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Sample records for 51sc effective charges

  1. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  2. Effective Topological Charge Cancelation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mesarec, Luka; Góźdź, Wojciech; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj, Samo

    2016-01-01

    Topological defects (TDs) appear almost unavoidably in continuous symmetry breaking phase transitions. The topological origin makes their key features independent of systems’ microscopic details; therefore TDs display many universalities. Because of their strong impact on numerous material properties and their significant role in several technological applications it is of strong interest to find simple and robust mechanisms controlling the positioning and local number of TDs. We present a numerical study of TDs within effectively two dimensional closed soft films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering. Popular examples of such class of systems are liquid crystalline shells and various biological membranes. We introduce the Effective Topological Charge Cancellation mechanism controlling localised positional assembling tendency of TDs and the formation of pairs {defect, antidefect} on curved surfaces and/or presence of relevant “impurities” (e.g. nanoparticles). For this purpose, we define an effective topological charge Δmeff consisting of real, virtual and smeared curvature topological charges within a surface patch Δς identified by the typical spatially averaged local Gaussian curvature K. We demonstrate a strong tendency enforcing Δmeff → 0 on surfaces composed of Δς exhibiting significantly different values of spatially averaged K. For Δmeff ≠ 0 we estimate a critical depinning threshold to form pairs {defect, antidefect} using the electrostatic analogy. PMID:27250777

  3. Configuration effects on satellite charging response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    The response of various spacecraft configurations to a charging environment in sunlight was studied using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program code. The configuration features geometry, type of stabilization, and overall size. Results indicate that sunlight charging response is dominated by differential charging effects. Shaded insulation charges negatively result in the formation of potential barriers which suppress photoelectron emission from sunlit surfaces. Sunlight charging occurs relatively slowly: with 30 minutes of charging simulations, in none of the configurations modeled did the most negative surface cell reach half its equilibrium potential in eclipse.

  4. Effect of charging methods on battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.

    The effect of modified charging methods on the structure and behavior of several battery electrodes are reviewed. These include the alkaline cadmium, zinc, silver oxide and nickel oxide electrodes. Also included are recent results obtained for pasted zinc electrodes and in acidic zinc chloride electrolytes. Modified charging methods can greatly affect electrodes particularly when the charging reaction involving the nucleation, and growth of a new phase. Many of the observed morphological effects are described with regard to nucleation and orientation effects.

  5. Effects of disorder on the vortex charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, J.; Sacramento, P. D.

    2006-04-01

    We study the influence of disorder on the vortex charge, both due to random pinning of the vortices and due to scattering off nonmagnetic impurities. In the case when there are no impurities present, but the vortices are randomly distributed, the effect is very small, except when two or more vortices are close by. When impurities are present, they have a noticeable effect on the vortex charge. This, together with the effect of temperature, changes appreciably the vortex charge. In the case of an attractive impurity potential the sign of the charge naturally changes.

  6. Effective charge of photons and plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Serbeto, A.; Ali, S.

    2010-08-01

    We review the concept of photon effective charge in a plasma, and extend it to the case of longitudinal photons or plasmons. A simple electrostatic fluid model is considered in a non-magnetized and non-relativistic plasma. The contribution of the ions to the plasmon charge is also considered.

  7. LONGITUDINAL SPACE CHARGE EFFECT FOR SNS

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.Y.; WENG,W.T.

    1998-06-22

    One of performance requirements of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to keep the uncontrolled beam loss in the storage ring to less than 2 x 10{sup {minus}4} per pulse. For 2 MW SNS, the maximum beam intensity is N = 2 x 10{sup 14} protons per ring. Since the bunch lengthening has impact on both the extraction beam loss and the lowering of e-p instability threshold, the longitudinal space charge effect requires attentions. Such a space charge effect has been studied both analytically and using computer simulations. The longitudinal space charge effect, which is a defocusing force below transition, is a plausible source of the bunch leakage. In this article, the total RF potential, which takes into account the space charge effect together with the RF power, is used to provide analytical predictions for the bunch lengthening. The prediction is confirmed by the computer simulation. It is found that for 2 MW SNS storage ring, the longitudinal space charge induced bunch leakage into the interbunch gap is not significant. Therefore, corrections to the longitudinal space charge impedance, such as the proposed ferrite insertion in the PSR ring, are probably not necessary. Applying an RF voltage ramping from 20 KV to 40 KV during the multiturn injection can further cut the bunch leakage to a negligible degree. The same approach applied to the PSR shows that the longitudinal space charge effect does cause sizable bunch leakage at the intensity limit encountered there.

  8. Space charge effect in isochronous rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.

    2008-08-25

    Cyclotrons, rings for precise nuclear mass spectrometry, and some light sources with extremely short bunches are operated or planned to be operated in the isochronous or almost isochronous regime. Also, many hadron synchrotrons run in the isochronous regime for a short period of time during transition crossing. The longitudinal motion is frozen in the isochronous regime that leads to accumulation of the integral of the longitudinal space charge force. In low-gamma hadron machines, this can cause a fast growth of the beam energy spread even at modest beam intensities. Additionally, the transverse component of the space charge effectively modifies the dispersion function and the slip factor shifting the isochronous (transition) point. In this paper, we discuss space charge effects in the isochronous regime and present experimental results obtained in the Small Isochronous Ring, developed at Michigan State University specifically for studies of space charge in the isochronous regime.

  9. Optical effects of charges in colloidal solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Railing; Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Leung, P. T.

    2017-04-01

    The optical response of charged polymeric and metallic colloids is investigated using effective medium theories for composite systems of nanoparticles. Based on the Bohren-Hunt theory for generalized Mie scattering from charged particles, an effective quasi-static dielectric function previously obtained is applied to the present study to characterize the response from the various colloidal particles. It is found that such effects are more prominent for polymeric and nonmetallic colloidal solutions in general. In addition, the effects of clustering among the colloidal particles are also studied via a fractal model available from the literature. Detailed numerical studies of the dependence of these effects on the amount of extraneous charge, as well as on the geometry and volume fraction of the colloidal particles are presented.

  10. Nonperturbative comparison of QCD effective charges

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-10-15

    We study the nonperturbative behavior of two versions of the QCD effective charge, one obtained from the pinch technique gluon self-energy, and one from the ghost-gluon vertex. Despite their distinct theoretical origin, due to a fundamental identity relating various ingredients appearing in their respective definitions, the two effective charges are almost identical in the entire range of physical momenta, and coincide exactly in the deep infrared, where they freeze at a common finite value. Specifically, the dressing function of the ghost propagator is related to the two form factors in the Lorentz decomposition of a certain Green's function, appearing in a variety of field-theoretic contexts. The central identity, which is valid only in the Landau gauge, is derived from the Schwinger-Dyson equations governing the dynamics of the aforementioned quantities. The renormalization procedure that preserves the validity of the identity is carried out, and various relevant kinematic limits and physically motivated approximations are studied in detail. A crucial ingredient in this analysis is the infrared finiteness of the gluon propagator, which is inextricably connected with the aforementioned freezing of the effective charges. Some important issues related to the consistent definition of the effective charge in the presence of such a gluon propagator are resolved. We finally present a detailed numerical study of a special set of Schwinger-Dyson equations, whose solutions determine the nonperturbative dynamics of the quantities composing the two effective charges.

  11. Cathode Sheath Charge Transfer Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Hess, G. G. .nd F. W. Lampe: lenic Reactions in Gaseous Monosilane . Journal of Chemical Physics, 4.4, p. 2257, 1968. 9. Garscadden, A.: Effects Due...Lampe: An Elec.tron Impact Study of Ionization and Dissociation of Monosilane and Disilane. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 73, p. 3912, 1969. 89...Walsh: Kinetics of the Gas-Phase Reaction Between Iodine and Monosilane and the Bond Dissociation Energy D(H 3Si-H). International Journal of

  12. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  13. Effective dynamics of a classical point charge

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, Janos

    2014-03-15

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham–Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out. -- Highlights: •Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. •New derivation of the Abraham–Lorentz force for a point charge. •Absence of a runaway solution of the Abraham–Lorentz force. •Acausality in classical electrodynamics. •Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.

  14. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai; Li, Baohui

    2015-05-01

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG)5/(KGKG)5, (EEGG)5/(KKGG)5, and (EEGG)5/(KGKG)5, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight-averaged molar

  15. The role of effective charges in the electrophoresis of highly charged colloids.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Apratim; Horbach, Jürgen

    2010-12-15

    We study the variation of electrophoretic mobility μ of highly charged spherical colloidal macroions for varying surface charge density σ on the colloid using computer simulations of the primitive model for charged colloids. Hydrodynamic interactions between ions are incorporated by coupling the primitive model of charged colloids to the lattice Boltzmann model (LB) of the fluid. In the highly charged regime, the mobility μ of the colloid is known to decrease with the increase of bare charge Q of the colloid; the aim of this paper is to investigate the cause of this. We have identified that the two main factors contributing to the decrease of μ are counterion charge condensation on the highly charged colloid and an increase in effective friction of the macroion-counterion complex due to the condensed counterions. Thus the established O'Brien and White theory, which identified the dipolar force originating from distortion of the electric double layer as the cause of decreasing μ, seems to break down for the case of highly charged colloids with σ in the range of 30-400 µC cm (- 2). To arrive at our conclusions, we counted the number of counterions q0 moving along with the spherical macroion. We observe in our simulations that q0 increases with the increase of bare charge Q, such that the effective charge Qeff = Q - q0 remains approximately constant. Interestingly for our nanometer-sized charged colloid, we observe that, if surface charge density σ of the colloid is increased by decreasing the radius RM of the colloid but fixed bare charge Q, the effective charge Q - q0 decreases with the increase of σ. This behavior is qualitatively different when σ is increased by increasing Q keeping RM fixed. Our observations address a controversy about the effective charge of a strongly charged macroion: some studies claim that effective charge is independent of the bare charge (Alexander et al 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 80 5776; Trizac et al 2003 Langmuir 19 4027) whereas

  16. Interaction of linear polyamines with negatively charged phospholipids: the effect of polyamine charge distance.

    PubMed

    Finger, Sebastian; Schwieger, Christian; Arouri, Ahmad; Kerth, Andreas; Blume, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    The binding of cationic polyamines to negatively charged lipid membranes is driven by electrostatic interactions and additional hydrophobic contributions. We investigated the effect of polyamines with different number of charges and charge separation on the phase transition behavior of vesicles of phosphatidylglycerols (dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) to differentiate between effects caused by the number of charges, the charge distance, and the hydrophobicity of the methylene spacer. Using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy complemented with monolayer experiments, we found that the binding constant of polyamines to negatively charged lipid vesicles depends as expected on the number of charges. However, for diamines, the effect of binding on the main phase transition of phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) is also strongly influenced by the charge distance between the ammonium groups in the backbone. Oligoamines with charges separated by two or three methylene groups bind more strongly and have larger stabilizing effects on the lipid gel phase of PGs. With multivalent polyamines, the appearance of several transition peaks points to effects of molecular crowding on the surface, i.e., binding of only two or three charges to the surface in the case of spermine, and possible concomitant domain formation.

  17. Effect of charge memory in organic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Kotova, M. S.; Donskov, A. A.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of charge memory in composites based on polymer molecules has been investigated. Resistive switchings in sandwich samples prepared by lamination from commercially available polymers (polystyrene and poly(2,3-dihydrothieno-1,4-dioxine)-poly(styrene sulphonate) are analyzed. It is shown that the characteristic switching times in the composite samples reach several nanoseconds and the number of switchings exceeds 106. Switchings are observed in electric fields much below the breakdown threshold, which indicates the absence of destructive processes in the polymer.

  18. Effect of the surface charge distribution on the fluid phase behavior of charged colloids and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Marco A.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2016-10-01

    A generic but simple model is presented to evaluate the effect of the heterogeneous surface charge distribution of proteins and zwitterionic nanoparticles on their thermodynamic phase behavior. By considering surface charges as continuous "patches," the rich set of surface patterns that is embedded in proteins and charged patchy particles can readily be described. This model is used to study the fluid phase separation of charged particles where the screening length is of the same order of magnitude as the particle size. In particular, two types of charged particles are studied: dipolar fluids and protein-like fluids. The former represents the simplest case of zwitterionic particles, whose charge distribution can be described by their dipole moment. The latter system corresponds to molecules/particles with complex surface charge arrangements such as those found in biomolecules. The results for both systems suggest a relation between the critical region, the strength of the interparticle interactions, and the arrangement of charged patches, where the critical temperature is strongly correlated to the magnitude of the dipole moment. Additionally, competition between attractive and repulsive charge-charge interactions seems to be related to the formation of fluctuating clusters in the dilute phase of dipolar fluids, as well as to the broadening of the binodal curve in protein-like fluids. Finally, a variety of self-assembled architectures are detected for dipolar fluids upon small changes to the charge distribution, providing the groundwork for studying the self-assembly of charged patchy particles.

  19. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    DOE PAGES

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50–100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than amore » picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. Finally, for small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.« less

  20. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50–100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than a picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. For small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.

  1. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50–100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than a picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. Finally, for small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.

  2. Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Garrett, H. B.; Whittlesey, A. C.; Stevens, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    The need for uniform criteria, or guidelines, to be used in all phases of spacecraft design is discussed. Guidelines were developed for the control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces by the lower energy space charged particle environment. Interior charging due to higher energy particles is not considered. A guide to good design practices for assessing and controlling charging effects is presented. Uniform design practices for all space vehicles are outlined.

  3. Effects of granular charge on flow and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbrot, T.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2008-12-01

    Sandstorms in the desert have long been reported to produce sparks and other electrical disturbances - indeed as long ago as 1850, Faraday commented on the peculiarities of granular charging during desert sandstorms. Similarly, lightning strikes within volcanic dust plumes have been repeatedly reported for over half a century, but remain unexplained. The problem of granular charging has applied, as well as natural, implications, for charged particle clouds frequently generate spectacularly devastating dust explosions in granular processing plants, and sand becomes strongly electrified by helicopters traveling in desert environments. The issue even has implications for missions to the Moon and to Mars, where charged dust degrades solar cells viability and clings to spacesuits, limiting the lifetime of their joints. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive. To take one example, sand grains in the desert manage to charge one another despite having only similar materials to rub against over expanses of many miles - thus existing theories of charging due to material differences fail entirely to account for the observed charging of desert sands. In this talk, we describe recent progress made in identifying underlying causes of granular charging, both in desert-like environments and in industrial applications, and we examine effects of granular charging on flow, mixing and separation of common granular materials. We find that charging of identical grains can occur under simple laboratory conditions, and we make new predictions for the effects of this charging on granular behaviours.

  4. Boundary effects of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations on charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Wu, T.-H.; Leet, D.-S.

    2008-10-10

    The nature of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in the presence of the boundary is investigated from their effects on the dynamics of charged particles. These effects may be observable via the velocity fluctuations of the charge particles near the conducting plate, where the effects of vacuum fluctuations are found to be anisotrpoic. The corresponding stochastic equation of motion for the charged particle is also derived under the semiclassical approximation.

  5. Droplet Charging Effects in the Space Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Thomas B.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.

    2011-05-20

    Several applications exist for transiting liquid droplets through the near-Earth space environment. Numerical results are presented for the charging of liquid droplets of trimethyl pentaphenyl siloxane (DC705) in three different plasma environments: ionosphere, auroral, and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Nominal and high geomagnetic activity cases are investigated. In general, high levels of droplet charging (>100 V) exist only in GEO during periods of high geomagnetic or solar activity. An experiment was conducted to assess the charging of silicon-oil droplets due to photoemission. The photoemission yield in the 120-200 nm wavelength range was found to be approximately 0.06.

  6. Effect of Charge Patterning on the Phase Behavior of Polymer Coacervates for Charge Driven Self Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Sing, Charles E.

    Oppositely charged polymers can undergo associative liquid-liquid phase separation when mixed under suitable conditions of ionic strength, temperature and pH to form what are known as `polymeric complex coacervates'. Polymer coacervates find use in diverse array of applications like microencapsulation, drug delivery, membrane filtration and underwater adhesives. The similarity between complex coacervate environments and those in biological systems has also found relevance in areas of bio-mimicry. Our previous works have demonstrated how local charge correlations and molecular connectivity can drastically affect the phase behavior of coacervates. The precise location of charges along the chain therefore dramatically influences the local charge correlations, which consequently influences the phase behavior of coacervates. We investigate the effect of charge patterning along the polymer chain on the phase behavior of coacervates in the framework of the Restricted Primitive Model using Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that charge patterning dramatically changes the phase behavior of polymer coacervates, which contrasts with the predictions of the classical Voorn-Overbeek theory. This provides the basis for designing new materials through charge driven self assembly by controlling the positioning of the charged monomers along the chain.

  7. Morphology Effects on Space Charge Characteristics of Low Density Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou; Yuanxiang; Wang; Yunshan; Zahn, Markus; Wang; Ninghua; Sun; Qinghua; Liang; Xidong; Guan; Zhichen

    2011-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) film samples with different morphology were prepared by three kinds of annealing methods which were different in cooling rates in this study. A pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) space charge measurement system was improved to solve the surface discharge problems for small samples applied with a high voltage. Negative direct current (DC) fields from 50 to above 220 kV/mm were applied to the samples. The influences of morphologies on space charge and space charge packet characteristics were measured by the improved high voltage withstand (HVW) PEA system. Mobility and trap depth of released charges were calculated by space charge decay. It was found that there is a different probability of space charge packet initiation under applied field from -60 to -100 kV/mm. Average velocity and mobility of the space charge packets were calculated by space charge packet dynamics. It was found that the lower cooling rate samples have higher crystallinity, more homo-charge accumulation, lower mobility and deeper trap depth. The mechanism of morphological effects on space charge phenomena have been presumed to give a plausible explanation for their inherent relationships. The morphology in the metal-dielectric interface and in the bulk is convincingly suggested to be responsible for the injection and propagation processes of space charge. A model of positive space charge initiation in LDPE samples was also suggested and analyzed. The mechanism of morphological effects and the charge injection model are well fit with the injection and propagation processes of space charge. The different effects of morphology in the metal-dielectric interface and in the bulk of polymers are stressed.

  8. Effective interaction in asymmetric charged binary mixtures: the non-monotonic behaviour with the colloidal charge.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2012-11-01

    In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour.

  9. Understanding the effect of space charge on instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Chao, A.; Chin, Y. H.

    2015-05-03

    The combined effect of space charge and wall impedance on transverse instabilities is an important consideration in the design and operation of high intensity hadron machines as well as an intrinsic academic interest. This study explores the combined effects of space charge and wall impedance using various simplified models in an attempt to produce a better understanding of their interplay.

  10. Effects of Charged Particles on Human Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Held, Kathryn D.; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Kaminuma, Takuya; Paz, Athena Evalour S.; Yoshida, Yukari; Liu, Qi; Willers, Henning; Takahashi, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    The use of charged particle therapy in cancer treatment is growing rapidly, in large part because the exquisite dose localization of charged particles allows for higher radiation doses to be given to tumor tissue while normal tissues are exposed to lower doses and decreased volumes of normal tissues are irradiated. In addition, charged particles heavier than protons have substantial potential clinical advantages because of their additional biological effects, including greater cell killing effectiveness, decreased radiation resistance of hypoxic cells in tumors, and reduced cell cycle dependence of radiation response. These biological advantages depend on many factors, such as endpoint, cell or tissue type, dose, dose rate or fractionation, charged particle type and energy, and oxygen concentration. This review summarizes the unique biological advantages of charged particle therapy and highlights recent research and areas of particular research needs, such as quantification of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for various tumor types and radiation qualities, role of genetic background of tumor cells in determining response to charged particles, sensitivity of cancer stem-like cells to charged particles, role of charged particles in tumors with hypoxic fractions, and importance of fractionation, including use of hypofractionation, with charged particles. PMID:26904502

  11. Longitudinal space charge effects near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

    2009-05-04

    Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

  12. Multilayers of oppositely charged SiO2 nanoparticles: effect of surface charge on multilayer assembly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daeyeon; Gemici, Zekeriyya; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E

    2007-08-14

    The growth behavior of all-silica nanoparticle multilayer thin films assembled via layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged SiO2 nanoparticles was studied as a function of assembly conditions. Amine-functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles were assembled into multilayers through the use of three different sizes of negatively charged SiO2 nanoparticles. The assembly pH of the nanoparticle suspensions needed to achieve maximum growth for each system was found to be different. However, the surface charge /z/ of the negatively charged silica nanoparticles at the optimal assembly pH was approximately the same, indicating the importance of this parameter in determining the growth behavior of all-nanoparticle multilayers. When /z/ of the negatively charged nanoparticles lies between 0.6z(0) and 1.2z(0) (where z(0) is the pH-independent value of the zeta-potential of the positively charged nanoparticles used in this study), the multilayers show maximum growth for each system. The effect of particle size on the film structure was also investigated. Although nanoparticle size significantly influenced the average bilayer thickness of the multilayers, the porosity and refractive index of multilayers made from nanoparticles of different sizes varied by a small amount. For example, the porosity of the different multilayer systems ranged from 42 to 49%. This study further demonstrates that one-component all-nanoparticle multilayers can be assembled successfully by depositing nanoparticles of the same material but with opposite surface charge.

  13. High resolution field effect sensing of ferroelectric charges.

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, H.; Ryu, K.; Park, H.; Park, C.; Jeon, D.; Kim, Y. K.; Jung, J.; Min, D.-K.; Kim, Y.; Lee, H. N.; Park, Y.; Shin, H.; Hong, S.

    2011-03-04

    Nanoscale manipulation of surface charges and their imaging are essential for understanding local electronic behaviors of polar materials and advanced electronic devices. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy have been extensively used to probe and image local surface charges responsible for electrodynamics and transport phenomena. However, they rely on the weak electric force modulation of cantilever that limits both spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a field effect transistor embedded probe that can directly image surface charges on a length scale of 25 nm and a time scale of less than 125 {micro}s. On the basis of the calculation of net surface charges in a 25 nm diameter ferroelectric domain, we could estimate the charge density resolution to be as low as 0.08 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}, which is equivalent to 1/20 electron per nanometer square at room temperature.

  14. High-Resolution Field Effect Sensing of Ferroelectric Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Hyoungsoo; Ryu, Kyunghee; Park, Hongsik; Park, Chulmin; Jeon, Daeyoung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Jung, Juhwan; Min, Dong-Ki; Kim, Yunseok; Lee, Ho Nyung; Park, Yoondong; Shin, Hyunjung; Hong, Seungbum

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale manipulation of surface charges and their imaging are essential for understanding local electronic behaviors of polar materials and advanced electronic devices. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy have been extensively used to probe and image local surface charges responsible for electrodynamics and transport phenomena. However, they rely on the weak electric force modulation of cantilever that limits both spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a field effect transistor embedded probe that can directly image surface charges on a length scale of 25 nm and a time scale of less than 125 {micro}s. On the basis of the calculation of net surface charges in a 25 nm diameter ferroelectric domain, we could estimate the charge density resolution to be as low as 0.08 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}, which is equivalent to 1/20 electron per nanometer square at room temperature.

  15. The effects of fixed electrical charge on chondrocyte behavior.

    PubMed

    Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Pumberger, Matthias; Casper, Michelle E; Shogren, Kristin; Giuliani, Melissa; Ruesink, Terry; Hefferan, Theresa E; Currier, Bradford L; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    In this study we have compared the effects of negative and positive fixed charges on chondrocyte behavior in vitro. Electrical charges have been incorporated into oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) using small charged monomers such as sodium methacrylate (SMA) and (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl)-trimethyl ammonium chloride (MAETAC) to produce negatively and positively charged hydrogels, respectively. The physical and electrical properties of the hydrogels were characterized by measuring and calculating the swelling ratio and zeta potential, respectively. Our results revealed that the properties of these OPF modified hydrogels varied according to the concentration of charged monomers. Zeta potential measurements demonstrated that the electrical properties of the OPF hydrogel surfaces changed on incorporation of SMA and MAETAC and that these changes in electrical properties were dose-dependent. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the hydrogel surface composition. To assess the effects of surface properties on chondrocyte behavior primary chondrocytes isolated from rabbit ears were seeded as a monolayer on top of the hydrogels. We demonstrated that the cells remained viable over 7 days and began to proliferate while seeded on top of the hydrogels. Collagen type II staining was positive in all samples, however, the staining intensity was higher on negatively charged hydrogels. Similarly, glycosaminoglycan production was significantly higher on negatively charged hydrogels compared with a neutral hydrogel. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed up-regulation of collagen type II and down-regulation of collagen type I on the negatively charged hydrogels. These findings indicate that charge plays an important role in establishing an appropriate environment for chondrocytes and, hence, in the engineering of cartilage. Thus, further investigations into charged hydrogels for cartilage tissue

  16. Quantum gravity effects on charged microblack holes thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasvandi, Niloofar; Soleimani, M. J.; Radiman, Shahidan; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.

    2016-08-01

    The charged black hole thermodynamics is corrected in terms of the quantum gravity effects. Most of the quantum gravity theories support the idea that near the Planck scale, the standard Heisenberg uncertainty principle should be reformulated by the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) which provides a perturbation framework to perform required modifications of the black hole quantities. In this paper, we consider the effects of the minimal length and maximal momentum as GUP type I and the minimal length, minimal momentum and maximal momentum as GUP type II on thermo dynamics of the charged TeV-scale black holes. We also generalized our study to the universe with the extra dimensions based on the ADD model. In this framework, the effect of the electrical charge on thermodynamics of the black hole and existence of the charged black hole remnants as a potential candidate for the dark matter particles are discussed.

  17. Anomalously large Born effective charges in cubic WO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detraux, F.; Ghosez, Ph.; Gonze, X.

    1997-07-01

    Within density-functional theory, we compute the Born effective charges of tungsten trioxyde in its reference cubic phase (defect-perovskite structure). For the tungsten atom, the effective charge tensor is isotropic, with Z*W=+12.51. For the oxygen atoms, the two independent components of the tensor, corresponding, respectively, to a displacement of the atom parallel or perpendicular to the W-O bond, have the values Z*O||=-9.13 and Z*O⊥=-1.68. Z*W and Z*O|| are anomalously large with respect to the nominal ionic charges (+6 on W and -2 on O), but compatible with the Born effective charges found in related ABO3-perovskite compounds.

  18. Impact of charging efficiency variations on the effectiveness of variable-rate-based charging strategies for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Francesco A.; Cappuccino, Gregorio

    The huge energy demand coming from the increasing diffusion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) poses a significant challenge to electricity utilities and vehicle manufacturers in developing smart charging systems interacting in real time with distribution grids. These systems will have to implement smart charging strategies for PEV batteries on the basis of negotiation phases between the user and the electric utility regarding information about battery chemistries, tariffs, required energy and time available for completing the charging. Strategies which adapt the charging current to grid load conditions are very attractive. Indeed, they allow full exploitation of the grid capacity, with a consequent greater final state of charge and higher utility financial profits with respect to approaches based on a fixed charging rate. The paper demonstrates that the charging current should be chosen also taking into account the effect that different charging rates may have on the charging efficiency. To this aim, the performances of two smart variable-rate-based charging strategies, taken as examples, are compared by considering possible realistic relationships between the charging efficiency and the charging rate. The analysis gives useful guidelines for the development of smart charging strategies for PEVs as well as for next-generation battery charging and smart grid management systems.

  19. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 micrometer2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(-3) micrometer2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(-5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  20. Charged-particle mutagenesis 2. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 sq micrometer and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(exp -3) sq micrometer respectively. The maximum values were obtained by Fe-56 with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(exp -5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  1. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/μm to 975 KeV/gmm with particle energy (on the cells) between 94 - 603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/μm. The inactivation cross-section (αi) and the action-section for mutant induction (αm) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 μm2 and 0.09 to 5.56 × 10-3 μm2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/μm. The mutagenicity (αm/αi) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 × 10-5 with the maximum value at 150 keV/μm. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  2. Effect of Charge Density on the Taylor Cone in Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanger, Jonathan; Tucker, Nick; Kirwan, Kerry; Staiger, Mark P.

    A detailed understanding of charge density and its origins during the electrospinning process is desirable for developing new electrospinnable polymer-solvent systems and ensuring mathematical models of the process are accurate. In this work, two different approaches were taken to alter the charge density in order to measure its effect on the Taylor cone, mass deposition rate and initial jet diameter. It was found that an increase in charge density results in a decrease in the mass deposition rate and initial jet diameter. A theory is proposed for this behaviour in that an increase in charge density leads to the tip of the Taylor cone forming a smaller radius of curvature resulting in the concentration of electric stresses at the tip. This leads to the electrostatic forces drawing the initial jet from a smaller effective area or "virtual orifice".

  3. DC electric field effects during measurements of monopolar charge density and net space charge density near HVDC power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Misakian, M.; McKnight, R.H. )

    1989-10-01

    The influence of a dc electric field on the measurement of monopolar charge densities using an aspirator-type ion counter and the measurement of net space charge density using a Faraday cage or filter is examined. Optimum configurations which minimize the effect of the electric field are identified for each type of instrumentation. Key Words: Electric field, Faraday cage, filter, ion counter, measurement, measurement errors, monopolar charge density, net space charge.

  4. Space Charge Effect in the Sheet and Solid Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ho Young; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Ahn, Saeyoung

    1998-11-01

    We analyze the space charge effect of two different types of electron beam ; sheet and solid electron beam. Electron gun simulations are carried out using shadow and control grids for high and low perveance. Rectangular and cylindrical geometries are used for sheet and solid electron beam in planar and disk type cathode. The E-gun code is used to study the limiting current and space charge loading in each geometries.

  5. Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.

    2008-09-07

    Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.

  6. Weak nonlinear surface-charging effects in electrolytic films.

    PubMed

    Dean, D S; Horgan, R R

    2003-11-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full nonlinear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the renormalization of the theory and apply it to a triple-layer model for a thin film with Stern layer of thickness h. For this model we give expressions for the surface charge sigma(L) and the disjoining pressure P(d)(L) and show their dependence on the parameters. The influence of image charges naturally arises in the formalism, and we show that predictions depend strongly on h because of their effects. In particular, we show that the surface charge vanishes as the film thickness L-->0. The fluctuation terms in this class of theories contribute a Casimir-like attraction across the film. Although this attraction is well known to be negligible compared with the mean-field component for model electrolytic films with no surface-charge regulation, in the model studied here these fluctuations also affect the surface-charge regulation leading to a fluctuation component in the disjoining pressure which has the same behavior as the mean-field component even for large film thickness.

  7. The effect of reagent charge state on the charge inversion efficiency of singly charged polyatomic ions in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Hassell, Kerry M; Hilger, Ryan T; McLuckey, Scott A

    2011-11-07

    A variety of combinations of oppositely charged ions have been reacted to examine the role of the charge state from a multiply protonated or multiply deprotonated reagent ion on the efficiency of conversion of a singly charged ion of opposite polarity to a singly charged ion of the same polarity as the reagent. Maximum efficiencies on the order of tens of percent were observed. A threshold for charge inversion was noted in all cases and, with one exception, a clear decrease in efficiency was also noted at high charge states. A model was developed to predict charge inversion efficiency based on charge states, cross-sections of the reactants, and relevant thermodynamic ion affinity values for the reactants and products. The model predicts a threshold for charge inversion, although the prediction does not match the observed threshold quantitatively. This discrepancy is likely due to a simplifying assumption that is not justified on a quantitative basis but which does reproduce the qualitative trend. The model does not predict the major decrease in efficiency at high charge states. However, calculations show that the kinetic energies of the charge inversion products can lead to significant scattering losses at high charge states of the ion-ion collision complex.

  8. Field effect and charge injection in hybrid nanorod heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, H. L.; Li, Weicong

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies on organic/inorganic heterostructures have indicated that interface morphology plays an important role in determining the charge transport properties. Hybrid heterostructure light-emitting diodes mixing donor and acceptor semiconductors appear to offer the best opportunity in achieving superior performance and there are indications that a network of percolated heterojunctions can be very effective in promoting light absorption/emission. Charge transport however can be more complex in a nanorod heterostructure as the charge flow at the interface will depend on the injection mechanism(s) as well as the interface field strength. In this work, we examined the current density-voltage characteristics of the hybrid NPB (N, N‧-di(napth-2-yl)-N-N‧-diphenylbenzidine)-ZnO nanorod heterostructure and attempted to identify the transport mechanism(s) close to the tips of the nanorods. Our study indicated that charge flow essentially followed the conventional pattern changing from a linear regime (emission-limited) to a quadratic regime (space-charge limited) and possibly to a rapid rise in current (trap-free injection). Detailed evaluation of the changes in the reported conductivity data further suggested the conduction mechanism (up to a p-layer thickness of 400 nm) was dominated by space-charge limited current in the NPB layer, which also resulted in substantial charge pile-up near the tips of the nanorods. An interface charge layer responsible for the barrier height modification effect could be used to explain the observed “blue-shift” in the emission spectra of the nanorod heterostructure light-emitting diode as reported by Sun et al. [2].

  9. Charging effects, forces, and conduction in molecular wire systems.

    PubMed

    Emberly, Eldon G; Kirczenow, George

    2002-04-01

    Recently, experiments have shown that effects arising from charging and conformational changes in a molecular wire due to an applied voltage bias can have a significant influence on the transport characteristics of the system. We introduce a tractable theoretical approach based on Landauer theory and total energy methods that treats transport nonlinearities, conformational changes, and charging effects in molecular wires in a unified way. We apply this approach to molecular wires consisting of short chain molecules with different electronic and structural properties bonded to metal contacts. We find that the nonlinear conductance characteristics of these systems are remarkably similar and can be understood in terms of a single physical mechanism. We predict that negative differential resistance should occur at high bias in such molecular wires due to the combined effects of charging and conformational changes on their electronic structure.

  10. Large Seebeck effect by charge-mobility engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peijie; Wei, Beipei; Zhang, Jiahao; Tomczak, Jan M.; Strydom, A. M.; Søndergaard, M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Steglich, Frank

    2015-06-01

    The Seebeck effect describes the generation of an electric potential in a conducting solid exposed to a temperature gradient. In most cases, it is dominated by an energy-dependent electronic density of states at the Fermi level, in line with the prevalent efforts towards superior thermoelectrics through the engineering of electronic structure. Here we demonstrate an alternative source for the Seebeck effect based on charge-carrier relaxation: a charge mobility that changes rapidly with temperature can result in a sizeable addition to the Seebeck coefficient. This new Seebeck source is demonstrated explicitly for Ni-doped CoSb3, where a marked mobility change occurs due to the crossover between two different charge-relaxation regimes. Our findings unveil the origin of pronounced features in the Seebeck coefficient of many other elusive materials characterized by a significant mobility mismatch. When utilized appropriately, this effect can also provide a novel route to the design of improved thermoelectric materials.

  11. Large Seebeck effect by charge-mobility engineering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peijie; Wei, Beipei; Zhang, Jiahao; Tomczak, Jan M; Strydom, A M; Søndergaard, M; Iversen, Bo B; Steglich, Frank

    2015-06-25

    The Seebeck effect describes the generation of an electric potential in a conducting solid exposed to a temperature gradient. In most cases, it is dominated by an energy-dependent electronic density of states at the Fermi level, in line with the prevalent efforts towards superior thermoelectrics through the engineering of electronic structure. Here we demonstrate an alternative source for the Seebeck effect based on charge-carrier relaxation: a charge mobility that changes rapidly with temperature can result in a sizeable addition to the Seebeck coefficient. This new Seebeck source is demonstrated explicitly for Ni-doped CoSb3, where a marked mobility change occurs due to the crossover between two different charge-relaxation regimes. Our findings unveil the origin of pronounced features in the Seebeck coefficient of many other elusive materials characterized by a significant mobility mismatch. When utilized appropriately, this effect can also provide a novel route to the design of improved thermoelectric materials.

  12. Large Seebeck effect by charge-mobility engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peijie; Wei, Beipei; Zhang, Jiahao; Tomczak, Jan M.; Strydom, A.M.; Søndergaard, M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Steglich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Seebeck effect describes the generation of an electric potential in a conducting solid exposed to a temperature gradient. In most cases, it is dominated by an energy-dependent electronic density of states at the Fermi level, in line with the prevalent efforts towards superior thermoelectrics through the engineering of electronic structure. Here we demonstrate an alternative source for the Seebeck effect based on charge-carrier relaxation: a charge mobility that changes rapidly with temperature can result in a sizeable addition to the Seebeck coefficient. This new Seebeck source is demonstrated explicitly for Ni-doped CoSb3, where a marked mobility change occurs due to the crossover between two different charge-relaxation regimes. Our findings unveil the origin of pronounced features in the Seebeck coefficient of many other elusive materials characterized by a significant mobility mismatch. When utilized appropriately, this effect can also provide a novel route to the design of improved thermoelectric materials. PMID:26108283

  13. Effect of charge distribution on RDX adsorption in IRMOF-10

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Ruichang; Keffer, David J.; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A; Nicholson, Don M; Michalkova, Andrea; Petrova, Tetyana; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Doss, Bryant; Lewis, James

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, classical grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to test the effect of charge distribution on hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) adsorption and diffusion in IRMOF-10. Several different methods for mapping QM electron distributions onto atomic point charges are explored, including the electrostatic potential (ESP) method, Mulliken population analysis, L{sub 0}wdin population analysis, and natural bond orbital analysis. Classical GCMC and MD simulations of RDX in IRMOF-10 are performed using 15 combinations of charge sources of RDX and IRMOF-10. As the charge distributions vary, interaction potential energies, the adsorption loading, and the self-diffusivities are significantly different. None of the 15 combinations are able to quantitatively capture the dependence of the energy of adsorption on local configuration of RDX as observed in the QM calculations. We observe changes in the charge distributions of RDX and IRMOF-10 with the introduction of an RDX molecule into the cage. We also observe a large dispersion contribution to the interaction energy from QM calculations that is not reproduced in the classical simulations, indicating that the source of discrepancy may not lie exclusively with the assignment of charges.

  14. Emotionally charged earcons reveal affective congruency effects.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P M C; De Haan, A; Van Galen, G P; Meulenbroek, R G J

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, the affective impact of earcons on stimulus classification is investigated. We show, using a picture-categorization task, that the affective connotation of earcons in major and minor mode (representing positive and negative valence, respectively) can be congruent or incongruent with response valence. Twenty participants classified pictures of animals and instruments in 256 trials, using positive and negative Yes or No responses. Together with the pictures, either a chord in major mode or minor mode was played. The affective valence of the chords either did or did not match the valence of responses. Response-time latencies show congruency effects of the matching and non matching sound and response valences, indicating that it is important to carefully investigate human-computer interfaces for potential affective congruency effects, as these can either facilitate or inhibit user performance.

  15. Effect of water on the space charge formation in XLPE

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ayako; Takahashi, Tohru; Yamamaoto, Syuji

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, the authors describe the effect of water on the space charge in crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE). In order to study the effects of water and by-products of crosslinking, they prepared two types of samples. The water in the first one (Type A) is controlled by immersing in water after removing the by-products, and the water in the other type (Type B) of samples is controlled by the water from the decomposition of cumyl-alcohol by heating. The authors measured the space charge formation by pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. A large difference was observed between Type A and Type B. In Type A samples (containing only water) the space charge distribution changes from homogeneous to heterogeneous as the water content increases, whereas in Type B (containing water and by-product) all samples exhibit heterogeneous space charge distribution. However, merely the effect of water for both types was almost the same, including peculiar space charge behavior near the water solubility limit.

  16. Space charge effects in ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhensheng; Zhang, He; Duxbury, P. M.; Berz, Martin; Ruan, Chong-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Understanding space charge effects is central for the development of high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy techniques for imaging material transformation with atomic scale detail at the fs to ps timescales. We present methods and results for direct ultrafast photoelectron beam characterization employing a shadow projection imaging technique to investigate the generation of ultrafast, non-uniform, intense photoelectron pulses in a dc photo-gun geometry. Combined with N-particle simulations and an analytical Gaussian model, we elucidate three essential space-charge-led features: the pulse lengthening following a power-law scaling, the broadening of the initial energy distribution, and the virtual cathode threshold. The impacts of these space charge effects on the performance of the next generation high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging systems are evaluated.

  17. The effect of carrier gas contaminants on the charging probability of aerosols under bipolar charging conditions

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Gerhard; Reischl, Georg P.

    2012-01-01

    This work concentrates on the experimental determination of the properties of ionic molecular clusters that are produced in the bipolar ionic atmosphere of a radioactivity based 241Am charger. The main scope of this study was to investigate the dependency of the ions' properties on carrier gas contaminants caused by the evaporation of trace gases from different kinds of frequently encountered tubing materials. A recently developed high resolution mobility spectrometer allows the precise determination of the ions' electrical mobility; an empirical mass-mobility relationship was used to approximate the corresponding ion masses. It was found that impurities in the carrier gas dramatically change the pattern of the ion mobility/size distribution, resulting in very different ion properties that strongly depend on the carrier gas composition. Since the ion properties control the charging process of aerosols, it was further investigated how the different ion properties affect the calculation of the charging probabilities of aerosols. The results show that despite large variations of the ions' properties, only a minor effect on the calculated charging probabilities can be found. PMID:23209330

  18. Effective charges and virial pressure of concentrated macroion solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Boon, Niels; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Ivan; van Roij, René; ...

    2015-07-13

    The stability of colloidal suspensions is crucial in a wide variety of processes, including the fabrication of photonic materials and scaffolds for biological assemblies. The ionic strength of the electrolyte that suspends charged colloids is widely used to control the physical properties of colloidal suspensions. The extensively used two-body Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) approach allows for a quantitative analysis of the effective electrostatic forces between colloidal particles. DLVO relates the ionic double layers, which enclose the particles, to their effective electrostatic repulsion. Nevertheless, the double layer is distorted at high macroion volume fractions. Therefore, DLVO cannot describe the many-body effects that arisemore » in concentrated suspensions. In this paper, we show that this problem can be largely resolved by identifying effective point charges for the macroions using cell theory. This extrapolated point charge (EPC) method assigns effective point charges in a consistent way, taking into account the excluded volume of highly charged macroions at any concentration, and thereby naturally accounting for high volume fractions in both salt-free and added-salt conditions. We provide an analytical expression for the effective pair potential and validate the EPC method by comparing molecular dynamics simulations of macroions and monovalent microions that interact via Coulombic potentials to simulations of macroions interacting via the derived EPC effective potential. The simulations reproduce the macroion-macroion spatial correlation and the virial pressure obtained with the EPC model. Finally, our findings provide a route to relate the physical properties such as pressure in systems of screened Coulomb particles to experimental measurements.« less

  19. Effective charges and virial pressure of concentrated macroion solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Boon, Niels; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Ivan; van Roij, René; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-07-13

    The stability of colloidal suspensions is crucial in a wide variety of processes, including the fabrication of photonic materials and scaffolds for biological assemblies. The ionic strength of the electrolyte that suspends charged colloids is widely used to control the physical properties of colloidal suspensions. The extensively used two-body Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) approach allows for a quantitative analysis of the effective electrostatic forces between colloidal particles. DLVO relates the ionic double layers, which enclose the particles, to their effective electrostatic repulsion. Nevertheless, the double layer is distorted at high macroion volume fractions. Therefore, DLVO cannot describe the many-body effects that arise in concentrated suspensions. In this paper, we show that this problem can be largely resolved by identifying effective point charges for the macroions using cell theory. This extrapolated point charge (EPC) method assigns effective point charges in a consistent way, taking into account the excluded volume of highly charged macroions at any concentration, and thereby naturally accounting for high volume fractions in both salt-free and added-salt conditions. We provide an analytical expression for the effective pair potential and validate the EPC method by comparing molecular dynamics simulations of macroions and monovalent microions that interact via Coulombic potentials to simulations of macroions interacting via the derived EPC effective potential. The simulations reproduce the macroion-macroion spatial correlation and the virial pressure obtained with the EPC model. Finally, our findings provide a route to relate the physical properties such as pressure in systems of screened Coulomb particles to experimental measurements.

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on charge-coupled imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killiany, J. M.; Baker, W. D.; Saks, N. S.; Barbe, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on three different charge coupled imagers have been investigated. Device performance was evaluated as a function of total gamma ray dose. The principal failure mechanisms have been identified for each particular device structure. The clock and bias voltages required for high total dose operation of the devices are presented.

  1. Modelling of charging effects in plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, William; Cheung, Nathan W.

    1995-03-01

    The charging effects of plasma immersion ion implantation on several device structures is simulated. The simulations use an analytical model which couples the interaction of the plasma and IC devices during plasma implantation. The plasma model is implemented within the circuit simulator SPICE, which allows the model to uses all of the IC device models existing within SPICE. The model of the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling current through thin gate oxides of MOS devices is demonstrated, and shown how it can be used to quantify the damage induced. Charging damage is shown to be strongly affected by the device structure.

  2. Longitudinal emittance growth due to nonlinear space charge effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. Y.; Yu, Simon S.; Barnard, John J.; Seidl, Peter A.

    2012-03-01

    Emittance posts limits on the key requirements of final pulse length and spot size on target in heavy ion fusion drivers. In this paper, we show studies on the effect of nonlinear space charge on longitudinal emittance growth in the drift compression section. We perform simulations, using the 3D PIC code WARP, for a high current beam under conditions of bends and longitudinal compression. The linear growth rate for longitudinal emittance turns out to depend only on the peak line charge density, and is independent of pulse length, velocity tilt, and/or the pipe and beam size. This surprisingly simple result is confirmed by simulations and analytic calculations.

  3. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  4. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-11-01

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  5. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-11-29

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  6. Charge effect in point projection images of carbon fibres

    PubMed

    Prigent; Morin

    2000-09-01

    Nanometre-sized carbon fibres across holes have been observed in a lensless point projection field-emission microscope operating between 100 and 300 eV. At sufficiently high magnification fringe patterns appear; with the help of simulations we show that they are strongly dependent on the charge density of the fibres. These patterns are characterized by an odd number of fringes with a central fringe that becomes very bright as the charge increases. Average diameter and linear charge density have been obtained with remarkable precision from analysis of fringes. Charge distribution from the middle to the edge of fibres has been investigated as well as narrowings at localized places on the fringe pattern. From these two examples, the limits of the models used for the simulations and those of the data acquisition system are discussed. Finally, this work emphasizes the fact that the fringe pattern masks the actual form of the fibre and that it is necessary to take account of the charge effect to interpret this diffraction pattern.

  7. Effect of dilute strongly pinning impurities on charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Jun-ichi; Millis, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    We study theoretically the effects of strong pinning centers on a charge density wave in the limit that the charge density wave coherence length is shorter than the average interimpurity distance. An analysis based on a Ginzburg-Landau model shows that long-range forces arising from the elastic response of the charge density wave induce a kind of collective pinning which suppresses impurity-induced phase fluctuations, leading to a long-range ordered ground state. The correlations induced by impurities are characterized by a length scale parametrically longer than the average interimpurity distance. Long-wavelength fluctuations are found to be gapped, implying the stability of the ground state. We also present Monte Carlo simulations that confirm the basic features of the analytical results.

  8. Image Charge Effects on the Formation of Pickering Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Singh, Virendra; Behrens, Sven Holger

    2012-10-18

    Vigorous mixing of an aqueous particle dispersion with oil usually produces a particle-stabilized emulsion (a "Pickering emulsion"), the longevity of which depends on the particles' wetting properties. A known exception occurs when particles fail to adsorb to the oil-water interface created during mixing because of a strong repulsion between charges on the particle surface and similar charges on the oil-water interface; in this case, no Pickering emulsion is formed. Here, we present experimental evidence that the rarely considered electrostatic image force can cause a much bigger hindrance to particle adsorption and prevent the formation of Pickering emulsions even when the particle interaction with the interface charge is attractive. A simple theoretical estimate confirms the observed magnitude of this effect and points at an important limitation of Pickering emulsification, a technology with widespread industrial applications and increasing popularity in materials research and development.

  9. The effectiveness of Hong Kong's Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jane L; Hills, Martin J; Tam, Vivian W Y

    2008-12-01

    The Hong Kong Government introduced the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme in December 2005 to ensure that disposal of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is properly priced to reduce such waste. The charging scheme is not only intended to provide an economic incentive for contractors and developers to reduce waste but also to encourage reuse and recycling of waste material thereby slowing down the depletion of limited landfill and public filling capacities. This paper examines the effectiveness of the charging scheme 1 year after implementation. A survey was conducted at Tseung Kwan O Area 137 and Tuen Mun Area 38, and daily C&D waste records were collected from landfills and public filling facilities between January 2006 and December 2006. The results of the survey show that waste has been reduced by approximately 60% in landfills, by approximately 23% in public fills, and by approximately 65% in total waste between 2005 and 2006. Suggestions for improving the scheme are provided.

  10. Effect of Aperiodicity on the Charge Transfer Through DNA Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Angsula; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab

    The effect of aperiodicity on the charge transfer process through DNA molecules is investigated using a tight-binding model. Single-stranded aperiodic Fibonacci polyGC and polyAT sequences along with aperiodic Rudin-Shapiro poly(GCAT) sequences are used in the study. Based on the tight-binding model, molecular orbital calculations of the DNA chains are performed and ionization potentials compared, as this might be relevant to understanding the charge transfer process. Charges migrate through the sequences in a multistep hopping process. Results for current conduction through aperiodic sequences are compared with those for the corresponding periodic sequences. We find that dinucleotide aperiodic Fibonacci sequences decrease the current while tetranucleotide aperiodic Rudin-Shapiro sequences increase the current when compared with the corresponding periodic sequences. The conductance in all cases decays exponentially as the sequence length increases.

  11. Space charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S.; Bourianoff, G.; Mahale, N.K.; Mehta, N.; Pilat, F.; Talman, R.; York, R.C.

    1991-05-01

    By means of multi-particle tracking, we explore space charge effects in the Low Energy Booster (LEB) which has a strong requirement for small transverse emittance. Macro-particles are tracked in a self-consistent manner in six dimensional phase space with transverse space charge kicks so that the emittance evolution as well as the particle distribution are simulated as a function of time. Among recent improvements of the code, the longitudinal motion, i.e. synchrotron oscillations as well as acceleration, makes it possible to simulate the capture process of linac microbunches. The code was calibrated by comparing with the experimental results at the Fermilab Booster. Preliminary results of the LEB show slow emittance growth due to the space charge. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Balram, Ajit C; Wurstbauer, U; Wójs, A; Pinczuk, A; Jain, J K

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  13. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  14. Wake effect in graphene due to moving charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radović, I.; Borka, D.; Mišković, Z. L.

    2014-12-01

    We study the wake effect in a supported graphene layer induced by external charged particles moving parallel to it by using the dynamic polarization function of graphene within the random phase approximation for its π electrons described as Dirac's fermions. We explore the effects of a substrate assuming that graphene is supported by an insulating substrate, such as SiO2, and a strongly polar substrate, such as SiC, under the gating conditions. Strong effects are observed in the wake pattern in the induced density of charge carriers in supported graphene due to finite size of the graphene-substrate gap, as well as due to strong coupling effects, and plasmon damping of graphene's π electrons. We find that the excitation of surface phonons in the substrate may exert quite strong influences on the wake effect in the total electrostatic potential in the graphene plane at low particle speeds.

  15. Specific salt effects on thermophoresis of charged colloids.

    PubMed

    Eslahian, Kyriakos A; Majee, Arghya; Maskos, Michael; Würger, Alois

    2014-03-28

    We study the Soret effect of charged polystyrene particles as a function of temperature and electrolyte composition. As a main result we find that the Soret coefficient is determined by charge effects, and that non-ionic contributions are small. In view of the well-known electric-double layer interactions, our thermal field-flow fractionation data lead us to the conclusion that the Soret effect originates to a large extent from diffusiophoresis in the salt gradient and from the electrolyte Seebeck effect, both of which show strong specific-ion effects. Moreover, we find that thermophoresis of polystyrene beads is fundamentally different from proteins and aqueous polymer solutions, which show a strong non-ionic contribution.

  16. Charged Particle Effects on Solar Sails - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Program is currently sponsoring a comprehensive look at the effects of the charged particle environment on the first generation of Solar Sail propulsion systems. As part of this, a joint NASA MSFC/JPL team is investigating the effects of spacecraft charging on the preliminary ISP Solar Sail mission designs. This paper will begin by reviewing the plasma environments being proposed for such missions-these range from the ambient solar wind at approximately 1 AU in the ecliptic plane, approximately 0.5 AU solar-polar orbit, and geosynchronous orbit. Following a discussion of the critical design issues associated with Solar Sails from a charging standpoint, a simple Sail configuration for modeling purposes will be presented. Results for the various environments will be illustrated in terms of the estimated surface potentials for the Solar Sail using the NASCAP-2K charging analysis program. Based on these potentials, representative plasma flow fields and potential contours surrounding the Solar Sail will then be presented. The implications of these results--the surface potentials and plasma flow--will be discussed in the context of their effects on Solar Sail operations and structural configurations.

  17. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  18. Nonlinear effects on electrophoresis of a charged dielectric nanoparticle in a charged hydrogel medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; De, Simanta

    2016-09-01

    The impact of the solid polarization of a charged dielectric particle in gel electrophoresis is studied without imposing a weak-field or a thin Debye length assumption. The electric polarization of a dielectric particle due to an external electric field creates a non-uniform surface charge density, which in turn creates a non-uniform Debye layer at the solid-gel interface. The solid polarization of the particle, the polarization of the double layer, and the electro-osmosis of mobile ions within the hydrogel medium create a nonlinear effect on the electrophoresis. We have incorporated those nonlinear effects by considering the electrokinetics governed by the Stokes-Brinkman-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations. We have computed the governing nonlinear coupled set of equations numerically by adopting a finite volume based iterative algorithm. Our numerical method is tested for accuracy by comparing with several existing results on free-solution electrophoresis as well as results based on the Debye-Hückel approximation. Our computed result shows that the electrophoretic velocity decreases with the rise of the particle dielectric permittivity constant and attains a saturation limit at large values of permittivity. A significant impact of the solid polarization is found in gel electrophoresis compared to the free-solution electrophoresis.

  19. Peltier effect in multilayered nanopillars under high density charge current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravier, L.; Fukushima, A.; Kubota, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yuasa, S.

    2006-12-01

    From the basic equations of thermoelectricity, we model the thermal regimes that develop in multilayered nanopillar elements experiencing continuous charge currents. The energy conservation principle was applied to all layer-layer and layer-electrode junctions. The obtained set of equations was solved to derive the temperature of each junction. The contribution of the Peltier effect is included in an effective resistance. This model gives satisfactory fits to experimental data obtained on a series of reference nanopillar elements.

  20. Amplified effect of surface charge on cell adhesion by nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Meng, Jingxin; Zhang, Shuaitao; Ma, Xinlei; Wang, Shutao

    2016-06-01

    Nano-biointerfaces with varied surface charge can be readily fabricated by integrating a template-based process with maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. Significantly, nanostructures are employed for amplifying the effect of surface charge on cell adhesion, as revealed by the cell-adhesion performance, cell morphology and corresponding cytoskeletal organization. This study may provide a promising strategy for developing new biomedical materials with tailored cell adhesion for tissue implantation and regeneration.Nano-biointerfaces with varied surface charge can be readily fabricated by integrating a template-based process with maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. Significantly, nanostructures are employed for amplifying the effect of surface charge on cell adhesion, as revealed by the cell-adhesion performance, cell morphology and corresponding cytoskeletal organization. This study may provide a promising strategy for developing new biomedical materials with tailored cell adhesion for tissue implantation and regeneration. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM, KFM AFM, chemical modification and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00649c

  1. Giant Born effective charges in cubic WO_3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detraux, Francois; Ghosez, Philippe; Gonze, Xavier

    1997-03-01

    WO3 crystallizes in many different phases. It is also sometimes considered in a reference idealized simple cubic structure (defect-perovskite) where the tungsten is at the center of the cell and the oxygens at the middle of each face. Using a variational formulation of the density functional perturbation theory and a planewave-pseudopotential approach, we compute the Born effective charges for this idealized cubic structure, with an optimized lattice parameter of 3.73 ÅThe values obtained are anomalously large with respect to the nominal ionic charge (+6 on W and -2 on O). For the tungsten atom, the effective charge tensor is isotropic and Z_W= +12.43. For the oxygen, we must consider two different elements corresponding respectively to a displacement of the atom parallel or perpendicular to the W-O bond: Z^*O allel= -9.07 and Z^*O ⊥= -1.66. The giant anomalous contributions to Z^*W and Z^*O allel can be explained by transfer of charge produced by dynamic changes of hybridization between the O-2p and W-5d orbitals.

  2. Effect of surface charge of immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell monolayer on transport of charged solutes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Li, Guanglei; Gil, Eun Seok; Lowe, Tao Lu; Fu, Bingmei M

    2010-04-01

    Charge carried by the surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) of the cerebral endothelium has been shown to significantly modulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to charged solutes in vivo. The cultured monolayer of bEnd3, an immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell line, is becoming a popular in vitro BBB model due to its easy growth and maintenance of many BBB characteristics over repeated passages. To test whether the SGL of bEnd3 monolayer carries similar charge as that in the intact BBB and quantify this charge, which can be characterized by the SGL thickness (L(f)) and charge density (C(mf)), we measured the solute permeability of bEnd3 monolayer to neutral solutes and to solutes with similar size but opposite charges: negatively charged alpha-lactalbumin (-11) and positively charged ribonuclease (+3). Combining the measured permeability data with a transport model across the cell monolayer, we predicted the L(f) and the C(mf) of bEnd3 monolayer, which is approximately 160 nm and approximately 25 mEq/L, respectively. We also investigated whether orosomucoid, a plasma glycoprotein modulating the charge of the intact BBB, alters the charge of bEnd3 monolayer. We found that 1 mg/mL orosomucoid would increase SGL charge density of bEnd3 monolayer to approximately 2-fold of its control value.

  3. Membrane Permeabilization Induced by Sphingosine: Effect of Negatively Charged Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; Sot, Jesús; Viguera, Ana R.; Collado, M. Isabel; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Gómez-Fernández, J.C.; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine [(2S, 3R, 4E)-2-amino-4-octadecen-1, 3-diol] is the most common sphingoid long chain base in sphingolipids. It is the precursor of important cell signaling molecules, such as ceramides. In the last decade it has been shown to act itself as a potent metabolic signaling molecule, by activating a number of protein kinases. Moreover, sphingosine has been found to permeabilize phospholipid bilayers, giving rise to vesicle leakage. The present contribution intends to analyze the mechanism by which this bioactive lipid induces vesicle contents release, and the effect of negatively charged bilayers in the release process. Fluorescence lifetime measurements and confocal fluorescence microscopy have been applied to observe the mechanism of sphingosine efflux from large and giant unilamellar vesicles; a graded-release efflux has been detected. Additionally, stopped-flow measurements have shown that the rate of vesicle permeabilization increases with sphingosine concentration. Because at the physiological pH sphingosine has a net positive charge, its interaction with negatively charged phospholipids (e.g., bilayers containing phosphatidic acid together with sphingomyelins, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol) gives rise to a release of vesicular contents, faster than with electrically neutral bilayers. Furthermore, phosphorous 31-NMR and x-ray data show the capacity of sphingosine to facilitate the formation of nonbilayer (cubic phase) intermediates in negatively charged membranes. The data might explain the pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease. PMID:24940775

  4. Dynamic Charge Carrier Trapping in Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Qian; Alivisatos, A Paul; Salmeron, Miquel

    2015-07-08

    Noncrystalline semiconductor materials often exhibit hysteresis in charge transport measurements whose mechanism is largely unknown. Here we study the dynamics of charge injection and transport in PbS quantum dot (QD) monolayers in a field effect transistor (FET). Using Kelvin probe force microscopy, we measured the temporal response of the QDs as the channel material in a FET following step function changes of gate bias. The measurements reveal an exponential decay of mobile carrier density with time constants of 3-5 s for holes and ∼10 s for electrons. An Ohmic behavior, with uniform carrier density, was observed along the channel during the injection and transport processes. These slow, uniform carrier trapping processes are reversible, with time constants that depend critically on the gas environment. We propose that the underlying mechanism is some reversible electrochemical process involving dissociation and diffusion of water and/or oxygen related species. These trapping processes are dynamically activated by the injected charges, in contrast with static electronic traps whose presence is independent of the charge state. Understanding and controlling these processes is important for improving the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, and memory devices based on disordered semiconductors.

  5. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by Dc=C vB2/(2 π T ), where vB is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  6. Charge expulsion and Spin Meissner effect in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2010-03-01

    I argue that the Meissner effect (expulsion of magnetic field from the interior of a metal going into the superconducting state) cannot be explained by the conventional BCS-London theory, hence that BCS-London theory is incorrect[1]. The theory of hole superconductivity explains the Meissner effect as arising from the expulsion of negative charge from the interior of the superconductor towards the surface, resulting in a non-homogeneous charge distribution, a macroscopic electric field in the interior, and a spin current near the surface (Spin Meissner effect). Electrodynamic equations describing this scenario will be discussed[2]. In the charge sector, these equations are related to electrodynamic equations originally proposed by the London brothers[3] but shortly thereafter discarded by them[4]. [1] J.E. Hirsch, Physica Scripta 80, 035702 (2009). [2] J.E. Hirsch, Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 17, 380 (2008). [3] F. London and H. London, Proc. R. Soc. London A149, 71 (1935). [4] H. London, Proc. R. Soc. London A155, 102 (1936).

  7. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  8. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  9. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  10. Charge Transport in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Oana

    Hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskite (HTP) materials exhibit a strong optical absorption, tunable band gap, long carrier lifetimes and fast charge carrier transport. These remarkable properties, coupled with their reduced complexity processing, make the HTPs promising contenders for large scale, low-cost thin film optoelectronic applications. But in spite of the remarkable demonstrations of high performance solar cells, light-emitting diodes and field-effect transistor devices, all of which took place in a very short time period, numerous questions related to the nature and dynamics of the charge carriers and their relation to device performance, stability and reliability still remain. This presentation describes the electrical properties of HTPs evaluated from field-effect transistor measurements. The electrostatic gating of provides an unique platform for the study of intrinsic charge transport in these materials, and, at the same time, expand the use of HTPs towards switching electronic devices, which have not been explored previously. We fabricated FETs on SiO2 and polymer dielectrics from spin coating, thermal evaporation and spray deposition and compare their properties. CH3NH3PbI3-xClx can reach balanced electron and hole mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs upon tuning the thin-film microstructure, injection and the defect density at the semiconductor/dielectric interface. The work was performed in collaboration with Yaochuan Mei (Wake Forest University), Chuang Zhang, and Z. Valy Vardeny (University of Utah). The work is supported by ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2943.

  11. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ˜10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  12. Effect of Size Polydispersity on Melting of Charged Colloidal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong

    2003-09-01

    We introduce simple prescriptions of the Yukawa potential to describe the effect of size polydispersity and macroion shielding effect in charged colloidal systems. The solid-liquid phase boundaries were presented with the Lindemann criterion based on molecular dynamics simulations. Compared with the Robbins-Kremer-Grest simulation results, a deviation of melting line is observed at small lambda, which means large macroion screening length. This deviation of phase boundary is qualitatively consistent with the simulation result of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation with full many-body interactions. It is found that this deviation of the solid-liquid phase behaviour is sensitive to the screening parameter.

  13. Effect of sample preparation on charged impurities in graphene substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burson, K. M.; Dean, C. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Hone, J.; Kim, P.; Cullen, W. G.; Fuhrer, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    The mobility of graphene as fabricated on SiO2 has been found to vary widely depending on sample preparation conditions. Additionally, graphene mobility on SiO2 appears to be limited to ~20,000 cm2/Vs, likely due to charged impurities in the substrate. Here we present a study of the effect of fabrication procedures on substrate charged impurity density (nimp) utilizing ultrahigh-vacuum Kelvin probe force microscopy. We conclude that even minimal SEM exposure, as from e-beam lithography, induces an increased impurity density, while heating reduces the number of charges for sample substrates which already exhibit a higher impurity density. We measure both SiO2 and h-BN and find that all nimp values observed for SiO2 are higher than those observed for h-BN; this is consistent with the observed improvement in mobility for graphene devices fabricated on h-BN over those fabricated on SiO2 substrates. This work was supported by the US ONR MURI program, and the University of Maryland NSF-MRSEC under Grant No. DMR 05-20471.

  14. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    DOE PAGES

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; ...

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeemanmore » energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.« less

  15. Effect of pulsed current charging on the performance of nickel-cadium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, A. A.; Cheh, H. Y.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of pulsed current charging on the charge acceptance of NiCd cells in terms of mass transfer, kinetic, and structural considerations was investigated. A systemic investigation on the performance of Ni-Cd cells by pulsed current charging was conducted under a variety of well-defined charge-discharge conditions. Experiments were carried out with half cells and film electrodes. The system behavior was studied by charge acceptance, mechanistic, and structural measurements.

  16. Absence of the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect due to Induced Charges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2015-09-22

    This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scalar potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge.

  17. Absence of the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect due to Induced Charges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scalar potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge. PMID:26392302

  18. Space charge effects for multipactor in coaxial lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sorolla, E.

    2015-03-15

    Multipactor is a hazardous vacuum discharge produced by secondary electron emission within microwave devices of particle accelerators and telecommunication satellites. This work analyzes the dynamics of the multipactor discharge within a coaxial line for the mono-energetic electron emission model taking into account the space charge effects. The steady-state is predicted by the proposed model and an analytical expression for the maximum number of electrons released by the discharge presented. This could help to link simulations to experiments and define a multipactor onset criterion.

  19. Charging of heated colloidal particles using the electrolyte Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Majee, Arghya; Würger, Alois

    2012-03-16

    We propose a novel actuation mechanism for colloids, which is based on the Seebeck effect of the electrolyte solution: Laser heating of a nonionic particle accumulates in its vicinity a net charge Q, which is proportional to the excess temperature at the particle surface. The corresponding long-range thermoelectric field E is proportional to 1/r(2) provides a tool for controlled interactions with nearby beads or with additional molecular solutes. An external field E(ext) drags the thermocharged particle at a velocity that depends on its size and absorption properties; the latter point could be particularly relevant for separating carbon nanotubes according to their electronic band structure.

  20. Re+e- and an effective QCD charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, J. D.; Natale, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the electron-positron annihilation process into hadrons Re+e- up to O (αs3), and we adopt the smearing method suggest by Poggio, Quinn, and Weinberg to confront the experimental data with theory. As a theoretical model, we use a QCD coupling constant frozen in the low-energy regime, where this coupling can be parametrized in terms of an effective dynamical gluon mass (mg) which is determined through Schwinger-Dyson equations. In order to find the best fit between experimental data and theory, we perform a χ2 study, that, within the uncertainties of the approach, has a minimum value when mg/ΛQCD is in the range 1.2-1.4. These values are in agreement with other phenomenological determinations of this ratio and lead to an infrared effective charge αs(0 )≈0.7 . We comment how this effective charge may affect the global duality mass scale that indicates the frontier between perturbative and nonperturbative physics.

  1. Effects of polarization-charge shielding in microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M. S.; Lin, S. M.; Chiang, W. Y.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2015-08-15

    Heating of dielectric objects by radio frequency (RF) and microwaves has long been a method widely employed in scientific research and industrial applications. However, RF and microwave heating are often susceptible to an excessive temperature spread due to uneven energy deposition. The current study elucidates an important physical reason for this difficulty and proposes an effective remedy. Non-spherical samples are placed in an anechoic chamber, where it is irradiated by a traveling microwave wave with 99% intensity uniformity. Polarization charges induced on the samples tend to partially cancel the incident electric field and hence reduce the heating rate. The polarization-charge shielded heating rate is shown to be highly dependent on the sample's shape and its orientation relative to the wave electric field. For samples with a relatively high permittivity, the resultant uneven heating can become a major cause for the excessive temperature spread. It is also demonstrated that a circularly polarized wave, with its rapidly rotating electric field, can effectively even out the heating rate and hence the temperature spread.

  2. [Galactic heavy charged particles damaging effect on biological structures].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Krasavin, E A; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2013-03-01

    A concept of the radiation risk of the manned interplanetary flights is proposed and substantiated. Heavy charged particles that are a component of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have a high damaging effect on the biological structures as great amount of energy is deposited in heavy particle tracks. The high biological effectiveness of heavy ions is observed in their action on cell genetic structures and the whole organism, including the brain structures. The hippocampus is the part of the central nervous system that is the most sensitive to radiation--first of all, to heavy charged particles. Irradiation of animals with accelerated iron ions at doses corresponding to the real fluxes of GCR heavy nuclei, to which Mars mission crews can be exposed, leads to marked behavioral function disorders in the post-irradiation period. To evaluate the radiation risk for the interplanetary flight crews, the concept of successful mission accomplishment is introduced. In these conditions, the central nervous system structures can be the critical target of GCR heavy nuclei. Their damage can modify the higher integrative functions of the brain and cause disorders in the crew members' operator performances.

  3. Particle Emission and Charging Effects Induced by Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    recombination with mobile charge carriers). These processes are initiated by bond breaking resulting in the creation of localized departures from...subsequendy decay to yield after-emission. Thermally stimulated relaxation involving mobile charge carriers releasing energy at appropriate recombination...region of contact. This flow of charge is slow because of the poor charge mobility in the rubber. In addition, any oxide layer on the metal also

  4. Spacecraft Charging Effects on Satellites Following STARFISH Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-17

    Spacecraft Charging by Magnetospheric Plasmas , ed. Alan Rosen, Vol. 47, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, AIDA, New York (1975). 5. D... Magnetospheric Plasmas , Vol. 47, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, AIAA, New York (1975). 7. R. R. Lovell et al., " Spacecraft Charging Investigation: A...Joint Research and Technology Program," Spacecraft Charging 1y Magnetospheric Plasmas , Vol. 47,

  5. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force actingmore » on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.« less

  6. Electrolyte distribution around two like-charged rods: their effective attractive interaction and angular dependent charge reversal.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Angeles, Felipe; Odriozola, Gerardo; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo

    2006-04-07

    A simple model for two like-charged parallel rods immersed in an electrolyte solution is considered. We derived the three point extension (TPE) of the hypernetted chain/mean spherical approximation (TPE-HNC/MSA) and Poisson-Boltzmann (TPE-PB) integral equations. We numerically solve these equations and compare them to our results of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The effective interaction force, F(T), the charge distribution profiles, rho(el)(x,y), and the angular dependent integrated charge function, P(theta), are calculated for this system. The analysis of F(T) is carried out in terms of the electrostatic and entropic (depletion) contributions, F(E) and F(C). We studied several cases of monovalent and divalent electrolytes, for which the ionic size and concentration are varied. We find good qualitative agreement between TPE-HNC/MSA and MC in all the cases studied. The rod-rod force is found to be attractive when immersed in large size, monovalent or divalent electrolytes. In general, the TPE-PB has poor agreement with the MC. For large monovalent and divalent electrolytes, we find angular dependent charge reversal charge inversion and polarizability. We discuss the intimate relationship between this angular dependent charge reversal and rod-rod attraction.

  7. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-04-19

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.

  8. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point at x ∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear below TCG ∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps, Δx ∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state. PMID:27044081

  9. Influence of the shell thickness and charge distribution on the effective interaction between two like-charged hollow spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, Daniel G.; Caragheorgheopol, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The mean-force and the potential of the mean force between two like-charged spherical shells were investigated in the salt-free limit using the primitive model and Monte Carlo simulations. Apart from an angular homogeneous distribution, a discrete charge distribution where point charges localized on the shell outer surface followed an icosahedral arrangement was considered. The electrostatic coupling of the model system was altered by the presence of mono-, trivalent counterions or small dendrimers, each one bearing a net charge of 9 e. We analyzed in detail how the shell thickness and the radial and angular distribution of the shell charges influenced the effective interaction between the shells. We found a sequence of the potential of the mean force similar to the like-charged filled spheres, ranging from long-range purely repulsive to short-range purely attractive as the electrostatic coupling increased. Both types of potentials were attenuated and an attractive-to-repulsive transition occurred in the presence of trivalent counterions as a result of (i) thinning the shell or (ii) shifting the shell charge from the outer towards the inner surface. The potential of the mean force became more attractive with the icosahedrally symmetric charge model, and additionally, at least one shell tended to line up with 5-fold symmetry axis along the longest axis of the simulation box at the maximum attraction. The results provided a basic framework of understanding the non-specific electrostatic origin of the agglomeration and long-range assembly of the viral nanoparticles.

  10. Simulation of impulse effects from explosive charges containing metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, K.; Nance, D. V.; Menon, S.

    2010-06-01

    The propagation of an explosive blast wave containing inert metal particles is investigated numerically using a robust two-phase methodology with appropriate models to account for real gas behavior, inter-phase interactions, and inter-particle collisions to study the problem of interest. A new two-phase Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation is proposed that can handle the dense nature of the flow-field. The velocity and momentum profiles of the gas and particle phases are analyzed and used to elucidate the inter-phase momentum transfer, and its effect on the impulsive aspects of heterogeneous explosive charges. The particles are found to pick up significant amounts of momentum and kinetic energy from the gas, and by virtue of their inertia, are observed to sustain it for a longer time. The impulse characteristics of heterogeneous explosives are compared with a homogeneous explosive containing the same amount of high explosive, and it is observed that the addition of solid particles augments the impulsive loading significantly in the near-field, and to a smaller extent in the far-field. The total impulsive loading is found to be insensitive to the particle size added to the explosive charge above a certain cut-off radius, but the individual impulse components are found to be sensitive, and particles smaller than this cut-off size deliver about 8% higher total impulse than the larger ones. Overall, this study provides crucial insights to understand the impulsive loading characteristics of heterogeneous explosives.

  11. Proximity effects in cold gases of multiply charged atoms (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.

    2016-07-01

    Possible proximity effects in gases of cold, multiply charged atoms are discussed. Here we deal with rarefied gases with densities nd of multiply charged (Z ≫ 1) atoms at low temperatures in the well-known Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation, which can be used to evaluate the statistical properties of single atoms. In order to retain the advantages of the TF formalism, which is successful for symmetric problems, the external boundary conditions accounting for the finiteness of the density of atoms (donors), nd ≠ 0, are also symmetrized (using a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell) and formulated in a standard way that conserves the total charge within the cell. The model shows that at zero temperature in a rarefied gas of multiply charged atoms there is an effective long-range interaction Eproxi(nd), the sign of which depends on the properties of the outer shells of individual atoms. The long-range character of the interaction Eproxi is evaluated by comparing it with the properties of the well-known London dispersive attraction ELond(nd) < 0, which is regarded as a long-range interaction in gases. For the noble gases argon, krypton, and xenon Eproxi>0 and for the alkali and alkaline-earth elements Eproxi < 0. At finite temperatures, TF statistics manifests a new, anomalously large proximity effect, which reflects the tendency of electrons localized at Coulomb centers to escape into the continuum spectrum. The properties of thermal decay are interesting in themselves as they determine the important phenomenon of dissociation of neutral complexes into charged fragments. This phenomenon appears consistently in the TF theory through the temperature dependence of the different versions of Eproxi. The anomaly in the thermal proximity effect shows up in the following way: for T ≠ 0 there is no equilibrium solution of TS statistics for single multiply charged atoms in a vacuum when the effect is present. Instability is suppressed in a Wigner-Seitz model under the assumption that

  12. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-12-21

    the band bending at the interface, gives rise to a steady-state flow of hot holes to the surface. This leads to a decrease in turnover on the surface, an effect which is enhanced when a reverse bias is applied to the diode. Similar experiments were carried out for CO oxidation. On Pt/Si diodes, the reaction rate was found to increase when a forward bias was applied. When the diode was exposed to visible light and a reverse bias was applied, the rate was instead decreased. This implies that a flow of negative charges to the surface increases turnover, while positive charges decrease it. Charge flow in an oxide supported metal catalyst can be modified even without designing the catalyst as a solid state electronic device. This was done by doping stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiO2 films with F, and using the resulting oxides as supports for Pt films. In the case of stoichiometric TiO2, F was found to act as an n-type dopant, creating a population of filled electronic states just below the conduction band, and dramatically increasing the conductivity of the oxide film. The electrons in those states can transfer to surface O, activating it for reaction with CO, and leading to increased turnover for CO oxidation. This reinforces the hypothesis that CO oxidation is activated by a flow of negative charges to the surface. The same set of catalysts was used for methanol oxidation. The electronic properties of the TiO2 films again correlated with the turnover rates, but also with selectivity. With stoichiometric TiO2 as the support, F-doping caused an increase in selectivity toward the formation of partial oxidation products, formaldehyde and methyl formate, versus the total oxidation product, CO2. With non-stoichiometric TiO2, F-doping had the reverse effect. Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to investigate this F-doping effect in reaction conditions. In O2 alone, and in

  13. A Two-Dimensional One Component Plasma and a Test Charge: Polarization Effects and Effective Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    We study the effective interactions between a test charge Q and a one-component plasma, i.e. a complex made up of mobile point particles with charge q, and a uniform oppositely charged background. The background has the form of a flat disk, in which the mobile charges can move. The test particle is approached perpendicularly to the disk, along its axis of symmetry. All particles interact by a logarithmic potential. The long and short distance features of the effective potential—the free energy of the system for a given distance between Q and the disk—are worked out analytically in detail. They crucially depend on the sign of Q/q, and on the global charge borne by the discotic complex, that can vanish. While most results are obtained at the intermediate coupling Γ≡βq 2=2 (β being the inverse temperature), we have also investigated situations with stronger couplings: Γ=4 and 6. We have found that at large distances, the sign of the effective force reflects subtle details of the charge distribution on the disk, whereas at short distances, polarization effects invariably lead to effective attractions.

  14. Effect of antenna structures on charging damage in PIII

    SciTech Connect

    En, W.G.; Cheung, N.W.

    1996-12-31

    Antenna structures are shown to enhance charging damage in MOSFET devices during Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII). The antenna structure increases the total charge per pulse induced on the floating gate oxide, enhancing the charge by up to several orders of magnitude. Using a coupled analytical model of the plasma, device structure and substrate bias, the dependence of the antenna structure on the induced charge per pulse is found. From the simulation, the phase space of antenna ratio and charge per pulse is mapped into three regions: no charging damage, device degradation, and oxide failure. Experimental results using three different antenna ratios (5k:1, 11k:1, 44k:1) correlate well with simulation results.

  15. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew; Steinberg, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  16. Surface charge effects in protein adsorption on nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Aramesh, M; Shimoni, O; Ostrikov, K; Prawer, S; Cervenka, J

    2015-03-19

    Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) of different properties (charge, molecular weight and rigidity), the main driving mechanism responsible for the protein binding to the charged nanoparticles was identified. Electrostatic interactions were found to dominate the protein adsorption dynamics, attachment and conformation. We developed a simple electrostatic model that can qualitatively explain the observed adsorption behaviour based on charge-induced pH modifications near the charged nanoparticle surfaces. Under neutral conditions, the local pH around the positively and negatively charged nanodiamonds becomes very high (11-12) and low (1-3) respectively, which has a profound impact on the protein charge, hydration and affinity to the nanodiamonds. Small proteins (lysozyme) were found to form multilayers with significant conformational changes to screen the surface charge, while larger proteins (albumin) formed monolayers with minor conformational changes. The findings of this study provide a step forward toward understanding and eventually predicting nanoparticle interactions with biofluids.

  17. Parton Charge Symmetry Violation: Electromagnetic Effects and W Production Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Londergan; D.P. Murdock; A.W. Thomas

    2006-04-14

    Recent phenomenological work has examined two different ways of including charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. First, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the magnitude of parton charge symmetry breaking. In a second approach, two groups have included the coupling of partons to photons in the QCD evolution equations. One possible experiment that could search for isospin violation in parton distributions is a measurement of the asymmetry in W production at a collider. In this work we include both of the postulated sources of parton charge symmetry violation. We show that, given charge symmetry violation of a magnitude consistent with existing high energy data, the expected W production asymmetries would be quite small, generally less than one percent.

  18. The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng Shui

    The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a commercial 18650 Li-ion cell was studied using three methods: (1) constant current (CC) charging, (2) constant power (CP) charging, and (3) multistage constant current (MCC) charging. The MCC-charging consists of two CC steps, which starts with a low current to charge the initial 10% capacity followed by a high current charging until the cell voltage reaches 4.2 V. Using these methods, respectively, the cell was charged to 4.2 V followed by a constant voltage (CV) charging until the current declined to 0.05 C. Results showed that the cycle life of the cell strongly depended on the charging protocol even if the same charging rate was used. Among these three methods, the CC-method was found to be more suitable for slow charging (0.5 C) while the CP-method was better for fast charging (1 C). Impedance analyses indicated that the capacity loss during cycling was mainly attributed to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as a result of the progressive growth of surface layers on the surface of two electrodes. Fast charging resulted in an accelerated capacity fading due to the loss of Li + ions and the related growth of a surface layer, which was associated with metallic lithium plating onto the anode and a high polarization at the electrolyte-electrode interface. Analyses of the cell electrochemistry showed that use of a reduced current to charge the initial 10% capacity and near the end of charge, respectively, was favorable for long cycle life.

  19. Screening effects on structure and diffusion in confined charged colloids.

    PubMed

    Kittner, Madeleine; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2007-04-21

    Using molecular dynamics computer simulations we investigate structural and dynamic (diffusion) properties of charged colloidal suspension confined to narrow slit pores with structureless, uncharged walls. The system is modeled on an effective level involving only the macroions, which interact via a combination of a soft-sphere and a screened Coulomb potential. The aim of our study is to identify the role of the range of the macroion-macroion interaction controlled by the inverse Debye screening length, kappa. We also compare to bulk properties at the same chemical potential as determined in parallel grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Our results reveal a significant influence of the interaction range which competes, however, with the influence of density. At liquidlike densities a decrease of range yields a decreasing mobility (and a corresponding enhancement of local structure) in the bulk system, whereas the reverse effect occurs in narrow slits with thickness of a few particle diameter. These differences can be traced back to the confinement-induced, and kappa-dependent, reduction of overall density compared to the bulk reservoir. We also show that an increase of kappa softens the oscillations in the normal pressure as function of the wall separation, which is consistent with experimental observations concerning the influence of addition of salt.

  20. Systematics of Effective Charge, Electric and Spin Vibrations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Syed Afsar

    A "multipole condition" is defined to determine the strength parameter in delta interaction. This then is used to study the isoscalar effective charge and various electric multipole resonances in TDA and RPA models. Various forms of the Skyrme interaction are used to study the various multipole modes. The lowest isoscalar Octopole mode appears collapsed for various N=Z nuclei in our "shell-model" RPA calculations. A fully self consistent RPA calculation leads to the conclusion that in general there is no collapse of the lowest 3('-) T=O state in nuclei. It is however found not to vary smoothly with mass number A. Recently a great deal of attention is being paid to "spin" vibrations in nuclei. We make a detailed study of magnetic dipole resonance in various N=Z nuclei. A spin dependent delta interaction is used to evaluate M1 energy weighted sum rule taking into account the ground state correlations. Tensor interaction is also used to evaluate the required sum rule. It is found that there is significant M1 strength at high energies. The effect of core polarization in nuclei can be considered within the context of a full Hartree-Fock calculation on these nuclei. So far Hartree-Fock calculations have been mostly done on even-even nuclei. We generalize this formalism to odd-even nuclei like ('17)O, ('41)Ca. Our calculations here show a close correspondence with the RPA results.

  1. Surface charge effects in protein adsorption on nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) of different properties (charge, molecular weight and rigidity), the main driving mechanism responsible for the protein binding to the charged nanoparticles was identified. Electrostatic interactions were found to dominate the protein adsorption dynamics, attachment and conformation. We developed a simple electrostatic model that can qualitatively explain the observed adsorption behaviour based on charge-induced pH modifications near the charged nanoparticle surfaces. Under neutral conditions, the local pH around the positively and negatively charged nanodiamonds becomes very high (11-12) and low (1-3) respectively, which has a profound impact on the protein charge, hydration and affinity to the nanodiamonds. Small proteins (lysozyme) were found to form multilayers with significant conformational changes to screen the surface charge, while larger proteins (albumin) formed monolayers with minor conformational changes. The findings of this study provide a step forward toward understanding and eventually predicting nanoparticle interactions with biofluids.Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins

  2. The effect of space charges on conduction current in polymer by modified PEA method

    SciTech Connect

    Hwangbo, S.; Yun, D.H.; Yi, D.Y.; Han, M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Direct measurement of space charge and conduction current was carried out on low-density polyethylene degraded by ultra-violet using a pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. Dominant hetero-charges were formed near both electrodes by high voltage application and was found to be deeply trapped. In this paper, the effect of temperature and electric field reversal on the detrapping and trapping of space charges was investigated and the role of space charge in electrical conduction was discussed quantitatively. The main mechanism for detrapping and trapping of space charges was Poole-Frenkel model.

  3. Mechano-chemical effects in weakly charged porous media.

    PubMed

    Zholkovskij, Emiliy K; Yaroshchuk, Andriy E; Koval'chuk, Volodymyr I; Bondarenko, Mykola P

    2015-08-01

    The paper is concerned with mechano-chemical effects, namely, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions that can be observed when a charged porous medium is placed between two electrolyte solutions. The study is focused on porous systems with low equilibrium interfacial potentials (about 30 mV or lower). At such low potentials, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions noticeably manifest themselves provided that the ions in the electrolyte solutions have different diffusion coefficients. The analysis is conducted by combining the irreversible thermodynamic approach and the linearized (in terms of the normalized equilibrium interfacial potential) version of the Standard Electrokinetic Model. Osmosis and the pressure-driven separation of ions are considered for an arbitrary mixed electrolyte solution and various porous space geometries. It is shown that the effects under consideration are proportional to a geometrical factor which, for all the considered geometries of porous space, can be expressed as a function of porosity and the Λ- parameter of porous medium normalized by the Debye length. For all the studied geometries, this function turns out to be weakly dependent on both the porosity and the geometry type. The latter allows for a rough evaluation of the geometrical factor from experimental data on electric conductivity and hydraulic permeability without previous knowledge of the porous space geometry. The obtained results are used to illustrate how the composition of electrolyte solution affects the mechano-chemical effects. For various examples of electrolyte solution compositions, the obtained results are capable of describing positive, negative and anomalous osmosis, positive and negative rejection of binary electrolytes, and pressure-driven separation of binary electrolyte mixtures.

  4. Hall effect in charged conducting ferroelectric domain walls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M P; McConville, J P V; McQuaid, R G P; Prabhakaran, D; Kumar, A; Gregg, J M

    2016-12-12

    Enhanced conductivity at specific domain walls in ferroelectrics is now an established phenomenon. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of conduction. Carrier types, densities and mobilities have not been determined and transport mechanisms are still a matter of guesswork. Here we demonstrate that intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect the Hall effect in conducting domain walls. Studying YbMnO3 single crystals, we have confirmed that p-type conduction occurs in tail-to-tail charged domain walls. By calibration of the AFM signal, an upper estimate of ∼1 × 10(16) cm(-3) is calculated for the mobile carrier density in the wall, around four orders of magnitude below that required for complete screening of the polar discontinuity. A carrier mobility of∼50 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) is calculated, about an order of magnitude below equivalent carrier mobilities in p-type silicon, but sufficiently high to preclude carrier-lattice coupling associated with small polarons.

  5. Double Photoionization of Helium Atom using effective Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Hari P.

    2012-06-01

    We will report the results of our investigation on double photoionization of helium atom using the recently extended MCHF method [1] for double photoionization of atoms. Calculation will be performed using wave functions for the initial and the final states with and without the electron correlation. The initial state wave function will be calculated using both the HF and MCHF methods The final state wave functions will be obtained using the asymptotic effective charge [2,3] to represent the electron correlation between the two final state continuum electrons. Using these wave functions, the triple differential cross sections will be calculated for 30 eV excess photon energy. The single and total integral cross sections will be obtained for photon energies from threshold to 300 eV. The results will be compared with the available experimental and the theoretical data. [4pt] [1] Hari P. Saha, J.Phys. B (submitted) [0pt] [2] M.R.H. Rudge, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 564 (1968) [0pt] [3] C.Pan and A.F Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 185 (1991); Phys. Rev. A45, 4588 (1992)

  6. Hall effect in charged conducting ferroelectric domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. P.; McConville, J.P.V.; McQuaid, R.G.P.; Prabhakaran, D.; Kumar, A.; Gregg, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced conductivity at specific domain walls in ferroelectrics is now an established phenomenon. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of conduction. Carrier types, densities and mobilities have not been determined and transport mechanisms are still a matter of guesswork. Here we demonstrate that intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect the Hall effect in conducting domain walls. Studying YbMnO3 single crystals, we have confirmed that p-type conduction occurs in tail-to-tail charged domain walls. By calibration of the AFM signal, an upper estimate of ∼1 × 1016 cm−3 is calculated for the mobile carrier density in the wall, around four orders of magnitude below that required for complete screening of the polar discontinuity. A carrier mobility of∼50 cm2V−1s−1 is calculated, about an order of magnitude below equivalent carrier mobilities in p-type silicon, but sufficiently high to preclude carrier-lattice coupling associated with small polarons. PMID:27941794

  7. Effect of surface topography and morphology on space charge packets in polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanxiang, Zhou; Yunshan, Wang; Ninghua, Wang; Qinghua, Sun

    2009-08-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is a major kind of internal insulating material. With great progresses of space charge measurement technologies in the last three decades, lots of researches are focused on space charge in PE. The heat pressing and annealing condition of polyethylene affect its morphology obviously. During the heat pressing, the surface of PE forms different surface topographies because of different substrate materials. Surface topography has great relation to the epitaxial crystallization layer and influences the space charge characteristic of PE dramatically. This paper studied the formation process of different surface topographies and their micrographic characters in low density polyethylene (LDPE). pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to measure the space charge distribution of samples with different surface topographies and morphologies in LDPE. The effect of surface topography and morphology to space charge packet were studied. The surface topography has great influence on space charge packet polarity and morphology has influence on both movement speed rate and polarity of space charge packet.

  8. Effect of positive pulse charge waveforms on the energy efficiency of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of four different charge methods on the energy conversion efficiency of 300 ampere hour lead acid traction cells were investigated. Three of the methods were positive pulse charge waveforms; the fourth, a constant current method, was used as a baseline of comparison. The positive pulse charge waveforms were: 120 Hz full wave rectified sinusoidal; 120 Hz silicon controlled rectified; and 1 kHz square wave. The constant current charger was set at the time average pulse current of each pulse waveform, which was 150 amps. The energy efficiency does not include charger losses. The lead acid traction cells were charged to 70 percent of rated ampere hour capacity in each case. The results of charging the cells using the three different pulse charge waveforms indicate there was no significant difference in energy conversion efficiency when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value.

  9. Effects of Tailed Pulse-Bias on Ion Energy Distributions and Charging Effects on Insulating Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zeng; Dai, Zhongling; He, Caiqiang; Wang, Younian

    2015-07-01

    A hybrid sheath model, including a fluid model and a Monte Carlo (MC) method, is proposed to study ion energy distributions (IEDs) driven by a radiofrequency (RF) with a tailed pulse-bias on an insulating substrate, where a charging effect is obviously caused by the ions accumulated. This surface charging effect will significantly affect the IEDs on the insulating substrate. In this paper, a voltage compensation method is employed to eliminate the charging effect by making the pulse-bias waveform have a certain gradient. Furthermore, we investigate the IEDs under the condition of different pulse-bias duty ratios, waveforms, amplitudes, and cycle proportions. It is found that the parameters of the pulsed source can effectively modulate the IEDs on the insulating substrate and the charging effect, and more desired IEDs are obtained by using the voltage compensation method with modulations of pulse parameters. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11375040) and the Important National Science & Technology Specific Project of China (No. 2011ZX02403-001)

  10. Effects of electrostatic charge on the pathogenicity of chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J M; Bolton, R E; Douglas, A N; Jones, A D; Smith, T

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of 48 rats of the AF/HAN strain were exposed for one year to respirable dust clouds of UICC chrysotile asbestos at a dose level of 10 mg/m3. One group was treated with dust carrying the normal electrostatic charge produced during dust generation, whereas the other was exposed to dust discharged by exposure to ionising radiation from a thallium-204 source. After dusting most animals were retained for their full life span. At the end of the dusting period those animals treated with normally charged dust had significantly more chrysotile retained in their lungs than animals exposed to discharged dust. Subsequently, animals treated with normally charged dust developed more pulmonary fibrosis and more pulmonary tumours. These findings suggest that the charge carried by airborne fibres should be taken into account when considering the health risks from exposure to chrysotile. Highly charged fibres are more likely to be deposited in lung tissue and thus constitute a greater hazard. Images PMID:2837270

  11. Effects of charge on antibody tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Boswell, C Andrew; Tesar, Devin B; Mukhyala, Kiran; Theil, Frank-Peter; Fielder, Paul J; Khawli, Leslie A

    2010-12-15

    Antibody pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are often governed by biological processes such as binding to antigens and other cognate receptors. Emphasis must also be placed, however, on fundamental physicochemical properties that define antibodies as complex macromolecules, including shape, size, hydrophobicity, and charge. Electrostatic interactions between anionic cell membranes and the predominantly positive surface charge of most antibodies can influence blood concentration and tissue disposition kinetics in a manner that is independent of antigen recognition. In this context, the deliberate modification of antibodies by chemical means has been exploited as a valuable preclinical research tool to investigate the relationship between net molecular charge and biological disposition. Findings from these exploratory investigations may be summarized as follows: (I) shifts in isoelectric point of approximately one pI unit or more can produce measurable changes in tissue distribution and kinetics, (II) increases in net positive charge generally result in increased tissue retention and increased blood clearance, and (III) decreases in net positive charge generally result in decreased tissue retention and increased whole body clearance. Understanding electrostatic interactions between antibodies and biological matrices holds relevance in biotechnology, especially with regard to the development of immunoconjugates. The guiding principles and knowledge gained from preclinical evaluation of chemically modified antibodies will be discussed and placed in the context of therapeutic antibodies that are currently marketed or under development, with a particular emphasis on pharmacokinetic and disposition properties.

  12. Colloidal Brazil-nut effect in sediments of binary charged suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esztermann, A.; Löwen, H.

    2004-10-01

    Equilibrium sedimentation density profiles of charged binary colloidal suspensions are calculated by computer simulations and density-functional theory. For deionized samples, we predict a colloidal "Brazil nut" effect: heavy colloidal particles sediment on top of the lighter ones provided that their mass per charge is smaller than that of the lighter ones. This effect is verifiable in settling experiments.

  13. Effects of mixed discrete surface charges on the electrical double layer.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ángeles, Felipe

    2012-08-01

    Adsorption of surface coions and charge reversal are induced at the electrical double layer of a wall charged with positive and negative surface sites next to an electrolyte solution. While for the considered surface charge density these effects are found over a wide range of conditions, they are not observed for the typically employed surface models in equivalent conditions. Important consequences in electrophoresis experiments for different colloids with equal effective surface charge density are foreseen. This study is carried out by means of molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Study on temperature distribution effect on internal charging by computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Internal charging (or deep dielectric charging) is a great threaten to spacecraft. Dielectric conductivity is an important parameter for internal charging and it is sensitive to temperature. Considering the exposed dielectric outside a spacecraft may experience a relatively large temperature range, temperature effect can't be ignored in internal charging assessment. We can see some reporters on techniques of computer simulation of internal charging, but the temperature effect has not been taken into accounts. In this paper, we realize the internal charging simulation with consideration of temperature distribution inside the dielectric. Geant4 is used for charge transportation, and a numerical method is proposed for solving the current reservation equation. The conductivity dependences on temperature, radiation dose rate and intense electric field are considered. Compared to the case of uniform temperature, the internal charging with temperature distribution is more complicated. Results show that temperature distribution can cause electric field distortion within the dielectric. This distortion refers to locally considerable enlargement of electric field. It usually corresponds to the peak electric field which is critical for dielectric breakdown judgment. The peak electric field can emerge inside the dielectric, or appear on the boundary. This improvement of internal charging simulation is beneficial for the assessment of internal charging under multiple factors.

  15. Solvation Effects on Structure and Charge Distribution in Anionic Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. Mathias

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of ions with solvent molecules modifies the properties of both solvent and solute. Solvation generally stabilizes compact charge distributions compared to more diffuse ones. In the most extreme cases, solvation will alter the very composition of the ion itself. We use infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions to probe how solvation affects the structures and charge distributions of metal-CO2 cluster anions. We gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation for funding through Grant CHE-0845618 (for graduate student support) and for instrumentation funding through Grant PHY-1125844.

  16. Effects of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Sanders, N. L.; Ellen, J. M., Jr.; Inouye, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the hazard associated with spacecraft charging and arcing on spacecraft systems is presented. A literature survey on arc discharge thresholds and characteristics was done and gaps in the data and requirements for additional experiments were identified. Calculations of coupling of arc discharges into typical spacecraft systems were made and the susceptibility of typical spacecraft to disruption by arc discharges was investigated. Design guidelines and recommended practices to reduce or eliminate the threat of malfunction and failures due to spacecraft charging/arcing were summarized.

  17. Effects of charging and electric field on graphene functionalized with titanium.

    PubMed

    Gürel, H Hakan; Ciraci, S

    2013-07-10

    Titanium atoms are adsorbed to graphene with a significant binding energy and render diverse functionalities to it. Carrying out first-principles calculations, we investigated the effects of charging and static electric field on the physical and chemical properties of graphene covered by Ti adatoms. When uniformly Ti covered graphene is charged positively, its antiferromagnetic ground state changes to ferromagnetic metal and attains a permanent magnetic moment. Static electric field applied perpendicularly causes charge transfer between Ti and graphene, and can induce metal-insulator transition. While each Ti adatom adsorbed to graphene atom can hold four hydrogen molecules with a weak binding, these molecules can be released by charging or applying electric field perpendicularly. Hence, it is demonstrated that charging and applied static electric field induce quasi-continuous and side specific modifications in the charge distribution and potential energy of adatoms absorbed to single-layer nanostructures, resulting in fundamentally crucial effects on their physical and chemical properties.

  18. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-01

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  19. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-23

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  20. Self-assembly of patterned nanoparticles on cellular membranes: effect of charge distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2013-06-06

    Nanoparticle-assisted drug delivery has been emerging as an active research area. Achieving high drug loading is only one facet of drug delivery issues; it is also important to investigate the effect of surface charge distribution on self-assembly of nanoparticles on cellular membranes. By considering the electrostatic distribution of patterned nanoparticles, we used dissipative particle dynamics simulations to investigate the self-assembly of pattern charged nanoparticles with five different surface charged patterns. It is found that both surface charged pattern and nanoparticle size significantly affect the self-assembly of nanoparticles on cellular membranes. Results indicate that 1/2 pattern charged small nanoparticles can self-assemble into dendritic structures, while those with a 1/4 pattern self-assemble into clusters. As the nanoparticle size increases, 1/2 pattern charged medium nanoparticles can self-assemble into linear structures, while those with a 1/4 pattern self-assemble into clusters. For very large nanoparticles, both 1/2 pattern and 1/4 pattern charged nanoparticles self-assemble into flaky structures with different connections. By considering the effects of surface charged pattern and nanoparticle size on self-assembly, we found that nanoparticle self-assembly requires a minimum effective charged area. When the local charged area of nanoparticles is less than the threshold, surface charge cannot induce nanoparticle self-assembly; that is, the surface charged pattern of a nanoparticle would determine effectively the self-assembly structure. It is expected that this work will provide guidance for nanoparticle-assisted drug delivery.

  1. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOEpatents

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  2. Effect of net surface charge on physical properties of the cellulose nanoparticles and their efficacy for oral protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongbo; Chen, Lingyun

    2015-05-05

    Both net positively and negatively charged cellulose-based nanoparticles were prepared from oppositely charged carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and quaternized cellulose (QC). Effect of surface charge on efficacy of cellulose nanoparticles for delivering both positively and negatively charged proteins was investigated. Lysozyme (LYS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), which possess positive and negative charge at physiological pH respectively, were used as models. The results revealed that high encapsulation efficiency (67.7% and 85.1%) could be achieved when negatively charged protein was encapsulated in positively charged nanoparticles, or positively charged protein was encapsulated in negatively charged nanoparticles. Proteins encapsulated in optimal cellulose nanoparticles could be sustainably released and no obvious protein denaturation was detected. Both net positively and negatively charged nanoparticles exhibited low cytotoxicity due to cellulose's good biocompatibility. Not only net positively charged nanoparticles demonstrated high cellular uptake efficiency, but also net negatively charged nanoparticles showed somewhat efficient cellular uptake.

  3. Effect of positively and negatively charged liposomes on skin permeation of drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, T; Yamaguchi, T; Iwaki, M; Tanino, T; Miyake, Y

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the effect of the surface charge of liposomes on percutaneous absorption, the permeation of liposomal drugs through rat skin was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Liposomes were prepared using egg yolk lecithin (EPC, phase transition temperature, -15 to -17 degrees C), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate (DP) or stearylamine (SA) (10:1:1, mol/mol). Also examined was the penetration behavior of positively and negatively charged liposomes, using a fluorescent probe (Nile Red). The in vitro penetration rate of melatonin (MT) entrapped in negatively charged liposomes was higher than that of positively charged ones (p<0.05). When the percutaneous absorption of ethosuximide (ES) encapsulated was estimated in vivo, the absorption of ES from negatively charged liposomes was slightly higher than that from positively charged liposomes. Additionally, the absorption of ES from both types of liposomes was superior to that from the lipid mixtures consisting of the same composition as the vesicles. The percutaneous absorption of betahistine (BH) from a gel formulation containing negatively charged liposomes of BH was much more than that from the formulation with positively charged ones, with 2-fold higher AUC (p<0.05). Histological studies revealed that the negatively charged liposomes diffused to the dermis and the lower portion of hair follicles through the stratum corneum and the follicles much faster than the positive vesicles at the initial time stage after application. Thus, the rapid penetration of negatively charged liposomes would contribute to the increased permeation of drugs through the skin.

  4. The effect of dc poling duration on space charge relaxation in virgin XLPE cable peelings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzimas, Antonios; Rowland, Simon M.; Dissado, Leonard A.; Fu, Mingli; Nilsson, Ulf H.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of dc poling time upon the time-dependent decay of space charge in insulation peelings of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable that had not previously experienced either electrical or thermal stressing is investigated. Two dc poling durations were used, 2 h and 26 h at an electric field of 50 kV mm-1 and at ambient temperature. Space charge was measured in the two samples investigated both during space charge accumulation and throughout its subsequent decay. The results show that the length of dc poling plays an important role in the subsequent decay. Despite the fact that both samples have had the same amount of space charge by the end of both short and long poling durations the time dependence of the space charge decay is different. Most of the charge stored in the sample that had experienced the short time poling decays rapidly after voltage removal. On the other hand, the charge that is stored in the sample with the long dc poling duration decays slowly and its decay occurs in two stages. The data, which are analysed by means of the de-trapping theory of space charge decay, imply that the charge stored in the material has occupied energy states with different trap depth ranges. The two poling durations lead to different relative amounts of charge in each of the two trap depth ranges. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  5. Particle and substrate charge effects on colloidal self-assembly in a sessile drop.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qingfeng; Gao, Li; Sharma, Vyom; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Wong, C C

    2008-10-21

    By direct video monitoring of dynamic colloidal self-assembly during solvent evaporation in a sessile drop, we investigated the effect of surface charge on the ordering of colloidal spheres. The in situ observations revealed that the interaction between charged colloidal spheres and substrates affects the mobility of colloidal spheres during convective self-assembly, playing an important role in the colloidal crystal growth process. Both ordered and disordered growth was observed depending on different chemical conditions mediated by surface charge and surfactant additions to the sessile drop system. These different self-assembly behaviors were explained by the Coulombic and hydrophobic interactions between surface-charged colloidal spheres and substrates.

  6. Charge stripper effects on beam dynamics in the 180-degree bending section of the RISP linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Song, Jeong Seog

    2016-09-01

    The RAON, a superconducting linear accelerator for RISP (Rare Isotope Science Project), will use a charge stripper in order to increase the charge states of the heavy ions for effective acceleration in the higher energy part of the linac. The charge stripper affects the beam distribution by scattering the heavy ions as they go through the charge stripper. Moreover we have to select and accelerate proper charge states between 77+ and 81+ for the case of a uranium beam in order to satisfy the beam-power requirement at an IF (inflight fragmentation) target. This work focuses on how the beam dynamics are affected by the charge stripper in the 180-dgree bending section.

  7. Effect of dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of displacement damage and dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy irradiated to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degree}C in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE).

  8. EFFECT OF LOADING DUST TYPE ON THE FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the effect of loading dust type on the filtration efficiency of electrostatically charged filters. Three types of filters were evaluated: a rigid-cell filter charged using an electrodynamic spinning process, a pleated-panel filter cha...

  9. Effect of volume and surface charges on discharge structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shao-Wei; He, Feng; Wang, Yu; Li, Lulu; Ouyang, Ji-Ting

    2013-08-01

    The effect of volume and surface charges on the structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated numerically by using two-dimensional (2D) fluid modeling. The local increase of volume or surface charges induces a kind of activation-inhibition effect, which enhances the local volume discharge and inhibits the discharge in neighborhoods, resulting in non-uniform discharge. The activation-inhibition effect due to the non-uniform volume and/or surface charges depends on the non-uniformity itself and the applied voltage. The activation-inhibition of non-uniform charges has different effects on the volume charges and the accumulated surface charges. The distribution of remaining free charges (seed electrons) in volume at the beginning of voltage pulse plays a key role for the glow DBD structure, resulting in a patterned DBD, when the seed electrons are non-uniform at higher frequency and moderate voltage or uniform DBD, when the seed electrons are uniform at lower frequency or high voltage. The distribution of surface charges is not the determining factor but a result of the formed DBD structure.

  10. Interfacial Charge Effects on Sticky Bubble Morphology in a Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Jonathan; Huang, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Many multiphase fluidic processes in small conduits, such as petroleum extraction and biochemical analysis, can encounter disastrous flow blockages due to the lodging of immiscible bubbles or droplets. The complete drainage of a thin-film lubrication layer surrounding an adhered bubble demands a significantly higher threshold pressure gradient in order to reinitiate bulk flows. In this work, we investigate bubble morphology due to the lubrication layer drainage process that results in bubble adhesion and study how an electrostatically charged bubble interface and charged channel wall may affect bubble morphology in preventing bubble adhesion. We report on our multiphysics computational analysis of an oversized gas bubble in a water-filled microchannel under the influence of surface tension and interfacial electrostatic forces. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research.

  11. Charge Control of Geosynchronous Spacecraft Using Field Effect Emitters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    conductivity of cold coverglasses are likely ingredients leading to ESD . However, the emitter maintains a normal gradient potential on the solar arrays, so the...potential of about +5 volts, leading to a " normal gradient " differential potential of about 40 volts. Because kilovolt potentials are required to cause...electrostatic discharges in the " normal gradient " configuration, the coverglass differential potential is not cause for concern. The shaded OSRs are charged

  12. Numerical study on the effect of charge separation at low cloud temperature and effective water content on thunderstorm electrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsenova, Boryana Dimitrova; Barakova, Denitsa; Mitzeva, Rumjana

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, a numerical model is used to evaluate the effects of low effective water content and low cloud temperature on graupel charging, charge structure and lightning activity in regions of thunderstorms. Two idealized cloud cases were simulated with MesoNH using different configurations of the main known parameterizations for noninductive charging involving ice crystal/graupel rebounding collisions. Simulations in regions with very low effective cloud water content were performed with the parameterization proposed in Mitzeva et al. (2006) based on the "Relative Growth Rate" hypothesis, while for simulations in regions with low cloud temperature, charge values from Avila et al. (2011) were used. Results showed that the inclusion of the charge separation at very low effective water content influences more the simulated cloud charge structure than does the inclusion of the charge separated at low temperatures. Also, the effect of the charge separated at very low effective water content is more significant when the original parameterization for non-inductive charging is based on the effective water content rather than on the rime accretion rate.

  13. Effective mass of a charged carrier in a nonpolar liquid: Snowball effect in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasiparticle can be introduced without Atkins’s idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called “snowball” model). Moreover, in addition to the generalization of Atkins’s model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal-fluid contribution divergency and the way of the corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  14. Effective mass of a charged carrier in a nonpolar liquid: Snowball effect in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Chikina, I.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasiparticle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He{sup 4} in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called ''snowball'' model). Moreover, in addition to the generalization of Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal-fluid contribution divergency and the way of the corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  15. Effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect in strongly correlated oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuegang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoshan; Hong, Xia

    We present a systematic study of the effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect modulation of various strongly correlated oxide materials. We have fabricated high quality epitaxial heterostructures composed of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate and a correlated oxide channel, including Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 (SNNO), La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), SNNO/LSMO bilayers, and NiCo2O4 (NCO). The Hall effect measurements reveal a carrier density of ~4 holes/u.c. (0.4 cm2V-1s-1) for SNNO to ~2 holes/u.c. (27 cm2V-1s-1) for NCO. We find the magnitude of the field effect is closely related to both the intrinsic carrier density and carrier mobility of the channel material. For devices employing the SNNO/LSMO bilayer channel, we believe the charge transfer between the two correlated oxides play an important role in the observed resistance modulation. The screening capacitor of the channel materials and the interfacial defect states also have significant impact on the retention characteristics of the field effect. Our study reveals the critical role of charge in determining the interfacial coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic oxides, and has important implications in developing ferroelectric-controlled Mott memory devices.

  16. High temperature thermocline TES - effect of system pre-charging on thermal stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavattoni, Simone A.; Barbato, Maurizio C.; Zanganeh, Giw; Pedretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate, by means of a computational fluid dynamics approach, the effect of performing an initial charging, or pre-charging, on thermal stratification of an industrial-scale thermocline TES unit, based on a packed bed of river pebbles. The 1 GWhth TES unit under investigation is exploited to fulfill the energy requirement of a reference 80 MWe concentrating solar power plant which uses air as heat transfer fluid. Three different scenarios, characterized by 4 h, 6 h and 8 h of pre-charging, were compared with the reference case of TES system operating without pre-charging. For each of these four scenarios, a total of 30 consecutive charge/discharge cycles, of 12 h each, were simulated and the effect of TES pre-charging on thermal stratification was qualitatively evaluated, by means of a stratification efficiency, based on the second-law of thermodynamics. On the basis of the simulations results obtained, the effect of pre-charging, more pronounced during the first cycles, is not only relevant in reducing the time required by the TES to achieve a stable thermal stratification into the packed bed but also to improve the performance at startup when the system is charged for the first time.

  17. Analysis of charge transfer effects in molecular complexes based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Bell, Alexis T.

    2008-05-14

    A new method based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) is proposed to measure the degree of intermolecular electron density delocalization (charge transfer) in molecular complexes. ALMO charge transfer analysis (CTA) enables separation of the forward and backward charge transfer components for each pair of molecules in the system. The key feature of ALMO CTA is that all charge transfer terms have corresponding well defined energetic effects that measure the contribution of the given term to the overall energetic stabilization of the system. To simplify analysis of charge transfer effects, the concept of chemically significant complementary occupied-virtual orbital pairs (COVPs) is introduced. COVPs provide a simple description of intermolecular electron transfer effects in terms of just a few localized orbitals. ALMO CTA is applied to understand fundamental aspects of donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts, synergic bonding in classical and nonclassical metal carbonyls, and multiple intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a complex of isocyanuric acid and melamine. These examples show that the ALMO CTA results are generally consistent with the existing conceptual description of intermolecular bonding. The results also show that charge transfer and the energy lowering due to charge transfer are not proportional to each other, and some interesting differences emerge which are discussed. Additionally, according to ALMO CTA, the amount of electron density transferred between molecules is significantly smaller than charge transfer estimated from various population analysis methods.

  18. Analysis of charge transfer effects in molecular complexes based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals.

    PubMed

    Khaliullin, Rustam Z; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2008-05-14

    A new method based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) is proposed to measure the degree of intermolecular electron density delocalization (charge transfer) in molecular complexes. ALMO charge transfer analysis (CTA) enables separation of the forward and backward charge transfer components for each pair of molecules in the system. The key feature of ALMO CTA is that all charge transfer terms have corresponding well defined energetic effects that measure the contribution of the given term to the overall energetic stabilization of the system. To simplify analysis of charge transfer effects, the concept of chemically significant complementary occupied-virtual orbital pairs (COVPs) is introduced. COVPs provide a simple description of intermolecular electron transfer effects in terms of just a few localized orbitals. ALMO CTA is applied to understand fundamental aspects of donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts, synergic bonding in classical and nonclassical metal carbonyls, and multiple intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a complex of isocyanuric acid and melamine. These examples show that the ALMO CTA results are generally consistent with the existing conceptual description of intermolecular bonding. The results also show that charge transfer and the energy lowering due to charge transfer are not proportional to each other, and some interesting differences emerge which are discussed. Additionally, according to ALMO CTA, the amount of electron density transferred between molecules is significantly smaller than charge transfer estimated from various population analysis methods.

  19. Analysis of charge transfer effects in molecular complexes based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Bell, Alexis T.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2008-05-01

    A new method based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) is proposed to measure the degree of intermolecular electron density delocalization (charge transfer) in molecular complexes. ALMO charge transfer analysis (CTA) enables separation of the forward and backward charge transfer components for each pair of molecules in the system. The key feature of ALMO CTA is that all charge transfer terms have corresponding well defined energetic effects that measure the contribution of the given term to the overall energetic stabilization of the system. To simplify analysis of charge transfer effects, the concept of chemically significant complementary occupied-virtual orbital pairs (COVPs) is introduced. COVPs provide a simple description of intermolecular electron transfer effects in terms of just a few localized orbitals. ALMO CTA is applied to understand fundamental aspects of donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts, synergic bonding in classical and nonclassical metal carbonyls, and multiple intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a complex of isocyanuric acid and melamine. These examples show that the ALMO CTA results are generally consistent with the existing conceptual description of intermolecular bonding. The results also show that charge transfer and the energy lowering due to charge transfer are not proportional to each other, and some interesting differences emerge which are discussed. Additionally, according to ALMO CTA, the amount of electron density transferred between molecules is significantly smaller than charge transfer estimated from various population analysis methods.

  20. Effects of hydration on steric and electric charge-induced interstitial volume exclusion--a model.

    PubMed

    Øien, Alf H; Justad, Sigrid R; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2013-09-03

    The presence of collagen and charged macromolecules like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the interstitial space limits the space available for plasma proteins and other macromolecules. This phenomenon, known as interstitial exclusion, is of importance for interstitial fluid volume regulation. Physical/mathematical models are presented for calculating the exclusion of electrically charged and neutral macromolecules that equilibrate in the interstitium under various degrees of hydration. Here, a central hypothesis is that the swelling of highly electrically charged GAGs with increased hydration shields parts of the neutral collagen of the interstitial matrix from interacting with electrically charged macromolecules, such that exclusion of charged macromolecules exhibits change due to steric and charge effects. GAGs are also thought to allow relatively small neutral, but also charged macromolecules neutralized by a very high ionic strength, diffuse into the interior of GAGs, whereas larger macromolecules may not. Thus, in the model, relatively small electrically charged macromolecules, such as human serum albumin, and larger neutral macromolecules such as IgG, will have quite similar total volume exclusion properties in the interstitium. Our results are in agreement with ex vivo and in vivo experiments, and suggest that the charge of GAGs or macromolecular drugs may be targeted to increase the tissue uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents.

  1. The effect of surface transport on water desalination by porous electrodes undergoing capacitive charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shocron, Amit N.; Suss, Matthew E.

    2017-03-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a technology in which water is desalinated by ion electrosorption into the electric double layers (EDLs) of charging porous electrodes. In recent years significant advances have been made in modeling the charge and salt dynamics in a CDI cell, but the possible effect of surface transport within diffuse EDLs on these dynamics has not been investigated. We here present theory which includes surface transport in describing the dynamics of a charging CDI cell. Through our numerical solution to the presented models, the possible effect of surface transport on the CDI process is elucidated. While at some model conditions surface transport enhances the rate of CDI cell charging, counter-intuitively this additional transport pathway is found to slow down cell charging at other model conditions.

  2. The effect of surface transport on water desalination by porous electrodes undergoing capacitive charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shocron, Amit N.; Suss, Matthew E.

    2016-07-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a technology in which water is desalinated by ion electrosorption into the electric double layers (EDLs) of charging porous electrodes. In recent years significant advances have been made in modeling the charge and salt dynamics in a CDI cell, but the possible effect of surface transport within diffuse EDLs on these dynamics has not been investigated. We here present theory which includes surface transport in describing the dynamics of a charging CDI cell. Through our numerical solution to the presented models, the possible effect of surface transport on the CDI process is elucidated. While at some model conditions surface transport enhances the rate of CDI cell charging, counter-intuitively this additional transport pathway is found to slow down cell charging at other model conditions.

  3. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  4. Large piezoelectric effects in charged, heterogeneous fluoropolymer electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugschwandtner, G. S.; Schwödiauer, R.; Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Bauer, S.

    Large piezoelectric d33 coefficients around 600 pC/N are found in corona-charged non-uniform electrets consisting of elastically ``soft'' (microporous polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE) and ``stiff'' (perfluorinated cyclobutene PFCB) polymer layers. The piezoelectric activity of the two-layer fluoropolymer stack exceeds the d33 coefficient of the ferroelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) by more than a factor of two and that of the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a factor of 20. Soft piezoelectric materials may become interesting for a large number of sensor and transducer applications, in areas such as security systems, medical diagnostics, and nondestructive testing.

  5. Sintering behaviour of feldspar and influence of electric charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallala, W.; Gaied, M. E.

    2011-04-01

    The characterization of feldspar for electric porcelain and the behaviour of these materials after heating at 1230°C were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the present phases and the densification level. Feldspar sand was treated by flotation. The floated feldspar is constituted by microcline, quartz, and minor amounts of albite. The microstructure of sintered feldspar at 1230°C is essentially vitreous with open microporosities. The dielectrical properties of composites were characterized by using the induced courant method (ICM), which indicates that the charge trapping capacity depends on the mineralogical and chemical composition of feldspar.

  6. The effects of charge transfer on the aqueous solvation of ions

    SciTech Connect

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.

    2012-07-28

    Ab initio-based charge partitioning of ionic systems results in ions with non-integer charges. This charge-transfer (CT) effect alters both short- and long-range interactions. Until recently, the effects of CT have been mostly neglected in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The method presented in this paper for including charge transfer between ions and water is consistent with ab initio charge partitioning and does not add significant time to the simulation. The ions of sodium, potassium, and chloride are parameterized to reproduce dimer properties and aqueous structures. The average charges of the ions from MD simulations (0.900, 0.919, and -0.775 for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup -}, respectively) are consistent with quantum calculations. The hydration free energies calculated for these ions are in agreement with experimental estimates, which shows that the interactions are described accurately. The ions also have diffusion constants in good agreement with experiment. Inclusion of CT results in interesting properties for the waters in the first solvation shell of the ions. For all ions studied, the first shell waters acquire a partial negative charge, due to the difference between water-water and water-ion charge-transfer amounts. CT also reduces asymmetry in the solvation shell of the chloride anion, which could have important consequences for the behavior of chloride near the air-water interface.

  7. Trajectory effects in multiply charged ion-surface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lebius, H.; Huang, W.; Schuch, R.

    1999-06-10

    Ar ions of 4.3 keV q{sub in} were scattered at large angles ({theta}=75 degree sign ) from a clean oriented surface. By selecting Ar projectiles having a large ionization potential and by using a large scattering angle only ions scattered at the first atomic layer of the surface were detected. Scattered ion energy spectra show peaks of single scattering and double scattering of the Ar projectile ions from one or two surface Au atoms, and the distribution attributed to double collisions splits into two peaks when the scattering plane coincides with a crystallographic plane. Simulations with a MARLOWE code allowed for interpretation of the structure in the double collision peak by in-plane and zig-zag double collisions. Differences in the relative peak heights between the experiment and a MARLOWE simulation were partly explained by different neutralization probabilities with varying trajectories. Yield changes with increasing charge states show interesting possibilities for future experiments with highly charged ions.

  8. Effect of electric charge on the adhesion of human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Lowkis, B; Szymonowicz, M

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research into the effect of the size and depth of the implanted electric charge on the adhesion of human blood platelets. The experiments were carried out on polyethylene terephthalate PET foil of 36 microns thickness. The electret formation process was carried out in an electron-beam device. The electrization conditions were such that electrets with the excess electric charge accumulated at various depths were obtained. The selection of conditions was verified by investigating the space charge distribution with the use of the virtual electrode method. The microscopic observation of non-electrified foils and electrets as well as the quantitative examination of the adhesion of human blood platelets has explicitly confirmed the positive influence of the electret effect on the thrombogenesis of PET foil. This made it possible to define the optimum electrization conditions. The research has additionally indicated that the relationship between the amount of adherent blood platelets and the size of the electric charge is not a simple relation of the kind: the larger negative charge, the more thrombogenic material. The decisive and positive effect of the space charge has been confirmed by analysing the effectiveness of the surface and space charge.

  9. Anomalous effect of trench-oxide depth on alpha-particle-induced charge collection

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.; Kim, N.M.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of trench-oxide depth on the alpha-particle-induced charge collection is analyzed for the first time. From the simulation results, it was found that the depth of trench oxide has a considerable influence on the amount of collected charge. The confining of generated charge by the trench oxide was identified as a cause of this anomalous effect. Therefore, the tradeoff between soft error rate and cell to cell isolation characteristics should be considered in optimizing the depth of trench oxide.

  10. The effect of switched array battery charge control on CRRES spacecraft: 3 + month data summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olbert, Phil

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph format: Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) orbit parameters; battery charge control; battery description; battery current and voltage output during one orbit; and battery reconditioning discharge profile.

  11. Topological Effects of Charge Transfer in Telomere G-Quadruplex Mechanism on Telomerase Activation and Inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-02-01

    We explore the charge transfer in the telomere G-Quadruplex (TG4) DNA theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and reveal the topological effect of the charge transport in TG4 DNA. The consecutive TG4 (CTG4) is semiconducting with 0.2 0.3 eV energy gap. Charges transfer favorably in the CTG4, but are trapped in the nonconsecutive TG4 (NCTG4). The global conductance is inversely proportional to the local conductance for NCTG4. The topological structure transition from NCTG4 to CTG4 induces abruptly 3nA charge current, which provide a microscopic clue to understand the telomerase activated or inhibited by TG4. Our findings reveal the fundamental property of charge transfer in TG4 and its relationship with the topological structure of TG4.

  12. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  13. Multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping for charge separation and mobility analysis in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Djara, V.; Cherkaoui, K.; Negara, M. A.; Hurley, P. K.

    2015-11-28

    An alternative multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping (MFICP) technique was developed to directly separate the inversion charge density (N{sub inv}) from the trapped charge density in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This approach relies on the fitting of the frequency response of border traps, obtained from inversion-charge pumping measurements performed over a wide range of frequencies at room temperature on a single MOSFET, using a modified charge trapping model. The obtained model yielded the capture time constant and density of border traps located at energy levels aligned with the InGaAs conduction band. Moreover, the combination of MFICP and pulsed I{sub d}-V{sub g} measurements enabled an accurate effective mobility vs N{sub inv} extraction and analysis. The data obtained using the MFICP approach are consistent with the most recent reports on high-k/InGaAs.

  14. Stochastic charging of dust grains in planetary rings: Diffusion rates and their effects on Lorentz resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.

  15. Spacecraft power system architecture to mitigate spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A power system architecture for a spacecraft and a method of a power supply for a spacecraft are presented which take advantage of the reduced plasma interaction associated with positive ground high voltage photovoltaic arrays and provide a negative ground power supply for electrical loads of the spacecraft. They efficiently convert and regulate power to the load bus and reduce power system mass and complexity. The system and method ground the positive terminal of the solar arrays to the spacecraft hull, and using a power converter to invert the electric sign, permit a negative ground for the electrical distribution bus and electrical components. A number of variations including a load management system and a battery management system having charging and recharging devices are presented.

  16. Effects of dielectric charging on the output voltage of a capacitive accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hao; Yu, Huijun; Zhou, Wu; Peng, Bei; Peng, Peng; He, Xiaoping

    2016-11-01

    Output voltage drifting observed in one typical capacitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer is discussed in this paper. Dielectric charging effect is located as one of the major determinants of this phenomenon through a combination of experimental and theoretical studies. A theoretical model for the electromechanical effects of the dielectric surface charges within the electrode gap is established to analyze the dielectric charge effect on the output voltage. Observations of output voltage drift against time are fitted to this model in order to estimate the possible dielectric layer thickness. Meanwhile, Auger electron spectroscopy is carried out to analyze the electrode surface material composition and confirms a mixture layer of dielectric SiO2 and Si with a thickness about 5 nm, which is very close to the model estimation. In addition, observation of time-varing output drift in the variable bias voltage experiment indicates the movement of dielectric charge can be controlled by the applied electric field.

  17. Synthesis and mannose receptor-mediated uptake of clustered glycomimetics by human dendritic cells: effect of charge.

    PubMed

    Angyalosi, Gerhild; Grandjean, Cyrille; Lamirand, Mélanie; Auriault, Claude; Gras-Masse, Hélène; Melnyk, Oleg

    2002-10-07

    Effect of charge and shape of multivalent lysine-based cluster glycomimetics on their mannose receptor-mediated uptake by human dendritic cells has been evaluated: The capture is strongly affected by the shape of the ligands. The effect of charge is less pronounced although positive charges on the ligands seem to favor non-specific endocytosis capture.

  18. Effects of Charge Build-up of Underlying Layer by High Aspect Ratio Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Kazumasa; Kiritani, Masahide; Sakamori, Shigenori; Yokoi, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Nobuo; Miyatake, Hiroshi

    1998-04-01

    The effects of the “electron shading” charge build-up at the bottom of holes are investigated using fluorocarbon gas plasma. The etch rates of the electrically conductive films such as phosphorus-doped polysilicon at the bottom of the holes change depending on whether the films are patterned or not. This is caused by the decrease of the low-energy ions which reach the bottom of the holes due to positive charging of the underlying layers. Furthermore, the potential at the bottom of the contact holes is investigated using metal-nitride-oxide-silicon (MNOS) capacitors. The positive charging due to the electron shading effect is measured. In order to reduce the electron shading charge build-up, the pulse-modulated plasma is investigated. The selectivity to the underlying layer increases upon using pulse-modulated plasma.

  19. Effect of the Surface Charge of Artificial Chaperones on the Refolding of Thermally Denatured Lysozymes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fan; Shen, Liangliang; Wang, Jianzu; Qu, Aoting; Yang, Huiru; Zhang, Zhenkun; An, Yingli; Shi, Linqi

    2016-02-17

    Artificial chaperones are of great interest in fighting protein misfolding and aggregation for the protection of protein bioactivity. A comprehensive understanding of the interaction between artificial chaperones and proteins is critical for the effective utilization of these materials in biomedicine. In this work, we fabricated three kinds of artificial chaperones with different surface charges based on mixed-shell polymeric micelles (MSPMs), and investigated their protective effect for lysozymes under thermal stress. It was found that MSPMs with different surface charges showed distinct chaperone-like behavior, and the neutral MSPM with PEG shell and PMEO2MA hydrophobic domain at high temperature is superior to the negatively and positively charged one, because of the excessive electrostatic interactions between the protein and charged MSPMs. The results may benefit to optimize this kind of artificial chaperone with enhanced properties and expand their application in the future.

  20. Effective electrostatic interactions among charged thermo-responsive microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    González-Mozuelos, P.

    2016-02-07

    This work explores the nature and thermodynamic behavior of the effective electrostatic interactions among charged microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte, taking special interest in the effects due to the thermally induced variation of the microgel size while the remaining parameters (microgel charge and concentration, plus the amount of added salt) are kept constant. To this end, the rigorous approach obtained from applying the precise methodology of the dressed ion theory to the proper definition of the effective direct correlation functions, which emerge from tracing-out the degrees of freedom of the microscopic ions, is employed to provide an exact description of the parameters characterizing such interactions: screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges. A model solution with three components is assumed: large permeable anionic spheres for the microgels, plus small charged hard spheres of equal size for the monovalent cations and anions. The two-body correlations among the components of this model suspension, used as the input for the determination of the effective interaction parameters, are here calculated by using the hyper-netted chain approximation. It is then found that at finite microgel concentrations the values of these parameters change as the microgel size increases, even though the ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte and the bare charge of the microgels remain fixed during this process. The variation of the screening length, as well as that of the effective permittivity, is rather small, but still interesting in view of the fact that the corresponding Debye length stays constant. The renormalized charges, in contrast, increase markedly as the microgels swell. The ratio of the renormalized charge to the corresponding analytic result obtained in the context of an extended linear response theory allows us to introduce an effective charge that accounts for the non-linear effects induced by the short

  1. Charge carrier transport in polycrystalline organic thin film based field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The charge carrier transport mechanism in polycrystalline thin film based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been explained using two competing models, multiple trapping and releases (MTR) model and percolation model. It has been shown that MTR model is most suitable for explaining charge carrier transport in grainy polycrystalline organic thin films. The energetic distribution of traps determined independently using Mayer-Neldel rule (MNR) is in excellent agreement with the values obtained by MTR model for copper phthalocyanine and pentacene based OFETs.

  2. Finite-size effect on the charging free energy of protein in explicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Ekimoto, Toru; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori

    2015-01-13

    The finite-size effect in periodic system is examined for the charging free energy of protein in explicit solvent over a variety of charged states. The key to the finite-size correction is the self-energy, which is defined as the interaction energy of the solute with its own periodic images and the neutralizing background. By employing the thermodynamic-integration method with systematically varied sizes of the unit cell of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show for ubiquitin that the self-energy corrects the finite-size effect on the charging free energy within 1 kcal/mol at total charges of -5e, -1e, neutral, and +1e and within 5 kcal/mol even for a highly charged state with +8e. We then sought the additional correction from the solvation effect using the numerical solution to the Poisson equation of the protein with implicit solvent. This correction reduces the cell-size dependence of the charging free energy at +8e to 3 kcal/mol and is well expressed as the self-energy divided by the dielectric constant of solvent water.

  3. Evaluating Born and Local Effective Charges in Nanoscale MnO

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Xiaoshan; Baker, Sheila N; Christianson, Andrew D; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Phonons are exquisitely sensitive to finite-length scale effects in complex materials because they are intimately connected to charge, polarizability, and structure, and a quantitative analysis of their behavior can reveal microscopic aspects of chemical bonding. To investigate these effects in a model correlated oxide, we measured the infrared vibrational properties of 8-nm particles of MnO, compared the results with the analogous bulk material, and quantified the phonon confinement with a calculation of the Born effective charge. Our analysis reveals that the Born effective charge decreases by {approx}20%, compared to the bulk material. Moreover, this change impacts both ionicity and polarizability. Specifically, we find that MnO nanoparticles are {approx}12% less ionic than the corresponding bulk. This discovery is important for understanding finite-length scale effects in this simple binary oxide and the more complicated functional oxides that emanate from this parent compound.

  4. The effect of dust charge fluctuations in the near-Enceladus plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Victoria; Luehr, Hermann

    The geologically active moon Enceladus feeds the most extended, Saturns’ E ring by dust particles and creates a specific multispecies plasma environment -the Enceladus plasma torus. The key process of dust-plasma interactions is dust charging. The grain electrostatic potential in space is usually calculated from the so called orbit-motion limited (OML) model [1]. It is valid for a single particle immersed into collisionless plasmas with Maxwellian electron and ion distributions. Such a parameter regime cannot be directly applied to the conditions relevant for the Enceladus plasma environment and especially, for the dense plume region, where the dust density is high, sometimes even exceeding the plasma number density. Generalizing the OML formalism, we examine several new factors that can significantly affect the equilibrium grain charging: (a) multispecies composition of the core plasma, including hot electrons and newborn cold ions; (b) effect of high dust number density (c) the role of dust size distributions. We also focus on such a specific peculiarity of dust charging as charge fluctuations. Since the grain charges are not fixed and can fluctuate, this introduces the crucial difference between ordinary plasma species (electrons and ions) and charged dust particles. There are two reasons for such fluctuations. The charging of the grains depends on the local plasma characteristics, and thus some temporal or spatial variations in the plasma parameters ultimately modify numbers of charges acquired by a grain. Some of these effects related to the near-Enceladus plasma environment have recently been discussed [2]. A second reason for charge fluctuations is the discrete nature of the charge carriers. Electrons and ions are absorbed or emitted by the grain surface randomly thus leading to stochastic fluctuations of the dust net charge. These fluctuations exist always even in a steady-state uniform plasma, and we discuss the statistical characteristics of random dust

  5. Electrical charging effects on the sliding friction of a model nano-confined ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A.; Benassi, A.; Tosatti, E.

    2015-10-14

    Recent measurements suggest the possibility to exploit ionic liquids (ILs) as smart lubricants for nano-contacts, tuning their tribological and rheological properties by charging the sliding interfaces. Following our earlier theoretical study of charging effects on nanoscale confinement and squeezout of a model IL, we present here molecular dynamics simulations of the frictional and lubrication properties of that model under charging conditions. First, we describe the case when two equally charged plates slide while being held together to a confinement distance of a few molecular layers. The shear sliding stress is found to rise strongly and discontinuously as the number of IL layers decreases stepwise. However, the shear stress shows, within each given number of layers, only a weak dependence upon the precise value of the normal load, a result in agreement with data extracted from recent experiments. We subsequently describe the case of opposite charging of the sliding plates and follow the shear stress when the charging is slowly and adiabatically reversed in the course of time, under fixed load. Despite the fixed load, the number and structure of the confined IL layers change with changing charge, and that in turn drives strong friction variations. The latter involves first of all charging-induced freezing of the IL film, followed by a discharging-induced melting, both made possible by the nanoscale confinement. Another mechanism for charging-induced frictional changes is a shift of the plane of maximum shear from mid-film to the plate-film interface, and vice versa. While these occurrences and results invariably depend upon the parameters of the model IL and upon its specific interaction with the plates, the present study helps identifying a variety of possible behavior, obtained under very simple assumptions, while connecting it to an underlying equilibrium thermodynamics picture.

  6. Electrical charging effects on the sliding friction of a model nano-confined ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Capozza, R; Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E

    2015-10-14

    Recent measurements suggest the possibility to exploit ionic liquids (ILs) as smart lubricants for nano-contacts, tuning their tribological and rheological properties by charging the sliding interfaces. Following our earlier theoretical study of charging effects on nanoscale confinement and squeezout of a model IL, we present here molecular dynamics simulations of the frictional and lubrication properties of that model under charging conditions. First, we describe the case when two equally charged plates slide while being held together to a confinement distance of a few molecular layers. The shear sliding stress is found to rise strongly and discontinuously as the number of IL layers decreases stepwise. However, the shear stress shows, within each given number of layers, only a weak dependence upon the precise value of the normal load, a result in agreement with data extracted from recent experiments. We subsequently describe the case of opposite charging of the sliding plates and follow the shear stress when the charging is slowly and adiabatically reversed in the course of time, under fixed load. Despite the fixed load, the number and structure of the confined IL layers change with changing charge, and that in turn drives strong friction variations. The latter involves first of all charging-induced freezing of the IL film, followed by a discharging-induced melting, both made possible by the nanoscale confinement. Another mechanism for charging-induced frictional changes is a shift of the plane of maximum shear from mid-film to the plate-film interface, and vice versa. While these occurrences and results invariably depend upon the parameters of the model IL and upon its specific interaction with the plates, the present study helps identifying a variety of possible behavior, obtained under very simple assumptions, while connecting it to an underlying equilibrium thermodynamics picture.

  7. Electrical charging effects on the sliding friction of a model nano-confined ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, R.; Benassi, A.; Vanossi, A.; Tosatti, E.

    2015-10-01

    Recent measurements suggest the possibility to exploit ionic liquids (ILs) as smart lubricants for nano-contacts, tuning their tribological and rheological properties by charging the sliding interfaces. Following our earlier theoretical study of charging effects on nanoscale confinement and squeezout of a model IL, we present here molecular dynamics simulations of the frictional and lubrication properties of that model under charging conditions. First, we describe the case when two equally charged plates slide while being held together to a confinement distance of a few molecular layers. The shear sliding stress is found to rise strongly and discontinuously as the number of IL layers decreases stepwise. However, the shear stress shows, within each given number of layers, only a weak dependence upon the precise value of the normal load, a result in agreement with data extracted from recent experiments. We subsequently describe the case of opposite charging of the sliding plates and follow the shear stress when the charging is slowly and adiabatically reversed in the course of time, under fixed load. Despite the fixed load, the number and structure of the confined IL layers change with changing charge, and that in turn drives strong friction variations. The latter involves first of all charging-induced freezing of the IL film, followed by a discharging-induced melting, both made possible by the nanoscale confinement. Another mechanism for charging-induced frictional changes is a shift of the plane of maximum shear from mid-film to the plate-film interface, and vice versa. While these occurrences and results invariably depend upon the parameters of the model IL and upon its specific interaction with the plates, the present study helps identifying a variety of possible behavior, obtained under very simple assumptions, while connecting it to an underlying equilibrium thermodynamics picture.

  8. Removal of charged micropollutants from water by ion-exchange polymers -- effects of competing electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; de Voogt, Pim; Droge, Steven T J

    2012-10-15

    A wide variety of environmental compounds of concern, e.g. pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs, are acids or bases that may predominantly be present as charged species in drinking water sources. These charged micropollutants may prove difficult to remove by currently used water treatment steps (e.g. UV/H(2)O(2), activated carbon (AC) or membranes). We studied the sorption affinity of some ionic organic compounds to both AC and different charged polymeric materials. Ion-exchange polymers may be effective as additional extraction phases in water treatment, because sorption of all charged compounds to oppositely charged polymers was stronger than to AC, especially for the double-charged cation metformin. Tested below 1% of the polymer ion-exchange capacity, the sorption affinity of charged micropollutants is nonlinear and depends on the composition of the aqueous medium. Whereas oppositely charged electrolytes do not impact sorption of organic ions, equally charged electrolytes do influence sorption indicating ion-exchange (IE) to be the main sorption mechanism. For the tested polymers, a tenfold increased salt concentration lowered the IE-sorption affinity by a factor two. Different electrolytes affect IE with organic ions in a similar way as inorganic ions on IE-resins, and no clear differences in this trend were observed between the sulphonated and the carboxylated cation-exchanger. Sorption of organic cations is five fold less in Ca(2+) solutions compared to similar concentrations of Na(+), while that of anionic compounds is three fold weaker in SO(4)(2-) solutions compared to equal concentrations of Cl(-).

  9. Relaxation of charge in monolayer graphene: Fast nonlinear diffusion versus Coulomb effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Pristine monolayer graphene exhibits very poor screening because the density of states vanishes at the Dirac point. As a result, charge relaxation is controlled by the effects of zero-point motion (rather than by the Coulomb interaction) over a wide range of parameters. Combined with the fact that graphene possesses finite intrinsic conductivity, this leads to a regime of relaxation described by a nonlinear diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient that diverges at zero charge density. Some consequences of this fast diffusion are self-similar superdiffusive regimes of relaxation, the development of a charge depleted region at the interface between electron- and hole-rich regions, and finite extinction times for periodic charge profiles.

  10. Dot size effects of nanocrystalline germanium on charging dynamics of memory devices.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng

    2013-01-10

    The dot size of nanocrystalline germanium (NC Ge) which impacts on the charging dynamics of memory devices has been theoretically investigated. The calculations demonstrate that the charge stored in the NC Ge layer and the charging current at a given oxide voltage depend on the dot size especially on a few nanometers. They have also been found to obey the tendency of initial increase, then saturation, and lastly, decrease with increasing dot size at any given charging time, which is caused by a compromise between the effects of the lowest conduction states and the capacitance of NC Ge layer on the tunneling. The experimental data from literature have also been used to compare and validate the theoretical analysis.

  11. Effect of refrigerant charge on the performance of air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Ek, G.; Leung, M.; Jotshi, C.K.; Sherif, S.A.; Colacino, F.

    1997-12-31

    An air-conditioning system operates in an optimal condition if the system is fully charged with specified amount of refrigerant. Poor field maintenance or refrigerant leakage causes low level of charge resulting in a lower thermal performance and higher operating cost. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of low charge level of R-22 on the performance of a 3-ton residential air-conditioning system. The experimental results show that if a system is undercharged to 90%, the effect is small, 3.5% reduction in cooling capacity and 2% increase in COP. However, the system performance suffers serious degradation if the level of charge drops below 80%. An ice layer formed on the outer cooling coil surface impedes the heat transfer between the warm air and cold refrigerant vapor. An economic analysis shows that the cost of properly charging a system which has otherwise gone down to 85% charge level can pay for itself in savings in a short period of 3 to 4 months.

  12. Investigation of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in advanced microelectronics and optoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, T.; Booth, T.; Gray, M.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The next generation of electronic microchips will utilize components with sub-micron feature size and optoelectronic devices with picosecond response time. Fundamental understanding of the device performance can only be obtained through first principles physics modeling of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in realistic geometries with material interfaces and dispersive properties. We have developed a general model incorporating important physics such as charge transport processes in materials with multilevel band structures and electromagnetic effects to simulate device characteristics. Accurate treatment of material interfaces and boundaries is included. The Monte Carlo charge transport is coupled self-consistently to Maxwell`s equations to accurately model scattering processes in the presence of an externally biased potential. This detailed multidimensional simulation capability is compared with and verified by experimental data, and could become an industrial standard for benchmarking and improving the {open_quotes}reduced model{close_quotes} codes used for semiconductor design. Specific tasks are the extension of existing capabilities in particle-in-cell plasma simulation technique and Monte Carlo charge transport to study the physics of charged particle dynamics in realistic microelectronic devices, such as bipolar semiconductors, heterojunction transistors, and optoelectronic switches. Our approach has been based on the coupled particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo technique, which can simultaneously treat both electromagnetic wave propagation and charged-particle transport.

  13. Charging effect simulation model used in simulations of plasma etching of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ishchuk, Valentyn; Volland, Burkhard E.; Hauguth, Maik; Rangelow, Ivo W.; Cooke, Mike

    2012-10-15

    Understanding the consequences of local surface charging on the evolving etching profile is a critical challenge in high density plasma etching. Deflection of the positively charged ions in locally varying electric fields can cause profile defects such as notching, bowing, and microtrenching. We have developed a numerical simulation model capturing the influence of the charging effect over the entire course of the etching process. The model is fully integrated into ViPER (Virtual Plasma Etch Reactor)-a full featured plasma processing simulation software developed at Ilmenau University of Technology. As a consequence, we show that local surface charge concurrently evolves with the feature profile to affect the final shape of the etched feature. Using gas chopping (sometimes called time-multiplexed) etch process for experimental validation of the simulation, we show that the model provides excellent fits to the experimental data and both, bowing and notching effects are captured-as long as the evolving profile and surface charge are simultaneously simulated. In addition, this new model explains that surface scallops, characteristic of gas chopping technique, are eroded and often absent in the final feature profile due to surface charging. The model is general and can be applied across many etching chemistries.

  14. The porous membrane with tunable performance for vanadium flow battery: The effect of charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuyue; Yuan, Zhizhang; Lu, Wenjing; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-02-01

    Porous membranes with different charge on the surface and internal pore walls are prepared via the solvent-responsive layer-by-layer (SR-LBL) method. The effect of charge on the transport properties of different ions through the membranes is investigated in detail. The charge property of prepared membranes is tuned by assembling different charged polyelectrolytes (PEs) on the pore walls and the surface of the porous membranes. The results show that in a vanadium flow battery (VFB), the PE layers assembled on the surfaces (including pore walls) are capable to construct excellent ion transport channels to increase proton conductivity and to tune the ion selectivity via Donnan exclusion effect. Compared with the porous membrane with negative charges (7 bilayers), a VFB single cell assembled with a positively charged membrane (7.5 bilayers) yields a higher coulombic efficiency (98%). The water and ion transfer behavior exhibits a similar tendency. In the negative half-cell, the amount of V3+ gradually increases as cycles proceed and the amount of V2+ stays at a low and stable level. In the positive half-cell, the amount of VO2+ decreases; while VO2+ is accumulated. The imbalance of vanadium ions at both sides induces the discharge capacity fade.

  15. A Procedure to Obtain the Effective Nuclear Charge from the Atomic Spectrum of Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala*, O.; Araki, Koiti; Noda, L. K.

    1999-09-01

    The penetration of the valence electron orbitals of the alkali metals into their inner shells and its effect on the energy levels can be considered through two methods that take into account modifications of the hydrogen formula (one-electron system). One of them considers the quantum defect, modifying the quantum number n; the other considers the effective nuclear charge Z* replacing the nuclear charge Z. The method using the quantum defect is widely used because this quantity is practically constant for a given angular momentum quantum number l. However, the method using effective nuclear charge is more realistic because it explains many atomic and molecular properties - but the effective nuclear charge depends on l as well as on the principal quantum number n. This article describes a relatively simple graphical procedure to calculate the effective nuclear charges experienced by the sodium valence electron from its atomic spectrum. A relation of Z* with n for a given l is obtained and the Z* values for all states of the valence electron are found; the energy terms can also be determined. The calculations can be performed by using common spreadsheet software.

  16. Infrared light irradiation diminishes effective charge transfer in slow sodium channel gating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plakhova, Vera B.; Bagraev, Nikolai T.; Klyachkin, Leonid E.; Malyarenko, Anna M.; Romanov, Vladimir V.; Krylov, Boris V.

    2001-02-01

    Effects of infrared light irradiation (IR) on cultured dorsal root ganglia cells were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The IR field is demonstrated to diminish the effective charge transfer in the activation system from 6.2 +-0.6 to 4.5 +-0.4 in units of electron charge per e-fold change in membrane potential. The effects was blocked with ouabain. Our data is the first indication that sodium pump might be the molecular sensor of infrared irradiation in animal kingdom.

  17. The effect of induced charges on low-energy particle trajectories near conducting and semiconducting plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Moore, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the induced charge was found on particles less than 1 eV as they passed through simulated parallel, grounded channels that are comparable in dimension to those that are presently in space plasma instruments which measure the flux of low-energy ions. Applications were made to both conducting and semiconducting channels that ranged in length from 0.1 to 50 mm and in aspect ratio from 1 to 100. The effect of the induced charge on particle trajectories from simple straight lines. Several configurations of channel aspect ratio and detector locations are considered. The effect is important only at very low energies with small dimensions.

  18. Infrared light irradiation diminishes effective charge transfer in slow sodium channel gating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plakhova, Vera B.; Bagraev, Nikolai T.; Klyachkin, Leonid E.; Malyarenko, Anna M.; Romanov, Vladimir V.; Krylov, Boris V.

    2000-02-01

    Effects of infrared light irradiation (IR) on cultured dorsal root ganglia cells were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The IR field is demonstrated to diminish the effective charge transfer in the activation system from 6.2 +-0.6 to 4.5 +-0.4 in units of electron charge per e-fold change in membrane potential. The effects was blocked with ouabain. Our data is the first indication that sodium pump might be the molecular sensor of infrared irradiation in animal kingdom.

  19. Comparative Analysis and Approximations of Space -Charge Formation in Langmuir Electrodes Including Temperature Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdeblànquez, Eder

    2001-10-01

    Eder Valdeblànquez,Universidad del Zulia,Apartado 4011-A 526,Maracaibo,Venezuela. ABSTRACT: In this paper by space charge effect in Langmuir probes are compared for different kind of symmetries; plane, cylindrical and spherical. A detailed analysis is performed here including temperature effects, and therefore kinetic theory is used instead of fluid equations as other authors. The strongly non-linear equations obtained here have been solved first by numerical analysis and later by approximations using Bessel functions. The accuracy of each approximaton is also discussed. Space Charge effects are important in plane geometries than in the case of cylindrical or spherical symmetries.

  20. Space-charge Effect on Electroresistance in Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bo Bo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Liu Fang; Wang, Jian Lu; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jing Lan; Yuan, Guo Liang; Fusil, Stéphane; Garcia, Vincent; Dkhil, Brahim; Meng, Xiang Jian; Chu, Jun Hao

    2015-01-01

    Resistive switching through electroresistance (ER) effect in metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors has attracted increasing interest due to its potential applications as memories and logic devices. However, the detailed electronic mechanisms resulting in large ER when polarisation switching occurs in the ferroelectric barrier are still not well understood. Here, ER effect up to 1000% at room temperature is demonstrated in C-MOS compatible MFM nanocapacitors with a 8.8 nm-thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer ferroelectric, which is very promising for silicon industry integration. Most remarkably, using theory developed for metal-semiconductor rectifying contacts, we derive an analytical expression for the variation of interfacial barrier heights due to space-charge effect that can interpret the observed ER response. We extend this space-charge model, related to the release of trapped charges by defects, to MFM structures made of ferroelectric oxides. This space-charge model provides a simple and straightforward tool to understand recent unusual reports. Finally, this work suggests that defect-engineering could be an original and efficient route for tuning the space-charge effect and thus the ER performances in future electronic devices. PMID:26670138

  1. Physical insights of body effect and charge degradation in floating-body DRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusi, Gino

    2014-05-01

    Floating Body one transistor Dynamic Random Access Memories (FBRAMs) have been widely studied and proposed in the literature as an alternative for conventional one transistor/one capacitor DRAMs. FBRAM performance depends on charge degradation during READ and HOLD operations and on the body effect during READ operation, the first setting the amount of the residual non-equilibrium charge during READ operation, and the second setting the effectiveness of this residual charge to modulate the source-body barrier during READ operation. In this work it is proposed a simple analytical charge-based compact model for the body-effect in FBRAMs which is able to reproduce device performance in terms of READ Sense Margin and current ratio. Physical insights of the body effect and charge degradation mechanisms, with particular emphasis to their bias dependence, are discussed in detail. Conclusions can be useful for the choice and the optimization of the bias in FBRAMs. All the discussion is supported by two-dimensional drift-diffusion device simulation on a template double-gate MOSFET.

  2. Space-charge Effect on Electroresistance in Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal capacitors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bo Bo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Liu Fang; Wang, Jian Lu; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jing Lan; Yuan, Guo Liang; Fusil, Stéphane; Garcia, Vincent; Dkhil, Brahim; Meng, Xiang Jian; Chu, Jun Hao

    2015-12-16

    Resistive switching through electroresistance (ER) effect in metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors has attracted increasing interest due to its potential applications as memories and logic devices. However, the detailed electronic mechanisms resulting in large ER when polarisation switching occurs in the ferroelectric barrier are still not well understood. Here, ER effect up to 1000% at room temperature is demonstrated in C-MOS compatible MFM nanocapacitors with a 8.8 nm-thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer ferroelectric, which is very promising for silicon industry integration. Most remarkably, using theory developed for metal-semiconductor rectifying contacts, we derive an analytical expression for the variation of interfacial barrier heights due to space-charge effect that can interpret the observed ER response. We extend this space-charge model, related to the release of trapped charges by defects, to MFM structures made of ferroelectric oxides. This space-charge model provides a simple and straightforward tool to understand recent unusual reports. Finally, this work suggests that defect-engineering could be an original and efficient route for tuning the space-charge effect and thus the ER performances in future electronic devices.

  3. Time-resolved HAXPES using a microfocused XFEL beam: From vacuum space-charge effects to intrinsic charge-carrier recombination dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Oloff, Lars-Philip; Chainani, Ashish; Matsunami, Masaharu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Togashi, Tadashi; Osawa, Hitoshi; Hanff, Kerstin; Quer, Arndt; Matsushita, Ryuki; Shiraishi, Ryutaro; Nagashima, Maki; Kimura, Ayato; Matsuishi, Kotaro; Yabashi, Makina; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Rossi, Giorgio; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Rossnagel, Kai; Oura, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (trHAXPES) using microfocused X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL, hν = 8 keV) pulses as a probe and infrared laser pulses (hν = 1.55 eV) as a pump is employed to determine intrinsic charge-carrier recombination dynamics in La:SrTiO3. By means of a combination of experiments and numerical N-body simulations, we first develop a simple approach to characterize and decrease XFEL-induced vacuum space-charge effects, which otherwise pose a serious limitation to spectroscopy experiments. We then show that, using an analytical mean-field model, vacuum space-charge effects can be counteracted by pump laser-induced photoholes at high excitation densities. This provides us a method to separate vacuum space-charge effects from the intrinsic charge-carrier recombination dynamics in the time domain. Our trHAXPES results thus open a route to studies of intrinsic charge-carrier dynamics on picosecond time scales with lateral spatial resolution on the micrometer scale. PMID:27731408

  4. Investigation of Laser Peening Effects on Hydrogen Charged Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, Tania M.

    2008-10-30

    Hydrogen-rich environments such as fuel cell reactors can exhibit damage caused by hydrogen permeation in the form of corrosion cracking by lowering tensile strength and decreasing material ductility. Coatings and liners have been investigated, but there were few shot-peening or laser peening studies referenced in the literature with respect to preventing hydrogen embrittlement. The surface compressive residual stress induced by laser peening had shown success in preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for stainless steels in power plants. The question arose if the residual stresses induced by laser peening could delay the effects of hydrogen in a material. This study investigated the effect of laser peening on hydrogen penetration into metal alloys. Three areas were studied: laser peening, hydrogenation, and hydrogen detection. This study demonstrated that laser peening does not reduce the hydrogen permeation into a stainless steel surface nor does it prevent hydrogen embrittlement. The effect of laser peening to reduce hydrogen-assisted fatigue was unclear.

  5. Effects of radiation on charge-coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. E.; Cope, A. D.; Rockett, L. R.; Schlesier, K. M.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of 1 MeV electron irradiation upon the performance of two phase, polysilicon aluminum gate CCDs are reported. Both n- and p-surface channel and n-buried channel devices are investigated using 64- and 128-stage line arrays. Characteristics measured as a function of radiation dose include: Transfer inefficiency, threshold voltage, field effect mobility, interface state density, full well signal level and dark current. Surface channel devices are found to degrade considerably at less than 10 to the 5th power rads (Si) due to the large increase in fast interface state density caused by radiation. Buried channel devices maintain efficient operation to the highest dose levels used.

  6. Space-charge perturbation effects in photonic tubes under high irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, R.; Peterson, G.G.

    1982-06-01

    Potential perturbation effects at the cathode region of a photonic tube can occur at high intensity due to space-charge. Using appropriate photoelectron energy distribution functions, the electric field at the cathode is calculated and its effect upon the spatial/temporal resolution is examined.

  7. Effect of deformation and the neutron skin on RMS charge radii

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.D.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1981-05-01

    Droplet Model predictions for nuclear RMS charge radii are compared with measured values in order to determine whether or not there is any evidence for volume shell effects. After corrections for deformation, diffuseness, and the central depression have been applied, some evidence for such effects remains, but it is at about the same level as the experimental uncertainty.

  8. Gain length fitting formula for free-electron lasers with strong space-charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, G.; Hemsing, E.; Rosenzweig, J.

    2011-08-01

    We present a power-fit formula, obtained from a variational analysis using three-dimensional free-electron laser theory, for the gain length of a high-gain free-electron laser’s fundamental mode in the presence of diffraction, uncorrelated energy spread, and longitudinal space-charge effects. The approach is inspired by the work of Xie [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 445, 59 (2000)NIMAER0168-900210.1016/S0168-9002(00)00114-5], and provides a useful shortcut for calculating the gain length of the fundamental Gaussian mode of a free-electron laser having strong space-charge effects in the 3D regime. The results derived from analytic theory are in good agreement with detailed numerical particle simulations that also include higher-order space-charge effects, supporting the assumptions made in the theoretical treatment and the variational solutions obtained in the single-mode limit.

  9. Calculating potential of mean force between like-charged nanoparticles: A comprehensive study on salt effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuan-Yan; Wang, Feng-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2013-10-01

    Ions are critical to the structure and stability of polyelectrolytes such as nucleic acids. In this work, we systematically calculated the potentials of mean force between two like-charged nanoparticles in salt solutions by Monte Carlo simulations. The pseudo-spring method is employed to calculate the potential of mean force and compared systematically with the inversed-Boltzmann method. An effective attraction is predicted between two like-charged nanoparticles in divalent/trivalent salt solution and such attraction becomes weakened at very high salt concentration. Our analysis reveals that for the system, the configuration of ion-bridging nanoparticles is responsible for the attraction, and the invasion of anions into the inter-nanoparticles region at high salt concentration would induce attraction weakening rather than the charge inversion effect. The present method would be useful for calculating effective interactions during nucleic acid folding.

  10. EFFECTIVE ACIDITY CONSTANT BEHAVIOR NEAR ZERO CHARGE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface site (>SOH group) acidity reactions require expressions of the form: Ka = [>SOHn-1(z-1)]aH+EXP(-DG/RT)/[>SOHnz] (where all variables have their usual meaning). One can rearrange this expression to generate an effective acidity constant historically defined as: Qa = Ka...

  11. Effect of substrate bias on deposition behaviour of charged silicon nanoparticles in ICP-CVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Seong, Dae-Jin; Seo, Byong-Hoon; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a substrate bias on the deposition behaviour of crystalline silicon films during inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) was analysed by consideration of non-classical crystallization, in which the building block is a nanoparticle rather than an individual atom or molecule. The coexistence of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the plasma and their role in Si film deposition are confirmed by applying bias voltages to the substrate, which is sufficiently small as not to affect the plasma potential. The sizes of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles captured on a carbon membrane and imaged using TEM are, respectively, 2.7-5.5 nm and 6-13 nm. The film deposited by positively charged nanoparticles has a typical columnar structure. In contrast, the film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has a structure like a powdery compact with the deposition rate about three times higher than that for positively charged nanoparticles. All the films exhibit crystallinity even though the substrate is at room temperature, which is attributed to the deposition of crystalline nanoparticles formed in the plasma. The film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has the highest crystalline fraction of 0.84.

  12. Computational investigation of the effects of perfluorination on the charge-transport properties of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardia, R.; Malloci, G.; Bosin, A.; Serra, G.; Cappellini, G.

    2016-10-01

    We present a systematic computational study of the effects of perfluorination on the charge-transport properties of three homologous classes of polyaromatic hydrocarbons of interest for molecular electronics: acenes, pyrenes, and circumacenes. By means of Density Functional Theory calculations we first obtained the key molecular properties for transport of both holes and electrons. We then used these parameters in the framework of Marcus theory to compare charge-transfer rates in the high temperatures regime for both unsubstituted and perfluorinated molecules. We additionally estimated the relative charge-mobility of each unsubstituted (perfluorinated) molecule with respect to unsubstituted (perfluorinated) pentacene. We found in all cases that perfluorination reduces the charge-transfer rate in absolute terms. This is largely due to the higher values of the molecular reorganization energies predicted for perfluorinated compounds. Interestingly, however, the charge-transfer rates for both holes and electrons of perfluorinated species are remarkably similar, especially for the larger species. In addition, in the case of the larger circumacenes the charge-mobility values relative to pentacene values are found to increase upon perfluorination.

  13. Effect of Conductive Inorganic Fillers on Space Charge Accumulation Characteristics in Cross-linked Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Nobuya; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Takashi; Mizuno, Takehiko; Takahashi, Tohru

    We have observed space charge profiles in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) under dc high electric field using the PEA (pulsed electro-acoustic) system to study the relationship between space charge behavior and dielectric breakdown. In our previous research work, we have found that a large amount of, so called, packet-like charge generates in low density polyethylene (LDPE) under high dc electric field of more than 100 kV/mm. The packet-like charge enhances the electric field locally in bulk of the sample, and then finally it leads a breakdown. On the other hand, a new type of XLPE which was made through adding conductive inorganic fillers, shows a good dc dielectric breakdown characteristic and high volume resistivity under dc stress. In this report, we tried to observe the space charge behavior under high dc electric field in this material. From the results, it is found that the charge injection is effectively suppressed by adding only a small amount of conductive inorganic fillers to XLPE.

  14. SU-E-I-99: Estimation of Effective Charge Distribution by Dual-Energy CT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, D; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Masutani, Y; Nakagawa, K; Haga, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Computed Tomography (CT) is a method to produce slice image of specific volume from the scanned x-ray projection images. The contrast of CT image is correlated with the attenuation coefficients of the x-ray in the object. The attenuation coefficient is strongly dependent on the x-ray energy and the effective charge of the material. The purpose of this presentation is to show the effective charge distribution predicted by CT images reconstructed with kilovoltage(kV) and megavoltage(MV) x-ray energy. Methods: The attenuation coefficients of x-ray can be characterized by cross section of photoionization and Compton scattering for the specific xray energy. In particular, the photoionization cross section is strongly correlated with the effective charge of the object. Hence we can calculate effective charge by solving the coupled equation between the attenuation coefficient and the theoretical cross section. For this study, we use the megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) x-rays of Elekta Synergy as the dual source x-ray, and CT image of the Phantom Laboratory CatPhan is reconstructed by the filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative algorithm for cone-beam CT (CBCT). Results: We report attenuation coefficients of each component of the CatPhan specified by each x-ray source. Also the effective charge distribution is evaluated by the MV and kV dual x-ray sources. The predicted effective charges are comparable with the nominal ones. Conclusion: We developed the MV and kV dual-source CBCT reconstruction to yield the effective charge distribution. For more accuracy, it is critical to remove an effect of the scattering photon in the CBCT reconstruction algorithm. The finding will be fine reference of the effective charge of tissue and lead to the more realistic absorbed-dose calculation. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program(No. 23003), and this work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI 24234567.

  15. Space charge effects on the current-voltage characteristics of gated field emitter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K. L.; Kodis, M. A.; Murphy, R. A.; Zaidman, E. G.

    1997-07-01

    Microfabricated field emitter arrays (FEAs) can provide the very high electron current densities required for rf amplifier applications, typically on the order of 100 A/cm2. Determining the dependence of emission current on gate voltage is important for the prediction of emitter performance for device applications. Field emitters use high applied fields to extract current, and therefore, unlike thermionic emitters, the current densities can exceed 103A/cm2 when averaged over an array. At such high current densities, space charge effects (i.e., the influence of charge between cathode and collector on emission) affect the emission process or initiate conditions which can lead to failure mechanisms for field emitters. A simple model of a field emitter will be used to calculate the one-dimensional space charge effects on the emission characteristics by examining two components: charge between the gate and anode, which leads to Child's law, and charge within the FEA unit cell, which gives rise to a field suppression effect which can exist for a single field emitter. The predictions of the analytical model are compared with recent experimental measurements designed to assess space charge effects and predict the onset of gate current. It is shown that negative convexity on a Fowler-Nordheim plot of Ianode(Vgate) data can be explained in terms of field depression at the emitter tip in addition to reflection of electrons by a virtual cathode created when the anode field is insufficient to extract all of the current; in particular, the effects present within the unit cell constitute a newly described effect.

  16. Effect of Charge Relaxation in Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Primary Atomization of Electrically Charged Liquid Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtine, Emilien; van Poppel, Bret; Daily, John; Desjardins, Olivier

    2012-11-01

    Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is an interdisciplinary topic that describes the complex interaction between fluid mechanics and electric fields. In the context of combustion applications, EHD may enable improved spray control and finer atomization so that fuel injection schemes can be inexpensively developed for small engines. Moreover, EHD may provide efficient enhancements to hydrocarbon fuel atomization that could benefit a much broader range of engines and non-combustion applications. In this work, high-fidelity numerical simulations of an electrically charged kerosene jet undergoing turbulent atomization are presented. The simulations make use of first-principle-based methods designed to accurately represent the interfacial stresses and discontinuities. Under the assumption of a large electric Reynolds number, it can be appropriate to assume that the charges do not have time to relax to the liquid-gas interface, and that they do not drift within the liquid volume. Alternatively, one can solve a free charge conservation equation to fully account for charge drift. These two approaches are compared in details, and the role of charge drift in EHD atomization is analyzed. The implementation of the charge transport equation, which is discontinuous in nature, is discussed as well.

  17. NASA's Technical Handbook for Avoiding On-Orbit ESD Anomalies Due to Internal Charging Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, Albert; Garrett, Henry B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes NASA-HDBK-4002, "Avoiding Problems Caused by Spacecraft On-Orbit Internal Charging Effects". The handbook includes a description of internal charging and why it is of concern to spacecraft designers. It also suggests how to determine when a project needs to consider internal spacecraft charging, it contains an electron penetration depth chart, rationale for a critical electron flux criterion, a worst-case geosynchronous electron plasma spectrum, general design guidelines, quantitative design guidelines, and a typical materials characteristics list. Appendices include a listing of some environment codes, electron transport codes, a discussion of geostationary electron plasma environments, a brief description of electron beam and other materials tests, and transient susceptibility tests. The handbook will be in the web page, hftp://standards.nasa.gov. A prior document, NASA TP2361 "Design Guidelines for Assessing and controlling Spacecraft Charging Effects", 1984, is in use to describe mitigation techniques for the effects of surface charging of satellites in space plasma environments. HDBK-4002 is meant to complement 2361 and together, the pair of documents describe both cause and mitigation designs for problems caused by energetic space plasmas.

  18. Effect of mobile ions on the electric field needed to orient charged diblock copolymer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, Ashkan; Shi, An-Chang; Schick, M.

    2015-10-07

    We examine the behavior of lamellar phases of charged/neutral diblock copolymer thin films containing mobile ions in the presence of an external electric field. We employ self-consistent field theory and focus on the aligning effect of the electric field on the lamellae. Of particular interest are the effects of the mobile ions on the critical field, the value required to reorient the lamellae from the parallel configuration favored by the surface interaction to the perpendicular orientation favored by the field. We find that the critical field depends strongly on whether the neutral or charged species is favored by the substrates. In the case in which the neutral species is favored, the addition of charges decreases the critical electric field significantly. The effect is greater when the mobile ions are confined to the charged lamellae. In contrast, when the charged species is favored by the substrate, the addition of mobile ions stabilizes the parallel configuration and thus results in an increase in the critical electric field. The presence of ions in the system introduces a new mixed phase in addition to those reported previously.

  19. Effective electrophoretic mobilities and charges of anti-VEGF proteins determined by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, S Kevin; Liddell, Mark R; Wen, He

    2011-06-01

    Macromolecules such as therapeutic proteins currently serve an important role in the treatment of eye diseases such as wet age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Particularly, bevacizumab and ranibizumab have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these diseases. Iontophoresis can be employed to enhance ocular delivery of these macromolecules, but the lack of information on the properties of these macromolecules has hindered its development. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effective electrophoretic mobilities and charges of bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and model compound polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) using capillary zone electrophoresis. Salicylate, lidocaine, and bovine serum albumin (BSA), which have known electrophoretic mobilities in the literature, were also studied to validate the present technique. The hydrodynamic radii and diffusion coefficients of BSA, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and PSS were measured by dynamic light scattering. The effective charges were calculated using the Einstein relation between diffusion coefficient and electrophoretic mobility and the Henry equation. The results show that bevacizumab and ranibizumab have low electrophoretic mobilities and are net negatively charged in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 and 0.16M ionic strength. PSS has high negative charge but the electrophoretic mobility in PBS is lower than that expected from the polymer structure. The present study demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis could be used to characterize the mobility and charge properties of drug candidates in the development of iontophoretic drug delivery.

  20. Negative space charge effects in photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar converters

    SciTech Connect

    Segev, G.; Weisman, D.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Kribus, A.

    2015-07-06

    In thermionic energy converters, electrons in the gap between electrodes form a negative space charge and inhibit the emission of additional electrons, causing a significant reduction in conversion efficiency. However, in Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) solar energy converters, electrons that are reflected by the electric field in the gap return to the cathode with energy above the conduction band minimum. These electrons first occupy the conduction band from which they can be reemitted. This form of electron recycling makes PETE converters less susceptible to negative space charge loss. While the negative space charge effect was studied extensively in thermionic converters, modeling its effect in PETE converters does not account for important issues such as this form of electron recycling, nor the cathode thermal energy balance. Here, we investigate the space charge effect in PETE solar converters accounting for electron recycling, with full coupling of the cathode and gap models, and addressing conservation of both electric and thermal energy. The analysis shows that the negative space charge loss is lower than previously reported, allowing somewhat larger gaps compared to previous predictions. For a converter with a specific gap, there is an optimal solar flux concentration. The optimal solar flux concentration, the cathode temperature, and the efficiency all increase with smaller gaps. For example, for a gap of 3 μm the maximum efficiency is 38% and the optimal flux concentration is 628, while for a gap of 5 μm the maximum efficiency is 31% and optimal flux concentration is 163.

  1. Effective Electrophoretic Mobilities and Charges of Anti-VEGF Proteins Determined by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, S. Kevin; Liddell, Mark R.; Wen, He

    2011-01-01

    Macromolecules such as therapeutic proteins currently serve an important role in the treatment of eye diseases such as wet age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Particularly, bevacizumab and ranibizumab have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these diseases. Iontophoresis can be employed to enhance ocular delivery of these macromolecules, but the lack of information on the properties of these macromolecules has hindered its development. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effective electrophoretic mobilities and charges of bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and model compound polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) using capillary zone electrophoresis. Salicylate, lidocaine, and bovine serum albumin (BSA), which have known electrophoretic mobilities in the literature, were also studied to validate the present technique. The hydrodynamic radii and diffusion coefficients of BSA, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and PSS were measured by dynamic light scattering. The effective charges were calculated using the Einstein relation between diffusion coefficient and electrophoretic mobility and the Henry equation. The results show that bevacizumab and ranibizumab have low electrophoretic mobilities and are net negatively charged in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 and 0.16 M ionic strength. PSS has high negative charge but the electrophoretic mobility in PBS is lower than that expected from the polymer structure. The present study demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis could be used to characterize the mobility and charge properties of drug candidates in the development of iontophoretic drug delivery. PMID:21269789

  2. Effect of film nanostructure on in-plane charge transport in organic bulk heterojunction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Eric; Ooi, Zi-En; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2013-09-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells are a promising alternative energy technology, but a thorough understanding of charge transport behavior in BHJ materials is necessary in order to design devices with high power conversion efficiencies. Parameters such as carrier mobilities, carrier concentrations, and the recombination coefficient have traditionally been successfully measured using vertical structures similar to organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. We have developed a lateral BHJ device which complements these vertical techniques by allowing spatially resolved measurement along the transport direction of charge carriers. This is essential for evaluating the effect of nanoscale structure and morphology on these important charge transport parameters. Nanomorphology in organic BHJ films has been controlled using a variety of methods, but the effect of these procedures has been infrequently correlated with the charge transport parameter of the BHJ material. Electron beam lithography has been used to create lateral device structures with many voltage probes at a sub-micron resolution throughout the device channel. By performing in-situ potentiometry, we can calculate both carrier mobilities and determine the effect of solvent choice and annealing procedure on the charge transport in BHJ system. Spin coated P3HT:PCBM films prepared from solutions in chloroform and o-xylene are characterized using this technique.

  3. Gate-Sensing Coherent Charge Oscillations in a Silicon Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M Fernando; Shevchenko, Sergey N; Barraud, Sylvain; Johansson, J Robert; Ferguson, Andrew J; Nori, Franco; Betz, Andreas C

    2016-03-09

    Quantum mechanical effects induced by the miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology hamper the performance and scalability prospects of field-effect transistors. However, those quantum effects, such as tunneling and coherence, can be harnessed to use existing CMOS technology for quantum information processing. Here, we report the observation of coherent charge oscillations in a double quantum dot formed in a silicon nanowire transistor detected via its dispersive interaction with a radio frequency resonant circuit coupled via the gate. Differential capacitance changes at the interdot charge transitions allow us to monitor the state of the system in the strong-driving regime where we observe the emergence of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference on the phase response of the resonator. A theoretical analysis of the dispersive signal demonstrates that quantum and tunneling capacitance changes must be included to describe the qubit-resonator interaction. Furthermore, a Fourier analysis of the interference pattern reveals a charge coherence time, T2 ≈ 100 ps. Our results demonstrate charge coherent control and readout in a simple silicon transistor and open up the possibility to implement charge and spin qubits in existing CMOS technology.

  4. Pairing of Fermions with Unequal Effective Charges in an Artificial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, F. Nur; Oktel, M. Ö.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial magnetic fields (AMFs) created for ultracold systems depend sensitively on the internal structure of the atoms. In a mixture, each component experiences a different AMF depending on its internal state. This enables the study of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing of fermions with unequal effective charges. In this Letter, we investigate the superconducting (SC) transition of a system formed by such pairs as a function of field strength. We consider a homogeneous two-component Fermi gas of unequal effective charges but equal densities with attractive interactions. We find that the phase diagram is altered drastically compared to the usual balanced charge case. First, for some AMFs there is no SC transition and isolated SC phases are formed, reflecting the discrete Landau level (LL) structure. SC phases become reentrant both in AMF and temperature. For extremely high fields where both components are confined to their lowest LLs, the effect of the charge imbalance is suppressed. Charge asymmetry reduces the critical temperature even in the low-field semiclassical regime. We discuss a pair breaking mechanism due to the unequal Lorentz forces acting on the components of the Cooper pairs to identify the underlying physics.

  5. The role of acid-base effects on particle charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-06-01

    charging in the context of the many other factors that are important to the phenomenon, including the presence of water, of other components (e.g., synergists and contaminants), and of electric field effects. The goal is the construction of a road map describing the anticipated particle charging behavior in a wide variety of systems, assisting in the choice or development of materials for specific applications.

  6. History of the Shaped Charge Effect: The First 100 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-22

    transferred, inasmuch as 10 Part 1 both originators of the effect were in proximiy - southern Gernmany and Switzerland border each other. Dr. Mohaupt’s...Mistel ( Mistletoe ) referred to the parasitic mounting of the top aircraft on the host aircraft. In the tactical version, the bomber’s nose was replaced...16) in the patents (Ref. 32) issued in France in 1940 and in Australia in 1941, wherein the inventors (Mohaupt and his two associates) had claimed the

  7. Charge Transfer Nanocomposites: The Effects of Scale-Hierarchy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    Williams, D. L. Carroll, R. Czerw, E. Shishonok , Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy in boron nitride nanotubes compared to microcrystalline h...Korsak, R. Krutohvostov, D. L. Carroll, K. B. Ucer and R. T. Williams, Exciton luminescence of boron nitride nanotubes and nano-arches Physica Status...optical effects, we note that, according to this model, the boron doped, nitrogen doped and pure nanotubes should each provide the same triplet

  8. Resistive Micromegas for sampling calorimetry, a study of charge-up effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefdeville, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Geralis, T.; Titov, M.

    2016-07-01

    Micromegas, as a proportional and compact gaseous detector, is well suited for sampling calorimetry. The limitation of occasional sparking has now been lifted by means of resistive electrodes but at the cost of current-dependent charge-up effects. These effects are studied in this contribution, with an emphasis on gain variations during operation at high particle rate and under heavy ionisation. Results are reproduced by a simple model of charging-up which will be used for detector design optimisation in the future.

  9. Solving the charging effect in insulating materials probed by a variable monoenergy slow positron beam.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Song; De Guzman, Manuel; An, Quanfu; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Jean, Yan-Ching; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2011-03-15

    A variable monoenergy slow positron beam (VMSPB) operating at a high vacuum on insulating materials encounters a problem of significant surface charging effect with time. As a result, positronium formation is inhibited, and the positron annihilation radiation counting rate is reduced; these consequently distorted the experimental positron annihilation and results. To solve such problems, a technique of depositing an ultrathin layer of sputtering noble metals on insulators is developed. We report a successful method of sputtering a few atomic layers of platinum (∼1 nm) on a polyamide membrane to completely remove the charging effect for VMSPB applications in insulators.

  10. Photovoltaic effect and charge storage in single ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Zhimin; Xu Jun; Zhang Jingmin; Yu Dapeng

    2008-07-14

    Asymmetric Schottky barriers between ZnO nanowire and metal electrode have been fabricated at the two ends of the nanowire. An obvious photocurrent generated from the device at zero voltage bias can be switched on/off with quick response by controlling the light irradiation. Moreover, the device can still afford a current at zero bias after switching off light illumination, which is ascribed to the charge storage effect in single ZnO nanowires. The underlying mechanisms related to the photovoltaic effect and charge storage were discussed.

  11. Effect of space charge on the negative oxygen flux during reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, F.; Kalvas, T.; Van Steenberge, S.; Depla, D.

    2017-03-01

    Negative ions often play a distinctive role in the phase formation during reactive sputter deposition. The path of these high energetic ions is often assumed to be straight. In this paper, it is shown that in the context of reactive magnetron sputtering space charge effects are decisive for the energetic negative ion trajectories. To investigate the effect of space charge spreading, reactive magnetron sputter experiments were performed in compound mode with target materials that are expected to have a high secondary ion emission yield (MgO and CeO2). By the combination of energy flux measurements, and simulations, a quantitative value for the negative oxygen ion yield can be derived.

  12. Effects of external calcium concentration and pH on charge movement in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Shlevin, H H

    1979-01-01

    1. The effects of both external Ca2+ (1.8, 25, 50 and 100 mM) and external pH (pH 5.5, 7.15, and 9.0) on the voltage-dependence of charge movement in frog skeletal muscle were examined using the three intracellular micro-electrode voltage-clamp technique. 2. The two-state model of Schneider & Chandler (1973) was used to describe the voltage distribution of membrane charge. The parameters of this model are: Qmax, the maximum quantity of charge; V, the potential of equal distribution of charge; and k, a constant relating to the steepness of the charge vs. voltage relationship. 3. In 1.8 mM external Ca2+, alterations, in external pH shifted the transition potential, V, from a mean +/- S.E. of mean of -36.5 +/- 0.9 mV at pH 7.15 to -25.8 +/- 1.3 mV at pH 5.5 and to -42.5 +/- 1.8 mV at pH 9.0. These shifts are consistent with surface charge theory. No significant changes in Qmax or k were observed over the range of pH 5.5--9.0. 4. A reasonable fit of surface charge theory to the shifts in V over the range pH 5.5--9.0 could be obtained with surface charge densities and binding constants: sigma 1 = -1 e/165 A2, pK1 = 3.9 and sigma 2 = -1 e/400 A2, pK2 = 8. 5. However, at pH 7.15, both V and k changed with increasing external Ca2+ concentration. V shifted from -34.9 +/- 3.7 mV in 1.8 mM-Ca2+ to -13.8 +/- 5.1 mV, -19.3 +/- 3.6 mV and 3.3 +/- 9.3 mV in 25, 50 and 100 mM-Ca2+ respectively. k increased from 8.3 +/- 0.6 mV in 1.8 mM-Ca2+ to 15.3 +/- 1.4 mV, 14.6 +/- 1.6 mV and 20.0 +/- 2.9 mV in 25, 50 and 100 mM-Ca2+. Changes in k reflect decreases in the apparent charged particle valence from approximately 3 in 1.8 mM-Ca2+ to approximately 1.2 in 100 mM-Ca2+. As the external Ca2+ concentration was raised, Qmax was at least as large as that measured in 1.8 mM-Ca2+. The 43% decrease in the apparent valence of the charged groups cannot be explained by simple surface charge theory and may reflect a specific interaction between external Ca2+ and the charged groups. 6. Shifts in V

  13. Non-targeted effects induced by high LET charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom K.; Chai, Yunfei; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Uchihori, Yukio

    Radiation-induced non-targeted response represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation in that extranuclear and extracellular effects may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. Using the gpt delta transgenic mouse model, there is evidence that irradiation of a small area (1 cm by 1 cm) of the lower abdominal area of animals with a 5 Gy dose of X-rays induced cyclooxygenase-2 as well as deletion mutations in the out-of-field lung tissues of the animals. The mutation correlated with an increase in prostaglandin levels in the bystander lung tissues and with an increase in the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative DNA damage marker. An increase in COX-2 level was also detected in the out-of-field lung tissues of animals similarly exposed to high LET argon and carbon ions accelerated at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These results provide the first evidence that the COX-2 -related pathway, which is essential in mediating cellular inflammatory response, is the critical signaling link for the non-targeted, bystander phenomenon. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the non-targeted, out of field phenomenon together with evidence of their occurrence in vivo will allow us to formulate a more accurate assessment of radiation risk.

  14. Polarization effects of dielectric nanoparticles in aqueous charge-asymmetric electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Guerrero García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2014-07-24

    Small nanoparticles, globular proteins, viral capsids, and other nanoscopic biomolecules usually display dielectric properties that are different from those of the medium in which they are dispersed. These dielectric heterogeneities can significantly influence the surrounding ion distribution, which determines the self-assembly and colloidal stability of these nanoparticles in solution. Here, we study the impact of a dielectric discontinuity in the structural and thermodynamic properties of a spherical nanoparticle made of different dielectric materials when it is immersed in a charge-asymmetric 1:z supporting electrolyte. The mean electrostatic potential, integrated charge, and ionic profiles are analyzed as a function of both the salt concentration and the nanoparticle's valence via Monte Carlo simulations and the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We observe that the electrostatic screening and charge neutralization near the surface of a nanoparticle increase when the nanoparticle's dielectric permittivity increases in all instances. For 1:1 salts, this effect is small and the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory displays a good agreement with simulation results. Nevertheless, significant deviations are displayed by the mean field scheme regarding simulation results in the presence of multivalent ions. In particular, for trivalent counterions we observe that increasing the dielectric permittivity or the valence of the nanoparticle decreases the critical salt concentration at which occurs a sign inversion of the mean electrostatic potential at the Helmholtz plane, which is closely related to the behavior of the ζ potential and the electrophoretic mobility. Moreover, we observe that the phenomenon of surface charge amplification, or the augmenting of the net charge of a nanoparticle by the adsorption of like-charged ions on its surface, can be promoted by polarization effects in weakly charged spherical nanoparticles with low dielectric permittivity.

  15. Spin-orbit coupling and electronic charge effects in Mott insulators

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Shan; Li, You -Quan; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-11-04

    We derive the effective charge- and current-density operators for the strong-coupling limit of a single-band Mott insulator in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and show that the spin-orbit contribution to the effective charge density leads to novel mechanisms for multiferroic behavior. In some sense, these mechanisms are the electronic counterpart of the ionic-based mechanisms, which have been proposed for explaining the electric polarization induced by spiral spin orderings. In addition, the new electronic mechanisms are illustrated by considering cycloidal and proper-screw magnetic orderings on sawtooth and kagome lattices. As for the isotropic case, geometric frustration is crucial for achieving thismore » purely electronic coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom.« less

  16. Spin-orbit coupling and electronic charge effects in Mott insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Shan; Li, You -Quan; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-11-04

    We derive the effective charge- and current-density operators for the strong-coupling limit of a single-band Mott insulator in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and show that the spin-orbit contribution to the effective charge density leads to novel mechanisms for multiferroic behavior. In some sense, these mechanisms are the electronic counterpart of the ionic-based mechanisms, which have been proposed for explaining the electric polarization induced by spiral spin orderings. In addition, the new electronic mechanisms are illustrated by considering cycloidal and proper-screw magnetic orderings on sawtooth and kagome lattices. As for the isotropic case, geometric frustration is crucial for achieving this purely electronic coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom.

  17. Air Purification Effect of Positively and Negatively Charged Ions Generated by Discharge Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Kazuo; Nojima, Hideo

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, the air purification effect of positively and negatively charged ions generated by discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure is reported. We have developed a novel ion generation device which consists of a cylindrical glass tube and attached inner and outer mesh electrodes. With the application of AC voltage between the electrodes, positively charged ions and negatively charged ions have been generated at atmospheric pressure. The ion densities of 3.0× 104--7.0× 104 counts/cm3 have been obtained with the AC voltage of 1.8-2.3 kV (effective value). We have examined the air purification properties of this device. By the operation of this device, the initial oxygen nitride (NO) density of 10 ppm in 1 m3 (in cigarette smoke) was decreased to 1 ppm after 30 min. The number of suspended germs in air has been significantly reduced by the use of this type of ion generation device.

  18. Interplay of space-charge and beam-beam effects in a collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.V.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2010-09-27

    Operation of a collider at low energy or use of cooling techniques to increase beam density may result in luminosity limitation due to the space-charge effects. Understanding of such limitation became important for Low-Energy RHIC physics program with heavy ions at the center of mass energies of 5-20 GeV/nucleon. For a collider, we are interested in a long beam lifetime, which limits the allowable space-charge tune shift. An additional complication comes from the fact that ion beams are colliding, which requires careful consideration of the interplay of direct space-charge and beam-beam effects. This paper summarizes the initial observations during experimental studies in RHIC at low energies.

  19. Search for space charge effects in the ICARUS T600 LAr-TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torti, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Space charge in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is due to the accumu- lation of positive ions, produced by ionizing tracks crossing the detector, which slowly flow toward the cathode. As a consequence, electric field distortions may arise, thus hindering the possibility to produce faithful 3D images of the ionizing events. The presence of space charge becomes relevant for large TPCs operating at surface or at shallow depths, where cosmic ray flux is high. These effects could interest the next phase of the ICARUS T600 detector, which will be deployed at shallow depths as a Far Detector for Short Baseline Neutrino experiment at FNAL dedicated to sterile neutrino searches. In 2001, the first ICARUS T600 module (T300) operated at surface in Pavia (Italy), recording cosmic ray data. In this work, a sample of cosmic muon tracks from the 2001 run was analyzed and results on space charge effects in LAr-TPCs are shown.

  20. Zero-point fluctuations in naphthalene and their effect on charge transport parameters.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Joe J; Frost, Jarvist M; Kirkpatrick, James; Nelson, Jenny

    2008-09-25

    We calculate the effect of vibronic coupling on the charge transport parameters in crystalline naphthalene, between 0 and 400 K. We find that nuclear fluctuations can cause large changes in both the energy of a charge on a molecule and on the electronic coupling between molecules. As a result, nuclear fluctuations cause wide distributions of both energies and couplings. We show that these distributions have a small temperature dependence and that, even at high temperatures, vibronic coupling is dominated by the effect of zero-point fluctuations. Because of the importance of zero-point fluctuations, we find that the distributions of energies and couplings have substantial width, even at 0 K. Furthermore, vibronic coupling with high energy modes may be significant, even though these modes are never thermally activated. Our results have implications for the temperature dependence of charge mobilities in organic semiconductors.

  1. Probing inhibitory effects of nanocrystalline cellulose: inhibition versus surface charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Male, Keith B.; Leung, Alfred C. W.; Montes, Johnny; Kamen, Amine; Luong, John H. T.

    2012-02-01

    NCC derived from different biomass sources was probed for its plausible cytotoxicity by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Two different cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79, were exposed to NCC and their spreading and viability were monitored and quantified by ECIS. Based on the 50%-inhibition concentration (ECIS50), none of the NCC produced was judged to have any significant cytotoxicity on these two cell lines. However, NCC derived from flax exhibited the most pronounced inhibition on Sf9 compared to hemp and cellulose powder. NCCs from flax and hemp pre-treated with pectate lyase were also less inhibitory than NCCs prepared from untreated flax and hemp. Results also suggested a correlation between the inhibitory effect and the carboxylic acid contents on the NCC.

  2. Understanding charge transport in organometal halide field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Yang, Bingyan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard, Prof. _., Sir; Sirrnighaus, Henning, , Prof.

    Organometal halide based perovskite are emerging materials for wide range of electronic applications. A range of optoelectronic applications like high efficiency solar cells, color pure LEDs and optical pumped lasers have been demonstrated. Here, we report the demonstration of a high performance field effect transistor fabricated from iodide perovskite material at room temperature. The devices exhibit clean saturation behavior with electron μFET >3 cm2V-1s-1 and current modulation in the range of 106 - 107 which are till date the best performance achieved with these class of materials. This high performance is attributed to a combination of novel film fabrication technique and device engineering strategies. Detailed understanding of the observed band-like transport phenomenon is developed by tuning the different sources of dynamic and static disorder prevalent in the system. These finding are expected to pave way for developing next generation electronic application from perovskite materials. Authors acknowledge EPSRC for funding and SPS acknowledges Royal Society Newton Fellowship.

  3. Effect of introduced charge in cellulose gels on surface interactions and the adsorption of highly charged cationic polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Notley, Shannon M

    2008-04-07

    The interaction between cellulose surfaces in aqueous solution has been measured using colloidal probe microscopy. Cellulose thin films with varying charge through carboxyl group substitution were used in this study with the surface forces fit to DLVO theory. It was found that the surface potential increased, as expected, with increasing carboxyl substitution. Furthermore, for a given degree of substitution, the surface potential increased as a function of increasing pH. At low pH, the surface forces interaction were attractive and could be fit to the non-retarded Hamaker equation using a constant of 3 x 10(-21) J. At pH greater than 5, the force interactions were monotonically repulsive, regardless of the ionic strength of the solution for all charge densities of the cellulose thin films. The adsorption of polyDADMAC to these charged cellulose films was also investigated using the quartz crystal microbalance. It was found that for the low charge film, a low surface excess of PDADMAC was sensed and that the adsorbed conformation was essentially flat. However for the higher charged cellulose film, a spontaneous de-swelling was observed resulting in no possibility of quantitatively determining the sensed mass using QCM.

  4. Isotope effect in charge-transfer collisions of H with He{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.; Dalgarno, A.; Ryabchenko, S.

    2011-11-15

    We present a theoretical study of the isotope effect arising from the replacement of H by T in the charge-transfer collision H(n=2) + He{sup +}(1s) at low energy. Using a quasimolecular approach and a time-dependent wave-packet method, we compute the cross sections for the reaction including the effects of the nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings. For H(2s) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions, we find a strong isotope effect at energies below 1 eV/amu for both singlet and triplet states. We find a much smaller isotopic dependence of the cross section for H(2p) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions in triplet states, and no isotope effect in singlet states. We explain the isotope effect on the basis of the potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic couplings, and we evaluate the importance of the isotope effect on the charge-transfer rate coefficients.

  5. Chlorin e6 sensitized photovoltaic cells: effect of co-adsorbents on cell performance, charge transfer resistance, and charge recombination dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightbourne, Sherard K. S.; Gobeze, Habtom B.; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K.; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dye-aggregation-preventing co-adsorbents, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid, on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells constructed using a metal-free sensitizer, chlorin e6 adsorbed onto TiO2 surface is investigated. Absorption and fluorescence studies of chlorin e6 provided the spectral coverage, whereas electrochemical studies allowed estimation of the free energy of charge injection. B3LYP/6-31G* studies were performed to visualize location of the Frontier orbitals and their contribution to the charge injection when they were surface-modified on TiO2. The concentration of the co-adsorbent and soaking time was optimized for improved cell performance. Better dye regeneration efficiency for co-adsorbed cells compared to the cells with no co-adsorbent was revealed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Femtosecond transient absorption studies were performed to probe the kinetics of charge injection and charge recombination on the TiO2/chlorin e6/co-adsorbent electrodes. Such studies showed slower by an order of magnitude charge recombination rates for electrodes co-adsorbed either with cholic acid or deoxycholic acid while maintaining almost the same charge injection rates, thus rationalizing the importance of co-adsorbents on the overall cell performance.

  6. Synthetic high-charge organomica: effect of the layer charge and alkyl chain length on the structure of the adsorbed surfactants.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M Carolina; Castro, Miguel A; Orta, M Mar; Pavón, Esperanza; Valencia Rios, Jesús S; Alba, María D

    2012-05-15

    A family of organomicas was synthesized using synthetic swelling micas with high layer charge (Na(n)Si(8-n)Al(n)Mg(6)F(4)O(20)·XH(2)O, where n = 2, 3, and 4) exchanged with dodecylammonium and octadecylammonium cations. The molecular arrangement of the surfactant was elucidated on the basis on XRD patterns and DTA. The ordering conformation of the surfactant molecules into the interlayer space of micas was investigated by (13)C, (27)Al, and (29)Si MAS NMR. The arrangement of alkylammonium ions in these high-charge synthetic micas depends on the combined effects of the layer charge of the mica and the chain length of the cation. In the organomicas with dodecylammonium, a transition from a parallel layer to a bilayer-paraffin arrangement is observed when the layer charge of the mica increases. However, when octadecylammonium is the interlayer cation, the molecular arrangement of the surfactant was found to follow the bilayer-paraffin model for all values of layer charge. The amount of ordered conformation all-trans is directly proportional of layer charge.

  7. Lost in the Shadow of Jupiter: The Effects of Ring Particle Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Jontof-Hutter, D.

    2012-05-01

    Micrometeoroid impacts onto tiny moonlets embedded in Jupiter's dusty rings replenish the rings with grains of all sizes. These grains become electrically charged from interactions with the ambient plasma and solar photons, and their orbital motions are dominated by gravity and the electromagnetic force arising from Jupiter's rotating magnetic field. For even the simplest case of constant electric charge, this combination of forces causes both radial and vertical dynamical instabilities. When the gravitational and electromagnetic forces are comparable, positively-charged dust grains are driven to either crash into Jupiter or escape from the planet depending on their launch distance. Some smaller grains of either charge are vertically unstable, climbing up local magnetic field lines to collide with Jupiter. We understand the origin of both instabilities and have derived the relevant stability boundaries analytically (Jontof-Hutter and Hamilton 2012). Further dynamical instabilities arise when charges vary with time due to, for example, a dust grain's periodic transit through Jupiter's shadow which temporarily interrupts photoelectric currents. The eccentricities of large grains, which react nearly instantly to changes in the charging environment, are excited enough to explain the faint outward extension of Jupiter's Thebe ring (Hamilton and Krueger 2008). We expand our investigation by exploring the effect of Jupiter's shadow on dust grains of all sizes, both inside and outside synchronous orbit. The shadow extends the radial instability zones discussed above to both larger and smaller dust grains. The removal of larger grains is limited by the few-year orbital precession timescale. Smaller grains, which react slowly to differing charging conditions, suffer forces that are alternatively stabilizing and destabilizing if their electric potentials change sign. These grains evolve chaotically and most eventually become unstable.

  8. Dynamic aperture and space charge effect studies for the Recycler ring for Project-X

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, M.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    A simplified Recycler lattice was created to fine tune injection straight, ring tune, and phase trombone. In this paper, we will present detailed modifications for further optimization of Recycler lattice which requires the investigation of tune footprint and dynamic aperture based on higher order momentum components of the magnetic fields, together with the space charge effects.

  9. Effects of oxide charge and surface recombination velocity on the excess base current of BJTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kosier, S.L.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Wei, A.; DeLaus, M.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Combs, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    The role of net positive oxide trapped charge and surface recombination velocity on excess base current in BJTs is identified. The effects of the two types of damage can be detected by plotting the excess base current versus base-emitter voltage. Differences and similarities between ionizing-radiation-induced and hot electron-induced degradation are discussed.

  10. Charged Particle Environments in Earth's Magnetosphere and their Effects on Space System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews information on space radiation environments important to magnetospheric missions including trapped radiation, solar particle events, cosmic rays, and solar winds. It also includes information about ion penetration of the magnetosphere, galactic cosmic rays, solar particle environments, CRRES internal discharge monitor, surface charging and radiation effects.

  11. Simulation of space charge effects and transition crossing in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, P.; MacLachlan, J.

    1987-03-01

    The longitudinal phase space program ESME, modified for space charge and wall impedance effects, has been used to simulate transition crossing in the Fermilab Booster. The simulations yield results in reasonable quantitative agreement with measured parameters. They further indicate that a transition jump scheme currently under construction will significantly reduce emittance growth, while attempts to alter machine impedance are less obviously beneficial. In addition to presenting results, this paper points out a serious difficulty, related to statistical fluctuations, in the space charge calculation. False indications of emittance growth can appear if care is not taken to minimize this problem.

  12. Effect of charge imbalance parameter on LEKW in ion-implanted quantum semiconductor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, Sandhya; Yadav, Nishchhal; Ghosh, S.

    2015-07-31

    In this study we present an analytical investigation on the propagation characteristics of electro-kinetic wave modified through quantum correction term and charge imbalance parameter using quantum hydrodynamic model for an ion-implanted semiconductor plasma. The dispersion relation has been analyzed in two distinct velocity regimes. We found that as the number of negative charges resides on the colloids increases, their role become increasing effective. The present investigation is important for understanding of wave and instability phenomena and can be put to various interesting applications.

  13. Shock wave in magnetized dusty plasmas with dust charging and nonthermal ion effects

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Liping; Xue Jukui

    2005-04-15

    The effects of the external magnetized field, nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation, and nonthermally distributed ions on three-dimensional dust acoustic shock wave in dusty plasmas have been investigated. By using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) Burger equation governing the dust acoustic shock wave is derived. The results of numerical integrations of KdV Burger equation show that the external magnetized field, nonthermally distributed ions, and nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation have strong influence on the shock structures.

  14. Bactericidal Effects of Charged Silver Nanoparticles in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Urbina, Dulce; Velazquez-Salazar, J. Jesus; Lara, Humberto H.; Arellano-Jimenez, Josefina; Larios, Eduardo; Yuan, Tony T.; Hwang, Yoon; Desilva, Mauris N.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    The increased number of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a major concern to society. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of positively charged AgNPs on methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) cell wall using advanced electron microscopy techniques. Positively charged AgNPs suspensions were synthesized via a microwave heating technique. The suspensions were then characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showing AgNPs size range from 5 to 30 nm. MSSA and MRSA were treated with positively charged AgNPs concentrations ranging from 0.06 mM to 31 mM. The MIC50 studies showed that viability of MSSA and MRSA could be reduced by 50% at a positively charged AgNPs concentration of 0.12 mM supported by Scanning-TEM (STEM) images demonstrating bacteria cell wall disruption leading to lysis after treatment with AgNPs. The results provide insights into one mechanism in which positively charged AgNPs are able to reduce the viability of MSSA and MRSA. This research is supported by National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (G12MD007591) from NIH, NSF-PREM Grant No. DMR-0934218, The Welch Foundation and NAMRU-SA work number G1009.

  15. Electrolyte effects in a model of proton discharge on charged electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Johannes; Kravchenko, Kateryna; Spohr, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    We report results on the influence of NaCl electrolyte dissolved in water on proton discharge reactions from aqueous solution to charged platinum electrodes. We have extended a recently developed combined proton transfer/proton discharge model on the basis of empirical valence bond theory to include NaCl solutions with several different concentrations of cations and anions, both stoichiometric (1:1) compositions and non-stoichiometric ones with an excess of cations. The latter solutions partially screen the electrostatic potential from the surface charge of the negatively charged electrode. 500-1000 trajectories of a discharging proton were integrated by molecular dynamics simulations until discharge occurred, or for at most 1.5 ns. The results show a strong dependence on ionic strength, but only a weak dependence on the screening behavior, when comparing stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric solutions. Overall, the Na+ cations exert a more dominant effect on the discharge reaction, which we argue is likely due to the very rigid arrangements of the cations on the negatively polarized electrode surface. Thus, our model predicts, for the given and very high negative surface charge densities, the fastest discharge reaction for pure water, but obviously cannot take into account the fact that such high charge densities are even more out of reach experimentally than for higher electrolyte concentrations.

  16. Effect of Valence of Counterions on the Structure of Charged Membranes, a Computer Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Baofu; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2012-02-01

    Phospholipids have been investigated for a long period, due to its ability of self-assembling into bilayer structures which resemble biological membranes. But most of the studies have been limited on the neutral phosphatidylcholine based lipids. The understanding of charged membranes (e.g., phosphatidylserine) is very limited due to the repulsion between the charged groups on lipids. In the present work, we investigated the effect of different counter-ions on the structures of charged membranes formed by 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycoro-3-phospho-L-serine. Three kinds of counterions were investigated, from monovalent, to divalent, to trivalent ions. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed at all-atom level. We have calculated the area per lipid. And the interaction between counterions and COO^- groups was found to dominate over that between counterions and PO4^- groups.

  17. Formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with diethylaminoethyl dextran: charge ratio and molar mass effect.

    PubMed

    Le Cerf, Didier; Pepin, Anne Sophie; Niang, Pape Momar; Cristea, Mariana; Karakasyan-Dia, Carole; Picton, Luc

    2014-11-26

    The formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) between carboxymethyl pullulan and DEAE Dextran, was investigated, in dilute solution, with emphasis on the effect of charge density (molar ratio or pH) and molar masses. Electrophoretic mobility measurements have evidenced that insoluble PECs (neutral electrophoretic mobility) occurs for charge ratio between 0.6 (excess of polycation) and 1 (stoichiometry usual value) according to the pH. This atypical result is explained by the inaccessibility of some permanent cationic charge when screened by pH dependant cationic ones (due to the Hoffman alkylation). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicates an endothermic formation of PEC with a binding constant around 10(5) L mol(-1). Finally asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled on line with static multi angle light scattering (AF4/MALS) evidences soluble PECs with very large average molar masses and size around 100 nm, in agreement with scrambled eggs multi-association between various polyelectrolyte chains.

  18. The effects of charge cloud size and digitisation on the SPAN anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breeveld, A. A.; Edgar, M. L.; Lapington, J. S.; Smith, Alan

    1992-10-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors are often used with charge division anode readouts, such as the spiral-anode (SPAN) anode, to provide high position resolution. This paper discusses the effect on image quality, of digitization (causing fixed patterning), electronic noise, pulse height distribution (PHD) and charge cloud size. The discussion is supported by experimental data obtained from a 1D SPAN anode. Results from a computer model of this detector, and from a charge cloud simulation model, are also included. The SPAN anode normally has three sinusoidal electrodes with phase differences of 120 deg. An alternative configuration is to use a phase difference of 90 deg. This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages of these arrangements.

  19. Doping effect on photoabsorption and charge-separation dynamics in light-harvesting organic molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Satoshi; Tsuruta, Kenji; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Using ab-initio theoretical methods, we demonstrate possible enhancement of photo-conversion efficiency of an organic solar cell via intentional doping in molecular graphene-fullerene heterojunction [the hexabenzocoronene (HBC)-triethylene glycol (TEG)-C60 molecule]. Photoabsorption analysis indicates oxygen substitution into HBC leads to an extension of the spectra up to an infrared regime. A quantum-mechanical molecular dynamics simulation incorporating nonadiabatic electronic transitions reveals that a dissociated charge state (D+ and A-) in the O-doped system is more stable than the pristine case due to the presence of an effective barrier by the TEG HOMO/LUMO level. We also find that oxygen doping in HBC enhances the intermolecular carrier mobility after charge separation. On the other hand, the pristine molecule undergoes rapid recombination between donor and acceptor charges at the interface. These analyses suggest that the graphene oxidation opens a new window in the application of organic super-molecules to solar cells.

  20. Combined effects of space charge and energetic disorder on photocurrent efficiency loss of field-dependent organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sangcheol; Park, Byoungchoo; Hwang, Inchan

    2015-11-01

    The loss of photocurrent efficiency by space-charge effects in organic solar cells with energetic disorder was investigated to account for how energetic disorder incorporates space-charge effects, utilizing a drift-diffusion model with field-dependent charge-pair dissociation and suppressed bimolecular recombination. Energetic disorder, which induces the Poole-Frenkel behavior of charge carrier mobility, is known to decrease the mobility of charge carriers and thus reduces photovoltaic performance. We found that even if the mobilities are the same in the absence of space-charge effects, the degree of energetic disorder can be an additional parameter affecting photocurrent efficiency when space-charge effects occur. Introducing the field-dependence parameter that reflects the energetic disorder, the behavior of efficiency loss with energetic disorder can differ depending on which charge carrier is subject to energetic disorder. While the energetic disorder that is applied to higher-mobility charge carriers decreases photocurrent efficiency further, the efficiency loss can be suppressed when energetic disorder is applied to lower-mobility charge carriers.

  1. Study of the impurity composition and effective plasma charge in the GOL-3 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokina, N. V. Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Shoshin, A. A.

    2015-07-15

    Heating and confinement of plasma in a multimirror magnetic configuration have been studied at the GOL-3 facility (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk). The experiments are aimed at estimating the densities and charge states of the main impurities in the GOL-3 plasma and determining their contribution to the effective plasma charge. Plasma with a density of ∼10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} was heated by a relativistic electron beam (1 MeV, 8 μs, ⩽200 kJ). At the end of electron beam injection, the plasma temperature reached 1 keV. The densities of impurities were determined using VUV and visible spectroscopy, as well as mass spectrometry of the residual vacuum. To determine the effective plasma charge, the experimental data were compared with the results of numerical simulations of the ionization balance of impurities. It is shown that the effective plasma charge calculated with allowance for the contributions from the main impurities does not exceed Z{sub eff} = 1.8, which cannot explain the experimentally observed improved confinement of low-density plasma.

  2. Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2015-04-15

    In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations.

  3. Spreading of Electrolyte Drops on Charged Surfaces: Electric Double Layer Effects on Drop Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyeong; Sinha, Shayandev; Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-11-01

    Drop spreading is one of the most fundamental topics of wetting. Here we study the spreading of electrolyte drops on charged surfaces. The electrolyte solution in contact with the charged solid triggers the formation of an electric double layer (EDL). We develop a theory to analyze how the EDL affects the drop spreading. The drop dynamics is studied by probing the EDL effects on the temporal evolution of the contact angle and the base radius (r). The EDL effects are found to hasten the spreading behaviour - this is commensurate to the EDL effects causing a ``philic'' tendency in the drops (i.e., drops attaining a contact angle smaller than its equilibrium value), as revealed by some of our recent papers. We also develop scaling laws to illustrate the manner in which the EDL effects make the r versus time (t) variation deviate from the well known r ~tn variation, thereby pinpointing the attainment of different EDL-mediated spreading regimes.

  4. Spin depolarization effect induced by charge state conversion of nitrogen vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Lei-Ming; Zou, Chang-Ling; Li, Cong-Cong; Dong, Yang; Sun, Fang-Wen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-09-01

    The electron spin of the negatively charged the nitrogen vacancy center (NV- ) in diamond can be optically polarized through intersystem crossing, which enables the defect to be used for quantum computation and metrology. In this work, we studied the electron spin depolarization effect of the NV center induced by charge state conversion, which was proven to be a spin-independent process. The spin-state initialization fidelity was largely affected by the charge state conversion process. As a result, the optical polarization of the electron spin decreased about 14 %(31 % ) with a high-power continuous-wave (pulsed) green laser. Moreover, the undefined fluorescence anomalous saturation effect of the NV center was analyzed and explained in detail based on the spin depolarization. The results demonstrated that a weak laser should be used for initialization of the NV center. In addition, the power and polarization of a laser for NV spin detection should be carefully adjusted to obtain the highest fluorescence signal. Our work also provided information that can increase the understanding of the charge state conversion and spin polarization processes of the NV center for quantum information and sensing.

  5. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K.

    2013-05-01

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10-4 millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (˜pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  6. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K.

    2013-05-15

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup −4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (∼pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  7. Infrared study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2008-03-01

    We present a systematic infrared (IR) spectroscopic study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors (FET). These experiments have revealed new unexpected aspects of both polymers and molecular crystals. IR spectromicroscopy was employed to image the charges in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) FETs. The charge density profile in the conducting channel uncovers a density-dependent mobility in P3HT due to disorder effects. Our IR studies of single crystal rubrene based FETs show that charge transport in these devices at room temperature is governed by light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands. This result is at variance with the common beliefs of polaron formation in molecular solids. The above experiments have demonstrated the unique potential of IR spectroscopy for investigating physical phenomena at the nanoscale occurring at the semiconductor-insulator interface in FET devices. This work is in collaboration with G. M. Wang, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger (UCSB), V. Podzorov, M.E. Gershenson (Rutgers), Z. Hao, M. C. Martin (ALS), N. Sai, A. D. Meyertholen, M. M. Fogler, M. Di Ventra and D. N. Basov (UCSD).

  8. Comment on ‘The effect of single-particle charge limits on charge distributions in dusty plasmas’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijmans, L. C. J.; van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Nijdam, S.

    2016-09-01

    It was recently suggested that the electron affinity may pose an additional upper limit on the charge of a single particle in a plasma, in addition to the electron field emission limit. Here we will, however, show that these two limits both rely on the same physical process and that the limit is only relevant for small particles, because it relies on electron tunneling. Plasma-produced particles of only several nanometres (≲ 10~\\text{nm} ) in size are actively studied, for example in the application of quantum dots and the implications of the proposed charge limit are certainly significant there. However, care must be taken to extend the results to larger particles, which are also actively studied in the field of dusty plasma physics, where typically the limit can be neglected, as we will also show.

  9. Self-Assembling of Tetradecylammonium Chain on Swelling High Charge Micas (Na-Mica-3 and Na-Mica-2): Effect of Alkylammonium Concentration and Mica Layer Charge.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M Carolina; Cota, Agustín; Osuna, Francisco J; Pavón, Esperanza; Alba, María D

    2015-04-21

    A family of tetradecylammonium micas is synthesized using synthetic swelling micas with high layer charge (Na(n)Si(8-n)Al(n)Mg6F4O20·XH2O, where n = 2 and 3) exchanged with tetradecylammonium cations. The molecular arrangement of the surfactant is elucidated on the basis of XRD patterns and DTA. The ordering conformation of the surfactant molecules into the interlayer space of micas is investigated by IR/FT, (13)C, (27)Al, and (29)Si MAS NMR. The structural arrangement of the tetradecylammonium cation in the interlayer space of high-charge micas is more sensitive to the effect of the mica layer charge at high concentration. The surfactant arrangement is found to follow the bilayer-paraffin model for all values of layer charge and surfactant concentration. However, at initial concentration below the mica CEC, a lateral monolayer is also observed. The amount of ordered conformation all-trans is directly proportional to the layer charge and surfactant concentration.

  10. Two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate tunnel FETs with interface trapped charges including effects of channel mobile charge carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huifang; Dai, Yuehua

    2017-02-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate (DG) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) with interface trapped charges is proposed in this paper. The influence of the channel mobile charges on the potential profile is also taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the models. On the basis of potential profile, the electric field is derived and the expression for the drain current is obtained by integrating the BTBT generation rate. The model can be used to study the impact of interface trapped charges on the surface potential, the shortest tunneling length, the drain current and the threshold voltage for varying interface trapped charge densities, length of damaged region as well as the structural parameters of the DG TFET and can also be utilized to design the charge trapped memory devices based on TFET. The biggest advantage of this model is that it is more accurate, and in its expression there are no fitting parameters with small calculating amount. Very good agreements for both the potential, drain current and threshold voltage are observed between the model calculations and the simulated results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the University Natural Science Research Key Project of Anhui Province (No. KJ2016A169), and the Introduced Talents Project of Anhui Science and Technology University.

  11. The Effective Mass of a Charged Carrier in a Nonpolar Liquid:. Applications to Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, Andrei; Chikina, Ioulia; Shikin, Valeriy

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasi-particle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called “snowball” model). Moreover, in addition to generalization of the Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal fluid contribution divergency and the way of corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  12. The Effective Mass of a Charged Carrier in a Nonpolar Liquid:. Applications to Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, Andrei; Chikina, Ioulia; Shikin, Valeriy

    2009-12-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasi-particle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called "snowball" model). Moreover, in addition to generalization of the Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal fluid contribution divergency and the way of corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  13. Chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chao; Chen, Yidian; Huang, Mei

    2017-03-01

    By using the boundary derivative expansion formalism of fluid/gravity correspondence, we study the chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge. This background corresponds to a strongly coupled, nonconformal relativistic fluid with a conserved vector current. The presence of the chiral vortical effect is induced by the addition of a Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. Except that the non-dissipative anomalous viscous coefficient and the sound speed rely only on the chemical potential, most of the other thermal and hydrodynamical quantities of the first order depend both on the temperature and the chemical potential. According to our result, the way that the chiral vortical effect coefficient depends on the chemical potential seems irrelevant with whether the relativistic fluid is conformal or not. Stability analysis shows that this anomalous relativistic fluid is stable and the doping of the smeared D0-brane charge will slow down the sound speed.

  14. The Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Charge on Antigen Cross-Presentation.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yongbin; Xing, Yun; Ren, Hongyan; Cui, Zhihua; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Guangjie; Urba, Walter J; Hu, Qingang; Hu, Hongming

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) have been explored for different kinds of applications in biomedicine, mechanics, and information. Here, we explored the synthetic SPIO NPs as an adjuvant on antigen cross-presentation ability by enhancing the intracellular delivery of antigens into antigen presenting cells (APCs). Particles with different chemical modifications and surface charges were used to study the mechanism of action of antigen delivery. Specifically, two types of magnetic NPs, γFe2O3/APTS (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) NPs and γFe2O3/DMSA (meso-2, 3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid) NPs, with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution were prepared. Then, the promotion of T-cell activation via dendritic cells (DCs) was compared among different charged antigen coated NPs. Moreover, the activation of the autophagy, cytosolic delivery of the antigens, and antigen degradation mediated by the proteasome and lysosome were measured. Our results indicated that positive charged γFe2O3/APTS NPs, but not negative charged γFe2O3/DMSA NPs, enhanced the cross-presentation ability of DCs. Increased cross-presentation ability induced by γFe2O3/APTS NPs was associated with increased cytosolic antigen delivery. On the contrary, γFe2O3/DMSA NPs was associated with rapid autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that antigen delivered in cytoplasm induced by positive charged particles is beneficial for antigen cross-presentation and T-cell activation. NPs modified with different chemistries exhibit diverse biological properties and differ greatly in their adjuvant potentials. Thus, it should be carefully considered many different effects of NPs to design effective and safe adjuvants.

  15. The Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Charge on Antigen Cross-Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Yongbin; Xing, Yun; Ren, Hongyan; Cui, Zhihua; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Guangjie; Urba, Walter J.; Hu, Qingang; Hu, Hongming

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) have been explored for different kinds of applications in biomedicine, mechanics, and information. Here, we explored the synthetic SPIO NPs as an adjuvant on antigen cross-presentation ability by enhancing the intracellular delivery of antigens into antigen presenting cells (APCs). Particles with different chemical modifications and surface charges were used to study the mechanism of action of antigen delivery. Specifically, two types of magnetic NPs, γFe2O3/APTS (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) NPs and γFe2O3/DMSA (meso-2, 3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid) NPs, with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution were prepared. Then, the promotion of T-cell activation via dendritic cells (DCs) was compared among different charged antigen coated NPs. Moreover, the activation of the autophagy, cytosolic delivery of the antigens, and antigen degradation mediated by the proteasome and lysosome were measured. Our results indicated that positive charged γFe2O3/APTS NPs, but not negative charged γFe2O3/DMSA NPs, enhanced the cross-presentation ability of DCs. Increased cross-presentation ability induced by γFe2O3/APTS NPs was associated with increased cytosolic antigen delivery. On the contrary, γFe2O3/DMSA NPs was associated with rapid autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that antigen delivered in cytoplasm induced by positive charged particles is beneficial for antigen cross-presentation and T-cell activation. NPs modified with different chemistries exhibit diverse biological properties and differ greatly in their adjuvant potentials. Thus, it should be carefully considered many different effects of NPs to design effective and safe adjuvants.

  16. Signal modeling of charge sharing effect in simple pixelated CdZnTe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Cheon; Kaye, William R.; He, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    In order to study the energy resolution degradation in 3D position-sensitive pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, a detailed detector system modeling package has been developed and used to analyze the detector performance. A 20 × 20 × 15 mm3 CZT crystal with an 11 × 11 simple-pixel anode array and a 1.72 mm pixel pitch was modeled. The VAS UM/TAT4 Application Specific Integrated Circuitry (ASIC) was used for signal read-out. Components of the simulation package include gamma-ray interactions with the CZT crystal, charge induction, electronic noise, pulse shaping, and ASIC triggering procedures. The charge induction model considers charge drift, trapping, diffusion, and sharing between pixels. This system model is used to determine the effects of electron cloud sharing, weighting potential non-uniformity, and weighting potential cross-talk which produce non-uniform signal responses for different gamma-ray interaction positions and ultimately degrade energy resolution. The effect of the decreased weighting potential underneath the gap between pixels on the total pulse amplitude of events has been studied. The transient signals induced by electron clouds collected near the gap between pixels may generate false signals, and the measured amplitude can be even greater than the photopeak. As the number of pixels that collect charge increases, the probability of side-neighbor events due to charge sharing significantly increases. If side-neighbor events are not corrected appropriately, the energy resolution of pixelated CZT detectors in multiple-pixel events degrades rapidly.

  17. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  18. Communication: Nucleation of water on ice nanograins: Size, charge, and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect

    Marciante, Mathieu; Calvo, Florent

    2015-05-07

    The sticking cross sections of water molecules on cold size-selected water clusters have been simulated using classical and quantum (path-integral) molecular dynamics trajectories under realistic conditions. The integrated cross sections for charged clusters show significant size effects with comparable trends as in experiments, as well as essentially no sign effect. Vibrational delocalization, although it contributes to enlarging the geometric cross sections, leads to a counter-intuitive decrease in the dynamical cross section obtained from the trajectories. These results are interpreted based on the apparent reduction in the effective interaction between the projectile and the target owing to zero-point effects.

  19. The Effect of Surface Charge Saturation on Heat-induced Aggregation of Firefly Luciferase.

    PubMed

    Gharanlar, Jamileh; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Sajedi, Reza H; Yaghmaei, Parichehr

    2015-01-01

    We present here the effect of firefly luciferase surface charge saturation and the presence of some additives on its thermal-induced aggregation. Three mutants of firefly luciferase prepared by introduction of surface Arg residues named as 2R, 3R and 5R have two, three and five additional arginine residues substituted at their surface compared to native luciferase; respectively. Turbidimetric study of heat-induced aggregation indicates that all three mutants were reproducibly aggregated at higher rates relative to wild type in spite of their higher thermostability. Among them, 2R had most evaluated propensity to heat-induced aggregation. Therefore, the hydrophilization followed by appearing of more substituted arginine residues with positive charge on the firefly luciferase surface was not reduced its thermal aggregation. Nevertheless, at the same condition in the presence of charged amino acids, e.g. Arg, Lys and Glu, as well as a hydrophobic amino acid, e.g. Val, the heat-induced aggregation of wild type and mutants of firefly luciferases was markedly decelerated than those in the absence of additives. On the basis of obtained results it seems, relinquishment of variety in charge of amino acid side chains, they via local interactions with proteins cause to decrease rate and extent of their thermal aggregation.

  20. Charge Effect on the Quantum Dots-Peptide Self-Assembly Using Fluorescence Coupled Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhao; Li, Jingyan; Teng, Yiwan; Bi, Yanhua; Hu, Wei; Li, Jinchen; Wang, Cheli; Qiu, Lin; Jiang, Pengju

    2016-04-01

    We present a molecular characterization of metal-affinity driven self-assembly between CdSe-ZnS quantum dots and a series of hexahistidine peptides with different charges. In particular, we uti- lized fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis to test the self-assembly process of quantum dots with peptides in solution. Four peptides with different charges can be efficiently separated by fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis. The migration time appeared to be influenced by the charges of the peptide. In addition, the kinetics of self-assembly process of quantum dots with one of the peptides manifested a bi-phasic kinetics followed by a saturating stage. This work revealed that there exist two types of binding sites on the surface of quantum dots for peptide 1: one type termed "high priority" binding site and a "low priority" site which is occupied after the first binding sites are fully occupied. The total self-assembly process finishes in solution within 80 s. Our work represents the systematic investigation of the details of self-assembly kinetics utilizing high-resolution fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis. The charge effect of peptide coating quantum dots provides a new way of preparing bioprobes.

  1. New effects of a long-lived negatively charged massive particle on big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant J.

    2014-05-01

    Primordial 7Li abundance inferred from observations of metal-poor stars is a factor of about 3 lower than the theoretical value of standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. One of the solutions to the Li problem is 7Be destruction during the BBN epoch caused by a long-lived negatively charged massive particle, X-. The particle can bind to nuclei, and X-bound nuclei (X-nuclei) can experience new reactions. The radiative X- capture by 7Be nuclei followed by proton capture of the bound state of 7Be and X- (7Bex) is a possible 7Be destruction reaction. Since the primordial abundance of 7Li originates mainly from 7Li produced via the electron capture of 7Be after BBN, the 7Be destruction provides a solution to the 7Li problem. We suggest a new route of 7Bex formation, that is the 7Be charge exchange at the reaction of 7Be3+ ion and X-. The formation rate depends on the ionization fraction of 7Be3+ ion, the charge exchange cross section of 7Be3+, and the probability that excited states 7Bex* produced at the charge exchange are converted to the ground state. We find that this reaction can be equally important as or more important than ordinary radiative recombination of 7Be and X-. The effect of this new route is shown in a nuclear reaction network calculation.

  2. Effect of extreme temperatures on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how temperature will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C temperature. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient temperature is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient temperatures, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a "base" load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.

  3. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Goutam; Panicker, Lata

    2014-12-01

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a `heme' group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV-vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20-30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the `heme' groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  4. Proliposome powders for enhanced intestinal absorption and bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride: effect of surface charge.

    PubMed

    Velpula, Ashok; Jukanti, Raju; Janga, Karthik Yadav; Sunkavalli, Sharath; Bandari, Suresh; Kandadi, Prabhakar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the combined prospective of proliposomes and surface charge for the improved oral delivery of raloxifene hydrochloride (RXH). Keeping this objective, the present systematic study was focused to formulate proliposomes by varying the ratio of hydrogenated soyphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Furthermore, to assess the role of surface charge on improved absorption of RXH, anionic and cationic vesicles were prepared using dicetyl phosphate and stearylamine, respectively. The formulations were characterized for size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency. The improved dissolution characteristics assessed from dissolution efficiency, mean dissolution rate were higher for proliposome formulations. The solid state characterization studies indicate the transformation of native crystalline form of the drug to amorphous and/or molecular state. The higher effective permeability coefficient and fraction absorbed in humans extrapolated from in situ single-pass intestinal absorption study data in rats provide an insight on the potential of proliposomes and cationic surface charge for augment in absorption across gastro intestinal barrier. To draw the conclusions, in vivo pharmacokinetic study carried out in rats indicate a threefold enhancement in the rate and extent of absorption of RXH from cationic proliposome formulation which unfurl the potential of proliposomes and role of cationic charge for improved oral delivery of RXH.

  5. Peritoneal retention of liposomes: Effects of lipid composition, PEG coating and liposome charge.

    PubMed

    Dadashzadeh, S; Mirahmadi, N; Babaei, M H; Vali, A M

    2010-12-01

    In the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis, systemic chemotherapy is not quite effective due to the poor penetration of cytotoxic agents into the peritoneal cavity, whereas intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutic agents is generally accompanied by quick absorption of the free drug from the peritoneum. Local delivery of drugs with controlled-release delivery systems like liposomes could provide sustained, elevated drug levels and reduce local and systemic toxicity. In order to achieve an ameliorated liposomal formulation that results in higher peritoneal levels of the drug and retention, vesicles composed of different phospholipid compositions (distearoyl [DSPC]; dipalmitoyl [DPPC]; or dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine [DMPC]) and various charges (neutral; negative, containing distearoylphosphatidylglycerol [DSPG]; or positive, containing dioleyloxy trimethylammonium propane [DOTAP]) were prepared at two sizes of 100 and 1000nm. The effect of surface hydrophilicity was also investigated by incorporating PEG into the DSPC-containing neutral and charged liposomes. Liposomes were labeled with (99m)Tc and injected into mouse peritoneum. Mice were then sacrificed at eight different time points, and the percentage of injected radiolabel in the peritoneal cavity and the tissue distribution in terms of the percent of the injected dose/gram of tissue (%ID/g) were obtained. The ratio of the peritoneal AUC to the free label ranged from a minimum of 4.95 for DMPC/CHOL (cholesterol) 100nm vesicles to a maximum of 24.99 for DSPC/CHOL/DOTAP 1000nm (DOTAP 1000) vesicles. These last positively charged vesicles had the greatest peritoneal level; moreover, their level remained constant at approximately 25% of the injected dose from 2 to 48h. Among the conventional (i.e., without PEG) 100nm liposomes, the positively charged vesicles again showed the greatest retention. Incorporation of PEG at this size into the lipid structures augmented the peritoneal level, particularly

  6. Effect of Crystal Structure Fineness for Charge Alloy AK6M2 on Its Flux Treatment Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, K. V.; Nikitin, V. I.; Timoshkin, I. Yu.; Chikova, O. A.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of charge billet structure and form of fluxes on structure, density, and gas content of alloy AK6M2 (Al - Si - Cu system) is studied. Alloys prepared from finely crystalline charge billet have smaller phase component sizes, lower gas content, and increased solid state density, and use of coarsely crystalline charge billets for alloy preparation necessitates an increase in flux preparation consumption in the stage of alloy preparation for casting.

  7. DNA Immobilization and Hybridization Detection by the Intrinsic Molecular Charge Using Capacitive Field-Effect Sensors Modified with a Charged Weak Polyelectrolyte Layer.

    PubMed

    Bronder, Thomas S; Poghossian, Arshak; Scheja, Sabrina; Wu, Chunsheng; Keusgen, Michael; Mewes, Dieter; Schöning, Michael J

    2015-09-16

    Miniaturized setup, compatibility with advanced micro- and nanotechnologies, and ability to detect biomolecules by their intrinsic molecular charge favor the semiconductor field-effect platform as one of the most attractive approaches for the development of label-free DNA chips. In this work, a capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensor covered with a layer-by-layer prepared, positively charged weak polyelectrolyte layer of PAH (poly(allylamine hydrochloride)) was used for the label-free electrical detection of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) immobilization and hybridization. The negatively charged probe single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules were electrostatically adsorbed onto the positively charged PAH layer, resulting in a preferentially flat orientation of the ssDNA molecules within the Debye length, thus yielding a reduced charge-screening effect and a higher sensor signal. Each sensor-surface modification step (PAH adsorption, probe ssDNA immobilization, hybridization with complementary target DNA (cDNA), reducing an unspecific adsorption by a blocking agent, incubation with noncomplementary DNA (ncDNA) solution) was monitored by means of capacitance-voltage and constant-capacitance measurements. In addition, the surface morphology of the PAH layer was studied by atomic force microscopy and contact-angle measurements. High hybridization signals of 34 and 43 mV were recorded in low-ionic strength solutions of 10 and 1 mM, respectively. In contrast, a small signal of 4 mV was recorded in the case of unspecific adsorption of fully mismatched ncDNA. The density of probe ssDNA and dsDNA molecules as well as the hybridization efficiency was estimated using the experimentally measured DNA immobilization and hybridization signals and a simplified double-layer capacitor model. The results of field-effect experiments were supported by fluorescence measurements, verifying the DNA-immobilization and hybridization event.

  8. Opposite counter-ion effects on condensed bundles of highly charged supramolecular nanotubes in water.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-07-20

    Although ion specificity in aqueous solutions is well known, its manifestation in unconventional strong electrostatic interactions remains implicit. Herein, the ionic effects in dense packing of highly charged polyelectrolytes are investigated in supramolecular nanotube prototypes. Distinctive behaviors of the orthorhombic arrays composed of supramolecular nanotubes in various aqueous solutions were observed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), depending on the counter-ions' size and affiliation to the surface -COO(-) groups. Bigger tetra-alkyl ammonium (TAA(+)) cations weakly bonding to -COO(-) will compress the orthorhombic arrays, while expansion is induced by smaller alkaline metal (M(+)) ions with strong affiliation to -COO(-). Careful analysis of the changes in the SAXS peaks with different counter/co-ion combinations indicates dissimilar mechanisms underlying the two explicit types of ionic effects. The pH measurements are in line with the ion specificity by SAXS and reveal the strong electrostatic character of the system. It is proposed that the small distances between the charged surfaces, in addition to the selective adsorption of counter-ions by the surface charge, bring out the observed distinctive ionic effects. Our results manifest the diverse mechanisms and critical roles of counter-ion effects in strong electrostatic interactions.

  9. Understanding charge transport in lead iodide perovskite thin-film field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Yang, Bingyan; Thomas, Tudor H.; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Nair, Bhaskaran; Goedel, Karl; Guha, Suchi; Moya, Xavier; McNeill, Christopher R.; Docampo, Pablo; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the charge transport physics of hybrid lead halide perovskite semiconductors is important for advancing their use in high-performance optoelectronics. We use field-effect transistors (FETs) to probe the charge transport mechanism in thin films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). We show that through optimization of thin-film microstructure and source-drain contact modifications, it is possible to significantly minimize instability and hysteresis in FET characteristics and demonstrate an electron field-effect mobility (μFET) of 0.5 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Temperature-dependent transport studies revealed a negative coefficient of mobility with three different temperature regimes. On the basis of electrical and spectroscopic studies, we attribute the three different regimes to transport limited by ion migration due to point defects associated with grain boundaries, polarization disorder of the MA+ cations, and thermal vibrations of the lead halide inorganic cages. PMID:28138550

  10. Charge Storage Effect on In2O3 Nanowires with Ruthenium Complex Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Insung; Lee, Junghyun; Jo, Gunho; Seo, Kyoungja; Choi, Nak-Jin; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2009-01-01

    Charge storage effect on In2O3 nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) is controlled by a chemical gate, ruthenium(II) terpyridine (RuII-tpy) complex molecules. In2O3 nanowire FETs functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer of the molecules exhibit large hysteretic characteristics with regard to source-drain current vs gate voltage characteristics. The devices are operated with reversible switching behavior at gate voltage cycles of writing, reading, erasing, and reading, and their retention time is in excess of 1000 s. These results reveal that the reversible chemical reaction (i.e., oxidation and reduction of the molecules) of RuII-tpy complexes produces a charging/discharging process of In2O3 nanowire FETs.

  11. Compensation for rapid contrast variations and correction for charging effects in scanning ion microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Sam T.

    1995-09-01

    Focused ion beam systems are now widely used tools at several stages of semiconductor device production and are finding applications in many other areas. Frequently, it is necessary to combine processing by micromachining or microdeposition with the intrinsic scanning ion microscope function of focused ion beam instruments. A problem in so doing is that image quality can change rapidly during processing as a result of changing secondary electron or secondary ion yields. Moreover, when milling insulating materials, charging effects can give rise to both spatial and temporal variations in contrast. This paper describes a method of achieving closed-loop, automated, compensation for image contrast variations which is also applicable to reducing image degradation due to charging effects in scanning ion microscopy.

  12. Tuning charge and correlation effects for a single molecule on a graphene device

    PubMed Central

    Wickenburg, Sebastian; Lu, Jiong; Lischner, Johannes; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Omrani, Arash A.; Riss, Alexander; Karrasch, Christoph; Bradley, Aaron; Jung, Han Sae; Khajeh, Ramin; Wong, Dillon; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Zettl, Alex; Neto, A.H. Castro; Louie, Steven G.; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the electronic properties of individual molecules in a device environment is crucial for developing future technologies at the nanometre scale and below. Achieving this, however, requires the creation of three-terminal devices that allow single molecules to be both gated and imaged at the atomic scale. We have accomplished this by integrating a graphene field effect transistor with a scanning tunnelling microscope, thus allowing gate-controlled charging and spectroscopic interrogation of individual tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane molecules. We observe a non-rigid shift in the molecule's lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (relative to the Dirac point) as a function of gate voltage due to graphene polarization effects. Our results show that electron–electron interactions play an important role in how molecular energy levels align to the graphene Dirac point, and may significantly influence charge transport through individual molecules incorporated in graphene-based nanodevices. PMID:27886170

  13. Tuning charge and correlation effects for a single molecule on a graphene device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenburg, Sebastian; Lu, Jiong; Lischner, Johannes; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Omrani, Arash A.; Riss, Alexander; Karrasch, Christoph; Bradley, Aaron; Jung, Han Sae; Khajeh, Ramin; Wong, Dillon; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Zettl, Alex; Neto, A. H. Castro; Louie, Steven G.; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-11-01

    The ability to understand and control the electronic properties of individual molecules in a device environment is crucial for developing future technologies at the nanometre scale and below. Achieving this, however, requires the creation of three-terminal devices that allow single molecules to be both gated and imaged at the atomic scale. We have accomplished this by integrating a graphene field effect transistor with a scanning tunnelling microscope, thus allowing gate-controlled charging and spectroscopic interrogation of individual tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane molecules. We observe a non-rigid shift in the molecule's lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (relative to the Dirac point) as a function of gate voltage due to graphene polarization effects. Our results show that electron-electron interactions play an important role in how molecular energy levels align to the graphene Dirac point, and may significantly influence charge transport through individual molecules incorporated in graphene-based nanodevices.

  14. Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-03-01

    The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

  15. Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

  16. Understanding charge transport in lead iodide perovskite thin-film field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P; Yang, Bingyan; Thomas, Tudor H; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Nair, Bhaskaran; Goedel, Karl; Guha, Suchi; Moya, Xavier; McNeill, Christopher R; Docampo, Pablo; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the charge transport physics of hybrid lead halide perovskite semiconductors is important for advancing their use in high-performance optoelectronics. We use field-effect transistors (FETs) to probe the charge transport mechanism in thin films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). We show that through optimization of thin-film microstructure and source-drain contact modifications, it is possible to significantly minimize instability and hysteresis in FET characteristics and demonstrate an electron field-effect mobility (μFET) of 0.5 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature. Temperature-dependent transport studies revealed a negative coefficient of mobility with three different temperature regimes. On the basis of electrical and spectroscopic studies, we attribute the three different regimes to transport limited by ion migration due to point defects associated with grain boundaries, polarization disorder of the MA(+) cations, and thermal vibrations of the lead halide inorganic cages.

  17. The Transverse Effective Charge of the IV-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Shindo, Koichi

    1981-10-01

    Littlewood’s assumption in the calculation of the transverse effective charge (TEC) of IV-VI compound semiconductors is studied by the simple calculation at W-point on the Jones zone surfaces based on the Heine-Jones model. It is shown that the main peak of optical absorption spectrum cannot be assigned only to (111) component of the effective charge in contrast with Littlewood’s assumption. The TEC is directly calculated by executing the band calculation with the potential obtained by the EPM in the framework of Vogl’s expression. The calculated result gives better agreement with experiment than Littlewood’s. The acoustic sum rule is also studied by using the similar formulation given by Vogl.

  18. Relationship of sea level muon charge ratio to primary composition including nuclear target effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goned, A.; Shalaby, M.; Salem, A. M.; Roushdy, M.

    1985-01-01

    The discrepancy between the muon charge ratio observed at low energies and that calculated using pp data is removed by including nuclear target effects. Calculations at high energies show that the primary iron spectrum is expected to change slope from 2 to 2.2 to 2.4 to 2.5 for energies approx. 4 x 10 to the 3 GeV/nucleon if scaling features continue to the highest energies.

  19. Charge Transport in Field-Effect Transistors based on Layered Materials and their Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jatinder

    In the quest for energy efficiency and device miniaturization, the research in using atomically thin materials for device applications is gaining momentum. The electronic network in layered materials is different from 3D counterparts. It is due to the interlayer couplings and density of states because of their 2D nature. Therefore, understanding the charge transport in layered materials is fundamental to explore the vast opportunities these ultra-thin materials offer. Hence, the challenges targeted in the thesis are: (1) understanding the charge transport in layered materials based on electronic network of quantum and oxide capacitances, (2) studying thickness dependence, ranging from monolayer to bulk, of full range-characteristics of field-effect transistor (FET) based on layered materials, (3) investigating the total interface trap charges to achieve the ultimate subthreshold slope (SS) theoretically possible in FETs, (4) understanding the effect of the channel length on the performance of layered materials, (5) understanding the effect of substrate on performance of the TMDC FETs and studying if the interface of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs)/hexagonalboron nitride (h-BN) can have less enough trap charges to observe ambipolar behavior, (6) Exploring optoelectronic properties in 2D heterostructures that includes understanding graphene/WS2 heterostructure and its optoelectronic applications by creating a p-n junction at the interface. The quality of materials and the interface are the issues for observing and extracting clean physics out of these layered materials and heterostructures. In this dissertation, we realized the use of quantum capacitance in layered materials, substrate effects and carrier transport in heterostructure.

  20. Molecular dynamics investigation into the electric charge effect on the operation of ion-based carbon nanotube oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Ajori, S.; Sadeghi, F.

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoscale oscillators working in the gigahertz (GHz) range and beyond has now become the focal center of interest to many researchers. Motivated by this issue, this paper proposes a new type of nano-oscillators with enhanced operating frequency in which both the inner core and outer shell are electrically charged. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the mechanical oscillatory behavior of ions, and in particular chloride ion, tunneling through electrically charged carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It is assumed that the electric charges with similar sign and magnitude are evenly distributed on two ends of nanotube. The interatomic interactions between carbon atoms and van der Waals (vdW) interactions between ion and nanotube are respectively modeled by Tersoff-Brenner and Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential functions, whereas the electrostatic interactions between ion and electric charges are modeled by Coulomb potential function. A comprehensive study is conducted to get an insight into the effects of different parameters such as sign and magnitude of electric charges, nanotube radius, nanotube length and initial conditions (initial separation distance and velocity) on the oscillatory behavior of chloride ion-charged CNT oscillators. It is shown that, the chloride ion frequency inside negatively charged CNTs is lower than that inside positively charged ones with the same magnitude of electric charge, while it is higher than that inside uncharged CNTs. It is further observed that, higher frequencies are generated at higher magnitudes of electric charges distributed on the nanotube.

  1. Long-range charge-density-wave proximity effect at cuprate/manganate interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frano, A.; Blanco-Canosa, S.; Schierle, E.; Lu, Y.; Wu, M.; Bluschke, M.; Minola, M.; Christiani, G.; Habermeier, H. U.; Logvenov, G.; Wang, Y.; van Aken, P. A.; Benckiser, E.; Weschke, E.; Le Tacon, M.; Keimer, B.

    2016-08-01

    The interplay between charge density waves (CDWs) and high-temperature superconductivity is currently under intense investigation. Experimental research on this issue is difficult because CDW formation in bulk copper oxides is strongly influenced by random disorder, and a long-range-ordered CDW state in high magnetic fields is difficult to access with spectroscopic and diffraction probes. Here we use resonant X-ray scattering in zero magnetic field to show that interfaces with the metallic ferromagnet La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 greatly enhance CDW formation in the optimally doped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+δ (δ ~ 1), and that this effect persists over several tens of nanometres. The wavevector of the incommensurate CDW serves as an internal calibration standard of the charge carrier concentration, which allows us to rule out any significant influence of oxygen non-stoichiometry, and to attribute the observed phenomenon to a genuine electronic proximity effect. Long-range proximity effects induced by heterointerfaces thus offer a powerful method to stabilize the charge-density-wave state in the cuprates and, more generally, to manipulate the interplay between different collective phenomena in metal oxides.

  2. Charged Molecules Modulate the Volume Exclusion Effects Exerted by Crowders on FtsZ Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Reija, Belén; Jiménez, Mercedes; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of protein crowders, either combined or individually, on the GTP-induced FtsZ cooperative assembly, crucial for the formation of the dynamic septal ring and, hence, for bacterial division. It was earlier demonstrated that high concentrations of inert polymers like Ficoll 70, used to mimic the crowded cellular interior, favor the assembly of FtsZ into bundles with slow depolymerization. We have found, by fluorescence anisotropy together with light scattering measurements, that the presence of protein crowders increases the tendency of FtsZ to polymerize at micromolar magnesium concentration, being the effect larger with ovomucoid, a negatively charged protein. Neutral polymers and a positively charged protein also diminished the critical concentration of assembly, the extent of the effect being compatible with that expected according to pure volume exclusion models. FtsZ polymerization was also observed to be strongly promoted by a negatively charged polymer, DNA, and by some unrelated polymers like PEGs at concentrations below the crowding regime. The influence of mixed crowders mimicking the heterogeneity of the intracellular environment on the tendency of FtsZ to assemble was also studied and nonadditive effects were found to prevail. Far from exactly reproducing the bacterial cytoplasm environment, this approach serves as a simplified model illustrating how its intrinsically crowded and heterogeneous nature may modulate FtsZ assembly into a functional Z-ring. PMID:26870947

  3. Long-range charge-density-wave proximity effect at cuprate/manganate interfaces.

    PubMed

    Frano, A; Blanco-Canosa, S; Schierle, E; Lu, Y; Wu, M; Bluschke, M; Minola, M; Christiani, G; Habermeier, H U; Logvenov, G; Wang, Y; van Aken, P A; Benckiser, E; Weschke, E; Le Tacon, M; Keimer, B

    2016-08-01

    The interplay between charge density waves (CDWs) and high-temperature superconductivity is currently under intense investigation. Experimental research on this issue is difficult because CDW formation in bulk copper oxides is strongly influenced by random disorder, and a long-range-ordered CDW state in high magnetic fields is difficult to access with spectroscopic and diffraction probes. Here we use resonant X-ray scattering in zero magnetic field to show that interfaces with the metallic ferromagnet La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 greatly enhance CDW formation in the optimally doped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+δ (δ ∼ 1), and that this effect persists over several tens of nanometres. The wavevector of the incommensurate CDW serves as an internal calibration standard of the charge carrier concentration, which allows us to rule out any significant influence of oxygen non-stoichiometry, and to attribute the observed phenomenon to a genuine electronic proximity effect. Long-range proximity effects induced by heterointerfaces thus offer a powerful method to stabilize the charge-density-wave state in the cuprates and, more generally, to manipulate the interplay between different collective phenomena in metal oxides.

  4. Charge Transfer Dissociation (CTD) Mass Spectrometry of Peptide Cations: Study of Charge State Effects and Side-Chain Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Jackson, Glen P.

    2017-01-01

    1+, 2+, and 3+ precursors of substance P and bradykinin were subjected to helium cation irradiation in a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer. Charge exchange with the helium cations produces a variety of fragment ions, the number and type of which are dependent on the charge state of the precursor ions. For 1+ peptide precursors, fragmentation is generally restricted to C-CO backbone bonds (a and x ions), whereas for 2+ and 3+ peptide precursors, all three backbone bonds (C-CO, C-N, and N-Cα) are cleaved. The type of backbone bond cleavage is indicative of possible dissociation channels involved in CTD process, including high-energy, kinetic-based, and ETD-like pathways. In addition to backbone cleavages, amino acid side-chain cleavages are observed in CTD, which are consistent with other high-energy and radical-mediated techniques. The unique dissociation pattern and supplementary information available from side-chain cleavages make CTD a potentially useful activation method for the structural study of gas-phase biomolecules.

  5. Phase Behavior of Charged Colloids and the Effect of External Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynninen, A.-P.

    2005-12-01

    Colloids are particles with a size in the nano- to micrometer range that are dispersed in a solvent, and that due to collisions from the solvent molecules, undergo Brownian motion. In most cases, the surface of the colloid acquires a net charge due to dissociation of chemical groups at the surface. In this thesis, we present results of computer simulations on the phase behavior of charged colloidal suspensions using various levels of description: Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, DLVO theory with effective many-body interactions, and the primitive model. We make two attempts to amend the DLVO theory to include many-body interactions: (i) density-dependent truncation and (ii) three-body interactions. In the case of three-body interactions, we find at low salt concentration a very broad coexistence between a fluid and a dense face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase, while at intermediate salt concentration a broad body-centered-cubic (bcc)-fcc coexistence regime appears. However, in our primitive model calculations, we did not find any broad coexistence regions or any other manifestations of three-body interactions. Thus, the effective Hamiltonian of charged colloids seems to be better described by the standard pairwise DLVO potential, than by a Hamiltonian including a density-dependent truncation or three-body interactions. We study the gas-liquid critical point of asymmetric electrolyte mixtures consisting of large multivalent macroions and small monovalent co- and counterions. The system can be seen as a binary mixture of colloids with their counterions and salt at strong electrostatic coupling. We calculate the critical point locus that connects the salt-free state consisting of macroions and counterions with the pure salt state. We calculate the ground-state phase diagram of a mixture of large and small (size ratio 0.31) oppositely charged colloids. The phase diagram displays novel structures, but also colloidal analogs of simple-salt structures and of

  6. Effects of Cylindrical Charge Geometry and Secondary Combustion Reactions on the Internal Blast Loading of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Matthew A.

    2005-05-01

    An understanding of the detonation phenomenon and airblast behavior for cylindrical high-explosive charges is essential in developing predictive capabilities for tests and scenarios involving these charge geometries. Internal tests on reinforced concrete structures allowed for the analysis of cylindrical charges and the effect of secondary reactions occurring in confined structures. The pressure profiles that occur close to a cylindrical explosive charge are strongly dependent on the length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) of the charge. This study presents a comparison of finite-element code models (i.e., AUTODYN) to empirical methods for predicting airblast behavior from cylindrical charges. Current finite element analysis (FEA) and blast prediction codes fail to account for the effects of secondary reactions (fireballs) that occur with underoxidized explosives. Theoretical models were developed for TNT and validated against literature. These models were then applied to PBX 9501 for predictions of the spherical fireball diameter and time duration. The following relationships for PBX 9501 were derived from this analysis (units of ft, lb, s). Comparison of centrally located equivalent weight charges using cylindrical and spherical geometries showed that the average impulse on the interior of the structure is ~3%–5% higher for the spherical charge. Circular regions of high impulse that occur along the axial direction of the cylindrical charge must be considered when analyzing structural response.

  7. Importance of temperature effect on the electrophoretic behavior of charge-regulated particles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tai, Yi-Hsuan; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2012-01-10

    The Joule heating effect is inevitable in electrophoresis operations. To assess its influence on the performance of electrophoresis, we consider the case of a charge-regulated particle in a solution containing multiple ionic species at temperatures ranging from 298 to 308 K. Using an aqueous SiO(2) dispersion as an example, we show that an increase in the temperature leads to a decrease in both the dielectric constant and the viscosity of the liquid phase, and an increase in both the diffusivity of ions and the particle surface potential. For a particle having a constant surface potential, its electrophoretic mobility is most influenced by the variation in the liquid viscosity as the temperature varies, but for a charged-regulated particle both the liquid viscosity and the surface potential can play an important role. Depending upon the level of pH, the degree of increase in the mobility can be on the order of 40% for a 5 K increase in the temperature. The presence of double-layer polarization, which is significant when the surface potential is sufficiently high, has the effect of inhibiting that increase in the mobility. This implies that the influence of the temperature on the mobility of the particle is most significant when the pH is close to the point of zero charge.

  8. Quantum effects in energy and charge transfer in an artificial photosynthetic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Smirnov, Anatoly Yu.; Nori, Franco

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of energy and charge transfer in a wheel-shaped artificial photosynthetic antenna-reaction center complex. This complex consists of six light-harvesting chromophores and an electron-acceptor fullerene. To describe quantum effects on a femtosecond time scale, we derive the set of exact non-Markovian equations for the Heisenberg operators of this photosynthetic complex in contact with a Gaussian heat bath. With these equations we can analyze the regime of strong system-bath interactions, where reorganization energies are of the order of the intersite exciton couplings. We show that the energy of the initially excited antenna chromophores is efficiently funneled to the porphyrin-fullerene reaction center, where a charge-separated state is set up in a few picoseconds, with a quantum yield of the order of 95%. In the single-exciton regime, with one antenna chromophore being initially excited, we observe quantum beatings of energy between two resonant antenna chromophores with a decoherence time of ˜100 fs. We also analyze the double-exciton regime, when two porphyrin molecules involved in the reaction center are initially excited. In this regime we obtain pronounced quantum oscillations of the charge on the fullerene molecule with a decoherence time of about 20 fs (at liquid nitrogen temperatures). These results show a way to directly detect quantum effects in artificial photosynthetic systems.

  9. Jahn-Teller effects in transition-metal compounds with small charge-transfer energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizokawa, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    We have studied Jahn-Teller effects in Cs2Au2Br6, ACu3Co4O12(A=Ca or Y), and IrTe2 in which the ligand p-to-transition-metal d charge-transfer energy is small or negative. The Au+/Au3+ charge disproportionation of Cs2Au2Br6 manifests in Au 4f photoemission spectra. In Cs2Au2Br6 with negative Δ and intermediate U, the charge disproportionation can be described using effective d orbitals constructed from the Au 5d and Br 4p orbitals and is stabilized by the Jahn-Teller distortion of the Au3+ site with low-spin d8 configuration. In ACu3Co4O12, Δs for Cu3+ and Co4+ are negative and Us are very large. The Zhang-Rice picture is valid to describe the electronic state, and the valence change from Cu2+/Co4+ to Cu3+/Co3+ can be viewed as the O 2p hole transfer from Co to Cu or d9 + d6L → d9L + d6. In IrTe2, both Δ and U are small and the Ir 5d and Te 5p electrons are itinerant to form the multi-band Fermi surfaces. The ideas of band Jahn-Teller transition and Peierls transition are useful to describe the structural instabilities.

  10. Arsenic removal from groundwater using iron electrocoagulation: effect of charge dosage rate.

    PubMed

    Amrose, Susan; Gadgil, Ashok; Srinivasan, Venkat; Kowolik, Kristin; Muller, Marc; Huang, Jessica; Kostecki, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that electrocoagulation (EC) using iron electrodes can reduce arsenic below 10 μg/L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater and in real groundwater from Bangladesh and Cambodia, while investigating the effect of operating parameters that are often overlooked, such as charge dosage rate. We measure arsenic removal performance over a larger range of current density than in any other single previous EC study (5000-fold: 0.02 - 100 mA/cm(2)) and over a wide range of charge dosage rates (0.060 - 18 Coulombs/L/min). We find that charge dosage rate has significant effects on both removal capacity (μg-As removed/Coulomb) and treatment time and is the appropriate parameter to maintain performance when scaling to different active areas and volumes. We estimate the operating costs of EC treatment in Bangladesh groundwater to be $0.22/m(3). Waste sludge (~80 - 120 mg/L), when tested with the Toxic Characteristic Leachate Protocol (TCLP), is characterized as non-hazardous. Although our focus is on developing a practical device, our results suggest that As[III] is mostly oxidized via a chemical pathway and does not rely on processes occurring at the anode. Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the free supplemental file.

  11. Exploring relativistic many-body recoil effects in highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Orts, R Soria; Harman, Z; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Artemyev, A N; Bruhns, H; Martínez, A J González; Jentschura, U D; Keitel, C H; Lapierre, A; Mironov, V; Shabaev, V M; Tawara, H; Tupitsyn, I I; Ullrich, J; Volotka, A V

    2006-09-08

    The relativistic recoil effect has been the object of experimental investigations using highly charged ions at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap. Its scaling with the nuclear charge Z boosts its contribution to a measurable level in the magnetic-dipole (M1) transitions of B- and Be-like Ar ions. The isotope shifts of 36Ar versus 40Ar have been detected with sub-ppm accuracy, and the recoil effect contribution was extracted from the 1s(2)2s(2)2p 2P(1/2) - 2P(3/2) transition in Ar13+ and the 1s(2)2s2p 3P1-3P2 transition in Ar14+. The experimental isotope shifts of 0.00123(6) nm (Ar13+) and 0.00120(10) nm (Ar14+) are in agreement with our present predictions of 0.00123(5) nm (Ar13+) and 0.00122(5) nm (Ar14+) based on the total relativistic recoil operator, confirming that a thorough understanding of correlated relativistic electron dynamics is necessary even in a region of intermediate nuclear charges.

  12. Relationship between the adjuvant and cytotoxic effects of the positive charges and polymerization in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gasparri, Julieta; Speroni, Lucía; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; del Valle Alonso, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Vaccine development today encounters a main obstacle, which is the need for effective adjuvants suitable for clinical trials. Aluminum salts, discovered 70 years ago and, very recently, MF59, are the only types of adjuvants currently used in vaccines licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Liposomes represent an alternative approach to vaccine adjuvants. In this article, we describe the inflammatory response and biological effect of polymerization and the addition of positive charges in liposome formulations. Nonpolymerized cationic (NP(+)) liposomes significantly reduce metabolism in Vero cells after 24 hours. Correspondingly, both NP(+) and polymerized cationic (P(+)) liposomes reduce cell viability following a 48-hour incubation. Similar results were obtained with cells from the peritoneal cavities of mice. Paradoxically, those liposomes that presented clearly cytostatic or cytotoxic effects in vitro stimulated metabolism and had a mitogenic effect in vivo. Finally, the adjuvant effect was tested by immunization in BALB/c mice. The major effect was obtained with NP(+) liposomes. Accordingly, we also demonstrated that NP(+) liposomes injected into the dermis produced an outstanding inflammatory reaction, showing the histopathological characteristics of an inoculation granuloma. Thus, positive charge would play an important role in the immunoadjuvant effect of liposomes by conferring them cytotoxic capacity.

  13. Numerical Study of Three Dimensional Effects in Longitudinal Space-Charge Impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-06-01

    Longitudinal space-charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as detrimental in free-electron lasers as they can seed instabilities. Such “microbunching instabilities” were recently shown to be potentially useful to support the generation of broadband coherent radiation pulses [1, 2]. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beamlines capable of sustaining this LSC instability as a mechanism to produce a coherent light source. To date most of these studies have been carried out with a one-dimensional impedance model for the LSC. In this paper we use a N-body “Barnes-Hut” algorithm [3] to simulate the 3D space charge force in the beam combined with elegant [4] and explore the limitation of the 1D model often used

  14. Charge storage mechanisms in electrochemical capacitors: Effects of electrode properties on performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Madeleine F.; Donne, Scott W.

    2016-09-01

    The capacitive behaviour of four commonly studied electrochemical capacitor systems has been analyzed using the step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPECS) method. Electrode-electrolyte combinations with different charge storage mechanisms were characterized, including activated carbon in aqueous (H2SO4) and organic (TEABF4 in acetonitrile) electrolytes, manganese dioxide (Na2SO4) and anhydrous ruthenium oxide (H2SO4). The SPECS method was used to separate the charge storage contributions from double layer capacitance (CDL) and diffusion-limited pseudo-capacitance (CD) at scan rates ranging from 0.08 to 125 mV/s. The relative contributions from each process are related to the physicochemical properties of the electrode. Additionally, the effects of these electrode properties on the overall performance of each system, in terms of specific power and energy, are identified.

  15. Double layer effects in a model of proton discharge on charged electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report first results on double layer effects on proton discharge reactions from aqueous solutions to charged platinum electrodes. We have extended a recently developed combined proton transfer/proton discharge model on the basis of empirical valence bond theory to include specifically adsorbed sodium cations and chloride anions. For each of four studied systems 800–1000 trajectories of a discharging proton were integrated by molecular dynamics simulations until discharge occurred. The results show significant influences of ion presence on the average behavior of protons prior to the discharge event. Rationalization of the observed behavior cannot be based solely on the electrochemical potential (or surface charge) but needs to resort to the molecular details of the double layer structure. PMID:25161833

  16. Installation and Characterization of Charged Particle Sources for Space Environmental Effects Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skevington, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Charged particle sources are integral devices used by Marshall Space Flight Center s Environmental Effects Branch (EM50) in order to simulate space environments for accurate testing of materials and systems. By using these sources inside custom vacuum systems, materials can be tested to determine charging and discharging properties as well as resistance to sputter damage. This knowledge can enable scientists and engineers to choose proper materials that will not fail in harsh space environments. This paper combines the steps utilized to build a low energy electron gun (The "Skevington 3000") as well as the methods used to characterize the output of both the Skevington 3000 and a manufactured Xenon ion source. Such characterizations include beam flux, beam uniformity, and beam energy. Both sources were deemed suitable for simulating environments in future testing.

  17. Environment effect on spectral and charge distribution characteristics of some drugs of folate derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadem Sadigh, M.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.; Johari-Ahar, M.; Zare Haghighi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular surrounding media as an important factor can effect on the operation of wide variety of drugs. For more study in this paper, spectral properties of Methotrexate and Folinic acid have been studied in various solvents. Our results show that the photo-physical of solute molecules depend strongly on solute-solvent interactions and active groups in their chemical structures. In order to investigate the contribution of specific and nonspecific interactions on the various properties of drug molecules, the linear solvation energy relationships concept is used. Moreover, charge distribution characteristics of used samples with various resonance structures in solvent environments were calculated by means of solvatochromic method. The high value of dipole moments in excited state show that local intramolecular charge transfer can occur by excitation. These results about molecular interactions can be extended to biological systems and can indicate completely the behaviors of Methotrexate and Folinic acid in polar solvents such as water in body system.

  18. Nonvolatile memory with graphene oxide as a charge storage node in nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, David J.; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Choi, Sung-Jin; Moon, Dong-Il; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2012-02-01

    Through the structural modification of a three-dimensional silicon nanowire field-effect transistor, i.e., a double-gate FinFET, a structural platform was developed which allowed for us to utilize graphene oxide (GO) as a charge trapping layer in a nonvolatile memory device. By creating a nanogap between the gate and the channel, GO was embedded after the complete device fabrication. By applying a proper gate voltage, charge trapping, and de-trapping within the GO was enabled and resulted in large threshold voltage shifts. The employment of GO with FinFET in our work suggests that graphitic materials can potentially play a significant role for future nanoelectronic applications.

  19. Estimation of charge effects of ultrafine channel utilizing junctionless transistor with nanodot-type floating gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Takahiko; Migita, Shinji; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Okamoto, Naofumi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yamashita, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi

    2017-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in junctionless field-effect transistors (JL-FETs) with a channel length of about sub-10-nm are fabricated and demonstrated. The anisotropic wet etching of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate was utilized to form V-grooves and define a nanometer-scale channel. Metal NPs are selectively placed onto the bottom of a V-groove using a bio nano process (BNP). A JL-FET is applied to a floating gate memory and used to study the impacts of charges close to the short channel. Low-voltage operation and memory behavior of broad threshold voltage appear. It is estimated by simulation that positive and negative charges equivalent to approximately 10 electrons are accumulated in one NP. It is expected that the JL-FETs can overcome the scaling limitations of floating gate memories.

  20. Effect of polymer matrices on hopping charge transport in molecularly doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Einami, Jiro

    1990-08-01

    We have studied the effect of polymer matrices on time-of-flight (TOF) photocurrent pulse shape and the drift mobility of holes in polymers doped with 2-(p-dipropylaminophenyl)-4-(p-dimethylaminophenyl)-5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1, 3-oxazole in order to understand the nature of hopping charge transport in molecularly doped polymers (MDPs). The TOF pulse shapes in oxazole-doped polymers are classed into two groups: near rectangular or dispersive shapes. The drift mobility of holes in MDPs exhibiting near-rectangular TOF shape is large compared with that exhibiting dispersive. Moreover, the drift mobility of holes depends on the dielectric constant and the glass transition temperature of polymers. These results show that the polarization and phonon mode of polymers play an important role in hopping charge transport in MDPs.

  1. Longitudinal Space Charge Effects in Bunched Electron Beams Travelling through a Malmberg-Penning Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Rome, M.; Cavaliere, F.; De Luca, F.; Pozzoli, R.; Cavenago, M.; Maero, G.; Paroli, B.

    2010-06-16

    Nanosecond pulsed electron beams in the 1-10 keV energy range have been characterized by means of an electrostatic diagnostic in the Malmberg-Penning trap ELTRAP. The beam length has been inferred through the numerical analysis of the signals measured across the overall load impedance of a planar charge collector. The presence of space charge effects leading to a longitudinal spread of the beam during its transport are evidenced at low injection energies. This feature has also been tested with the use of a one-dimensional fluid model and with two-dimensional, cylindrically-symmetric Particle-In-Cell simulations, whose results are compared to the experimental observations.

  2. Charge-Transfer Effects in Ligand Exchange Reactions of Au25 Monolayer-Protected Clusters.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Tessa M; Blackwell, Raymond E; Murray, Royce W

    2015-04-16

    Reported here are second-order rate constants of associative ligand exchanges of Au25L18 nanoparticles (L = phenylethanethiolate) of various charge states, measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance at room temperature and below. Differences in second-order rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) of ligand exchange (positive clusters ∼1.9 × 10(-5) versus negative ones ∼1.2 × 10(-4)) show that electron depletion retards ligand exchange. The ordering of rate constants between the ligands benzeneselenol > 4-bromobenzene thiol > benzenethiol reveals that exchange is accelerated by higher acidity and/or electron donation capability of the incoming ligand. Together, these observations indicate that partial charge transfer occurs between the nanoparticle and ligand during the exchange and that this is a rate-determining effect in the process.

  3. Charge Dependent Effects in Double-Photo-Ionization of Helium-Like Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Matt; Colgan, James

    2006-10-01

    A study is made of triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for double-photo-ionization (DPI) of helium-like ions. The angular distribution between the equal energy outgoing electrons is examined as a function of the nuclear target charge. Time-dependent close-coupling theory (TDCC) will be used to solve the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for both outgoing electrons. The TDCC method treats the correlation between the electrons without approximation. Previous theoretical models that have calculated the TDCS for helium-like ions have only included the electron-electron interaction through approximate perturbative methods. We will analyze the effects of the electron correlation and its dependence relative to the nuclear charge. We will compare our calculations with previous experimental and theoretical work, where available.

  4. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Martorell, Mireia; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Simats, Alba; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Rosell, Anna; Maspoch, Daniel; Montaner, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt) surgery and treated (intravenous [IV]) with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV) administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes were able to reach the brain and accumulate specifically in the infarcted area. Moreover, neutral liposomes exhibited higher bioavailability in plasma 4 hours after being administered. The detection of simvastatin by ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography confirmed its ability to cross the blood–brain barrier, when administered either as a free drug or encapsulated into liposomes. Conclusion This study confirms that liposome charge is critical to promote its accumulation in the brain infarct after MCAOt. Furthermore, simvastatin can be delivered after being encapsulated. Thus, simvastatin encapsulation might be a promising

  5. Effect of surface charge convection and shape deformation on the dielectrophoretic motion of a liquid drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-04-01

    The dielectrophoretic motion and shape deformation of a Newtonian liquid drop in an otherwise quiescent Newtonian liquid medium in the presence of an axisymmetric nonuniform dc electric field consisting of uniform and quadrupole components is investigated. The theory put forward by Feng [J. Q. Feng, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4438 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevE.54.4438] is generalized by incorporating the following two nonlinear effects—surface charge convection and shape deformation—towards determining the drop velocity. This two-way coupled moving boundary problem is solved analytically by considering small values of electric Reynolds number (ratio of charge relaxation time scale to the convection time scale) and electric capillary number (ratio of electrical stress to the surface tension) under the framework of the leaky dielectric model. We focus on investigating the effects of charge convection and shape deformation for different drop-medium combinations. A perfectly conducting drop suspended in a leaky (or perfectly) dielectric medium always deforms to a prolate shape and this kind of shape deformation always augments the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. For a perfectly dielectric drop suspended in a perfectly dielectric medium, the shape deformation leads to either increase (for prolate shape) or decrease (for oblate shape) in the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. Both surface charge convection and shape deformation affect the drop motion for leaky dielectric drops. The combined effect of these can significantly increase or decrease the dielectrophoretic drop velocity depending on the electrohydrodynamic properties of both the liquids and the relative strength of the electric Reynolds number and electric capillary number. Finally, comparison with the existing experiments reveals better agreement with the present theory.

  6. Novel Polymyxin Derivatives Carrying Only Three Positive Charges Are Effective Antibacterial Agents ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vaara, Martti; Fox, John; Loidl, Günther; Siikanen, Osmo; Apajalahti, Juha; Hansen, Frank; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Nagai, Junya; Takano, Mikihisa; Vaara, Timo

    2008-01-01

    The lack of novel antibiotics against gram-negative bacteria has reinstated polymyxins as the drugs of last resort to treat serious infections caused by extremely multiresistant gram-negative organisms. However, polymyxins are nephrotoxic, and this feature may complicate therapy or even require its discontinuation. Like that of aminoglycosides, the nephrotoxicity of polymyxins might be related to the highly cationic nature of the molecule. Colistin and polymyxin B carry five positive charges. Here we show that novel polymyxin derivatives carrying only three positive charges are effective antibacterial agents. NAB739 has a cyclic peptide portion identical to that of polymyxin B, but in the linear portion of the peptide, it carries the threonyl-d-serinyl residue (no cationic charges) instead of the diaminobutyryl-threonyl-diaminobutyryl residue (two cationic charges). The MICs of NAB739 for 17 strains of Escherichia coli were identical, or very close, to those of polymyxin B. Furthermore, NAB739 was effective against other polymyxin-susceptible strains of Enterobacteriaceae and against Acinetobacter baumannii. At subinhibitory concentrations, it dramatically sensitized A. baumannii to low concentrations of antibiotics such as rifampin, clarithromycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and meropenem. NAB739 methanesulfonate was a prodrug analogous to colistin methanesulfonate. NAB740 was the most active derivative against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NAB7061 (linear portion of the peptide, threonyl-aminobutyryl) lacked direct antibacterial activity but sensitized the targets to hydrophobic antibiotics by factors up to 2,000. The affinities of the NAB compounds for isolated rat kidney brush border membrane were significantly lower than that of polymyxin B. PMID:18591267

  7. Ultrafast charge-transfer in organic photovoltaic interfaces: geometrical and functionalization effects.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elton J G; Wang, W L

    2016-09-21

    Understanding the microscopic mechanisms of electronic excitation in organic photovoltaic cells is a challenging problem in the design of efficient devices capable of performing sunlight harvesting. Here we develop and apply an ab initio approach based on time-dependent density functional theory and Ehrenfest dynamics to investigate photoinduced charge transfer in small organic molecules. Our calculations include mixed quantum-classical dynamics with ions moving classically and electrons quantum mechanically, where no experimental external parameter other than the material geometry is required. We show that the behavior of photocarriers in zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and C60 systems, an effective prototype system for organic solar cells, is sensitive to the atomic orientation of the donor and the acceptor units as well as the functionalization of covalent molecules at the interface. In particular, configurations with the ZnPc molecules facing on C60 facilitate charge transfer between substrate and molecules that occurs within 200 fs. In contrast, configurations where ZnPc is tilted above C60 present extremely low carrier injection efficiency even at longer times as an effect of the larger interfacial potential level offset and higher energetic barrier between the donor and acceptor molecules. An enhancement of charge injection into C60 at shorter times is observed as binding groups connect ZnPc and C60 in a dyad system. Our results demonstrate a promising way of designing and controlling photoinduced charge transfer on the atomic level in organic devices that would lead to efficient carrier separation and maximize device performance.

  8. Real gas effects on charging and discharging processes of high pressure pneumatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuxi; Wang, Xuanyin; Ge, Yaozheng

    2013-01-01

    The high pressure pneumatic system has been applied to special industries. It may cause errors when we analyze high pressure pneumatics under ideal gas assumption. However, the real gas effect on the performances of high pressure pneumatics is seldom investigated. In this paper, the real gas effects on air enthalpy and internal energy are estimated firstly to study the real gas effect on the energy conversion. Under ideal gas assumption, enthalpy and internal energy are solely related to air temperature. The estimation result indicates that the pressure enthalpy and pressure internal energy of real pneumatic air obviously decrease the values of enthalpy and internal energy for high pressure pneumatics, and the values of pressure enthalpy and pressure internal energy are close. Based on the relationship among pressure, enthalpy and internal energy, the real gas effects on charging and discharging processes of high pressure pneumatics are estimated, which indicates that the real gas effect accelerates the temperature and pressure decreasing rates during discharging process, and decelerates their increasing rates during charging process. According to the above analysis, and for the inconvenience in building the simulation model for real gas and the difficulty of measuring the detail thermal capacities of pneumatics, a method to compensate the real gas effect under ideal gas assumption is proposed by modulating the thermal capacity of the pneumatic container in simulation. The experiments of switching expansion reduction (SER) for high pressure pneumatics are used to verify this compensating method. SER includes the discharging process of supply tanks and the charging process of expansion tank. The simulated and experimental results of SER are highly consistent. The proposed compensation method provides a convenient way to obtain more realistic simulation results for high pressure pneumatics.

  9. Isolated effects of external bath osmolality, solute concentration, and electrical charge on solute transport across articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion. Furthermore, solute concentrations as well as bath osmolality were changed to isolate the effects of steric hindrance on diffusion. Bath concentration and bath osmolality only had minor effects on the diffusion of the neutral solute through cartilage at the surface, middle and deep zones, indicating that the diffusion of the neutral solute was mainly Fickian. The negatively charged solute diffused considerably slower through cartilage than the neutral solute, indicating a large non-Fickian contribution in the diffusion of charged molecules. The numerical models determined maximum solute flux in the superficial zone up to a factor of 2.5 lower for the negatively charged solutes (charge=-1) as compared to the neutral solutes confirming the importance of charge-matrix interaction in diffusion of molecules across cartilage.

  10. Effective gating charges per channel in voltage-dependent K+ and Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In voltage-dependent ion channels, the gating of the channels is determined by the movement of the voltage sensor. This movement reflects the rearrangement of the protein in response to a voltage stimulus, and it can be thought of as a net displacement of elementary charges (e0) through the membrane (z: effective number of elementary charges). In this paper, we measured z in Shaker IR (inactivation removed) K+ channels, neuronal alpha 1E and alpha 1A, and cardiac alpha 1C Ca2+ channels using two methods: (a) limiting slope analysis of the conductance-voltage relationship and (b) variance analysis, to evaluate the number of active channels in a patch, combined with the measurement of charge movement in the same patch. We found that in Shaker IR K+ channels the two methods agreed with a z congruent to 13. This suggests that all the channels that gate can open and that all the measured charge is coupled to pore opening in a strictly sequential kinetic model. For all Ca2+ channels the limiting slope method gave consistent results regardless of the presence or type of beta subunit tested (z = 8.6). However, as seen with alpha 1E, the variance analysis gave different results depending on the beta subunit used. alpha 1E and alpha 1E beta 1a gave higher z values (z = 14.77 and z = 15.13 respectively) than alpha 1E beta 2a (z = 9.50, which is similar to the limiting slope results). Both the beta 1a and beta 2a subunits, coexpressed with alpha 1E Ca2+ channels facilitated channel opening by shifting the activation curve to more negative potentials, but only the beta 2a subunit increased the maximum open probability. The higher z using variance analysis in alpha 1E and alpha 1E beta 1a can be explained by a set of charges not coupled to pore opening. This set of charges moves in transitions leading to nulls thus not contributing to the ionic current fluctuations but eliciting gating currents. Coexpression of the beta 2a subunit would minimize the fraction of nulls leading to

  11. Study the Effects of Charged Particle Radiation on Gravitational Sensors in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, John A.

    1999-01-01

    a good conductor. This effectively wires a resistor to each individual tip, providing a current limit and thus greatly reducing the possibility of destructive arcing through an individual tip. An issue with this resistive layer is its range of operating temperatures. From the experience with the GP-B system, we hypothesized about using secondary electron emission for control of net charge transfer to an object. An important goal of the testing described below was to demonstrate the ability to apply both positive and negative charges to the test object from a single emitter.

  12. Constraining the existence of magnetic monopoles by Dirac-dual electric charge renormalization effect under the Planck scale limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yanbin; Huang, Changyu; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-08-01

    It was suggested by dimensional analysis that there exists a limit called the Planck energy scale coming close to which the gravitational effects of physical processes would inflate and struggle for equal rights so as to spoil the validity of pure nongravitational physical theories that governed well below the Planck energy. Near the Planck scale, the Planck charges, Planck currents, or Planck parameters can be defined and assigned to physical quantities such as the single particle electric charge and magnetic charge as the ceiling value obeyed by the low energy ordinary physics. The Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation as one form of electric-magnetic duality dictates that, the present low value electric charge corresponds to a huge magnetic charge value already passed the Planck limit so as to render theories of magnetic monopoles into the strong coupling regime, and vice versa, that small and tractable magnetic charge values correspond to huge electric charge values. It suggests that for theoretic models in which the renormalization group equation provides rapid growth for the running electric coupling constant, it is easier for the dual magnetic monopoles to emerge at lower energy scales. Allowing charges to vary with the Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation while keeping values under the Planck limit informs that the magnetic charge value drops below the Planck ceiling value into the manageable region when the electric coupling constant grows to one fourth at a model dependent energy scale, and continues dropping toward half the value of the Planck magnetic charge as the electric coupling constant continues growing at the model dependent rate toward one near Planck energy scale.

  13. Doping effect on photoabsorption and charge-separation dynamics in light-harvesting organic molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmura, Satoshi; Tsuruta, Kenji; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro

    2016-01-15

    Using ab-initio theoretical methods, we demonstrate possible enhancement of photo-conversion efficiency of an organic solar cell via intentional doping in molecular graphene-fullerene heterojunction [the hexabenzocoronene (HBC)-triethylene glycol (TEG)–C{sub 60} molecule]. Photoabsorption analysis indicates oxygen substitution into HBC leads to an extension of the spectra up to an infrared regime. A quantum-mechanical molecular dynamics simulation incorporating nonadiabatic electronic transitions reveals that a dissociated charge state (D{sup +} and A{sup -}) in the O-doped system is more stable than the pristine case due to the presence of an effective barrier by the TEG HOMO/LUMO level. We also find that oxygen doping in HBC enhances the intermolecular carrier mobility after charge separation. On the other hand, the pristine molecule undergoes rapid recombination between donor and acceptor charges at the interface. These analyses suggest that the graphene oxidation opens a new window in the application of organic super-molecules to solar cells.

  14. Bias induced spin transitions of spin crossover molecules: the role of charging effect.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hua; Jia, Ting; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-03-15

    The spin transition of spin crossover molecules induced by bias voltages from low spin to high spin was observed recently and several mechanisms were suggested to understand it. However, these mechanisms fail to explain the dependence of spin transitions on the bias polarity in experiments and thus may still be questionable. Based on a first-principles study, we propose that the bias-induced spin transition is triggered by a charging effect, namely, the filling of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of spin crossover molecules. Our proposal is substantiated by three steps: (1) the spin transition from low spin to high spin can be achieved by charging the isolated spin crossover molecules with one extra electron; (2) in molecular junctions, the charging of spin crossover molecules can be realized by electron transfer from electrodes to molecules under finite bias; (3) more importantly, the electron transfer is dependent on the bias polarity due to asymmetrical couplings of the sandwiched molecule with two electrodes. This mechanism satisfactorily explains the bias-polarity dependent spin transitions in experiments [Miyamachi et al., Nat. Commun., 2012, 3, 938; Gopakumar et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2012, 51, 6262].

  15. Effect of surfactant charge on polymer-micelle interaction: N-dodecyldimethylamine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Brackman, J.C.; Engberts, J.B.F.N. )

    1992-02-01

    The influence of the nonionic water-soluble polymers poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) on the aggregation behavior of n-dodecyldimethylamine oxide (DDAO), at various stages of protonation, has been studied. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) values were determined by the pH method and revealed an increase in stabilization of the micelles by association with PVME and PPO, upon increasing the average charge of the surfactant. The micelles formed from nonionic DDAO are not stabilized by association with PVME or PPO, but association was apparent from the reduction in aggregation number. This reduction in aggregation number is even more pronounced at higher surfactant charge. The results are interpreted in terms of a reduction in electrostatic inter-head-group interaction upon formation of the smaller polymer-bound micelles in the case of the charged surfactant molecules. PEO does not exert any influence on either the cmc or the aggregation number of DDAO micelles at any degree of protonation indicating the absence of polymer-micelle interaction. The effect of neutral and protonated DDAO on the clouding behavior of PVME and PPO has also been studied. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Effect of charge asymmetry on adsorption and phase separation of polyampholytes on silica and cellulose surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Junlong; Yamagushi, Takashi; Silva, Deusanilde J; Hubbe, Martin A; Rojas, Orlando J

    2010-01-21

    The relation between the properties of polyampholytes in aqueous solution and their adsorption behaviors on silica and cellulose surfaces was investigated. Four polyampholytes carrying different charge densities but with the same nominal ratio of positive to negative segments and two structurally similar polyelectrolytes (a polyacid and a polybase) were investigated by using quartz crystal microgravimetry using silica-coated and cellulose-coated quartz resonators. Time-resolved mass and rigidity (or viscoelasticity) of the adsorbed layer was determined from the shifts in frequency (Deltaf) and energy dissipation (DeltaD) of the respective resonator. Therefore, elucidation of the dynamics and extent of adsorption, as well as the conformational changes of the adsorbed macromolecules, were possible. The charge properties of the solid surface played a crucial role in the adsorption of the studied polyampholytes, which was explained by the capability of the surface to polarize the polyampholyte at the interface. Under the same experimental conditions, the polyampholytes had a higher nominal charge density phase-separated near the interface, producing a soft, dissipative, and loosely bound layer. In the case of cellulose substrates, where adsorption was limited, electrostatic and polarization effects were concluded to be less significant.

  17. Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-11-07

    The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate.

  18. Photoionization of alkylphenothiazines in vesicles: Effects of the alkyl chain length and the vesicle surface charge

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Masato; Hu, Ming; Kevan, L. )

    1990-01-25

    The photoionization of alkylphenothiazine (AP = alkylphenothiazine) in vesicles were observed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) methods. Alkylphenothiazine derivatives including sodium 10-methylphenothiazinesulfonate (C{sub 1}PSO{sub 3}Na), sodium 10-dodecylphenothiazinesulfonate (C{sub 12}PSO{sub 3}Na), sodium 3-(10{prime}-phenothiazinyl)propane-1-sulfonate (PC{sub 3}SO{sub 3}Na), sodium 6-(10{prime}-phenothiazinyl)hexane-1-sulfonate (PC{sub 6}SO{sub 3}Na), and sodium 12-(10{prime}-phenothiazinyl)dodecane-1-sulfonate (PC{sub 12}SO{sub 3} Na) were synthesized and used to study the effects of the alkyl chain length, the position of the sulfonate group, and the vesicle surface charge on the photoionization. A single ESR spectrum due to the alkylphenothiazine cation radicals (AP{sup +}) was observed from rapidly frozen AP in dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) or dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles photoirradiated for 10 min with {lambda} > 300 nm. In DODAC vesicles with a positive surface charge, the photoionization yield of PC{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na with a sulfonate group at the dodecyl chain end is higher than that of C{sub 12}PSO{sub 3}Na with a sulfonate group on the phenothiazine ring. The photoionization yields of AP having the sulfonate group at the alkyl chain end in DODAC vesicles increase with decreasing alkyl chain length. The highest photoionization yield was obtained from PC{sub 3}SO{sub 3}Na, which has the shortest alkyl chain in this study and has the sulfonate group at the end of the propyl chain. The photoionization yield of AP in DHP vesicles with a negative surface charge was not changed by added alkyl chains or the position of the sulfonate group in AP. The results are discussed in terms of the alkyl chain length, the position of the sulfonate group, and the vesicle surface charge.

  19. Density functional description of size-dependent effects at nucleation on neutral and charged nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchekin, Alexander K.; Lebedeva, Tatiana S.

    2017-03-01

    A numerical study of size-dependent effects in the thermodynamics of a small droplet formed around a solid nanoparticle has been performed within the square-gradient density functional theory. The Lennard-Jones fluid with the Carnahan-Starling model for the hard-sphere contribution to intermolecular interaction in liquid and vapor phases and interfaces has been used for description of the condensate. The intermolecular forces between the solid core and condensate molecules have been taken into account with the help of the Lennard-Jones part of the total molecular potential of the core. The influence of the electric charge of the particle has been considered under assumption of the central Coulomb potential in the medium with dielectric permittivity depending on local condensate density. The condensate density profiles and equimolecular radii for equilibrium droplets at different values of the condensate chemical potential have been computed in the cases of an uncharged solid core with the molecular potential, a charged core without molecular potential, and a core with joint action of the Coulomb and molecular potentials. The appearance of stable equilibrium droplets even in the absence of the electric charge has been commented. As a next step, the capillary, disjoining pressure, and electrostatic contributions to the condensate chemical potential have been considered and compared with the predictions of classical thermodynamics in a wide range of values of the droplet and the particle equimolecular radii. With the help of the found dependence of the condensate chemical potential in droplet on the droplet size, the activation barrier for nucleation on uncharged and charged particles has been computed as a function of the vapor supersaturation. Finally, the work of droplet formation and the work of wetting the particle have been found as functions of the droplet size.

  20. New effects of a long-lived negatively charged massive particle on big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant J.

    2014-05-02

    Primordial {sup 7}Li abundance inferred from observations of metal-poor stars is a factor of about 3 lower than the theoretical value of standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. One of the solutions to the Li problem is {sup 7}Be destruction during the BBN epoch caused by a long-lived negatively charged massive particle, X{sup −}. The particle can bind to nuclei, and X-bound nuclei (X-nuclei) can experience new reactions. The radiative X{sup −} capture by {sup 7}Be nuclei followed by proton capture of the bound state of {sup 7}Be and X{sup −} ({sup 7}Be{sub x}) is a possible {sup 7}Be destruction reaction. Since the primordial abundance of {sup 7}Li originates mainly from {sup 7}Li produced via the electron capture of {sup 7}Be after BBN, the {sup 7}Be destruction provides a solution to the {sup 7}Li problem. We suggest a new route of {sup 7}Be{sub x} formation, that is the {sup 7}Be charge exchange at the reaction of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+} ion and X{sup −}. The formation rate depends on the ionization fraction of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+} ion, the charge exchange cross section of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+}, and the probability that excited states {sup 7}Be{sub x}* produced at the charge exchange are converted to the ground state. We find that this reaction can be equally important as or more important than ordinary radiative recombination of {sup 7}Be and X{sup −}. The effect of this new route is shown in a nuclear reaction network calculation.

  1. Steric effects in the dynamics of electrolytes at large applied voltages. I. Double-layer charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mustafa Sabri; Bazant, Martin Z.; Ajdari, Armand

    2007-02-01

    The classical Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory of electrolytes assumes a dilute solution of point charges with mean-field electrostatic forces. Even for very dilute solutions, however, it predicts absurdly large ion concentrations (exceeding close packing) for surface potentials of only a few tenths of a volt, which are often exceeded, e.g., in microfluidic pumps and electrochemical sensors. Since the 1950s, several modifications of the PB equation have been proposed to account for the finite size of ions in equilibrium, but in this two-part series, we consider steric effects on diffuse charge dynamics (in the absence of electro-osmotic flow). In this first part, we review the literature and analyze two simple models for the charging of a thin double layer, which must form a condensed layer of close-packed ions near the surface at high voltage. A surprising prediction is that the differential capacitance typically varies nonmonotonically with the applied voltage, and thus so does the response time of an electrolytic system. In PB theory, the differential capacitance blows up exponentially with voltage, but steric effects actually cause it to decrease while remaining positive above a threshold voltage where ions become crowded near the surface. Other nonlinear effects in PB theory are also strongly suppressed by steric effects: The net salt adsorption by the double layers in response to the applied voltage is greatly reduced, and so is the tangential “surface conduction” in the diffuse layer, to the point that it can often be neglected compared to bulk conduction (small Dukhin number).

  2. Anomalous Shrinking-Swelling of Nanoconfined End-Charged Polyelectrolyte Brushes: Interplay of Confinement and Electrostatic Effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-07-14

    In this article, we model the structure and configuration of the end-charged polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes grafted on the inner walls of a nanochannel. When the confinement effect is weak, that is, d0 < h/2 (d0 is the PE brush height without electrostatic effects and h is the nanochannel half-height), d < d0 (d is the brush height with the electrostatic effects), that is, the brushes shrink due to the electrostatic effects. Furthermore, for this case, an increase in salt concentration increases d. On the contrary, for the case in which the confinement effect is strong (i.e., d0 > h/2), d > d0 (i.e., the electrostatic effects swell the brushes), and an increase in salt concentration decreases the brush height. These findings reveal that the behavior of the end-charged brushes shows three unique differences when compared to that of the standard PE brushes with charges along their entire backbone. These differences are (a) the presence of a distinct role of the confinement in dictating how the electrostatic effects mediated by the electric double layer govern the height of end-charged brushes, (b) electrostatic-effect-driven shrinking of end-charged brushes for d0 < h/2 (for backbone-charged brushes, the electrostatic effects always swell the brushes), and (c) swelling of end-charged brushes with an increase in salt concentration for d0 < h/2 (backbone-charged brushes always shrink with an increase in salt concentration). Such unique effects of confinement and electrostatics on PE brushes have not been reported previously, and we anticipate that these findings will shed new light on the structure and properties of PE-brush-functionalized nanochannels with implications in applications such as fabrication of functionalized-nanochannel-based nanofluidic diodes, valves, biosensors, current rectifiers, and so forth.

  3. Latex beads as probes of a neural crest pathway: effects of laminin, collagen, and surface charge on bead translocation

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    In the trunk region of avian embryos, neural crest cells migrate along two pathways: dorsally just under the ectoderm, and ventrally between the neural tube and the somites. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that uncoated latex beads are able to translocate along the ventral neural crest pathway after injection into young embryos; however, beads coated with fibronectin are restricted from the ventral route ( Bronner -Fraser, M.E., 1982, Dev. Biol., 91: 50-63). Here, we extend these observations to determine the effects of other macromolecules on bead distribution. The data show that laminin-coated beads, like fibronectin-coated beads, are restricted from the ventral pathway. In contrast, beads coated with type I collagen translocate ventrally after injection. Because macromolecules have characteristic charge properties, changes in surface charge caused by coating the beads may confound interpretation of the results. Electrostatic effects on bead movement were examined by coating the latex beads with polyamino acids in order to predictably alter the initial surface charge. The surface charge before injection was measured for beads coated with amino acid polymers or with various biologically important macromolecules; the subsequent translocation ability of these beads was then monitored in the embryo. Polylysine-coated beads (positively charged) were restricted from the ventral pathway as were fibronectin and laminin-coated beads, even though fibronectin and laminin beads were both negatively charged. In contrast, polytyrosine -coated beads ( neutrally charged) translocated ventrally as did negatively charged collagen-coated or uncoated beads. The results demonstrate that no correlation exists between the charge properties on the latex bead surface and their subsequent ability to translocate along the ventral pathway. Therefore, an adhesion mechanism independent of surface charge effects must explain the restriction or translocation of latex beads on a

  4. Moving Space Charge Field Effects in Photoconductive Semiconductors and Their Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen-Chia

    1995-01-01

    Internal electric space charge fields are formed inside photoconductive semiconductors when they are illuminated by an optical interference pattern. This Thesis focuses on the effects of such space charge fields formed inside semiconductor materials which contain both donors and deep level traps for photo-excited charge carriers. The photon energies are less than the band gap of the photoconductive semiconductor. The space charge field arises from the migration of photo-excited charges from the brighter to darker regions of the optical interference pattern where they become trapped. If the center frequencies of the two mutually coherent optical fields which form the interference pattern are unequal, the interference pattern and consequently the internal space charge field move with identical velocity. The moving space charge field results in a net photocurrent output from the material even when no external electric bias field is present. The short-circuit photocurrents contain a wealth of information about the material characteristics of the photoconductive semiconductor which, once known, can be used to deduce information about the optical frequency spectrum of the optical fields which form the interference pattern. An approximate but very accurate mathematical characterization of the short-circuit photocurrents and their properties are presented. These properties were verified by direct experimental measurements performed in the photoconductive semiconductors InP:Fe, GaAs, GaAs:Cr, CdTe:V, and CdTe:V:Mn. If the two interfering optical fields are plane waves with negligible linewidth, a DC short-circuit photocurrent results whose properties can be used to determine the sign of the pre-dominant species of photo-excited charge carriers, their mobility-lifetime products, and some information about donor and trap concentrations if the mobilities are known. All experiments were performed with laser diode pumped Nd:YAG unidirectional ring oscillator lasers whose optical

  5. Correction: The effect of recombination under short-circuit conditions on the determination of charge transport properties in nanostructured photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Cab, J; Anta, J A; Oskam, G

    2016-05-28

    Correction for 'The effect of recombination under short-circuit conditions on the determination of charge transport properties in nanostructured photoelectrodes' by J. Villanueva-Cab et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 2303-2308.

  6. Acyl chain length and charge effect on Tamoxifen-lipid model membrane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Duygu; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2013-05-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), which is an antiestrogenic agent, is widely used during chemotherapy of breast, pancreas, brain and liver cancers. In this study, TAM and model membrane interactions in the form of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were studied for lipids containing different acyl chain length and different charge status as a function of different TAM (1, 6, 9 and 15 mol%) concentrations. Zwitterionic lipids namely dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids were used to see the acyl chain length effect and anionic dipalmitoyl phosphtidylglycerol (DPPG) lipid was used to see the charge effect. For this purpose Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques have been conducted. For zwitterionic lipid, concentration dependent different action of TAM was observed both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases by significantly increasing the lipid order and decreasing the dynamics for 1 mol% TAM, while decreasing the lipid order and increasing the dynamics of the lipids for higher concentrations (6, 9 and 15 mol%). However, different than neutral lipids, the dynamics and disorder of DPPG liposome increased for all TAM concentrations. The interactions between TAM and head group of multilamellar liposomes was monitored by analyzing the Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands. Increasing Tamoxifen concentrations led to a dehydration around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. DSC studies showed that for all types of lipids, TAM eliminates the pre-transition, shifts the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve. The results indicate that not the acyl chain length but the charge status of the polar head group induces different effects on lipid membranes order and dynamics.

  7. Mitigating chromatic effects for the transverse focusing of intense charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrani, James; Kaganovich, Igor; Davidson, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    A final focusing scheme designed to minimize chromatic effects is discussed. Solenoids are often used for transverse focusing in accelerator systems that require a charged particle beam with a small focal spot and/or large energy density A sufficiently large spread in axial momentum will reduce the effectiveness of transverse focusing, and result in chromatic effects on the final focal spot. Placing a weaker solenoid upstream of a stronger final focusing solenoid (FFS) mitigates chromatic effects on transverse beam focusing. J.M. Mitrani et al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. A (2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2013.05.09 This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. The effects of congestion charging on road traffic casualties: a causal analysis using difference-in-difference estimation.

    PubMed

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J; Majumdar, Arnab

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to identify the impacts of the London congestion charge on road casualties within the central London charging zone. It develops a full difference-in-difference (DID) model that is integrated with generalized linear models, such as Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models. Covariates are included in the model to adjust for factors that violate the parallel trend assumption, which is critical in the DID model. The lower Bayesian Information Criterion value suggests that the full difference-in-difference model performs well in evaluating the relationship between road accidents and the London congestion charge as well as other socio-economic factors. After adjusting for a time trend and regional effects, the results show that the introduction of the London congestion charge has a significant influence on the incidence of road casualties. The congestion charge reduces the total number of car accidents, but is associated with an increase in two wheeled vehicle accidents.

  9. Effect of surface charge density and electro-osmotic flow on ionic current in a bipolar nanopore fluidic diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal Singh, Kunwar; Kumar, Manoj

    2011-10-01

    We have simulated bipolar nanopore fluidic diodes for different values of surface charge densities, electrolyte concentrations, and thickness of transition zone. Nanopore enrichment leads to increased nanopore conductivity with the surface charge density at low electrolyte concentrations. Potential drop across the nanopore and electric field inside the nanopore decreases. Forward current and ionic current rectification peaks for a specific value of surface charge density. Even though the electro-osmotic current component remains small as compared to other components, its non-inclusion in the modeling leads to serious errors in the solutions. Significant ion current rectification can be obtained even if transition zone between oppositely charged zones is not narrow. The effect of the surface charge is screened by counterions at higher electrolyte concentrations, which leads to reduced electrolyte polarization and a decrease in the ion current rectification.

  10. Effect of the surface charge density on the creep of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhmakin, Yu. D.; Rybyanets, V. A.; Nevskii, S. A.; Gromov, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    The creep of polycrystalline copper under the action of high and low electric potentials is studied. At potentials of ±4 kV and ±5 V, the steady-state creep rate decreases, and the effect in the former case is weaker than in the latter by a factor of 2.5. This difference is caused by the fact that the charge density in the sample-capacitor bank system at the high electric potentials is lower than at the low potentials.

  11. Charge-density-wave stripe state in fractional quantum spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Yan

    2016-02-01

    By means of finite-size exact diagonalization, we theoretically study the effect of an inter-spin interaction in a fractional quantum spin Hall system, and demonstrate that the charge-density-wave stripe state can be realized in a fractional quantum spin Hall system by tuning the strength of an inter-spin interaction, which clarifies the nature of the puzzling mysterious phase emerging in previous studies. The experimental realization of such exotic quantum state as well as its evolution in optical lattices are also discussed. These results may provide insights into the future studies of fractional topological insulators.

  12. On the theory of the noncoalescence effect for oppositely charged droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Saranin, V. A.

    2011-05-15

    A theory is proposed and numerical simulation is conducted for oppositely charged mutually approaching droplets of an aqueous electrolytic solution in silicon oil. It is shown that at small distances between droplets, a conductive bridge leveling out the potentials of the droplets may form between them due to electrohydrodynamic instability of the equilibrium surface of one of the droplets. As a result, the droplets start to repel each other and may drift apart without coagulation. The proposed theory is confirmed by the effect of nonconfluent droplets observed in experiments [W.D. Ristenpart, J.C. Bird, A. Belmonte, et al., Nature 461, 377 (2009)].

  13. Effect of charge accumulation on the stability of PEDOT:PSS during device operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teguh, Jefri S.; Sum, Tze Chien; Yeow, Edwin K. L.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of charge imbalance and accumulation on the stability of the hole transporting layer PEDOT:PSS in devices is studied during device operation. The principal Raman peak of PEDOT at around 1420-1430 cm-1 is weakened and undergoes band broadening cum shift due to oxidation by holes injected from the ITO anode (doping). Upon suspending the applied potential, the oxidized PEDOT converts back to its as-prepared state. The oxidation of PEDOT is found to be reversible as long as the applied potential is kept relatively low as higher potential would induce PEDOT decomposition.

  14. Light-induced effects in dye-doped liquid crystals: role of space charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoni, F.; Lucchetti, L.

    2014-10-01

    We report the experimental demonstration that both the extra-ordinarily large nonlinear response and the light-induced permanent reorientation in liquid crystals doped by the azo-dye Methyl-Red originates from the modification of the charge density on the irradiated surface. By recording the sample response by applying dc or ac voltage, it is shown that in the latter case no permanent anchoring is possible. It is also demonstrated the limited role of photo-isomerization that gives a contribution to the nonlinear reorientation process only in the high dose regime. The effects on light-induced tuning of the Freedericksz transition are also reported.

  15. Effect of charged metal nanoparticles on carrier injection in graphene by an external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Manaho; Okada, Susumu

    2017-02-01

    First-principles total-energy calculations clarify the effect of charged Al nanoparticles on carrier accumulation in graphene by an external electric field. Carrier injection in graphene with Al nanoparticles is sensitive to the relative position of the Al nanoparticles to the gate electrode. The nanoparticles sandwiched between graphene and an electrode prevent carrier injection in graphene, while the nanoparticles adsorbed on the opposite side do not affect the Dirac point shift, resulting in successive carrier injection in graphene. Because of the density of the state difference, the capacitance of graphene with Al nanoparticle also depends on the electrode position.

  16. Off-shell behavior of relativistic NN effective interactions and charge symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersten, A.; Thomas, A. W.; Weyrauch, M.

    1990-04-01

    We examine in detail the suggestion of Iqbal et al. for calculating the class-four charge symmetry breaking amplitude in n-p scattering. By simplifying to a model problem, we show explicitly that the approximation scheme is unreliable if a phenomenological, effective nucleon-nucleon T matrix is used. Our results have wider implications for observables calculated in relativistic impulse approximation calculations. They reinforce the observation made in the literature that the procedure of fitting only positive energy matrix elements can lead to an NN interaction whose off-shell behavior is incorrect.

  17. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian dynamics of charged particles including the effects of radiation damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua; Davidson, Ronald; Fisch, Nathaniel; Chung, Moses

    2015-11-01

    The effects of radiation damping (radiation reaction) on accelerating charged particles in modern high-intensity accelerators and high-intensity laser beams have becoming increasingly important. Especially for electron accelerators and storage rings, radiation damping is an effective mechanism and technique to achieve high beam luminosity. We develop Hamiltonian and Lagrangian descriptions of the classical dynamics of a charged particle including the effects of radiation damping in the general electromagnetic focusing channels encountered in accelerators. The direct connection between the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories and the more fundamental QED description of the synchrotron radiation process is also addressed. In addition to their theoretical importance, the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories of the radiation damping also enable us to numerically integrate the dynamics using advanced structure-preserving geometric algorithms. These theoretical developments can also be applied to runaway electrons and positrons generated during the disruption or startup of tokamak discharges. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-09CH11466).

  18. Predicting and rationalizing the effect of surface charge distribution and orientation on nano-wire based FET bio-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vico, Luca; Iversen, Lars; Sørensen, Martin H.; Brandbyge, Mads; Nygård, Jesper; Martinez, Karen L.; Jensen, Jan H.

    2011-09-01

    A single charge screening model of surface charge sensors in liquids (De Vico et al., Nanoscale, 2011, 3, 706-717) is extended to multiple charges to model the effect of the charge distributions of analyte proteins on FET sensor response. With this model we show that counter-intuitive signal changes (e.g. a positive signal change due to a net positive protein binding to a p-type conductor) can occur for certain combinations of charge distributions and Debye lengths. The new method is applied to interpret published experimental data on Streptavidin (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 3969-3976) and Nucleocapsid protein (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 1219-1224).A single charge screening model of surface charge sensors in liquids (De Vico et al., Nanoscale, 2011, 3, 706-717) is extended to multiple charges to model the effect of the charge distributions of analyte proteins on FET sensor response. With this model we show that counter-intuitive signal changes (e.g. a positive signal change due to a net positive protein binding to a p-type conductor) can occur for certain combinations of charge distributions and Debye lengths. The new method is applied to interpret published experimental data on Streptavidin (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 3969-3976) and Nucleocapsid protein (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 1219-1224). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A detailed description of the SMSCSL model is given, along with the Streptavidin and N protein treatment. Additional material is provided in Tables 1S-3S and Fig. 1S-13S. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10316d

  19. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Charge Transport in Organolead Halide Perovskite Microplate Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Dehui; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wang, Yiliu; Zhao, Zipeng; Wang, Gongming; Wu, Hao; He, Qiyuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    Transformation of unipolar n-type semiconductor behavior to ambipolar and finally to unipolar p-type behavior in CH3 NH3 PbI3 microplate field-effect transistors by thermal annealing is reported. The photoluminescence spectra essentially maintain the same features before and after the thermal annealing process, demonstrating that the charge transport measurement provides a sensitive way to probe low-concentration defects in perovskite materials.

  20. Charge transport mechanisms in organic and microcrystalline silicon field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konezny, S. J.; Bussac, M. N.; Geiser, A.; Zuppiroli, L.

    2007-09-01

    Several organic and inorganic materials have emerged as promising candidates for the active layer of field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated on flexible substrates. The charge transport models necessary for device optimization in these systems are at different stages of development. The understanding of charge transport in single-crystal and thin-film FETs based on organic materials such as pentacene, rubrene, and other related compounds has advanced considerably in recent years and a clear picture of the relevant transport mechanisms is forming. In contrast, the theoretical description of transport in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) is not as well known and the published results and theories are often contradictory. We review the paradigms we feel are useful in describing the current understanding of transport in organic and μc-Si:H field-effect transistors. In the case of organic materials these include the polarization and transfer integral fluctuation model [A. Troisi and G. Orlandi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 086601 (2006), J.-D. Picon et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 235106 (2007)], the Frölich polaron model [I.N. Hulea et al., Nat. Mater. 5, 982 (2006), H. Houilli et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 033702 (2006)], and several trapping models [M.E. Gershenson et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 973 (2006), V. Podzorov et al., Phys Rev. Lett. 95, 226601 (2005)]. Given the heterogeneous composition and structure of microcrystalline silicon thin films, a variety of theories to describe dark conductivity have been applied to μc-Si:H including those based on percolation theory [H. Overhof et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227-230, 992 (1998)], hopping models [A. Dussan and R. H. Buitrago, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 043711 (2005)], thermionic emission, and tunneling. We give a brief overview of these models and present a fluctuation-induced tunneling model that we are developing to describe charge transport in microcrystalline silicon.

  1. Removal of pollutants by enhanced coagulation combined PAC with variable charge soils: flocs' properties and effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Chun-De; Duan, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Lin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the properties of flocs and effects of the solution pH on removal of representative pollutants by enhanced coagulation with variable charge soils of South China and polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency of turbidity was larger and the aggregated flocs had a faster growth rate, bigger size, denser structure and faster settling rate than those generated by PAC alone, when variable charge soil was used in conjunction with PAC. Additionally, initial solutions pH had meaningful effects on removal of pollutants. With the increase in the pH of the solution, the removal efficiencies of turbidity, algae and heavy metal ions significantly increased. Besides, charge neutralization together with physical entrapment of colloids was the dominant mechanism in enhanced coagulation, and variable charge soil displayed a great adsorption effect.

  2. Cytogenetic effects of heavy charged particles of galactic cosmic radiation in experiments aboard Cosmos-1129 biosatellite

    SciTech Connect

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maksimova, Y.N.

    1982-08-01

    An experiment was carried out on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds flown in a biocontainer equipped with plastic detectors to record heavy charged particles (HCP). The purpose of the experiment was to determine the yield of aberrant cells as a result of irradiation, and to identify this effect as a function of HCP topography in the seed. The cytogenetic examination of flight seedlings revealed a significant difference between the seeds which were hit with HCP and those that remained intact. This indicates a significant contribution of the heavy component of galactic cosmic radiation into the radiobiological effect. The relationship between the radiobiological effect and the HCP topography in the seed was established: zones of the root and stem meristem proved to be the most sensitive targets.

  3. Systematic adjustment of charge densities and size of polyglycerol amines reduces cytotoxic effects and enhances cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Hellmund, Markus; Achazi, Katharina; Neumann, Falko; Thota, Bala N S; Ma, Nan; Haag, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Excessive cationic charge density of polyplexes during cellular uptake is still a major hurdle in the field of non-viral gene delivery. The most efficient cationic vectors such as polyethylene imine (PEI) or polyamidoamine (PAMAM) can be highly toxic and may induce strong side effects due to their high cationic charge densities. Alternatives like polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used to 'shield' these charges and thus to reduce the cytotoxic effects known for PEI/PEG-core-shell architectures. In this study, we compared the ability of hyperbranched polyglycerol amines (hPG amines) with different amine densities and molecular weights as non-viral cationic vectors for DNA delivery. By adjusting the hydroxyl to amine group ratio on varying molecular weights, we were able to perform a systematic study on the cytotoxic effects caused by the effective charge density in correlation to size. We could demonstrate that carriers with moderate charge density have a higher potential for effective DNA delivery as compared to high/low charged ones independent of their size, but the final efficiency can be optimized by the molecular weight. We analyzed the physicochemical properties and cellular uptake capacity as well as the cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of these new vector systems.

  4. Charge is an important determinant of hemodynamic and adverse cardiovascular effects of cationic drugs.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Curtis, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Cationic compounds are diverse and atypical therapeutic substances. In the present study we examined whether a prototypical class effect of cationic drugs in the cardiovascular system exists and whether this might be predictable on the basis of chemistry. The dose-dependent effects of cationic compounds of varying molecular weights and charge were examined on the blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and the ECG in anesthetized rats. The compounds examined were protamine, hexadimethrine, tetraethylammonium (TEA), low molecular weight poly-L-lysine (LMW-PLL) and high molecular weight PLL (HMW-PLL). All of the compounds examined except TEA produced a dose-dependent reduction in BP. No changes occurred in HR even when high doses were administered. The ECG effects of these cationic compounds included a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval, especially at higher doses. All compounds transiently decreased the size of the P-wave after i.v. bolus administration whereas only protamine and hexadimethrine prolonged the PR and QRS intervals and only at the highest dose (32 mg/kg) administered. All cationic compounds, except TEA and saline, evoked ventricular premature beats (VPB), and protamine and HMW-PLL also evoked brief episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT). The incidence and frequency of arrhythmias was not dose-dependent and no animals experienced protracted episodes of arrhythmia incidence. These dose dependent effects of the polycationic compounds tested suggest a collective mechanism of action that relates the effect of charge of the compound to the onset and persistence of observed cardiovascular toxicity, and adverse cardiovascular effect risk appears to be predictable on this basis.

  5. The effect of surface charge on the boundary slip of various oleophilic/phobic surfaces immersed in liquids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-10-14

    The reduction of fluid drag is an important issue in many fluid flow applications at the micro/nanoscale. Boundary slip is believed to affect fluid drag. Slip length has been measured on various surfaces with different degrees of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity immersed in various liquids of scientific interest. Surface charge has been found to affect slip length in water and electrolytes. However, there are no studies on the effect of surface charge on slip at solid-oil interfaces. This study focuses on the effect of surface charge on the boundary slip of superoleophilic, oleophilic, oleophobic, and superoleophobic surfaces immersed in deionized (DI) water and hexadecane and ethylene glycol, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface charge was changed by applying a positive electric field to the solid-liquid interface, and by using liquids with different pH values. The results show that slip length increases with an increase in applied positive electric field voltage. Slip length also increases with a decrease in the pH of the solutions. The change in slip length is dependent on the absolute value of the surface charge, and a larger surface charge density results in a smaller slip length. In addition, the surface charge density at different solid-liquid interfaces is related to the dielectric properties of the surface. The underlying mechanisms are analyzed.

  6. Structure-function relationship of Val/Arg-rich peptides: effects of net charge and pro on activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingquan; Jiao, Wenjing; Lv, Yinfeng; Dong, Na; Zhu, Xin; Shan, Anshan

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study reported Val/Arg-rich peptides, and the relationship was linear between hydrophobicity and antimicrobial potency within a certain range. Here, we further develop a new series of analogs to investigate the effect of net charge and Pro residue on activity. Replacement of Gly with Ala or Pro led to the decrease in antimicrobial activity. The substitution of Gly with Ala retained its hemolytic activity, while the substitution with Pro significantly decreased the toxicity, suggesting positive effect of Pro on hemolytic activity. The increase in net charge from +4 to +6 significantly improved antimicrobial activity and decreased the hemolysis. However, antibacterial and hemolytic activities were not affected by increasing the net charge from +6 to +8, indicating a moderate net positive charge. The peptides produced larger blue shifts in PE/PG than in PC/cholesterol, suggesting a stronger affinity with negatively charged membrane over zwitterionic membrane. Lowering the net charge or insert of Pro led to the lack of α-helical structure in SDS micelles, which may be correlated with weakened antimicrobial potency. This study indicated that Val/Arg-rich peptides should have moderate net charge and Pro may play a role in reducing the toxicity against red blood cells.

  7. Magneto-dielectric effects induced by optically-generated intermolecular charge-transfer states in organic semiconducting materials.

    PubMed

    Zang, Huidong; Yan, Liang; Li, Mingxing; He, Lei; Gai, Zheng; Ivanov, Ilia; Wang, Min; Chiang, Long; Urbas, Augustine; Hu, Bin

    2013-10-02

    Traditionally, magneto-dielectric effects have been developed by combining ferroelectric and magnetic materials. Here, we show a magneto-dielectric effect from optically-generated intermolecular charge-transfer states in an organic semiconducting donor:acceptor (PVK:TCNB) system. We observe in magnetic field effects of photoluminescence that a magnetic field can change singlet/triplet population ratio in intermolecular charge-transfer states. Furthermore, our theoretical analysis and experimental evidence indicate that the singlets and triplets in charge-transfer states have stronger and weaker electrical polarizations, respectively. Therefore, the observed magneto-dielectric effect can be attributed to magnetically-dependent singlet/triplet ratio in intermolecular charge-transfer states. In principle, a magneto-dielectric effect can be generated through two different channels based on magneto-polarization and magneto-current effects when the singlet/triplet ratio in intermolecular charge-transfer states is changed by a magnetic field. We find, from the simulation of dielectric effects, that magneto-polarization and magneto-current effects play primary and secondary roles in the generation of magneto-dielectric effect.

  8. Effects of oxide thickness on charge trapping in metal-nitride-oxide- semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Vikram J.; Delatore, James P.

    1982-07-01

    Charge trapping in chemically vapor-deposited Si3N4 thin films of metal-nitride-oxide- semiconductor (MNOS) structures has been studied using the internal photoelectric-effect technique in combination with high-frequency capacitance-voltage measurements. The trapped charge density in the Si3N4 film was investigated as a function of the experimental parameters of the internal photoelectric-effect technique and the oxide thickness (300-20 Å) of the MNOS structure. The optimum trapped electron density in the Si3N4 film was measured to be 1.5×1018/ cm3 using 4.14-eV photon energy, 3.0-mW/cm2 light intensity, and -20-V applied gate voltage bias for the MNOS structures whose oxide thicknesses were greater than 70 Å. The photoinjection of holes from Si into Si3N4 was inhibited in thick-oxide (300-43 Å) MNOS structures due to the large barrier height at the Si-SiO2 interface. This eliminated simultaneous trapping of holes and electrons in the Si3N4 film. As the oxide thickness of the MNOS structure was reduced below the critical thickness of 43 Å, the photoinjection of holes from Si into Si3N4 was enhanced substantially with subsequent dominant hole trapping in the Si3N4 film.

  9. Generating electric current based on the solvent-dependent charging effects of defective boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Que, Ronghui; Huang, Yucheng; Li, Qinling; Yao, Hong; Geng, Baoyou; Shao, Mingwang

    2014-11-26

    This work presents a method of generating electric current based on the defects of few-layer boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). The density functional theory calculations showed that the atomic charge of the B atom in acetone was more positive than in water. The electrostatic force microscopy measurements illustrated that the local electrical potential was 0.35 mV in acetone, while the potential signal was very difficult to capture when using water as the dispersant. This effect was further demonstrated by the performance of the acoustic energy-harvesting nanogenerator: the BNNSs were assembled into a film after being dispersed in acetone and then integrated into the generator device, generating average output current of ∼0.98 nA, which was much better than 0.2 nA, the average output current of another device with water as the dispersant. These results demonstrated that solvent effects made the as-prepared BNNSs carry net charges, which could be utilized to harvest acoustic energy and generate current.

  10. Charge neutral MoS2 field effect transistors through oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhall, Rohan; Li, Zhen; Kosmowska, Ewa; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2016-11-01

    Lithographically fabricated MoS2 field effect transistors suffer from several critical imperfections, including low sub-threshold swings, large turn-on gate voltages (VT), and wide device-to-device variability. The large magnitude and variability of VT stems from unclean interfaces, trapped charges in the underlying substrate, and sulfur vacancies created during the mechanical exfoliation process. In this study, we demonstrate a simple and reliable oxygen plasma treatment, which mitigates the effects of unintentional doping created by surface defect sites, such as S vacancies, and surface contamination. This plasma treatment restores charge neutrality to the MoS2 and shifts the threshold turn-on voltage towards 0 V. Out of the 10 devices measured, all exhibit a shift of the FET turn-on voltage from an average of -18 V to -2 V. The oxygen plasma treatment passivates these defects, which reduces surface scattering, causing increased mobility and improved subthreshold swing. For as-prepared devices with low mobilities (˜0.01 cm2/V s), we observe up to a 190-fold increase in mobility after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Perhaps the most important aspect of this oxygen plasma treatment is that it reduces the device-to-device variability, which is a crucial factor in realizing any practical application of these devices.

  11. Space charge effects in rf traps: Ponderomotive concept and stroboscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kushal; Ramachandran, Harishankar

    2009-06-01

    Exact solutions for one-dimensional (1D) plasma dynamics in an rf trap are known when space charge effects are neglected [K. Shah and H. S. Ramachandran, Phys. Plasmas 15, 062303 (2008)]. In this work, weak space charge effects in an rf trap are considered. An analytic expression for the time varying distribution function of the 1D plasma is obtained. It is shown that the plasma is a Maxwellian up to the lowest order in nonlinearity and that the spatially constant temperature periodically oscillates in time at the same rate as the rf frequency. It was shown by Krapchev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 497 (1979)] that the time averaged distribution function is double humped with respect to velocity beyond a certain threshold in space. The time average of the complete time varying distribution function is obtained and some of the predictions of Krapchev are recovered, while also finding discrepancies. The relationship between stroboscopic orbits and the time averaged ponderomotive orbit are obtained for such traps.

  12. Spin-charge order and excitonic effects in sawtooth-like graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sha; Lu, Wengang; Qi, Jingshan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we systematically study electronic structures and excitonic effects in one type of the sawtooth-like graphene nanoribbons. A main feature is that the local magnetism is developed for the certain width and changes with the increase of width. A variety of magnetic orders root in the competition of the short range interaction between the same spin-electrons and long range exchange interaction between opposite spin-electrons. For excitonic effects, the binding energy of degenerate spin-triplets T1 and T-1 is higher than that of T0 for all studied nanoribbons and is size dependent. We reveal the underlying physical mechanism from the charge distributions of excitons and its correlation with the spin-resolved charge density distributions in the ground state. We find that the electrons and holes in degenerate spin-triplets T1 and T-1 are closer together and thus the interaction between them is more strong, while the distribution of electrons and holes is relatively more disperse for T0, indicating the weaker interaction. We hope that these interesting results are able to be detected in the experiment and these multi-performance samples are better utilized in future device applications.

  13. The Effect of Chemical Reactivity and Charge Transfer on Gallium-Arsenide (110) Schottky Barrier Formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael Duryea

    Transition and near noble metals have been deposited in sequential steps on atomically clean cleaved Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Soft X-ray and ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopies were used to elucidate the room temperature (RT) chemistry and Fermi level pinning behaviors of these systems. The results show that the nature or degree of the chemical reaction has little effect on the Schottky barrier (SB) height of the metal-semiconductor contact. Silver (Ag), Gold (Au), Copper (Cu) and Palladium (Pd) for example, exhibit a range of chemical reactivities with the substrate going from non-reactive in the case of Ag to very reactive for Pd. These all have a SB height of 0.9 electron volts (eV) for n-type GaAs. Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr) and Titanium (Ti), on the other hand, also react strongly but have a SB height of 0.7 eV. The pinning position of the Fermi level at the interface for the established barrier (with the exception of the Ag contact) is also found to be independent of whether the substrate is doped n or p-type. An examination of trends in charge transfer parameters between the metal overlayer and the substrate has led to a strong correlation between the electronegativity (Pauling's scale) of the metal and the observed SB height. It is suggested that the formation of a dipole at the interface effects a charge transfer between the adatom induced defect levels and the metal overlayer consistent with charge neutrality. As a test, two additional sets of experiments were performed. The first is a study of Ytterbium (Yb) on the GaAs suabstrate. The unique chemistry of the rare earth metal provides further proof that the SB height is independent of chemistry. The second set of experiments is a kinetic study of the development of the Aluminum (Al)/GaAs SB. The RT and low temperature ((LESSTHEQ)-50(DEGREES)C) substrates show a significant variation in the pinning behavior of the interfacial Fermi level with coverage. The

  14. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    DOE PAGES

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.; ...

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge-induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  15. Effect of dust-charge fluctuations on dust acoustic solitary waves in an inhomogeneous dusty plasma with nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect

    El-Labany, S. K.; Selim, M. M. E-mail: mselim2000@yahoo.com; Al-Abbasy, O. M.; El-Bedwehy, N. A.

    2015-02-15

    The effects of adiabatic dust grain charge fluctuation and inhomogeneity on the nonlinear properties of dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves are studied. The plasma under consideration is a hot magnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged dust particles, Boltzmann ions, and nonextensive electrons. A modified Zakharov-Kusnetsov equation, which admits a solitary wave solution, is derived using the reductive perturbation theory. It is found that the charge fluctuation of the dust grain modifies the nature of DA solitary structures. The numerical results may be useful to understand phenomena in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  16. Effect of surface charge of polyethyleneimine-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the improvement of polymerase chain reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xueyan; Chen, Jingjing; Wen, Shihui; Peng, Chen; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2011-04-01

    In molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has played an important role but suffers a general problem with low efficiency and specificity. Development of suitable additives to improve the PCR specificity and efficiency and the understanding of the PCR enhancing mechanism still remain a great challenge. Here we report the use of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different surface charge polarities as a novel class of enhancers to improve the specificity and efficiency of PCR. The materials used included the positively charged PEI-modified MWCNTs (CNT/PEI), the neutral CNT/PEI modified with acetic anhydride (CNT/PEI.Ac), and the negatively charged CNT/PEI modified with succinic anhydride (CNT/PEI.SAH). We show that the specificity and efficiency of an error-prone two-round PCR are greatly impacted by the surface charge polarity of the PEI-modified MWCNTs. Positively charged CNT/PEI could significantly enhance the specificity and efficiency of PCR with an optimum concentration as low as 0.39 mg L-1, whereas neutral CNT/PEI.Ac had no such effect. Although negatively charged CNT/PEI.SAH could enhance the PCR, the optimum concentration required (630 mg L-1) was more than 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of positively charged CNT/PEI. The present study suggests that the PCR enhancing effect may be primarily based on the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged CNT/PEI and the negatively charged PCR components, rather than only on the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs.In molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has played an important role but suffers a general problem with low efficiency and specificity. Development of suitable additives to improve the PCR specificity and efficiency and the understanding of the PCR enhancing mechanism still remain a great challenge. Here we report the use of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different surface charge

  17. Fabrication and characterization of a charge-biased CMOS-MEMS resonant gate field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, C. H.; Li, C. S.; Li, M. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Li, S. S.

    2014-09-01

    A high-frequency charge-biased CMOS-MEMS resonant gate field effect transistor (RGFET) composed of a metal-oxide composite resonant-gate structure and an FET transducer has been demonstrated utilizing the TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology with Q > 1700 and a signal-to-feedthrough ratio greater than 35 dB under a direct two-port measurement configuration. As compared to the conventional capacitive-type MEMS resonators, the proposed CMOS-MEMS RGFET features an inherent transconductance gain (gm) offered by the FET transduction capable of enhancing the motional signal of the resonator and relaxing the impedance mismatch issue to its succeeding electronics or 50 Ω-based test facilities. In this work, we design a clamped-clamped beam resonant-gate structure right above a floating gate FET transducer as a high-Q building block through a maskless post-CMOS process to combine merits from the large capacitive transduction areas of the large-width beam resonator and the high gain of the underneath FET. An analytical model is also provided to simulate the behavior of the charge-biased RGFET; the theoretical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results. Thanks to the deep-submicrometer gap spacing enabled by the post-CMOS polysilicon release process, the proposed resonator under a purely capacitive transduction already attains motional impedance less than 10 kΩ, a record-low value among CMOS-MEMS capacitive resonators. To go one step further, the motional signal of the proposed RGFET is greatly enhanced through the FET transduction. Such a strong transmission and a sharp phase transition across 0° pave a way for future RGFET-type oscillators in RF and sensor applications. A time-elapsed characterization of the charge leakage rate for the floating gate is also carried out.

  18. Effect of resin surface charge on gastric mucoadhesion and residence of cholestyramine.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S J; Bush, D; Washington, N; Perkins, A C

    2000-09-15

    Previous studies performed on excised gastric tissue and in healthy volunteers revealed that the ion exchange resin, cholestyramine, exhibits mucoadherent behaviour. This study was designed to elucidate whether surface charge affected this behaviour. Gamma scintigraphy was performed on fasted normal subjects following oral administration of cholestyramine or the cationic exchanger Amberlite(R) IRP-69, either uncoated or polymer-coated to mask their charge. Subjects were fed after 4 h. The initial gastric emptying of all formulations was similar (T(50) values (mean+/-S.E.M.): cholestyramine=85.86+/-9.16 min; IRP-69=76.09+/-9.23 min; polymer-coated cholestyramine=72.0+/-12.64 min; polymer-coated IRP-69=70.25+/-10.57 min: P=0.724). However, after 3 h the emptying pattern of cholestyramine was slower than that of IRP-69. This resulted in greater retention times than IRP-69 (AUC(0-6) values (relative units)=15,200+/-1093 versus 9452+/-811; cholestyramine versus IRP-69: P=0.0004). This effect was reduced by polymer-coating the cholestyramine. Serial images showed that cholestyramine was trapped in the oropharyngeal region and subsequently displaced by the meal, resulting in higher levels of activity remaining at 6 h. Thus, cholestyramine exhibited prolonged gastric residence via mucoadhesion and was distributed throughout the stomach. The surface charge of the resin was found to have a contributory role. These materials may have potential for the delivery of drugs in the topical treatment of the gastric mucosa, for example in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  19. Effective harvesting, detection, and conversion of IR radiation due to quantum dots with built-in charge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of doping on photoelectron kinetics in quantum dot [QD] structures and find two strong effects of the built-in-dot charge. First, the built-in-dot charge enhances the infrared [IR] transitions in QD structures. This effect significantly increases electron coupling to IR radiation and improves harvesting of the IR power in QD solar cells. Second, the built-in charge creates potential barriers around dots, and these barriers strongly suppress capture processes for photocarriers of the same sign as the built-in-dot charge. The second effect exponentially increases the photoelectron lifetime in unipolar devices, such as IR photodetectors. In bipolar devices, such as solar cells, the solar radiation creates the built-in-dot charge that equates the electron and hole capture rates. By providing additional charge to QDs, the appropriate doping can significantly suppress the capture and recombination processes via QDs. These improvements of IR absorption and photocarrier kinetics radically increase the responsivity of IR photodetectors and photovoltaic efficiency of QD solar cells. PMID:22060635

  20. Effects of Emotionally Charged Auditory Stimulation on Gait Performance in the Elderly: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Raghavan, Preeti; McCrery, J.R.; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of a novel divided attention task—walking under auditory constraints—on gait performance in older adults and to determine whether this effect was moderated by cognitive status. Design Validation cohort. Setting General community. Participants Ambulatory older adults without dementia (N=104). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures In this pilot study, we evaluated walking under auditory constraints in 104 older adults who completed 3 pairs of walking trials on a gait mat under 1 of 3 randomly assigned conditions: 1 pair without auditory stimulation and 2 pairs with emotionally charged auditory stimulation with happy or sad sounds. Results The mean age of subjects was 80.6±4.9 years, and 63% (n=66) were women. The mean velocity during normal walking was 97.9±20.6cm/s, and the mean cadence was 105.1±9.9 steps/min. The effect of walking under auditory constraints on gait characteristics was analyzed using a 2-factorial analysis of variance with a 1-between factor (cognitively intact and minimal cognitive impairment groups) and a 1-within factor (type of auditory stimuli). In both happy and sad auditory stimulation trials, cognitively intact older adults (n=96) showed an average increase of 2.68cm/s in gait velocity (F1.86,191.71=3.99; P=.02) and an average increase of 2.41 steps/min in cadence (F1.75,180.42=10.12; P<.001) as compared with trials without auditory stimulation. In contrast, older adults with minimal cognitive impairment (Blessed test score, 5–10; n=8) showed an average reduction of 5.45cm/s in gait velocity (F1.87,190.83=5.62; P=.005) and an average reduction of 3.88 steps/min in cadence (F1.79,183.10=8.21; P=.001) under both auditory stimulation conditions. Neither baseline fall history nor performance of activities of daily living accounted for these differences. Conclusions Our results provide preliminary evidence of the differentiating effect of emotionally charged auditory stimuli on gait

  1. Effect of charge balance and dosage of polyelectrolyte complexes on the shear resistance of mineral floc strength and reversibility.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Markus H J; Rojas, Orlando J; Laine, Janne

    2015-06-15

    We evaluated the effect of polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) with varying balance of charges on the flocculation of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) particles. PECs composed of polyacrylamides carrying opposite charges (A-PAM and C-PAM) were investigated in terms of PCC floc shear resistance and re-flocculation effects. Light transmission was used in real time to monitor the dynamics of flocculation under shear fields. Compared to the single polyelectrolytes, PECs greatly enhanced particle re-flocculation while minor differences in shear resistance were observed. Shear resistance and re-flocculation depended strongly on the molecular weight and charge ratio of the PEC components. In order to achieve floc stability and re-flocculation conditions a minimum concentration of charge-asymmetric PEC should be applied.

  2. Partial Dissolution of Charge Order Phase Observed in β-(BEDT-TTF)2PF6 Single Crystal Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masatoshi; Moritoshi, Norifumi; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Masu, Hyuma

    2016-04-01

    The effect of an applied gate electric field on the charge-order phase in β-(BEDT-TTF)2PF6 single-crystal field-effect transistor structure was observed at around room temperature by technical improvement with respect to sample preparation and electrical measurements. A relatively slight but systematic increase of the electrical conductance induced by the applied gate electric field and its temperature dependence was observed at around the metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI). The temperature dependence of the modulated electrical conductance demonstrated that TMI was shifted toward the lower side by application of a gate electric field, which corresponds to partial dissolution of the charge-order phase. The thickness of the partially dissolved charge order region was estimated to be several score times larger than the charge accumulation region.

  3. Effects of surface charges of gold nanoclusters on long-term in vivo biodistribution, toxicity, and cancer radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Ying; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Guo, Meili; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have exhibited great advantages in medical diagnostics and therapies due to their efficient renal clearance and high tumor uptake. The in vivo effects of the surface chemistry of Au NCs are important for the development of both nanobiological interfaces and potential clinical contrast reagents, but these properties are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we prepared glutathione-protected Au NCs of a similar hydrodynamic size but with three different surface charges: positive, negative, and neutral. Their in vivo biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity were investigated over a 90-day period, and tumor uptake and potential application to radiation therapy were also evaluated. The results showed that the surface charge greatly influenced pharmacokinetics, particularly renal excretion and accumulation in kidney, liver, spleen, and testis. Negatively charged Au NCs displayed lower excretion and increased tumor uptake, indicating a potential for NC-based therapeutics, whereas positively charged clusters caused transient side effects on the peripheral blood system. PMID:27555769

  4. Image analysis of single event transient effects on charge coupled devices irradiated by protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zujun; Xue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jing; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Ma, Wuying

    2016-10-01

    The experiments of single event transient (SET) effects on charge coupled devices (CCDs) irradiated by protons are presented. The radiation experiments have been carried out at the accelerator protons with the energy of 200 MeV and 60 MeV.The incident angles of the protons are at 30°and 90° to the plane of the CCDs to obtain the images induced by the perpendicularity and incline incident angles. The experimental results show that the typical characteristics of the SET effects on a CCD induced by protons are the generation of a large number of dark signal spikes (hot pixels) which are randomly distributed in the "pepper" images. The characteristics of SET effects are investigated by observing the same imaging area at different time during proton radiation to verify the transient effects. The experiment results also show that the number of dark signal spikes increases with increasing integration time during proton radiation. The CCDs were tested at on-line and off-line to distinguish the radiation damage induced by the SET effects or DD effects. The mechanisms of the dark signal spike generation induced by the SET effects and the DD effects are demonstrated respectively.

  5. Antitumor effectiveness of different amounts of electrical charge in Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ciria, HC; Quevedo, MS; Cabrales, LB; Bruzón, RP; Salas, MF; Pena, OG; González, TR; López, DS; Flores, JM

    2004-01-01

    Background In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also the effect of direct electric in Ehrlich tumor was evaluate through the measurements of tumor volume and the peritumoral and tumoral findings. Methods BALB/c male mice, 7–8 week old and 20–22 g weight were used. Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 cell lines, growing in BALB/c mice. Solid and subcutaneous Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors, located dorsolaterally in animals, were initiated by the inoculation of 5 × 106 and 1 × 105 viable tumor cells, respectively. For each type of tumor four groups (one control group and three treated groups) consisting of 10 mice randomly divided were formed. When the tumors reached approximately 0.5 cm3, four platinum electrodes were inserted into their bases. The electric charge delivered to the tumors was varied in the range of 5.5 to 110 C/cm3 for a constant time of 45 minutes. An additional experiment was performed in BALB/c male mice bearing Ehrlich tumor to examine from a histolological point of view the effects of direct electric current. A control group and a treated group with 77 C/cm3 (27.0 C in 0.35 cm3) and 10 mA for 45 min were formed. In this experiment when the tumor volumes reached 0.35 cm3, two anodes and two cathodes were inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. Results Significant tumor growth delay and survival rate were achieved after electrotherapy and both were dependent on direct electric current intensity, being more marked in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor. Complete regressions for fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors were observed for electrical charges of 80 and 92 C/cm3, respectively. Histopathological and peritumoral findings in Ehrlich tumor revealed in the treated group marked tumor necrosis, vascular congestion, peritumoral neutrophil infiltration, an acute

  6. Charge transfer reactions at interfaces between neutral gas and plasma: Dynamical effects and X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provornikova, E.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Lallement, R.

    2012-04-01

    Charge-transfer is the main process linking neutrals and charged particles in the interaction regions of neutral (or partly ionized) gas with a plasma. In this paper we illustrate the importance of charge-transfer with respect to the dynamics and the structure of neutral gas-plasma interfaces. We consider the following phenomena: (1) the heliospheric interface - region where the solar wind plasma interacts with the partly-ionized local interstellar medium (LISM) and (2) neutral interstellar clouds embedded in a hot, tenuous plasma such as the million degree gas that fills the so-called ``Local Bubble". In (1), we discuss several effects in the outer heliosphere caused by charge exchange of interstellar neutral atoms and plasma protons. In (2) we describe the role of charge exchange in the formation of a transition region between the cloud and the surrounding plasma based on a two-component model of the cloud-plasma interaction. In the model the cloud consists of relatively cold and dense atomic hydrogen gas, surrounded by hot, low density, fully ionized plasma. We discuss the structure of the cloud-plasma interface and the effect of charge exchange on the lifetime of interstellar clouds. Charge transfer between neutral atoms and minor ions in the plasma produces X-ray emission. Assuming standard abundances of minor ions in the hot gas surrounding the cold interstellar cloud, we estimate the X-ray emissivity consecutive to the charge transfer reactions. Our model shows that the charge-transfer X-ray emission from the neutral cloud-plasma interface may be comparable to the diffuse thermal X-ray emission from the million degree gas cavity itself.

  7. Emittance growth in heavy ion rings due to effects of space charge and dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J., LLNL

    1998-06-03

    We review the derivation of moment equations which include the effects of space charge and dispersion in bends first presented in ref [1]. These equations generalize the familiar envelope equations to include the dispersive effects of bends. We review the application of these equations to the calculation of the change in emittance resulting from a sharp transition from a straight section to a bend section, using an energy conservation constraint. Comparisons of detailed 2D and 3D simulations of intense beams in rings using the WARP code (refs [2,3]) are made with results obtained from the moment equations. We also compare the analysis carried out in ref [1], to more recent analyses, refs [4,5]. We further examine self-consistent distributions of beams in bends and discuss the relevance of these distributions to the moment equation formulation.

  8. Effects of charge-carrying amino acids on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenting; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Cui, Min

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of charge-carrying amino acids (lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu)) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch. Acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) showed a decreasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but increased amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Alkaline amino acid (Arg) showed an increasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but decreasing amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Lys had no effect on the swelling power of potato starch, except at a high content (0.2 mol/kg). Like other two acidic amino acids, Lys also increased gelatinization temperature. Moreover, the addition of alkaline amino acids (Arg) decreased syneresis value of potato starch but acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) increased it. Compared to Arg, the syneresis of potato starch with Lys was similar to that of its native starch.

  9. Triton charge radius to next-to-next-to-leading order in pionless effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanasse, Jared

    2017-02-01

    The triton point charge radius is calculated to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in pionless effective field theory ( EFT (π / )) , yielding a prediction of 1.14 ±0.19 fm (leading order), 1.59 ±0.08 fm (next-to leading order), and 1.62 ±0.03 fm (NNLO) in agreement with the current experimental extraction of 1.5978 ±0.040 fm [Angeli and Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)], 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.006. The error at NNLO is due to cutoff variation (˜1 % ) within a reasonable range of calculated cutoffs and from a EFT (π / ) error estimate (˜1.5 % ). In addition new techniques are introduced to add perturbative corrections to bound- and scattering state calculations for short-range effective field theories, but with a focus on their use in EFT (π / ) .

  10. Effective thermostat induced by coarse graining of simple point charge water.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anders; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson; Nyström, Johan; Tunstrøm, Kolbjørn

    2008-07-14

    We investigate how the transport properties of a united atom fluid with a dissipative particle dynamics thermostat depend on the functional form and magnitude of both the conservative and the stochastic interactions. We demonstrate how the thermostat strongly affects the hydrodynamics, especially diffusion, viscosity, and local escape times. As model system we use simple point charge (SPC) water, from which projected trajectories are used to determine the effective interactions in the united atom model. The simulation results support our argument that the thermostat should be viewed as an integral part of the coarse-grained dynamics rather than a tool for approaching thermal equilibrium. As our main result we show that the united atom model with the adjusted effective interactions approximately reproduces the diffusion constant and the viscosity of the underlying detailed SPC water model.

  11. Effects of the growth and the charge of carbon nanoparticles on direct current discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Arnas, C.; Coueedel, L.; Kumar K, Kishor

    2013-01-15

    The formation of fine particles in plasmas from sputtered carbon atoms and the consequences of their growth and charging mechanisms on sputtering DC discharges were investigated. Experiments were performed with a constant discharge current so that the coupling between the plasma and two successive generations of nanoparticles were studied through the evolution of the discharge voltage, proportional to the ionization rate and also through the plasma emission. The consequences of the formation of negative ionic molecular precursors of the first particle generation were established as well as the effects of a redistribution of the nanoparticle cloud in the inter-electrode gap, not similar to the void effects usually observed in RF discharges. The cathode heating during the sputtering mechanism was also considered to explain partly the evolution of the discharge voltage and the plasma emission during the growth of the second nanoparticle generation.

  12. The role of quantum effects on structural and electronic fluctuations in neat and charged water.

    PubMed

    Giberti, Federico; Hassanali, Ali A; Ceriotti, Michele; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-11-20

    In this work, we revisit the role of nuclear quantum effects on the structural and electronic properties of the excess proton in bulk liquid water using advanced molecular dynamics techniques. The hydronium ion is known to be a weak acceptor of a hydrogen bond which gives it some hydrophobic character. Quantum effects reduce the degree of this hydrophobicity which facilitates the fluctuations of the protons along the wires compared to the classical proton. Although the Eigen and Zundel species still appear to be dominant motifs, quantum fluctuations result in rather drastic events where both transient autoionization and delocalization over extended proton wires can simultaneously occur. These wild fluctuations also result in a significant change of the electronic properties of the system such as the broadening of the electronic density of states. An analysis of the Wannier functions indicate that quantum fluctuations of neat water molecules result in transient charging with subtle similarities and differences to that of the excess proton.

  13. Effective medium theory of the space-charge region electrostatics of arrays of nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurugubelli, Vijaya Kumar; Karmalkar, Shreepad

    2016-01-01

    We develop an Effective Medium Theory for the electrostatics of the Space-Charge Region (SCR) of Schottky and p-n junctions in arrays of nanofilms (NFs), nanowires (NWs), and nanotubes (NTs) in a dielectric ambient. The theory captures the effects of electric fields in both the semiconductor, i.e., NF/NW/NT, and the dielectric media of the array. It shows that the depletion width and the screening length characterizing the SCR tail in the array correspond to those in a bulk junction with an effective semiconductor medium, whose permittivity and doping are their weighted averages over the cross-sectional areas of the semiconductor and dielectric; the shapes of the cross-sections are immaterial. Further, the reverse bias 1 /C2 -V behavior of junctions in NF/NW/NT arrays is linear, as in bulk junctions, and is useful to extract from measurements the built-in potential, effective doping including the semiconductor-dielectric interface charge, and NF/NW/NT length. The theory is validated with numerical simulations, is useful for the experimentalist, and yields simple formulas for nano-device design which predict the following. In the limiting case of a single sheet-like NF, the junction depletion width variation with potential drop is linear rather than square-root (as in a bulk junction). In arrays of symmetric silicon p-n junctions in oxide dielectric where NF/NW thickness and separation are 5% and 100% of the bulk depletion width, respectively, the junction depletion width and the screening length are scaled up from their bulk values by the same factor of ˜2 for NF and ˜10 for NW array.

  14. Effect of deep trapping states on space charge suppression in polyethylene/ZnO nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fuqiang; Lei, Qingquan; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Yi

    2011-10-01

    This letter intends to reveal the mechanism of space charge suppression in low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ZnO nanocomposites. Trap level and space charge distributions were obtained from modified isothermal discharge current method and pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method, respectively. The results showed that ZnO nanoparticle doping introduced large amounts of deep trapping states, significantly reduced space charge accumulation and conduction current. The results can be explained in terms of deep trapping states resulted from the interface regions and morphology structure changes by nanoparticles doping, which greatly reduced the charge mobility, raised the charge injection potential at the contact and weakened impurity ionization.

  15. The Effect of Variable End of Charge Battery Management on Small-Cell Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy S.; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Simmons, Nick; Reid, Concha; Manzo, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Batteries are critical components for spacecraft, supplying power to all electrical systems during solar eclipse. These components must be lightweight due to launch vehicle limitations and the desire to fly heavier, more capable payloads, and must show excellent capacity retention with age to support the ever growing durations of space missions. ABSL's heritage Lithium Ion cell, the ABSL 18650HC, is an excellent low mass solution to this problem that has been proven capable of supporting long mission durations. The NASA Glenn Research Center recently proposed and initiated a test to study the effects of reduced end of charge voltage on aging of the ABSL 18650HC and other Lithium Ion cells. This paper presents the testing details, a method to analyze and compare capacity fade between the different cases, and a preliminary analysis of the to-date performance of ABSL s cells. This initial analysis indicates that employing reduced end of charge techniques could double the life capabilities of the ABSL 18650HC cell. Accordingly, continued investigation is recommended, particularly at higher depths of discharge to better assess the method s potential mass savings for short duration missions.

  16. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  17. Effect of charge trapping on geminate recombination and polymer solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Groves, Chris; Blakesley, James C; Greenham, Neil C

    2010-03-10

    In this letter, we examine the effect of charge trapping on geminate recombination and organic photovoltaic performance using a Monte Carlo model. We alter the degree of charge trapping by considering energetic disorder to be spatially uncorrelated or correlated. On correlating energetic disorder, and so reducing the degree of trapping, it is found that power conversion efficiency of blend and bilayer devices improves by factors of 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. These results are related to the experimental data and quantum chemical calculations for poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine] (PFB)/poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) as well as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/(6,6)-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) solar cell systems. The minimization of traps at the heterojunction between electron- and hole-accepting materials, perhaps by molecular design, appears to be a promising strategy to achieve large gains in PV performance. It is also shown that macroscopically measurable quantities such as mobility and energetic disorder are not necessarily good predictors of nanoscale geminate recombination process.

  18. Sweeter but deadlier: decoupling size, charge and capping effects in carbohydrate coated bactericidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciane França; Gonçalves, Julianna de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Kaliandra de Almeida; Kobarg, Jörg; Cardoso, Mateus Borba

    2013-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles are widely used due to their biomedical-antibacterial applications. At the same time, the stabilization of these nanoparticles is challenging and may be made using polymeric carbohydrates, based on the practice of avoiding toxic chemicals and undesirable residues. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which were stabilized by carbohydrates (potato starch and chitosan) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Bactericidal efficiency of AgNPs capped with different carbohydrates was tested demonstrating that the synthesized materials were able to inhibit the growth of two clinical/medical relevant bacteria strains (Escherichia coil and Staphylococcus aureus). AgNPs stabilized by chitosan presented enhanced bactericidal activity if compared to the ones synthesized in presence of potato starch. This difference is mainly attributed to the known antibacterial properties of chitosan associated to overall positive charge of the nanoparticles capped by this polymer. Those nanoparticles obtained in presence of starch presented minor bactericidal effects since the starch-capping agent is not able to contribute to the avoidance of bacteria growth and confers a quasi-neutral charge to the nanoparticle.

  19. Listeria monocytogenes cell wall constituents exert a charge effect on electroporation threshold

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alex; Rae, Chris S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered cells with mutations of relevance to electroporation, cell membrane permeabilization by electric pulses, can become a promising new tool for fundamental research on this important biotechnology. Listeria monocytogenes mutants lacking DltA or MprF and assayed for sensitivity to the cathelicidin like anti-microbial cationic peptide (mCRAMP), were developed to study the effect of cell wall charge on electroporation. Working in the irreversible electroporation regime (IRE), we found that application of a sequence of 50 pulses, each 50 μs duration, 12.5 kV/cm field, delivered at 2 Hz led to 2.67±0.29 log reduction in wild-type L. monocytogenes, log 2.60±0.19 in the MprF-minus mutant, and log 1.33±0.13 in the DltA-minus mutant. The experimental observation that the DltA-minus mutant was highly susceptible to cationic mCRAMP and resistant to IRE suggests that the charge on the bacterial cell wall affects electroporation and shows that this approach may be promising for fundamental studies on electroporation. PMID:22100748

  20. Investigation of the dimensionality of charge transport in organic field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Fabiano, Simone; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-02-01

    Ever since the first experimental investigations of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) the dimensionality of charge transport has alternately been described as two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D). More recently, researchers have turned to an analytical analysis of the temperature-dependent transfer characteristics to classify the dimensionality as either 2D or 3D as well as to determine the disorder of the system, thereby greatly simplifying dimensionality investigations. We applied said analytical analysis to the experimental results of our OFETs comprising molecularly well-defined polymeric layers as the active material as well as to results obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and found that it was not able to correctly distinguish between 2D and 3D transports or give meaningful values for the disorder and should only be used for quasiquantitative and comparative analysis. We conclude to show that the dimensionality of charge transport in OFETs is a function of the interplay between transistor physics and morphology of the organic material.

  1. Hall-Effect Based Semi-Fast AC On-Board Charging Equipment for Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented. PMID:22163697

  2. Effect of doping on amplitude modulation of space-charge wave in semiconductor quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sreyasi; Ghosh, Basudev

    2017-04-01

    To describe the modulational instability of space-charge waves in an n-type compensated semiconductor plasma, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation has been derived by using quantum hydrodynamical model and standard multiple scale perturbation technique. It has been shown that compensation factor (i.e. relative proportion of donor, acceptor and intrinsic carrier concentrations) and quantum diffraction parameter play important role in generating bright and dark envelope solitons within the semiconductor. Instability growth rate is also found to depend sensitively on the compensation factor and quantum diffraction parameter. From the linear dispersion relation it has been found that inclusion of quantum parameter gives rise to two new wave modes of purely quantum origin. Further the effect of compensation factor and quantum diffraction parameter on the linear dispersion characteristics has been analyzed. It has also been found that due to parabolicity of conduction band the group velocity of space-charge wave becomes dependent on compensation factor and quantum diffraction parameter.

  3. Calibration function for the Orbitrap FTMS accounting for the space charge effect.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Good, David M; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2010-11-01

    Ion storage in an electrostatic trap has been implemented with the introduction of the Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), which demonstrates performance similar to high-field ion cyclotron resonance MS. High mass spectral characteristics resulted in rapid acceptance of the Orbitrap FTMS for Life Sciences applications. The basics of Orbitrap operation are well documented; however, like in any ion trap MS technology, its performance is limited by interactions between the ion clouds. These interactions result in ion cloud couplings, systematic errors in measured masses, interference between ion clouds of different size yet with close m/z ratios, etc. In this work, we have characterized the space-charge effect on the measured frequency for the Orbitrap FTMS, looking for the possibility to achieve sub-ppm levels of mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for peptides in a wide range of total ion population. As a result of this characterization, we proposed an m/z calibration law for the Orbitrap FTMS that accounts for the total ion population present in the trap during a data acquisition event. Using this law, we were able to achieve a zero-space charge MMA limit of 80 ppb for the commercial Orbitrap FTMS system and sub-ppm level of MMA over a wide range of total ion populations with the automatic gain control values varying from 10 to 10(7).

  4. Effect of magnetic helicity upon rectilinear propagation of charged particles in random magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earl, James A.

    1992-01-01

    When charged particles spiral along a large constant magnetic field, their trajectories are scattered by any random field components that are superposed on the guiding field. If the random field configuration embodies helicity, the scattering is asymmetrical with respect to a plane perpendicular to the guiding field, for particles moving into the forward hemisphere are scattered at different rates from those moving into the backward hemisphere. This asymmetry gives rise to new terms in the transport equations that describe propagation of charged particles. Helicity has virtually no impact on qualitative features of the diffusive mode of propagation. However, characteristic velocities of the coherent modes that appear after a highly anisotropic injection exhibit an asymmetry related to helicity. Explicit formulas, which embody the effects of helicity, are given for the anisotropies, the coefficient diffusion, and the coherent velocities. Predictions derived from these expressions are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport, but the simulations reveal certain phenomena whose explanation calls for further analytical work.

  5. Charge-dependent effects in double photoionization of He-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, M.; Colgan, J.

    2006-12-01

    A study is made of triple differential cross sections (TDCS) resulting from the double photoionization (DPI) of He-like ions. The angular correlations between the outgoing electrons are examined as a function of the nuclear target charge. Time-dependent close-coupling theory (TDCC) is used to solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for both outgoing electrons. Previous theoretical models that have calculated the TDCS for He-like ions have only included the electron-electron interaction through approximate perturbative methods. We have analysed the effects of the electron correlation and the dependence relative to the nuclear charge. We find that the differing TDCS shapes for unequal electron energy sharings observed by Otranto and Garibotti (2003 Eur. Phys. J. D 27 215, 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 034703-1, 2003 Phys. Rev. A 67 064701) for He-like ions are not due to the decreasing relative strength of the electron-electron correlation, but rather due to the different energy regions in which each calculation is carried out. Our calculations are compared with previous experimental and theoretical work, where available.

  6. Effect of charged lidocaine on static and dynamic properties of model bio-membranes.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zheng; Nagao, Michihiro; Bossev, Dobrin P

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the charged lidocaine on the structure and dynamics of DMPC/DMPG (mass fraction of 95/5) unilamellar vesicles has been investigated. Changes in membrane organization caused by the presence of lidocaine were detected through small angle neutron scattering experiments. Our results suggest that the presence of lidocaine in the vicinity of the headgroups of lipid membranes leads to an increase of the area per lipid molecule and to a decrease of membrane thickness. Such changes in membrane structure may induce disordering of the tail group. This scenario explains the reduction of the main transition temperature of lipid membranes, as the fraction of lidocaine per lipid molecules increases, which was evident from differential scanning calorimetry results. Furthermore neutron spin echo spectroscopy was used for the dynamics measurements and the results reveal that presence of charged lidocaine increases the bending elasticity of the lipid membranes in the fluid phase and slows the temperature-dependent change of bending elasticity across the main transition temperature.

  7. The Space Charge Effect on the Discharge Current in Cross-Linked Polyethylene under High AC Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yoon-Hyeok; Hwangbo, Seung; Lee, June-Ho; Yi, Dong-Young; Han, Min-Koo

    2003-12-01

    The space charge distributions in solid dielectrics have been usually investigated by means of the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) method. However, most previous studies have been limited to the phenomenological analysis under DC voltages. In our study, the space charge distribution in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) has been measured using AC voltages by means of the modified PEA method. Simultaneously, the streamer discharges in an air gap have been measured in order to investigate the relationship between space charge and discharge current, and the relationship has been adapted to the case of dielectric barrier discharge. At high AC voltages, discharge current increases to the critical point, but no further increase is exhibited over the critical voltage and the discharge pattern is resolved by the space charge. This result indicates that the frequency effect and space charge characteristics of dielectric materials are preferred to the voltage effect in the adaptation to dielectric barrier discharge. The results well explain the space charge effect on partial discharge and the dielectric barrier discharge phenomenon.

  8. Effects of charging and tunnelling in a structure based on magic and non-magic metal clusters.

    PubMed

    Pogosov, V V; Vasyutin, E V

    2006-07-28

    The effects of charging and single-electron tunnelling in a metal cluster structure are investigated theoretically. In the framework of the particle-in-a-box model for spherical and disc-shaped gold clusters, the electron spectrum and the temperature dependence of the electron chemical potential are calculated. The difference between the electron chemical potentials of massive electrodes and islands leads to the noticeable charging of the electrode. We show that the effective residual charge is equal to the non-integer value of the elementary charge e and depends on the shape of the cluster. The equations for the analysis of the current-voltage characteristic are used under the conditions of conservation of the total energy of the structure, taking into account the contact potential difference. Restrictions associated with the Coulomb instability of a cluster are introduced into the theory in a simple way. It is shown that the critical charge of the cluster in an open electron system is close to the effective residual charge. For single-electron molecular transistors based on small gold clusters the current gap and its voltage asymmetry are computed. We demonstrate that the current gap exhibits non-monotonic size dependences which are related to the quantization of the electron spectrum and the Coulomb blockade.

  9. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  10. Effect of paraelectrode processes on contraction of space charge in periodic-pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arytyunyan, R. V.; Baranov, V. Yu.; Borisov, V. M.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Kiryukhin, Yu. B.

    1986-05-01

    A characteristic feature of periodic-pulse electric-discharge CO2-lasers and excimer lasers is contraction of the space charge as the pulse repetition rate increases. The emission energy per pulse decreases as a consequence, with the average laser power first ceasing to increase linearly beyond a certain corner repetition rate and then decreasing beyond a certain critical repetition rate. A study of this phenomenon was made, for the purpose of separating the effect of paracathode processes from the effect of gas dynamics and then evaluating the effect of the former alone. Paraelectrode perturbations were simulated by focusing the radiation from the an XeCl-laser on the cathode surface in an atmosphere of nonabsorbing gases. Laser pulses of up to approximately 0.5 J energy and of approximately 50 ns duration were focused within a spot of 1 mm(2) area on a cathode inside a discharge chamber, with the power density of incident radiation regulated by means of an attenuator. A space charge within a volume of 2.5x4.5x9 cm(3) was generated between this specially shaped cathode and a mesh anode with an approximately 50% optical transmission coefficient. The space charge in helium and in neon was photographed, and the time lag of a discharge pulse behind a contracting laser pulse was measured as a function of the laser pulse energy for these two gases, as well as for a He+C12 gas mixture. The general trend was found to be the same in each case, the time lag increasing with increasing energy first at a slower rate up to a critical energy level and then faster. It has been established that plasma does not build up on the cathode before the laser pulse energy reaches 30 mJ (for a 3 mm(2) surface area), while plasma glow begins as the laser pulse energy reaches 150 mJ. A contracted channel begins to form within the laser-cathode interaction space, with an attendant fast increase of the time lag owing to evaporation of the cathode metal.

  11. Charge Recombination, Transport Dynamics, and Interfacial Effects in Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heeger, Alan; Bazan, Guillermo; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Wudl, Fred

    2015-02-12

    The need for renewable sources of energy is well known. Conversion of sunlight to electricity using solar cells is one of the most important opportunities for creating renewable energy sources. The research carried out under DE-FG02-08ER46535 focused on the science and technology of “Plastic” solar cells comprised of organic (i.e. carbon based) semiconductors. The Bulk Heterojunction concept involves a phase separated blend of two organic semiconductors each with dimensions in the nano-meter length scale --- one a material that functions as a donor for electrons and the other a material that functions as an acceptor for electrons. The nano-scale inter-penetrating network concept for “Plastic” solar cells was created at UC Santa Barbara. A simple measure of the impact of this concept can be obtained from a Google search which gives 244,000 “hits” for the Bulk Heterojunction solar cell. Research funded through this program focused on four major areas: 1. Interfacial effects in organic photovoltaics, 2. Charge transfer and photogeneration of mobile charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 3. Transport and recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 4. Synthesis of novel organic semiconducting polymers and semiconducting small molecules, including conjugated polyelectrolytes. Following the discovery of ultrafast charge transfer at UC Santa Barbara in 1992, the nano-organic (Bulk Heterojunction) concept was formulated. The need for a morphology comprising two interpenetrating bicontinuous networks was clear: one network to carry the photogenerated electrons (negative charge) to the cathode and one network to carry the photo-generated holes (positive charge) to the anode. This remarkable self-assembled network morphology has now been established using Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) either in the Phase Contrast mode or via TEM-Tomography. The steps involved in delivering power from a solar cell to an external circuit

  12. Disorder Effects in Charge Transport and Spin Response of Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lukas Zhonghua

    Topological insulators are a class of solids in which the non-trivial inverted bulk band structure gives rise to metallic surface states that are robust against impurity backscattering. First principle calculations predicted Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3 and Bi2Se3 to be three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface. The topological surface states were subsequently observed by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The investigations of charge transport through topological surfaces of 3D topological insulators, however, have faced a major challenge due to large charge carrier densities in the bulk donated by randomly distributed defects such as vacancies and antisites. This bulk disorder intermixes surface and bulk conduction channels, thereby complicating access to the low-energy (Dirac point) charge transport or magnetic response and resulting in the relatively low measured carrier mobilities. Moreover, charge inhomogeneity arising from bulk disorder can result in pronounced nanoscale spatial fluctuations of energy on the surface, leading to the formation of surface `puddles' of different carrier types. Great efforts have been made to combat the undesirable effects of disorder in 3D topological insulators and to reduce bulk carriers through chemical doping, nanostructure fabrication, and electric gating. In this work we have developed a new way to reduce bulk carrier densities using high-energy electron irradiation, thereby allowing us access to the topological surface quantum channels. We also found that disorder in 3D topological insulators can be beneficial. It can play an important part in enabling detection of unusual magnetic response from Dirac fermions and in uncovering new excitations, namely surface superconductivity in Dirac `puddles'. In Chapter 3 we show how by using differential magnetometry we could probe spin rotation in the 3D topological material family (Bi2Se 3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3

  13. Optical and electrochemical methods for determining the effective area and charge density of conducting polymer modified electrodes for neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexander R; Molino, Paul J; Kapsa, Robert M I; Clark, Graeme M; Paolini, Antonio G; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-01-06

    Neural stimulation is used in the cochlear implant, bionic eye, and deep brain stimulation, which involves implantation of an array of electrodes into a patient's brain. The current passed through the electrodes is used to provide sensory queues or reduce symptoms associated with movement disorders and increasingly for psychological and pain therapies. Poor control of electrode properties can lead to suboptimal performance; however, there are currently no standard methods to assess them, including the electrode area and charge density. Here we demonstrate optical and electrochemical methods for measuring these electrode properties and show the charge density is dependent on electrode geometry. This technique highlights that materials can have widely different charge densities but also large variation in performance. Measurement of charge density from an electroactive area may result in new materials and electrode geometries that improve patient outcomes and reduce side effects.

  14. The effect of the charge density of microemulsion droplets on the bending elasticity of their amphiphilic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, B.; Gradzielski, M.

    2001-06-01

    Oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion droplets have been investigated with respect to the effect of the electric charge density on the bending elasticity of the amphiphilic film. For this an originally uncharged microemulsion system became charged by the substitution of the nonionic by an ionic surfactant (up to 5 mol %). The sum of the bending constants, 2κ+κ¯, has been determined from the polydispersity index p of the droplets and alternatively from the macroscopic interfacial tension γ together with the maximum particle radius Rm. p and Rm were measured by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments in the shell contrast. Neutron spin echo (NSE) has been employed to measure directly the dynamics of the shape fluctuations of the droplets. This method enables a separate determination of κ on its own. It is found that the effect of the increasing charge density leads only to a fairly small increase for the sum of the bending constants 2κ+κ¯. Also the change of the ionic strength for a charged microemulsion system has almost no influence on this sum. NSE measurements show no measurable difference in the dynamics of the charged and uncharged system leading to the conclusion that not only the sum but separately the two bending constants stay within experimental error unchanged. This experimental observation is in contrast to simple electrostatic theories that would predict a much more pronounced influence of the electric charge density on the bending properties of the amphiphilic film.

  15. Effect of body biasing on single-event induced charge collection in deep N-well technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Hu, Jian-Guo; Qin, Jun-Rui; Tan, Hong-Zhou

    2015-07-01

    As the device size decreases, the soft error induced by space ions is becoming a great concern for the reliability of integrated circuits (ICs). At present, the body biasing technique is widely used in highly scaled technologies. In the paper, using the three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, we analyze the effect of the body biasing on the single-event charge collection in deep N-well technology. Our simulation results show that the body biasing mainly affects the behavior of the source, and the effect of body biasing on the charge collection for the nMOSFET and pMOSFET is quite different. For the nMOSFET, the RBB will increase the charge collection, while the FBB will reduce the charge collection. For the pMOSFET, the effect of RBB on the SET pulse width is small, while the FBB has an adverse effect. Moreover, the differenceof the effect of body biasing on the charge collection is compared in deep N-well and twin well.

  16. Effect of surfactant hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value on mineral oxide charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-07-01

    The current work examines the role of surfactant hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) on the ability for surfactant reverse micelles to impart charge to particles dispersed in an apolar medium, a study motivated by a number of applications that seek to maximize particle charge in such systems. Previous investigations have shown that relative acid-base properties of the particles and surfactants, as well as surfactant concentration and trace water content, all play a major role in the particle charge obtained. However, the ability of a surfactant to stabilize charge in reverse micelles is also an important aspect of creating charge on a particle surface. It has been previously shown that surfactant HLB value is an important parameter in assessing the size of the polar core of the reverse micelles, thereby impacting the total charge that is generated in the bulk solution as determined by conductivity. In the current study, this theory is extended to investigate the impact on particle charging. To accomplish this, the electrophoretic mobility is determined for a series of mineral oxides dispersed in Isopar-L with either Span 20, Span 80, or Span 85. These three surfactants all have the same head group chemistry, but their HLB value ranges from 1.8 to 8.6. It is found that the maximum observed particle electrophoretic mobility does scale directly with the HLB of the accompanying surfactant. This indicates that there is a direct correlation between a surfactant's ability to stabilize charge and its ability to impart charge to a particle. However, the largest HLB surfactant, Span 20, also exhibited a large amount of charge screening or neutralization at larger surfactant concentrations. This highlights the competition between particle charging and micelle-micelle charging that remains one of the largest obstacles to maximizing particle charge in apolar systems.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic effects on a charged colloidal sphere with arbitrary double-layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tzu H.; Keh, Huan J.

    2010-10-01

    An analytical study is presented for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on a translating and rotating colloidal sphere in an arbitrary electrolyte solution prescribed with a general flow field and a uniform magnetic field at a steady state. The electric double layer surrounding the charged particle may have an arbitrary thickness relative to the particle radius. Through the use of a simple perturbation method, the Stokes equations modified with an electric force term, including the Lorentz force contribution, are dealt by using a generalized reciprocal theorem. Using the equilibrium double-layer potential distribution from solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we obtain closed-form formulas for the translational and angular velocities of the spherical particle induced by the MHD effects to the leading order. It is found that the MHD effects on the particle movement associated with the translation and rotation of the particle and the ambient fluid are monotonically increasing functions of κa, where κ is the Debye screening parameter and a is the particle radius. Any pure rotational Stokes flow of the electrolyte solution in the presence of the magnetic field exerts no MHD effect on the particle directly in the case of a very thick double layer (κa →0). The MHD effect caused by the pure straining flow of the electrolyte solution can drive the particle to rotate, but it makes no contribution to the translation of the particle.

  18. Subgap tunneling via a quantum interference effect: Insulators and charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhot, S.; Mélin, R.

    2007-11-01

    A quantum interference effect is discussed for subgap tunneling over a distance comparable to the coherence length, which is a consequence of “advanced-advanced” and “retarded-retarded” transmission modes [Altland and Zirnbauer, Phys. Rev. B 55, 1142 (1997)]. Effects typical of disorder are obtained from the interplay between multichannel averaging and higher order processes in the tunnel amplitudes. Quantum interference effects similar to those occurring in normal tunnel junctions explain magnetoresistance oscillations of a CDW pierced by nanoholes [Latyshev , Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 919 (1997)], having periodicity h/2e as a function of the flux enclosed in the nanohole. Subgap tunneling is coupled to the sliding motion by charge accumulation in the interrupted chains. The effect is within the same trend as random matrix theory for normal metal-CDW hybrids [Visscher , Phys. Rev. B 62, 6873 (2000)]. We suggest that the experiment by Latyshev probes weak localizationlike properties of evanescent quasiparticles, not an interference effect related to the quantum-mechanical ground state.

  19. Systematic studies on the effect of linear lattice optics for space-charge limited beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitterer, M.; Carli, C.; Molodozhentsev, A.; Müller, A.-S.

    2015-12-01

    The HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project aims to an increase of the luminosity of the LHC by a factor of 10. In order to realize this ambitious goal, the LHC itself has to undergo a major upgrade accompanied by an extensive upgrade of the complete injector complex referred to as LHC injector upgrade (LIU). In the framework of the LIU project, a new rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) as an alternative to the energy upgrade of the existing PS Booster has been proposed. Motivated by the optics studies conducted for this RCS, the more general question of the influence of the linear optics on the machine performance has been raised. In this paper, we want to investigate this question by comparing different lattices with the final aim of identifying lattice characteristics advantageous under strong space-charge effects.

  20. Effects of electrically charged dark matter on cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Ayuki; Kohri, Kazunori; Takahashi, Tomo; Yoshida, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We examine the possibility that dark matter consists of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) in view of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The evolution of cosmological perturbations of CHAMPs with other components is followed in a self-consistent manner, without assuming that CHAMPs and baryons are tightly coupled. We incorporate for the first time the "kinetic recoupling" of the Coulomb scattering, which is characteristic of heavy CHAMPs. By a direct comparison of the predicted CMB temperature/polarization autocorrelations in CHAMP models and the observed spectra in the Planck mission, we show that CHAMPs leave sizable effects on them if it is lighter than 1 011 GeV . Our result can be applicable to any CHAMP as long as its lifetime is much longer than the cosmic time at the recombination (˜4 ×1 05 yr ). An application to millicharged particles is also discussed.

  1. Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Spacecraft Charging Technology Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, B.; Hardage, D.; Minor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how materials and spacecraft systems will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the continued push to use Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) microelectronics, potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion. In order to drive down these uncertainties, various programs are working together to avoid duplication, save what resources are available in this technical area and possess a focused agenda to insert these new developments into future mission designs. This paper will introduce the SEE Program, briefly discuss past and currently sponsored spacecraft charging activities and possible future endeavors.

  2. Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Spacecraft Charging Technology Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna; Minor, Jody

    2003-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how materials and spacecraft systems will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the continued push to use Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics, potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion. In order to drive down these uncertainties, various programs are working together to avoid duplication, save what resources are available in this technical area and possess a focused agenda to insert these new developments into future mission designs. This paper will introduce the SEE Program, briefly discuss past and currently sponsored spacecraft charging activities and possible future endeavors.

  3. Effect of cation symmetry on the organization of ionic liquids near a charged mica surface.

    PubMed

    Payal, Rajdeep Singh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram

    2014-07-16

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to understand the effect of the symmetry of cations on the microscopic organization of ionic liquids near a charged mica surface. Ionic liquids with a 1,3-alkylimidazolium ([C(n)C(m)im](+)) cation and a bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([NTf2](-)) anion were investigated. Apart from symmetry, the length of the alkyl group attached to the cation is found to crucially determine the ion structure near the solid surface. In the first adsorbed layer, the ring planes of cations with shorter alkyl groups (less than four carbon atoms) are oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the surface. However, cations with longer alkyl tails are exclusively observed to have their ring planes parallel to the mica surface. The alkyl groups too show a similar dependence of their orientation on the tail length. Further, symmetric cations with alkyl groups of intermediate length are more highly structured at the interface than their asymmetric counterparts.

  4. Temperature and strain rate effects on the piezoelectric charge production of PZT 95/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Amnah S.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) 95/5, parameters including varying temperatures, porosities and strain rates have been studied. The effects on the charge output and fracture of poled PZT samples of different porosities have been investigated with compressive strain rates (10-4 - 10+3 s-1) using quasi-static loading equipment, drop-weight towers and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPBs). The cylindrical specimens were of 4.4 mm diameter, thickness 0.8 - 4.4 mm, and density 7.3 - 8.3 g cm-3. The temperature range of -20 °C to +80 °C was achieved using purpose-built environmental chambers. The resulting stress-strain relationships are compared; all the samples ultimately displayed a brittle response at failure [1].

  5. Effect of a localized charge on the stability of Van der Waals clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahinov, Igor; Toker, Yoni; Hansen, Klavs; Schwalm, Dirk; Heber, Oded; Zajfman, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The stability of anionic (SF6)-N clusters (in the range of N< 23), generated in a supersonic expansion ion source with electron impact ionization, was investigated by measuring their blackbody induced radiative dissociation (BIRD) rates in an electrostatic ion beam trap (EIBT) at room temperature. The lifetime traces of EIBT-stored clusters were subjected to "master equation analysis" and the activation energies, Ea, for the evaporation of a SF6 monomer were extracted. We find that the decay rates of (SF6)-N anionic clusters are larger than those of cationic SF+5(SF6)N-1 measured previously by the same method, and their corresponding activation energies to be smaller. These observations provide further insight into the effect of localized charge on cluster stability.

  6. Study on space charge effect in an electrostatic ion analyzer applied to measure laser produced ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Q. Y.; Li, Zh. M.; Liu, W.; Zhao, H. Y. Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, X. Zh.; Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-03-15

    The abundance of different ions produced by laser ion sources is usually analyzed by an electrostatic ion analyzer (EIA). Ion current intensities in the range of several mA/cm{sup 2} at the position of the EIA have been achieved from the laser ion source developed by the Institute of Modern Physics; this indicates that a noticeable influence of space charge effect during the ion transmission will occur. Hence, while the parameters of the EIA or the beams are changed, such as ion species, current intensity, the ions’ transmission efficiency through the EIA is different, which will result in an uncertainty in the estimation of the ions’ yields. Special attention is focused on this issue in this paper. Ion's transmissions through the EIA under different circumstances are studied with simulations and experiments, the results of which are consistent with each other.

  7. The effect of adiabatic focusing upon charged particle propagation in random magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earl, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Charged particles propagating along the diverging lines of force of a spatially inhomogeneous guiding field were considered as they are scattered by random fields. Their longitudinal transport is described in terms of the eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville operator incorporating the effect of adiabatic focussing along with that of scattering. The relaxation times and characteristic velocities are graphed and tabulated. The particle density is evaluated as a function of space and time for two different regimes. In the first regime (relatively weak focussing), a diffusive mode of propagation is dominant but coherent modes are also dominant. In the second regime (strong focussing), diffusion does not occur and the propagation is purely coherent. This supercoherent mode corresponds exactly to the so-called scatter-free propagation of kilovolt solar flare electrons. On a larger scale, focussed transport provides an interpretation of many observed characteristics of extragalactic radio sources.

  8. Effect of charge density of bonding agent containing a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate on antibacterial and bonding properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Quaternary amine charge density is important because when the negatively-charged bacteria contact the positive quaternary amine charge, the electric balance is disturbed and the bacterium could be disrupted. There has been no report on the effects of charge density on the antibacterial efficacy of dental bonding agents. The objective of this study was to synthesize a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate, and investigate the effects of charge density of bonding agent on bacteria early-attachment, biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) and dentin bond strength. Methods Dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) with an alkyl chain length of 16 was synthesized and mixed into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer (SBMP) at mass fractions of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. A microtensile dentin bond test was performed. The density of quaternary ammonium groups was measured using a fluorescein dye method. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) early-attachment was examined at 4 hours, and biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured at 2 days. Results All groups had similar microtensile bonding strengths (mean ± sd; n = 40) of about 60 MPa (p > 0.1). Quaternary amine charge density of bonding agents monotonically increased with increasing DMAHDM mass fraction. Bacteria early-attachment coverage greatly decreased with increasing DMAHDM content in the resin. Biofilm CFU at 10% DMAHDM was reduced by almost 5 log, compared to SBMP control. Charge density of bonding agent was inversely proportional to bacteria early-attachment coverage and biofilm CFU. Significance Increasing the quaternary amine charge density of dentin bonding agent resin was shown to greatly reduce S. mutans attachment and decrease biofilm CFU by four orders of magnitude, without compromising the dentin bond strength. The new DMAHDM is promising for use in bonding agents and other antibacterial restorative materials to inhibit caries. PMID:24534376

  9. Mechanisms of nanoparticle internalization and transport across an intestinal epithelial cell model: effect of size and surface charge.

    PubMed

    Bannunah, Azzah M; Vllasaliu, Driton; Lord, Jennie; Stolnik, Snjezana

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of nanoparticle size (50 and 100 nm) and surface charge on their interaction with Caco-2 monolayers as a model of the intestinal epithelium, including cell internalization pathways and the level of transepithelial transport. Initially, toxicity assays showed that cell viability and cell membrane integrity were dependent on the surface charge and applied mass, number, and total surface area of nanoparticles, as tested in two epithelial cell lines, colon carcinoma Caco-2 and airway Calu-3. This also identified suitable nanoparticle concentrations for subsequent cell uptake experiments. Nanoparticle application at doses below half maximal effective concentration (EC₅₀) revealed that the transport efficiency (ratio of transport to cell uptake) across Caco-2 cell monolayers is significantly higher for negatively charged nanoparticles compared to their positively charged counterparts (of similar size), despite the higher level of internalization of positively charged systems. Cell internalization pathways were hence probed using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors aiming to establish whether the discrepancy in transport efficiency is due to different uptake and transport pathways. Vesicular trans-monolayer transport for both positively and negatively charged nanoparticles was confirmed via inhibition of dynamin (by dynasore) and microtubule network (via nocodazole), which significantly reduced the transport of both nanoparticle systems. For positively charged nanoparticles a significant decrease in internalization and transport (46% and 37%, respectively) occurred in the presence of a clathrin pathway inhibitor (chlorpromazine), macropinocytosis inhibition (42%; achieved by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyi)-amiloride), and under cholesterol depletion (38%; via methyl-β-cyclodextrin), but remained unaffected by the inhibition of lipid raft associated uptake (caveolae) by genistein. On the contrary, the most prominent reduction in

  10. Effect of charge distribution in a flexible loop on the bioluminescence color of firefly luciferases.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Alipour, Bagher Said

    2009-01-27

    Firefly luciferase is a monooxygenase that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of firefly luciferin into a luciferyl-adenylate, which is oxidized to an electronically excited oxyluciferin in a multistep reaction and produces visible light with a remarkable quantum yield. The bioluminescence color of firefly luciferases is determined by the luciferase structure and assay conditions. Among different beetles, only luciferase from Phrixotrix railroad worm (Ph(RE)) emits red bioluminescence, naturally. The presence of Arg353 in Ph(RE) luciferase, which corresponds to the deleted residue in the other luciferases, is an important distinctive structural feature of it. Insertion of Arg356 into a green-emitter luciferase (Lampyris turkestanicus), corresponding to Arg353 in Phrixotrix hirtus, changed the emitted light from green to red. To further clarify the effect of this position on the light shift mechanism, four residues with similar sizes but different charges (Arg, Lys, Glu, and Gln) were inserted into Photinus pyralis luciferase, using site-specific insertion mutagenesis. Insertion of a residue with a positive side chain (Arg356 and Lys356) changed the light color to red, while insertion of a residue with a negative side chain (Glu356) had little effect on color. Insertion of a neutral residue (Gln356) at this position was performed without any change in bioluminescence spectra. Insertion of positively charged residues in this loop took place with a series of structural changes which were confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and homology modeling. Homology modeling reveals the appearance of a bulge in a flexible loop (T352-P359) upon mutation which shifts to the left side with a color change from green to red.

  11. Parallel Control over Surface Charge and Wettability Using Polyelectrolyte Architecture: Effect on Protein Adsorption and Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanshan; Zhu, Xiaoying; Li, Min; Shi, Liya; Ong, June Lay Ting; Jańczewski, Dominik; Neoh, Koon Gee

    2016-11-09

    Surface charge and wettability, the two prominent physical factors governing protein adsorption and cell adhesion, have been extensively investigated in the literature. However, a comparison between these driving forces in terms of their independent and cooperative effects in affecting adhesion is rarely explored on a systematic and quantitative level. Herein, we formulate a protocol that features two-dimensional control over both surface charge and wettability with limited cross-parameter influence. This strategy is implemented by controlling both the polyion charge density in the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process and the polyion side-chain chemical structures. The 2D property matrix spans surface isoelectric points ranging from 5 to 9 and water contact angles from 35 to 70°, with other interferential factors (e.g., roughness) eliminated. The interplay between these two surface variables influences protein (bovine serum albumin, lysozyme) adsorption and 3T3 fibroblast cell adhesion. For proteins, we observe the presence of thresholds for surface wettability and electrostatic driving forces necessary to affect adhesion. Beyond these thresholds, the individual effects of electrostatic forces and wettability are observed. For fibroblast, both surface charge and wettability have an effect on its adhesion. The combined effects of positive charge and hydrophilicity lead to the highest cell adhesion, whereas negative charge and hydrophobicity lead to the lowest cell adhesion. Our design strategy can potentially form the basis for studying the distinct behaviors of electrostatic force or wettability driven interfacial phenomena and serve as a reference in future studies assessing protein adsorption and cell adhesion to surfaces with known charge and wettability within the property range studied here.

  12. Effects of dielectric charging on fundamental forces and reliability in capacitive microelectromechanical systems radio frequency switch contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Steven T.; Zabinski, Jeffrey S.

    2006-05-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) radio frequency switches hold great promise in a myriad of commercial, aerospace, and military applications. In particular, capacitive-type switches with metal-to-dielectric contacts (typically gold-on-silicon nitride) are suitable for high frequency (>=10 GHz) applications. However, the devices are known to be unstable in their performance due to parasitic dielectric charging. Although several authors have previously reported the switch failure along with shifts in pull-down and release voltages due to charging, there is some disagreement and lack of understanding among the various reports. This study uses a switch simulator capable of measuring microscale electrostatic and adhesive forces to investigate charging and its effect on reliability and fundamental forces acting within MEMS capacitive switches. An important advantage of the switch simulator is that it can be actuated with or without a bias voltage. Electrostatic force and dielectric charging increased as surfaces were worn smooth by cycling. This is because the surface smoothening decreases separation and increases the electric field strength inside the dielectric. A simple analytical model was developed using electromagnetic theory for the electrostatic force in terms of bias voltage and the areal density of parasitic charge. Using the model and experimental data, it was determined that ``charging'' (net charge is zero) with the same polarity as the bias voltage resulted in reduced electrostatic force (under bias voltage) when a worn-in switch was actuated repeatedly at constant bias voltage >=40 V. Small electrostatic force under bias voltage can explain failure in the ``up'' position (failure to actuate and self-release). Reversing the polarity of the bias voltage between actuations prevented charge buildup and doubled the electrostatic force, which can help explain the effectiveness of bipolar actuation. The charging time constant for parasitic dielectric charge

  13. On the effect of demographic characteristics on the formulation of solid waste charging policy.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, A; Xirogiannopoulou, A; Moussiopoulos, N

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an analysis of municipal charges in Greece, as the fees paid by municipal waste producers to the municipal authorities are included in these charges and constitute a major part of them. The aim is to determine whether and how some of the demographic characteristics of a municipality influence the formulation of municipal waste charges and specifically the level of the charge. The study included 339 Hellenic municipalities, which comprised approximately 62% of the overall population in the country.

  14. The effect of a direct current field on the microparticle charge in the plasma afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Wörner, L.; Ivlev, A. V.; Huber, P.; Hagl, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Couëdel, L.; Schwabe, M.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Skvortsov, A.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2013-12-15

    Residual charges of individual microparticles forming dense clouds were measured in a RF discharge afterglow. Experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station, which ensured particle levitation inside the gas volume after the plasma switch-off. The distribution of residual charges as well as the spatial distribution of charged particles across the cloud were analyzed by applying a low-frequency voltage to the electrodes and measuring amplitudes of the resulting particle oscillations. Upon “free decharging” conditions, the charge distribution had a sharp peak at zero and was rather symmetric (with charges concentrated between −10e and +10e), yet positively and negatively charged particles were homogeneously distributed over the cloud. However, when decharging evolved in the presence of an external DC field (applied shortly before the plasma switch-off) practically all residual charges were positive. In this case, the overall charge distribution had a sharp peak at about +15e and was highly asymmetric, while the spatial distribution exhibited a significant charge gradient along the direction of the applied DC field.

  15. The effect of a direct current field on the microparticle charge in the plasma afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörner, L.; Ivlev, A. V.; Couëdel, L.; Huber, P.; Schwabe, M.; Hagl, T.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Skvortsov, A.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Residual charges of individual microparticles forming dense clouds were measured in a RF discharge afterglow. Experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station, which ensured particle levitation inside the gas volume after the plasma switch-off. The distribution of residual charges as well as the spatial distribution of charged particles across the cloud were analyzed by applying a low-frequency voltage to the electrodes and measuring amplitudes of the resulting particle oscillations. Upon "free decharging" conditions, the charge distribution had a sharp peak at zero and was rather symmetric (with charges concentrated between -10e and +10e), yet positively and negatively charged particles were homogeneously distributed over the cloud. However, when decharging evolved in the presence of an external DC field (applied shortly before the plasma switch-off) practically all residual charges were positive. In this case, the overall charge distribution had a sharp peak at about +15e and was highly asymmetric, while the spatial distribution exhibited a significant charge gradient along the direction of the applied DC field.

  16. Effect of charge trapping on effective carrier lifetime in compound semiconductors: High resistivity CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect

    Kamieniecki, Emil

    2014-11-21

    The dominant problem limiting the energy resolution of compound semiconductor based radiation detectors is the trapping of charge carriers. The charge trapping affects energy resolution through the carrier lifetime more than through the mobility. Conventionally, the effective carrier lifetime is determined using a 2-step process based on measurement of the mobility-lifetime product (μτ) and determining drift mobility using time-of-flight measurements. This approach requires fabrication of contacts on the sample. A new RF-based pulse rise-time method, which replaces this 2-step process with a single non-contact direct measurement, is discussed. The application of the RF method is illustrated with high-resistivity detector-grade CdZnTe crystals. The carrier lifetime in the measured CdZnTe, depending on the quality of the crystals, was between about 5 μs and 8 μs. These values are in good agreement with the results obtained using conventional 2-step approach. While the effective carrier lifetime determined from the initial portion of the photoresponse transient combines both recombination and trapping in a manner similar to the conventional 2-step approach, both the conventional and the non-contact RF methods offer only indirect evaluation of the effect of charge trapping in the semiconductors used in radiation detectors. Since degradation of detector resolution is associated not with trapping but essentially with detrapping of carriers, and, in particular, detrapping of holes in n-type semiconductors, it is concluded that evaluation of recombination and detrapping during photoresponse decay is better suited for evaluation of compound semiconductors used in radiation detectors. Furthermore, based on previously reported data, it is concluded that photoresponse decay in high resistivity CdZnTe at room temperature is dominated by detrapping of carriers from the states associated with one type of point defect and by recombination of carriers at one type of

  17. The Effect of Interfacial Geometry on Charge-Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine/Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong H; Geva, Eitan; Dunietz, Barry D

    2016-05-19

    The dependence of charge-transfer states on interfacial geometry at the phthalocyanine/fullerene organic photovoltaic system is investigated. The effect of deviations from the equilibrium geometry of the donor-donor-acceptor trimer on the energies of and electronic coupling between different types of interfacial electronic excited states is calculated from first-principles. Deviations from the equilibrium geometry are found to destabilize the donor-to-donor charge transfer states and to weaken their coupling to the photoexcited donor-localized states, thereby reducing their ability to serve as charge traps. At the same time, we find that the energies of donor-to-acceptor charge transfer states and their coupling to the donor-localized photoexcited states are either less sensitive to the interfacial geometry or become more favorable due to modifications relative to the equilibrium geometry, thereby enhancing their ability to serve as gateway states for charge separation. Through these findings, we eludicate how interfacial geometry modifications can play a key role in achieving charge separation in this widely studied organic photovoltaic system.

  18. Structural insights into the effects of charge-reversal substitutions at the surface of horseradish peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Navapour, Leila; Mogharrab, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), has gained significant interests in biotechnology, especially in biosensor field and diagnostic test kits. Hence, its solvent-exposed lysine residues 174, 232, and 241 have been frequently modified with the aim of improving its stability and catalytic efficiency. In this computational study, we investigated the effects of Lys-to-Glu substitutions on HRP structure to model charge-reversal manipulations at the enzyme surface. Simulation results implied that upon these substitutions, the number of stable hydrogen bonds and α-helical content of HRP are increased and the proximal Ca2+ binding pocket becomes more integrated. The results revealed that although Glu174-heme hydrogen bond is lost after mutation, formation of a new hydrogen bonding network contributes to the stability of heme-protein linkage. Together, it may be concluded that these substitutions enhance the stability of the protein moiety as well as the heme-protein non-covalent interactions. In the enzyme active site, we observed increased accessibility of peroxide binding site and heme prosthetic group to the peroxide and aromatic substrates, respectively. Results also demonstrated that the bottleneck entry of the peroxide-binding site has become wider and more flexible upon substitutions. Moreover, the hydrophobic patch functioning as a binding site or trap for reducing aromatic substrates is more extended in mutated enzyme. These observations suggest that the reactivity of the enzyme to its substrates has increased. Together, the results of this simulation study could provide possible structural clues to explain those experimental observations in which the protein stability achieved upon manipulation of charge distribution on protein surface. PMID:28097171

  19. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf; Wissink, martin; DelVescovo, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  20. Effects of charging on the chromophores of dissolved organic matter from the Rio Negro basin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Korshin, Gregory V; Claret, Francis; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Gallard, Hervé; Schäfer, Thorsten; Benedetti, Marc F

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates that the deprotonation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) originating from a small creek characteristic for DOM-rich waters located in the Rio Negro basin can be quantified based on measurements of pH effects on its absorbance spectra. The method was ascertained by the data of Near-Edge X-Ray Absorbance Spectroscopy (NEXAFS), potentiometric titration to quantify the structural and compositional differences between the colloidal and hydrophobic fractions that contribute 91% of black-water creek DOM. Changes in the absorbance spectra of the DOM fractions caused by deprotonation quantified via numeric deconvolution which indicated the presence of six well-resolved Gaussian bands in the differential spectra. The emergence of these bands was determined to be associated with the engagement of carboxylic and phenolic functionalities and changes of inter-chromophore interactions in DOM molecules. Interpretation of the data based on the NICA-Donnan approach showed that behavior of DOM chromophores was consistent with results of potentiometric titrations. Similar trends were observed for changes of the spectral slope of the DOM absorbance spectra in the range of wavelengths 325-375 nm (DSlope325-375). The behavior of DSlope325-375 values was modeled based on the NICA-Donnan approach and correlated with potentiometrically-estimated charges attributed to the carboxylic and phenolic groups. The correlations between DSlope325-375 and charges of low- and high-affinity protonation-active groups in DOM were monotonic but not linear and had important differences between the colloidal and hydrophobic fractions.

  1. Effect of surface roughness of charge hole on detonation propagation of emulsion explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiya, Fumihiko; Hirosaki, Yoshikazu; Katoh, Yukio; Wada, Yuji; Ogata, Yuji; Katsuyama, Kunihisa

    1996-12-01

    In the present study, some experimental work was performed to investigate the effects of surface roughness of the charge hole on the velocity of the precursor air shock wave. Photographic observation was performed using rectangular PMMA tubes with sandpaper on inner wall to simulate surface roughness for various decoupling coefficients. The experimental results indicate that the increase of surface roughness of the tube wall reduces the precursor air shock wave velocity and prevents detonation failure. It is shown that detonation failure occurs when the ratio of the precursor air shock wave velocity to detonation velocity becomes greater than 1.21 in the case of a rectangular PMMA tube. Precursor air shock wave velocity and detonation velocity were measured using PVC pipes of various inner diameters with sandpaper on the inner wall to simulate actual charge hole roughness. Sample explosive confined in polyethylene tubes of 20 mm in diameter was placed on the inner wall of the PVC pipe. The experimental results show that the increase of surface roughness of the PVC pipe decreases the velocity of the precursor air shock wave and improves the detonation propagation of explosive in the PVC pipe. It is shown that detonation failure occurs when the ratio of the precursor air shock wave velocity to detonation velocity exceeds 1.1 times in the case of the PVC pipe. The difference observed between the experiments with a rectangular PMMA tube and those with a circular PVC pipe is due to the difference of precompression mode of unreacted explosive by precursor air shock waves.

  2. Effects of defects and dephasing on charge and spin currents in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyke, John S.; Morr, Dirk K.

    2017-01-01

    Using the nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's function formalism, we investigate the effect of defects on the electronic structure and transport properties of two-dimensional topological insulators (TI). We demonstrate how the spatial flow of charge changes between the topologically protected edge and bulk states and show that elastically and inelastically scattering defects that preserve the time-reversal symmetry of the TI lead to qualitatively different effects on the TI's local electronic structure and its transport properties. Moreover, we show that the recently predicted ability to create highly spin-polarized currents by breaking the time-reversal symmetry of the TI via magnetic defects [J. S. Van Dyke and D. K. Morr, Phys. Rev. B 93, 081401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.081401] is robust against the inclusion of a Rashba spin-orbit interaction and the effects of dephasing, and remains unaffected by changes over a wide range of the TI's parameters. We discuss how the sign of the induced spin currents changes under symmetry operations, such as reversal of bias and gate voltages, or spatial reflections. Finally, we show that the insight into the interplay between topology and symmetry of the magnetic defects can be employed for the creation of intriguing quantum phenomena, such as highly localized magnetic fields inside the TI.

  3. Toxic effects of different charged metal ions on the target—Bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Rutao; Chi, Zhenxing; Gao, Canzhu

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the toxic influence of metallic ions (Na +, Cu 2+, Al 3+) on the serum albumin were studied by fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS), synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that ion electric charge is not the main factor affecting the structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Na + made the structure of BSA tighter and hydrophobicity enhanced, which improved fluorescence intensity, while Cu 2+ could react with some functional groups of BSA, making the structure of BSA looser, so that the internal hydrophobic groups such as tryptophan (Trp) and other aromatic residues were gradually exposed. When we observed them with fluorescence spectra, we found fluorescence quenching with increasing Cu 2+ dose. Al 3+ is shown as little significant influence on the BSA, but BSA was found to aggregate with the dose of Al 3+ by means of RLS because of the hydrolysis and ion strength effect of Al 3+. The results also proved normal saline could keep lives healthy and good-working as a biological humour, however, heavy metals made harmful effects to the body when they exceeded the minimal effect level (MEL), such as Cu 2+ chosen in our work.

  4. Transungual iontophoretic transport of polar neutral and positively charged model permeants: effects of electrophoresis and electroosmosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jinsong; Li, S Kevin

    2008-02-01

    Transungual iontophoretic transport of model neutral permeants mannitol (MA), urea (UR), and positively charged permeant tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) across fully hydrated human nail plates at pH 7.4 were investigated in vitro. Four protocols were involved in the transport experiments with each protocol divided into stages including passive and iontophoresis transport of 0.1 and 0.3 mA. Water and permeant uptake experiments of nail clippings were also conducted to characterize the hydration and binding effects of the permeants to the nails. Iontophoresis enhanced the transport of MA and UR from anode to cathode, but this effect (electroosmosis) was marginal. The transport of TEA was significantly enhanced by anodal iontophoresis and the experimental enhancement factors were consistent with the Nernst-Planck theory predictions. Hindered transport was also observed and believed to be critical in transungual delivery. The barrier of the nail plates was stable over the time course of the study, and no significant electric field-induced alteration of the barrier was observed. The present results with hydrated nail plates are consistent with electrophoresis-dominant (the direct field effect) transungual iontophoretic transport of small ionic permeants with small contribution from electroosmosis.

  5. [Effect of the mobility of gate charges on volt-ampere characteristics of excitable membranes].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, A N

    1996-01-01

    An assumption on nature of the gate charges and known data on gate changes mobility allow to deduce the volt-ampere characteristics of ionic channels and the same for membrane. Model research shows that the volt-ampere curve shape depends on gate charges mobility. Its reduction and the followed gate charges immobilization during membrane excitation process are expressed as the changes of volt-ampere curves. These changes might be to specify as the fast components of the inactivation process. A number critical values of the gate charges mobility are calculated which are important for the functions of memory (hysteresis) and excitation (negative resistance). The coincidence of values of biased charge in model and experiment is noted. The formulae that are drown are compared with Hodgkin-Huxley approximations.

  6. Effect of surface charge distribution on the adsorption orientation of proteins to lipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Tiemeyer, Sebastian; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin

    2010-09-07

    The adsorption orientation of the proteins lysozyme and ribonuclease A (RNase A) to a neutral 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and a negatively charged stearic acid lipid film was investigated by means of X-ray reflectivity. Both proteins adsorbed to the negatively charged lipid monolayer, whereas at the neutral monolayer, no adsorption was observed. For acquiring comprehensive information on the proteins' adsorption, X-ray reflectivity data were combined with electron densities obtained from crystallographic data. With this method, it is possible to determine the orientation of adsorbed proteins in solution underneath lipid monolayers. While RNase A specifically coupled with its positively charged active site to the negatively charged lipid monolayer, lysozyme prefers an orientation with its long axis parallel to the Langmuir film. In comparison to the electrostatic maps of the proteins, our results can be explained by the discriminative surface charge distribution of lysozyme and RNase A.

  7. Ab initio studies of hyperconjugation effects on charge distribution in tetracyclododecane alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tostes, J. Glauco R.; Seidl, Peter Rudolf; Soto, M. M.; De M. Carneiro, J. W.; Lie, S. K.; Taft, C. A.; Brown, W.; Lester, W. A., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Ab initio calculations using the STO-3G, 6-31G, and 6-31G ∗∗ basis sets are used to investigate charge distribution in tetracyclododecane alcohols. The calculated net atomic charges using fully optimized geometries indicate that certain carbon and hydrogen atoms in the proximity of a nonbonding oxygen lone pair are more negatively charged and the carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds are longer. Analysis of these charges and bond lengths as well as atomic orbital populations suggests that the differences between charge distribution on carbon and hydrogen atoms adjacent to the hydroxyl group and their corresponding carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bond lengths can be explained in terms of hyperconjugation.

  8. The two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to one loop

    SciTech Connect

    S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani,S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani

    2011-08-01

    The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to order $e\\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the non-uniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.

  9. Two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT) up to one loop

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, S.; Girlanda, L.; Schiavilla, R.; Viviani, M.

    2011-08-15

    The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT) up to order e Q[or next-to-next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N4LO)], where Q denotes the low-momentum scale and e is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the nonstatic terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the nonuniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.

  10. Single-Hole Charging and Discharging Phenomena in Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect-Transistor-Based Nonvolatile Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohori, Takahiro; Nagaso, Satoshi; Ohno, Yasuhide; Maehashi, Kenzo; Inoue, Koichi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2010-06-01

    We have fabricated nonvolatile memory based on top-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). Two kinds of insulating films, SiNx and SiO2, were deposited to control the hysteresis characteristics after the removal of water molecules around the single-walled CNT channels. The interface between the SiNx and SiO2 films is expected to act as a charge storage node of nonvolatile memory. The fabricated CNTFET-based memory devices clearly exhibited not only a memory effect but also good retention characteristics for charge storage. Furthermore, single-hole charging and discharging phenomena were clearly observed in the CNTFET-based memory devices by reducing the number of carriers trapped in the interface between the SiNx and SiO2 films. These results indicate that the CNTFET-based nonvolatile memory can be potentially used to realize single-electron memory.

  11. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-02-05

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics.

  12. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M.; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-01-01

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics. PMID:26846617

  13. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Thilo; Jäger, Christof M.; Jordan, Meredith J. T.; Clark, Timothy

    2015-07-28

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves.

  14. Effect of ion charges on the electric double layer capacitance of activated carbon in aqueous electrolyte systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icaza, Juan C.; Guduru, Ramesh K.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon based electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are known for high power density, but their energy density is limited due to surface characteristics of the electrode materials as well as the size and charge of the ions used in the electrolyte. Therefore, considering the current demand for enhanced energy density devices, we investigated the use of multivalent electrolytes to increase the capacitance of activated carbon (AC) based EDLCs. As part of these studies, we examined the effect of the charge of the multivalent ions on the capacitive behavior of microporous AC electrodes and compared with the univalent Li+ system. We performed impedance and cyclic voltammetry measurements on AC electrodes in a symmetric two electrode configuration to determine the impedance and capacitance with respect to varying charge and concentration of the ions in the aqueous nitrate electrolytes. These studies clearly demonstrated an increased capacitance with Mg2+ and Al3+ implying the possible effects of ion mobility and electrolyte conductivity in addition to the multivalent charge. These preliminary observations clearly point to the importance of selection of electrolyte ions with more charge, conductivity, and suitable size with respect to the pore size of the electrodes in order to increase the capacitance of EDLCs.

  15. Role of surface charge in determining the biological effects of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiangqiang; Li, Hongxia; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications has provoked the urgent need to thoroughly address their interaction with biological systems. However, only limited studies have been performed to explore the effects of surface charge on the biological behaviors of QDs. In the present study, three commercially available QDs with different surface coatings were used to systematically evaluate the effects of surface charge on the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and in vivo biodistribution of QDs. Our results demonstrated that charged QDs entered both cancer cells and macrophages more efficiently than neutral ones, while negative QDs internalized mostly. Upon entry into cells, QDs were localized in different subcellular compartments (eg, cytoplasm and lysosomes) depending on the surface charge. Interestingly, inconsistent with the result of internalization, positive QDs but not negative QDs exhibited severe cytotoxicity, which was likely due to their disruption of cell membrane integrity, and production of reactive oxygen species. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that negative and neutral QDs preferentially distributed in the liver and the spleen, whereas positive QDs mainly deposited in the kidney with obvious uptake in the brain. In general, surface charge plays crucial roles in determining the biological interactions of QDs.

  16. Role of surface charge in determining the biological effects of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiangqiang; Li, Hongxia; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications has provoked the urgent need to thoroughly address their interaction with biological systems. However, only limited studies have been performed to explore the effects of surface charge on the biological behaviors of QDs. In the present study, three commercially available QDs with different surface coatings were used to systematically evaluate the effects of surface charge on the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and in vivo biodistribution of QDs. Our results demonstrated that charged QDs entered both cancer cells and macrophages more efficiently than neutral ones, while negative QDs internalized mostly. Upon entry into cells, QDs were localized in different subcellular compartments (eg, cytoplasm and lysosomes) depending on the surface charge. Interestingly, inconsistent with the result of internalization, positive QDs but not negative QDs exhibited severe cytotoxicity, which was likely due to their disruption of cell membrane integrity, and production of reactive oxygen species. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that negative and neutral QDs preferentially distributed in the liver and the spleen, whereas positive QDs mainly deposited in the kidney with obvious uptake in the brain. In general, surface charge plays crucial roles in determining the biological interactions of QDs. PMID:26604757

  17. The effects of nanoparticles and organic additives with controlled dispersion on dielectric properties of polymers: Charge trapping and impact excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanhui; Wu, Ke; Bell, Michael; Oakes, Andrew; Ratcliff, Tyree; Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Schadler, Linda S.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a comprehensive investigation into the effects of nanoparticles and organic additives on the dielectric properties of insulating polymers using reinforced silicone rubber as a model system. TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles (d = 5 nm) were well dispersed into the polymer via a bimodal surface modification approach. Organic molecules with the potential of voltage stabilization were further grafted to the nanoparticle to ensure their dispersion. These extrinsic species were found to provide deep traps for charge carriers and exhibited effective charge trapping properties at a rather small concentration (˜1017 cm-3). The charge trapping is found to have the most significant effect on breakdown strength when the electrical stressing time is long enough that most charges are trapped in the deep states. To establish a quantitative correlation between the trap depth and the molecular properties, the electron affinity and ionization energy of each species were calculated by an ab initio method and were compared with the experimentally measured values. The correlation however remains elusive and is possibly complicated by the field effect and the electronic interactions between different species that are not considered in this computation. At high field, a super-linear increase of current density was observed for TiO2 filled composites and is likely caused by impact excitation due to the low excitation energy of TiO2 compared to ZrO2. It is reasoned that the hot charge carriers with energies greater than the excitation energy of TiO2 may excite an electron-hole pair upon collision with the NP, which later will be dissociated and contribute to free charge carriers. This mechanism can enhance the energy dissipation and may account for the retarded electrical degradation and breakdown of TiO2 composites.

  18. The Effect of Variable End of Charge Battery Management on Small-Cell Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Simmons, Nick; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    ABSL Space Products is the world leading supplier of Lithium-ion batteries for space applications and has pioneered the use of small capacity COTS cells within large arrays. This small-cell approach has provided many benefits to space application designers through increased flexibility and reliability over more traditional battery designs. The ABSL 18650HC cell has been used in most ABSL space battery applications to date and has a recommended End Of Charge Voltage (EOCV) of 4.2V per cell. For all space applications using the ABSL 18650HC so far, this EOCV has been used at all stages of battery life from ground checkout to in orbit operations. ABSL and NASA have identified that, by using a lower EOCV for the same equivalent Depth Of Discharge (DOD), battery capacity fade could be reduced. The intention of this paper is to compare battery performance for systems with fixed and variable EOCV. In particular, the effect of employing the blanket value of 4.2V per cell versus utilizing a lower EOCV at Beginning Of Life (BOL) before gradually increasing it (as the effects of capacity fade drive the End Of Discharge Voltage closer to the acceptable system level minimum) is analyzed. Data is compared from ABSL in-house and NASA GRC tests that have been run under fixed and variable EOCV conditions. Differences in capacity fade are discussed and projections are made as to potential life extension capability by utilizing a variable EOCV strategy.

  19. Effect of Polymer Side Chains on Charge Generation and Disorder in PBDTTPD Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Iordania; Lai, Tzung-Han; Klump, Erik D; Goswami, Subhadip; Schanze, Kirk S; So, Franky

    2015-12-09

    The effect of polymer side chains on device performance was investigated for PBDT(EtHex)-TPD(Oct):PC70BM and PBDT(EtHex)-TPD(EtHex):PC70BM BHJ solar cells. Going from a linear side chain on the polymer's acceptor moiety to a branched side chain was determined to have a negative impact on the overall device efficiency, because of significantly reduced short-circuit current (J(sc)) and fill factor (FF) values. Sub-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) and transient photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed more-efficient carrier generation for the polymer with linear side chains, because of a higher degree of charge-transfer (CT) state delocalization, leading to more-efficient exciton dissociation. Furthermore, the increase in π-π stacking distance and disorder for the bulkier ethylhexyl side chain were shown to result in a lower hole mobility, a higher bimolecular recombination, and a higher energetic disorder. The use of linear side chains on the polymer's acceptor moiety was shown to promote photogeneration, because of more-effective CT states and favorable carrier transport resulting in improved solar cell performance.

  20. Cholesterol improves the transfection efficiency of lipoplexes by increasing the effective membrane charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safinya, Cyrus R.; Zidovska, Alexandra; Evans, Heather M.; Ewert, Kai K.

    2008-03-01

    Motivated by its important role in lipid-mediated gene delivery, we have studied the effect of cholesterol on the transfection efficiency (TE) of lamellar, cationic lipid-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes. A successful in vivo liposome mixture seems to require cholesterol. Recent work in our group has identified the membrane charge density (σ) as a universal parameter for TE of lamellar, DOPC containing CL-DNA complexes (A.J. Lin et al, Biophys. J., 2003, K. Ewert et al, J. Med. Chem., 2002, A. Ahmad et al., J. Gene Med., 2005), with TE following a universal bell-shaped curve as a function of σ. Theoretical calculations considering the headgroup area of cholesterol and thus necessarily counting for an increase in σ, when DOPC is replaced by cholesterol, show that TE strongly deviates from the TE universal curve. However, experimental determination of σ via X-ray diffraction shows full agreement with the TE universal curve demonstrating that the real σ is higher as predicted, therefore the effective headgroup area of cholesterol is lower as expected by theory, suggesting that cholesterol is inserted deep into lipid bilayer partially hidden by the neighboring lipids. Funding provided by NIH GM-59288 and NSF DMR-0503347.

  1. Metal-ion-specific screening of charge effects in protein amide H/D exchange and the Hofmeister series.

    PubMed

    Abdolvahabi, Alireza; Gober, Jennifer L; Mowery, Richard A; Shi, Yunhua; Shaw, Bryan F

    2014-10-21

    In this study, protein charge ladders and mass spectrometry were used to quantify how metal cations in the Hofmeister series (Na(+), K(+), Li(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+)) permute the effects of lysine acetylation on the rate of amide H/D exchange in a representative protein (myoglobin, Mb). The successive acetylation of up to 18 Lys-ε-NH3(+) groups in Mb caused a linear decrease in its global rate of amide H/D exchange (as measured by mass spectrometry), despite also decreasing the thermostability of Mb by >10 °C. The ability of a metal cation to screen kinetic electrostatic effects during H/D exchange-and to abolish the protective effect of acetylation against H/D exchange-was found to depend on the position of the cation in the Hofmeister series. Na(+) and K(+) cations did not fully equalize the rates of H/D exchange among each "rung" of the charge ladder, whereas Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) did equalize rates without eliminating the hydrophobic core of the protein (i.e., without unfolding Mb); Li(+) exhibited intermediate effects. The ability of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) to completely screen electrostatic effects associated with the H/D exchange of charge isomers of Mb suggests that Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) (but not Na(+) or K(+)) can be used to quantify the magnitude by which electrostatic charge contributes to the observed rates of amide H/D exchange in proteins.

  2. Charge injection in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors: physics, models and characterization methods.

    PubMed

    Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2012-03-15

    A high-mobility organic semiconductor employed as the active material in a field-effect transistor does not guarantee per se that expectations of high performance are fulfilled. This is even truer if a downscaled, short channel is adopted. Only if contacts are able to provide the device with as much charge as it needs, with a negligible voltage drop across them, then high expectations can turn into high performances. It is a fact that this is not always the case in the field of organic electronics. In this review, we aim to offer a comprehensive overview on the subject of current injection in organic thin film transistors: physical principles concerning energy level (mis)alignment at interfaces, models describing charge injection, technologies for interface tuning, and techniques for characterizing devices. Finally, a survey of the most recent accomplishments in the field is given. Principles are described in general, but the technologies and survey emphasis is on solution processed transistors, because it is our opinion that scalable, roll-to-roll printing processing is one, if not the brightest, possible scenario for the future of organic electronics. With the exception of electrolyte-gated organic transistors, where impressively low width normalized resistances were reported (in the range of 10 Ω·cm), to date the lowest values reported for devices where the semiconductor is solution-processed and where the most common architectures are adopted, are ∼10 kΩ·cm for transistors with a field effect mobility in the 0.1-1 cm(2)/Vs range. Although these values represent the best case, they still pose a severe limitation for downscaling the channel lengths below a few micrometers, necessary for increasing the device switching speed. Moreover, techniques to lower contact resistances have been often developed on a case-by-case basis, depending on the materials, architecture and processing techniques. The lack of a standard strategy has hampered the progress of the

  3. The effect of charge separation on the phase behavior of dipolar colloidal rods.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, David M; Velev, Orlin D; Klapp, Sabine H L; Hall, Carol K

    2016-06-14

    Colloids with anisotropic shape and charge distribution can assemble into a variety of structures that could find use as novel materials for optical, photonic, electronic and structural applications. Because experimental characterization of the many possible types of multi-shape and multipolar colloidal particles that could form useful structures is difficult, the search for novel colloidal materials can be enhanced by simulations of colloidal particle assembly. We have simulated a system of dipolar colloidal rods at fixed aspect ratio using discontinuous molecular dynamics (DMD) to investigate how the charge separation of an embedded dipole affects the types of assemblies that occur. Each dipolar rod is modeled as several overlapping spheres fixed in an elongated shape to represent excluded volume and two smaller, embedded spheres to represent the charges that make up the extended dipole. Large charge separations predominately form structures where the rods link head-to-tail while small charge separations predominately form structures where the rods stack side-by-side. Rods with small charge separations tend to form dense aggregates while rods with large charge separations tend to form coarse gel-like structures. Structural phase boundaries between fluid, string-fluid, and "gel" (networked) phases are mapped out and characterized as to whether they have global head-to-tail or global side-by-side order. A structural coarsening transition is observed for particles with large charge separations in which the head-tail networks thicken as temperature is lowered due to an increased tendency to form side-by-side structures. Triangularly connected networks form at small charge separations; these may be useful for encapsulating smaller particles.

  4. Ionization, Charging and Electric Field Effects on Cloud Particles in the CLOUD Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichman, L.; Järvinen, E.; Wagner, R.; Dorsey, J.; Dias, A. M.; Ehrhart, S.; Kirkby, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Saunders, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ice crystals and frozen droplets play an important role in atmospheric charging and electrification processes, particularly by collision and aggregation. The dynamics of charged particles in the atmosphere can be modulated by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). High electric fields also affect the alignment of charged particles, allowing more time for interactions. The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) experiment at CERN has the ability to conduct ionization, charging and high electric field experiments on liquid or ice clouds created in the chamber by adiabatic pressure reductions. A pion secondary beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron is used to ionize the molecules in the chamber, and Ar+ Corona Ion Generator for Atmospheric Research (CIGAR) is used to inject unipolar charged ions directly into the chamber. A pressurized airgun provides rapid pressure shocks inside the chamber and induces charged ice nucleation. The cloud chamber is accompanied by a variety of analysing instruments e.g. a 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI) coupled with an induction ring, a Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detection of icE (SIMONE) and a Nano-aerosol and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS). Using adiabatic expansion and high electric fields we can replicate the ideal conditions for adhesion, sintering and interlocking between ice crystals. Charged cloud particles produced measurable variations in the total induced current pulse on the induction ring. The most influential factors comprised initial temperature, lapse rate and charging mechanism. The ions produced in the chamber may deposit onto larger particles and form dipoles during ice nucleation and growth. The small ion concentration was monitored by the NAIS during these runs. Possible short-term aggregates or alignment of particles were observed in-situ with the SIMONE. These and future chamber measurements of charging and aggregation could shed more light on the ambient conditions and dynamics for electrification

  5. Effect of the charge and roughness of surfaces on normal and friction forces measured in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Cathy E; Higashitani, Ko

    2013-04-23

    We used the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine how the roughness and charge on a surface affect the adhesion and friction when measured against a smooth surface (colloid probe) in an aqueous solution. The effect of roughness was investigated by coating TiO2 crystal substrates with TiO2 nano- or micro-sized particles, where an increase in the particle size increased the RMS roughness of the substrate. The charge of the substrate was varied by changing the pH of the aqueous solution. Force-separation curves and friction-load data were measured for the smooth colloid probe-rough substrate systems. The adhesion and friction between two surfaces in solution were seen to depend on the surface charge and roughness. A noncharged surface gave the greatest adhesion, while a charged surface gave weaker adhesions. Increasing the roughness of the surface resulted in a stronger adhesion. The magnitude and range of the adhesions were not affected by the measuring velocity in the case of a noncharged substrate but decreased with an increasing velocity for charged surfaces. The friction was seen not to depend on roughness in the case of a noncharged surface. However, in the case of a charged surface, the friction decreased with an increased roughness for low loads and then showed no dependence on the surface roughness for high loads. The results of this experiment show that the adhesion and friction of a system can be decreased via the roughness and charge of the substrate and the ion types in the solution.

  6. Correlational analysis of Eu3+ charge transfer state using La effective charge in La-based mixed-anion host compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimatsu, Ryo; Okada, Masahiro; Ishigaki, Tadashi; Watanabe, Shinta; Honma, Tetsuo; Ohmi, Koutoku

    2017-03-01

    A prediction of the Eu3+ charge transfer state (E CT) was attempted in La-based mixed-anion host compounds. We paid attention to La3OF3S2:Eu, since it is expected to have a more covalent La site than La2O2S. The La effective charge (La EC) was proposed as the index factor of covalency and/or ionicity. The correlation between the experimental E CT and the calculated La EC was systematically analyzed for La2S3, LaFS, La2O2S, La2O3, LaOF, and LaF3 host materials, and good approximation was obtained using the single exponential function with a variable number of La ECs. According to the fitting curve, the E CT of La3OF3S2:Eu was predicted to be 5.8 and 2.1 eV for Eu3+ centers activated at ionic and covalent sites, respectively. To confirm the prediction accuracy, La3OF3S2:Eu phosphor powder samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction. From the photoluminescence excitation and absorption measurements, the E CT values of about 4.7 eV (ionic La site) and 2.4 eV (covalent La site) were obtained. Even though the energy difference between the predicted and experimental values is large for the higher E CT, La EC is the useful index factor for estimating E CT. In addition, it indicates that the estimation can be applied to phosphor materials having multication sites.

  7. Wake effects of a charged projectile flying above a magnetized metal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    This research deals with covering of a metal film on the semi-infinite dielectric in the presence of a weak external magnetic field. A charged projectile has been considered flying above the thin film. The surface wave frequencies of the system were derived by means of the quantum hydrodynamic theory through the appropriate boundary conditions. The energy loss of charged particle in the present system was also investigated. It is found that the external magnetic field modifies the distribution of electron gas density as well as the energy loss of flying charged particle.

  8. Control of the spin to charge conversion using the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect

    SciTech Connect

    Sangiao, S.; De Teresa, J. M.; Morellon, L.; Martinez-Velarte, M. C.; Lucas, I.; Viret, M.

    2015-04-27

    We show here that using spin orbit coupling interactions at a metallic interface it is possible to control the sign of the spin to charge conversion in a spin pumping experiment. Using the intrinsic symmetry of the “Inverse Rashba Edelstein Effect” (IREE) in a Bi/Ag interface, the charge current changes sign when reversing the order of the Ag and Bi stacking. This confirms the IREE nature of the conversion of spin into charge in these interfaces and opens the way to tailoring the spin sensing voltage by an appropriate trilayer sequence.

  9. Kapton charging characteristics: Effects of material thickness and electron-energy distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Hymann, J.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Charging characteristics of polyimide (Kapton) of varying thicknesses under irradiation by a very-low-curent-density electron beam, with the back surface of the sample grounded are reported. These charging characteristics are in good agreement with a simple analytical model which predicts that in thin samples at low current density, sample surface potential is limited by conduction leakage through the bulk material. The charging of Kapton in a low-current-density electron beam in which the beam energy was modulated to simulate Maxwellian and biMaxwellian distribution functions is measured.

  10. A study on the effects of relativistic heavy charged particles on the cellular microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costes, Sylvain Vincent

    This study was done under the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) effort to assess the effect of cosmic radiation on astronauts during a 3 year mission to Mars. Carcinogenesis is known to be induced more efficiently by cosmic radiation. Our attention was turned towards one of the most efficient cosmic particles in inducing cancer, relativistic Fe, and focused in assessing its effect on the cellular microenvironment (ECM). Previous observations on mammary glands were showing irregularities in the immunoreactivity of the ECM protein laminin one hour after whole body irradiation with 1GeV/amu Fe ions for a dose of 0.8 Gy. This effect was not observed after 5 Gy γ-rays exposure. The rapidity of such a change suggested that the effect might be due to a physical event specific to relativistic charged particles (HZE), rather than a biological event. Our study showed that this effect is actually a complex and rapid response of the microenvironment to highly ionizing radiation. It involves a fast disruption of the basement membrane of the ECM induced by the highly localized ionization and reactive oxygen formation around the track of the Fe ion. This disruption triggers further chemical and biological responses involved in the remodeling of the laminin network in the basement membrane. A metalloproteinase is suspected to be the intermediate protease affecting laminin. The HZE effect on the microenvironment was seen in both mouse mammary glands and skin, but the laminin isoforms sensitive to Fe ions were different for each organ, with a clear disruption of laminin-1 network in skin and of laminin-5 in mammary glands. In addition, the laminin receptor integrins seem to be involved in this mechanism, but its contribution is unclear at this point. Finally, such studies suggest a shift from the concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) used in classical radiation biology since the effect is only seen with HZE at viable whole body doses. In addition, this

  11. Effect of moisture, charge size, and chlorine concentration on PCDD/F emissions from simulated open burning of forest biomass

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) was combusted at different charge sizes, fuel moisture, and chlorine content to determine the effect on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated diberizofurans (PCDDslFs) as well as co-pollutants CO, PM, and total hydrocarbons...

  12. Charge-exchange plasma environment for an ion drive spacecraft. [a model for describing mercury ion engines and its effect on spacecraft subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The charge exchange plasma environment around a spacecraft that uses mercury ion thrusters for propulsion is described. The interactions between the plasma environment and the spacecraft are determined and a model which describes the propagation of the mercury charge exchange plasma is discussed. The model is extended to describe the flow of the molybdenum component of the charge exchange plasma. The uncertainties in the models for various conditions are discussed and current drain to the solar array, charge exchange plasma material deposition, and the effects of space plasma on the charge exchange plasma propagation are addressed.

  13. The role of charge transfer in the hydrogen bond cooperative effect of cis-N-methylformamide oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongwei; Qu, Wenwen; Chen, Guangju; Liu, Ruozhuang

    2005-07-21

    Two accumulating molecular systems have been designed to investigate the cooperative effect of hydrogen bonding in theory. The first system included a series of linear oligomers of cis-N-methylformamide (c-NMF) molecules. Substantial cooperative effect has been confirmed in the electronic structures and energies of the hydrogen bonds in them as shown by the results obtained using the B3LYP method at the level of cc-pVTZ basis sets. Such a cooperative effect gradually increases with the growth of the c-NMF oligomer. The second system included a series of modified c-NMF trimers whose central c-NMF molecules contained insertion fragments of varying structural and electrical compositions. On the basis of an examination of the structures and charge populations of the c-NMF oligomers in these two systems, a mechanism of the cooperative effect of hydrogen bonding in these systems based on charge flow in the c-NMF molecules is proposed. The results from the second system of c-NMF trimers were particularly instrumental in formulating this mechanism, because the charge flows between the C=O and N-H groups in the modified c-NMF molecule of these trimers were dampened by the various molecular insertions. A clear correlation between the degree of charge flow dampening from each inserted fragment and the magnitude of the cooperative effect of hydrogen bonding was observed. On the basis of an analysis of the electronic structural characteristics of the molecular fragments, we conclude that the charge flow between the hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups in the c-NMF molecule is the most important factor inducing the cooperative effect of hydrogen bonding.

  14. Spin-charge coupling and the high-energy magnetodielectric effect in hexagonal HoMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. C.; Cao, J.; Musfeldt, J. L.; Kim, S. B.; Cheong, S.-W.; Wei, X.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the optical and magneto-optical properties of HoMnO3 in order to elucidate the spin-charge coupling and high-energy magnetodielectric effect. We find that the Mnd to d excitations are sensitive to the cascade of low-temperature magnetic transitions involving the Mn3+ moment, direct evidence for spin-charge coupling. An applied magnetic field also modifies the on-site excitations. The high-energy magnetodielectric contrast ( ˜8% at 20T near 1.8eV ) derives from the substantial mixing in this multiferroic system.

  15. Negligible "negative space-charge layer effects" at oxide-electrolyte/electrode interfaces of thin-film batteries.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Masakazu; Shiraki, Susumu; Suzuki, Tohru; Kumatani, Akichika; Ohsawa, Takeo; Takagi, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Ryota; Hitosugi, Taro

    2015-03-11

    In this paper, we report the surprisingly low electrolyte/electrode interface resistance of 8.6 Ω cm(2) observed in thin-film batteries. This value is an order of magnitude smaller than that presented in previous reports on all-solid-state lithium batteries. The value is also smaller than that found in a liquid electrolyte-based batteries. The low interface resistance indicates that the negative space-charge layer effects at the Li3PO(4-x)N(x)/LiCoO2 interface are negligible and demonstrates that it is possible to fabricate all-solid state batteries with faster charging/discharging properties.

  16. Effect of field-focusing and ion selectivity on the extended space charge developed at the microchannel-nanochannel interface.

    PubMed

    Liel, Uri; Leibowitz, Neta; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-08-17

    We present results demonstrating the effect of varying microchannel depth and bulk conductivity on the space charge-mediated transition between classical, diffusion-limited current and over-limiting current in microchannel-nanochannel devices. The extended space charge layer develops at the depleted microchannel-nanochannel entrance when the limiting current is exceeded and is correlated with a distinctive maximum in the dc resistance. This maximum is shown to be affected by the microchannel depth, via field-focusing, and solution conductivity. In particular, we observe that upon their increase, the maximum becomes flatter and shifts to higher voltages.

  17. A biomolecular detection method based on charge pumping in a nanogap embedded field-effect-transistor biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Yup; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2009-06-01

    A unique direct electrical detection method of biomolecules, charge pumping, was demonstrated using a nanogap embedded field-effect-transistor (FET). With aid of a charge pumping method, sensitivity can fall below the 1 ng/ml concentration regime in antigen-antibody binding of an avian influenza case. Biomolecules immobilized in the nanogap are mainly responsible for the acute changes of the interface trap density due to modulation of the energy level of the trap. This finding is supported by a numerical simulation. The proposed detection method for biomolecules using a nanogap embedded FET represents a foundation for a chip-based biosensor capable of high sensitivity.

  18. Effects of electron-transfer coupled with collision-induced dissociation (ET/CID) on doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is a useful peptide fragmentation technique that can be applied to investigate post-translational modifications (PTMs), the sequencing of highly hydrophilic peptides, and the identification of large peptides and even intact proteins. In contrast to traditional fragmentation methods, such as collision-induced dissociation (CID), ETD produces c- and z(·)-type product ions by randomly cleaving the N-Cα bonds. The disappointing fragmentation efficiency of ETD for doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptide ions has been improved by ETcaD (supplemental activation). However, the ETD data derived from most database search algorithms yield low confidence scores due to the presence of unreacted precursors and charge-reduced ions within MS/MS spectra. In this work, we demonstrate that eight out of ten standard doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptides can be effortlessly identified by electron-transfer coupled with collision-induced dissociation (ET/CID) using the SEQUEST algorithm without further spectral processing. ET/CID was performed with the further dissociation of the charge-reduced ions isolated from ETD ion/ion reactions. ET/CID had high fragmentation efficiency, which elevated the confidence scores of doubly charged peptide and phosphospeptide sequencing. ET/CID was found to be an effective fragmentation strategy in "bottom-up" proteomic analysis.

  19. Effects of Electron-Transfer Coupled with Collision-Induced Dissociation (ET/CID) on Doubly Charged Peptides and Phosphopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is a useful peptide fragmentation technique that can be applied to investigate post-translational modifications (PTMs), the sequencing of highly hydrophilic peptides, and the identification of large peptides and even intact proteins. In contrast to traditional fragmentation methods, such as collision-induced dissociation (CID), ETD produces c- and z·-type product ions by randomly cleaving the N-Cα bonds. The disappointing fragmentation efficiency of ETD for doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptide ions has been improved by ETcaD (supplemental activation). However, the ETD data derived from most database search algorithms yield low confidence scores due to the presence of unreacted precursors and charge-reduced ions within MS/MS spectra. In this work, we demonstrate that eight out of ten standard doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptides can be effortlessly identified by electron-transfer coupled with collision-induced dissociation (ET/CID) using the SEQUEST algorithm without further spectral processing. ET/CID was performed with the further dissociation of the charge-reduced ions isolated from ETD ion/ion reactions. ET/CID had high fragmentation efficiency, which elevated the confidence scores of doubly charged peptide and phosphospeptide sequencing. ET/CID was found to be an effective fragmentation strategy in "bottom-up" proteomic analysis.

  20. The effect of various quantum mechanically derived partial atomic charges on the bulk properties of chloride-based ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolghadr, Amin Reza; Ghatee, Mohammad Hadi; Moosavi, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    Partial atomic charges using various quantum mechanical calculations for [Cnmim]Cl (n = 1, 4) ionic liquids (ILs) are obtained and used for development of molecular dynamics simulation (MD) force fields. The isolated ion pairs are optimized using HF, B3LYP, and MP2 methods for electronic structure with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Partial atomic charges are assigned to the atomic center with CHELPG and NBO methods. The effect of these sets of partial charges on the static and dynamic properties of ILs is evaluated by performing a series of MD simulations and comparing the essential thermodynamic properties with the available experimental data and available molecular dynamics simulation results. In contrast to the general trends reported for ionic liquids with BF4, PF6, and iodide anions (in which restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) charges are preferred), partial charges derived by B3LYP-NBO method are relatively good in prediction of the structural, dynamical, and thermodynamic energetic properties of the chloride based ILs.

  1. Calculations of current densities for neutral and doubly charged persubstituted benzenes using effective core potentials.

    PubMed

    Rauhalahti, Markus; Taubert, Stefan; Sundholm, Dage; Liégeois, Vincent

    2017-03-08

    Magnetically induced current density susceptibilities and ring-current strengths have been calculated for neutral and doubly charged persubstituted benzenes C6X6 and C6X6(2+) with X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, SeH, SeMe, TeH, TeMe, and SbH2. The current densities have been calculated using the gauge-including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method, which has been interfaced to the Gaussian electronic structure code rendering current density calculations using effective core potentials (ECP) feasible. Relativistic effects on the ring-current strengths have been assessed by employing ECP calculations of the current densities. Comparison of the ring-current strengths obtained in calculations on C6At6 and C6At6(2+) using relativistic and non-relativistic ECPs show that scalar relativistic effects have only a small influence on the ring-current strengths. Comparisons of the ring-current strengths and ring-current profiles show that the C6I6(2+), C6At6(2+), C6(SeH)6(2+), C6(SeMe)6(2+), C6(TeH)6(2+), C6(TeMe)6(2+), and C6(SbH2)6(2+) dications are doubly aromatic sustaining spatially separated ring currents in the carbon ring and in the exterior of the molecule. The C6I6(+) radical cation is also found to be doubly aromatic with a weaker ring current than obtained for the dication.

  2. Effects of capping HfO2 with multivalent oxides toward reducing the number of charged defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Naoto

    2010-04-01

    Electrical properties of field-effect transistors are significantly degraded by charged defects formed in dielectric oxides. Here, we propose a simple method for eliminating charged defects in HfO2. Our computational and thermodynamic investigations have revealed that multivalent oxides act as an oxygen reservoir when deposited on HfO2, playing an important role in keeping the oxygen chemical potential constant throughout the oxide film. This is due to the coexistence of two stoichiometric phases in the multivalent oxide, which allows absorption or desorption of oxygen atoms depending on the ambient conditions. Our theory predicts europium oxide is the best capping material for minimizing oxygen-related charged defects in HfO2.

  3. Effects of traps and polarization charges on device performance of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, A. SH.; Ghazai, Alaa J.; Salman, Emad A.; Hassan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the simulated electrical characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by using ISE TCAD software. The effects of interface traps, bulk traps and polarization charges are investigated. It was observed that the role and dynamic of traps affect the device performance which requires a precondition to calculate the DC characteristics that are in agreement with the experimental data. On the other hand, polarization charges lead to quantum confinement of the electrons in the channel and form two-dimensional electron gas. The electron quantization leads to increasing the drain current and shift in the threshold voltage. The device performance can be improved by optimizing the fixed interface charge and thus reducing the bulk traps to enhance the DC characteristics.

  4. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer.

    PubMed

    Dell'Angela, M; Anniyev, T; Beye, M; Coffee, R; Föhlisch, A; Gladh, J; Kaya, S; Katayama, T; Krupin, O; Nilsson, A; Nordlund, D; Schlotter, W F; Sellberg, J A; Sorgenfrei, F; Turner, J J; Öström, H; Ogasawara, H; Wolf, M; Wurth, W

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  5. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.; Coffee, R.; Föhlisch, A.; Gladh, J.; Kaya, S.; Katayama, T.; Krupin, O.; Nilsson, A.; Nordlund, D.; Schlotter, W. F.; Sellberg, J. A.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Turner, J. J.; Öström, H.; Ogasawara, H.; Wolf, M.; Wurth, W.

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum space charge induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse. PMID:26798795

  6. Charge Imbalance Effects on Interlayer Hopping and Fermi Surfaces in Multilayered High-Tc Cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, M.; Tohyama, T.; Maekawa, S.

    2006-03-01

    We study doping dependence of interlayer hoppings, t\\bot, in multilayered cuprates with four or more CuO2 planes in a unit cell. When the double occupancy is forbidden in the plane, an effective amplitude of t\\bot in the Gutzwiller approximation is shown to be proportional to the square root of the product of doping rates in adjacent two planes, i.e., teff\\bot\\propto t\\bot\\sqrt{δ1δ2}, where δ1 and δ2 represent the doping rates of the two planes. More than three-layered cuprates have two kinds of CuO2 planes, i.e., inner- and outer planes (IP and OP), resulting in two different values of teff\\bot, i.e., teff\\bot1\\propto t\\bot\\sqrt{δIPδIP} between IP’s, and teff\\bot2\\propto t\\bot\\sqrt{δIPδOP} between IP and OP. Fermi surfaces are calculated in the four-layered t-t'-t''-J model by the mean-field theory. The order parameters, the renormalization factor of t\\bot, and the site-potential making the charge imbalance between IP and OP are self-consistently determined for several doping rates. We show the interlayer splitting of the Fermi surfaces, which may be observed in the angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurement.

  7. Dopant effects on charge transport to enhance performance of phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge

    2015-11-07

    We compared the performance of phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with red-blue-green and green-blue-red sequent emissive layers. It was found that the influence of red and green dopants on electron and hole transport in emissive layers leads to the large difference in the efficiency of fabricated WOLEDs. This improvement mechanism is well investigated by the current density-voltage characteristics of single-carrier devices based on dopant doped emissive layers and the comparison of electroluminescent and photoluminescence spectra, and attributed to the different change of charge carrier transport by the dopants. The optimized device achieves a maximum power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 37.0 lm/W, 38.7 cd/A, and 17.7%, respectively, which are only reduced to 32.8 lm/W, 38.5 cd/A, and 17.3% at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} luminance. The critical current density is as high as 210 mA/cm{sup 2}. It can be seen that the efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent WOLEDs can be well improved by effectively designing the structure of emissive layers.

  8. Charge transfer effect of FeSe thin films on SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuanjun; Millis, Andrew

    Monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 substrate has shown a significant enhancement in the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) relative to the bulk material. Monolayers of FeSe are electron doped relative to bulk; we propose that the doping comes from work-function-mismatch driven charge transfer from SrTiO3 impurity bands, modified by out-of-plane polar distortions of the SrTiO3. We present a modified Schottky model combined with density functional calculations substantiating this picture for monolyaer FeSe films on Nb doped SrTiO3. Physically relevant levels of Nb doping are shown to lead to doping of the FeSe compatible with observation. Adding polar fluctuations to the model leads to an electron-phonon interaction whose effect on the transition temperature is investigated. YZ is supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1120296. AJM is supported by the Department of Energy under No. DOE-ER- 046169.

  9. Effect of the polydispersion in the crystallization and micro-structure of the high charged colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; Aranda-Espinosa, Helim; Chasvez-Paez, Martin

    2008-03-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of the polydipersion in the crystallization and micro-structure of the high charged colloids particles with tow and three different types and different concentrations of that types. This results were obtained by computer simulation, the particles interaction was modeled by a screened Coulomb potential. We used 4000 particles in our simulation cell to let them evolution from an initial random configuration, periodic boundary conditions was imposed to simulate the bulk. The temporal evolutions of the configuration show long-ranged self-ordering and a crystalline transition, the crystalline nucleation depend of the concentrations of different kinds as well as of types of particle. The common neighbor analysis (CNA) exhibit the competition of two micro-structures, icosahedral and bcc, in the equilibrium bcc crystalline order is dominant with relative abundance over the other micro-structures. 1.- U. Gasser, Eric R. Weeks et al, Science, 292 (258), 2001. 2.- Stefan Auer, Daan Frenkel, Letter of Nature, 409 (1020), 2001. 3.- J.P. Hoogenboom, et al , Phys. Rev. Leeters, 89 (256104), 2002. 4.- M. Ch'avez-P'aez, E. Urrutia-Bañuelos and M. Medina --Noyola, Phys. Rev. E, 58 (681),1998 5.- Andrew S. Clarke and Hannes J'onsson, Phys. Rev. E, 47 (3975), 1993.

  10. A laboratory experiment to examine the effect of auroral beams on spacecraft charging in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, M. U.; Gayetsky, L. E.; Mella, M. R.; Lynch, K. A.; Lessard, M. R.

    2011-09-15

    A 2.54 cm diameter conducting electrically isolated Copper sphere is suspended in a low density (10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}), low temperature (T{sub e} = 0.5 eV) Argon plasma, which mimics a spacecraft in an ionospheric plasma. An electron beam with current density of approximately 10{sup -10} A/cm{sup 2} and beam spot of 10.2 cm diameter, which mimics an auroral electron beam, is fired at the sphere while varying the beam energy from 100 eV to 2 keV. The plasma potential in the sheath around the sphere is measured using an emissive probe as the electron beam energy is varied. To observe the effects of the electron beam, the experimental sheath potential profiles are compared to a model of the plasma potential around a spherically symmetric charge distribution in the absence of electron beams. Comparison between the experimental data and the model shows that the sphere is less negative than the model predicts by up to half a volt for beam energies that produce high secondary electron emission from the surface of the sphere. It is shown that this secondary emission can account for changes in potential of spacecraft in the ionosphere as they pass through auroral beams and thus helps to improve interpretations of ionospheric thermal ion distributions.

  11. Effect of sulfur on the ductility of copper shaped-charge jets

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.; Chan, D.K.; King, W.E.; Schwartz, A.J.; Baker, E.L.

    1996-07-01

    We have observed that a change in bulk sulfur (S) content imposed by doping has a marked effect on ductility of copper shaped-charge jets as measured by breakup times and length-to-diameter ratios of the particulated jet. Baseline material was Oxygen-Free-Electronic (ofe) copper with a S concentration of 3-4 ppM. Several liners were doped using a Cu sulfide powder pack method to increase the S level up to 9 ppM, while keeping other impurities and microstructure unchanged. Using flash x-ray radiographs to record the formation of jets, both the length-to-diameter ratios of the jet particles and breakup times were measured. Increasing the bulk S content of ofe Cu to 9 ppM, the breakup times decreased from 186 to 147 {mu}s, while the length-to- diameter ratios observed at 260 {mu}s decreased from 8:1 to 5:1. Since the solubility of S in Cu at the processing temperatures is extremely low, we conclude that the bulk rise in S content is due to S segregating to the grain boundaries. Thus, the decrease in ductility of liners doped with S appears directly related to the S content at the grain boundaries.

  12. Ultrafast charge transfer in nickel phthalocyanine probed by femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Gurusamy; Soldatova, Alexandra V; Reid, Philip J; Spiro, Thomas G

    2014-06-18

    The recently developed technique of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, and its variant, femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (FRIKES), offer access to ultrafast excited-state dynamics via structurally specific vibrational spectra. We have used FRIKES to study the photoexcitation dynamics of nickel(II) phthalocyanine with eight butoxy substituents, NiPc(OBu)8. NiPc(OBu)8 is reported to have a relatively long-lived ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) state, an essential characteristic for efficient electron transfer in photocatalysis. Following photoexcitation, vibrational transitions in the FRIKES spectra, assignable to phthalocyanine ring modes, evolve on the femtosecond to picosecond time scales. Correlation of ring core size with the frequency of the ν10 (asymmetric C-N stretching) mode confirms the identity of the LMCT state, which has a ∼500 ps lifetime, as well as that of a precursor d-d excited state. An even earlier (∼0.2 ps) transient is observed and tentatively assigned to a higher-lying Jahn-Teller-active LMCT state. This study illustrates the power of FRIKES spectroscopy in elucidating ultrafast molecular dynamics.

  13. Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Chamousis, RL; Chang, LL; Watterson, WJ; Montgomery, RD; Taylor, RP; Moule, AJ; Shaheen, SE; Ilan, B; van de Lagemaat, J; Osterloh, FE

    2014-08-21

    Living organisms use fractal structures to optimize material and energy transport across regions of differing size scales. Here we test the effect of fractal silver electrodes on light distribution and charge collection in organic semiconducting polymer films made of P3HT and PCBM. The semiconducting polymers were deposited onto electrochemically grown fractal silver structures (5000 nm x 500 nm; fractal dimension of 1.71) with PEDOT:PSS as hole-selective interlayer. The fractal silver electrodes appear black due to increased horizontal light scattering, which is shown to improve light absorption in the polymer. According to surface photovoltage spectroscopy, fractal silver electrodes outperform the flat electrodes when the BHJ film thickness is large (>400 nm, 0.4 V photovoltage). Photocurrents of up to 200 microamperes cm(-2) are generated from the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoelectrodes under 435 nm LED (10-20 mW cm(-2)) illumination in acetonitrile solution containing 0.005 M ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate as the electron acceptor. The low IPCE values (0.3-0.7%) are due to slow electron transfer to ferrocenium ion and due to shunting along the large metal-polymer interface. Overall, this work provides an initial assessment of the potential of fractal electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells.

  14. The effects of electric fields on charged molecules and particles in individual microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, K. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Jamieson, S. S.; Bell, J. N. B.; Yost, M. G.

    Measurements of small air ion concentrations, electrostatic potential and AC electric field strengths were taken in an office setting to investigate the link between electric fields and charged molecule and particle concentrations in individual microenvironments. The results obtained indicate that the electromagnetic environments individuals can be exposed to whilst indoors can often bear little resemblance to those experienced outdoors in nature, and that many individuals may spend large periods of their time in "Faraday cage"-like conditions exposed to inappropriate levels and types of electric fields that can reduce localised concentrations of biologically essential and microbiocidal small air ions. Such conditions may escalate their risk of infection from airborne contaminants, including microbes, whilst increasing localised surface contamination. The degree of "electro-pollution" that individuals are exposed to was shown to be influenced by the type of microenvironment they occupy, with it being possible for very different types of microenvironment to exist within the same room. It is suggested that adopting suitable electromagnetic hygiene/productivity guidelines that seek to replicate the beneficial effects created by natural environments may greatly mitigate such problems.

  15. Effects of space charge at the conjugated polymer/electrode interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, C. A.; Taylor, D. M.; Riul, A.; Lee, A. P.

    2002-04-01

    Films of the polymer poly(4-dicyanomethylene-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (PCDM) were electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The formation of a polymer was confirmed by the presence of an absorption band at ˜900 nm (˜1.4 eV) previously attributed to a π-π* transition. Diodes formed by evaporating aluminum counterelectrodes onto the films displayed nonlinear current-voltage characteristics that were independent of voltage polarity. Interestingly, at low applied voltages, the diodes exhibited two, stable, reversible conductance states differing by about an order of magnitude. The effect is similar to that reported recently in diodes formed from chromium-doped SrZrO3. ac admittance measurements carried out over a range of frequency coupled with the voltage dependence of the device capacitance at low frequency suggests that the two states arise from the presence of a field-dependent space charge at the ITO/PCDM interface.

  16. Electrostatics effects on normal load capacity of two like-charge hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbas, Aykut; Zwanikken, Jos; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    2015-03-01

    In mammalian joints, an effective lubrication mechanism is maintained under extremely high pressures due to charged polymeric structures coating the surfaces of the relatively moving tissues. Equally low frictional forces are also observed experimentally in the shear motion of polyelectrolyte gel and brush bilayers. The lubrication capabilities of these systems are attributed to either a polymer-free zone, separating the bilayers or hydration layers that can dissolve polymeric segments. Previous hypothesis have stated that the separation zone should decrease the polymer-polymer physical contact, and hence, result in only viscous friction of the liquid filling this layer. In this study, using extensive Molecular Dynamics simulations and analytical tools, we investigate the separation zone under compression at high electrostatic strengths. We show that Coulombic interactions significantly change the thickness of the separation zone as well as the normal pressure that a hydrogel bilayer can support upon strain-control deformations. We observe that under high pressures the separation zone completely disappears. As a result, the number of polymer-polymer contacts increases. We speculate that the frictional forces between polymer segments can reduce the efficiency of the lubrication

  17. Heavy Charged Particle Radiobiology: Using Enhanced Biological Effectiveness and Improved Beam Focusing to Advance Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B.; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

  18. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index.

  19. MSFC Analyses of ISS Auroral and Solar Array Charging Environments and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily; Minow, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Analysis on-going to differentiate charging due to environment and operations. Analysis requires a combination of FPMU data, ISS systems data, and other data sources. Results will be important for current ISS operations as well as future spacecraft programs.

  20. The effect of charged lipids on bacteriorhodopsin membrane reconstitution and its photochemical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhen; Bai Jing; Xu Yuhong

    2008-07-11

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was reconstituted into artificial lipid membrane containing various charged lipid compositions. The proton pumping activity of BR under flash and continuous illumination, proton permeability across membrane, as well as the decay kinetics of the photocycle intermediate M{sub 412} were studied. The results showed that lipid charges would significantly affect the orientation of BR inserted into lipid membranes. In liposomes containing anionic lipids, BRs were more likely to take natural orientation as in living cells. In neutral or positively charged liposomes, most BRs were reversely assembled, assuming an inside out orientation. Moreover, the lipids charges also affect BR's M intermediate kinetics, especially the slow component in M intermediate decay. The half-life M{sub 412s} increased significantly in BRs in liposomes containing cationic lipids, while decreased in those in anionic liposomes.