressed a recent challenge to the conventional wisdom that neutrino flavor mixing cannot impact the explosion mechanism or r-process nucleosynthesis.

  3. Gamma-ray constraints on maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes and UHECR source evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Kalashev, Oleg; Semikoz, Dmitri V.

    2012-01-01

    The dip model assumes that the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 1018 eV consist exclusively of protons and is consistent with the spectrum and composition measure by HiRes. Here we present the range of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes in the dip-model which are compatible with a recent determination of the extragalactic very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray diffuse background derived from 2.5 years of Fermi/LAT data. We show that the largest fluxes predicted in the dip model would be detectable by IceCube in about 10 years of observation and are within the reach of a few years of observation with the ARA project. In the incomplete UHECR model in which protons are assumed to dominate only above 1019 eV, the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes could be a factor of 2 or 3 larger. Any fraction of heavier nuclei in the UHECR at these energies would reduce the maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. We also consider here special evolution models in which the UHECR sources are assumed to have the same evolution of either the star formation rate (SFR), or the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate, or the active galactic nuclei (AGN) rate in the Universe and found that the last two are disfavored (and in the dip model rejected) by the new VHE gamma-ray background.

  4. Galactic sources of high energy neutrinos: Expectation from gamma-ray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahakyan, N.

    2016-07-01

    The recent results from ground based γ-ray detectors (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) provide a population of TeV galactic γ-ray sources which are potential sources of High Energy (HE) neutrinos. Since the γ-rays and ν-s are produced from decays of neutral and charged pions, the flux of TeV γ-rays can be used to estimate the upper limit of ν flux and vice versa; the detectability of ν flux implies a minimum flux of the accompanying γ-rays (assuming the internal and the external absorption of γ-rays is negligible). Using this minimum flux, it is possible to find the sources which can be detected with cubic-kilometer telescopes. I will discuss the possibility to detect HE neutrinos from powerful galactic accelerators, such as Supernova Remnants (SNRs) and Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) and show that likely only RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622 and Vela X can be detected by current generation of instruments (IceCube and Km3Net). It will be shown also, that galactic binary systems could be promising sources of HE ν-s. In particular, ν-s and γ-rays from Cygnus X-3 will be discussed during recent gamma-ray activity, showing that in the future such kind of activities could produce detectable flux of HE ν-s.

  5. Radiolabeled red cell viability. I. Comparison of /sup 51/Cr, /sup 99m/Tc, and /sup 111/In for measuring the viability of autologous stored red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.; Demianew, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 99m/Tc red cell (RBC) and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in additive media (Nutracel) for 42 or 49 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 99m/Tc value was 1.23. In this experiment we also calculated /sup 51/Cr RBC viability by both the single-isotope method (extrapolation) and the double-isotope method (using /sup 125/I human serum albumin for an independent plasma volume) in the same volunteers. The corresponding viability values were not significantly different. The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 111/In-oxine RBC and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 other normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) for 1 or 15 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 111/In value was 1.1. Use of these 24-hour viability ratios as conversion factors permits direct comparison of /sup 99m/Tc or /sup 111/In RBC viability with a /sup 51/Cr standard, and therefore expands the application of these newer RBC radiolabels.

  6. Platelet turnover and kinetics in immune thrombocytopenic purpura: results with autologous 111In-labeled platelets and homologous 51Cr-labeled platelets differ

    SciTech Connect

    Heyns A du, P.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Loetter, M.G.P.; Pieters, H.; Wessels, P.; Kotze, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    Mean platelet survival and turnover were simultaneously determined with autologous 111In-labeled platelets (111In-AP) and homologous 51Cr-labeled platelets (51Cr-HP) in ten patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). In vivo redistribution of the 111In-AP was quantitated with a scintillation camera and computer-assisted image analysis. The patients were divided into two groups: those with splenic platelet sequestration (spleen-liver 111In activity ratio greater than 1.4), and those with diffuse sequestration in the reticuloendothelial system. The latter patients had more severe ITP reflected by pronounced thrombocytopenia, decreased platelet turnover, and prominent early hepatic platelet sequestration. Mean platelet life span estimated with 51Cr-HP was consistently shorter than that of 111In-AP. Platelet turnover determined with 51Cr-HP was thus over-estimated. The difference in results with the two isotope labels was apparently due to greater in vivo elution of 51Cr. Although the limitations of the techniques should be taken into account, these findings indicate that platelet turnover is not always normal or increased in ITP, but is low in severe disease. We suggest that this may be ascribed to damage to megakaryocytes by antiplatelet antibody. The physical characteristics in 111In clearly make this radionuclide superior to 51Cr for the study of platelet kinetics in ITP.

  7. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  8. Search for cosmic high energy down-going neutrino fluxes from point-like sources with ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrina, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    Installed in the Mediterranean Sea, at a depth of ∼ 2.5 km, ANTARES is the largest undersea neutrino telescope currently operating. The search for point-like sources with neutrino telescopes is normally limited to a fraction of the sky, due to the selection of events for which the direction of the neutrino candidate has been reconstructed as coming from below the detector horizon, usually referred to as “up-going” events, in order to significantly reduce the atmospheric muons background. In this contribution we demonstrate that through an energy and direction dependent event selection the background can be effectively suppressed so that a part of the region above the horizon can be included in the search. The strategy for the study of a “down-going” neutrino flux is described and the ANTARES sensitivity is presented. No indication of a neutrino signal has been found in the analysed data and upper limits on the flux normalization of a ∝ Ev -2 energy spectrum of neutrinos from several candidate point-like sources in that region have been set.

  9. A fast chopper for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.; Dymokde-Bradshaw, A.; Hares, J.; Kellett, P.

    2008-10-01

    A fast chopper capable of kicking single 2.5 MeV H-bunches spaced at 325 MHz, at rates greater than 50 MHz is needed for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) [1]. Four 1.2 kV fast pulsers, designed and manufactured by Kentech Instruments Ltd., will drive a 0.5 m long meander made from a copper plated ceramic composite. Test results showing pulses from the first 1.2 kV pulser and meander results will be presented.

  10. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  11. Reactor target from metal chromium for "pure" high-intensive artificial neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Logachev, A. V.; Logacheva, A. I.; Lednev, I. S.; Okunkova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of development of manufacturing technology of metallic chromium targets from highly enriched isotope 50Cr for irradiation in a high flux nuclear reactor to obtain a compact high intensity neutrino source with low content of radionuclide impurities and minimum losses of enriched isotope. The main technological stages are the hydrolysis of chromyl fluoride, the electrochemical reduction of metallic chromium, the hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and the electrical discharge machining of chromium bars. The technological stages of hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and of electrical discharge machining of Cr rods have been tested.

  12. Probing of the neutrino magnetic moment at the level of 10{sup -22} μ{sub B} with an intense tritium source of (anti)neutrino and helium target (project)

    SciTech Connect

    Martemyanov, V.P.; Aleshin, V.I.; Tarasenko, V.G.; Tsinoev, V.G.; Sabelnikov, A.A.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Popov, V.V.; Baluev, V.V.; Golubkov, A.N.; Klevtsov, V.G.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Sitdikov, D.T.; Bogdanova, L.N.

    2015-03-15

    We present research results of the preparation project for the experimental measurement of the (anti)neutrino magnetic moment at the level of 10{sup -12} μ{sub B} using an intense tritium source of antineutrinos and a liquid helium scintillation detector. The neutrino detection in the scintillation detector is based on the scattering of neutrinos by the electrons of the helium atoms that produces fast electrons able to ionize and exciting helium atoms. The detection of the atomic radiation emitted during the relaxation process of the helium atoms and the knowledge of its parameters will allow us to conclude on the neutrino properties.

  13. Mannitol clearance for the determination of glomerular filtration rate-a validation against clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Katalin; Molnár, Miklós; Söndergaard, Sören; Molnár, Gyula; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2016-06-03

    We studied the agreement between plasma clearance of mannitol and the reference method, plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA in outpatients with normal to moderately impaired renal function. Forty-one patients with a serum creatinine <200 μmol l(-1) entered the study. (51) Cr-EDTA clearance was measured with the standard bolus injection technique and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by the single-sample method described by Jacobsson. Mannitol, 0·25 g kg(-1) body weight (150 mg ml(-1) ), was infused for 4-14 min and blood samples taken at 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-h (n = 24) or 2-, 3-, 3·5- and 4-h after infusion (n = 17). Mannitol in serum was measured by an enzymatic method. Plasma clearance for mannitol and its apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were calculated according to Brøchner-Mortensen. Mean plasma clearance (±SD) for (51) Cr-EDTA was 59·7 ± 18·8 ml min(-1) . The mean plasma clearance for mannitol ranged between 57·0 ± 20·1 and 61·1 ± 16·7 ml min(-1) and Vd was 21·3 ± 6·2% per kg b.w. The between-method bias ranged between -0·23 and 2·73 ml min(-1) , the percentage error between 26·7 and 39·5% and the limits of agreement between -14·3/17·2 and -25·3/19·9 ml min(-1) . The best agreement was seen when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained and when sampling started 60 min after injection. Furthermore, accuracy of plasma clearance determinations was 88-96% (P30) and 41-63% (P10) and was highest when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained, including the first hour after the bolus dose. We conclude that there is a good agreement between plasma clearances of mannitol and (51) Cr-EDTA for the assessment of GFR.

  14. Use of /sup 51/Cr-labeled mononuclear cells for measuring the cellular immune response in mouse lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkower, A.; Scheuchenzuber, W.J.; Ferguson, F.G.

    1981-02-01

    Spleen cells labeled with /sup 51/Cr were used in sensitized syngeneic mice to measure the degree of mononuclear cell infiltration into antigen-challenged tissues. With this method, increased cellular infiltration was found after footpad challenge of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocyte, Escherichia coli, and BCG antigens. Cellular response also was determined by using this technique in the lungs of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocytes and BCG. This procedure offers the opportunity to measure cellular infiltration, whether due to cellular or humoral influences, in tissues not easily accessible to conventional immunological manipulation.

  15. Use of 51Cr-labeled mononuclear cells for measuring the cellular immune response in mouse lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkower, A.; Scheuchenzuber, W.J.; Ferguson, F.G.

    1981-02-01

    Spleen cells labeled with 51Cr were used in sensitized syngeneic mice to measure the degree of mononuclear cell infiltration into antigen-challenged tissues. With this method, increased cellular infiltration was found after footpad challenge of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocyte, Escherichia coli, and BCG antigens. Cellular response also was determined by using this technique in the lungs of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocytes and BCG. This procedure offers the opportunity to measure cellular infiltration, whether due to cellular or humoral influences, in tissues not easily accessible to conventional immunological manipulation.

  16. The diffuse neutrino flux from FR-II radio galaxies and blazars: A source property based estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Julia K.; Biermann, Peter L.; Rhode, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    Water and ice Cherenkov telescopes of the present and future aim for the detection of a neutrino signal from extraterrestrial sources at energies Eν > PeV [Woschnagg and AMANDA Collaboration, Astro-ph/0409423, talk at Neutrino 2004; Montaruli, in: Peter W. Gorham, Particle Astrophysics Instrumentation, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4858, 2003, p. 92; IceCube Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 20 (2004) 507]. Some of the most promising extragalactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this paper, the neutrino flux from two kinds of AGN sources will be estimated assuming pγ interactions in the jets of the AGN. The first analyzed sample contains FR-II radio galaxies while the second AGN type examined are blazars. The result is highly dependent on the proton's index of the energy spectrum. To normalize the spectrum, the connection between neutrino and disk luminosity will be used by applying the jet-disk symbiosis model from Falcke and Biermann [Astron. Astrophys. 293 (1995) 665]. The maximum proton energy and thus, also the maximum neutrino energy of the source is connected to its disk luminosity, which was shown by Lovelace [Nature 262 (1976) 649] and was confirmed by Falcke et al. [Astron. Astrophys. 298 (1995) 375].

  17. An experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using a cryogenic tritium source

    SciTech Connect

    Fackler, O.; Jeziorski, B.; Kolos, W.; Monkhorst, H.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; Szalewicz, K.; White, R.M.; Woerner, R.

    1985-06-25

    An experiment has been performed to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectrometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations have been made for tritium and the HeT/sup +/ daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. The excited final molecular state calculations and the experimental apparatus are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using a frozen tritium source

    SciTech Connect

    Fackler, O.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; White, R.M.; Woerner, R.

    1985-03-01

    We are performing an experiment to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectrometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations can be precisely made for tritium and the HeT/sup +/ daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. We discuss the excited final molecular state calculations and describe the experimental apparatus. 2 references, 6 figures.

  19. Applications of an 88Y/Be photoneutron calibration source to dark matter and neutrino experiments.

    PubMed

    Collar, J I

    2013-05-24

    The low-energy monochromatic neutron emission from an (88)Y/Be source can be exploited to mimic the few keV(nr) nuclear recoils expected from low-mass weakly interacting massive particles and coherent scattering of neutrinos off nuclei. Using this source, a

  20. Evidence against Star-forming Galaxies as the Dominant Source of Icecube Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtol, Keith; Ahlers, Markus; Di Mauro, Mattia; Ajello, Marco; Vandenbroucke, Justin

    2017-02-01

    The cumulative emission resulting from hadronic cosmic-ray interactions in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) has been proposed as the dominant contribution to the astrophysical neutrino flux at TeV to PeV energies reported by IceCube. The same particle interactions also inevitably create γ-ray emission that could be detectable as a component of the extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), which is now measured with the Fermi-LAT in the energy range from 0.1 to 820 GeV. New studies of the blazar flux distribution at γ-ray energies above 50 GeV place an upper bound on the residual non-blazar component of the EGB. We show that these results are in strong tension with models that consider SFGs as the dominant source of the diffuse neutrino backgrounds. A characteristic spectral index for parent cosmic rays in starburst galaxies of ΓSB ≃ 2.3 for {dN}/{dE}\\propto {E}-{{{Γ }}{SB}} is consistent with the observed scaling relation between γ-ray and IR luminosity for SFGs, the bounds from the non-blazar EGB, and the observed γ-ray spectra of individual starbursts, but underpredicts the IceCube data by approximately an order of magnitude.

  1. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  2. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  3. Two-dimensional Core-collapse Supernova Simulations with the Isotropic Diffusion Source Approximation for Neutrino Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Hempel, Matthias; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mechanism of core-collapse supernova is investigated via non-relativistic, two-dimensional (2D), neutrino radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. For the transport of electron flavor neutrinos, we use the interaction rates defined by Bruenn and the isotropic diffusion source approximation (IDSA) scheme, which decomposes the transported particles into trapped-particle and streaming-particle components. Heavy neutrinos are described by a leakage scheme. Unlike the “ray-by-ray” approach in some other multidimensional supernova models, we use cylindrical coordinates and solve the trapped-particle component in multiple dimensions, improving the proto-neutron star resolution and the neutrino transport in angular and temporal directions. We provide an IDSA verification by performing one-dimensional (1D) and 2D simulations with 15 and 20 M⊙ progenitors from Woosley et al. and discuss the difference between our IDSA results and those existing in the literature. Additionally, we perform Newtonian 1D and 2D simulations from prebounce core collapse to several hundred milliseconds postbounce with 11, 15, 21, and 27 M⊙ progenitors from Woosley et al. with the HS(DD2) equation of state. General-relativistic effects are neglected. We obtain robust explosions with diagnostic energies Edia ≳ 0.1-0.5 B (1 B ≡ 1051 erg) for all considered 2D models within approximately 100-300 ms after bounce and find that explosions are mostly dominated by the neutrino-driven convection, although standing accretion shock instabilities are observed as well. We also find that the level of electron deleptonization during collapse dramatically affects the postbounce evolution, e.g., the neglect of neutrino-electron scattering during collapse will lead to a stronger explosion.

  4. Searches for extended and point-like neutrino sources with four years of IceCube data

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Berley, D.; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2014-12-01

    We present results on searches for point-like sources of neutrinos using four years of IceCube data, including the first year of data from the completed 86 string detector. The total livetime of the combined data set is 1373 days. For an E {sup –2} spectrum, the observed 90% C.L. flux upper limits are ∼10{sup –12} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and ∼10{sup –11} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} for energies between 100 TeV and 100 PeV in the southern sky. This represents a 40% improvement compared to previous publications, resulting from both the additional year of data and the introduction of improved reconstructions. In addition, we present the first results from an all-sky search for extended sources of neutrinos. We update the results of searches for neutrino emission from stacked catalogs of sources and test five new catalogs; two of Galactic supernova remnants and three of active galactic nuclei. In all cases, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis, and upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos are reported for the sources considered.

  5. Searches for Extended and Point-like Neutrino Sources with Four Years of IceCube Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    We present results on searches for point-like sources of neutrinos using four years of IceCube data, including the first year of data from the completed 86 string detector. The total livetime of the combined data set is 1373 days. For an E -2 spectrum, the observed 90% C.L. flux upper limits are ~10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and ~10-11 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 for energies between 100 TeV and 100 PeV in the southern sky. This represents a 40% improvement compared to previous publications, resulting from both the additional year of data and the introduction of improved reconstructions. In addition, we present the first results from an all-sky search for extended sources of neutrinos. We update the results of searches for neutrino emission from stacked catalogs of sources and test five new catalogs; two of Galactic supernova remnants and three of active galactic nuclei. In all cases, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis, and upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos are reported for the sources considered.

  6. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  7. Observational constraints on multimessenger sources of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Imre; Finley, Chad; Corsi, Alessandra; Márka, Szabolcs

    2011-12-16

    Many astronomical sources of intense bursts of photons are also predicted to be strong emitters of gravitational waves (GWs) and high-energy neutrinos (HENs). Moreover some suspected classes, e.g., choked gamma-ray bursts, may only be identifiable via nonphoton messengers. Here we explore the reach of current and planned experiments to address this question. We derive constraints on the rate of GW and HEN bursts based on independent observations by the initial LIGO and Virgo GW detectors and the partially completed IceCube (40-string) HEN detector. We then estimate the reach of joint GW+HEN searches using advanced GW detectors and the completed km(3) IceCube detector to probe the joint parameter space. We show that searches undertaken by advanced detectors will be capable of detecting, constraining, or excluding, several existing models with 1 yr of observation.

  8. Coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering detection with a CsI[Na] scintillator at the SNS spallation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collar, J. I.; Fields, N. E.; Hai, M.; Hossbach, T. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Perumpilly, G.; Scholz, B.

    2015-02-01

    We study the possibility of using CsI[Na] scintillators as an advantageous target for the detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS), using the neutrino emissions from the SNS spallation source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The response of this material to low-energy nuclear recoils like those expected from this process is characterized. Backgrounds are studied using a 2 kg low-background prototype crystal in a dedicated radiation shield. The conclusion is that a planned 14 kg detector should measure approximately 550 CENNS events per year above a demonstrated ~ 7 keVnr low-energy threshold, with a signal-to-background ratio sufficient for a first measurement of the CENNS cross-section. The cross-section for the 208Pb(νe ,e-)208Bi reaction, of interest for future supernova neutrino detection, can be simultaneously obtained.

  9. Comparative gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone as assessed by radiochromium (/sup 51/Cr)

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, A.; Davis, A.; Lussier, Y.; Lebel, E.

    1989-03-01

    Nabumetone differs from most other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is presented to the gut as a nonacidic prodrug, and is metabolized to its active form after absorption. Studies in animals and humans suggest it is less irritating to the gastrointestinal mucosa. This study compared the gastrointestinal microbleeding induced by nabumetone to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), and placebo in a double blind parallel study using chromium /sup 51/Cr labelled red cells to quantitate fecal blood loss (FBL) in healthy volunteers. Thirty subjects were randomized to treatment with nabumetone (2000 mg), ASA (3.6 g) or placebo for 21 days following a 7 day placebo period. Six subjects served as untreated controls. FBL in nabumetone treated subjects was not significantly different to placebo or untreated subjects. In contrast, ASA-treated subjects exhibited significantly increased FBL than the other 3 groups (P less than .0001).

  10. Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

  11. Sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to neutrino fluxes from Galactic point-like sources

    SciTech Connect

    Trovato, A.; Coniglione, R.; Sapienza, P.; Kooijman, P.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration has started the implementation of the first phase of a cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere with an integrated platform for Earth and deep sea sciences. The location in the Mediterranean Sea will allow for surveying a large part of the sky, including most of the Galactic Plane and the Galactic Centre, thus complementing the sky coverage of IceCube at the South Pole. Amongst the potential Galactic neutrino sources, SuperNova Remnants are particularly promising since their measured gamma-ray emission extends to several tenths of TeV and exhibits indications for hadronic processes. Assuming a hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission, the models for neutrino emission from SuperNova Remnants and also from other source types such as pulsars are robustly constrained by gamma-ray measurements. We report expected KM3NeT sensitivities for neutrino fluxes from RXJ1713.7-3946 and Vela X. The sensitivity to point-like sources with a E{sup −2} power law energy spectrum is also reported and compared to the other existing detectors.

  12. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal, part III

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Steven Ray

    2008-01-01

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keY of 65.4{sup +3.1}{sub 3.0} (stat) {sup +2.6}{sub -2.8} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neUlrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 {+-} 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.88 {+-} 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63--67 SNU with an uncertainly of about 5%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the pp neutrino flux produced in the Sun to be {phi}{sup {circle_dot}}{sub pp} = (6.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  13. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  14. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  15. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  16. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS WITH THE ISOTROPIC DIFFUSION SOURCE APPROXIMATION FOR NEUTRINO TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Hempel, Matthias; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2016-01-20

    The neutrino mechanism of core-collapse supernova is investigated via non-relativistic, two-dimensional (2D), neutrino radiation–hydrodynamic simulations. For the transport of electron flavor neutrinos, we use the interaction rates defined by Bruenn and the isotropic diffusion source approximation (IDSA) scheme, which decomposes the transported particles into trapped-particle and streaming-particle components. Heavy neutrinos are described by a leakage scheme. Unlike the “ray-by-ray” approach in some other multidimensional supernova models, we use cylindrical coordinates and solve the trapped-particle component in multiple dimensions, improving the proto-neutron star resolution and the neutrino transport in angular and temporal directions. We provide an IDSA verification by performing one-dimensional (1D) and 2D simulations with 15 and 20 M{sub ⊙} progenitors from Woosley et al. and discuss the difference between our IDSA results and those existing in the literature. Additionally, we perform Newtonian 1D and 2D simulations from prebounce core collapse to several hundred milliseconds postbounce with 11, 15, 21, and 27 M{sub ⊙} progenitors from Woosley et al. with the HS(DD2) equation of state. General-relativistic effects are neglected. We obtain robust explosions with diagnostic energies E{sub dia} ≳ 0.1–0.5 B (1 B ≡ 10{sup 51} erg) for all considered 2D models within approximately 100–300 ms after bounce and find that explosions are mostly dominated by the neutrino-driven convection, although standing accretion shock instabilities are observed as well. We also find that the level of electron deleptonization during collapse dramatically affects the postbounce evolution, e.g., the neglect of neutrino–electron scattering during collapse will lead to a stronger explosion.

  17. Solar neutrino experiments and neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Rowley, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    This report gives the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment that is based upon the neutrino capture reaction, /sup 37/Cl(..nu..,e/sup -/)/sup 37/Ar. The experiment was built in 1967 to test the theory of solar energy production, and it is well known that the neutrino capture rate in the detector is lower than that expected from theoretical models of the sun. The results will be compared to the current solar model calculations. One possible explanation of the low solar neutrino capture rate is that the neutrinos oscillate between two or more neutrino states, a topic of particular interest to this conference. This question is discussed in relation to the /sup 37/Cl experiment, and to other solar neutrino detectors that are capable of observing the lower energy neutrinos from the sun. A radiochemical solar neutrino detector located deep underground has a very low background and is capable of detecting the monoenergetic neutrinos from megacurie sources of radioisotopes that decay by electron capture. Experiments of this nature are described that are capable of testing for neutrino oscillations with a omicronm/sup 2/ as low as 0.2 eV/sup 2/ if there is maximum mixing between two neutrino states.

  18. Study of the sensitivity to point-like neutrino sources for a flexible-tower geometry for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, Rosa; Distefano, Carla; Sapienza, Piera; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    The KM3NeT consortium has investigated the performance of a high energy neutrino detector by means of Monte Carlo simulations. In this work the study of the sensitivity to point-like neutrino sources as a function of detector size and of source declination is presented. It is shown that the detector sensitivity improves less than linearly with increasing homogeneously instrumented volume and that the detector sky view is very large (about 3.5π).

  19. Clinical evaluation of a /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell survival test for in vivo blood compatibility testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Dharkar, D.D.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modified red blood cell survival studies with use of 51Cr were performed in three groups of subjects. Group 1 consisted of normal subjects who were given labeled autologous blood, group 2 were subjects in need of blood transfusions and given labeled ABO and Rh crossmatch-compatible blood, and group 3 were patients in need of blood transfusion but in whom problems arose in finding compatible blood. The results of the studies suggest that for patients with blood compatibility problems, normal red blood cell survival values at 1 hour do not exclude the possibility of severe hemolysis 24 hours later. Thus, if a 1-hour test result is normal, the procedure should be extended routinely to 24 hours. Moreover, the test can be used to evaluate the clinical importance of antibodies. We showed that anti-Yka and anti-Lan were clinically significant, but high-titer, low-avidity antibodies, anti-Kna, anti-I, and anti-HI were clinically insignificant in the cases studied. This finding emphasizes the importance of an in vivo test for the final compatibility evaluation in complicated blood replacement problems.

  20. Environment, safety, and health considerations for a neutrino source based on a muon storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    J. Donald Cossairt

    2000-05-15

    The Neutrino Source presents a number of challenges in the general area of environment, safety, and health. It is the intent of this paper to identify these challenges and make a preliminary, but not detailed assessment of how they might be addressed and of their potential impact on the project. Some of the considerations which must be taken into account are very similar to those that have been encountered and solved during the construction and operation of other facilities at Fermilab and at similar laboratories elsewhere in the US and worldwide. Other considerations have not been encountered previously in connection with the construction and operation of accelerator laboratories. These novel issues will require particular attention as such a project proceeds to assure their timely resolution in a manner that is cost-effective and that meets the approval of the public. In this paper, both the conventional and the novel issues are discussed, with more emphasis on the latter. It is concluded here that with adequate planning in the design stages, these problems can be adequately addressed in a manner that merits the support of the Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and the public. An abbreviated version of this paper appears as Chapter 14 in the report of a recent feasibility study (Ho 00)and the figures have come from that work.

  1. Anatomy of a cosmic-ray neutrino source and the Cygnus X-3 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Harding, A. K.; Barnard, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of an intense beam of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from a compact object in the Cygnus X-3 binary system hitting the companion star, and of the subsequent production of secondary neutrinos, are examined. A maximum allowable beam luminosity of about 10 to the 42nd erg/s is found for a system containing a 1-10 solar mass main sequence target star. The proton beam must heat a relatively small area of the target star to satisfy observational constraints on the resulting stellar wind. With such a model, the neutrino to gamma-ray flux ratio of about 1000 can result from a combination of gamma-ray absorption and a large neutrino to gamma-ray duty cycle ratio. It is found that the high density of the atmosphere resulting from compression by the beam leads to pion cascading and a neutrino spectrum peaking at 1-10 GeV energies.

  2. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  3. On the Detection of the Free Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., Jr.

    1953-08-06

    The experiment previously proposed [to Detect the Free Neutrino] has been initiated, with a Hanford pile as a neutrino source. It appears probable that neutrino detection has been accomplished, and confirmatory work is in progress. (K.S.)

  4. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-19

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We will proceed from the rst evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research

  5. Mass determination of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.

  6. Neutrinos from AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The great penetrating power of neutrinos makes them ideal probe of astrophysical sites and conditions inaccessible to other forms of radiation. These are the centers of stars (collapsing or not) and the centers of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It has been suggested that AGN presented a very promising source of high energy neutrinos, possibly detectable by underwater neutrino detectors. This paper reviews the evolution of ideas concerning the emission of neutrinos from AGN in view of the more recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy and their implications for the neutrino emission from these class of objects.

  7. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris

    2012-06-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.

  8. Solar Neutrino Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feilitzsch, F. v.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering experiment of R. Davis et al., which started neutrino astronomy by measuring the solar neutrinos via the inverse beta decay reaction on 37Cl, all solar neutrino experiments find a considerably lower flux than expected by standard solar models. This finding is generally called the solar neutrino problem. Many attempts have been made to explain this result by altering the solar models, or assuming different nuclear cross sections for fusion processes assumed to be the energy sources in the sun. There have been performed numerous experiments recently to investigate the different possibilities to explain the solar neutrino problem. These experiments covered solar physics with helioseismology, nuclear cross section measurements, and solar neutrino experiments. Up to now no convincing explanation based on "standard" physics was suggested. However, assuming nonstandard neutrino properties, i.e. neutrino masses and mixing as expected in most extensions of the standard theory of elementary particle physics, natural solutions for the solar neutrino problem can be found. It appears that with this newly invented neutrino astronomy fundamental information on astrophysics as well as elementary particle physics are tested uniquely. In this contribution an attempt is made to review the situation of the neutrino astronomy for solar neutrino spectroscopy and discuss the future prospects in this field.

  9. Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 1 09 GeV , based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high- energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5 ×1 05 GeV to above 1 011 GeV . Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6 ±0.3 )×1 06 GeV , the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7 ±2.0 )×1 05 GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6 σ . The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at >99 % CL because of the limited deposited energy and the nonobservation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having a cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and γ -ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models. These limits on the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux models are the most stringent to date.

  10. Effects of cryopreservation on effector cells for antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and natural killer (NK) cell activity in (51)Cr-release and CD107a assays.

    PubMed

    Mata, Mariana M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Sowell, Ryan T; Baum, Linda L

    2014-04-01

    Freshly isolated PBMC are broadly used as effector cells in functional assays that evaluate antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and NK activity; however, they introduce natural-individual donor-to-donor variability. Cryopreserved PBMC provide a more consistent source of effectors than fresh cells in cytotoxicity assays. Our objective was to determine the effects of cryopreservation of effector PBMC on cell frequency, and on the magnitude and specificity of ADCC and NK activity. Fresh, frozen/overnight rested and frozen/not rested PBMC were used as effector cells in (51)Cr-release and CD107a degranulation assays. Frozen/overnight rested PBMC had higher ADCC and NK activity in both assays when compared to fresh PBMC; however, when using frozen/not rested PBMC, ADCC and NK activities were significantly lower than fresh PBMC. Background CD107a degranulation in the absence of target cell stimulation was greater in PBMC that were frozen/not rested when compared to fresh PBMC or PBMC that were frozen overnight and rested. The percentages of CD16(+)CD56(dim) NK cells and CD14(+) monocytes were lower in PBMC that were frozen and rested overnight than in fresh PBMC. CD16 expression on CD56(dim) NK cells was similar for all PBMC treatments. PBMC that were frozen and rested overnight were comparable to fresh PBMC effectors. PBMC that were frozen and used immediately when evaluating ADCC or NK activity using either a (51)Cr-release assay or a CD107a degranulation assay had the lowest activity. Clinical studies of antibodies that mediate ADCC would benefit from using effector cells that have been frozen, thawed and rested overnight prior to assay.

  11. Experimental and theoretical study for the production of 51Cr using p, d, 3He and 4He projectiles on V, Ti and Cr targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solieman, A. H. M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Ditroi, F.; Saleh, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    Production of 51Cr (T1/2 = 27.7 d) have been studied experimentally through the reaction of proton and 3He on natV and natTi targets respectively by using a variable energy cyclotrons. Reaction cross sections were obtained at different energies using the stacked-foil technique. High resolution gamma ray spectrometers were used for measuring the γ-ray spectra. Comparison between the present experimental results and the previously reported data has been carried out and discussed. The possibility of producing 51Cr with reasonable yield using different projectiles and different natural targets was studied and reported. Excitation functions for the reactions of proton, deuteron, 3He and 4He particles on natural vanadium, titanium and chromium targets have been evaluated using two theoretical codes TALYS-1.6 and EMPIRE-3.1. The recommended cross-sections and the integral yields as well were obtained.

  12. All-sky Search for Time-integrated Neutrino Emission from Astrophysical Sources with 7 yr of IceCube Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Since the recent detection of an astrophysical flux of high-energy neutrinos, the question of its origin has not yet fully been answered. Much of what is known about this flux comes from a small event sample of high neutrino purity, good energy resolution, but large angular uncertainties. In searches for point-like sources, on the other hand, the best performance is given by using large statistics and good angular reconstructions. Track-like muon events produced in neutrino interactions satisfy these requirements. We present here the results of searches for point-like sources with neutrinos using data acquired by the IceCube detector over 7 yr from 2008 to 2015. The discovery potential of the analysis in the northern sky is now significantly below {E}ν 2dφ /{{dE}}ν = 10‑12 TeV cm‑2 s‑1, on average 38% lower than the sensitivity of the previously published analysis of 4 yr exposure. No significant clustering of neutrinos above background expectation was observed, and implications for prominent neutrino source candidates are discussed.

  13. The Latest Neutrino Oscillation Results from Super-Kamiokande

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, Henry W.

    2006-02-08

    Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with a net mass of 50,000 tons. The scientific goals of the experiment include searches for proton decays, and studies of neutrinos from various sources. In this paper we review some of the latest results from our neutrino oscillations studies using atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos and neutrinos from the KEK neutrino beam.

  14. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-15

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4{sub -3.0}{sup +3.1} (stat) {sub -2.8}{sup +2.6} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1{+-}3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87{+-}0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be {phi}{sub pp}{sup {center_dot}}=(6.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  15. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  16. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  17. Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini,Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

    2006-04-15

    The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here.

  18. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3-4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters {{sin}}2{θ }12, {{Δ }}{m}212, and | {{Δ }}{m}{ee}2| to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ˜5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ˜2000 all-flavor neutrino-proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and for exploring novel phenomena such as collective neutrino oscillations

  19. GALAXY MERGERS AS A SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS, NEUTRINOS, AND GAMMA RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2014-07-20

    We investigate the shock acceleration of particles in massive galaxy mergers or collisions, and show that cosmic rays (CRs) can be accelerated up to the second knee energy ∼0.1-1 EeV and possibly beyond, with a hard spectral index of Γ ≈ 2. Such CRs lose their energy via hadronuclear interactions within a dynamical timescale of the merger shock, producing gamma rays and neutrinos as a by-product. If ∼10% of the shock dissipated energy goes into CR acceleration, some local merging galaxies will produce gamma-ray counterparts detectable by the Cherenkov Telescope Array. Also, based on the concordance cosmology, where a good fraction of the massive galaxies experience a major merger in a cosmological timescale, the neutrino counterparts can constitute ∼20%-60% of the isotropic background detected by IceCube.

  20. Cosmic Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2008-02-01

    I recall the place of neutrinos in the electroweak theory and summarize what we know about neutrino mass and flavor change. I next review the essential characteristics expected for relic neutrinos and survey what we can say about the neutrino contribution to the dark matter of the Universe. Then I discuss the standard-model interactions of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, paying attention to the consequences of neutrino oscillations, and illustrate a few topics of interest to neutrino observatories. I conclude with short comments on the remote possibility of detecting relic neutrinos through annihilations of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos at the Z resonance.

  1. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, T.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of the neutrino rest mass plays an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. This topic is currently being addressed by two complementary approaches in laboratory experiments. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments probe whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine an effective neutrino mass value. Single beta decay experiments such as KATRIN and MARE investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Owing to neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass parameter appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β-spectroscopy close to the T 2 end-point with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/ c 2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino rest mass.

  2. Solar atmosphere neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P.D.; /Fermilab

    2007-02-01

    The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations on the solar atmosphere neutrino fluxes observable at Earth. We find that peculiar matter oscillation effects in the Sun do exist, but are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ''vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23}).

  3. Paradoxes of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2009-08-15

    Despite the theory of neutrino oscillations being rather old, some of its basic issues are still being debated in the literature. We discuss a number of such issues, including the relevance of the 'same energy' and 'same momentum' assumptions, the role of quantum-mechanical uncertainty relations in neutrino oscillations, the dependence of the coherence and localization conditions that ensure the observability of neutrino oscillations on neutrino energy and momentum uncertainties, the question of (in)dependence of the oscillation probabilities on the neutrino production and detection processes, and the applicability limits of the stationary-source approximation. We also develop a novel approach to calculation of the oscillation probability in the wave-packet approach, based on the summation/integration conventions different from the standard one, which allows a new insight into the 'same energy' vs. 'same momentum' problem. We also discuss a number of apparently paradoxical features of the theory of neutrino oscillations.

  4. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  5. Neutrino Oscillations with Reactor Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Anatael

    2007-06-01

    Prospect measurements of neutrino oscillations with reactor neutrinos are reviewed in this document. The following items are described: neutrinos oscillations status, reactor neutrino experimental strategy, impact of uncertainties on the neutrino oscillation sensitivity and, finally, the experiments in the field. This is the synthesis of the talk delivered during the NOW2006 conference at Otranto (Italy) during September 2006.

  6. Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Anton, G; Archinger, M; Argüelles, C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blot, S; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Burgman, A; Carver, T; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Cross, R; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Del Pino Rosendo, E; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dujmovic, H; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Eller, P; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Flis, S; Fösig, C-C; Franckowiak, A; Friedman, E; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Giang, W; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Haack, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hansmann, T; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katz, U; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kim, M; Kintscher, T; Kiryluk, J; Kittler, T; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Krüger, C; Kunnen, J; Kunwar, S; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lauber, F; Lennarz, D; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mancina, S; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meier, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moulai, M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke Pollmann, A; Olivas, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Pérez de Los Heros, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relethford, B; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Rysewyk, D; Sabbatini, L; Sanchez Herrera, S E; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schimp, M; Schlunder, P; Schmidt, T; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Tenholt, F; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Rossem, M; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Weiss, M J; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wickmann, S; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wills, L; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woolsey, E; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-12-09

    We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10^{9}  GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high- energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5×10^{5}  GeV to above 10^{11}  GeV. Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6±0.3)×10^{6}  GeV, the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7±2.0)×10^{5}  GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6σ. The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at >99% CL because of the limited deposited energy and the nonobservation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having a cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and γ-ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models. These limits on the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux models are the most stringent to date.

  7. ANTARES deep sea neutrino telescope results

    SciTech Connect

    Mangano, Salvatore; Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ANTARES experiment is currently the largest underwater neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. It is taking high quality data since 2007. Its main scientific goal is to search for high energy neutrinos that are expected from the acceleration of cosmic rays from astrophysical sources. This contribution reviews the status of the detector and presents several analyses carried out on atmospheric muons and neutrinos. For example it shows the results from the measurement of atmospheric muon neutrino spectrum and of atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters as well as searches for neutrinos from steady cosmic point-like sources, for neutrinos from gamma ray bursts and for relativistic magnetic monopoles.

  8. Development of pyroelectric neutron source for calibration of neutrino and dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Ionidi, V. Y.; Gromov, M. B.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Klyuyev, A. S.; Kubankin, A. S.; Oleinik, A. N.; Shchagin, A. V.; Vokhmyanina, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    The laboratory experimental setup for development of pyroelectric neutron generator for calibration of neutrino and dark matter detectors for direct search of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) has been developed. The setup allows providing and controlling the neutrons generation process realized during d-d nuclear fusion. It is shown that the neutrons with energy 2.45 MeV can be generated starting from a level of electric potential generated by pyroelectric crystal about 30 kV, in contrast to the typical neutron tubes which need the applied outer high voltage level about 100 kV.

  9. Core-collapse supernova neutrinos and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gava, J.; Volpe, C.

    2008-08-29

    Core-collapse supernovae are powerful neutrino sources. The observation of a future (extra-)galactic supernova explosion or of the relic supernova neutrinos might provide important information on the supernova dynamics, on the supernova formation rate and on neutrino properties. One might learn more about unknown neutrino properties either from indirect effects in the supernova (e.g. on the explosion or on in the r-process) or from modifications of the neutrino time or energy distributions in a detector on Earth. Here we will discuss in particular possible effects of CP violation in the lepton sector. We will also mention the interest of future neutrino-nucleus interaction measurements for the precise knowledge of supernova neutrino detector response to electron neutrinos.

  10. Tidal disruption jets of supermassive black holes as hidden sources of cosmic rays: Explaining the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Ruo-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Cosmic ray interactions that produce high-energy neutrinos also inevitably generate high-energy gamma rays, which finally contribute to the diffuse high-energy gamma-ray background after they escape the sources. It was recently found that the high flux of neutrinos at ˜30 TeV detected by IceCube lead to a cumulative gamma-ray flux exceeding the Fermi isotropic gamma-ray background at 10-100 GeV, implying that the neutrinos are produced by hidden sources of cosmic rays, where GeV-TeV gamma rays are not transparent. Here we suggest that relativistic jets in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of supermassive black holes are such hidden sources. We consider the jet propagation in an extended, optically thick envelope around the black hole, which results from the ejected material during the disruption. While powerful jets can break free from the envelope, less powerful jets would be choked inside the envelope. The jets accelerate cosmic rays through internal shocks or reverse shocks and further produce neutrinos via interaction with the surrounding dense photons. All three TDE jets discovered so far are not detected by Fermi/LAT, suggesting that GeV-TeV gamma rays are absorbed in these jets. The cumulative neutrino flux from TDE jets can account for the neutrino flux observed by IceCube at PeV energies and may also account for the higher flux at ˜30 TeV if less powerful, choked jets are present in the majority of TDEs.

  11. Prospect for Relic Neutrino Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2006-03-01

    Neutrinos from the Big Bang are theoretically expected to be the most abundant particles in the Universe after the photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Unlike the relic photons, relic neutrinos have not so far been observed. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (CνB) is the oldest relic from the Big Bang, produced a few seconds after the Bang itself. Due to their impact in cosmology, relic neutrinos may be revealed indirectly in the near future through cosmological observations. In this talk we concentrate on other proposals, made in the last 30 years, to try to detect the CνB directly, either in laboratory searches (through tiny accelerations they produce on macroscopic targets) or through astrophysical observations (looking for absorption dips in the flux of Ultra-High Energy (UHE) neutrinos, due to the annihilation of these neutrinos with relic neutrinos at the Z-resonance). We concentrate mainly on the first possibility. We show that, given present bounds on neutrino masses, lepton number in the Universe and gravitational clustering of neutrinos, all expected laboratory effects of relic neutrinos are far from observability, awaiting future technological advances to reach the necessary sensitivity. The problem for astrophysical searches is that sources of UHE neutrinos at the extreme energies required may not exist. If they do exist, we could reveal the existence, and possibly the mass spectrum, of relic neutrinos, with detectors of UHE neutrinos (such as ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE and SalSA).

  12. Dietary absorption of sediment-bound fluoranthene by a deposit-feeding gastropod using the {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, V.E.; Forbes, T.L.

    1997-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) constitute a broad class of toxic, environmentally persistent, particle-reactive organic compounds that are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This study was designed to measure ingestion and dietary absorption of the PAH, fluoranthene, by two genotypes of a deposit-feeding gastropod using the {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method. Sediment processing rate, fluoranthene ingestion rate, selective ingestion of fluoranthene-containing particles, and fluoranthene absorption rate varied as a function of snail body size and genotype. Absorption efficiency of sediment-bound fluoranthene did not vary as a function of body size but differed between genotypes, averaging 42 to 46% for Clone A and 22 to 36% for Clone B. The authors could detect no significant metabolism of ingested fluoranthene to dissolved organic carbon or CO{sub 2} during 24 h following its ingestion. The {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method provides a powerful approach for investigating the dietary absorption of sediment-bound contaminants by (1) allowing the calculation of ingestion selectivity, sediment processing rate, contaminant ingestion rate, and absorption efficiency in individual, small invertebrates; (2) permitting estimation of the fraction of ingested/absorbed contaminant that is metabolized and released via different routes following its ingestion; and (3) facilitating evaluation of the relative importance of porewater versus ingested sediment as routes of contaminant uptake by animals.

  13. Experience with a gastrointestinal marker (51CrCl3) in a combined study of ileal function using 75SeHCAT and 58CoB12 measured by whole body counting.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T; Bjarnason, I

    1990-01-01

    Introduction of a radioactive gastrointestinal marker (51CrCl3) into a combined study (75SeHCAT + 58CoB12) of ileal function by whole body counting has been undertaken. The technique was assessed in 23 subjects (15 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, six on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatoid arthritis, and two normal subjects). Mean (SD) 51CrCl3 retention was only 4.1 (6.0)% on day 4, and was similar on day 7 in subjects given a second dose of 51CrCl3 on day 4. Only one subject had more than 20% of 51CrCl3 retention after four days. A 51CrCl3 correction method adequately corrected for colonic hold up of 58CoB12, when compared with final equilibrium values of 58CoB12 retention. Use of the non-absorbed 58CoB12 fraction as a gastrointestinal marker gave good agreement with the 51CrCl3 method in correcting 75SeHCAT values. In all subjects studied, corrections for colonic retention of 75SeHCAT on day 4, were small (less than 7% of dose) and did not affect the assessment of any subject. In conclusion, an additional gastrointestinal marker such as 51CrCl3 is unnecessary in our combined study since that role can be effected, when indicated by the non-absorbed 58CoB12 fraction. PMID:2128070

  14. Neutron and gamma-ray shielding requirements for a below-ground neutrino detector system at the Rutherford Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Childs, R.L.; Wilczynski, J.; Zeitnitz, B.

    1983-03-01

    The neutron and gamma-ray shielding requirements for a proposed neutrino system below the target station at the Rutherford Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) are studied. The present shield below the station consists of 2 meters of iron and 1 meter of concrete, below which is chalk (CaCO/sub 3/). An underground bunker housing the neutrino detector system would require additional shielding consisting of 6 meters of the chalk plus approx. 3 meters of iron to reduce the number of high-energy (> approx. 7 MeV) neutrons and gamma rays entering the detector system to an acceptable level of approx. 1 per day.

  15. Neutrino Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lederman, L. M.

    1963-01-09

    The prediction and verification of the neutrino are reviewed, together with the V A theory for its interactions (particularly the difficulties with the apparent existence of two neutrinos and the high energy cross section). The Brookhaven experiment confirming the existence of two neutrinos and the cross section increase with momentum is then described, and future neutrino experiments are considered. (D.C.W.)

  16. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  17. Bioelimination of /sup 51/Cr and /sup 85/Sr by cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Orthoptera: Blaberidae), as affected by mites, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi (parasitiformes: laelapidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Schowalter, T.D.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes rates of Chromium-51 and Strontium-85 assimilation and bioelimination by the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum), when the symbiotic mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi Till, was present or removed. Mite-infested cockroaches had significantly higher rates of /sup 51/Cr elimination relative to mite-free cockroaches, implying more rapid gut clearance times. We did not find a significant mite effect on /sup 85/Sr elimination by the host, but mite effects could have been masked by the apparently unique process of nutrient assimilation and elimination by G. portentosa. Conventional models of radioactive tracer bioelimination predict a rapid initial loss of tracer due to gut clearance, followed by a slower loss due to excretion of assimilated tracer. Our results indicated that assimilated /sup 85/Sr was eliminated earlier than unassimilated /sup 85/Sr was lost by defecation.

  18. Bioelimination of /sup 51/Cr and /sup 85/Sr by cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (orthoptera: blaberidae), as affected by mites, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi (parasitiformes: laelapidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Schowalter, T.D.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The rates of Chromium-51 and Strontium-85 assimilation and bioelimination by the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum) are described when the symbiotic mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi Till, was present or removed. Mite-infested cockroaches had significantly higher rates of /sup 51/Cr elimination relative to mite-free cockroaches, implying more rapid gut clearance times. The authors did not find a significant mite effect on /sup 85/Sr elimination by the host, but mite effects could have been masked by the apparently unique process of nutrient assimilation and elimination by G. portentosa. Conventional models of radioactive tracer bioelimination predict a rapid initial loss of tracer due to gut clearance, followed by a slower loss due to excretion of assimilated tracer. The results indicated that assimilated /sup 85/Sr was eliminated earlier than unassimilated /sup 85/Sr, which was lost by defecation.

  19. Viable chaotic inflation as a source of neutrino masses and leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the seesaw mechanism as well as leptogenesis are natural outcomes of a viable chaotic inflation in supergravity. The inflation model contains two superfields, the inflaton and stabilizer fields, which, being singlets under the standard model gauge symmetry, naturally couple to the lepton and Higgs doublets. The inflaton decays into leptons and Higgs fields, and the reheating temperature is predicted to be of O (1013) GeV, for which thermal leptogenesis is possible. On the other hand, gravitinos are copiously produced, and various solutions to the gravitino problem are discussed. We also argue that, if the shift symmetry of the inflaton is explicitly broken down to a discrete one, neutrino Yukawa couplings are periodic in the inflaton field, and masses of leptons and Higgs do not blow up even if the inflaton takes super-Planckian field values. The inflaton potential is given by a sum of sinusoidal functions with different height and periodicity, the so-called multi-natural inflation. We show that the predicted scalar spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio lie in the region favored by the Planck data.

  20. Experimental bacterial pneumonia in rabbits: polymorphonuclear leukocyte margination and sequestration in rabbit lungs and quantitation and kinetics of /sup 51/Cr-labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes in E. coli-induced lung lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Cybulsky, M.I.; Movat, H.Z.

    1982-12-01

    A relationship between the circulating and marginal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) pools was documented using /sup 51/Cr-labeled leukocytes as a marker. /sup 51/Cr-leukocytes marginating in the lungs were found to decrease following a first-order exponential decline, while /sup 51/Cr radioactivity accumulated in the liver and the spleen. Intravenously administered endotoxin caused a rapid selective disappearance of PMNs from the circulation. The percentage of infused /sup 51/Cr cells disappearing was equal to the percentage of disappearance of host cells. The PMNs were found to sequester in the lungs, with peak sequestration of labeled cells occurring 5 min after an endotoxin challenge. Over the next 25 min the /sup 51/Cr radioactivity in the lungs declined. Large numbers of PMNs, probably newly derived from the bone marrow, were observed histologically to be sequestered in the lung vasculature 90 min after an endotoxin dose, while the early sequestration of circulating leukocytes could not be assessed histologically. Pulmonary inflammatory lesions were induced selectively with Escherichia coli in the left lower lobes of rabbits, leaving the right lower lobes as intrinsic controls. PMN-accumulation into the lesions was quantitated using /sup 51/Cr-labeled blood leukocytes. With the aid of /sup 125/I-labeled E. coli, a logarithmic dose-response relationship was found between the number of E. coli and of PMNs. Over a 6-hr period circulating PMNs were found to accumulate in a lesion in the left lower lobe, whereas in the control right lower lobe, leukocyte radioactivity declined. These findings were confirmed with the aid of lavages of the right and left lungs. Two peaks of PMN-accumulation were found by studying leukocyte kinetics: a larger peak between 0 and 6 hr and a smaller peak 18-24 hr after instillation of the microorganisms. Histologic studies confirmed the accumulation of leukocytes, and by 3 weeks showed a complete resolution of the lesions.

  1. The COHERENT collaboration: an effort to observe coherent, elastic, neutral-current neutrino-nucleus scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Grayson; Coherent Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of coherent, neutral-current scattering of neutrinos from nuclei was first proposed by D.Z. Freedman in 1974, who posited that an effort to observe this effect experimentally ``may be an act of hubris'' owing to extreme experimental difficulties. Taking advantage of technologies which have come to maturity and new experience gained in the intervening 40 years, the newly-formed COHERENT collaboration seeks to measure for the first time coherent, elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE ν NS). Using neutrinos created by stopped pions at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, several detector systems will be deployed to limit systematic uncertainties and unambiguously observe the N2 -dependence on the cross section. The current status of the efforts of the collaboration will be addressed, focusing on detector technologies and calibration of these detectors for low-energy nuclear recoils. We will also discuss the longer-term physics goals of the collaboration, including astrophysical implications of the measurements and the use CE ν NS as a probe to search for non-standard neutrino interactions and as a way to measure the weak mixing angle.

  2. Ion source for tests of ion behavior in the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Lukic, S.; Bornschein, B.; Drexlin, G.; Glueck, F.; Kazachenko, O.; Zoll, M. C. R.; Schoeppner, M.; Weinheimer, Ch.

    2011-01-15

    An electron-impact ion source based on photoelectron emission was developed for ionization of gases at pressures below 10{sup -4} mbar in an axial magnetic field in the order of 5 T. The ion source applies only dc fields, which makes it suitable for use in the presence of equipment sensitive to radio-frequency (RF) fields. The ion source was successfully tested under varying conditions regarding pressure, magnetic field, and magnetic-field gradient, and the results were studied with the help of simulations. The processes in the ion source are well understood, and possibilities for further optimization of generated ion currents are clarified.

  3. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  4. Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics with the Antares Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurio, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ANTARES detector is currently the largest operating neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. Its scientific target is the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos through measurement of Cherenkov radiation from neutrino-induced charged leptons. Here, an overview of the results of various analyses will be given, in particular for the searches of point-like sources and the opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy.

  5. Multimessenger search for sources of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos: Initial results for LIGO-Virgo and IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Augustus, H.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castaldi, G.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Croce, R. P.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, W.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Horrom, T.; Hoske, D.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karlen, J.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, D. Nanda; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, P. J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Le Roux, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lopez, E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Ma, Y.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; May, G.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Omar, S.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Ramirez, K.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Recchia, S.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S. B.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sankar, S.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schilman, M.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Stops, D.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, J.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Tuennermann, H.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, K.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Wolovick, N.; Worden, J.; Wu, Y.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yoshida, S.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.; IceCube Collaboration*

    2014-11-01

    We report the results of a multimessenger search for coincident signals from the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories and the partially completed IceCube high-energy neutrino detector, including periods of joint operation between 2007-2010. These include parts of the 2005-2007 run and the 2009-2010 run for LIGO-Virgo, and IceCube's observation periods with 22, 59 and 79 strings. We find no significant coincident events, and use the search results to derive upper limits on the rate of joint sources for a range of source emission parameters. For the optimistic assumption of gravitational-wave emission energy of 10-2 M⊙c2 at ˜150 Hz with ˜60 ms duration, and high-energy neutrino emission of 1 051 erg comparable to the isotropic gamma-ray energy of gamma-ray bursts, we limit the source rate below 1.6 ×1 0-2 Mpc-3 yr-1 . We also examine how combining information from gravitational waves and neutrinos will aid discovery in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era.

  6. Neutrino phenomenology

    DOE PAGES

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-11-21

    Neutrino oscillations have demonstrated that neutrinos have mass and, by now, oscillation experiments have been able to determine most of the parameters in the leptonic mixing matrix with a very good accuracy. Nevertheless, there are still many open questions in the neutrino sector. As a result, I will briefly discuss some of these questions, pointing out possible experimental avenues to address them.

  7. Research and Development of H Ion Source and LEBT for a Kaon-neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Q.; Staples, J.; Schenkel, T.; Li, D.

    2011-11-23

    A baseline H{sup -} ion source and low energy beam transport system (LEBT) have been identified for Project X. The filament-discharge H{sup -} ion source has been fabricated by D-Pace, Inc. and is now in operation at LBNL. The source is capable of delivering over 10mA of H{sup -} beam in cw operation with normalized 4rms emittances less than 0.7 {pi} mm mrad. A two-solenoid magnetic lens LEBT system has been design. The design has been validated with simulations of beam transport for 5 mA 30 keV H- beams using various simulation codes.

  8. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  9. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  10. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  11. Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-10-01

    A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, α), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

  12. Solar neutrinos and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltoni, Michele; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Solar neutrino studies triggered and largely motivated the major developments in neutrino physics in the last 50 years. The theory of neutrino propagation in different media with matter and fields has been elaborated. It includes oscillations in vacuum and matter, resonance flavor conversion and resonance oscillations, spin and spin-flavor precession, etc. LMA MSW has been established as the true solution of the solar neutrino problem. Parameters θ_{12} and Δ m 2 21 have been measured; θ_{13} extracted from the solar data is in agreement with results from reactor experiments. Solar neutrino studies provide a sensitive way to test theory of neutrino oscillations and conversion. Characterized by long baseline, huge fluxes and low energies they are a powerful set-up to search for new physics beyond the standard 3 ν paradigm: new neutrino states, sterile neutrinos, non-standard neutrino interactions, effects of violation of fundamental symmetries, new dynamics of neutrino propagation, probes of space and time. These searches allow us to get stringent, and in some cases unique bounds on new physics. We summarize the results on physics of propagation, neutrino properties and physics beyond the standard model obtained from studies of solar neutrinos.

  13. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos in low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2017-03-01

    A thorough account of electromagnetic interactions of massive neutrinos in the theoretical formulation of low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering is given. The formalism of neutrino charge, magnetic, electric, and anapole form factors defined as matrices in the mass basis is employed under the assumption of three-neutrino mixing. The flavor change of neutrinos traveling from the source to the detector is taken into account and the role of the source-detector distance is inspected. The effects of neutrino flavor-transition millicharges and charge radii in the scattering experiments are pointed out.

  14. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments. >>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  15. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  16. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2011-12-01

    Radiochemical experiments have been crucial to solar neutrino research. Even today, they provide the only direct measurement of the rate of the proton-proton fusion reaction, p+p→d+e++νe, which generates most of the Sun's energy. We first give a little history of radiochemical solar neutrino experiments with emphasis on the gallium experiment SAGE - the only currently operating detector of this type. The combined result of all data from the Ga experiments is a capture rate of 67.6±3.7 SNU. For comparison to theory, we use the calculated flux at the Sun from a standard solar model, take into account neutrino propagation from the Sun to the Earth and the results of neutrino source experiments with Ga, and obtain 67.3-3.5+3.9 SNU. Using the data from all solar neutrino experiments we calculate an electron neutrino pp flux of ϕpp♁=(3.41-0.77+0.76)×1010/(cm-s), which agrees well with the prediction from a detailed solar model of ϕpp♁=(3.30-0.14+0.13)×1010/(cm-s). Four tests of the Ga experiments have been carried out with very intense reactor-produced neutrino sources and the ratio of observed to calculated rates is 0.88±0.05. One explanation for this unexpectedly low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. We end with consideration of possible time variation in the Ga experiments and an enumeration of other possible radiochemical experiments that might have been.

  17. Short-BaseLine Electron Neutrino Disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-08-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

  18. Neutrino Non-standard Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardelli, David; Guzzo, Marcelo

    The quantum neutrino oscillation phenomenon is not perfectly described by the actual standard physics models. Experimental results of different neutrino sources like reactors, accelerators and supernovae, indicate a non-negligible flux error if compared to the predicted theoretical models. This work aims to propose different non-standard neutrino in- teractions and predict LBNE potential in analyze it. That approach could give a better understanding of the quantum neutrino oscillation phenomenon. As an example, we can use the weak leptonic number violation that generate new interactions that is not possible using the Standard Model. This violation is directly related with a change in the Flavor neutrino Hamiltonian and consequently connected with the quantum neutrino oscillation.

  19. Cross sections of the 56Fe(n ,α ) 53Cr and 54Fe(n ,α ) 51Cr reactions in the MeV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhimin; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Luyu; Bai, Huaiyong; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui; Gledenov, Yu. M.; Sedysheva, M. V.; Krupa, L.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Cross sections of the 56Fe(n ,α ) 53Cr and 54Fe(n ,α )51Cr reactions were measured at En=5.5 and 6.5 MeV and En=4.0 ,4.5 ,5.5 ,and 6.5 MeV , respectively, using a double-section gridded ionization chamber as the α -particle detector. Natural iron and enriched 56Fe and 54Fe foil samples were prepared. A deuterium gas target was used to produce monoenergetic neutrons through the 2H(d ,n )3He reaction. Two rounds of experiments were performed at the 4.5-MV Van de Graaff Accelerator of Peking University. The foreground and background were measured in separate runs. The neutron flux was monitored by a B F3 long counter, and the cross sections of the 238U(n ,f ) reaction were used as the standard. Present results are compared with those of the talys-1.6 code calculations, existing measurements, and evaluations.

  20. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  1. Particle Astrophysics with Cosmic Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheirandish, Ali

    IceCube's discovery of cosmic neutrinos offers a unique view of our universe and provides powerful insights into some of the most energetic and enigmatic objects in the cosmos. Cosmic neutrinos reveal an unobstructed view at wavelengths where the universe is opaque to photons. The existence of the cosmic-neutrino flux has challenged our understanding of the universe. It is somewhat counterintuitive that the most surprising property of the observed flux is its magnitude. An immediate inference from the large neutrino flux observed by IceCube, which is predominantly extragalactic in origin, is that the total energy density of neutrinos in the high-energy universe is similar to that of photons. The matching energy densities of the extragalactic gamma-ray flux detected by Fermi and the high-energy neutrino flux measured by IceCube suggest the possibility of a common origin. Therefore, rather than detecting some exotic sources, it looks more likely that IceCube observes the same universe as astronomers do. The finding implies that a large fraction of the energy in the non-thermal universe originates in hadronic processes, indicating a larger level than previously thought. The focus of this dissertation is on identifying the sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos observed in IceCube. Moreover, with the lack of confirmation to date of any source (type of sources) as the dominant contributor to the observed neutrino flux, we have studied prospects for observing different sources in IceCube by considering both transient and steady sources in the sky. Finally, we introduce new techniques to study the strength of neutrino dark matter interactions with the properties of high-energy cosmic neutrinos.

  2. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  3. Neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed.

  4. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations. PMID:20431258

  5. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations.

  6. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewan, G. T.

    1992-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector is a 1000 ton heavy water (D2O) Cherenkov detector designed to study neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical sources. The use of heavy water allows both electron neutrinos and all other types of neutrinos to be observed by three complementary reactions. The detector will be sensitive to the electron neutrino flux and energy spectrum shape and to the total neutrino flux irrespective of neutrino type. These measurements will provide information on both vacuum neutrino oscillations and matter-enhanced oscillations, the MSW effect. In the event of a supernova it will be very sensitive to muon and tau neutrinos as well as the electron neutrinos emitted in the initial burst, enabling sensitive mass measurements as well as providing details of the physics of stellar collapse. On behalf of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Collaboration : H.C . Evans, G.T . Ewan, H.W. Lee, J .R . Leslie, J .D. MacArthur, H .-B . Mak, A.B . McDonald, W. McLatchie, B.C . Robertson, B. Sur, P. Skensved (Queen's University) ; C.K . Hargrove, H. Mes, W.F. Davidson, D. Sinclair, 1 . Blevis, M. Shatkay (Centre for Research in Particle Physics) ; E.D. Earle, G.M. Milton, E. Bonvin, (Chalk River Laboratories); J .J . Simpson, P. Jagam, J . Law, J .-X . Wang (University of Guelph); E.D . Hallman, R.U. Haq (Laurentian University); A.L. Carter, D. Kessler, B.R . Hollebone (Carleton University); R. Schubank . C.E . Waltha m (University of British Columbia); R.T. Kouzes, M.M. Lowry, R.M. Key (Princeton University); E.W. Beier, W. Frati, M. Newcomer, R. Van Berg (University of Penn-sylvania), T.J . Bowles, P.J . Doe, S.R . Elliott, M.M. Fowler, R.G.H. Robertson, D.J . Vieira, J .B . Wilhelmy, J .F. Wilker-son, J .M. Wouters (Los Alamos National Laboratory) ; E. Norman, K. Lesko, A. Smith, R. Fulton, R. Stokstad (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), N.W. Tanner, N. JCIILY, P. Trent, J . Barton, D.L . Wark (University of Oxford).

  7. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  8. Renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, ( 51 Cr)EDTA, and 24 Na in man during acute renal failure after shock. Implications for the pathogenesis of anuria.

    PubMed

    Reubi, F C; Vorburger, C; Tuckman, J

    1973-02-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [(51)Cr]EDTA, and (24)Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of (24)Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase.

  9. Renal Distribution Volumes of Indocyanine Green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na in Man during Acute Renal Failure after Shock. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PATHOGENESIS OF ANURIA

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, F. C.; Vorburger, C.; Tuckman, J.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of 24Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase. PMID:4630601

  10. Neutrino magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves; Mendonça, José Tito

    2016-01-15

    A new neutrino magnetohydrodynamics (NMHD) model is formulated, where the effects of the charged weak current on the electron-ion magnetohydrodynamic fluid are taken into account. The model incorporates in a systematic way the role of the Fermi neutrino weak force in magnetized plasmas. A fast neutrino-driven short wavelengths instability associated with the magnetosonic wave is derived. Such an instability should play a central role in strongly magnetized plasma as occurs in supernovae, where dense neutrino beams also exist. In addition, in the case of nonlinear or high frequency waves, the neutrino coupling is shown to be responsible for breaking the frozen-in magnetic field lines condition even in infinite conductivity plasmas. Simplified and ideal NMHD assumptions were adopted and analyzed in detail.

  11. Recent results of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Rey, Juan José

    2015-07-15

    The latest results from the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope are reported. Limits on a high energy neutrino diffuse flux have been set using for the first time both muon–track and showering events. The results for point sources obtained by ANTARES are also shown. These are the most stringent limits for the southern sky for neutrino energies below 100 TeV. Constraints on the nature of the cluster of neutrino events near the Galactic Centre observed by IceCube are also reported. In particular, ANTARES data excludes a single point–like neutrino source as the origin of this cluster. Looking for neutrinos coming from the Sun or the centre of the Galaxy, very competitive limits are set by the ANTARES data to the flux of neutrinos produced by self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles.

  12. A study of atmospheric neutrinos with the IMB detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losecco, J. M.; Bionta, R. M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C. B.; Casper, D.; Chrysicopoulou, P.; Claus, R.; Cortez, B. G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A sample of 401 contained neutrino interactions collected in the 3300 metric ton fiducial mass IMB detector was used to study neutrino oscillations, geomagnetic modulation of the flux and to search for point sources. The majority of these events are attributed to neutrino interactions. For the most part, these neutrinos are believed to originate as tertiary products of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The neutrinos are a mixture of v sub e and v sub micron.

  13. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P. D.

    2006-11-01

    The Sun is a source of high-energy neutrinos (E(greater-or-similar sign)10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged vacuum oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23})

  14. Solar Neutrinos with Exotic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, João

    The possibility of unconventional neutrino scattering in the Sun via flavor changing neutral currents as a possible source of the solar neutrino deficit is investigated. If the effect is really significant, a resonant process will occur. Taking into account the neutrino deficit reported by the solar neutrino experiments (Kamiokande II, SAGE Gallex), one finds Δ2m21 = (0.6-1.4) × 10-5 eV2 with no vacuum mixing and 0.16 ≤ fex ≤ 0.34 where fex is the lepton violating coupling. Our understanding of the neutrino phenomenon in the Sun may be improved through accuracy improvements in experiments measuring νee- elastic scattering or others searching for exotic lepton decays.

  15. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  16. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  17. Constraints and tests of the OPERA superluminal neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Peng-Fei; Yu, Zhao-Huan; Yuan, Qiang

    2011-12-09

    The superluminal neutrinos detected by OPERA indicate Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) of the neutrino sector at the order of 10(-5). We study the implications of the result in this work. We find that such a large LIV implied by OPERA data will make the neutrino production process π → μ + ν(μ) kinematically forbidden for a neutrino energy greater than about 5 GeV. The OPERA detection of neutrinos at 40 GeV can constrain the LIV parameter to be smaller than 3×10(-7). Furthermore, the neutrino decay in the LIV framework will modify the neutrino spectrum greatly. The atmospheric neutrino spectrum measured by the IceCube Collaboration can constrain the LIV parameter to the level of 10(-12). The future detection of astrophysical neutrinos of galactic sources is expected to be able to give an even stronger constraint on the LIV parameter of neutrinos.

  18. Neutrino '88. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneps, J.; Kafka, T.; Mann, W. A.; Nath, P.

    Contents: 1. Neutrino mass. 2. Neutrino oscillations. 3. Double beta decay. 4. Solar neutrinos. 5. Neutrinos from supernovae. 6. Neutrino interactions at accelerators. 7. New detectors for neutrino processes. 8. Neutrino interactions at accelerators II. 9. W, Z, and the standard model. 10. "Fred Reines at 70" Fest. 11. Nucleon decay, the standard model, and beyond. 12. Neutrinos: Earth, atmosphere, Sun, and galaxies. 13. Dark matter and cosmology. 14. Theoretical topics. 15. Future prospects.

  19. High-energy neutrino astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaruli, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Neutrino astronomy, conceptually conceived four decades ago, has entered an exciting phase for providing results on the quest for the sources of the observed highest energy particles. IceCube and ANTARES are now completed and are scanning in space and time possible signals of high energy neutrinos indicating the existence of such sources. DeepCore, inside IceCube, is a playground for vetoed neutrino measurement with better potential below 1 TeV. A larger and denser detector is now being discussed. ARA, now in test phase, will be composed by radio stations that could cover up to ~ 100 km2 and aims at the highest energy region of cosmogenic neutrinos. The non observation of cosmic events is on one side a source of disappointment, on the other it represents by itself an important result. If seen in the context of a multi-messenger science, the combination of photon and cosmic ray experiment results brings invaluable information. The experimental upper bounds of the cubic-kilometer telescope IceCube are now below the theoretical upper bounds for extragalactic fluxes of neutrinos from optically thin sources. These are responsible for accelerating the extragalactic cosmic rays. Such limits constrain the role of gamma-ray bursts, described by the fireball picture, as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Neutrino telescopes are exciting running multi-task experiments that produce astrophysics and particle physics results some of which have been illustrated at this conference and are summarized in this report.

  20. Neutrino-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2016-05-01

    Neutrino-atom scattering provides a sensitive tool for probing nonstandard interactions of massive neutrinos in laboratory measurements. The ionization channel of this collision process plays an important role in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments. We discuss some theoretical aspects of atomic ionization by massive neutrinos. We also outline possible manifestations of neutrino electromagnetic properties in coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  1. Oscillation properties of active and sterile neutrinos and neutrino anomalies at short distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khruschov, V. V.; Fomichev, S. V.; Titov, O. A.

    2016-09-01

    A generalized phenomenological (3 + 2 + 1) model featuring three active and three sterile neutrinos that is intended for calculating oscillation properties of neutrinos for the case of a normal activeneutrino mass hierarchy and a large splitting between the mass of one sterile neutrino and the masses of the other two sterile neutrinos is considered. A new parametrization and a specific form of the general mixing matrix are proposed for active and sterile neutrinos with allowance for possible CP violation in the lepton sector, and test values are chosen for the neutrino masses and mixing parameters. The probabilities for the transitions between different neutrino flavors are calculated, and graphs representing the probabilities for the disappearance of muon neutrinos/antineutrinos and the appearance of electron neutrinos/antineutrinos in a beam of muon neutrinos/antineutrinos versus the distance from the neutrino source for various values of admissible model parameters at neutrino energies not higher than 50 MeV, as well as versus the ratio of this distance to the neutrino energy, are plotted. It is shown that the short-distance accelerator anomaly in neutrino data (LNSD anomaly) can be explained in the case of a specific mixing matrix for active and sterile neutrinos (which belongs to the a 2 type) at the chosen parameter values. The same applies to the short-distance reactor and gallium anomalies. The theoretical results obtained in the present study can be used to interpret and predict the results of ground-based neutrino experiments aimed at searches for sterile neutrinos, as well as to analyze some astrophysical observational data.

  2. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the `exotic` particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino (`little neutral one`, as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with `neutron`, a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a `paper tiger`. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Neutrino Oscillations and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, David

    2001-04-01

    When the existence of the neutrino was almost apologetically first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli it was intended to explain the mysterious apparent absence of energy and momentum in beta decay. 70 years later the neutrino has indeed solved that mystery, but it has generated still more of its own. Are neutrinos massive? Is it possible to create a neutrino with its spin in the same direction as its momentum? What fraction of the mass of the Universe is made up of neutrinos? Are the flavour labels which we put on neutrinos, like electron and muon, really fixed or can they change? Why does no experiment see the predicted flux of neutrinos from the Sun? Why do there appear to be roughly equal numbers of muon and electron neutrinos created in our atmosphere, rather than the 2:1 ratio we would expect? Many of these questions were coupled when Bruno Pontecorvo first suggested that the shortfall in solar neutrino measurements were caused by neutrino oscillations - neutrinos spontaneously changing flavour as they travel from the Sun. 30 years later we still await definitive proof of that conjecture, and providing that proof is the reason for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The talk will discuss the current state of neutrino oscillations studies, and show how the unique capabilities of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory can provide definitive proof of whether neutrino oscillations are the long-sought answer to the solar neutrino problem.

  4. Probing neutrino flavor transition mechanism with ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che

    2014-02-01

    Observation of ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos and identification of their flavors have been proposed for future neutrino telescopes. The flavor ratio of astrophysical neutrinos observed on the Earth depends on both the initial flavor ratio at the source and flavor transitions taking place during propagations of these neutrinos. The flavor transition mechanisms are well classified with our model-independent parametrization. We find that a new parameter R ≡ϕe/(ϕμ+ϕτ) can probe directly the flavor transition in the framework of our model-independent parametrization, without the assumption of the νμ-ντ symmetry. A few flavor-transition models are employed to test our parametrization with this new observable. The observational constraints on flavor transition mechanisms by the new observable are discussed through our model-independent parametrization.

  5. Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed and the experimental situation on searches for neutrino masses and oscillations is summarized. The solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tri decay experiments and double beta-decay data are considered and cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. The neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy cluster galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation are examined.

  6. Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Beacom, John

    2009-11-14

    Supernovae in our Galaxy probably occur about 3 times per century, though 90% of them are invisible optically because of obscuration by dust. However, present solar neutrino detectors are sensitive to core-collapse supernovae anywhere in our Galaxy, and would detect of order 10,000 events from a supernova at a distance of 10 kpc (roughly the distance to the Galactic center). I will describe how this data can be used to understand the supernova itself, as well as to test the properties of neutrinos.

  7. Neutrino transition magnetic moments within the non-standard neutrino-nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoulias, D. K.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2015-07-01

    Tensorial non-standard neutrino interactions are studied through a combined analysis of nuclear structure calculations and a sensitivity χ2-type of neutrino events expected to be measured at the COHERENT experiment, recently planned to operate at the Spallation Neutron Source (Oak Ridge). Potential sizeable predictions on transition neutrino magnetic moments and other electromagnetic parameters, such as neutrino milli-charges, are also addressed. The non-standard neutrino-nucleus processes, explored from nuclear physics perspectives within the context of quasi-particle random phase approximation, are exploited in order to estimate the expected number of events originating from vector and tensor exotic interactions for the case of reactor neutrinos, studied with TEXONO and GEMMA neutrino detectors.

  8. The solar neutrino problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renxin; Luo, Xianhan

    1995-12-01

    The solar neutrino problem (SNP) is reviewed on the bases of neutrino physics, solar neutrino detection and standard solar model. It is interesting that the detected neutrino flux values of different solar neutrino detectors are lower than the values calculated by SMM in different degree. The studies on SNP in particle physics and in astrophysics are also discussed respectively.

  9. Neutrino footprint in large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, Carlos Peña; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-03-01

    Recent constrains on the sum of neutrino masses inferred by analyzing cosmological data, show that detecting a non-zero neutrino mass is within reach of forthcoming cosmological surveys. Such a measurement will imply a direct determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale. Physically, the measurement relies on constraining the shape of the matter power spectrum below the neutrino free streaming scale: massive neutrinos erase power at these scales. However, detection of a lack of small-scale power from cosmological data could also be due to a host of other effects. It is therefore of paramount importance to validate neutrinos as the source of power suppression at small scales. We show that, independent on hierarchy, neutrinos always show a footprint on large, linear scales; the exact location and properties are fully specified by the measured power suppression (an astrophysical measurement) and atmospheric neutrinos mass splitting (a neutrino oscillation experiment measurement). This feature cannot be easily mimicked by systematic uncertainties in the cosmological data analysis or modifications in the cosmological model. Therefore the measurement of such a feature, up to 1% relative change in the power spectrum for extreme differences in the mass eigenstates mass ratios, is a smoking gun for confirming the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale from cosmological observations. It also demonstrates the synergy between astrophysics and particle physics experiments.

  10. Constraining astrophysical neutrino flavor composition from leptonic unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xun-Jie; He, Hong-Jian; Rodejohann, Werner E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-12-01

    The recent IceCube observation of ultra-high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has begun the era of neutrino astronomy. In this work, using the unitarity of leptonic mixing matrix, we derive nontrivial unitarity constraints on the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos detected by IceCube. Applying leptonic unitarity triangles, we deduce these unitarity bounds from geometrical conditions, such as triangular inequalities. These new bounds generally hold for three flavor neutrinos, and are independent of any experimental input or the pattern of lepton mixing. We apply our unitarity bounds to derive general constraints on the flavor compositions for three types of astrophysical neutrino sources (and their general mixture), and compare them with the IceCube measurements. Furthermore, we prove that for any sources without ν{sub τ} neutrinos, a detected ν{sub μ} flux ratio < 1/4 will require the initial flavor composition with more ν{sub e} neutrinos than ν{sub μ} neutrinos.

  11. Future short baseline neutrino searches with nuclear decays

    SciTech Connect

    Caccianiga, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    Several anomalies coming from neutrino experiments may be pointing towards new physics: these hints suggest the existence of one (or more) sterile neutrinos. We discuss some of the experiments proposed to verify (or disproof) this hypothesis by using an intense radioactive source in proximity of large neutrino detectors.

  12. Neutrino Physics with the IceCube Detector

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Kiryluk, Joanna; Kiryluk, Joanna

    2008-06-11

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino telescope under construction at the South Pole.The primary goal is to discover astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos.We describe the detector and present results on atmospheric muon neutrinos from2006 data collected with nine detector strings.

  13. From super beams to neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities ({beta}-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R&D program.

  14. Neutrino masses and solar neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1992-11-01

    It has been pointed out by Bahcall and Bethe and others that all solar neutrino data can be explained by MSW oscillations with m({nu}{sub {mu}}) {approximately} 10{sup {minus}3} eV consistent with ideas grand unified theories (GUTS). There is a second possibility consistent with GUTS ideas with m({nu}{sub {tau}}) {approximately} 10{sup {minus}2} eV and m({nu} {sub {mu}}) {approximately} 10 {sup {minus}4} eV. The two cases can be distinguished by a measurement of the solar neutrinos from {sup {tau}}Be.

  15. Supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    John Beacom

    2003-01-23

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, {nu} + p {yields} {nu} + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T{sub p} {approx_equal} 2E{sub {nu}}{sup 2}/M{sub p}, and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from {bar {nu}}{sub e} + p {yields} e{sup +} + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy release and temperature of {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}, {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, and {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}. The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos.

  16. Annual modulation of cosmic relic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdi, Benjamin R.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Spitz, Joshua; Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2014-08-01

    The cosmic neutrino background (CνB), produced about one second after the big bang, permeates the Universe today. New technological advancements make neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (NCB) a clear path forward towards the detection of the CνB. We show that gravitational focusing by the Sun causes the expected neutrino capture rate to modulate annually. The amplitude and phase of the modulation depend on the phase-space distribution of the local neutrino background, which is perturbed by structure formation. These results also apply to searches for sterile neutrinos at NCB experiments. Gravitational focusing is the only source of modulation for neutrino capture experiments, in contrast to dark-matter direct-detection searches where the Earth's time-dependent velocity relative to the Sun also plays a role.

  17. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, Thomas; Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The ANTARES detector, located in the deep sea 40 km off the French coast, is the largest neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere. It consists of an array of 885 photomultipliers detecting the Cherenkov light induced by charged leptons created in neutrino interactions in and around the detector. The main goal of ANTARES is to search for astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range. This comprises searches for a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux and for fluxes from possible galactic and extragalactic sources of neutrinos. The search program also includes multi-messenger analyses based on time and/or space coincidences with other cosmic probes. The ANTARES detector is sensitive to a wide range of other phenomena, from atmospheric neutrino oscillations to dark matter annihilation or potential exotics such as nuclearites and magnetic monopoles.

  18. Neutrino Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamyshkov, Yuri; Handler, Thomas

    2016-10-24

    The neutrino group of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was involved from 05/01/2013 to 04/30/2015 in the neutrino physics research funded by DOE-HEP grant DE-SC0009861. Contributions were made to the Double Chooz nuclear reactor experiment in France where second detector was commissioned during this period and final series of measurements has been started. Although Double Chooz was smaller experimental effort than competitive Daya Bay and RENO experiments, its several advantages make it valuable for understanding of systematic errors in measurements of neutrino oscillations. Double Chooz was the first experiment among competing three that produced initial result for neutrino angle θ13 measurement, giving other experiments the chance to improve measured value statistically. Graduate student Ben Rybolt defended his PhD thesis on the results of Double Chooz experiment in 2015. UT group has fulfilled all the construction and analysis commitments to Double Chooz experiment, and has withdrawn from the collaboration by the end of the mentioned period to start another experiment. Larger effort of UT neutrino group during this period was devoted to the participation in another DOE-HEP project - NOvA experiment. The 14,000-ton "FAR" neutrino detector was commissioned in northern Minnesota in 2014 together with 300-ton "NEAR" detector located at Fermilab. Following that, the physics measurement program has started when Fermilab accelerator complex produced the high-intensity neutrino beam propagating through Earth to detector in MInnessota. UT group contributed to NOvA detector construction and developments in several aspects. Our Research Associate Athanasios Hatzikoutelis was managing (Level 3 manager) the construction of the Detector Control System. This work was successfully accomplished in time with the commissioning of the detectors. Group was involved in the development of the on-line software and study of the signatures of the cosmic ray backgrounds

  19. Low-energy Neutrino Astronomy in LENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, M.; Bick, D.; Enqvist, T.; Hellgartner, D.; Kaiser, M.; Loo, K. K.; Lorenz, S.; Meloni, M.; Meyer, M.; Möllenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Soiron, M.; Smirnov, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Wonsak, B.

    LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a proposed next-generation neutrino detector based on 50 kilotons of liquid scintillator. The low detection threshold, good energy resolution and excellent background rejection inherent to the liquid-scintillator detectors make LENA a versatile observatory for low-energy neutrinos from astrophysical and terrestrial sources. In the framework of the European LAGUNA-LBNO design study, LENA is also considered as far detector for a very-long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to Pyhäsalmi (Finland). The present contribution gives an overview LENA's broad research program, highlighting the unique capabilities of liquid scintillator for the detection of low-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In particular, it will focus on the precision measurement of the solar neutrino spectrum: The search for time modulations in the 7Be neutrino flux, the determination of the electron neutrino survival probability in the low-energy region of the 8B spectrum and the favorable detection conditions for neutrinos from the CNO fusion cycle.

  20. Neutrino astronomy and gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eli

    2007-05-15

    The construction of large-volume detectors of high energy, greater than 1TeV, neutrinos is mainly driven by the search for extragalactic neutrino sources. The existence of such sources is implied by the observations of ultra-high-energy, greater than or equal to 1019eV, cosmic rays, the origin of which is a mystery. In this lecture, I briefly discuss the expected extragalactic neutrino signal and the current state of the experimental efforts. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are probably sources of both high-energy protons and neutrinos, is discussed in some detail. The detection of the predicted GRB neutrino signal, which may become possible in the coming few years, will allow one to identify the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and to resolve open questions related to the underlying physics of GRB models. Moreover, detection of GRB neutrinos will allow one to test for neutrino properties (e.g. flavour oscillations and coupling to gravity) with an accuracy many orders of magnitude better than is currently possible.

  1. Neutrino magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL ); Senjanovic, G. . Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1990-01-01

    We review attempts to achieve a large neutrino magnetic moment ({mu}{sub {nu}} {le} 10{sup {minus}11}{mu}{sub B}), while keeping neutrino light or massless. The application to the solar neutrino puzzle is discussed. 24 refs.

  2. A high sensitivity search for electron anti-neutrinos from the sun and other sources at Kamland

    SciTech Connect

    Eguchi, K.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Hanada, H.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, K.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Kawashima, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Koseki, Y.; Maeda, T.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, M.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, T.; Ogawa, H.; Owada, K.; Piquemal, F.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tada, K.; Tajima, O.; Takayama, T.; Tamae, K.; Watanabe, H.; Busenitz, J.; Djurcic, Z.; McKinny, K.; Mei, D.-M.; Piepke, A.; Yakushev, E.; Berger, B.E.; Chan, Y.D.; Decowski, M.P.; Dwyer, D.A.; Freedman, S.J.; Fu, Y.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Goldman, J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lesko, K.T.; Luk, K.-B.; Murayama, H.; Nygren, D.R.; Okada, C.E.; Poon, A.W.P.; Steiner, H.M.; Winslow, L.A.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R.D.; Tipton, B.; Vogel, P.; Lane, C.E.; Miletic, T.; Gorham, P.W.; Guillian, G.; Learned, J.G.; Maricic, J.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Dazeley, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Svoboda, R.; Dieterle, B.D.; DiMauro, M.; Detwiler, J.; Gratta, G.; Ishii, K.; Tolich, N.; Uchida, Y.; Batygov, M.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kanyshkov, Y.; Kozlov, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Gould, C.R.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Messimore, J.A.; Nakamura, K.; Rohm, R.M.; Tornow, W.; Young, A.R.; Chen, M-J.; Wang, Y-F.

    2003-10-21

    Data corresponding to a KamLAND detector exposure of 0.28 kton-year has been used to search for {bar {nu}}{sub e}'s in the energy range 8.3 MeV < E{sup {bar {nu}}{sub e}} < 14.8 MeV. No candidates were found for an expected background of 1.1 {+-} 0.4 events. This result can be used to obtain a limit on {bar {nu}}{sub e} fluxes of any origin. Assuming that all {bar {nu}}{sub e} flux has its origin in the Sun and has the characteristic {sup 8}B solar {nu}{sub e} energy spectrum, we obtain an upper limit of 3.7 x 10{sup 2} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (90 percent C.L.) on the {bar {nu}}{sub e} flux. We interpret this limit, corresponding to 2.8 x 10{sup -4} of the Standard Solar Model {sup 8}B {nu}{sub e} flux, in the framework of spin-flavor precession and neutrino decay models.

  3. ORLaND - Oak Ridge Laboratory for Neutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    2001-06-01

    The proposed Oak Ridge Laboratory for Neutrino Detectors (ORLaND), to be located adjacent to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), is described. ORLaND will take advantage of the fact that the SNS will be the world's best intermediate-energy pulsed neutrino source in the world. A broad range of neutrino measurements is contemplated by means of a number of detectors, including the large CoNDOR detector. Specifics of neutrino oscillation investigations, and of the possible impact of certain neutrino measurements on our understanding of supernova explosions, are discussed.

  4. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  5. Neutrino mass from triton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2006-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino flavor oscillation in different fields and by many different experiments we believe that neutrinos have non-vanishing masses in contrast to their current description within the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the absolute values of the neutrino masses, which are as important for particle physics as they are for cosmology and astrophysics, cannot be determined by oscillation experiments alone. There are a few ways to determine the neutrino mass scale, but the only model-independent method is the investigation of the electron energy spectrum of a β decay near its endpoint with tritium being the ideal isotope for the classical spectrometer set-up. The tritium β decay experiments at Mainz and Troitsk have recently been finished. At Mainz all relevant systematic uncertainties have been investigated by dedicated experiments yielding an upper limit of m(ν)<2.3eV/c (90% C.L.). The new Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will enhance the sensitivity on the neutrino mass by an ultra-precise measurement of the tritium β decay spectrum near the endpoint by another order of magnitude down to 0.2 eV/c2 by using a very strong windowless gaseous molecular tritium source and a huge ultra-high resolution electrostatic spectrometer of MAC-E-Filter type. The recent achievements in test experiments show, that this very challenging experiment is feasible.

  6. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  7. NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

  8. Solar neutrinos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonesi, O.

    1993-12-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress made in the field of solar-neutrino physics with the results of the last-generation experiments together with the new perspectives suggested by the future projects. An elementary introduction to energy production mechanisms and stellar models is given. Neutrino properties and oscillations are discussed with particular interest in matter effects. Present experiments and future projects are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the compelling background and low-statistics problems. Finally, presently available results from running experiments are discussed, in the framework of the SNP. Some conclusions on the possibilities of the new proposed projects to actually slove the problem are also given.

  9. Resource Letter ANP-1: Advances in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Maury C.

    2016-12-01

    Three of the twelve fundamental fermions in particle physics are neutrinos. It was long thought that neutrinos might be massless, but we now know through the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations that neutrinos have mass. This resource letter will cover the history of the growth in our knowledge about neutrinos since they were first proposed in the 1930s, and also covers some up the upcoming experiments which will further our understanding of neutrino properties. Results from experiments are described that use various sources of neutrinos including nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, accelerators, and supernovae. In this resource letter, the resources that can be used to trace the past, present, and anticipated future advances in neutrino physics are reviewed.

  10. Prospects for neutrino spin coherence in supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, James Y.; Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-03-01

    We present neutrino bulb model simulations of Majorana neutrino coherent spin transformation (i.e., neutrino-antineutrino transformation), coupled to neutrino flavor evolution, for conditions corresponding to the neutronization burst epoch of an oxygen-neon-magnesium core collapse supernova. Significant neutrino spin transformation in, for example, the neutronization burst could alter the fluences of neutrinos and antineutrinos in a way which is potentially detectable for a Galactic core collapse supernova. Our calculations for the first time incorporate geometric dilution in the spin evolution of the neutrinos and combine two-flavor and three-flavor evolution with spin mixing physics. We find that significant spin transformations can occur, but only with a large neutrino luminosity and an electron fraction (Ye) profile which facilitates adiabatic conditions for the spin-channel resonance. Using our adopted parameters of neutrino energy spectra, luminosity, density and Ye profiles, our calculations require an unrealistically large neutrino rest mass to sustain the spin transformation. It is an open question whether examining different density profiles or incorporating other sources of nonlinear feedback, such as Ye feedback, could mitigate this need. We find that spin transformations are not sensitive to the flavor structure of neutrinos; i.e., the spin transformations occur regardless of whether we simulate two- or three-flavor transformations. In the two-flavor case, spin transformations were insensitive to the choice of solar or atmospheric mass-squared splitting as well as the choice of the Majorana phase. Importantly, our three-flavor simulations, as well as our two-flavor simulations done with the atmospheric mass-squared splitting, show that the inclusion of spin degrees of freedom can significantly and qualitatively alter neutrino flavor evolution.

  11. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Requejo, Olga Mena; Quigg, Chris

    2005-04-15

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z{sup 0}. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (10{sup 21}-10{sup 25}-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the line shape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality.

  12. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z{sup 0}. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (10{sup 21} - 10{sup 25}-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time-evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the lineshape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality.

  13. Neutrino decay and solar neutrino seasonal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoreti, R.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the possibility of solar neutrino decay as a sub-leading effect on their propagation between production and detection. Using current oscillation data, we set a new lower bound to the ν2 neutrino lifetime at τ2 /m2 ≥ 7.2 ×10-4s .eV-1 at 99% C.L. Also, we show how seasonal variations in the solar neutrino data can give interesting additional information about neutrino lifetime.

  14. Study of Neutrino Interactions in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Richa

    2014-01-01

    MINOS stands for Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. It is a long baseline experiment located in the USA and is composed of two detectors. The Near Detector is at Fermilab, 1 km from the source of neutrinos. The Far Detector is in Minnesota at a distance of 735 km from the source. Both detectors are steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations by comparing the neutrino energy spectrum at the Far Detector with that obtained from a prediction based on the spectrum at the Near Detector. The primary aim of MINOS is to measure the atmospheric oscillation parameters Δm2 32 and θ23. CPT symmetry requires that these parameters should be same for neutrinos and antineutrinos. Di erences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations would be an indication of new physics beyond the neutrino-Standard Model ( SM). Additionally, violation of Lorentz or CPT symmetry could also give rise to oscillations di erent from that expected from the SM predictions, such as neutrino to antineutrino transitions.

  15. The 13C(α,n)16O reaction: A background source for underground astrophysics measurements and geo-neutrino measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febbraro, Michael; Toomey, Rebecca; Deboer, James; Pain, Steven; Peters, William; Smith, Karl; Becchetti, Fred; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we present results for a neutron spectroscopic study of the 13C(α,n)16O reaction between E α = 3 . 5 and 7.5 MeV performed at the University of Notre Dame Nuclear Science Laboratory. The neutron spectroscopy measurement was performed with deuterated liquid scintillator detectors capable of extracting neutron energy spectra without neutron time-of-flight measurement using spectral unfolding technique. This permitted extraction of the ground state contribution as well as excited state contributions to the total reaction cross section. The usefulness of this technique for the measurement of beam-induced neutron background sources in deep underground nuclear astrophysics measurements will be shown. Results showing the contributions of excited state components to the total cross section will be given and their implication to geo-neutrino measurements will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, NSF Grant PHY0969456, PHY1401343, and Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation R&D (NA-22).

  16. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  17. Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    There is compelling evidence for neutrino flavor change as neutrinos propagate. The evidence for this phenomenon has been provided by several experiments observing neutrinos that traverse distances of several hundred kilometers between production and detection. This review outlines the evidence for neutrino flavor change from such experiments and describes recent results in the field.

  18. Impact of cosmic neutrinos on the gravitational-wave background

    SciTech Connect

    Mangilli, Anna; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2008-10-15

    We obtain the equation governing the evolution of the cosmological gravitational-wave background, accounting for the presence of cosmic neutrinos, up to second order in perturbation theory. In particular, we focus on the epoch during radiation dominance, after neutrino decoupling, when neutrinos yield a relevant contribution to the total energy density and behave as collisionless ultrarelativistic particles. Besides recovering the standard damping effect due to neutrinos, a new source term for gravitational waves is shown to arise from the neutrino anisotropic stress tensor. The importance of such a source term, so far completely disregarded in the literature, is related to the high velocity dispersion of neutrinos in the considered epoch; its computation requires solving the full second-order Boltzmann equation for collisionless neutrinos.

  19. High energy neutrino astronomy with MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auriemma, G.

    1985-01-01

    A large area underground detector with accurate muon tracking and directionality can be used for the search of extraterrestrial sources of high energy neutrinos. The sensitivity of the MACRO detector to possible sources of neutrinos was evaluated with a Monte-Carlo simulation of the neutrino interaction in the rock and and of the detection in the real apparatus. Two categories of possible neutrino sources are discussed in comparison with the detector sensitivity. Promising candidate objects for this search appear to be the two binary X-ray sources in the southern key Vela X1 and LMC X4, which are known to emit gamma rays up to the 10,000 TeV region.

  20. Angular distribution of muons produced by cosmic ray neutrinos in rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boliev, M. M.; Buckevich, A. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Leonov-Vendrovsky, A. V.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Zakidyshev, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the upgoing muons flux, produced by cosmic ray neutrinos is aiming at: (1) search for neutrino oscillation; (2); search for extraterrestrial neutrinos from local sources; and (3); search for any hypothetical neutral penetrating radiation different from neutrinos. Experimental data of the Baksan underground telescope on intensity of upward muons for three years of living time, was analyzed having in mind mainly neutrino oscillation.

  1. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  2. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  3. Search for sterile neutrino mixing in the muon neutrino to tau neutrino appearance channel with the OPERA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Crescenzo, A.; OPERA Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The OPERA experiment observed ν μ → ν τ oscillations in the atmospheric sector. To this purpose the hybrid OPERA detector was exposed to the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam from 2008 to 2012, at a distance of 730 km from the neutrino source. Charged-current interactions of ν τ were searched for through the identification of τ lepton decay topologies. The five observed ν τ interactions are consistent with the expected number of events in the standard three neutrino framework. Based on this result, new limits on the mixing parameters of a massive sterile neutrino may be set. Preliminary results of the analysis performed in the 3+1 neutrino framework are here presented.

  4. Confronting the stochastic neutrino mixing mechanism with the sterile neutrino hypothesis as a solution to the short baseline neutrino anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavanin, E. M.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.

    2015-06-01

    We compare the solutions to the short baseline neutrino anomaly based on oscillations to sterile neutrinos and the stochastic neutrino mixing mechanism (SNMM) through an analysis of the present neutrino data. The SNMM suggests worse fits than a 3 +1 sterile neutrino model, although it cannot be discarded by present data. We propose an experiment to distinguish between both solutions, based on placing a 8Li source inside a 5 kton-yr detector (like SNO). We studied the sensitivity of such an experiment, which makes it possible to discriminate within 2 σ the SNMM from the 3 +1 sterile hypothesis for some particular values of the relevant parameters in 5 kton-yr of running.

  5. Sterile neutrinos and flavor ratios in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos observed in neutrino telescopes is a powerful discriminator between different astrophysical neutrino production mechanisms and can also teach us about the particle physics properties of neutrinos. In this paper, we investigate how the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos can affect these flavor ratios. We consider two scenarios: (i) neutrino production in conventional astrophysical sources, followed by partial oscillation into sterile states; (ii) neutrinos from dark matter decay with a primary flavor composition enhanced in tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos. Throughout the paper, we constrain the sterile neutrino mixing parameters from a full global fit to short and long baseline data. We present our results in the form of flavor triangles and, for scenario (ii), as exclusion limits on the dark matter mass and lifetime, derived from a fit to IceCube high energy starting events and through-going muons. We argue that identifying a possible flux of neutrinos from dark matter decay may require analyzing the flavor composition as a function of neutrino energy.

  6. EXTRAGALACTIC STAR-FORMING GALAXIES WITH HYPERNOVAE AND SUPERNOVAE AS HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINO AND GAMMA-RAY SOURCES: THE CASE OF THE 10 TeV NEUTRINO DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Senno, Nicholas; Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Baerwald, Philipp; Rees, Martin J.

    2015-06-10

    In light of the latest IceCube data, we discuss the implications of the cosmic ray (CR) energy input from hypernovae (HNe) and supernovae (SNe) into the universe, and their propagation in the hosting galaxies and galaxy clusters or groups. The magnetic confinement of CRs in these environments may lead to efficient neutrino production via pp collisions, resulting in a diffuse neutrino spectrum extending from PeV down to 10 TeV energies, with a spectrum and flux level compatible with that recently reported by IceCube. If the diffuse 10 TeV neutrino background largely comes from such CR reservoirs, the corresponding diffuse γ-ray background should be compatible with the recent Fermi data. In this scenario, the CR energy input from HNe should be dominant over that of SNe, implying that the starburst scenario does not work if the SN energy budget is a factor of two larger than the HN energy budget. Thus, this strong case scenario can be supported or ruled out in the near future.

  7. GRB neutrino search with MAGIC

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Julia K.; Rhode, Wolfgang; Gaug, Markus

    2008-05-22

    The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope was designed for the detection of photon sources > or approx. 50 GeV. The measurement of highly-inclined air showers renders possible the search for high-energy neutrinos, too. Only neutrinos can traverse the Earth without interaction, and therefore, events close to the horizon can be identified as neutrino-induced rather than photon-induced or hadronic events. In this paper, Swift-XRT-detected GRBs with given spectral information are used in order to calculate the potential neutrino energy spectrum from prompt and afterglow emission for each individual GRB. The event rate in MAGIC is estimated assuming that the GRB happens within the field of view of MAGIC. A sample of 568 long GRBs as detected by BATSE is used to compare the detection rates with 163 Swift-detected bursts. BATSE has properties similar to the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board of GLAST. Therefore the estimated rates give an estimate for the possibilities of neutrino detection with MAGIC from GLAST-triggered bursts.

  8. Muon neutrino disappearance at MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, R

    2009-08-01

    A strong case has been made by several experiments that neutrinos oscillate, although important questions remain as to the mechanisms and precise values of the parameters. In the standard picture, two parameters describe the nature of how the neutrinos oscillate: the mass-squared difference between states and the mixing angle. The purpose of this thesis is to use data from the MINOS experiment to precisely measure the parameters associated with oscillations first observed in studies of atmospheric neutrinos. MINOS utilizes two similar detectors to observe the oscillatory nature of neutrinos. The Near Detector, located 1 km from the source, observes the unoscillated energy spectrum while the Far Detector, located 735 km away, is positioned to see the oscillation signal. Using the data in the Near Detector, a prediction of the expected neutrino spectrum at the Far Detector assuming no oscillations is made. By comparing this prediction with the MINOS data, the atmospheric mixing parameters are measured to be Δm322 = 2.45+0.12-0.12 x 10-3 eV2 and sin232) = 1.00-0.04+0.00 (> 0.90 at 90% confidence level).

  9. Recent developments in neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    I shall attempt to summarize recent developments in the experimental situation in neutrino physics. The paper will deal with recent results, drawing on either published work or research that has been presented in preprint form, as there is an adequate supply of interesting and controversial data restricting oneself to these generally more reliable sources. The discussion of the theoretical implication of these experimental results will be presented in the following paper by Boris Kayser. The topics to be covered in this presentation are: direct measurements of {bar {nu}}{sub e} mass via beta endpoint studies; status of solar neutrino observations; status of 17-keV neutrino'' reports; and the use of {nu}p elastic scattering to determine the strange quark'' content of the proton. 2 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. ICECUBE NEUTRINOS AND LORENTZ INVARIANCE VIOLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Guetta, D.; Piran, Tsvi

    2015-06-20

    The IceCube neutrino telescope has found so far no evidence of gamma-ray burst (GRB) neutrinos. We here notice that these results assume the same travel times from source to telescope for neutrinos and photons, an assumption that is challenged by some much-studied pictures of spacetime quantization. We briefly review previous results suggesting that limits on quantum-spacetime effects obtained for photons might not be applicable to neutrinos, and we then observe that the outcome of GRB-neutrino searches could depend strongly on whether one allows for neutrinos to be affected by the minute effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) predicted by some relevant quantum-spacetime models. We discuss some relevant issues using as an illustrative example three neutrinos that were detected by IceCube in good spatial coincidence with GRBs, but hours before the corresponding gamma rays. In general, this could happen if the earlier arrival reflects quantum-spacetime-induced LIV, but, as we stress, some consistency criteria must be enforced in order to properly test such a hypothesis. Our analysis sets the stage for future GRB-neutrino searches that could systematically test the possibility of quantum-spacetime-induced LIV.

  11. Predictivity of neutrino mass sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrlein, Julia; Merle, Alexander; Spinrath, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Correlations between light neutrino observables are arguably the strongest predictions of lepton flavor models based on (discrete) symmetries, except for the very few cases which unambiguously predict the full set of leptonic mixing angles. A subclass of these correlations is neutrino mass sum rules, which connect the three (complex) light neutrino mass eigenvalues among each other. This connection constrains both the light neutrino mass scale and the Majorana phases, so that mass sum rules generically lead to a nonzero value of the lightest neutrino mass and to distinct predictions for the effective mass probed in neutrinoless double beta decay. However, in nearly all cases known, the neutrino mass sum rules are not exact and receive corrections from various sources. We introduce a formalism to handle these corrections perturbatively in a model-independent manner, which overcomes issues present in earlier approaches. Our ansatz allows us to quantify the modification of the predictions derived from neutrino mass sum rules. We show that, in most cases, the predictions are fairly stable: while small quantitative changes can appear, they are generally rather mild. We therefore establish the predictivity of neutrino mass sum rules on a level far more general than previously known.

  12. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  13. Neutrino mass, a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1993-08-01

    Experimental approaches to neutrino mass include kinematic mass measurements, neutrino oscillation searches at rectors and accelerators, solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and single and double beta decay. The solar neutrino results yield fairly strong and consistent indications that neutrino oscillations are occurring. Other evidence for new physics is less consistent and convincing.

  14. Computational Analysis of the Bugey Neutrino Oscillation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, Mason

    2012-03-01

    The Bugey 3-Detector neutrino experiment attempted to place a limit on δm^21,2 and 2̂(2θ1,2) by calculating neutrino fluxes from a nuclear reactor. This experiment was unusual because it utilized data taken from three different distances from the neutrino source. The experiment concluded that neutrinos did not oscillate between flavors. However, this conclusion was later contradicted and overruled by data from more accurate neutrino oscillation experiments, and recent discoveries suggest that a fourth neutrino may exist. To help determine the plausibility of a four neutrino model we are reexamining data from the Bugey experiment. Although our attempts to recreate the original experimenter's results have yielded some success, we have not yet been able to fully recreate the original experimenters' results.

  15. Status and commissioning of the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuemmler, Thomas; Katrin Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutrino properties, and especially the determination of the neutrino rest mass, play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double β decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. Experiments based on single β decay investigate electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino mass by a modelindependent method. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β spectroscopy close to the tritium endpoint with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/c2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino mass.

  16. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    ScienceCinema

    Saoulidou, Niki

    2016-07-12

    Neutrino oscillations provide the first evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. I will briefly overview the neutrino "hi-story", describing key discoveries over the past decades that shaped our understanding of neutrinos and their behavior. Fermilab was, is and hopefully will be at the forefront of the accelerator neutrino experiments.  NuMI, the most powerful accelerator neutrino beam in the world has ushered us into the era of precise measurements. Its further upgrades may give a chance to tackle the remaining mysteries of the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP violation.

  17. Neutrinos and Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Bradley S.

    2008-05-12

    Core-collapse supernovae are one of the few astrophysical environments in which neutrinos play a dominant role. Neutrinos emission is the means by which a newly-born neutron star formed in a core-collapse event cools. Neutrinos may play a significant role in causing the supernova explosion. Finally neutrinos may significantly affect the nucleosynthesis occurring in the layers of the exploding star that are eventually ejected into interstellar space. This paper reviews some interesting neutrino-nucleus processes that may occur in the cores of exploding massive stars and then discusses some effects neutrinos may have on explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae.

  18. Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.; et al.,

    2013-07-28

    In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) deployed there as a 'far' detector. The facilities envisioned are expected to enable many other science opportunities due to the high event rates and excellent detector resolution from beam neutrinos in the near detector and atmospheric neutrinos in the far detector. This is a mature, well developed, world class experiment whose relevance, importance, and probability of unearthing critical and exciting physics has increased with time.

  19. MASTER OT J130845.02-323254.9: Variable Stars as Source of the High Energy Neutrino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunov, V.; Tyurina, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.

    2016-09-01

    As reported in ATel #9425 Global MASTER Net auto-detection system ( ( Lipunov et al., MASTER Global Robotic Net, Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 08m 45.02s -32d 32m 54.9s on 2016-08-24.73811 UT during inspection of HESE IceCube alert (14 August 2016, 58537957 trigger number http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/notices_amon/58537957_128340.amon , Dornic et al. ATEL #9440 ). MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system detected again OT at RA (2000) = 13 08 45.02 -32 32 54.9 on 2016-09-04.7627UT (ATEL #9425).

  20. ORLANDO -- Oak Ridge Large Neutrino Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Gabriel, T.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Plasil, F.; Fazely, A.; Svoboda, R.

    1997-12-01

    The authors discuss a proposal for construction of an Oak Ridge LArge Neutrino DetectOr (ORLANDO) to search for neutrino oscillations at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A 4 MW SNS is proposed to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the first stage to be operative around 2006. It will have two target stations, which makes it possible with a single detector to perform a neutrino oscillation search at two different distances. Initial plans for the placement of the detector and the discovery potential of such a detector are discussed.

  1. Collective neutrino oscillations in nonspherical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg

    2008-08-01

    The rich phenomenology of collective neutrino oscillations has been studied only in one-dimensional or spherically symmetric systems. Motivated by the nonspherical example of coalescing neutron stars, presumably the central engines of short gamma-ray bursts, we use the Liouville equation to formulate the problem for general source geometries. Assuming the neutrino ensemble displays self-maintained coherence, the problem once more becomes effectively one-dimensional along the streamlines of the overall neutrino flux. This approach for the first time provides a formal definition of the 'single-angle approximation' frequently used for supernova neutrinos and allows for a natural generalization to nonspherical geometries. We study the explicit example of a disk-shaped source as a proxy for coalescing neutron stars.

  2. Solar Neutrino Problem

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C.; Cleveland, B. T.

    1978-04-28

    A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.

  3. Supernova neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Scholberg, K.

    2015-07-15

    In this presentation I summarize the main detection channels for neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae, and describe current status of and future prospects for supernova-neutrino-sensitive detectors worldwide.

  4. Nonstandard interaction effects on astrophysical neutrino fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Meloni, Davide

    2009-09-15

    We investigate new physics effects in the production and detection of high-energy neutrinos at neutrino telescopes. Analyzing the flavor ratios {phi}{sub {mu}}/{phi}{sub {tau}} and {phi}{sub {mu}}/({phi}{sub {tau}}+{phi}{sub e}), we find that the standard model predictions for them can be sensibly altered by new physics effects in the case of pion sources. However, the experimental precision required to see the effects would be very difficult to obtain.

  5. Leptogenesis with many neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Eisele, Marc-Thomas

    2008-02-15

    We consider leptogenesis in scenarios with many neutrino singlets. We find that the lower bound for the reheating temperature can be significantly relaxed with respect to the hierarchical three neutrino case. We further argue that the upper bound for the neutrino mass scale from leptogenesis gets significantly lifted in these scenarios. As a specific realization, we then discuss an extradimensional model, where the large number of neutrinos is provided by Kaluza-Klein excitations.

  6. Neutrino masses and mixings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1991-12-31

    Theoretical prejudices, cosmology, and neutrino oscillation experiments all suggest neutrino mass are far below present direct experimental limits. Four interesting scenarios and their implications are discussed: (1) a 17 keV {nu}{sub {tau}}, (2) a 30 ev {nu}{sub {tau}} making up the dark matter, (3) a 10{sup {minus}3} ev {nu}{sub {mu}} to solve the solar neutrino problem, and (4) a three-neutrino MSW solution.

  7. The neutrino mass hierarchy measurement with a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Tsirigotis, A. G.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    With the measurement of a non zero value of the θ{sub 13} neutrino mixing parameter, interest in neutrinos as source of the baryon asymmetry of the universe has increased. Among the measurements of a rich and varied program in near future neutrino physics is the determination of the mass hierarchy. We present the status of a study of the feasibility of using a densely instrumented undersea neutrino detector to determine the mass hierarchy, utilizing the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect on atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The detector will use technology developed for KM3NeT. We present the systematic studies of the optimization of a detector in the required 5–10 GeV energy regime. These studies include new tracking and interaction identification algorithms as well as geometrical optimizations of the detector.

  8. Energy reconstruction of high energy muon and neutrino events in KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia; Markou, Christos; Tzamariudaki, Ekaterini; Pikounis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT will be a European deep-sea infrastructure of neutrino telescopes covering a volume of several cubic kilometers in the Mediterranean Sea aiming to search for high energy neutrinos from galactic and extragalactic sources. This analysis focuses on muons coming from neutrino charged-current interactions. In large water Cherenkov detectors the reconstructed muon is used to approximate the neutrino direction and energy, thus providing information on the astrophysical neutrino source. Muon energy estimation is also critical for the differentiation of neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from neutrinos generated in the atmosphere which constitute the detector background. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of approximately 0.27 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  9. Generalized Boltzmann formalism for oscillating neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Strack, P.; Burrows, A.

    2005-05-01

    In the standard approaches to neutrino transport in the simulation of core-collapse supernovas, one will often start from the classical Boltzmann equation for the neutrino's spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution. For each neutrino species, and its antiparticle, the classical density in phase space, or the associated specific intensity, will be calculated as a function of time. The neutrino radiation is coupled to matter by source and sink terms on the 'right-hand side' of the transport equation and together with the equations of hydrodynamics this set of coupled partial differential equations for classical densities describes, in principle, the evolution of core collapse and explosion. However, with the possibility of neutrino oscillations between species, a purely quantum-physical effect, how to generalize this set of Boltzmann equations for classical quantities to reflect oscillation physics has not been clear. To date, the formalisms developed have retained the character of quantum operator physics involving complex quantities and have not been suitable for easy incorporation into standard supernova codes. In this paper, we derive generalized Boltzmann equations for quasiclassical, real-valued phase-space densities that retain all the standard oscillation phenomenology, including the matter-enhanced resonant flavor conversion (Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect), neutrino self-interactions, and the interplay between decohering matter coupling and flavor oscillations. With this formalism, any code(s) that can now handle the solution of the classical Boltzmann or transport equation can easily be generalized to include neutrino oscillations in a quantum-physically consistent fashion.

  10. The status of the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution. The next generation of solar experiments promise to finally resolve the source of the ``solar neutrino problem`` by the end of this decade.

  11. Probing BSM neutrino physics with flavor and spectral distortions: Prospects for future high-energy neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Ian M.; Murase, Kohta

    2016-04-01

    The flavor of cosmic neutrinos may help unveil their sources and could reveal the presence of new physics in the neutrino sector. We consider impacts of next-generation neutrino detectors, including the planned upgrade to neutrino detector, IceCube-Gen2, which is well positioned to make dramatic improvements in both flavor and spectral measurements. We show that various models in neutrino physics beyond the Standard Model, such as neutrino decay, pseudo-Dirac states, and neutrino self-scattering, may be found or strongly constrained at IceCube-Gen2 and Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope. We find that the additional flavor discriminants given by Glashow resonance events and so-called "double-bang" topologies improve the ability to access the flavor of the cosmic high-energy neutrinos and probe the beyond the Standard Model physics. In addition, although details depend on source properties, Glashow resonance events have the additional feature of being able to inform us of the relative strengths of neutrino and antineutrino emission, which may help us discriminate astrophysical scenarios.

  12. Exaggerated natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients: evaluation of proximal and distal tubular reabsorption by simultaneous determination of renal plasma clearance of lithium and 51Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Fjeldborg, P; Madsen, M; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Kornerup, H J

    1987-02-01

    In fourteen hypertensive and fourteen normotensive renal transplant recipients, and in a group of thirteen healthy controls, changes in natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular reabsorption of sodium were determined in relation to intravenous infusion of 2 mmol isotonic sodium chloride per kg body weight. An exaggerated natriuresis was demonstrated in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients. This new finding indicates that the augmented natriuresis following plasma volume expansion, which is a characteristic finding in subjects with arterial hypertension, is not mediated by the renal nerves. Investigation of the tubular reabsorption rates of sodium by simultaneous determination of the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium showed that in the hypertensives the changes in tubular handling of sodium were different from those registered in the normotensive subjects. The increased sodium excretion in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients was caused by an increased output of sodium from the proximal tubules which was not fully compensated for by an increased distal reabsorption. Whether this increased delivery of sodium to the distal segments was caused by changes in GFR or in the proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium could not be clarified in the present study and warrants further investigations.

  13. Backgrounds in Neutrino Appearance Signal at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2006-07-11

    The MiniBooNE (Booster Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a precise search for neutrino oscillations but is crucially sensitive to background processes that would mimic an oscillation signal. The background sources include intrinsic ve from kaon and muon decays, mis-identified {pi}0, gammas from radiative delta decays, and muon neutrino events mis-identified as electrons. A summary of these backgrounds and the tools to handle them is presented.

  14. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O'Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  15. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. Bühler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  16. Nucleosynthesis and Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2011-05-06

    Neutrinos play the critical roles in nucleosynthesis of light-to-heavy mass nuclei in core-collapse supernovae. We study the nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and find suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta. These isotopes are predominantly synthesized by the supernova {nu}-process. We also study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances and propose a method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, i.e. {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy.

  17. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  18. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    In the past several years, a number of experiments have searched for neutrino oscillations, where a neutrino of one type (say {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}) spontaneously transforms into a neutrino of another type (say {bar {nu}}{sub e}). For this phenomenon to occur, neutrinos must be massive and the apparent conservation law of lepton families must be violated. In 1995 the LSND experiment published data showing candidate events that are consistent with {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations. Additional data are reported here which provide stronger evidence for neutrino oscillations.

  19. Very-high-energy astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, Ignacio

    2016-11-01

    IceCube is a ≳TeV neutrino observatory operating at the South Pole. Ice-Cube has observed a flux of neutrinos of astrophysical origin, with energies beyond 2 PeV. However the sources of these neutrinos have not yet been identified. A summary of various IceCube observations is presented. The results discussed were obtained through several different analysis methods, which have varying sensitivity to the different neutrino flavors. A discussion of the spectral fit obtained for the various event selections is included, as well as the constraints on the astrophysical neutrino flavor flux ratio. Several attempts by IceCube to identify the sources of these neutrinos are described. These include studies correlating neutrino events with catalogs of sources as well as selfcorrelations among IceCube's neutrinos. The observations of astrophysical neutrinos are limited by statistics. So an upgrade of IceCube, including a larger detector and a surface veto is planned. This upgrade is briefly discussed.

  20. Supernovae neutrino pasta interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zidu; Horowitz, Charles; Caplan, Matthew; Berry, Donald; Roberts, Luke

    2017-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, the neutron rich matter is believed to have complex structures, such as spherical, slablike, and rodlike shapes. They are collectively called ``nuclear pasta''. Supernovae neutrinos may scatter coherently on the ``nuclear pasta'' since the wavelength of the supernovae neutrinos are comparable to the nuclear pasta scale. Consequently, the neutrino pasta scattering is important to understand the neutrino opacity in the supernovae. In this work we simulated the ``nuclear pasta'' at different temperatures and densities using our semi-classical molecular dynamics and calculated the corresponding static structure factor that describes ν-pasta scattering. We found the neutrino opacities are greatly modified when the ``pasta'' exist and may have influence on the supernovae neutrino flux and average energy. Our neutrino-pasta scattering effect can finally be involved in the current supernovae simulations and we present preliminary proto neutron star cooling simulations including our pasta opacities.

  1. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  2. The CAPTAIN Liquid Argon Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiuguang

    The CAPTAIN liquid argon experiment is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two detectors - a primary detector with approximately 10-ton of liquid argon that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a prototype detector with 2-ton of liquid argon for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in medium energy regime (1.5-5 GeV) at Fermilab's NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in low energy regime (< 50 MeV) at stopped pion sources for supernova neutrino studies.

  3. Monochromatic neutrino lines from sneutrino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arina, Chiara; Kulkarni, Suchita; Silk, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing monochromatic neutrino lines originating from annihilation of dark matter. We analyze several astrophysical sources with overdensities of dark matter that can amplify the signal. As a case study, we consider mixed left- and right-handed sneutrino dark matter. We demonstrate that in the physically viable region of the model, one can obtain a prominent monochromatic neutrino line. We propose a search strategy to observe these neutrino lines in future generations of neutrino telescopes that is especially sensitive to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We demonstrate that the presence of massive black holes in the cores of dwarfs as well as of more massive galaxies substantially boosts any putative signal. In particular, dark matter in dwarf galaxies spiked by an intermediate massive black hole provides a powerful means of probing low-annihilation cross sections well below 10-26 cm3 s-1 that are otherwise inaccessible by any future direct detection or collider experiment.

  4. The CAPTAIN liquid argon neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiuguang

    2015-01-01

    The CAPTAIN liquid argon experiment is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two detectors – a primary detector with approximately 10-ton of liquid argon that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a prototype detector with 2-ton of liquid argon for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in medium energy regime (1.5–5 GeV) at Fermilab's NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in low energy regime (< 50 MeV) at stopped pion sources for supernova neutrino studies.

  5. The CAPTAIN liquid argon neutrino experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Qiuguang

    2015-01-01

    The CAPTAIN liquid argon experiment is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two detectors – a primary detector with approximately 10-ton of liquid argon that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a prototype detector with 2-ton of liquid argon for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in medium energy regime (1.5–5 GeV) at Fermilab's NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in low energymore » regime (< 50 MeV) at stopped pion sources for supernova neutrino studies.« less

  6. Short distance neutrino oscillations with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminata, A.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; di Noto, L.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquères, N.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino detector has convincingly shown its outstanding performances in the low energy, sub-MeV regime through its unprecedented accomplishments in the solar and geo-neutrinos detection. These performances make it the ideal tool to accomplish a state-of-the-art experiment able to test unambiguously the long-standing issue of the existence of a sterile neutrino, as suggested by the several anomalous results accumulated over the past two decades, i.e. the outputs of the LSND and Miniboone experiments, the results of the source calibration of the two Gallium solar neutrino experiments, and the recently hinted reactor anomaly. The SOX project will exploit two sources, based on Chromium and Cerium, respectively, which deployed under the experiment, in a location foreseen on purpose at the time of the construction of the detector, will emit two intense beams of neutrinos (Cr) and anti-neutrinos (Ce). Interacting in the active volume of the liquid scintillator, each beam would create an unmistakable spatial wave pattern in case of oscillation of the νe (or ν̅e) into the sterile state: such a pattern would be the smoking gun proving the existence of the new sterile member of the neutrino family. Otherwise, its absence will allow setting a very stringent limit on its existence.

  7. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losa, Agustín Sánchez

    2017-03-01

    The ANTARES detector is an underwater neutrino telescope, the largest in the Northern Hemisphere and the first one ever built under the sea, located in the Mediterranean Sea 40 km off the Southern coast of France, at a depth of 2.5 km. It comprises 885 photomultiplier tubes distributed along twelve detection lines. The signal due to neutrinos is searched by reconstructing the tracks of secondary particles produced in the surroundings of the detector. The detector is in data taking with its final configuration since 2008. It is aimed at identifying the sources, either steady or flaring, of cosmic neutrinos, and is also suitable for detection of dark matter within the Sun and/or Galactic Centre. ANTARES can contribute in the confirmation of the cosmic neutrino flux observed by IceCube, being particularly competitive for the Galactic Centre, and in general for galactic sources, due its latitude and at lower energies and softer spectra due its configuration. Several multi-messenger analyses have been also attempted, including the search of coincidence signals of neutrinos with gravitational-waves. Additional topics include neutrino oscillations or the search of exotic particles, like nuclearites and magnetic monopoles. Results from the latest analyses are presented.

  8. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations were first discovered by experiments looking at neutrinos coming from extra-terrestrial sources, namely the sun and the atmosphere, but we will be depending on earth-based sources to take many of the next steps in this field. This article describes what has been learned so far from accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, and then describe very generally what the next accelerator-based steps are. In section 2 the article discusses how one uses an accelerator to make a neutrino beam, in particular, one made from decays in flight of charged pions. There are several different neutrino detection methods currently in use, or under development. In section 3 these are presented, with a description of the general concept, an example of such a detector, and then a brief discussion of the outstanding issues associated with this detection technique. Finally, section 4 describes how the measurements of oscillation probabilities are made. This includes a description of the near detector technique and how it can be used to make the most precise measurements of neutrino oscillations.

  9. A New Neutrino Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Starting in the late 1960s, neutrino detectors began to see signs that neutrinos, now known to come in the flavors electron ({nu}{sub e}), muon ({nu}{sub {mu}}), and tau ({nu}{sub {tau}}), could transform from one flavor to another. The findings implied that neutrinos must have mass, since massless particles travel at the speed of light and their clocks, so to speak, don't tick, thus they cannot change. What has since been discovered is that neutrinos oscillate at two distinct scales, 500 km/GeV and 15,000 km/GeV, which are defined by the baseline (L) of the experiment (the distance the neutrino travels) divided by the neutrino energy (E). Neutrinos of one flavor can oscillate into neutrinos of another flavor at both L/E scales, but the amplitude of these oscillations is different for the two scales and depends on the initial and final flavor of the neutrinos. The neutrino states that propogate unchanged in time, the mass eigenstates {nu}1, {nu}2, {nu}3, are quantum mechanical mixtures of the electron, muon, and tau neutrino flavors, and the fraction of each flavor in a given mass eigenstate is controlled by three mixing angles and a complex phase. Two of these mixing angles are known with reasonable precision. An upper bound exists for the third angle, called {theta}{sub 13}, which controls the size of the muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation at an L/E of 500 km/GeV. The phase is completely unknown. The existence of this phase has important implications for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter we observe in the universe today. Experiments around the world have steadily assembled this picture of neutrino oscillation, but evidence of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation at 500 km/GeV has remained elusive. Now, a paper from the T2K (Tokai to Kamioka) experiment in Japan, reports the first possible observation of muon neutrinos oscillating into electron neutrinos at 500 km/GeV. They see 6 candidate signal events, above an expected background

  10. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  11. Implication of the Non-detection of GZK Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacobi, Lee; Guetta, Dafne; Behar, Ehud

    2016-06-01

    The IceCube telescope has detected diffuse neutrino emission up to a deposited energy of 2.6 PeV. Neutrinos with higher energies are expected from the Greisen Ztsepin Kuzmin (GZK) effect, namely the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the extragalactic background light (EBL), but have not yet been detected. Models for GZK neutrinos vary greatly due to different assumptions on the UHECR elemental composition, as well as on the cosmological evolution of their sources and of the EBL. We show that the high ratio of EeV to PeV neutrinos in essentially all GZK models excludes the currently detected PeV neutrinos from being due to the GZK effect, because many additional higher-energy neutrinos should have been detected but were not. The non-detection of GZK neutrinos, despite more than essentially 1800 observing days, already rules out at 95% confidence all of the models that predict rates of 0.6 neutrinos yr-1 or more. The non-detection is further used here to quantify the confidence at which classes of GZK models can be ruled out, and to compute the additional IceCube observing time required in order to rule them out with 95% confidence, if no detection is made. Finally, the number of GZK neutrinos expected from various classes of models in the future neutrino telescopes ARA and KM3NeT is estimated.

  12. Introduction to direct neutrino mass measurements and KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, T.; Katrin Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The properties of neutrinos and especially their rest mass play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. On the other hand experiments such as MARE, KATRIN and the recently proposed Project 8 will investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Here, because of neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. It combines an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source with an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type. It will investigate the neutrino rest mass with 0.2 eV/c (90% C.L.) sensitivity and allow β spectroscopy close to the T endpoint at 18.6 keV with unprecedented precision.

  13. Cosmic neutrino cascades from secret neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kenny C. Y.; Beacom, John F.

    2014-09-01

    The first detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube provides new opportunities for tests of neutrino properties. The long baseline through the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is particularly useful for directly testing secret neutrino interactions (νSI) that would cause neutrino-neutrino elastic scattering at a larger rate than the usual weak interactions. We show that IceCube can provide competitive sensitivity to νSI compared to other astrophysical and cosmological probes, which are complementary to laboratory tests. We study the spectral distortions caused by νSI with a large s-channel contribution, which can lead to a dip, bump, or cutoff on an initially smooth spectrum. Consequently, νSI may be an exotic solution for features seen in the IceCube energy spectrum. More conservatively, IceCube neutrino data could be used to set model-independent limits on νSI. Our phenomenological estimates provide guidance for more detailed calculations, comparisons to data, and model building.

  14. Hint of CPT Violation in Short-Baseline Electron Neutrino Disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

  15. On a theory of neutrino oscillations with entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; Kopp, Joachim; Roberston, R.G.Hamish; Vogel, Petr; /Caltech, Kellogg Lab

    2010-06-01

    We show that the standard expression for the neutrino oscillation length can be confirmed even in theoretical approaches that take into account entanglement between the neutrino and its interaction partners. We show this in particular for the formalism developed in arXiv:1004.1847. Finally, we shed some light on the question why plane-wave approaches to the neutrino oscillation problem can yield the correct result for the oscillation length even though they do not explicitly account for the localization of the neutrino source and the detector.

  16. Neutrino-antineutrino correlations in dense anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serreau, Julien; Volpe, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    We derive the most general evolution equations describing in-medium (anti)neutrino propagation in the mean-field approximation. In particular, we consider various types of neutrino-antineutrino mixing, for both Dirac and Majorana fields, resulting either from nontrivial pair correlations or from helicity coherence due to the nonvanishing neutrino masses. We show that, unless the medium is spatially homogeneous and isotropic, these correlations are sourced by the usual neutrino and antineutrino densities. This may be of importance in astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae.

  17. The search for sterile neutrinos at reactors and underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    From the initial discovery of neutrinos to the observation of neutrino oscillations, unexpected results have lead to deeper understanding of physics. However, as experiments and theoretical predictions have improved, new anomalies have surfaced that could point to beyond the Standard Model physics. Leading hypotheses invoke a new form of matter, sterile neutrinos, as a possible resolution of these outstanding questions. New experimental efforts are underway to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations with reactors and radioactive sources. This talk will highlight developments in current and next generation experiments and present possible outcomes for the next few years.

  18. Astrophysical High-Energy Neutrinos and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta

    2008-10-22

    High-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been expected in various scenarios. Many predictions for prompt and afterglow emission were done in the pre-Swift era. After the launch of Swift, several new discoveries such as flares have allowed us to expect additional new possibilities of high-energy neutrino emission from GRBs. In this paper, we overview various predictions of GRB neutrino emission, and discuss feature prospects. High-energy neutrino signals may be detected by future-coming large neutrino detectors such as IceCube and KM3Net. If detected, they should be very useful to know the nature of cosmic-ray acceleration sites. It would also help us to reveal the possible connection between ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and GRBs. Finally, we also compare a prediction of GRB neutrinos with several predictions for other sources such as active galactic nuclei (AGN) and clusters of galaxies.

  19. Reionization in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the process of reionization in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models, the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionizing photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionize the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionization from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionizing photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  20. SalSA: A Teraton UHE Neutrino Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reil, Kevin

    2006-07-01

    The observed spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays virtually guarantees the presence of ultra-high energy neutrinos due to their interaction with the cosmic microwave background. Unlike cosmic rays, each of these neutrinos will point back directly to its source and will arrive at the Earth unattenuated, from sources perhaps as distant as z = 20. The neutrino telescopes currently under construction, should discover a handful of these events, probably too few for detailed study. This paper describes how an array of VHF and UHF antennas embedded in a large salt dome, SalSA (Salt dome Shower Array) promises to yield a teraton detector (> 500 km3 sr) for contained neutrino events with energies above 1017 eV. Our simulations show that such a detector may observe several hundreds of these neutrinos over its lifetime with excellent angular resolution providing source locations.

  1. Search for neutrino emission from microquasars with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, S.

    2012-12-01

    Neutrino telescopes are nowadays exploring a new window of observation on the high energy universe and may shed light on the longstanding problem regarding the origin of cosmic rays. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is located underwater 40 km offshore from the Southern coast of France, on a plateau at 2475 m depth. Since 2007 it observes the high energy (>100 GeV) neutrino sky looking for cosmic neutrino sources. Among the candidate neutrino emitters are microquasars, i.e. galactic X-ray binaries exhibiting relativistic jets, which may accelerate hadrons thus producing neutrinos, under certain conditions. These sources are also variable in time and undergo X-ray or gamma ray outburst that can be related to the acceleration of relativistic particles witnessed by their radio emission. These events can provide a trigger to the neutrino search, with the advantage of drastically reducing the atmospheric neutrino background. A search for neutrino emission from microquasar during outbursts is presented based on the data collected by ANTARES between 2007 and 2010. Upper limits are shown and compared with the predictions.

  2. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  3. The Angra Neutrino Project: precise measurement of {theta}{sub 13} and safeguards applications of neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro, E.; Anjos, J. C.

    2009-04-20

    We present an introduction to the Angra Neutrino Project. The goal of the project is to explore the use of neutrino detectors to monitor the reactor activity. The Angra Project, willl employ as neutrino sources the reactors of the nuclear power complex in Brazil, located in Angra dos Reis, some 150 Km south from the city of Rio de Janeiro. The Angra collaboration will develop and operate a low-mass neutrino detector to monitor the nuclear reactor activity, in particular to measure the reactor thermal power and the reactor fuel isotopic composition.

  4. The generation of gravitational radiation by escaping supernova neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, R.

    1978-01-01

    Formulae for the gravitational radiation due to the anisotropic axisymmetric emission of neutrinos from a small source are derived. We find that a burst of neutrinos released anisotropically from a supernova will generate a burst of gravitational radiation that may be comparable in amplitude and energy to the gravitational radiation generated by the fluid motion in the collapse of the supernova core.

  5. Contribution of gallium experiments to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The results of gallium measurements of solar neutrino and measurements with artificial sources of neutrinos are presented. Conclusions are drawn from these results, and the potential of the SAGE experiment for studying transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.5 eV{sup 2} and a sensitivity of a few percent to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is examined.

  6. Acquiring information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2010-08-01

    We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about {theta}{sub 13} and neutrino masses by detecting supernova neutrinos. We apply these methods to some current neutrino experiments.

  7. Solar neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-04-30

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  8. High energy neutrinos from big bang particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.

    1993-04-01

    The production of high energy neutrinos by big bang particles is reviewed. The big bang particles are divided into two categories: dark matter particles (DMP), i.e. those with the critical mass density (ϱX = ϱc) at present, and the exotic relics whose mass density can be smaller than the critical one. For the case of DMP the neutralino and the gravitino are considered. High energy neutrinos can be produced due to the capture of the neutralinos in the earth and the sun, with the subsequent annihilation of these particles there. If R-parity is weakly violated, the neutralino decay can be a source of high energy neutrinos. The gravitino as DMP is unobservable directly, unless R-parity is violated and the gravitino decays. For thermal exotic relics a very general conclusion is reached: the detectable neutrino flux can be produced only by long-lived particles with τX > to, where to is the age of the Universe (the exceptional case is the decay only to the neutrinos). Very large neutrino fluxes can be produced by superheavy (up to ~ 1018 GeV) metastable relics in the particular cosmological scenario where the violent entropy production occurs.

  9. Novel Ideas for Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, Ken

    2007-04-23

    Recent developments in neutrino physics, primarily the demonstration of neutrino oscillations in both atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos, provide the first conclusive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The simplest phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, for three generations of neutrino, requires six parameters - two squared mass differences, 3 mixing angles and a complex phase that could, if not 0 or {pi}, contribute to the otherwise unexplained baryon asymmetry observed in the universe. Exploring the neutrino sector will require very intense beams of neutrinos, and will need novel solutions.

  10. Neutrinos in Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2008-01-24

    I give an overview of the effects of neutrinos on cosmology, focussing in particular on the role played by neutrinos in the evolution of cosmological perturbations. I discuss how recent observations of the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale structure of galaxies can probe neutrino masses with greater precision than current laboratory experiments. I describe several new techniques that will be used to probe cosmology in the future.

  11. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  12. High intensity neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, A. K.

    2015-07-15

    High-intensity proton accelerator complex enabled long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with a precisely controlled neutrino beam. The beam power so far achieved is a few hundred kW with enourmorous efforts of accelerator physicists and engineers. However, to fully understand the lepton mixing structure, MW-class accelerators are desired. We describe the current intensity-frontier high-energy proton accelerators, their plans to go beyond and technical challenges in the neutrino beamline facilities.

  13. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-06-18

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  14. Gallium and Reactor Neutrino Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, M. A.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.

    2009-03-01

    The observed deficit in the Gallium radioactive source experiments may be interpreted as a possible indication of active-sterile ν mixing. In the effective framework of two-neutrino mixing we obtain sin2ϑ≳0.03 and Δm≳0.1 eV. The compatibility of this result with the data of the Bugey reactor ν disappearance experiments is studied. It is found that the Bugey data present a hint of neutrino oscillations with 0.02≲sin2ϑ≲0.08 and Δm≈1.8 eV, which is compatible with the Gallium allowed region of the mixing parameters. This hint persists in the combined analysis of Gallium, Bugey, and Chooz data.

  15. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flares and Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.

    2004-06-01

    Most power-full solar flare as the ones occurred on 23th February 1956, September 29th 1989 and recent ones occurred on 28th October, on 2nd-4th and 13th November 2003 have been respectively recorded by Radio-X- and Cosmic Rays detectors. These flares took place most in the open or in the edge and in the hidden solar disk (as for the September 29th, 1989 beyond 105Wo and for last November 2003 flare events). The 4th November event was the most powerful X event in the highest known rank category X28. The observed and estimated total flare energy E = 1031-1033 erg should be a source also of a prompt secondary neutrino burst originated, by proton-proton-pion production on the sun itself; a more delayed and spread neutrino flux signal arise later on the terrestrial atmosphere. These first earliest prompt solar neutrino burst might be already recorde, in a few neutrino clustered events, in largest neutrino underground detectors as Super-Kamiokande one, in time correlation with the sharp X-Radio flare onset. Our first estimate at the Super-Kamiokande II Laboratory is found to be a few (1-5) events. Their discover (or absence) should constrains the solar flare acceleration, energetic and its inner environment. Any large neutrino flare event might even verify the expected neutrino flavour mixing leading to comparable electron- muon event as well as a comparable energy fluence and spectra. Rare Tau appearence by neutrino muon into tau conversion might also arise.

  16. Feasibility of determining diffuse ultra-high energy cosmic neutrino flavor ratio through ARA neutrino observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Hao; Chen, Pisin; Nam, Jiwoo; Huang, Melin

    2013-11-01

    The flavor composition of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos (UHECN) carries precious information about the physical properties of their sources, the nature of neutrino oscillations and possible exotic physics involved during the propagation. Since UHECN with different incoming directions would propagate through different amounts of matter in Earth and since different flavors of charged leptons produced in the neutrino-nucleon charged-current (CC) interaction would have different energy-loss behaviors in the medium, measurement of the angular distribution of incoming events by a neutrino observatory can in principle be employed to help determine the UHECN flavor ratio. In this paper we report on our investigation of the feasibility of such an attempt. Simulations were performed, where the detector configuration was based on the proposed Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Observatory at the South Pole, to investigate the expected event-direction distribution for each flavor. Assuming νμ-ντ symmetry and invoking the standard oscillation and the neutrino decay scenarios, the probability distribution functions (PDF) of the event directions are utilized to extract the flavor ratio of cosmogenic neutrinos on Earth. The simulation results are summarized in terms of the probability of flavor ratio extraction and resolution as functions of the number of observed events and the angular resolution of neutrino directions. We show that it is feasible to constrain the UHECN flavor ratio using the proposed ARA Observatory.

  17. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  18. Tests of neutrino stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Petcov, S. V.; Toshev, S.; Valle, J. W. F.

    1986-12-01

    A possible solution of the solar neutrino problem is that electron neutrinos decay in transit from the sun. The phenomenological consequences of this hypothesis for solar neutrino experiments with detectors of 2H, 40Ar, 71Ga, 98Mo, and electron-neutrino scattering are discussed. The postulated fast decay can occur in models of majoron type without violating laboratory, cosmological, or astrophysical constraints. Address after January 1st, 1987: Department de Física Teòrica, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.

  19. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  20. An all-sky, three-flavor search for neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with the icecube neutrino observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellauer, Robert Eugene, III

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), defined by energy greater than 10. 18 eV, have been observed for decades, but their sources remain unknown. Protons and heavy ions, which comprise cosmic rays, interact with galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields and, consequently, do not point back to their sources upon measurement. Neutrinos, which are inevitably produced in photohadronic interactions, travel unimpeded through the universe and disclose the directions of their sources. Among the most plausible candidates for the origins of UHECRs is a class of astrophysical phenomena known as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs are the most violent and energetic events witnessed in the observable universe. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located in the glacial ice 1450 m to 2450 m below the South Pole surface, is the largest neutrino detector in operation. IceCube detects charged particles, such as those emitted in high energy neutrino interactions in the ice, by the Cherenkov light radiated by these particles. The measurement of neutrinos of 100 TeV energy or greater in IceCube correlated with gamma-ray photons from GRBs, measured by spacecraft detectors, would provide evidence of hadronic interaction in these powerful phenomena and confirm their role in ultra high energy cosmic ray production. This work presents the first IceCube GRB-neutrino coincidence search optimized for charged-current interactions of electron and tau neutrinos as well as neutral-current interactions of all neutrino flavors, which produce nearly spherical Cherenkov light showers in the ice. These results for three years of data are combined with the results of previous searches over four years of data optimized for charged-current muon neutrino interactions, which produce extended Cherenkov light tracks. Several low significance events correlated with GRBs were detected, but are consistent with the background expectation from atmospheric muons and neutrinos. The combined results produce limits that

  1. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  2. Radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Vieregg, Abigail G.

    2015-07-15

    Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino astronomy constitutes a new window of observation onto the UHE universe. The detection and characterization of astrophysical neutrinos at the highest energies (E> 10{sup 18} eV) would reveal the sources of high-energy cosmic rays, the highest energy particles ever seen, and would constrain the evolution of such sources over time. UHE neutrino astrophysics also allows us to probe weak interaction couplings at energies much greater than those available at particle colliders. One promising way of detecting the highest energy neutrinos is through the radio emission created when they interact in a large volume of dielectric, such as ice. Here I discuss current results and future efforts to instrument large volumes of detector material with radio antennas to detect, point back, and characterize the energy of UHE astrophysical neutrinos.

  3. Observation of high-energy neutrinos with Cerenkov detectors embedded deep in Antarctic ice

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-02

    Neutrinos are elementary particles that carry no electric charge and have little mass. As they interact only weakly with other particles, they can penetrate enormous amounts of matter, and therefore have the potential to directly convey astrophysical information from the edge of the Universe and from deep inside the most cataclysmic high-energy regions. The neutrino's great penetrating power, however, also makes this particle difficult to detect. Underground detectors have observed low-energy neutrinos from the Sun and a nearby supernova, as well as neutrinos generated in the Earth's atmosphere. But the very low fluxes of high-energy neutrinos from cosmic sources can be observed only by much larger, expandable detectors in, for we report the detection of upwardly propagating atmospheric neutrinos by the ice-based Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA). These results establish a technology with which to build a kilometre-scale neutrino observatory necessary for astrophysical observations.

  4. Observation of high-energy neutrinos with Cerenkov detectors embedded deep in Antarctic ice

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-22

    Neutrinos are elementary particles that carry no electric charge and have little mass. As they interact only weakly with other particles, they can penetrate enormous amounts of matter, and therefore have the potential to directly convey astrophysical information from the edge of the Universe and from deep inside the most cataclysmic high-energy regions. The neutrino's great penetrating power, however, also makes this particle difficult to detect. Underground detectors have observed low-energy neutrinos from the Sun and a nearby supernova, as well as neutrinos generated in the Earth's atmosphere. But the very low fluxes of high-energy neutrinos from cosmic sources can be observed only by much larger, expandable detectors in, for example, deep water or ice. Here we report the detection of upwardly propagating atmospheric neutrinos by the ice-based Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA). These results establish a technology with which to build a kilometre-scale neutrino observatory necessary for astrophysical observations.

  5. UHE neutrino and cosmic ray emission from GRBs: Revising the models and clarifying the cosmic ray-neutrino connection

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamante, Mauricio Winter, Walter; Baerwald, Philipp

    2014-11-18

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have long been held as one of the most promising sources of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos. The internal shock model of GRB emission posits the joint production of UHE cosmic rays (UHECRs, above 10{sup 8} GeV), photons, and neutrinos, through photohadronic interactions between source photons and magnetically-confined energetic protons, that occur when relativistically-expanding matter shells loaded with baryons collide with one another. While neutrino observations by IceCube have now ruled out the simplest version of the internal shock model, we show that a revised calculation of the emission, together with the consideration of the full photohadronic cross section and other particle physics effects, results in a prediction of the prompt GRB neutrino flux that still lies one order of magnitude below the current upper bounds, as recently exemplified by the results from ANTARES. In addition, we show that by allowing protons to directly escape their magnetic confinement without interacting at the source, we are able to partially decouple the cosmic ray and prompt neutrino emission, which grants the freedom to fit the UHECR observations while respecting the neutrino upper bounds. Finally, we briefly present advances towards pinning down the precise relation between UHECRs and UHE neutrinos, including the baryonic loading required to fit UHECR observations, and we will assess the role that very large volume neutrino telescopes play in this.

  6. Large extra dimensions at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin J.; Peres, O. L. G.; Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of the long-baseline Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to study large-extra-dimension (LED) models originally proposed to explain the smallness of neutrino masses by postulating that right-handed neutrinos, unlike all standard model fermion fields, can propagate in the bulk. The massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the right-handed neutrino fields modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities and can hence affect their propagation. We show that, as far as DUNE is concerned, the LED model is indistinguishable from a (3 +3 N )-neutrino framework for modest values of N ; N =1 is usually a very good approximation. Nonetheless, there are no new sources of C P -invariance violation other than one C P -odd phase that can be easily mapped onto the C P -odd phase in the standard three-neutrino paradigm. We analyze the sensitivity of DUNE to the LED framework and explore the capability of DUNE to differentiate the LED model from the three-neutrino scenario and from a generic (3 +1 )-neutrino model.

  7. High-energy neutrino fluxes from AGN populations inferred from X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Idunn B.; Wu, Kinwah; On, Alvina Y. L.; Saxton, Curtis J.

    2015-08-01

    High-energy neutrinos and photons are complementary messengers, probing violent astrophysical processes and structural evolution of the Universe. X-ray and neutrino observations jointly constrain conditions in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets: their baryonic and leptonic contents, and particle production efficiency. Testing two standard neutrino production models for local source Cen A (Koers & Tinyakov and Becker & Biermann), we calculate the high-energy neutrino spectra of single AGN sources and derive the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected for the current epoch. Assuming that accretion determines both X-rays and particle creation, our parametric scaling relations predict neutrino yield in various AGN classes. We derive redshift-dependent number densities of each class, from Chandra and Swift/BAT X-ray luminosity functions (Silverman et al. and Ajello et al.). We integrate the neutrino spectrum expected from the cumulative history of AGN (correcting for cosmological and source effects, e.g. jet orientation and beaming). Both emission scenarios yield neutrino fluxes well above limits set by IceCube (by ˜4-106 × at 1 PeV, depending on the assumed jet models for neutrino production). This implies that: (i) Cen A might not be a typical neutrino source as commonly assumed; (ii) both neutrino production models overestimate the efficiency; (iii) neutrino luminosity scales with accretion power differently among AGN classes and hence does not follow X-ray luminosity universally; (iv) some AGN are neutrino-quiet (e.g. below a power threshold for neutrino production); (v) neutrino and X-ray emission have different duty cycles (e.g. jets alternate between baryonic and leptonic flows); or (vi) some combination of the above.

  8. Neutrinos from collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyro, F. L.; Romero, G. E.; Peres, O. L. G.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with the gravitational collapse of very massive stars. The central engine of a GRB can collimate relativistic jets that propagate inside the stellar envelope. The shock waves produced when the jet disrupts the stellar surface are capable of accelerating particles up to very high energies. Aims: If the jet has hadronic content, neutrinos will be produced via charged pion decays. The main goal of this work is to estimate the neutrino emission produced in the region close to the surface of the star, taking pion and muon cooling into account, along with subtle effects arising from neutrino production in a highly magnetized medium. Methods: We estimate the maximum energies of the different kinds of particles and solve the coupled transport equations for each species. Once the particle distributions are known, we calculate the intensity of neutrinos. We study the different effects on the neutrinos that can change the relative weight of different flavors. In particular, we consider the effects of neutrino oscillations, and of neutrino spin precession caused by strong magnetic fields. Results: The expected neutrino signals from the shocks in the uncorking regions of Population III events is very weak, but the neutrino signal produced by Wolf-Rayet GRBs with z < 0.5 is not far from the level of the atmospheric background. Conclusions: The IceCube experiment does not have the sensitivity to detect neutrinos from the implosion of the earliest stars, but a number of high-energy neutrinos may be detected from nearby long GRBs. The cumulative signal should be detectable over several years (~10 yr) of integration with the full 86-string configuration.

  9. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-10-05

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings ({mu}SR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included.

  10. A search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in the 40-string configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grullon, Sean

    Neutrinos have long been important in particle physics and are now practical tools for astronomy. Neutrino Astrophysics is expected to help answer longstanding astrophysical problems such as the origin of cosmic rays and the nature of cosmic accelerators. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a 1 km3 detector currently under construction at the South Pole and will help answer some of these fundamental questions. Searching for high energy neutrinos from unresolved astrophysical sources is one of the main analysis techniques used in the search for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube. A hard energy spectrum of neutrinos from isotropically distributed astrophysical sources could contribute to form a detectable signal above the atmospheric neutrino background. Since astrophysical neutrinos are expected to have a harder energy spectrum than atmospheric neutrinos, a reliable method of estimating the energy of the neutrino-induced lepton is crucial. This analysis uses data from the IceCube detector collected in its half completed configuration between April 2008 and May 2009 to search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos across the entire northern sky.

  11. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\

    SciTech Connect

    Backhouse, Christopher James

    2011-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δmatm2 and sin2atm). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of vμ interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the vμ-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the vμ-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm2 = 2.32-0.08+0.12 x 10-3 eV2, sin 2 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly $\\bar{v}$μ beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ$\\bar{m}${sup 2} = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3eV2, sin2 2$\\bar{θ}$ = 0.86-0.12_0.11

  12. High Energy Neutrinos with a Mediterranean Neutrino Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Cuoco, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pastor, Sergio; Pisanti, O.; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The high energy neutrino detection by a km{sup 3} Neutrino Telescope placed in the Mediterranean sea provides a unique tool to both determine the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux and the neutrino nucleon cross section in the extreme kinematical region, which could unveil the presence of new physics. Here is performed a brief analysis of possible NEMO site performances.

  13. Extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos and relic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2006-03-01

    I review the essentials of ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions, show how neutral-current detection and flavor tagging can enhance the scientific potential of neutrino telescopes, and sketch new studies on neutrino encounters with dark matter relics and on gravitational lensing of neutrinos.

  14. Cosmological Neutrino Mass Detection: The Best Probe of Neutrino Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2007-04-27

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence, on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi)massless particles as in Majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way out to explain a discrepancy < or approx. 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and lab data.

  15. Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The Best probe of neutrino lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-out to explain a discrepancy {approx}< 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and Lab data.

  16. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hime, A.

    1996-09-01

    A report is given on the status of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, presently under construction in the Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury, Ontario in Canada. Focus is upon the technical factors involving a measurement of the charged-current and neutral-current interactions of solar neutrinos on deuterium.

  17. Testing decay of astrophysical neutrinos with incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Beacom, John F.; Murase, Kohta

    2017-03-01

    Neutrinos mix and have mass differences, so decays from one to another must occur. But how fast? The best direct limits on nonradiative decays, based on solar and atmospheric neutrinos, are weak, τ ≳10-3 s (m /eV ) or much worse. Greatly improved sensitivity, τ ˜1 03 s (m /eV ), will eventually be obtained using neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources, but large uncertainties—in neutrino properties, source properties, and detection aspects—do not allow this yet. However, there is a way forward now. We show that IceCube diffuse neutrino measurements, supplemented by improvements expected in the near term, can increase sensitivity to τ ˜10 s (m /eV ) for all neutrino mass eigenstates. We provide a road map for the necessary analyses and show how to manage the many uncertainties. If limits are set, this would definitively rule out the long-considered possibility that neutrino decay affects solar, atmospheric, or terrestrial neutrino experiments.

  18. Neutrino lighthouse at Sagittarius A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Barger, A. J.; Barger, V.; Lu, R.; Peterson, A. D.; Salvado, J.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate whether a subset of high-energy events observed by IceCube may be due to neutrinos from Sagittarius A*. We check both spatial and temporal coincidences of IceCube events with other transient activities of Sagittarius A*. Among the seven IceCube shower events nearest to the Galactic center, we have found that event 25 has a time very close to (around three hours after) the brightest x-ray flare of Sagittarius A* observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory with a p-value of 0.9%. Furthermore, two of the seven events occurred within one day of each other (there is a 1.6% probability that this would occur for a random distribution in time). Thus, the determination that some IceCube events occur at similar times as x-ray flares and others occur in a burst could be the smoking gun that Sagittarius A* is a point source of very-high-energy neutrinos. We point out that if IceCube Galactic center neutrino events originate from charged pion decays, then TeV gamma rays should come from neutral pion decays at a similar rate. We show that the CTA, HAWC, H.E.S.S. and VERITAS experiments should be sensitive enough to test this.

  19. Antarctic radio Askaryan neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Amy

    2012-03-01

    There are strong motivations for a detectable flux of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic neutrinos above 10^17-18 eV. Neutrinos in this regime are expected from interactions between the highest energy cosmic rays and cosmic microwave background photons, and can also originate from the UHE sources themselves. Radio Cerenkov technique is the most promising technique for instrumenting a detection volume large enough to detect the low expected fluxes. The RICE experiment pioneered the radio Cerenkov technique with antennas deployed along strings of the AMANDA experiment deep in the South Pole ice. New radio arrays being deployed in the Antarctic ice are designed to measure dozens of these unique cosmic messengers to exploit the rich particle physics and astrophysical information that they carry. I will discuss the status and results from initial deployments of the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) near the South Pole, and the ARIANNA array on the Ross Ice Shelf. I will also describe how these experiments could measure neutrino-nucleon cross sections at energies that exceed those probed by the LHC.

  20. Neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos could be key particles to unravel the nature of the dark matter of the Universe. On the one hand, sterile neutrinos in minimal extensions of the Standard Model are excellent dark matter candidates, producing potentially observable signals in the form of a line in the X-ray sky. On the other hand, the annihilation or the decay of dark matter particles produces, in many plausible dark matter scenarios, a neutrino flux that could be detected at neutrino telescopes, thus providing non-gravitational evidence for dark matter. More conservatively, the non-observation of a significant excess in the neutrino fluxes with respect to the expected astrophysical backgrounds can be used to constrain dark matter properties, such as the self-annihilation cross section, the scattering cross section with nucleons and the lifetime.

  1. Solar Neutrino Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; McGirt, F.; Miller, G.G.; Thornewell, P.M.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wouters, J.M.

    1999-07-15

    With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) offers the unique opportunity to measure both the 8B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and, independently, the flux of all active neutrino species reaching the Earth. A model-independent test of the hypothesis that neutrino oscillations are responsible for the observed solar neutrino deficit can be made by comparing the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) rates. This LDRD proposal supported the research and development necessary for an assessment of backgrounds and performance of the SNO detector and the ability to extract the NC/CC-Ratio. Particular emphasis is put upon the criteria for deployment and signal extraction from a discrete NC detector array based upon ultra-low background 3He proportional counters.

  2. On neutrino flavor states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chiu Man

    2012-12-01

    We review the issues associated with the construction of neutrino flavor states. We then provide a consistent proof that the flavor states are approximately well-defined only if neutrinos are ultra-relativistic or the mass differences are negligible compared to energy. However, we show that weak interactions can be consistently described by only neutrino mass eigenstates. Meanwhile, the second quantization of neutrino flavor fields generally has no physical relevance as their masses are indefinite. Therefore, the flavor states are not physical quantum states and they should simply be interpreted as definitions to denote specific linear combinations of mass eigenstates involved in weak interactions. We also briefly discuss the implication of this work for the mixing between active and heavy sterile neutrinos.

  3. Summary: Neutrinos and nonaccelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains brief synopsis of the following major topics discussed in the neutrino and nonaccelerator parallel sessions: dark matter; neutrino oscillations at accelerators and reactors; gamma-ray astronomy; double beta decay; solar neutrinos; and the possible existence of a 17-KeV neutrino. (LSP)

  4. Implications of Fermi-LAT observations on the origin of IceCube neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bin; Li, Zhuo; Zhao, Xiaohong E-mail: zhaoxh@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-11-01

    The IceCube (IC) collaboration recently reported the detection of TeV-PeV extraterrestrial neutrinos whose origin is yet unknown. By the photon-neutrino connection in pp and pγ interactions, we use the Fermi-LAT observations to constrain the origin of the IC detected neutrinos. We find that Galactic origins, i.e., the diffuse Galactic neutrinos due to cosmic ray (CR) propagation in the Milky Way, and the neutrinos from the Galactic point sources, may not produce the IC neutrino flux, thus these neutrinos should be of extragalactic origin. Moreover, the extragalactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may not account for the IC neutrino flux, the jets of active galactic nuclei may not produce the IC neutrino spectrum, but the starburst galaxies (SBGs) may be promising sources. As suggested by the consistency between the IC detected neutrino flux and the Waxman-Bahcall bound, GRBs in SBGs may be the sources of both the ultrahigh energy, ∼> 10{sup 19}eV, CRs and the 1–100 PeV CRs that produce the IC detected TeV-PeV neutrinos.

  5. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Nakahata, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the "solar neutrino problem". Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. (Communicated by Toshimitsu Yamazaki, M.J.A.).

  6. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    NAKAHATA, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. PMID:21558758

  7. SEARCH FOR PROMPT NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH ICECUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; and others

    2015-05-20

    We present constraints derived from a search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A single low-significance neutrino, compatible with the atmospheric neutrino background, was found in coincidence with one of the 506 observed bursts. Although GRBs have been proposed as candidate sources for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, our limits on the neutrino flux disfavor much of the parameter space for the latest models. We also find that no more than ∼1% of the recently observed astrophysical neutrino flux consists of prompt emission from GRBs that are potentially observable by existing satellites.

  8. Explanation for the low flux of high-energy astrophysical muon neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Pakvasa, Sandip; Joshipura, Anjan; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2013-04-26

    There has been some concern about the unexpected paucity of cosmic high-energy muon neutrinos in detectors probing the energy region beyond 1 PeV. As a possible solution we consider the possibility that some exotic neutrino property is responsible for reducing the muon neutrino flux at high energies from distant sources; specifically, we consider (i) neutrino decay and (ii) neutrinos being pseudo-Dirac-particles. This would provide a mechanism for the reduction of high-energy muon events in the IceCube detector, for example.

  9. Neutrino-neutrino interactions in a supernova and their effect on neutrino flavor conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Dighe, Amol

    2011-11-23

    The neutrino-neutrino interactions inside a supernova core give rise to nonlinear collective effects that significantly influence the neutrino flavor conversions inside the star. I shall describe these interactions, the new oscillation phenomena they generate, and their effect on the neutrino fluxes arriving at the earth.

  10. A select overview of neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanski, Raymond J.

    2004-11-01

    The relationship between the lepton sector and the quark sector is an interesting source of discourse in the current theoretical climate. Models that might someday supersede the Standard Model typically require quark structure, with implications for the lepton sector. This talk will explore some of the consequences of newer models, in the context of certain neutrino experiments.

  11. Neutrinos from flat-spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannheim, K.; Stanev, T.; Biermann, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    The GRO observation (Hartman et al., 1992) of a very strong flux of gamma rays with an energy index close to 2 from the distant quasar 3C279 and other extragalactic flat-spectrum radio sources is in very good agreement with models that advocate the important role of very high energy protons and nuclei in the energy transport in AGN. Protons and nuclei cool by interactions on the nonthermal fields in the nuclear jet of the AGN and generate gamma ray and neutrino fluxes. Ultra high energy neutrinos could be observed with sensitive air shower experiments in outbursts as powerful as the one seen by GRO.

  12. Diffuse fluxes of cosmic high energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Production spectra of high-energy neutrinos from galactic cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray interactions with microwave black-body photons are presented and discussed. These production processes involve the decay of charged pions and are thus related to the production of cosmic gamma-rays from the decay of neutral pions. Estimates of the neutrino fluxes from various diffuse cosmic sources are then made and the reasons fro significant differences with previous estimates are discussed. Predicted event rates for a DUMAND type detection system are significantly lower than early estimates indicated.

  13. Dynamics of neutrino lumps in growing neutrino quintessence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Santiago; Pettorino, Valeria; Wetterich, Christof

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the formation and dissipation of large-scale neutrino structures in cosmologies where the time evolution of dynamical dark energy is stopped by a growing neutrino mass. In models where the coupling between neutrinos and dark energy grows with the value of the scalar cosmon field, the evolution of neutrino lumps depends on the neutrino mass. For small masses the lumps form and dissolve periodically, leaving only a small backreaction of the neutrino structures on the cosmic evolution. This process heats the neutrinos to temperatures far above the photon temperature, such that neutrinos acquire again an almost relativistic equation of state. The present equation of state of the combined cosmon-neutrino fluid is very close to -1 . By contrast, for larger neutrino masses, the lumps become stable. The highly concentrated neutrino structures entail a large backreaction similar to the case of a constant neutrino-cosmon coupling. A present average neutrino mass of around 0.5 eV seems to be compatible with observations so far. For masses lower than this value, neutrino-induced gravitational potentials remain small, making the lumps difficult to detect.

  14. A study of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tingjun

    2009-03-01

    distinguish the electron neutrino signal from background. The most important part of this measurement is the background estimation, which is done through extrapolation. The number of background events is measured at the Near Detector, then extrapolated to the Far Detector. Since different background sources extrapolate differently, some knowledge about the relative contribution from different background sources is necessary. We developed a method that can be used to obtain relative contributions of various background sources from comparison of background rates in the horn-on and horn-off configurations. We also described our effort to improve two aspects of the Monte Carlo simulation which are very important for the ve appearance analysis: one is the hadronization model in the neutrino-nucleon interactions, the other is the modeling of PMT crosstalk. We performed a blind analysis and examined several sidebands before looking at the signal region. After we opened the box, we observed a 1.4 σ excess of ve-like events in the Far Detector compared with the number of predicted background events. The excess is well within the statistical fluctuation of the background events. If we interpret the excess as a ve signal from vμ → ve oscillation, the best fit sin213 value is consistent with the CHOOZ limit. However we want to emphasize that our result is consistent with θ13 = 0 at 90% C.L..

  15. High energy neutrinos from big bang particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinskij, V. S.

    1992-10-01

    The production of high energy neutrinos by big bang particles is reviewed. The big bang particles are divided into two categories: dark matter particles (DMP) and the exotic relics whose mass density can be smaller than the critical one. For the case of DMP the neutralino and the gravitino are considered. High energy neutrinos can be produced due to the capture of the neutralinos in the earth and the sun, with the subsequent annihilation of these particles there. If R-parity is weakly violated, the neutralino decay can be a source of high energy neutrinos. The gravitino as DMP is unobservable directly, unless R-parity is violated and the gravitino decays. For thermal exotic relics a very general conclusion is reached: the detectable neutrino flux can be produced only by long-lived particles with τx > t0, where t0 is the age of the universe. Very large neutrino fluxes can be produced by superheavy metastable relics in the particular cosmological scenario where the violent entropy production occurs.

  16. The Jiangmen underground neutrino observatory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugière, Timothée

    2017-02-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy as a primary physics goal, by detecting reactor antineutrinos from two power plants at 53-km distance. The detector is placed at 1800-m.w.e. deep underground and consists of a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator contained in a 34.5 m-diameter acrylic ball, instrumented by more than 17,000 20-in. PMTs ensuring a 77% photocatode coverage. To reach an unprecedented 3% energy resolution (at 1 MeV), the PMTs need a quantum efficiency of more than 30% and the attenuation length of the liquid has to be better than 20 m (at 430 nm). This precision on the energy is a key point to determine at the 3-4 σ significance level the neutrinos mass hierarchy with six years of running. The measurement of the antineutrino spectrum will also lead to the precise determination of three out of the six oscillation parameters to an accuracy of better than 1%. The experiment will also be able to observe neutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. The international collaboration of JUNO was established in 2014, the civil construction started in 2015 and the R&D of the detectors is ongoing. JUNO is planning to start data taking in 2020.

  17. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Kitching, Thomas D.; Heavens, Alan; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2009-12-15

    The combination of current large-scale structure and cosmic microwave background anisotropies data can place strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses. Here we show that future cosmic shear experiments, in combination with cosmic microwave background constraints, can provide the statistical accuracy required to answer questions about differences in the mass of individual neutrino species. Allowing for the possibility that masses are nondegenerate we combine Fisher matrix forecasts for a weak lensing survey like Euclid with those for the forthcoming Planck experiment. Under the assumption that neutrino mass splitting is described by a normal hierarchy we find that the combination Planck and Euclid will possibly reach enough sensitivity to put a constraint on the mass of a single species. Using a Bayesian evidence calculation we find that such future experiments could provide strong evidence for either a normal or an inverted neutrino hierarchy. Finally we show that if a particular neutrino hierarchy is assumed then this could bias cosmological parameter constraints, for example, the dark energy equation of state parameter, by > or approx. 1{sigma}, and the sum of masses by 2.3{sigma}. We finally discuss the impact of uncertainties on the theoretical modeling of nonlinearities. The results presented in this analysis are obtained under an approximation to the nonlinear power spectrum. This significant source of uncertainty needs to be addressed in future work.

  18. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau-Huynh, Olivier; Bustamante, Mauricio; Carvalho, Washington; Charrier, Didier; De Jong, Sijbrand; de Vries, Krijn D.; Fang, Ke; Feng, Zhaoyang; Finley, Chad; Gou, Quanbu; Gu, Junhua; Hu, Hongbo; Kotera, Kumiko; Le Coz, Sandra; Medina, Clementina; Murase, Kohta; Niess, Valentin; Oikonomou, Foteini; Timmermans, Charles; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangping; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) is a planned array of 2·105 radio antennas deployed over 200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims primarly at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the observation of extensive air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of taus produced by the interaction of cosmic neutrinos under the Earth surface. GRAND aims at reaching a neutrino sensitivity of 5 · 10-11 E-2 GeV-1 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 above 3 · 1016 eV. This ensures the detection of cosmogenic neutrinos in the most pessimistic source models, and 50 events per year are expected for the standard models. The instrument will also detect UHECRs and possibly FRBs. Here we show how our preliminary design should enable us to reach our sensitivity goals, and discuss the steps to be taken to achieve GRAND, while the compelling science case for GRAND is discussed in more details in [1].

  19. ANTARES: a high energy neutrino undersea telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. J.

    1999-07-01

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration, formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological defects, Q-balls, etc.). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented.

  20. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  1. Submarine neutrino communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged submarine. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the submarine or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo detectors. Due to the very high neutrino flux from a muon storage ring, it is sufficient to mount either detection system directly onto the hull of the submersible. The achievable data transfer rates compare favorable with existing technologies and do allow for a communication at the usual speed and depth of submarines.

  2. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-07-11

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  3. Discriminating Majorana neutrino textures in light of the baryon asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Manikanta; Borah, Debasish; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2015-06-01

    We study all possible texture zeros in the Majorana neutrino mass matrix which are allowed from neutrino oscillation as well as cosmology data when the charged lepton mass matrix is assumed to take the diagonal form. In the case of one-zero texture, we write down the Majorana phases which are assumed to be equal and the lightest neutrino mass as a function of the Dirac C P phase. In the case of two-zero texture, we numerically evaluate all the three C P phases and lightest neutrino mass by solving four real constraint equations. We then constrain texture zero mass matrices from the requirement of producing correct baryon asymmetry through the mechanism of leptogenesis by assuming the Dirac neutrino mass matrix to be diagonal. Adopting a type I seesaw framework, we consider the C P -violating out of equilibrium decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino as the source of lepton asymmetry. Apart from discriminating between the texture zero mass matrices and light neutrino mass hierarchy, we also constrain the Dirac and Majorana C P phases so that the observed baryon asymmetry can be produced. In two-zero texture, we further constrain the diagonal form of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix from the requirement of producing correct baryon asymmetry.

  4. Detection of tau neutrinos by imaging air Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, D.; Bernardini, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the potential to detect tau neutrinos in the energy range of 1-1000 PeV searching for very inclined showers with imaging Cherenkov telescopes. A neutrino induced tau lepton escaping from the Earth may decay and initiate an air shower which can be detected by a fluorescence or Cherenkov telescope. We present here a study of the detection potential of Earth-skimming neutrinos taking into account neutrino interactions in the Earth crust, local matter distributions at various detector sites, the development of tau-induced showers in air and the detection of Cherenkov photons with IACTs. We analyzed simulated shower images on the camera focal plane and implemented generic reconstruction chains based on Hillas parameters. We find that present IACTs can distinguish air showers induced by tau neutrinos from the background of hadronic showers in the PeV-EeV energy range. We present the neutrino trigger efficiency obtained for a few configurations being considered for the next-generation Cherenkov telescopes, i.e. the Cherenkov Telescope Array. Finally, for a few representative neutrino spectra expected from astrophysical sources, we compare the expected event rates at running IACTs to what is expected for the dedicated IceCube neutrino telescope.

  5. The Era of Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Halzen, Francis; Katz, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. KM3NeT, an instrument that aims to exploit several cubic kilometers of the deep Mediterranean sea as its detector medium, is in its final design stages. The scientific missions of these instruments include searching for sources of cosmic rays and for dark matter, observing Galactic supernova explosions, and studying the neutrinos themselves. Identifying the accelerators that produce Galacticmore » and extragalactic cosmic rays has been a priority mission of several generations of high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino telescopes; success has been elusive so far. Detecting the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes associated with cosmic rays reaches a new watershed with the completion of IceCube, the first neutrino detector with sensitivity to the anticipated fluxes. In this paper, we will first revisit the rationale for constructing kilometer-scale neutrino detectors. We will subsequently recall the methods for determining the arrival direction, energy and flavor of neutrinos, and will subsequently describe the architecture of the IceCube and KM3NeT detectors.« less

  6. High Energy Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes From a Realistic Primary Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Penha, Felipe; Dembinski, Hans; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric neutrino fluxes depend on the energy spectrum of primary nucleons entering the top of the atmosphere. Before the advent of AMANDA and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, measurements of the neutrino fluxes were generally below ~ 1TeV , a regime in which a simple energy power law sufficed to describe the primary spectrum. Now, IceCube's muon neutrino data extends beyond 1PeV , including a combination of neutrinos from astrophysical sources with background from atmospheric neutrinos. At such high energies, the steepening at the knee of the primary spectrum must be accounted for. Here, we describe a semi-analytical approach for calculating the atmospheric differential neutrino fluxes at high energies. The input is a realistic primary spectrum consisting of 4 populations with distinct energy cutoffs, each with up to 7 representative nuclei, where the parameters were extracted from a global fit. We show the effect of each component on the atmospheric neutrino spectra, above 10TeV . The resulting features follow directly from recent air shower measurements included in the fit. Felipe Campos Penha gratefully acknowledges financial support from CAPES (Processo BEX 5348/14-5), CNPq (Processo 142180/2012-2), and the Bartol Research Institute.

  7. Lightest sterile neutrino abundance within the νMSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takehiko; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Laine, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    We determine the abundance of the lightest (dark matter) sterile neutrinos created in the Early Universe due to active-sterile neutrino transitions from the thermal plasma. Our starting point is the field-theoretic formula for the sterile neutrino production rate, derived in our previous work [JHEP 06(2006)053], which allows to systematically incorporate all relevant effects, and also to analyse various hadronic uncertainties. Our numerical results differ moderately from previous computations in the literature, and lead to an absolute upper bound on the mixing angles of the dark matter sterile neutrino. Comparing this bound with existing astrophysical X-ray constraints, we find that the Dodelson-Widrow scenario, which proposes sterile neutrinos generated by active-sterile neutrino transitions to be the sole source of dark matter, is only possible for sterile neutrino masses lighter than 3.5 keV (6 keV if all hadronic uncertainties are pushed in one direction and the most stringent X-ray bounds are relaxed by a factor of two). This upper bound may conflict with a lower bound from structure formation, but a definitive conclusion necessitates numerical simulations with the non-equilibrium momentum distribution function that we derive. If other production mechanisms are also operative, no upper bound on the sterile neutrino mass can be established.

  8. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations and tau neutrinos in ice

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, Gerardo; Mocioiu, Irina; Mena, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The main goal of the IceCube Deep Core Array is to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origins. Atmospheric neutrinos are commonly considered as a background for these searches. We show here that cascade measurements in the Ice Cube Deep Core Array can provide strong evidence for tau neutrino appearance in atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Controlling systematic uncertainties will be the limiting factor in the analysis. A careful study of these tau neutrinos is crucial, since they constitute an irreducible background for astrophysical neutrino detection.

  9. Multi-messenger aspects of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The recent observation of TeV-PeV neutrinos by IceCube has opened a new window to the high-energy Universe. I will discuss this signal in the context of multi-messenger astronomy. For extragalactic source scenarios the corresponding gamma-rays are not directly observable due to interactions with the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma ray background observed by Fermi-LAT contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. Interestingly, the overall energy density of the observed neutrino flux is close to a theoretical limit for neutrino production in ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources and might indicate a common origin of these phenomena. I will highlight various multi-messenger relations and their implications for neutrino source scenarios. This article is an excerpt from an ICRC 2015 proceedings contribution [1].

  10. Berry phase in neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    He Xiaogang; McKellar, Bruce H.J.; Zhang Yue

    2005-09-01

    We study the Berry phase in neutrino oscillations for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. In order to have a Berry phase, the neutrino oscillations must occur in a varying medium, the neutrino-background interactions must depend on at least two independent densities, and also there must be CP violation. If the neutrino interactions with matter are mediated only by the standard model W and Z boson exchanges, these conditions imply that there must be at least three generations of neutrinos. The CP violating Majorana phases do not play a role in generating a Berry phase. We show that a natural way to satisfy the conditions for the generation of a Berry phase is to have sterile neutrinos with active-sterile neutrino mixing, in which case at least two active and one sterile neutrinos are required. If there are additional new CP violating flavor changing interactions, it is also possible to have a nonzero Berry phase with just two generations.

  11. Detecting the Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, Robert G.

    In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli suggested that a new particle might be required to make sense of the radioactive-disintegration mode known as beta decay. This conjecture initially seemed impossible to verify since the new particle, which became known as the neutrino, was uncharged, had zero or small mass, and interacted only insignificantly with other matter. In 1951 Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory undertook the difficult task of detecting the free neutrino by observing its inverse beta-decay interaction with matter. They succeeded in 1956. The neutrino was accepted rapidly as a fundamental particle despite discrepancies in reported details of the experiments and despite the absence of independent verification of the result. This paper describes the experiments, examines the nature of the discrepancies, and discusses the circumstances of the acceptance of the neutrino's detection by the physics community.

  12. WMAPping out neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-10-28

    Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results impinge upon a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND).We also note that the Heidelberg-Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

  13. Medium and high-energy neutrino physics from a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy at high energy levels conducted from the moon is treated by considering 'particle astronomy' as a part of physics and the moon as a neutrino detector. The ability to observe the Galactic center is described by means of a 1-1000 TeV 'window' related to the drop in flux of atmospheric neutrinos from the earth. The long-baseline particle physics which are described in terms of a lunar observatory are found to be possible exclusively from a lunar station. The earth's neutrinos can be eliminated for the observations of astrophysical sources, and other potential areas of investigation include neutrino oscillation and the moon's interior. Neutrino exploration of the earth-moon and antineutrino radionuclide imaging are also considered. The moon is concluded to be a significantly more effective orbital platform for the study of neutrino physics than orbiting satellites developed on earth.

  14. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  15. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  16. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrynina, A. A. Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2013-10-15

    The vertex function for a virtual massive neutrino is calculated in the limit of soft real photons. A method based on employing the neutrino self-energy operator in a weak external electromagnetic field in the approximation linear in the field is developed in order to render this calculation of the vertex function convenient. It is shown that the electric charge and the electric dipole moment of the real neutrino are zero; only the magnetic moment is nonzero for massive neutrinos. A fourth-generation heavy neutrino of mass not less than half of the Z-boson mass is considered as a massive neutrino.

  17. Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

  18. Neutrino Experiments: Hierarchy, CP, CPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manmohan; Randhawa, Monika; Singh, Mandip

    We present an overview of our recent investigations regarding the prospects of ongoing neutrino experiments as well as future experiments in determining few of the most important unknowns in the field of neutrino physics, specifically the neutrino mass ordering and leptonic CP-violation phase. The effect of matter oscillations on the neutrino oscillation probabilities has been exploited in resolving the degeneracy between the neutrino mass ordering and the CP violation phase in the leptonic sector. Further, we estimate the extent of extrinsic CP and CPT violation in the experiments with superbeams as well as neutrino factories.

  19. Neutrinos beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, J.W.F.

    1989-08-01

    I review some basic aspects of neutrino physics beyond the Standard Model such as neutrino mixing and neutrino non-orthogonality, universality and CP violation in the lepton sector, total lepton number and lepton flavor violation, etc.. These may lead to neutrino decays and oscillations, exotic weak decay processes, neutrinoless double /beta/ decay, etc.. Particle physics models are discussed where some of these processes can be sizable even in the absence of measurable neutrino masses. These may also substantially affect the propagation properties of solar and astrophysical neutrinos. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Experimental High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Distefano, Carla

    2005-10-12

    Neutrinos are considered promising probes for high energy astrophysics. More than four decades after deep water Cerenkov technique was proposed to detect high energy neutrinos. Two detectors of this type are successfully taking data: BAIKAL and AMANDA. They have demonstrated the feasibility of the high energy neutrino detection and have set first constraints on TeV neutrino production astrophysical models. The quest for the construction of km3 size detectors have already started: in the South Pole, the IceCube neutrino telescope is under construction; the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR Collaborations are working towards the installation of a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. High energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts: Recent observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan

    Neutrino astronomy began with the detection of solar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos (SN1987A) and more recently the 37 events in IceCube which are very likely to be an astrophysical origin. The result from IceCube is perhaps the most exciting discovery of the year 2013, capping a several decades long search. Various astrophysical candidates have been proposed as sources of high energy neutrinos, although the origin of the IceCube neutrinos remains a mystery. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most energetic explosions in the universe, were considered as the most promising source for high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos (with AGNs). However, a previous search of GRB neutrinos by IceCube surprised the GRB community with negative results, challenging the simple standard picture of GRB prompt emission which is called the internal shock" model. In this thesis we give a closer investigation of this model as well as several leading alternative models. With a careful consideration of the particle physics and the model parameters we show that the previous negative result with GRB neutrinos is not surprising, and only those models with extremely optimistic parameters can be ruled out. We predict that GRBs are unlikely to be the sole sources of the IceCube events, but signals of GRB neutrinos may be detected in the near future, with the neutrino telescopes such as IceCube/DeepCore, KM3Net, ARA, ARIANNA, ANITA etc.

  2. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  3. Dark matter astrophysical uncertainties and the neutrino floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. For a given WIMP mass the cross section at which neutrinos constitute a dominant background is dependent on the uncertainty on the flux of each neutrino source, principally from the Sun, supernovae or atmospheric cosmic ray collisions. However there are also considerable uncertainties with regard to the astrophysical ingredients of the predicted WIMP signal. Uncertainties in the velocity of the Sun with respect to the Milky Way dark matter halo, the local density of WIMPs, and the shape of the local WIMP speed distribution all have an effect on the expected event rate in direct detection experiments and hence will change the region of the WIMP parameter space for which neutrinos are a significant background. In this work we extend the neutrino floor calculation to account for the uncertainty in the astrophysics dependence of the WIMP signal. We show the effect of uncertainties on projected discovery limits with an emphasis on low WIMP masses (less than 10 GeV) when solar neutrino backgrounds are most important. We find that accounting for astrophysical uncertainties changes the shape of the neutrino floor as a function of WIMP mass but also causes it to appear at cross sections up to an order of magnitude larger, extremely close to existing experimental limits, indicating that neutrino backgrounds will become an issue sooner than previously thought. We also explore how neutrinos hinder the estimation of WIMP parameters and how astrophysical uncertainties impact the discrimination of WIMPs and neutrinos with the use of their respective time dependencies.

  4. CosI: Coherent Neutrino Scattering with Cesium Iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Nicole; Collar, Juan; Hossbach, Todd; Orrell, John; Perumpilly, Gopakumar

    2014-03-01

    Coherent neutrino scattering is a process predicted by the standard model of particle physics that has not yet been observed. For low enough energy neutrinos, O (10 MeV , their scattering cross section is predicted to increase with the square of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Several difficulties must be overcome in order to observe coherent neutrino scattering, including finding a high-intensity source of these medium-energy neutrinos, a detector with a low enough threshold, and a low enough background. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a convenient source of medium-energy neutrinos and has the added benefit of a neutrino source with known time structure. CsI(Na) is an inorganic scintillator with a relatively high light yield of 39,000 photons/MeV and its emission spectrum is well matched with commonly used biakali photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Background measurements of a 2 kg CsI(Na) crystal show that these crystals can be grown and encapsulated in a radioclean way.

  5. Tau neutrinos favored over sterile neutrinos in atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D

    2000-11-06

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  6. Muon and Tau Neutrinos Spectra from Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; Moscato, Federica

    2003-12-01

    Most power-full solar flare as the ones occurred on 23th February 1956, September 29th 1989, 28th October and on 2nd-4th November 2003 are sources of cosmic rays, X, gamma and neutrino bursts. These flares took place both on front or in the edge and in the hidden solar disk. The 4th November event was the most powerful X event in the highest known rank category X28 just at horizons. The observed and estimated total flare energy (EFL ≃ 1031div 1033 erg) should be a source of a prompt secondary neutrino burst originated, by proton-proton-pion production on the sun itself; a more delayed and spread neutrino flux signal arise by the solar charged flare particles reaching the terrestrial atmosphere. These first earliest prompt solar neutrino burst might be observed, in a few neutrino clustered events, in present or future largest neutrino underground detectors as Super-Kamiokande one, in time correlation with the X-Radio flare. The onset in time correlation has great statistical significance. Our first estimate on the neutrino number events detection at the Super-Kamiokande II Laboratory for horizontal or hidden flare is found to be few events: NeV_bar{ν}_e≃ 0.63&etae ()/(35 MeV) ()/(1031 erg); and NeV_bar{ν}μ ≃ 3.58()/(200 MeV) ()/(1031erg) η,SUB>μ, where η≃ 1, Eνμ > 113 MeV. Our first estimates of neutrino signals in largest underground detectors hint for few events in correlation with X, gamma, radio onser. Our approximated spectra for muons and taus from these rare solar eruption are shown over the most common background. The muon and tau signature is very peculiar and characteristic over electron and anti-electron neutrino fluxes. The rise of muon neutrinos will be detectable above the minimal muon threshold Eν ≃ 113 MeV energy, or above the pion and Δ ° thresholds (Eν≃ 151 and 484 MeV). Any large neutrino flare event record might also verify the expected neutrino flavour mixing leading to a few as well as a comparable

  7. No-neutrino double beta decay: more than one neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Interference effects between light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the amplitude for no-neutrino double beta decay are discussed. The effects include an upper bound on the heavy neutrino mass, and an A dependence for the effective mass extracted from double beta decay. Thus the search for the no-neutrino decay mode should be pursued in several nuclei, and particularly in Ca/sup 48/, where the effective mass may be quite large.

  8. Neutrino bursts from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan; Xu, Guohong

    1994-01-01

    If gamma-ray bursts originate at cosmological distances, as strongly indicated by the results from Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), then ultrarelativistic ejecta are the likely consequence of the highly super-Eddington luminosity of the sources. If the energy injection rate varies with time, then the Lorentz factor of the wind also varies, and the shells of ejected matter collide with each other. The collisions between baryons produce pions which decay into high-energy photons, electrons, electron positron pairs, and neutrino pairs. The bulk Lorentz factor of approximately 300 is required if our model is to be compatible with the observed millisecond variability. The strongest gamma-ray bursts are observed to deliver approximately 10(exp -4) ergs/sq cm in 100-200 keV photons. In our scenario more energy may be delivered in a neutrino burst. Typical neutrinos may be approximately 30 GeV if the protons have a Maxwellian energy distribution, and up to approximately TeV if the protons have a power-law distribution. Such neutrino bursts are close to the detection limit of the DUMAND II experiment.

  9. Invited review article: IceCube: an instrument for neutrino astronomy.

    PubMed

    Halzen, Francis; Klein, Spencer R

    2010-08-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms 1 km(3) of deep and ultratransparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5160 optical sensors is embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems, and light-emitting diodes for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams. The outline of this review is as follows: neutrino astronomy and kilometer-scale detectors, high-energy neutrino telescopes: methodologies of neutrino detection, IceCube hardware, high-energy neutrino telescopes: beyond astronomy, and future projects.

  10. Atmospheric neutrinos in ice and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Giordano, Gerardo; Mocioiu, Irina; Mena, Olga

    2010-11-01

    The main goal of the IceCube Deep Core array is to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origins. Atmospheric neutrinos are commonly considered as a background for these searches. We show that the very high statistics atmospheric neutrino data can be used to obtain precise measurements of the main oscillation parameters.

  11. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  12. Hadronization processes in neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei; Mandalia, Shivesh

    2015-10-15

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments utilize details of hadronic final states to improve the precision of neutrino interaction measurements. The hadronic system was often neglected or poorly modelled in the past, but they have significant effects on high precision neutrino oscillation and cross-section measurements. Among the physics of hadronic systems in neutrino interactions, the hadronization model controls multiplicities and kinematics of final state hadrons from the primary interaction vertex. For relatively high invariant mass events, many neutrino experiments rely on the PYTHIA program. Here, we show a possible improvement of this process in neutrino event generators, by utilizing expertise from the HERMES experiment. Finally, we estimate the impact on the systematics of hadronization models for neutrino mass hierarchy analysis using atmospheric neutrinos such as the PINGU experiment.

  13. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  14. Sterile neutrinos at a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2010-03-30

    We study the potential of a Neutrino Factory (NF) to constrain the parameters of the (3+1)-scheme with a O(1)eV{sup 2} largest mass square difference, considering two set-ups: a NF with 50 GeV (20 GeV) stored muons, with two detectors of the Hybrid-MIND type located at L = 3000(4000), 7500 km. We show that the best sensitivity to sterile neutrinos can be achieved through the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub m}u and the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub t}au channels which can constrain theta{sub 34}<=12 deg. (14 deg.) and theta{sub 24}<=7.5 deg. (8 deg.) with the 50 GeV (20 GeV) NF. We also study the CP-violation in this new context showing that the CP-asymmetries in the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub t}au channel can give us the chance to see a clear new CP-violation signal associated with the sterile neutrinos.

  15. A search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations at Δm2 > 0.1 eV2

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Ryan Benton

    2007-11-01

    The evidence is compelling that neutrinos undergo flavor change as they propagate. In recent years, experiments have observed this phenomenon of neutrino oscillations using disparate neutrino sources: the sun, fission reactors, accelerators, and secondary cosmic rays. The standard model of particle physics needs only simple extensions - neutrino masses and mixing - to accommodate all neutrino oscillation results to date, save one. The 3.8σ-significant $\\bar{v}$e excess reported by the LSND collaboration is consistent with $\\bar{v}$μ →$\\bar{v}$e oscillations with a mass-squared splitting of Δm2 ~ 1 eV2. This signal, which has not been independently verified, is inconsistent with other oscillation evidence unless more daring standard model extensions (e.g. sterile neutrinos) are considered.

  16. Optical and X-ray early follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Samarai, I. Al; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Le Van Suu, A.; Akerlof, C.; Zheng, W.; Evans, P.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Coward, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrino source has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifying a neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT and ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or X-ray counterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations are analysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with X-ray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analysed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert.

  17. Unifying leptogenesis, dark matter and high-energy neutrinos with right-handed neutrino mixing via Higgs portal

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; Ludl, Patrick Otto; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2016-11-21

    We revisit a model in which neutrino masses and mixing are described by a two right-handed (RH) neutrino seesaw scenario, implying a strictly hierarchical light neutrino spectrum. A third decoupled RH neutrino, N{sub DM} with mass M{sub DM}, plays the role of cold dark matter (DM) and is produced by the mixing with a source RH neutrino, N{sub S} with mass M{sub S}, induced by Higgs portal interactions. The same interactions are also responsible for N{sub DM} decays. We discuss in detail the constraints coming from DM abundance and stability conditions showing that in the hierarchical case, for M{sub DM}≫M{sub S}, there is an allowed window on M{sub DM} values necessarily implying a contribution, from DM decays, to the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by IceCube. We also show how the model can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis in the quasi-degenerate limit. In this case, the DM mass should be within the range 300 GeV ≲M{sub S}neutrino flux and show the predicted event spectrum for two exemplary cases. Although DM decays, with a relatively hard spectrum, cannot account for all the IceCube high-energy data, we illustrate how this extra source of high-energy neutrinos could reasonably explain some potential features in the observed spectrum. In this way, this represents a unified scenario for leptogenesis and DM that could be tested during the next years with more high-energy neutrino events.

  18. Unifying leptogenesis, dark matter and high-energy neutrinos with right-handed neutrino mixing via Higgs portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Ludl, Patrick Otto; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    We revisit a model in which neutrino masses and mixing are described by a two right-handed (RH) neutrino seesaw scenario, implying a strictly hierarchical light neutrino spectrum. A third decoupled RH neutrino, NDM with mass MDM, plays the role of cold dark matter (DM) and is produced by the mixing with a source RH neutrino, NS with mass MS, induced by Higgs portal interactions. The same interactions are also responsible for NDM decays. We discuss in detail the constraints coming from DM abundance and stability conditions showing that in the hierarchical case, for MDM gg MS, there is an allowed window on MDM values necessarily implying a contribution, from DM decays, to the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by IceCube. We also show how the model can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis in the quasi-degenerate limit. In this case, the DM mass should be within the range 300 GeV lesssim MS < MDM lesssim 10 PeV. We discuss the specific properties of this high-energy neutrino flux and show the predicted event spectrum for two exemplary cases. Although DM decays, with a relatively hard spectrum, cannot account for all the IceCube high-energy data, we illustrate how this extra source of high-energy neutrinos could reasonably explain some potential features in the observed spectrum. In this way, this represents a unified scenario for leptogenesis and DM that could be tested during the next years with more high-energy neutrino events.

  19. Neutrino sea scope takes shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-03-01

    A consortium of European physicists building a vast neutrino detector on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has unveiled the science it will carry out. The Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT) will use strings of radiation detectors arranged in a 3D network to measure the light emitted when neutrinos very occasionally interact with the surrounding sea water.

  20. Gravitational Lensing of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Mocioiu, Irina; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The black hole at the center of the galaxy is a powerful lens for supernova neutrinos. In the very special circumstance of a supernova near the extended line of sight from Earth to the galactic center, lensing could dramatically enhance the neutrino flux at Earth and stretch the neutrino pulse.

  1. Neutrino astrophysics: a new tool for exploring the universe.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eli

    2007-01-05

    In the past four decades a new type of astronomy has emerged, where instead of looking up into the sky, "telescopes" are buried miles underground or deep under water or ice and search not for photons (that is, light), but rather for particles called neutrinos. Neutrinos are nearly massless particles that interact very weakly with matter. The detection of neutrinos emitted by the Sun and by a nearby supernova provided direct tests of the theory of stellar evolution and led to modifications of the standard model describing the properties of elementary particles. At present, several very large neutrino detectors are being constructed, aiming at the detection of the most powerful sources of energy and particles in the universe. The hope is that the detection of neutrinos from these sources, which are extra-Galactic and are most likely powered by mass accretion onto black holes, will not only allow study of the sources, but, much like solar neutrinos, will also provide new information about fundamental properties of matter.

  2. Neutrino oscillations refitted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero, D. V.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2014-11-01

    Here, we update our previous global fit of neutrino oscillations by including the recent results that have appeared since the Neutrino 2012 conference. These include the measurements of reactor antineutrino disappearance reported by Daya Bay and RENO, together with latest T2K and MINOS data including both disappearance and appearance channels. We also include the revised results from the third solar phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-III, as well as new solar results from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-IV. We find that the preferred global determination of the atmospheric angle θ23 is consistent with maximal mixing. We also determine the impact of the new data upon all the other neutrino oscillation parameters with an emphasis on the increasing sensitivity to the C P phase, thanks to the interplay between accelerator and reactor data. In the Appendix, we present the updated results obtained after the inclusion of new reactor data presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference. We discuss their impact on the global neutrino analysis.

  3. Neutrinos from supernovae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, A. S.

    First, the author presents a short history of supernova neutrino theory. Then, the theory of core collapse supernovae is reviewed. Because of the profound opacity to light of the dense core that experiences collapse, we "see" this core directly only through its neutrino signature. Every bump and wiggle echoes the internal convulsions of the event and can provide clues about both the supernova mechanism and the neutron star that remains. The author discusses the only neutrino observations of a supernova so far, SN 1987A. While the agreement with calculations has been gratifying, there remain, of course, plenty of outstanding issues in supernova theory to be tested. These are high-lighted throughout the text. Since neutrinos give us the only real access to the physics inside the collapse, it is important that observation of these particles continue. In an appendix the author describes some of the available or contemplated neutrino detectors capable of good time resolution and therefore of shedding light on supernova mechanisms.

  4. Neutrino fluctuat nec mercitur: are fossil neutrinos detectable

    SciTech Connect

    De Rujula, A

    1980-04-01

    A brief report is presented on the question whether light (few eV to approx. 100 eV) neutrinos left over from the big bang are detectable. The answer is perhaps. If the weak current of leptons, like those of quarks, are not diagonal in mass eigenstates, a neutrino will decay into a lighter neutrino and a monochromatic photon. The corresponding photon line may be detectable provided: neutrinos are heavy enough to participate in galaxy clustering and neutrino lifetimes are, as in some weak interaction models, short enough.

  5. Coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and new neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner; Xu, Xun-Jie

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the potential to probe new neutrino physics with future experiments measuring coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. Experiments with high statistics should become feasible soon and allow to constrain parameters with unprecedented precision. Using a benchmark setup for a future experiment probing reactor neutrinos, we study the sensitivity on neutrino non-standard interactions and new exotic neutral currents (scalar, tensor, etc). Compared to Fermi interaction, percent and permille level strengths of the new interactions can be probed, superseding for some observables the limits from future neutrino oscillation experiments by up to two orders of magnitude.

  6. Using neutrinos as a probe of the strong interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Neutrino scattering experiments have been studying QCD for over 30 years. From the Gargamelle experiments in the early 70's, through the subsequent bubble chamber and electronic detector experiments in the 80's and 90's, neutrino scattering experiments have steadily accumulated increasing statistics and minimized their systematic errors. While the most recent study of QCD with neutrinos is from the TeVatron neutrino beam (the NuTeV experiment with results presented by Martin Tzanov at this Workshop), near-future studies will shift to the Main Injector based NuMI facility also at Fermilab. The NuMI Facility at Fermilab provides an extremely intense beam of neutrinos making it an ideal place for high statistics (anti)neutrino-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiments. The MINERvA experiment at Fermilab is a collaboration of elementary-particle and nuclear physicists planning to use a fully active fine-grained solid scintillator detector to measure absolute exclusive cross-sections and nuclear effects in v - A interactions as well as a systematic study of the resonance-DIS transition region and DIS with an emphasis on the extraction of high-xBj parton distribution functions. Further in the future an intense proton source, the Fermilab Proton Driver, will increase neutrino interaction rates by a further factor of 5-20.

  7. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Halzen, F.; Klein, S.

    2010-06-04

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5,160 optical sensors are embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system, including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems and LEDs for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of Galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams.

  8. A New Algorithm for Supernova Neutrino Transport and Some Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam; Young, Timothy; Pinto, Philip; Eastman, Ron; Thompson, Todd A.

    2000-08-01

    We have developed an implicit, multigroup, time-dependent, spherical neutrino transport code based on the Feautrier variables, the tangent-ray method, and accelerated Λ iteration. The code achieves high angular resolution, is good to O(v/c), is equivalent to a Boltzmann solver (without gravitational redshifts), and solves the transport equation at all optical depths with precision. In this paper, we present our formulation of the relevant numerics and microphysics and explore protoneutron star atmospheres for snapshot postbounce models. Our major focus is on spectra, neutrino-matter heating rates, Eddington factors, angular distributions, and phase-space occupancies. In addition, we investigate the influence on neutrino spectra and heating of final-state electron blocking, stimulated absorption, velocity terms in the transport equation, neutrino-nucleon scattering asymmetry, and weak magnetism and recoil effects. Furthermore, we compare the emergent spectra and heating rates obtained using full transport with those obtained using representative flux-limited transport formulations to gauge their accuracy and viability. Finally, we derive useful formulae for the neutrino source strength due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung and determine bremsstrahlung's influence on the emergent νμ and ντ neutrino spectra. These studies are in preparation for new calculations of spherically symmetric core-collapse supernovae, proto-neutron star winds, and neutrino signals.

  9. Searches for clustering in the time integrated skymap of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; and others

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a search for spatial clustering of the arrival directions of high energy muon neutrinos detected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. An improved two-point correlation method is used to study the autocorrelation of 3058 neutrino candidate events as well as cross-correlations with other classes of astrophysical objects: sources of high energy gamma rays, massive black holes and nearby galaxies. No significant deviations from the isotropic distribution of arrival directions expected from atmospheric backgrounds are observed.

  10. Heavy right-handed neutrino dark matter and PeV neutrinos at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, P.S. Bhupal; Kazanas, D.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Teplitz, V.L.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-08-17

    We discuss a simple non-supersymmetric model based on the electroweak gauge group SU(2){sub L}×SU(2){sup ′}×U(1){sub B−L} where the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos, which are part of the leptonic doublet of SU(2){sup ′}, play the role of a long-lived unstable dark matter with mass in the multi-PeV range. We use a resonant s-channel annihilation to obtain the correct thermal relic density and relax the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. In this model, there exists a 3-body dark matter decay mode producing tau leptons and neutrinos, which could be the source for the PeV cascade events observed in the IceCube experiment. The model can be tested with more precise flavor information of the highest-energy neutrino events in future data.

  11. Neutrino tomography - Tevatron mapping versus the neutrino sky. [for X-rays of earth interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of neutrino tomography of the earth's interior is discussed, taking the 80-GeV W-boson mass determined by Arnison (1983) and Banner (1983) into account. The opacity of earth zones is calculated on the basis of the preliminary reference earth model of Dziewonski and Anderson (1981), and the results are presented in tables and graphs. Proposed tomography schemes are evaluated in terms of the well-posedness of the inverse-Radon-transform problems involved, the neutrino generators and detectors required, and practical and economic factors. The ill-posed schemes are shown to be infeasible; the well-posed schemes (using Tevatrons or the neutrino sky as sources) are considered feasible but impractical.

  12. The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim; Katrin Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) aims to determine the electron neutrino mass from tritium decay in a model-independent way, by a kinematic measurement of the energy of β-electrons. The unprecedented sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 will improve present limits by one order of magnitude. The decay electrons will originate from a 10 m long windowless gaseous tritium source. Super-conducting magnets will guide the electrons through a differential and cryogenic pumping section to the electro-static tandem spectrometer (MAG-E-filter), where the kinetic energy will be measured. The experiment is presently being built at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe by an international collaboration of more than 120 scientists. The largest component, the 1240 m3 main spectrometer, was delivered end of 2006 and first commissioning tests have been performed. This paper gives an overview of the goals and technological challenges of the experiment and reports on the progress in commissioning first major components. The start of first measurements is expected in 2012.

  13. The neutrino signal at HALO: learning about the primary supernova neutrino fluxes and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Väänänen, Daavid; Volpe, Cristina E-mail: volpe@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2011-10-01

    Core-collapse supernova neutrinos undergo a variety of phenomena when they travel from the high neutrino density region and large matter densities to the Earth. We perform analytical calculations of the supernova neutrino fluxes including collective effects due to the neutrino-neutrino interactions, the Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect due to the neutrino interactions with the background matter and decoherence of the wave packets as they propagate in space. We predict the numbers of one- and two-neutron charged and neutral-current electron-neutrino scattering on lead events. We show that, due to the energy thresholds, the ratios of one- to two-neutron events are sensitive to the pinching parameters of neutrino fluxes at the neutrinosphere, almost independently of the presently unknown neutrino properties. Besides, such events have an interesting sensitivity to the spectral split features that depend upon the presence/absence of energy equipartition among neutrino flavors. Our calculations show that a lead-based observatory like the Helium And Lead Observatory (HALO) has the potential to pin down important characteristics of the neutrino fluxes at the neutrinosphere, and provide us with information on the neutrino transport in the supernova core.

  14. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Anna C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-10-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  15. DUMAND Summer Workshop, University of California, La Jolla, Calif., July 24-September 2, 1978, Proceedings. Volume 2 - UHE interactions, neutrino astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A.

    1979-01-01

    The volume covers categories on inelastic neutrino scattering and the W-boson, and other ultra-high-energy processes, on pulsars, quasars and galactic nuclei, as well as other point sources and constants from gamma ray astronomy. Individual subjects include weak intermediate vector bosons and DUMAND, the Monte Carlo simulation of inelastic neutrino scattering in DUMAND, and Higgs boson production by very high-energy neutrinos. The observability of the neutrino flux from the inner region of the galactic disk, the diffuse fluxes of high-energy neutrinos, as well as the significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy are also among the topics covered.

  16. Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    We explain the relationship between Majorana neutrinos, which are their own antiparticles, and Majorana neutrino masses. We point out that Majorana masses would make the neutrinos very distinctive particles, and explain why many theorists strongly suspect that neutrinos do have Majorana masses. The promising approach to confirming this suspicion is to seek neutrinoless double beta decay. We introduce a toy model that illustrates why this decay requires nonzero neutrino masses, even when there are both right-handed and left-handed weak currents.

  17. Topics in neutrino and gravitational astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkovic, Sasa

    A wide range of astrophysical phenomena are significantly influenced by weak interaction processes that involve the emission or absorption of neutrinos in matter at high density and/or temperature. Examples include red giant stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, type la and type II (core-collapse) supernovae, and accretion disks of gamma-ray bursters. Depending on the density and temperature of ambient matter, the emission of neutrinos is an important energy-loss mechanism, whereas their scattering and absorption serve to deposit energy into matter. Detailed neutrino transport in such environments is described by the Boltzmann transport equation; its solution requires the corresponding kernels in the source term. In this work the neutrino production and absorption kernels for the plasma and photo neutrino processes together with their differential and total rates are derived. Full information about the emitted neutrinos was retained by evaluating the squared matrix elements for this process which was hitherto bypassed in obtaining the total neutrino emissivities. Numerical results for various temperatures and densities are provided. Approximate analytical results helpful in understanding the qualitative behaviors in limiting situations are also given. Binary mergers involving black holes and neutron stars have been proposed as major sources of gravitational waves, r-process nucleosynthesis, and gamma ray bursters. In addition, they represent an important observable that could distinguish between normal and self-bound neutron stars. These two families of stars have distinctly different mass-radius relationships resulting from their equations of state. We show how these differences are revealed during their mergers. Our analysis is performed at increasing levels of approximation for the gravitational potential: (i) Newtonian potential, (ii) pseudo-GR potentials, and (iii) the second order post-Newtonian analysis. These potentials are employed to study both the

  18. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Ardid, Miguel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A.; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters. PMID:22666022

  19. Price for environmental neutrino-superluminality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Vikman, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    We ask whether the recent OPERA results on neutrino superluminality could be an environmental effect characteristic of the local neighborhood of our planet, without the need of violation of the Poincaré-invariance at a fundamental level. We show, that model-indepenently, such a possibility implies the existence of new gravitational degrees of freedom. Namely, this explanation requires the existence of a new spin-2 field of a planetary Compton wave-length that is coupled to neutrinos and the rest of the matter asymmetrically, both in the magnitude and in the sign. Sourced by the earth this field creates an effective metric on which neutrinos propagate superluminally, whereas other species are much less sensitive to the background. Such a setup, at an effective field theory level, passes all immediate phenomenological tests, but at the expense of sacrificing calculability for some of the phenomena that are under perturbative control in ordinary gravity. The natural prediction is an inevitable appearance of a testable long-range gravity-type fifth force. Despite phenomenological viability, the sign asymmetry of the coupling we identify as the main potential obstacle for a consistent UV-completion. We also discuss the possible identification of this field with a Kaluza-Klein state of an extra dimension in which neutrino can propagate.

  20. Acoustic transmitters for underwater neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Ardid, Miguel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters.

  1. Solar Neutrinos. II. Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1964-01-01

    A method is described for observing solar neutrinos from the reaction Cl{sup 37}(nu,e{sup -})Ar{sup 37} in C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}. Two 5 00-gal tanks of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were placed in a limestone mine (1800 m.w.e.) and the resulting Ar{sup 37} activity induced by cosmic mesons( mu ) was measured to determine the necessary conditions for solar neutrino observations. (R.E.U.)

  2. Neutrino Detection Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    particle accelerators. They arise as decay products of pions, K- mesons , and other unstable particles produced in the primary collisions of high energy...34 \\ = GF • (1-9) Here h is Planck’s constant, c the velocity of light , G the weak 1-11 interaction constant, and F the flux of neutrinos to be detected...momentum of a body (a ferromagnet, 4-1 say), F the neutrino flux, h the reduced Planck constant, c the speed of light , one has for the torque on the

  3. The ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Carla

    The ANTARES collaboration has completed in 2008 the construction of an underwater high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, located 40 km off the French coast at a depth of 2500 m. The detector consists of 885 optical modules, which are distributed in 12 detector lines, various calibration systems and devices for environmental measurements. With an instrumented volume of about 0.05 km3, ANTARES is the largest Cherenkov neutrino detector currently operating in the Northern hemisphere. A general overview on the ANTARES telescope is given. The preliminary results from the various physics analyses on the collected data will be presented.

  4. Experimental data on solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-04-01

    Neutrino physics continues to be a very active research field, full of opened fundamental questions reaching even beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and towards a possible new physics. Solar neutrinos have played a fundamental historical role in the discovery of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations and thus non-zero neutrino mass. Even today, the study of solar neutrinos provides an important insight both into the neutrino as well as into the stellar and solar physics. In this section we give an overview of the most important solar-neutrino measurements from the historical ones up to the most recent ones. We cover the results from the experiments using radio-chemic (Homestake, SAGE, GNO, GALLEX), water Cherenkov (Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO), and the liquid-scintillator (Borexino, KamLAND) detection techniques.

  5. Multi-wavelength follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Aurore

    2015-10-01

    Transient sources are often associated with the most violent phenomena in the Universe, where the acceleration of hadrons may occur. Such sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN) or core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and are promising candidates for the production of high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. The ANTARES telescope, located in the Mediterranean sea, aims at detecting these high energy neutrinos, which could reveal the presence of a cosmic ray accelerator. However, to enhance the sensitivity to transient sources, a method based on multi-wavelength follow-up of neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection. The telescopes start an observation program of the corresponding region of the sky in order to detect a possible electromagnetic counterpart to the neutrino event. The work presented in this thesis covers the development and implementation of an optical image analysis pipeline, as well as the analysis of optical and X-ray data to search for fast transient sources, such as GRB afterglows, and slowly varying transient sources, such as CCSNe.

  6. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  7. Photon and neutrino-pair emission from circulating quantum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, M.; Sasao, N.

    2016-06-01

    The recent proposal of a photon and a neutrino-pair beam is investigated in detail. Production rates, both differential and total, of a single photon, two photons, and a neutrino pair emitted from quantum ions in circular motion are given for any velocity of ion. This part is an extension of our previous calculations at highest energies to lower energies of circulating ions, and hopefully helps to identify the new process of quantum ion circulation at a low energy ring. We clarify how to utilize the circulating ion for a new source of coherent neutrino beam despite much stronger background photons. Once one verifies that the coherence is maintained in the initial phases of time evolution after laser irradiation, large background photon emission rates are not an obstacle against utilizing the extracted neutrino-pair beam.

  8. Constellation Stick Figures Convey Information about Gravity and Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, David Matthew; Mc Leod, Roger David

    2008-10-01

    12/21/98, at America's Stonehenge, DMM detected, and drew, the full stick-figure equivalent of Canis Major, CM, as depicted by our Wolf Clan leaders, and many others. Profound, foundational physics is implied, since this occurred in the Watch House there, hours before the ``model rose.'' Similar configurations like Orion, Osiris of ancient Egypt, show that such figures are projected through solid parts of the Earth, as two-dimensional equivalents of the three-dimensional star constellations. Such ``sticks'' indicate that ``line equivalents'' connect the stars, and the physical mechanism projects outlines detectable by traditional cultures. We had discussed this ``flashlight'' effect, and recognized some of its implications. RDM states that the flashlight is a strong, distant neutrino source; the lines represent neutrinos longitudinally aligned in gravitational excitation, opaque, to earthbound, transient, transversely excited neutrinos. ``Sticks'' represent ``graviton'' detection. Neutrinos' longitudinal alignment accounts for the weakness of gravitational force.

  9. Improved determination of sterile neutrino dark matter spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2015-11-01

    The putative recent indication of an unidentified 3.55 keV X-ray line in certain astrophysical sources is taken as a motivation for an improved theoretical computation of the cosmological abundance of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos. If the line is interpreted as resulting from the decay of Warm Dark Matter, the mass and mixing angle of the sterile neutrino are known. Our computation then permits for a determination of the lepton asymmetry that is needed for producing the correct abundance via the Shi-Fuller mechanism, as well as for an estimate of the non-equilibrium spectrum of the sterile neutrinos. The latter plays a role in structure formation simulations. Results are presented for different flavour structures of the neutrino Yukawa couplings and for different types of pre-existing lepton asymmetries, accounting properly for the charge neutrality of the plasma and incorporating approximately hadronic contributions.

  10. Neutron calibration sources in the Daya Bay experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, J.; Carr, R.; Dwyer, D. A.; ...

    2015-07-09

    We describe the design and construction of the low rate neutron calibration sources used in the Daya Bay Reactor Anti-neutrino Experiment. Such sources are free of correlated gamma-neutron emission, which is essential in minimizing induced background in the anti-neutrino detector. Thus, the design characteristics have been validated in the Daya Bay anti-neutrino detector.

  11. Measuring neutrino masses with weak lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2006-11-17

    Weak gravitational lensing of distant galaxies by large scale structure (LSS) provides an unbiased way to map the matter distribution in the low redshift universe. This technique, based on the measurement of small distortions in the images of the source galaxies induced by the intervening LSS, is expected to become a key cosmological probe in the future. We discuss how future lensing surveys can probe the sum of the neutrino masses at the 0 05 eV level.

  12. Low-energy neutral-current neutrino scattering on {sup 128,130}Te isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2011-05-15

    Differential, total, and cumulative cross section calculations for neutral current neutrino scattering on {sup 128,130}Te isotopes are performed in the context of the quasiparticle random phase approximation by utilizing realistic two-nucleon forces. These isotopes are the main contents of detectors of ongoing experiments with multiple neutrino physics goals (COBRA and CUORE at Gran Sasso), including potential low-energy astrophysical neutrino (solar, supernova, geoneutrinos) detection. The incoming neutrino energy range adopted in our calculations ({epsilon}{sub {nu}{<=}1}00 MeV) covers the low-energy {beta}-beam neutrinos and the pion-muon stopped neutrino beams existing or planned to be conducted at future neutron spallation sources. The aim of these facilities is to measure neutrino-nucleus cross sections at low and intermediate neutrino energies with the hope of shedding light on open problems in neutrino-induced reactions on nuclei and neutrino astrophysics. Such probes motivate theoretical studies on weak responses of various nuclear systems; thus the evaluated cross sections may be useful in this direction.

  13. IceCube and the discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis

    By transforming a cubic kilometer of natural Antarctic ice into a neutrino detector, the IceCube project created the opportunity to observe cosmic neutrinos. We describe the experiment and the complementary methods presently used to study the flux of the recently discovered cosmic neutrinos. In one method, events are selected in which neutrinos interacted inside the instrumented volume of the detector, yielding a sample of events dominated by neutrinos of electron and tau flavor. Alternatively, another method detects secondary muons produced by neutrinos selected for having traveled through the Earth to reach the detector, providing a pure sample of muon neutrinos. We will summarize the results obtained with the enlarged data set collected since the initial discovery and appraise the current status of high-energy neutrino astronomy. The large extragalactic neutrino flux observed points to a nonthermal universe with comparable energy in neutrinos, gamma rays and cosmic rays. Continued observations may be closing in on the source candidates. In this context, we highlight the potential of multimessenger analyses as well as the compelling case for constructing a next-generation detector larger in volume by one order of magnitude.

  14. A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Jiajie

    2010-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |Δm232|, sin2 θ23. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

  15. SEARCH FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN ANTARES NEUTRINOS AND PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY UHECRs ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Astraatmadja, T.; Beemster, L. J.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2013-09-01

    A multimessenger analysis optimized for a correlation of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos is presented and applied to 2190 neutrino candidate events detected in 2007-2008 by the ANTARES telescope and 69 UHECRs observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory between 2004 January 1 and 2009 December 31. No significant correlation is observed. Assuming an equal neutrino flux (E {sup -2} energy spectrum) from all UHECR directions, a 90% CL upper limit on the neutrino flux of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} per source is derived.

  16. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  17. Supernovae and neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Beacom

    2002-09-19

    A long-standing problem in supernova physics is how to measure the total energy and temperature of {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}, {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, and {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}. While of the highest importance, this is very difficult because these flavors only have neutral-current detector interactions. We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, {nu} + p {yields} {nu} + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. It should be emphasized immediately that the dominant signal is on free protons. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T{sub p} {approx_equal} 2E{sub {nu}}{sup 2}/M{sub p}, and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from {bar {nu}}{sub e} + p {yields} e{sup +} + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum. The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos.

  18. Stochastic neutrino mixing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2013-05-01

    We propose a mechanism which provides an explanation of the Gallium and antineutrino reactor anomalies. Differently from original Pontecorvo’s hypothesis, this mechanism is based on the phenomenological assumption in which the admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates in the moments of neutrino creation and detection can assume different configurations around the admixture parametrized by the usual values of the mixing angles θ12, θ23, and θ13. For simplicity, we assume a Gaussian distribution for the mixing angles in such a way that the average value of this distribution is given by the usual values of the mixing angles, and the width of the Gaussian is denoted by α. We show that the proposed mechanism provides a possible explanation for very short-baseline neutrino disappearance, necessary to accommodate Gallium and antineutrino reactor anomalies, which is not allowed in usual neutrino oscillations based on Pontecorvo’s original hypotheses. We also can describe high-energy oscillation experiments, like LSND, Fermi, and NuTeV, assuming a weakly energy dependent width parameter, α(E), that nicely fits all experimental results.

  19. Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts in the IceCube and ARA Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guetta, Dafne

    2016-07-01

    In this review I discuss the ultra-high energy neutrinos (UHEN) originated from Cosmic-Rays propogation (GZK neutrinos) and from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), and discuss their detectability in kilometers scale detectors like ARA and IceCube. While GZK neutrinos are expected from cosmic ray interactions on the CMB, the GRB neutrinos depend on the physics inside the sources. GRBs are predicted to emit UHEN in the prompt and in the later "after-glow" phase. I discuss the constraints on the hadronic component of GRBs derived from the search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino fux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and more in general I present the results of the search for high-energy neutrinos interacting within the IceCube detector between 2010 and 2013.

  20. Neutrinos from gamma ray bursts in the IceCube and ARA era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guetta, Dafne

    2015-09-01

    In this review I discuss the ultra-high energy neutrinos (UHEN) originated from cosmic-ray propagation (GZK neutrinos) and from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), and discuss their detectability in kilometers scale detectors like ARA and IceCube. While GZK neutrinos are expected from cosmic ray interactions on the CMB, the GRB neutrinos depend on the physics inside the sources. GRBs are predicted to emit UHEN in the prompt and in the later 'after-glow' phase. I discuss the constraints on the hadronic component of GRBs derived from the search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and more in general I present the results of the search for high-energy neutrinos interacting within the IceCube detector between 2010 and 2013.

  1. Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, A. E.

    2017-03-01

    A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.

  2. Neutrino Analysis of the September 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and Time-integrated Constraints on Neutrino Emission From the Crab Using IceCube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatikos, M.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguliar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. -H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, SW.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results for a search of high-energy muon neutrinos with the IceCube detector in coincidence with the Crab nebula flare reported on September 2010 by various experiments. Due to the unusual flaring state of the otherwise steady source we performed a prompt analysis of the 79-string configuration data to search for neutrinos that might be emitted along with the observed gamma-rays. We performed two different and complementary data selections of neutrino events in the time window of 10 days around the flare. One event selection is optimized for discovery of E(sub nu)(sup -2) neutrino spectrum typical of 1st order Fermi acceleration. A similar event selection has also been applied to the 40-string data to derive the time-integrated limits to the neutrino emission from the Crab [35]. The other event selection was optimized for discovery of neutrino spectra with softer spectral index and TeV energy cut-offs as observed for various galactic sources in gamma-rays. The 90% CL best upper limits on the Crab flux during the 10 day flare are 4.73 x 10(exp -11) per square centimeter per second TeV (sup -1) for an E(sub nu) (sup -2) neutrino spectrum and 2.50 x 10(exp -10) per square centimeter per second TeV(sup -1) for a softer neutrino spectra of E(sub nu)(sup -2.7), as indicated by Fermi measurements during the flare. IceCube has also set a time-integrated limit on the neutrino emission of the Crab using 375.5 days of livetime of the 40-string configuration data. This limit is compared to existing models of neutrino production from the Crab and its impact on astrophysical parameters is discussed. The most optimistic predictions of some models are already rejected by the IceCube neutrino telescope with more than 90% CL.

  3. Neutrinos: the key to ultrahigh energy cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Seckel, David; Stanev, Todor

    2005-09-30

    Observations of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) do not uniquely determine both the injection spectrum and the evolution model for UHECR sources--primarily because interactions during propagation obscure the early Universe from direct observation. Detection of neutrinos produced in those same interactions, coupled with UHECR results, would provide a full description of UHECR source properties.

  4. Movable detector to search for neutrino oscillations in the BNL neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, G.; Fainberg, A.; Weygand, D.; Fagg, L.; Uberall, H.; Goldberg, M.; Meadows, B.; Saenz, A.W.; Seeman, N.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, straightforward, and economic experiment utilizing a set of water Cherenkov counters is proposed to search for neutrino oscillations in the AGS neutrino beam. The detector will be movable and will be able to provide reasonable counting rates up to 2 km downstream of the pion decay tunnel. Whereas previous accelerator experiments have sought to increase the ratio l/p (with l the neutrino path length and p its momentum) by decreasing p, increasing l is suggested instead. Further, by making measurements at several different values of l with the same apparatus, many sources of systematic error are eliminated. The experiment will measure beam-associated muon- and electron-type events at each position. A change in the ratio of muon- to electron-type events as a function of position would be evidence for ..nu../sub ..mu../ + ..nu../sub e/ oscillations. Sensitivity in terms of (..delta..m)/sup 2/ (the square of the mass difference in the mass eigenstates) can be as low as 0.1 eV/sup 2/, for full mixing, which is below the most probable value found by Reines et al for ..delta..m/sup 2/ in their electron neutrino reactor experiment. This experiment would be parasitic, running behind the usual neutrino beam experiments, assuming the nominal beam energy (peaked at 1 GeV), and would thus make a minimal demand on AGS support. It is suggested that the first two measurements be made inside the Isabelle tunnel at the points of intersection with the AGS neutrino beam. No further excavations would be required, and the data could be taken before ISA equipment is installed.

  5. Decisive disappearance search at high Δ m2 with monoenergetic muon neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axani, S.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-11-01

    "KPipe" is a proposed experiment which will study muon neutrino disappearance for a sensitive test of the Δ m2˜1 eV2 anomalies, possibly indicative of one or more sterile neutrinos. The experiment is to be located at the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility's spallation neutron source, which represents the world's most intense source of charged kaon decay-at-rest monoenergetic (236 MeV) muon neutrinos. The detector vessel, designed to measure the charged-current interactions of these neutrinos, will be 3 m in diameter and 120 m long, extending radially at a distance of 32 to 152 m from the source. This design allows a sensitive search for νμ disappearance associated with currently favored light sterile neutrino models and features the ability to reconstruct the neutrino oscillation wave within a single, extended detector. The required detector design, technology, and costs are modest. The KPipe measurements will be robust since they depend on a known energy neutrino source with low expected backgrounds. Further, since the measurements rely only on the measured rate of detected events as a function of distance, with no required knowledge of the initial flux and neutrino interaction cross section, the results will be largely free of systematic errors. The experimental sensitivity to oscillations, based on a shape-only analysis of the L /E distribution, will extend an order of magnitude beyond present experimental limits in the relevant high-Δ m2 parameter space.

  6. Precision Solar Neutrino Measurements with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Oblath, Noah

    2007-10-26

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the first experiment to measure the total flux of active, high-energy neutrinos from the sun. Results from SNO have solved the long-standing 'Solar Neutrino Problem' by demonstrating that neutrinos change flavor. SNO measured the total neutrino flux with the neutral-current interaction of solar neutrinos with 1000 tonnes of D{sub 2}O. In the first two phases of the experiment we detected the neutron from that interaction by capture on deuterium and capture on chlorine, respectively. In the third phase an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters was deployed in the detector. This allows a measurement of the neutral-current neutrons that is independent of the Cherenkov light detected by the PMT array. We are currently developing a unique, detailed simulation of the current pulses from the proportional-counter array that will be used to help distinguish signal and background pulses.

  7. Toroidal magnetized iron neutrino detector for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Burguet-Castell, J.

    2013-08-01

    A neutrino factory has unparalleled physics reach for the discovery and measurement of CP violation in the neutrino sector. A far detector for a neutrino factory must have good charge identification with excellent background rejection and a large mass. An elegant solution is to construct a magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) along the lines of MINOS, where iron plates provide a toroidal magnetic field and scintillator planes provide 3D space points. In this report, the current status of a simulation of a toroidal MIND for a neutrino factory is discussed in light of the recent measurements of large $\\theta_{13}$. The response and performance using the 10 GeV neutrino factory configuration are presented. It is shown that this setup has equivalent $\\delta_{CP}$ reach to a MIND with a dipole field and is sensitive to the discovery of CP violation over 85% of the values of $\\delta_{CP}$.

  8. Pseudo-dirac neutrinos: a challenge for neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Beacom, John F; Bell, Nicole F; Hooper, Dan; Learned, John G; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J

    2004-01-09

    Neutrinos may be pseudo-Dirac states, such that each generation is actually composed of two maximally mixed Majorana neutrinos separated by a tiny mass difference. The usual active neutrino oscillation phenomenology would be unaltered if the pseudo-Dirac splittings are deltam(2) less, similar 10(-12) eV(2); in addition, neutrinoless double beta decay would be highly suppressed. However, it may be possible to distinguish pseudo-Dirac from Dirac neutrinos using high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. By measuring flavor ratios as a function of L/E, mass-squared differences down to deltam(2) approximately 10(-18) eV(2) can be reached. We comment on the possibility of probing cosmological parameters with neutrinos.

  9. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hamal, M.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The data taken with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2010, a total live time of 863 days, are used to measure the oscillation parameters of atmospheric neutrinos. Muon tracks are reconstructed with energies as low as 20 GeV. Neutrino oscillations will cause a suppression of vertical upgoing muon neutrinos of such energies crossing the Earth. The parameters determining the oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos are extracted by fitting the event rate as a function of the ratio of the estimated neutrino energy and reconstructed flight path through the Earth. Measurement contours of the oscillation parameters in a two-flavour approximation are derived. Assuming maximal mixing, a mass difference of Δ m322 = (3.1 ± 0.9) ṡ10-3eV2 is obtained, in good agreement with the world average value.

  10. Brief introduction of the neutrino event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hayato, Yoshinari

    2015-05-15

    The neutrino interaction simulation programs (event generators) play an important role in the neutrino experiments. This article briefly explains what is the neutrino event generator and how it works.

  11. Astrophysical neutrino production diagnostics with the Glashow resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biehl, Daniel; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Palladino, Andrea; Weiler, Tom J.; Winter, Walter

    2017-01-01

    We study the Glashow resonance bar nue + e‑ → W‑ → hadrons at 6.3 PeV as diagnostic of the production processes of ultra-high energy neutrinos. The focus lies on describing the physics of neutrino production from pion decay as accurate as possible by including the kinematics of weak decays and Monte Carlo simulations of pp and pγ interactions. We discuss optically thick (to photohadronic interactions) sources, sources of cosmic ray ``nuclei'' and muon damped sources. Even in the proposed upgrade IceCube-Gen2, a discrimination of scenarios such as pp versus pγ is extremely challenging under realistic assumptions. Nonetheless, the Glashow resonance can serve as a smoking gun signature of neutrino production from photohadronic (Aγ) interactions of heavier nuclei, as the expected Glashow event rate exceeds that of pp interactions. We finally quantify the exposures for which the non-observation of Glashow events exerts pressure on certain scenarios.

  12. High-energy Neutrinos from Recent Blazar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In 2015 June, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of 40 for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  13. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alysia

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinosμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinose), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  14. Neutral current coherent cross-sections — Implications on detecting SN and earth neutrinos with gaseous spherical TPC’s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergados, J. D.; Giomataris, Y.

    The detection of galactic supernova (SN) neutrinos represents one of the future frontiers of low energy neutrino physics and astrophysics. The neutron coherence of neutral currents (NCs) allows quite large cross-sections in the case of neutron rich targets, which can be exploited in detecting earth and sky neutrinos by measuring nuclear recoils. They are relatively cheap and easy to maintain. These (NC) cross-sections are not dependent on flavor conversions and, thus, their measurement will provide useful information about the neutrino source. In particular, they will yield information about the primary neutrino fluxes and perhaps about the spectrum after flavor conversions in neutrino sphere. They might also provide some clues about the neutrino mass hierarchy. The advantages of large gaseous low threshold and high resolution time projection counters (TPC) detectors are discussed.

  15. Compatibility of high-{delta}m{sup 2} {nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub e} neutrino oscillation searches

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Bugel, L.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Djurcic, Z.; Karagiorgi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Monroe, J.; Nguyen, V. T.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sorel, M.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the compatibility of experimental data from neutrino oscillation experiments with a high-{delta}m{sup 2} two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis. Data is provided by the Bugey, Karlsruhe Rutherford Medium Energy Neutrino Experiment 2 (KARMEN2), Los Alamos Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND), and MiniBooNE experiments. The LSND, KARMEN2, and MiniBooNE results are 25.36% compatible within a two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis. However, the point of maximal compatibility is found in a region that is excluded by the Bugey data. A joint analysis of all four experiments, performed in the sin{sup 2}2{theta} vs {delta}m{sup 2} region common to all data, finds a maximal compatibility of 3.94%. This result does not account for additions to the neutrino oscillation model from sources such as CP violation or sterile neutrinos.

  16. Compatibility of high-Δm2 νe and ν¯e neutrino oscillation searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Martin, P. S.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Nelson, R. H.; Nguyen, V. T.; Nienaber, P.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; van de Water, R.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the compatibility of experimental data from neutrino oscillation experiments with a high-Δm2 two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis. Data is provided by the Bugey, Karlsruhe Rutherford Medium Energy Neutrino Experiment 2 (KARMEN2), Los Alamos Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND), and MiniBooNE experiments. The LSND, KARMEN2, and MiniBooNE results are 25.36% compatible within a two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis. However, the point of maximal compatibility is found in a region that is excluded by the Bugey data. A joint analysis of all four experiments, performed in the sin⁡22θvsΔm2 region common to all data, finds a maximal compatibility of 3.94%. This result does not account for additions to the neutrino oscillation model from sources such as CP violation or sterile neutrinos.

  17. Higgs production through sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    In scenarios with sterile (right-handed) neutrinos with an approximate “lepton-number-like” symmetry, the heavy neutrinos (the mass eigenstates) can have masses around the electroweak scale and couple to the Higgs boson with, in principle, unsuppressed Yukawa couplings, while the smallness of the light neutrinos’ masses is guaranteed by the approximate symmetry. The on-shell production of the heavy neutrinos at lepton colliders, together with their subsequent decays into a light neutrino and a Higgs boson, constitutes a resonant contribution to the Higgs production mechanism. This resonant mono-Higgs production mechanism can contribute significantly to the mono-Higgs observables at future lepton colliders. A dedicated search for the heavy neutrinos in this channel exhibits sensitivities for the electron neutrino Yukawa coupling as small as ˜ 5 × 10-3. Furthermore, the sensitivity is enhanced for higher center-of-mass energies, when identical integrated luminosities are considered.

  18. Unparticle physics and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, J.; Bolanos, A.; Miranda, O. G.; Moura, C. A.; Rashba, T. I.

    2009-04-01

    We have constrained unparticle interactions with neutrinos and electrons using available data on neutrino-electron elastic scattering and the four CERN LEP experiments data on mono photon production. We have found that, for neutrino-electron elastic scattering, the MUNU experiment gives better constraints than previous reported limits in the region d>1.5. The results are compared with the current astrophysical limits, pointing out the cases where these limits may or may not apply. We also discuss the sensitivity of future experiments to unparticle physics. In particular, we show that the measurement of coherent reactor neutrino scattering off nuclei could provide a good sensitivity to the couplings of unparticle interaction with neutrinos and quarks. We also discuss the case of future neutrino-electron experiments as well as the International Linear Collider.

  19. Solar neutrino experiments: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    The situation in solar neutrino physics has changed drastically in the past few years, so that now there are four neutrino experiments in operation, using different methods to look at different regions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum. These experiments are the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl Homestake detector, the realtime Kamiokande detector, and the different forms of radiochemical {sup 71}Ga detectors used in the GALLEX and SAGE projects. It is noteworthy that all of these experiments report a deficit of observed neutrinos relative to the predictions of standard solar models (although in the case of the gallium detectors, the statistical errors are still relatively large). This paper reviews the basic principles of operation of these neutrino detectors, reports their latest results and discusses some theoretical interpretations. The progress of three realtime neutrino detectors that are currently under construction, SuperKamiok, SNO and Borexino, is also discussed.

  20. Status of the neutrino mass experiment KATRIN

    SciTech Connect

    Bornschein, L.; Bornschein, B.; Sturm, M.; Roellig, M.; Priester, F.

    2015-03-15

    The most sensitive way to determine the neutrino mass scale without further assumptions is to measure the shape of a tritium beta spectrum near its kinematic end-point. Tritium is the nucleus of choice because of its low endpoint energy, superallowed decay and simple atomic structure. Within an international collaboration the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently being built up at KIT. KATRIN will allow a model-independent measurement of the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c{sup 2} (90% CL). KATRIN will use a source of ultrapure molecular tritium. This contribution presents the status of the KATRIN experiment, thereby focusing on its Calibration and Monitoring System (CMS), which is the last component being subject to research/development. After a brief overview of the KATRIN experiment in Section II the CMS is introduced in Section III. In Section IV the Beta Induced X-Ray Spectroscopy (BIXS) as method of choice to monitor the tritium activity of the KATRIN source is described and first results are presented.

  1. Do high energy astrophysical neutrinos trace star formation?

    SciTech Connect

    Emig, Kimberly; Windhorst, Rogier; Lunardini, Cecilia E-mail: Cecilia.Lunardini@asu.edu

    2015-12-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has provided the first map of the high energy (∼ 0.01–1 PeV) sky in neutrinos. Since neutrinos propagate undeflected, their arrival direction is an important identifier for sources of high energy particle acceleration. Reconstructed arrival directions are consistent with an extragalactic origin, with possibly a galactic component, of the neutrino flux. We present a statistical analysis of positional coincidences of the IceCube neutrinos with known astrophysical objects from several catalogs. When considering starburst galaxies with the highest flux in gamma-rays and infrared radiation, up to n=8 coincidences are found, representing an excess over the ∼4 predicted for the randomized, or ''null'' distribution. The probability that this excess is realized in the null case, the p-value, is p=0.042. This value falls to p=0.003 for a partial subset of gamma-ray-detected starburst galaxies and superbubble regions in the galactic neighborhood. Therefore, it is possible that starburst galaxies, and the typically hundreds of superbubble regions within them, might account for a portion of IceCube neutrinos. The physical plausibility of such correlation is discussed briefly.

  2. Flux-limited neutrino diffusion in static stellar backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Jan

    The numerical implementation of multigroup Levermore-Pomraning Flux Limited Neutrino Diffusion Theory (FNDT) is presented. The behavior of this transport scheme is investigated in five static stellar models. In the calculations the feedback of the neutrino flow on the stellar matter is neglected. The evolution of the neutrino energy distribution function is followed in time, starting from an initial Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) distribution throughout the star, until a stationary non LTE solution is reached. Spectral and frequency integrated sources, luminosities and distributions are presented. The influence of electron degeneracy on the neutrino transport is highlighted. Energy deposition in regions of the stellar models relevant to the delayed explosion mechanism is rule rather than exception. Absorption of high energy neutrinos w greater than 20 MeV depletes the high energy end of the spectrum at densities ranging down to n(10 to the 9th power) g/cubic cm. In order to simulate spectra seen by an observer at infinity, it is necessary to extend the transport calculation to this density. Emergent neutrino energy distributions are typically nonthermal. Thermal fits can be made only on the high energy tail of the spectrum. The use of fitting parameters in the evaluation of bulk luminosities may overestimate these by factors of several.

  3. Measurement of electron neutrino appearance with the MINOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Joshua Adam Alpern

    2009-05-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. By measuring the neutrino interactions in a detector near the neutrino source and again 735 km away from the production site, it is possible to probe the parameters governing neutrino oscillation. The majority of the vμ oscillate to vτ but a small fraction may oscillate instead to ve. This thesis presents a measurement of the ve appearance rate in the MINOS far detector using the first two years of exposure. Methods for constraining the far detector backgrounds using the near detector measurements is discussed and a technique for estimating the uncertainty on the background and signal selection are developed. A 1.6σ excess over the expected background rate is found providing a hint of ve appearance.

  4. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints to neutrino properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Schramm, David N.; Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    The astrophysical and cosmological constraints on neutrino properties (masses, lifetimes, numbers of flavors, etc.) are reviewed. The freeze out of neutrinos in the early Universe are discussed and then the cosmological limits on masses for stable neutrinos are derived. The freeze out argument coupled with observational limits is then used to constrain decaying neutrinos as well. The limits to neutrino properties which follow from SN1987A are then reviewed. The constraint from the big bang nucleosynthesis on the number of neutrino flavors is also considered. Astrophysical constraints on neutrino-mixing as well as future observations of relevance to neutrino physics are briefly discussed.

  5. Advancements in Solar Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, Lino; Antonelli, Vito

    2013-03-01

    We review the results of solar neutrino physics, with particular attention to the data obtained and the analyses performed in the last decades, which were determinant to solve the solar neutrino problem (SNP), proving that neutrinos are massive and oscillating particles and contributing to refine the solar models. We also discuss the perspectives of the presently running experiments in this sector and of the ones planned for the near future and the impact they can have on elementary particle physics and astrophysics.

  6. Sterile neutrinos: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I will critically review some of the anomalies which in combination could point to the existence of a eV-scale sterile neutrino. Each of these anomalies is well below the 5 sigma level individually and may have explanations besides sterile neutrinos. At the same time each anomaly requires a separate explanation if it is not caused by a sterile neutrino. To further complicate the gpicture, some data sets are in mutual disagreement.

  7. Quantum coherence of relic neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Fuller, George M; Kishimoto, Chad T

    2009-05-22

    We argue that in at least a portion of the history of the Universe the relic background neutrinos are spatially extended, coherent superpositions of mass states. We show that an appropriate quantum mechanical treatment affects the neutrino mass values derived from cosmological data. The coherence scale of these neutrino flavor wave packets can be an appreciable fraction of the causal horizon size, raising the possibility of spacetime curvature-induced decoherence.

  8. A letter of intent for a neutrino scattering experiment on the booster neutrino meanline: FINeSSE

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, B.T.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Yale U.

    2005-03-01

    identified as a priority of the neutrino community, as determined through the APS Multidisciplinary Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics. From the APS report, the Neutrino Matrix makes its recommendations in context of several assumptions regarding the neutrino program, including: ''Determination of the neutrino reaction and production cross sections required for a precise understanding of neutrino oscillation physics and the neutrino astronomy of astrophysical and cosmological sources. Our broad and exacting program of neutrino physics is built upon precise knowledge of how neutrinos interact with matter''. The experiment described here will provide unique information on cross sections of {approx}1 GeV neutrinos, in precisely the range explored by present and future long baseline oscillation programs. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is the natural place to perform this experiment. The physics goals proposed here grow the existing program and are necessary ingredients for the next generation oscillation physics measurements in this same energy range. This is a small, cost-effective, and timely experiment which fits well with the growing neutrino program at Fermilab.

  9. Search for Electron Neutrino Appearance in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Orchanian, Mhair; /Caltech

    2011-09-01

    The MINOS Collaboration continues its search for {nu}{sub e} appearance in the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam at Fermilab. Neutrinos in the beam interact in the Near Detector, located 1 km from the beam source, allowing us to characterize the backgrounds present in our analysis. In particular, we can estimate the number of {nu}{sub e} candidate events we expect to see in the Far Detector (735 km away, in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota) in the presence or absence of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillation. Recent efforts to improve the sensitivity of the analysis, including upgrades to the event identification algorithm and fitting procedure, are discussed, and the latest results from the search are presented.

  10. Tomographic Constraints on High-Energy Neutrinos of Hadronuclear Origin.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Tamborra, Irene; Zandanel, Fabio

    2015-11-27

    Mounting evidence suggests that the TeV-PeV neutrino flux detected by the IceCube telescope has mainly an extragalactic origin. If such neutrinos are primarily produced by a single class of astrophysical sources via hadronuclear (pp) interactions, a similar flux of gamma-ray photons is expected. For the first time, we employ tomographic constraints to pinpoint the origin of the IceCube neutrino events by analyzing recent measurements of the cross correlation between the distribution of GeV gamma rays, detected by the Fermi satellite, and several galaxy catalogs in different redshift ranges. We find that the corresponding bounds on the neutrino luminosity density are up to 1 order of magnitude tighter than those obtained by using only the spectrum of the gamma-ray background, especially for sources with mild redshift evolution. In particular, our method excludes any hadronuclear source with a spectrum softer than E^{-2.1} as a main component of the neutrino background, if its evolution is slower than (1+z)^{3}. Starburst galaxies, if able to accelerate and confine cosmic rays efficiently, satisfy both spectral and tomographic constraints.

  11. Tomographic Constraints on High-Energy Neutrinos of Hadronuclear Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Tamborra, Irene; Zandanel, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the TeV-PeV neutrino flux detected by the IceCube telescope has mainly an extragalactic origin. If such neutrinos are primarily produced by a single class of astrophysical sources via hadronuclear (p p ) interactions, a similar flux of gamma-ray photons is expected. For the first time, we employ tomographic constraints to pinpoint the origin of the IceCube neutrino events by analyzing recent measurements of the cross correlation between the distribution of GeV gamma rays, detected by the Fermi satellite, and several galaxy catalogs in different redshift ranges. We find that the corresponding bounds on the neutrino luminosity density are up to 1 order of magnitude tighter than those obtained by using only the spectrum of the gamma-ray background, especially for sources with mild redshift evolution. In particular, our method excludes any hadronuclear source with a spectrum softer than E-2.1 as a main component of the neutrino background, if its evolution is slower than (1 +z )3. Starburst galaxies, if able to accelerate and confine cosmic rays efficiently, satisfy both spectral and tomographic constraints.

  12. Gravitational waves and neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are not only strong sources of gammaray emission, but also of neutrinos and gravitational waves (GWs). Observat.ions of these particles can provide a good deal of insight into the progenitor and engine behind these outbursts. But to do so, these particles must be detected . Here we review the different phases of GW and neutrino emission from a range of GRB progenitors, outlining the features and detectability of these phases. Unfortunately, except for a few cases, the detection of non-photon emission is very difficult. But the potential gain from any detection make understanding these sources critically important.

  13. Nonstandard neutrino interactions in supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleford, Charles J.; Väänänen, Daavid J.; Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Shapiro, Brandon T.

    2016-11-01

    Nonstandard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter can significantly alter neutrino flavor evolution in supernovae with the potential to impact explosion dynamics, nucleosynthesis, and the neutrinos signal. In this paper, we explore, both numerically and analytically, the landscape of neutrino flavor transformation effects in supernovae due to NSI and find a new, heretofore unseen transformation processes can occur. These new transformations can take place with NSI strengths well below current experimental limits. Within a broad swath of NSI parameter space, we observe symmetric and standard matter-neutrino resonances for supernovae neutrinos, a transformation effect previously only seen in compact object merger scenarios; in another region of the parameter space we find the NSI can induce neutrino collective effects in scenarios where none would appear with only the standard case of neutrino oscillation physics; and in a third region the NSI can lead to the disappearance of the high density Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonance. Using a variety of analytical tools, we are able to describe quantitatively the numerical results allowing us to partition the NSI parameter according to the transformation processes observed. Our results indicate nonstandard interactions of supernova neutrinos provide a sensitive probe of beyond the Standard Model physics complementary to present and future terrestrial experiments.

  14. High-energy neutrino astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The chargeless, weakly interacting neutrinos are ideal astronomical messengers as they travel through space without scattering, absorption or deflection. But this weak interaction also makes them notoriously di cult to detect, leading to neutrino observatories requiring large-scale detectors. A few years ago, the IceCube experiment discovered neutrinos originating beyond the Sun with energies bracketed by those of the highest energy gamma rays and cosmic rays. I discuss how these high-energy neutrinos can be detected and what they can tell us about the origins of cosmic rays and about dark matter.

  15. Neutrino helicity asymmetries in leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bento, Luis; Santos, Francisco C.

    2005-05-01

    It is pointed out that the heavy singlet neutrinos characteristic of leptogenesis develop asymmetries in the abundances of the two helicity states as a result of the same mechanism that generates asymmetries in the standard lepton sector. Neutrinos and standard leptons interchange asymmetries in collisions with each other. It is shown that an appropriate quantum number, B-L{sup '}, combining baryon, lepton and neutrino asymmetries, is not violated as fast as the standard B-L. This suppresses the washout effects relevant for the derivation of the final baryon asymmetry. One presents detailed calculations for the period of neutrino thermal production in the framework of the singlet seesaw mechanism.

  16. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  17. Magnus approximation in neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, Mario A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.; D'Olivo, J. C.

    2011-04-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some anomalous experimental observations. In a four-neutrino (three active plus one sterile) mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos with energies of the order of a few GeV, taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  18. Prospecting with neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    One of the latest attempts to explore the interface between physics and geophysics is the extravagant scheme of Alvaro De Rújula, Sheldon Glashow, Robert Wilson, and Georges Charpak, to be published in Physics Reports. In what these theoretical and experimental physicists described recently as “our mad project” (Physics Today, August 1983), a high-energy neutrino beam is to be used as a geophysical prospecting tool.The beam would be able to look for oil, natural gas, and high-atomic-number metal ores, and it would be able to profile the vertical density distribution of the earth. De Rújula et al. come to this project from the world of big physics machines, so it is natural to expect that the “Geotron,” the field instrument to supply and focus the neutrino beam, is to be big also.

  19. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  20. The Enigmatic Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, Don; Miceli, Tia

    2015-09-01

    Through a century of work, physicists have refined a model to describe all fundamental particles, the forces they share, and their interactions on a microscopic scale. This masterpiece of science is called the Standard Model. While this theory is incredibly powerful, we know of at least one particle that exhibits behaviors that are outside of its scope and remain unexplained. These particles are called neutrinos and they are the enigmatic ghosts of the quantum world. Interacting only via the weak nuclear force, literally billions of them pass through you undetected every second. While we understand that particular spooky behavior, we do not understand in any fundamental way how it is that neutrinos can literally change their identity, much as if a house cat could turn into a lion and then a tiger before transitioning back into a house cat again.