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Sample records for 5203-l fruit extract

  1. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  2. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  3. Hemolytic activity of aqueous extract of Livistona chinensis fruits.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Kaur, G

    2008-02-01

    Livistona chinensis is used as an anticancer agent in traditional Chinese medicine. In vitro, the extracts of fruits and seeds of L. chinensis are known to possess antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities. Here we report the presence of phenolic compounds in L. chinensis fruits which show hemolytic activity. The hemolytic activity of phenolics is limited to an acid-precipitable fraction. Further, presence of proteins and lipids abrogated the hemolytic activity indicating astringent and membrane damaging activities as mechanisms of hemolysis. In conclusion, the hemolytic activity of phenolics in L. chinensis fruits is due to astringent and membrane damaging activities. PMID:17949877

  4. Electroanalytical tools for antioxidant evaluation of red fruits dry extracts.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Isaac Yves Lopes; Garcia, Luane Ferreira; Oliveira Neto, Jerônimo Raimundo; de Siqueira Leite, Karla Carneiro; Ferreira, Valdir Souza; Ghedini, Paulo César; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Red fruits are rich sources of antioxidant compounds with recognized health benefits. Since they are perishable, dried extracts emerge as more durable products and their quality control must include antioxidant capacity assays. In this study, the redox behavior of commercial dried products obtained from camu-camu, açai, acerola and cranberry red fruits was evaluated by electroanalytical approaches. The antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and the electrochemical index concept. The total phenol content was estimated by using a laccase based biosensor. A significant correlation was found between all methods and literature data. The voltammetric profile (cyclic, differential and square wave) obtained for each type of dried extract showed distinguishable features that were correlated with their main major markers, being also useful for identification purposes. The electrochemical methods were cheaper and more practical for evaluation of antioxidant properties and total phenol content in dried powders obtained from different red fruits.

  5. Electroanalytical tools for antioxidant evaluation of red fruits dry extracts.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Isaac Yves Lopes; Garcia, Luane Ferreira; Oliveira Neto, Jerônimo Raimundo; de Siqueira Leite, Karla Carneiro; Ferreira, Valdir Souza; Ghedini, Paulo César; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Red fruits are rich sources of antioxidant compounds with recognized health benefits. Since they are perishable, dried extracts emerge as more durable products and their quality control must include antioxidant capacity assays. In this study, the redox behavior of commercial dried products obtained from camu-camu, açai, acerola and cranberry red fruits was evaluated by electroanalytical approaches. The antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and the electrochemical index concept. The total phenol content was estimated by using a laccase based biosensor. A significant correlation was found between all methods and literature data. The voltammetric profile (cyclic, differential and square wave) obtained for each type of dried extract showed distinguishable features that were correlated with their main major markers, being also useful for identification purposes. The electrochemical methods were cheaper and more practical for evaluation of antioxidant properties and total phenol content in dried powders obtained from different red fruits. PMID:27664641

  6. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents. PMID:26408878

  8. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents.

  9. Green extraction of polyphenols from whole pomegranate fruit using cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Amalia C; Igoumenidis, Panagiotis E; Mourtzinos, Ioannis; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate is a source of bioactive phytochemicals. The objective of this study was the derivation of a sustainable method to exploit the whole fruit, both edible and non-edible parts, as a source of polyphenols. Pomegranate peel contains a 10-fold higher phenolic content than the pulp. The fruit was freeze-dried and the resulting dry matter was extracted with solid-liquid percolation equipment using non-toxic and eco-friendly extraction solvents: either deionized water or aqueous solutions of cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are known molecular encapsulators and our results prove enhancement of the extraction of pomegranate polyphenols by 20%. In order to examine the formation of inclusion complexes between CD's and polyphenols of the extract, polyphenols were isolated using solid-phase extraction. NMR studies with the purified extracts and the individual CDs confirmed inclusion complex formation in water. Pomegranate liquid extracts may be used as raw materials for several end-users in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27507448

  10. Biological activity of barbados cherry (acerola fruits, fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC) extracts and fractions.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Noboru; Wakabayashi, Hidetsugu; Kurihara, Teruo; Fukushima, Hidetaka; Yamada, Tomoko; Kawase, Masami; Sohara, Yoshitaka; Tani, Satoru; Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Nakashima, Hideki; Molnár, Annamária; Spengler, Gabriella; Gyémánt, Nóra; Ugocsai, Katalin; Molnár, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    Fractionation of barbados cherry (acerola fruit, a fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC.) extracts were performed by organic solvent extractions and column chromatographies, using two extraction methods. Higher cytotoxic activity was concentrated in fractions A4 and A6 (acetone extract), and H3 and HE3 (hexane extract). These four fractions showed higher cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines such as human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2) and human submandibular gland carcinoma (HSG), when compared with that against normal cells such as human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HE2 (hexane extract), AE2 (ethyl acetate extract), AE3, AE4, AE5, A8, A9 and A10 showed some relatively higher anti-bacterial activity on the Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 1228 but were ineffective on the representative Gram-negative species E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa. The fractions were inactive against Helicobacter pylori, two representative Candida species, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). H3, H4 and HE3, which displayed higher tumor-specific cytotoxicity also showed higher multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, than (+/-)-verapamil as positive control. ESR spectroscopy shows that the radical-mediated oxidation is not involved in the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. The tumor specific cytotoxic activity and MDR reversal activity of barbados cherry may suggest its possible application for cancer therapy.

  11. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  12. Inhibition of microbial pathogens using fruit and vegetable peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Rakholiya, Kalpna; Kaneria, Mital; Chanda, Sumitra

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of some vegetable and fruit peels. The extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using various solvents with increasing polarity (Hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous). The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay against five Gram positive bacteria, five Gram negative bacteria and four fungi. All extracts demonstrated varied level of antimicrobial activity. The peel extracts showed highest zone of inhibition against Gram negative bacteria as compared to Gram positive bacteria and fungi. Amongst studied peel extracts Citrus limon followed by Manilkara zapota and Carica papaya showed good antimicrobial activity indicating its potency as a promising source of natural antimicrobics. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. PMID:24725235

  13. Viability of Cabralea canjerana Extracts to Control the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus

    PubMed Central

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus. PMID:25373194

  14. Phenolic contents and bioactive potential of peach fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Mokrani, Abderrahmane; Krisa, Stéphanie; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Da Costa, Grégory; Temsamani, Hamza; Renouf, Elodie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Madani, Khodir; Mesnil, Marc; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Richard, Tristan

    2016-07-01

    Several cultivars of peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) were investigated. Their phenolic composition and concentration were assessed by LC-MS. Concentrations were calculated in mg per g of dry weight extract. Their antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, DPPH, ABTS, PFRAP and ICA), inhibitory property against β-amyloid and α-synuclein fibril formation and protective capacity against Aβ-induced toxicity on PC12 cell lines (viability assessed by MTT assay and intracellular ROS production by DCFH-DA assay) were evaluated. Fifteen different phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. In particular, new isorhamnetin derivatives were identified. Phenolic contents were ranged between 19 and 82mg/g. Spring Belle extract had the highest content and Romea the lowest. Except for the ICA assay, a good correlation between phenolic content and the antioxidant capacities of peach fruit extracts was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are major contributors to their antioxidant capacity. Results indicate that the phenolic extract of peach cultivars inhibits Aβ and αS fibril formation and protects PC12 cell lines against Aβ-induced toxicity. PMID:26920287

  15. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days.

  16. Bioassay-guided antidiabetic study of Phaleria macrocarpa fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rabyah B; Atangwho, Item J; Kaur, Navneet; Abraika, Omar Saad; Ahmad, Mariam; Mahmud, Roziahanim; Asmawi, Mohd Z

    2012-01-01

    An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM) fruit indicated methanol extract (ME) as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (NBF) and aqueous (AF) fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (p < 0.05) 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (p < 0.05), similar to metformin (51.11%), glibenclamide (66.67%) and insulin (71.43%) after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI) and II (SFII), and only SFI lowered blood glucose (p < 0.05), in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity. PMID:22547320

  17. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Momordica charantia L Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tahira, S; Hussain, F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and pancreatic beta cell regeneration activities of Momordica charantia L fruits (MC). Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were treated with methanolic and ethanolic MC extract. Effects of plant extracts and the drug glibenclamide on serum glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic beta cell were determined after two weeks of treatment. Serum glucose and lipid profiles were assayed by kit methods. Pancreatic tissue histopathology was performed to study pancreatic beta cell regeneration. Momordica charantia extracts produced significant hypoglycaemic effects (p < 0.05). Hypolipidaemic activity of MC was negligible. Momordica charantia supplementations were unable to normalize glucose and lipid profiles. Glibenclamide, a standard drug, not only lowered hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia but also restored the normal levels. Regeneration of pancreatic beta cells by MC extracts was minimal, with fractional improvement produced by glibenclamide. The most significant finding of the present study was a 28% reduction in hyperglycaemia by MC ethanol extracts. To determine reliable antidiabetic potentials of MC, identification of the relevant antidiabetic components and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25429471

  18. Cranberry anthocyanin extract prolongs lifespan of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Yuk Man; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2015-09-01

    Cranberry is an excellent source of dietary antioxidants. The present study investigated the effect of cranberry anthocyanin (CrA) extract on the lifespan of fruit flies with focus on its interaction with aging-related genes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (MTH), insulin receptor (InR), target of rapamycin (TOR), hemipterus (Hep), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Results showed that diet containing 20mg/mL CrA could significantly prolong the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 10% compared with the control diet. This was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1 and down-regulation of MTH, InR, TOR and PEPCK. The stress resistance test demonstrated that CrA could reduce the mortality rate induced by H2O2 but not by paraquat. It was therefore concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of CrA was most likely mediated by modulating the genes of SOD1, MTH, InR, TOR and PEPCK. PMID:26159161

  19. Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, Ameer; Templeton, Michael R; Matthews, Robert L; Tripathi, Sabitri K; Bhattarai, Kiran

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment.

  20. The antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles of whole coffee fruits are influenced by the extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Mullen, W; Nemzer, B; Ou, B; Stalmach, A; Hunter, J; Clifford, M N; Combet, E

    2011-04-27

    Commercial whole coffee fruit extracts and powder samples were analyzed for chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine and antioxidant activities. CGA and caffeine were characterized by LC-MS(n) and HPLC accordingly, and quantified by UV absorbance. ORAC, HORAC, NORAC, SORAC and SOAC (antioxidant capacities) were assessed. Three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, three dicaffeoylquinic acids, one p-coumaroylquinic acid, two caffeoylferuloylquinic acids and three putative chlorogenic lactones were quantified, along with a methyl ester of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (detected in one sample, the first such report in any coffee material). Multistep whole coffee fruit extracts displayed higher CGA content than single-step extracts, freeze-dried, or air-dried whole raw fruits. Caffeine in multistep extracts was lower than in the single-step extracts and powders. Antioxidant activity in whole coffee fruit extracts was up to 25-fold higher than in powders dependent upon the radical. Total antioxidant activity of samples displayed strong correlation to CGA content. PMID:21401105

  1. Blood-brain barrier permeability of bioactive withanamides present in Withania somnifera fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Vareed, Shaiju K; Bauer, Alison K; Nair, Kavitha M; Liu, Yunbao; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2014-08-01

    The neuroprotective effect of Withania somnifera L. Dunal fruit extract, in rodent models, is known. Withanamides, the primary active constituents in W.somnifera fruit extract exhibited neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cell culture studies. Therefore, we investigated the blood-brain barrier permeability of withanamides in W.somnifera fruit extract in mice using HPLC coupled with high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF/MS) detection. Mice were administered with 250 mg/kg of W.somnifera extract by intraperitoneal injection, and the blood and brain samples analyzed by Q-TOF/MS detection. Four major withanamides were detected in brain and blood of mice administered with W.somnifera extract. The results suggested that the withanamides crossed the blood-brain barrier. These results may help to develop W.somnifera fruit extract as a preventive or therapeutic botanical drug for stress-induced neurological disorders.

  2. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Carum copticum fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh

    2010-06-01

    The ajowain (Carum copticum (L.)) is a popular spice and traditionally used in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. copticum fruits extract and its fractions were evaluated. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum (2087.7 micromol) and DPPH assay (90.2%) followed by other fractions comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT. Based on antioxidant activity, methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic potential against direct acting mutagens sodium azide (NaN(3)) and methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) and indirect acting mutagens 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), using Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102) tester strains. The methanolic fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentrations (25-100 microg/plate). Antimutagenic activity was recorded with inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 10.8% to 83.1% in a concentration dependent manner. The phytochemical analysis by IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and total phenolic assay revealed a high content of phenolic terpenoids. Further, characterization of active principle is needed to understand the mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  3. Lipid-lowering effect of Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, M; Nobakht, M; Moazzam, A A

    2011-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, the hypolipidemic effects of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits in high cholesterold diet (HCD)-fed rats was investigated. There was a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) along with augmented activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Treatment with aqueous methanol extract of sumac fruits reduced the above alterations observed in hypercholesterolemic rats. Sumac extract also reversed the hypertrophic cardiac histology. Furthermore, in vivo toxicological studies showed no evidence of acute toxicity of the extract in male Wistar rats. In conclusion, sumac fruit extract intervention minimized the lipid abnormalities and abnormal biochemical changes induced in HCD fed rats. This shows that sumac fruit extract possesses cardioprotective and hepatoprotective activities which will be beneficial in hypercholesterolemic condition.

  4. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:27005663

  5. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:27005663

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  7. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. PMID:22440551

  8. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.

  9. Homogenate extraction of gardenia yellow pigment from Gardenia Jasminoides Ellis fruit using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingyi; Mang, Yili; Shen, Fengqiong; Xie, Jie; Su, Weike

    2014-08-01

    Homogenate extraction technology was developed for extraction of gardenia yellow pigment from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit. The operating parameters affecting the color value of gardenia yellow pigment were studied on the basis of a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. Results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time 41 s, ethanol concentration 50 %, ratio of liquid to material 15:1 (mL:g) and particle size 1.7 mm. Under the optimum condition, the experimental color value was 52.37 g(-1), which was in keeping with the predicted one. Compared with the heat extraction method, the color value of gardenia yellow pigment of homogenate extraction was higher and the extraction time was shorter. Homogenate extraction method is an ideal means for extraction of gardenia yellow pigment from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit. PMID:25114350

  10. Flavonoids electrochemical detection in fruit extracts and total antioxidant capacity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sara M C; Ghica, Mariana-Emilia; Rodrigues, Isaide Araujo; de Souza Gil, Eric; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2016-07-01

    Phenolic compounds detection in fruit extracts from: açai, bacuri, buriti, blackberry, black mulberry, blueberry, juçara, physalis, raspberry, and tamarillo, have been performed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (RP-HPLC-EC), using two detectors in series: a wall-jet detector flow cell with a glassy carbon electrode, and a thin-layer flow cell detector with a boron doped diamond electrode. This methodology, in gradient elution mode, was successfully used to detect seventeen phenolic compounds in the fruit extracts. The total antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts by the electrochemical quantitative index (EI) and the method of capture of diphenilpicrilhydrazil (DPPH(●)) free radical "efficient concentration" (EC50), was evaluated. A very good correlation between EI and EC50 assays has been obtained, the fruit with the highest total antioxidant capacity being blackberry, while physalis exhibited the lowest antioxidant power. PMID:27154676

  11. A novel approach for the efficient extraction of silybin from milk thistle fruits

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Caihong; Xu, Xianrong; Shang, Yaqi; Fu, Xianli; Xia, Guohua; Yang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Milk Thistle fruit is an important herb popularly consumed worldwide for a very long time. Silybin is the main bioactive constituent of the herb, and it has been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medicine to treat liver diseases. Presently, using conventional technology, the meal of Milk Thistle fruit is used as the raw material to extract silybin. Objective: To investigate the necessity of detaching husk from kernel of the herb and also to propose a novel approach to enhance the extraction technology in pharmaceutical practices. Materials and Methods: The husk of Milk Thistle fruit was detached from the kernel of the herb using an automatic huller specially designed for this application. The husk and the meal of Milk Thistle fruit was subsequently refluxed, separately, with production rate of silybin as index for comparison of their extraction effect. Results: The highest production rate was achieved under optimized condition. The husk was extracted 2 times (3 hrs each) using ethyl acetate, and the ratio of solvent to raw material was 8:1. The extract was allowed to be crystallized out. Conclusion: The separation of kernel from the husk of Milk Thistle fruit and using only the husk as raw material can largely enhance the extraction of silybin. PMID:25422558

  12. Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, H.; Akhtar, N.; Ali, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle. PMID:25593393

  13. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol–water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol–water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  14. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts.

    PubMed

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol-water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol-water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol-water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques.

  15. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were monitored by measuring the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes values. Oxidative changes in SEA were lower than that of oils treated with other extracts, but the best protection was observed in soybean oil consisting TBHQ. The solvent extraction method produces the maximum amount of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin. Therefore, solvent extraction method had a better effect on antioxidant activity of the loquat fruit skin extract. PMID:25648044

  16. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were monitored by measuring the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes values. Oxidative changes in SEA were lower than that of oils treated with other extracts, but the best protection was observed in soybean oil consisting TBHQ. The solvent extraction method produces the maximum amount of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin. Therefore, solvent extraction method had a better effect on antioxidant activity of the loquat fruit skin extract.

  17. Radical scavenging capacity of methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. extract: anthocyanin and phenolic acids composition of fruits.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Erol; Erkan, Naciye

    2013-01-01

    Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and IC(50) values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW of fruits. PMID:23364751

  18. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  19. Inhibition of melanin production by a combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Scholten, Jeffrey D

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to find botanicals containing polyphenolic compounds with the capacity to inhibit melanin biosynthesis, we identified a novel combination of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) extract, standardized to 80% taxifolin, and pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract, containing 20% punicalagins, that demonstrates a synergistic reduction of melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells. The combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts (1:1) produced a 2-fold reduction in melanin content compared to Siberian larch or pomegranate extracts alone with no corresponding effect on cell viability. Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts inhibited expression of melanocyte specific genes, tyrosinase (Tyr), microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf), and melanosome structural proteins (Pmel17 and Mart1) but did not inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity. These results suggest that the mechanism of inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts, alone and in combination, is through downregulation of melanocyte specific genes and not due to inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity.

  20. Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.

    PubMed

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

    2004-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus. PMID:15508836

  1. In vitro antioxidant, antimutagenic and genoprotective activity of Rosa roxburghii fruit extract.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuizen, Francois H; van Rensburg, Catharina S Janse; Rautenbach, George S; Marnewick, Jeanine L; Loots, Du Toit; Huysamen, Cristal; Louw, Roan; Pretorius, Pieter J; Erasmus, Elardus

    2008-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of the fruit of the Rosa roxburghii (RR) plant have been associated with several putative health promoting effects. The possible cytotoxic, mutagenic/antimutagenic and genotoxic effects of RR fruit extract were investigated. The effect on antioxidant status and protection against induced oxidative stress were also investigated using primary rat hepatocytes. A RR fruit extract containing 45 g/L total ascorbic acid and 65 g/L total polyphenols was used in this study. Dilutions up to 0.08% (v/v) increased significantly the antioxidant status in primary rat hepatocytes. The glutathione redox state was decreased with RR treatment but was increased in Chang liver cells and MT-2 lymphoblast. No cyto- or genotoxicity were observed at levels of up to 5% (v/v) of the fruit extract. In addition, a significant protection against t-BHP induced oxidative stress was observed in primary rat hepatocytes. The Ames test revealed no mutagenic activity using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. A significant antimutagenic effect of the extract was observed against the metabolic activated mutagens 2-acetylaminofluorene and aflatoxin B1 and to a lesser extent against methyl methanesulfonate. It is concluded that these results support the associated health promoting potential of Rosa Roxburghii fruit and in particular against oxidative stress.

  2. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. PMID:25952870

  3. Inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by water extract of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Tien, Pham Gia; Kayama, Fujio; Konishi, Fumio; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kasono, Keizo; Hung, Nguyen Thi Kim; Kuroki, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, San-E; Van, Chuyen Nguyen; Kawakami, Masanobu

    2005-04-01

    The antitumor activity of the crude water extract from Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. A water extract prepared from 0.75 and 0.25 mg dry weight of Gac fruit per gram body weight was given daily to Balb/c mice (n=15/group). The water extract inhibited the growth of the colon 26-20 adenocarcinoma cell line, transplanted in Balb/c mice, reducing wet tumor weight by 23.6%. Histological and immunohistochemical results indicated that Gac water extract reduced the density of blood vessels around the carcinoma. The water extract also produced a marked suppression of cell proliferation in colon 26-20 and HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated a significant accumulation of cells in the S phase by water extract. Immunoblotting showed that cyclin A, Cdk2, p27waf1/Kip1 were down-regulated, whereas the protein level of p21waf1/Cip1 was not decreased. Treatment of colon 26-20 cells with Gac extract induced necrosis rather than apoptosis. The antitumor component was confirmed as a protein with molecular weight of 35 kDa, retained in the water-soluble high molecular weight fraction. Thus, the bioactive antitumor compound in Gac extract is a protein, which is distinct from lycopene, another compound in Gac fruit with potential antitumor activity. PMID:15753981

  4. Inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by water extract of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Tien, Pham Gia; Kayama, Fujio; Konishi, Fumio; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kasono, Keizo; Hung, Nguyen Thi Kim; Kuroki, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, San-E; Van, Chuyen Nguyen; Kawakami, Masanobu

    2005-04-01

    The antitumor activity of the crude water extract from Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. A water extract prepared from 0.75 and 0.25 mg dry weight of Gac fruit per gram body weight was given daily to Balb/c mice (n=15/group). The water extract inhibited the growth of the colon 26-20 adenocarcinoma cell line, transplanted in Balb/c mice, reducing wet tumor weight by 23.6%. Histological and immunohistochemical results indicated that Gac water extract reduced the density of blood vessels around the carcinoma. The water extract also produced a marked suppression of cell proliferation in colon 26-20 and HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated a significant accumulation of cells in the S phase by water extract. Immunoblotting showed that cyclin A, Cdk2, p27waf1/Kip1 were down-regulated, whereas the protein level of p21waf1/Cip1 was not decreased. Treatment of colon 26-20 cells with Gac extract induced necrosis rather than apoptosis. The antitumor component was confirmed as a protein with molecular weight of 35 kDa, retained in the water-soluble high molecular weight fraction. Thus, the bioactive antitumor compound in Gac extract is a protein, which is distinct from lycopene, another compound in Gac fruit with potential antitumor activity.

  5. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies.

  6. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  7. Microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Camellia oleifera fruit hull.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man; Chen, Jiahong

    2011-05-27

    The abundant fruit hulls of tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera) are still underutilized and wastefully discaded to pollute the environment. In order to solve this problem and better utilize the fruit hulls of C. oleifera, a microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract their polyphenols using water as the extraction solvent. A central composite design (CCD) was used to monitor the effects of three extraction processing parameters--liquid:solid ratio (mL/g), extraction time (min) and extraction temperature (°C)--on the polyphenol yield (%). The results showed that the optimal conditions were liquid:solid ratio of 15.33:1 (mL/g), extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 76 °C. Validation tests indicated that under the optimized conditions the actual yield of polyphenols was 15.05 ± 0.04% with RSD = 0.21% (n = 5), which was in good agreement with the predicted yield. Phenolic compounds in the extracts were analysed by HPLC, and gallic acid was found to be the predominant constituent. The total flavonoid content in the extracts was determined and high total flavonoid content was revealed (140.06 mg/g dry material).

  8. Microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus lanatus fruit rinds.

    PubMed

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2014-01-30

    In this present study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus Lanatus fruit rinds. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are microwave power (160-480 W), irradiation time (60-180s), pH (1-2) and solid-liquid ratio (1:10-1: 30 g/ml) and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the extraction yield of pectin. Optimum MAE conditions for the highest pectin yield from waste C. Lanatus fruit rinds (25.79%) were obtained with microwave power of 477 W, irradiation time of 128 s, pH of 1.52, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20.3g/ml respectively. Validation experiment results were well agreed with predicted value.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using carambola fruit extract and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane Gavade, S. J.; Nikam, G. H.; Dhabbe, R. S.; Sabale, S. R.; Tamhankar, B. V.; Mulik, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    In this study well defined silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using carambola fruit extract. After exposing the silver ions to the fruit extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of stable AgNPs in solution due to the reducing and stabilizing properties of carambola fruit juice. The synthesized NPs were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction pattern. The as-synthesized AgNPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs were characterized by TEM to determine their size and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by agar well diffusion method. This newly developed method is eco-friendly and could prove a better substitute for the current physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of AgNPs.

  10. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  11. Protective effects of fruit extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides L. against arsenic toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Flora, S J S

    2006-06-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry has a long history of applications as a food and medicinal ingredient in eastern countries. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different fruit extracts of H. rhamnoides on altered biochemical parameters indicative of haematological alterations, tissue oxidative stress, and arsenic concentration in arsenic-exposed mice (2.5 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Two aqueous extracts (at room temperature and under reflux condition) and an ethanolic extract of H. rhamnoides at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight were co-administered daily during arsenic exposure in mice for 3 weeks. Exposure to arsenic led to a significant inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, suggesting disturbed haem synthesis pathway. Arsenic also caused significant depletion of reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, while it increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), suggesting liver oxidative stress. Most of the altered biochemical variables responded favorably to the co-supplementation of H. rhamnoides, particularly the aqueous fruit extract, extracted at room temperature (HF-WRT). However, arsenic concentration in blood and tissues remained unchanged, suggesting the lack of chelating property of fruit extract of H. rhamnoides. The present study, thus, led us to conclude that the fruit extract of H. rhamnoides has a significant protective role against arsenic-induced oxidative injury. However, it lacks the ability to remove arsenic from the binding sites, suggesting that the herbal extract could be co-administered with a chelating agent of known efficacy during treatment of arsenic to achieve the optimum effect of chelation treatment.

  12. Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Dai, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Xie, Jian-Wei; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two new cucurbitacins I (1 and 2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. Compounds 3, 5-9 were isolated from C. colocynthis for the first time. The structures of new compounds were determined primarily from IR, HR-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR analysis.

  13. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted.

  14. Leucaena leucocephala fruit aqueous extract stimulates adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Arumugam, Bavani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  15. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  16. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy.

  17. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy. PMID:25703368

  18. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy.

  19. Application of ultrasound for enhanced extraction of prebiotic oligosaccharides from selected fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic-Malinovska, Ruzica; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract oligosaccharides from selected fruits (blueberry, nectarine, raspberry, watermelon) and vegetables (garlic, Jerusalem artichoke, leek, scallion, spring garlic and white onion). The individual fractions of the oligosaccharides were analyzed: 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1F-β-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) from the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), and raffinose and stachyose from the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO). Extraction parameters including solvent concentration (35-85% v/v), extraction temperature (25-50°C) and sonication time (5-15min) were examined using response surface methodology (RSM). Ethanol concentration of 63% v/v, temperature of 40°C and extraction time of 10min gave maximal concentration of the extracted oligosaccharides. The experimental values under optimal conditions were consistent with the predicted values. UAE increased the concentration of extracted oligosaccharides in all fruits and vegetables from 2 to 4-fold compared to conventional extraction. The highest increase of total oligosaccharides extracted by UAE was detected in Jerusalem artichoke, 7.17±0.348g/100gFW, compared to 1.62±0.094g/100gFW with conventional method.

  20. Optimization of Antifungal Extracts from Ficus hirta Fruits Using Response Surface Methodology and Antifungal Activity Tests.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuying; Wan, Chunpeng; Peng, Xuan; Chen, Yuhuan; Chen, Ming; Chen, Jinyin

    2015-01-01

    The fruits of Ficus hirta (FH) display strong antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. In order to optimize the extraction conditions of antifungal extracts from FH fruit, various extraction parameters, such as ethanol concentration, extraction time, solvent to solid ratio and temperature, were chosen to identify their effects on the diameters of inhibition zones (DIZs) against these two Penicillium molds. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to obtain the optimal combination of these parameters. Results showed that the optimal extraction parameters for maximum antifungal activity were: 90% (v/v) ethanol concentration, 65 min extraction time, 31 mL/g solvent to solid ratio and 51 °C temperature. Under the abovementioned extraction conditions, the experimental DIZs values obtained experimentally were 57.17 ± 0.75 and 39.33 ± 0.82 mm, which were very close to the values of 57.26 and 39.29 mm predicted by the model. Further, nine kinds of phytopathogens were tested in vitro to explore the antifungal activity of the FH extracts. It was found for the first time that the FH extracts showed significant inhibition on the growth of P. italicum, A. citri, P. vexans, P. cytosporella and P. digitatum. PMID:26528961

  1. Bioactivities and extraction optimization of crude polysaccharides from the fruits and leaves of Rubus chingii Hu.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chuan-Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Min; Wang, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Polysaccharides of Rubus chingii Hu fruit and leaf were extracted to compare their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities against breast cancer cells MCF-7 and liver cancer cells Bel-7402. Results showed that all the tested bioactivities of polysaccharides from leaf (L-Ps) were better than those of polysaccharides from fruit (F-Ps). Response surface methodology was then used to optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from leaf. Additionally, polysaccharides from fruit and leaf were characterized and their contents of total sugars, proteins and uronic acid were compared. It was found that polysaccharides from fruit and leaf were similar in IR and UV absorption, but significantly different in contents of total sugars, protein and uronic acid. Their elution profiles of DEAE-Sepharose fast flow column were different too. The main peak of polysaccharides from fruit was eluted with 0.3 mol/l NaCl solution and the main peak of polysaccharides from leaf was eluted with deionized water. The differences between the two polysaccharides may be responsible for their differences in bioactivities. Further studies are required to explore their complete structural characteristics, structure-activity relationship and the mechanism of their activities.

  2. Evaluation of free radical scavenging and antityrosinase activities of standardized longan fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Sitthimonchai, Somkid; Worasuttayangkurn, Luksamee; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2007-02-01

    The protective effects of fruits and vegetables against chronic diseases have been attributed to the antioxidant properties of some secondary metabolites present in these foods. Plant polyphenols have been reported to exhibit bioactive properties, and in particular antioxidant activities. Longan seeds are found to contain high levels of some beneficial polyphenolic compounds such as corilagin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. The present study examined the free radical scavenging activity of longan seed extract by using three different assay methods. Longan extracts contained corilagin ranging from zero to 50.64 mg/g DW, gallic acid from 9.18 to 23.04 mg/g DW, and ellagic acid from 8.13 to 12.65 mg/g DW depending on the cultivars. Dried longan seed extracts of cultivar Edor contained high levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid and also exhibited the highest radical scavenging activities when comparing fresh seed and dried pulp extracts. For scavenging activity of DPPH and superoxide radicals, longan seed extract was found to be as effective as Japanese green tea extract while dried longan pulp and mulberry green tea extracts showed the least scavenging activities. In the ORAC assay, both fresh and dried longan seed also had higher activity than dried pulp and whole fruit. However, the results demonstrate that three polyphenolics may not be the major contributors of the high antioxidant activity of longan water extracts but this high activity may be due to other phenolic/flavonoid glycosides and ellagitannins present in longan fruit. In addition, longan seed also showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values of 2.9-3.2 mg/ml. Therefore, the preliminary observations suggest that longan seed extract could be another potential source of potent natural dietary antioxidants and also in an application as a new natural skin-whitening agent.

  3. Study on analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Cordia myxa fruit hydro-alcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mohammadmehdi; Varzi, Hossein Najafzadeh; Sabbagh, Atefeh; Bolooki, Adeleh; Sazmand, Alireza

    2013-12-15

    Cordia myxa is a plant which is used in tropical regions of the world. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of fruit of this medicinal plant was investigated in mice. Hydro-alcoholic extract of it was prepared by maceration method. Formalin test was conducted in six groups of mice (6 animals in each group) and acetic acid test in another six groups (6 mice). Groups one to six in each test were administered normal saline, oral indomethacin, intraperitoneal tramadol, 100 mg kg(-1) oral extract, 200 mg kg(-1) oral extract and 100 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneal extract, respectively. The duration of foot lickings were calculated in formalin- administered (1st) group within min 0 to 5 (acute phase) and 15 to 25 (chronic phase). Acetic acid-induced writhings were counted within 10 min in the 2nd group. The results showed that hydro-alcoholic extract of Cordia myxa fruit was considerably effective in formalin test. Also, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant's fruit in both acute and chronic phase are somewhat similar to these properties in the study on animal model of experimental colitis.

  4. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    PubMed

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease.

  5. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350 g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

  6. Effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its iridoid glycosides on blood fluidity.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masuda, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Deng, Shixin; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit on blood fluidity. M. citrifolia fruit extract (MCF-ext) was investigated for its influence on blood aggregation and fibrinolysis. MCF-ext inhibited polybrene-induced erythrocyte aggregation and thrombin activity. The fibrinolytic activity of MCF-ext, in the euglobulin lysis time test and fibrin plate assay, is reported here for the first time. One of the active compounds was an iridoid glycoside, asperulosidic acid. The results indicated that MCF-ext is a potentially useful health food which is capable of improving blood flow and preventing lifestyle-related diseases.

  7. Regression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lung Metastases after Guyabano Fruit Extract Consumption.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Senthil S; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Landers, Lisa A; Gaba, Ron C

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of worldwide cancer-related mortality, and even with established treatment paradigms, its global burden demands greater research into therapeutic options. In the following case report, a patient suffering from HCC with lung metastasis demonstrated regression of metastatic disease while consuming guyabano fruit extract in the absence of conventional chemotherapy. While the antineoplastic effects of the guyabano fruit is well documented, there is sparse clinical documentation of HCC regression associated with it, and a better understanding of guyabano and its antineoplastic activity may trigger discovery of novel therapeutic options for this deadly disease.

  8. Optimization of microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Song, Haiyan; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Hu, Haobin; Zhang, Yang

    2015-05-01

    A microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction (MAEE) method had been developed, which was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and orthogonal test design, to enhance the extraction of crude polysaccharides (CPS) from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill. The optimum conditions were as follows: microwave irradiation time of 10 min, extraction pH of 4.21, extraction temperature of 47.58°C, extraction time of 3h and enzyme concentration of 1.5% (wt% of S. chinensis powder) for cellulase, papain and pectinase, respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of CPS was 7.38 ± 0.21%, which was well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods including heat-refluxing extraction (HRE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) for extracting CPS by RSM were further compared. Results indicated MAEE method had the highest extraction yields of CPS at lower temperature. It was indicated that the proposed approach in this study was a simple and efficient technique for extraction of CPS in S. chinensis Baill.

  9. Effects of dog rose and watercress extracts on control of green mould decay and postharvest quality of orange fruits.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Sajad; Hassandokht, Mohammadreza; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and IC50 values and total phenolics of dog rose fruits were 72.5-80 μL mL(- 1), 130 μg mL(- 1) and 5.7 mg GA g(- 1), respectively. The Fashand watercress population and dog rose extracts exhibited mycelia growth inhibition values of 45.08% and 37.12%, respectively. The results of in vivo study indicated that the treatment of inoculated fruits with both methanol extracts especially the watercress plant extract considerably controls the citrus fruits decay (Penicillium digitatum) up to 73%. In conclusion, methanol extracts of dog rose fruits and especially watercress plant had the potential to be used against citrus green mould and even for the improvement of postharvest quality of orange fruits.

  10. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Martinello, F; Soares, S M; Franco, J J; Santos, A C; Sugohara, A; Garcia, S B; Curti, C; Uyemura, S A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary modifications may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The present study addressed the effects of the crude extract from the pulp fruit of Tamarindus indica L. on lipid serum levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic hamsters in vivo, and the extract's antioxidant action, in vitro. Animals were fed on either chow or atherogenic diet during 10 weeks and concomitantly received either water or T. indica L. extract for drinking. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic hamsters with the T. indica pulp fruit extract (5%) led to a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (50%), non-HDL cholesterol (73%) and triglyceride (60%), and to an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (61%). In vitro, the extract presented radical scavenging ability, as assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals assays, and led to decreased lipid peroxidation in serum, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In vivo, the extract improved the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system, as assessed by the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Together these results indicate the potential of tamarind extracts in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis development in humans.

  11. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (L.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Nandhakumar, Elumalai; Indumathi, Parameswaran

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the fruit of Annona squamosa by means of in vitro studies involving two different solvent extracts: methanol and aqueous. The antioxidant properties of the extract were determined by scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), reducing power and total antioxidant. The results showed that, compared to aqueous extract, a methanolic fruit extract of A squamosa has a higher percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity (97.99%), LPO (94.15%), NO scavenging activity (70.96%), O2(-) scavenging activity and OH(•) scavenging activity (78.68% and 85.25%, respectively), total antioxidant activity (206 μg α-tocopherol/g) and reducing power (56.0 μg of ascorbic acid/g). The results obtained in the in vitro models clearly suggest that methanol extract has higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract due to a higher presence of phenolic and flavonodal constituents in the methanol extract. PMID:23787283

  12. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management. PMID:23667805

  13. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (L.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Nandhakumar, Elumalai; Indumathi, Parameswaran

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the fruit of Annona squamosa by means of in vitro studies involving two different solvent extracts: methanol and aqueous. The antioxidant properties of the extract were determined by scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), reducing power and total antioxidant. The results showed that, compared to aqueous extract, a methanolic fruit extract of A squamosa has a higher percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity (97.99%), LPO (94.15%), NO scavenging activity (70.96%), O2(-) scavenging activity and OH(•) scavenging activity (78.68% and 85.25%, respectively), total antioxidant activity (206 μg α-tocopherol/g) and reducing power (56.0 μg of ascorbic acid/g). The results obtained in the in vitro models clearly suggest that methanol extract has higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract due to a higher presence of phenolic and flavonodal constituents in the methanol extract.

  14. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Martinello, F; Soares, S M; Franco, J J; Santos, A C; Sugohara, A; Garcia, S B; Curti, C; Uyemura, S A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary modifications may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The present study addressed the effects of the crude extract from the pulp fruit of Tamarindus indica L. on lipid serum levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic hamsters in vivo, and the extract's antioxidant action, in vitro. Animals were fed on either chow or atherogenic diet during 10 weeks and concomitantly received either water or T. indica L. extract for drinking. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic hamsters with the T. indica pulp fruit extract (5%) led to a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (50%), non-HDL cholesterol (73%) and triglyceride (60%), and to an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (61%). In vitro, the extract presented radical scavenging ability, as assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals assays, and led to decreased lipid peroxidation in serum, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In vivo, the extract improved the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system, as assessed by the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Together these results indicate the potential of tamarind extracts in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis development in humans. PMID:16330140

  15. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  16. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  17. Water extractable forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron in fruits and seeds of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Paweł; Wesołowski, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Water extractable nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorus and iron(II) in relation to the total amount of these essential elements were analyzed in fruits and seeds of medicinal plants. Water extraction was chosen to simulate in the analytical procedure the way plant samples are prepared and used by people. The total amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and phosphate phosphorus were determined in the range of concentration of mg/g of dry plant weight, however, the total and extractable iron and nitrate nitrogen in mg/kg of dry weight. The nitrate nitrogen appeared to be crucial factor in the differentiation of plant samples and its level is characterized by very wide range of concentrations, from 10.15 mg/kg to 1377.03 mg/kg of dry plant weight; however, it didn't exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Statistically significant correlation between N and P, N and Fe, P-PO4 and P, P-PO4 and N was found, probably caused by their co-participation in metabolism of medicinal plant's fruits. Thanks to results of PCA, the fruits of medicinal plants can be differentiated by the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus and their water extractable fractions. PCA grouped analyzed samples into three clusters with similar concentration of elements, which depended on the plant species, and in some cases also on the place of cultivation in distant regions of the country.

  18. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  19. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Amutha Gnana Arasi, Michael Antony Samy; Gopal Rao, Manchineela; Bagyalakshmi, Janardanan

    2016-10-01

    This study deals with the optimization of microwave assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruit using Response surface methodology. To evaluate the effect of three independent variables, Water to plant material ratio, microwave power used for extraction and Irradiation time, central composite design has been employed. The yield is considered as dependent variable. The design model estimated the optimum yield of 6.81677% at 200W microwave power level, 3:1 water to plant material ratio and 20min of irradiation time. Three factors three levels Central composite design coupled with RSM was used to model the extraction process. ANOVA was performed to find the significance of the model. The polysaccharide extracted using microwave assisted extraction process was analyzed using FTIR Spectroscopy. PMID:27180292

  20. Anticancer Effects of Extracts from the Fruit of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Pachauri, S D; Khandelwal, K; Ahmad, H; Arya, A; Biala, P; Agrawal, S; Pandey, R R; Srivastava, A; Srivastav, A; Saxena, J K; Dwivedi, A K

    2016-03-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (NONI) fruits have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of many health problems including cancer, cold, diabetes, flu, hypertension, and pain. Plant extracts have reported several therapeutic benefits, but extraction of individual compound from the extract often exhibits limited clinical utility as the synergistic effect of various natural ingredients gets lost. They generally constitute polyphenols and flavonoids. Studies have suggested that these phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, display high antioxidant properties, which help to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Noni fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-dementia, liver-protective, anticancer, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Till date about 7 in vitro cancer studies have been done, but a detailed in vitro study including cell cycle and caspase activation assay on breast cancer cell line has not been done. In the present study different Noni fruit fractions have tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and one non-cancer cell line HEK-293 (Human embryonic kidney). Out of which ethylacetate extract showed a higher order of in vitro anticancer activity profile. The ethylacetate extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HEK-293 cell lines with IC50 values of 25, 35, 60 µg/ml respectively. The extract showed increase in apoptotic cells in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 and G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. Noni extract also decreases the intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential.

  1. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2015-06-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization. PMID:26028772

  2. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2015-06-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization.

  3. Therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds extracted from fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research in identifying new low-cost antioxidants having commercial potential. Fruits such as mango, banana, and those belonging to the citrus family leave behind a substantial amount of residues in the form of peels, pulp, seeds, and stones. Due to lack of infrastructure to handle a huge quantity of available biomass, lack of processing facilities, and high processing cost, these residues represent a major disposal problem, especially in developing countries. Because of the presence of phenolic compounds, which impart nutraceutical properties to fruit residues, such residues hold tremendous potential in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The biological properties such as anticarcinogenicity, antimutagenicity, antiallergenicity, and antiageing activity have been reported for both natural as well as synthetic antioxidants. Special attention is focused on extraction of bioactive compounds from inexpensive or residual sources. The purpose of this review is to characterize different phenolics present in the fruit residues, discuss the antioxidant potential of such residues and the assays used in determination of antioxidant properties, discuss various methods for efficient extraction of the bioactive compounds, and highlight the importance of fruit residues as potential nutraceutical resources and biopreservatives. PMID:24915390

  4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. methanolic fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Dinesh; Manjusha; Saroha, Kamal; Singh, Nidhan; Vashishta, Bhoodev

    2008-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of large amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. Subsequent quantification showed the presence of 0.74% (m/m) phenolics (calculated as gallic acid) and 0.13% (m/m) flavonoids calculated as catechin equivalents per 100 g of fresh mass. The presence of phenolic compounds prompted us to evaluate its antioxidant activity. In the present study, methanolic fruit extract of C. colocynthis was screened to evaluate its free radical scavenging effect. The highest antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the fruit extract was observed at a concentration of 2500 microg mL(-1).

  5. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation.

    PubMed

    Soldo, Barbara; Šprung, Matilda; Mušac, Gloria; Pavela-Vrančić, Maja; Ljubenkov, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity. PMID:27104512

  6. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation.

    PubMed

    Soldo, Barbara; Šprung, Matilda; Mušac, Gloria; Pavela-Vrančić, Maja; Ljubenkov, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  7. Antihyperglycemic Potential of Grewia asiatica Fruit Extract against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Hala A H; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Abdallah, Inas Z A; Yousef, Fatimah M; Alkreathy, Huda M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a serious chronic disease that carries a high risk for considerable complications. In folk medicine, the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. This study aimed to investigate the possible curative effect of G. asiatica fruit ethanolic extract against streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, mechanism of antihyperglycemic action is investigated. Hyperglycemic rats are either treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg/day G. asiatica fruits extract. Serum glucose, liver glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α are measured. G. asiatica fruits extract reduces blood glucose and pancreatic MDA levels. It increases liver glycogen and pancreatic GSH contents and SOD enzyme activity. Furthermore, Grewia asiatica fruits extract decreases serum IL-1β and TNF-α. The treatment also protects against STZ-induced pathological changes in the pancreas. The results of this study indicated that G. asiatica fruit extract exerts antihyperglycemic activity against STZ-induced hyperglycemia. The improvement in the pancreatic β-cells and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of G. asiatica fruit extract may explain the antihyperglycemic effect. PMID:26347423

  8. Antihyperglycemic Potential of Grewia asiatica Fruit Extract against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Hala A. H.; El-Shitany, Nagla A.; Abdallah, Inas Z. A.; Yousef, Fatimah M.; Alkreathy, Huda M.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a serious chronic disease that carries a high risk for considerable complications. In folk medicine, the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. This study aimed to investigate the possible curative effect of G. asiatica fruit ethanolic extract against streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, mechanism of antihyperglycemic action is investigated. Hyperglycemic rats are either treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg/day G. asiatica fruits extract. Serum glucose, liver glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α are measured. G. asiatica fruits extract reduces blood glucose and pancreatic MDA levels. It increases liver glycogen and pancreatic GSH contents and SOD enzyme activity. Furthermore, Grewia asiatica fruits extract decreases serum IL-1β and TNF-α. The treatment also protects against STZ-induced pathological changes in the pancreas. The results of this study indicated that G. asiatica fruit extract exerts antihyperglycemic activity against STZ-induced hyperglycemia. The improvement in the pancreatic β-cells and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of G. asiatica fruit extract may explain the antihyperglycemic effect. PMID:26347423

  9. Study of the Effect of Surfactants on Extraction and Determination of Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Hemmaty, Syavash

    2013-01-01

    Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin–Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V) potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23472082

  10. In vivo efficacy of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit extract on experimental fluoride exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Swarup, D; Saxena, Anju; Dan, Ananya

    2011-12-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hydro-methanolic (1:1) extract of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) fruit pulp in removing body fluoride burden. Thirty rats were divided into five groups. Keeping no fluoride group as the control, rats of no treatment, low dose, middle dose and high dose groups received sodium fluoride orally at the rate of 200mg per kg body weight daily for 14 weeks. Rats of low dose, middle dose and high dose group simultaneously received tamarind fruit pulp extract at three doses, viz. 25 (low), 50 (medium) and 100mg (high) per kg body weight orally, respectively. Fluoride concentration in blood, urine and long bone of experimental rats was monitored to assess the efficacy of the extract. Mean serum fluoride concentration in fluoride exposed rats was 0.145 ± 0.009 and 0.783 ± 0.042 μg/ml on days 0 and 98. In comparison, fluoride concentrations in tamarind treated rats were 0.179 ± 0.021 and 0.633 ± 0.015; 0.179 ± 0.021 and 0.502 ± 0.025 and 0.176 ± 0.021 and 0.498 ± 0.030 μg/ml in low, medium and high dose groups, respectively on day 0 and day 98 of the experiment. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) increase in urinary fluoride excretion from day 28 onwards. The mean fluoride concentration in long bones of treated rats was significantly lower than the values recorded in fluoride exposed rats. These findings suggest that concomitant use of tamarind fruit pulp extract can reduce fluoride concentration in blood and bone and enhanced urinary excretion, indicating the ameliorative potential of fruits of tamarind in fluoride toxicity.

  11. [Application of saw palmetto fruit extract in the treatment of prostate diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xu-xin; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Saw palmetto fruit extract (SPE), as a herbal product, is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Recent studies show that SPE also has some therapeutic effects on chronic prostatitis, prostate cancer, sexual dysfunction, and so on. This article presents an overview on the application of SPE in the treatment of BPH, prostate cancer, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, with a discussion on its action mechanisms. PMID:26552220

  12. [Application of saw palmetto fruit extract in the treatment of prostate diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xu-xin; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Saw palmetto fruit extract (SPE), as a herbal product, is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Recent studies show that SPE also has some therapeutic effects on chronic prostatitis, prostate cancer, sexual dysfunction, and so on. This article presents an overview on the application of SPE in the treatment of BPH, prostate cancer, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, with a discussion on its action mechanisms.

  13. Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Dai, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Xie, Jian-Wei; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two new cucurbitacins I (1 and 2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. Compounds 3, 5-9 were isolated from C. colocynthis for the first time. The structures of new compounds were determined primarily from IR, HR-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR analysis. PMID:25761128

  14. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  15. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (−12.2%, −45.6%, and −14.7%, respectively) and calafate (−27.6%, −43.9%, and −11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  16. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT) of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. Methods The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81%) and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound). To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. Results After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. Conclusion The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts. PMID:21982053

  17. Optimization for ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry fruits with antioxidant and hyperglycemic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; You, Li-Jun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of mulberry fruits polysaccharides (MFP). Under optimum conditions: ratio of water to raw material 40.25, extraction temperature 69°C, ultrasonic power 190W and extraction time 75 min, the MFP yield was 3.13% (±0.07%), in accordance to the predicted value of 3.04%. The mulberry fruits polysaccharides fractions was obtained by deproteinization (MFP-1), followed by decolorization and deionization (MFP-2). Carbohydrate content in MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 was 58.61% (±1.47%), 69.98% (±0.91%), 81.18% (±1.29%), as well as proteins was estimated 16.50% (±0.86%), 1.57% (±0.63%), 1.02% (±0.18%), respectively. The FT-IR indicated that MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 were acidic polysaccharides. The MFP-1 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, while MFP-2 showed the strongest hyperglycemic activity in vitro. This may be caused by their different compositions and physical properties in the different mulberry fruit polysaccharides fractions.

  18. Optimization for ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry fruits with antioxidant and hyperglycemic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; You, Li-Jun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of mulberry fruits polysaccharides (MFP). Under optimum conditions: ratio of water to raw material 40.25, extraction temperature 69°C, ultrasonic power 190W and extraction time 75 min, the MFP yield was 3.13% (±0.07%), in accordance to the predicted value of 3.04%. The mulberry fruits polysaccharides fractions was obtained by deproteinization (MFP-1), followed by decolorization and deionization (MFP-2). Carbohydrate content in MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 was 58.61% (±1.47%), 69.98% (±0.91%), 81.18% (±1.29%), as well as proteins was estimated 16.50% (±0.86%), 1.57% (±0.63%), 1.02% (±0.18%), respectively. The FT-IR indicated that MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 were acidic polysaccharides. The MFP-1 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, while MFP-2 showed the strongest hyperglycemic activity in vitro. This may be caused by their different compositions and physical properties in the different mulberry fruit polysaccharides fractions. PMID:26076608

  19. Protective effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2014-01-01

    In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6) into control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC), and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met). Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight) in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione contents (GSH), and catalase (CAT) was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  20. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora.

    PubMed

    Bagattoli, P C D; Cipriani, D C; Mariano, L N B; Correa, M; Wagner, T M; Noldin, V F; Filho, V Cechinel; Niero, R

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively. PMID:27168679

  1. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora

    PubMed Central

    Bagattoli, P.C.D.; Cipriani, D. C.; Mariano, L.N.B.; Correa, M.; Wagner, T. M.; Noldin, V. F.; Filho, V. Cechinel; Niero, R.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively. PMID:27168679

  2. Considerations to prevent the breakdown and loss of fruit carotenoids during extraction and analysis in Musa.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Keulemans, Wannes

    2009-07-24

    The impact of treatments aimed at improving the robustness of protocols for the analysis of carotenoids in fruit of banana and plantain were examined. Neither the inclusion of polyvinylpolypyrrolidine in the extraction buffer, nor vigorous homogenisation with glass beads influenced recoveries or chromatographic profiles. By contrast, heating lead to losses of up to 53% and to the formation of degradation products that are no longer detectable on our RP-HPLC system. Carotenoid extracts are unstable and most sensitive to exposure to light. However, even in the dark at -20 degrees C and in the presence of antioxidants breakdown rates of around 5% per day were observed. PMID:19541318

  3. Considerations to prevent the breakdown and loss of fruit carotenoids during extraction and analysis in Musa.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Keulemans, Wannes

    2009-07-24

    The impact of treatments aimed at improving the robustness of protocols for the analysis of carotenoids in fruit of banana and plantain were examined. Neither the inclusion of polyvinylpolypyrrolidine in the extraction buffer, nor vigorous homogenisation with glass beads influenced recoveries or chromatographic profiles. By contrast, heating lead to losses of up to 53% and to the formation of degradation products that are no longer detectable on our RP-HPLC system. Carotenoid extracts are unstable and most sensitive to exposure to light. However, even in the dark at -20 degrees C and in the presence of antioxidants breakdown rates of around 5% per day were observed.

  4. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of caper (capparis spinosa l.) Fruit aqueous extract and the isolation of main phytochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits have been used as food as well as folk medicine in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatism. The present study was carried out to study the anti-inflammatory activities of C. spinosa L. fruit (CSF) aqueous extract and to isolate main phytochemica...

  6. Bioactivity of different enriched phenolic extracts of wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-03-01

    Arbutus unedo, Prunus spinosa, Rosa micrantha and Rosa canina are good sources of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins. These compounds have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to anticancer activity. Herein, the in vitro antioxidant and antitumor properties of enriched phenolic extracts (non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds enriched extract- PE and anthocyanins enriched extract- AE) of the mentioned wild fruits were evaluated and compared. PE gave higher bioactive properties than the corresponding AE. It was observed a high capacity of A. unedo phenolic extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation in animal brain homogenates (EC50 = 7.21 μg/mL), as also a high antitumor potential against NCI-H460 human cell line (non-small lung cancer; GI50 = 37.68 μg/mL), which could be related to the presence of galloyl derivatives (exclusively found in this species). The bioactivity of the studied wild fruits proved to be more related to the phenolic compounds profile than to the amounts present in each extract, and could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods. PMID:24243401

  7. Biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds by vegetable and fruit cell extracts*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from various vegetables and fruits were investigated for their abilities to reduce nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). The extracts from grape and onion exhibited an interesting selectivity, yielding corresponding hydroxylamines or amines as major products under mild conditions of 30 °C and pH 7.0. Grape extracts reduced the 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with the highest conversion rate (>99%) and the highest ratio of hydroxylamine to amine (95:5). In contrast, the onion extracts reduced 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with a conversion rate of 94% and a ratio of hydroxylamine to amine of 8:92. The thiol-reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol, and metal cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, greatly increased the reductive efficiency. This work provides an alternative strategy for biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic compounds. PMID:22467365

  8. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols.

  9. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan.

  10. Antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and antibiofilm properties of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. fruit extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Lecythidaceae) is commonly called Ayahuma and the Cannonball tree. It is distributed in the tropical regions of northern South America and Southern Caribbean. It has several medicinal properties. It is used to treat hypertension, tumours, pain, inflammatory processes, cold, stomach ache, skin diseases, malaria, wounds and toothache. Methods The fruits of Couroupita guianensis were extracted with chloroform. Antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and antibiofilm forming activities of the chloroform extract were investigated. Quantitative estimation of Indirubin, one of the major constituent, was identified by HPLC. Results Chloroform extract showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm forming activities; however it showed low antimycobacterial activity. The zones of inhibition by chloroform extract ranged from 0 to 26 mm. Chloroform extract showed effective antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa starting from 2 mg/mL BIC, with 52% inhibition of biofilm formation. When the chloroform extract was subjected to HPLC-DAD analysis, along with Indirubin standard, in the same chromatographic conditions, it was found that Indirubin was one of the major compounds in this plant (0.0918% dry weight basis). Conclusions The chloroform extract showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Chloroform extract can be evaluated further in drug development programmes. PMID:23206492

  11. Report: Antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity of strawberry fruit extracts against alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2016-01-01

    The strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) of Rosaceae family are an accomplished source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid and diverse range of polyphenols including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, ellagitannins etc. These phenolic compounds classify strawberry as an important health promoting food. Strawberries are proved to have potent antioxidant capacity in various in vitro assay systems. The in vivo beneficial effects are getting explored against various ailments including cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. The present research study was designed to analyze the effect of strawberry fruit extracts (water and methanol) against alloxan induced hyperglycemia in albino rats of Wister strain. Upon alloxan (150mg/kg body weight) induction, the diabetic animals showed marked increase in the values of plasma glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and concomitant decrease in body weight and plasma insulin level. The oral administration of strawberry extracts for 45 days in diabetic animals reversed the biochemical changes significantly (P0.05) to near normal. Furthermore, the restoration of body weight loss was also observed. The results suggest that the strawberry extract has effective hypoglycemic activity against alloxan diabetes. The poly phenolic antioxidant contents of the strawberry fruit extracts are responsible for the observed biological effect. PMID:26826817

  12. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of extracts prepared from fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Faisal; Tow, Wei Wei; Hamauzu, Yasunori; Katayama, Shigeru; Tanaka, Sachi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2015-01-15

    In this study, fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products were tested for polyphenol content and their antioxidant activity. The highest content of polyphenols as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay was the hot-water extract of grape seed, followed by the ethanol extract of buckwheat hull. The highest antioxidant activity measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assays was also detected in the hot-water extract of grape seed, followed by the ethanol extract of immature prune. Most of samples showed protective effects against oxidative stress induced by 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) peroxyl radical generator in African monkey kidney (MA 104) cells. Samples containing high amounts of phenolics (more than 30 mg ChAE/g) generally showed high antioxidant activity and a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products are good sources of high amounts of phenolics with antioxidant properties.

  13. Suitability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotics intended for fruit juices containing citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Lucia; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-11-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum and 4 strains of bifidobacteria were inoculated in apple juice and in a commercial beverage labeled as "red-fruit juice," containing citrus extracts as natural preservatives; the suitability of the probiotics was evaluated in relation to their resistance to 2 kinds of citrus extracts (biocitro and lemon extract), survival in juices at 4 and 37 °C, and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Cell count of L. plantarum and bifidobacteria over time was fitted through the Weibull equation, for the evaluation of the first reduction time (δ), death time, and microbiological shelf life (the break-point was set to 7 log cfu/mL). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis experienced the highest δ-value (23.21 d) and death time (96.59 d) in the red-fruit juice at 4 °C, whereas L. plantarum was the most promising strain in apple juice at 37 °C. Biocitro and lemon extract did not exert a biocidal effect toward probiotics; moreover, the probiotics controlled the growth of Z. bailii and the combination of L. plantarum with 40 ppm of biocitro reduced the level of the yeast after 18 d by 2 log cfu/mL.

  14. Anti-Oxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ziziphus mucronata Fruit Extract Against Dimethoate-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kwape, Tebogo Elvis; Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kamau, Macharia; Majinda, Runner

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Ziziphus mucronata (ZM) fruit extract. Methods: The different types of fruit extract were prepared by soaking the dry powdered fruit in different solvents followed by rotary evaporation. Each extract was tested for its phenol content and antioxidant activities. An in vivo study was performed in Sprague- Dawley (SD) rats. Thirty adult male SD rats (aged 21 weeks) were divided into six groups of five rats each and treated as follows: The normal control (NC) received distilled water while the dimethoate control (DC) received 6 mg/kg.bw.day-1 dimethoate dissolved in distilled water. The experimental groups E1, E2, E3, and E0 received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw) + ZMFM (100 mg/kg.bw-1), dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw) + ZMFM (200 mg/kg.bw-1), dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw) + ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1), and ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1) only. Both the normal control and the dimethoate control groups were used to compare the results. After 90 days, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected for biochemical assays, and livers were harvested for histological study. Results: High phenol content was estimated, and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) spectrophotometric, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and 2, 2-Azobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assays showed a high antioxidant activity among the extracts. The preventive effects observed in the E1, E2 and E3 groups proved that the extract could prevent dimethoate toxicity by maintaining normal reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cholineasterase and lipid profiles. The preventive effect was observed to be dose dependent. The EO group showed no extractinduced toxicity. Histological observations agreed with the results obtained in the biochemical studies. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that ZM methanol fruit extract is capable of attenuating dimethoate-induced toxicity because of its high

  15. Comparison of cytotoxic extracts from fruiting bodies, infected insects and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps formosana.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rui-Li; Bao, Guan-Hu; Hu, Feng-Lin; Huang, Bo; Li, Chun-Ru; Li, Zeng-Zhi

    2014-02-15

    A resazurin method was employed to test and compare cytotoxicity of extracts from fruiting bodies, insects and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps formosana against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results showed that the cultured mycelia had much stronger cytotoxicity than that of the fruiting bodies and infected insects. This suggests that using cultured mycelia to substitute a natural Cordyceps may result in poisoning. A combined method of HPLC-PAD-HRMS and cytotoxic analysis revealed that the most toxic compound (Compound 1) was found mainly in the cultured mycelia and also a small amount in the infected insect body of the Cordyceps, but not in the fruiting body. The second toxic compound (Compound 2) was found in all structures of Cordyceps and in cultured mycelia. Different contents of the toxic compounds resulted in the different cytotoxicity of the extracts. Compound 1 and Compound 2 were prepared with preparative HPLC as yellow and orange powders, respectively. Cytotoxic tests showed that the median lethal dose (LD₅₀) against CHO cells of Compound 1 was 18.3 ± 0.2 and 103.7 ± 5.9 μg/mL for Compound 2. Compound 1 and Compound 2 were identified as rugulosin and skyrin by HRMS, UV and NMR data. The two compounds were never previously isolated from the genera Cordyceps and Hirsutella and their cytotoxicity against CHO cells was also reported for the first time.

  16. Comparison of cytotoxic extracts from fruiting bodies, infected insects and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps formosana.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rui-Li; Bao, Guan-Hu; Hu, Feng-Lin; Huang, Bo; Li, Chun-Ru; Li, Zeng-Zhi

    2014-02-15

    A resazurin method was employed to test and compare cytotoxicity of extracts from fruiting bodies, insects and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps formosana against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results showed that the cultured mycelia had much stronger cytotoxicity than that of the fruiting bodies and infected insects. This suggests that using cultured mycelia to substitute a natural Cordyceps may result in poisoning. A combined method of HPLC-PAD-HRMS and cytotoxic analysis revealed that the most toxic compound (Compound 1) was found mainly in the cultured mycelia and also a small amount in the infected insect body of the Cordyceps, but not in the fruiting body. The second toxic compound (Compound 2) was found in all structures of Cordyceps and in cultured mycelia. Different contents of the toxic compounds resulted in the different cytotoxicity of the extracts. Compound 1 and Compound 2 were prepared with preparative HPLC as yellow and orange powders, respectively. Cytotoxic tests showed that the median lethal dose (LD₅₀) against CHO cells of Compound 1 was 18.3 ± 0.2 and 103.7 ± 5.9 μg/mL for Compound 2. Compound 1 and Compound 2 were identified as rugulosin and skyrin by HRMS, UV and NMR data. The two compounds were never previously isolated from the genera Cordyceps and Hirsutella and their cytotoxicity against CHO cells was also reported for the first time. PMID:24128585

  17. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Saleh; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; sayahi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section. Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<0.01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<0.01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: Our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced through reducing oxidative stress. PMID:27222831

  19. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. PMID:27642282

  20. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS(•+) (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. PMID:27642282

  1. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Thespesia populnea fruit pulp extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Belhekar, S. N.; Chaudhari, P. D.; Saryawanshi, J. S.; Mali, K. K.; Pandhare, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was carried to find out the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of Thespesia populnea fruit pulp on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.). After the successful induction of experimental diabetes, the rats were divided into five groups each comprising a minimum of six rats. Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity study of extracts was also done. The effects of extracts and metformin on fasting blood glucose and plasma lipid were examined for 28 days. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance followed by Dunnet's multiple comparison test and paired t-test were done as the test of significance using GraphPad Prism. P≤0.05 was considered as the minimal level of statistical significance. Therapeutic dose of extract was found to be 200 mg/kg on the basis of acute toxicity study. Aqueous and alcoholic extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels as well as a lipid profile of diabetic rats at the end of 28th day of treatment. However, in groups treated with plant extract the reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in lipid profile was slightly less than that achieved with the standard group (metformin). From this study, it can be concluded that ethanol and aqueous extract of Thespesia populnea exhibited significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24019572

  2. Clot Lysis and Antimitotic Study of Ficus glomerata Roxb Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shivasharanappa, Kirankumar; Londonkar, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water). The extracts have shown mild clot lysis, that is, 2.16%, 23.06%, 27.60%, and 47.74% of sterile distilled water, FGPE, FGCE, and FGME, respectively, while the standard (streptokinase) has shown 74.22% clot lysis. FGME inhibited the root growth in number as well as length effectively, followed by FGPE, while FGCE exhibited moderate antimitotic activity and it was supported by mitotic index. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that among all the extracts of plant the methanolic extract has shown highest thrombolytic and antimitotic activity. PMID:25006495

  3. Utilizing hydroglycolic extract from myrobalan fruits to counteract reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chulasiri, M; Wanaswas, P; Sriaum, D; Nakamat, S; Wongkrajang, Y; Kongsaktrakoon, B; Phornchirasilp, S; Songchitsomboon, S; Leelarungrayub, D

    2011-08-01

    The hydroglycolic (HG) extract from 70% propylene glycol (PG) extraction of myrobalan fruits showed the most appreciable antioxidant efficiency towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in comparison to the extracts from 30, 50, 70 and 100% ethyl alcohol (EA), and 30, 50 and 100% PG . Its total polyphenols were also higher than others. The additional analysis of antioxidant power revealed that this HG extract was able to counteract the induced oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The quantification for the antioxidant capacity of the extract showed it was equivalent to 93.78 mg of 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethychroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) g(-1) by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-suphonic acid) diammonium (ABTS) assay, and was 140.17 mg ascorbic acid (AA) equivalent g(-1) and 107.50 mg Trolox equivalent g(-1) by photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. The incorporation of the HG myrobalan extract into lotion and sunscreen lotion rendered these products to provide the similar antioxidant power as the extract alone.

  4. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from Taxus chinensis var. mairei fruits and its antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunjian; Li, Zhao; Li, Chunying; Yang, Lei; Yao, Liping; Fu, Yujie; He, Xin; Shi, Kunming; Lu, Zhicheng

    2015-04-01

    The simultaneous ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) method is potentially useful for the extraction of polysaccharides from Taxus chinensis var. mairei fruits (TCFPs). In this study, we used a response surface methodology to identify optimal TCFPs extraction conditions. Optimal parameters were determined as follows: a liquid to raw material ratio of 33 mL/g, an extraction time of 10 min, a microwave power level of 560 W, and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W. Under the optimized conditions, TCFPs yields obtained by UMAE were 4.33 ± 0.15%, a 1.79-fold increase compared with conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE). In addition, the extraction time used in UMAE was shorter than that required for HRE: 10 versus 90 min. UMAE is therefore a rapid and efficient method for the extraction of TCFPs. The inhibitory effect of TCFPs on S180 tumor growth in vivo was also studied. The tumor inhibition rate of TCFPs was 76.33%, indicating a tumor-inhibiting effect. Analysis of organ weights demonstrated that TCFPs exhibited no toxicity to liver, kidney, spleen, heart, or lung relative to a positive control group. TCFPs thus show antitumor activity with no organ toxicity.

  5. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein. PMID:26540023

  6. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein.

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  8. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Es.Haghi, M.; Dehghan, G.; Banihabib, N.; Zare, S.; Mikaili, P.; Panahi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated the alterations induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4. PMID:25249718

  9. Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon).

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojun; Murphy, Brian T; Hammond, Gerald B; Vinson, Joe A; Neto, Catherine C

    2002-10-01

    Polyphenolic compounds in cranberries have been investigated to determine their role in protection against cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Extracts of whole fruit were assayed for radical-scavenging activity and tumor growth inhibition using seven tumor cell lines. Selective inhibition of K562 and HT-29 cells was observed from a methanolic extract in the range of 16-125 microg/mL. Radical-scavenging activity was greatest in an extract composed primarily of flavonol glycosides. Seven flavonol glycosides were isolated and purified from whole fruit for further evaluation; the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-galactoside was also purified for comparison with the flavonoids. Three flavonol monoglycosides were newly identified by (13)C NMR as myricetin 3-alpha-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-xyloside, and 3-methoxyquercetin 3-beta-galactoside (isorhamnetin); the other four isolated were the previously identified myricetin 3-beta-galactoside, quercetin 3-beta-galactoside, quercetin 3-alpha-arabinofuranoside, and quercetin 3-alpha-rhamnopyranoside. These compounds were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. Most of the flavonol glycosides showed antioxidant activity comparable or superior to that of vitamin E; cyanidin 3-galactoside showed activity superior to that of the flavonoids as well as vitamin E or Trolox in both antioxidant assays.

  10. Renal protective effects of extracts from guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chia-Yun; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in extracts of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.), and examined the renal protective effects of guava aqueous extract (GAE) and ethanol extract (GEE) in diabetic mice. GAE had more caffeic acid, myricetin, and quercetin; and GEE had more cinnamic, coumaric and ferulic acids. GAE or GEE at 1 and 2 % was supplied in diet for 12 weeks. GAE or GEE intake at 2 % significantly reduced glucose and blood urea nitrogen levels, increased insulin level in plasma of diabetic mice (p < 0.05). GAE or GEE treatments dose-dependently reserved glutathione content, retained activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β levels in kidney (p < 0.05). GAE and GEE treatments at 2 % significantly declined renal N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, pentosidine and fructose levels (p < 0.05), and suppressed renal activity of aldose reductase (p < 0.05). These findings support that guava fruit could protect kidney against diabetic progression via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-glycative effects.

  11. Characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin from fruit of different maturities and extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Yuliarti, Oni; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T; Mawson, John; Williams, Martin A K; Brennan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Studies on gold kiwifruit pectins are limited. In this work, the characterization of pectin isolated from two different stages of maturity of gold kiwifruit, namely early harvested fruit (EHF) and main harvested fruit (MHF) isolated by three methods (acid, water, enzymatic) was carried out. Pectins isolated from MHF were higher in galacturonic acid content (52-59% w/w) and weight-average molecular weights (Mw, 1.7-3.8 × 10(6)g/mol) compared with EHF pectins (29-49% w/w and 0.2-1.7 × 10(6)g/mol respectively). Enzymatic treatment gave the highest yield but lowest in Mw, viscosity and mechanical spectra for both maturities. The pectin of both maturities was classified as high-methoxyl pectin with the degree of esterification ranged from 82% to 90%. Water-extracted MHF pectin molecules had the highest RMS radius (182.7 nm) and Mw (3.75 × 10(6)g/mol). The water extraction method appeared to retain the native state of pectin molecules compared with acid and enzymatic extraction methods based on the Mw and viscosity data.

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit.

    PubMed

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  13. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Jain, Avnish; Jain, Sourabh; Gurjar, Rajenda

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruits rind was investigated. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and also exhibited an immense reducing ability. The total content of phenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds was estimated as 63.81 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material, 21.34 mg of rutin equivalents/g of dry material and 17.11 mg of total tannin equivalent /g of dry material, respectively. IC50 values for different antioxidant model were calculated as 128.86 microg/mL for DPPH radicals, 97.65 microg/mL for O2*-, 148.32 microg/mL for H2O2 and 123.01 microg/mL for NO, respectively. Reducing power and inhibition of *OH radical-induced BSA oxidation were also determined. The data obtained in the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruit rind have significant antioxidant activity against free radicals.

  14. Performance of fruit extract of Melastoma malabathricum L. as sensitizer in DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lakshmi K; Karlo, T; Pandey, A

    2014-01-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with fruit extracts, of Melastoma malabathricum L. as sensitizer, were fabricated. The fruit dye was extracted in two different solvents; de-ionized water (MMD) and ethanol (MME). The dye was subjected to UV-Vis and DSC studies. UV-Vis studies show absorption of light for a wider range of wavelength for MMD as compared to MME. Both MMD and MME were found to be stable till 121°C, as shown by DSC studies, beyond which MME showed unstable behavior. FTIR spectra of MMD and MME along with dye adsorbed TiO2 were recorded. MMD showed better adsorption with TiO2 than with MME. Voc, Jsc and efficiencies of the MMD sensitized solar cells were obtained in the ranges 420-430 mV, 1.25-1.50 mA cm(-2) and 1.11-1.37% respectively, while for MME sensitized solar cells they were in the ranges 370-380 mV, 0.63-0.87 mA cm(-2) and 0.41-0.72% respectively. Preliminary investigation on stability of DSSCs which were fabricated using both the extracts revealed sharp drop in efficiency of DSSC with MME in comparison to DSSC with MMD as sensitizer.

  15. Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in poultry skin by fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Valtierra-Rodríguez, Diana; Heredia, Norma L; García, Santos; Sánchez, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, and current methods to control Campylobacter contamination in foods are not completely successful. Plants are a promising source of antimicrobial agents, particularly given the growing interest in "all natural" foods. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of extracts from 28 edible plants against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was evaluated in vitro and in a poultry skin model. Nine of 28 extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity in a diffusion assay, and MBCs were determined for the three most active extracts, i.e., lime, plum, and sour orange peel (MBCs of 2 to 3 mg/ml). Mixtures of the lime, plum, and sour orange peel extracts were applied to chicken skin inoculated with 10(5) CFU of Campylobacter to test for synergistic or antagonist effects. After incubation (48 h at 4 degrees C) with any extract mixture, no Campylobacter CFUs were detectable. A panel of tasters determined that the mixture of lime and plum gave the best flavor to chicken wings. These active extracts from edible fruits are simple to prepare and are alternatives to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter contamination of chicken products. PMID:20202332

  16. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  17. Optimal binary solvent extraction system for phenolic antioxidants from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) fruit.

    PubMed

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Ho, Swee Kheng; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants. PMID:23771061

  18. Optimal binary solvent extraction system for phenolic antioxidants from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) fruit.

    PubMed

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Ho, Swee Kheng; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-06-14

    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  19. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  20. Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 μg/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 μg/mL; 63 μM) and UA (IC50=9.0 μg/mL; 39 μM) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

  1. Effects of fruit ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, urolithin A, on Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites, which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis, and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. This study investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET-rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method) and to EA content (by high-performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry = 20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry = 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate = 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET extracts (IC(50) = 28.0-30.0 microg/mL), EA (IC(50) = 19.0 microg/mL; 63 microM), and UA (IC(50) = 9.0 microg/mL; 39 microM) inhibited Wnt signaling, suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon.

  2. Wound-healing potential of the fruit extract of Phaleria macrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Abood, Walaa Najm; Al-Henhena, Nawal Ahmed; Najim Abood, Ammar; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Ismail, Salmah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Al Bartan, Rami

    2015-01-01

    The wound-healing potential of Phaleria macrocarpa was evaluated by monitoring the levels of inflammatory mediators, collagen, and antioxidant enzymes. Experimentally, two-centimeter-wide full-thickness-deep skin excision wounds were created on the posterior neck area of the rats. The wounds were topically treated with gum acacia as a vehicle in the control group, intrasite gel in the reference group, and 100 and 200 mg/mL P. macrocarpa ‎fruit extract in the treatment group. Granulation tissues were excised on the 15th day and were further processed for histological and biochemical analyzes. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring the contractions and protein contents of the wounds. Cellular redistribution and collagen deposition were assessed morphologically using Masson's trichrome stain. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, along with malondialdehyde (MDA) level were determined in skin tissue homogenates of the dermal wounds. Serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated in all the animals. A significant decrease in wound area was caused by a significant increase in TGF-β1 level in the treated groups. Decrease in TNF-α level and increase in the collagen formation were also observed in the treated groups. Topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract increased the SOD and CAT activities in the healing wounds, thereby significantly increasing MDA level. The topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract showed significant healing effect on excision wounds and demonstrated an important role in the inflammation process by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby accelerating the wound healing process and reducing tissue injury. PMID:26042509

  3. Wound-healing potential of the fruit extract of Phaleria macrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Abood, Walaa Najm; Al-Henhena, Nawal Ahmed; Najim Abood, Ammar; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Ismail, Salmah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Al Bartan, Rami

    2015-05-12

    The wound-healing potential of Phaleria macrocarpa was evaluated by monitoring the levels of inflammatory mediators, collagen, and antioxidant enzymes. Experimentally, two-centimeter-wide full-thickness-deep skin excision wounds were created on the posterior neck area of the rats. The wounds were topically treated with gum acacia as a vehicle in the control group, intrasite gel in the reference group, and 100 and 200 mg/mL P. macrocarpa ‎fruit extract in the treatment group. Granulation tissues were excised on the 15th day and were further processed for histological and biochemical analyzes. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring the contractions and protein contents of the wounds. Cellular redistribution and collagen deposition were assessed morphologically using Masson's trichrome stain. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, along with malondialdehyde (MDA) level were determined in skin tissue homogenates of the dermal wounds. Serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated in all the animals. A significant decrease in wound area was caused by a significant increase in TGF-β1 level in the treated groups. Decrease in TNF-α level and increase in the collagen formation were also observed in the treated groups. Topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract increased the SOD and CAT activities in the healing wounds, thereby significantly increasing MDA level. The topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract showed significant healing effect on excision wounds and demonstrated an important role in the inflammation process by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby accelerating the wound healing process and reducing tissue injury.

  4. Wound-healing potential of the fruit extract of Phaleria macrocarpa

    PubMed Central

    Abood, Walaa Najm; Al-Henhena, Nawal Ahmed; Abood, Ammar Najim; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Ismail, Salmah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Batran, Rami Al

    2015-01-01

    The wound-healing potential of Phaleria macrocarpa was evaluated by monitoring the levels of inflammatory mediators, collagen, and antioxidant enzymes. Experimentally, two-centimeter-wide full-thickness-deep skin excision wounds were created on the posterior neck area of the rats. The wounds were topically treated with gum acacia as a vehicle in the control group, intrasite gel in the reference group, and 100 and 200 mg/mL P. macrocarpa fruit extract in the treatment group. Granulation tissues were excised on the 15th day and were further processed for histological and biochemical analyzes. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring the contractions and protein contents of the wounds. Cellular redistribution and collagen deposition were assessed morphologically using Masson’s trichrome stain. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, along with malondialdehyde (MDA) level were determined in skin tissue homogenates of the dermal wounds. Serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated in all the animals. A significant decrease in wound area was caused by a significant increase in TGF-β1 level in the treated groups. Decrease in TNF-α level and increase in the collagen formation were also observed in the treated groups. Topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract increased the SOD and CAT activities in the healing wounds, thereby significantly decreasing MDA level. The topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract showed significant healing effect on excision wounds and demonstrated an important role in the inflammation process by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby accelerating the wound healing process and reducing tissue injury. PMID:26042509

  5. Inhibition of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia aruguta) ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene during cold storage and anticancer properties of the fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sooyeon; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jeongyun; Lee, Han Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hardy kiwifruits (Actinidia arguta) were treated with 20 μl/l 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 16 h at 10 °C and subsequently stored at 1 ± 0.5 °C. Anticancer properties of the fruit extracts were tested against five different human cancer cells. The hardy kiwifruits, without 1-MCP treatment, showed increases in both respiration and ethylene production rates during fruit storage. The 1-MCP treatment remarkably inhibited fruit ripening by reducing respiration and ethylene production. Fruits with the 1-MCP treatment could be stored for up to 5 weeks by maintaining higher fruit firmness, ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents compared to the control. The hardy kiwifruit extracts showed anti-proliferative effects to Hep3B and HeLa cells but not to HT29, HepG2 and LoVo cells. These results suggest that the application of 1-MCP at harvest effectively delayed the ripening process of the fruits, and the fruit extract had beneficial effects for the prevention of human cancer growth. PMID:26212954

  6. Inhibition of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia aruguta) ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene during cold storage and anticancer properties of the fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sooyeon; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jeongyun; Lee, Han Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hardy kiwifruits (Actinidia arguta) were treated with 20 μl/l 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 16 h at 10 °C and subsequently stored at 1 ± 0.5 °C. Anticancer properties of the fruit extracts were tested against five different human cancer cells. The hardy kiwifruits, without 1-MCP treatment, showed increases in both respiration and ethylene production rates during fruit storage. The 1-MCP treatment remarkably inhibited fruit ripening by reducing respiration and ethylene production. Fruits with the 1-MCP treatment could be stored for up to 5 weeks by maintaining higher fruit firmness, ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents compared to the control. The hardy kiwifruit extracts showed anti-proliferative effects to Hep3B and HeLa cells but not to HT29, HepG2 and LoVo cells. These results suggest that the application of 1-MCP at harvest effectively delayed the ripening process of the fruits, and the fruit extract had beneficial effects for the prevention of human cancer growth.

  7. Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

  8. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon.

  9. Activation of cell-mediated immunity by Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masudaa, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, is a traditional natural medicine in French Polynesia and Hawaii. Functional foods derived from M. citrifolia fruit have been marketed to help prevent diseases and promote good health. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of M. citrifolia fruit on cell-mediated immunity. In the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis test, M. citrifolia fruit extract (Noni-ext) inhibited the suppression of cell-mediated immunity by immunosuppressive substances isolated from freeze-dried ascites of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice (EC-sup). In addition, Noni-ext inhibited reduction of IL-2 production in EC-sup-treated mice and activated natural killer cells in normal mice. These results suggest that Noni-ext has multiple effects on the recovery of cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, we investigated the active principles of Noni-ext and identified an iridoid glycoside, deacetylasperulosidic acid. Oral administration of deacetylasperulosidic acid inhibited the reduction of ear swelling, and also cancelled the suppression of IL-2 production along with the activation of natural killer cells in the same manner as that of Noni-ext.

  10. Antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Phoenix sylvestris fruit pulp

    PubMed Central

    Shajib, Md. Shafiullah; Akter, Saleha; Ahmed, Tajnin; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. (Arecaceae) are used to treat back pain, toothache, headache, arthritis, nervous debility and as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp (MEPS). The antinociceptive activity of MEPS was evaluated by heat-induced (hot plate, tail immersion test) and chemical-induced pain models (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, glutamate-induced nociception and paw edema test). The effect of MEPS on central nervous system (CNS) was studied using hole cross test, open field test, sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time and elevated plus maze test. MEPS showed strong, significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all heat-induced and chemical-induced pain models at all experimental doses. Involvement of opioid receptor mediated analgesia was evident from the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone. MEPS also showed reduced locomotor activity in both hole cross and open field tests. The increase in sleeping time in sodium thiopental-induced sleeping test and anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze test were also significant. So, it is evident that MEPS possesses strong central and peripheral antinociceptive activity as well as CNS depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity. The results justify the ethnomedicinal use of P. sylvestris fruit in different painful conditions and CNS disorders. PMID:26483687

  11. Pear fruit extract-assisted room-temperature biosynthesis of gold nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Ghodake, G S; Deshpande, N G; Lee, Y P; Jin, E S

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a single-step room-temperature biosynthetic route for producing gold nanostructures using pear fruit is reported. The alkaline conditions of the pear fruit extract induced gold nanoparticles with plate-like morphologies. Successfully biosynthesized triangular and hexagonal nanoplates were observed, elegantly assembled with hexagonal gold nanoparticles. Nanostructure size, crystal nature, purity and morphologies were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The edge lengths of the nanostructures ranged from 200 to 500 nm. Using AFM analysis, the nanohexagons were observed to have a thickness ranging from 12 to 20 nm. The XRD patterns showed a (1 1 1) preferential orientation of the nanostructures. The XPS and EDAX analysis also confirmed the presence of pure-phase Au without any substantial impurities. The preparation of nanostructured gold particles using pear fruit provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.

  12. Antispasmodic effect of Piper nigrum fruit hot water extract on rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Yahyavi, Hoda

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of black pepper fruit hot water extract (BPE) on rat ileum contractility and the mechanism(s) of its action. The extract was prepared by adding black pepper powder to boiling distilled water followed by evaporated the solvent. Ileum was dissected from male adult rat (Wistar) and in Tyrode solution the tissue contractions were recorded by an isotonic transducer under 1 g tension. The cumulative concentrations of the BPE (0.0625-1 mg mL(-1)) reduced the ileum contractions induced by KCl (60 mM) or carbachol (10 microM) concentration dependently (p<0.001). In Ca2+-free Tyrode solution with high potassium (60 mM), BPE, (0.0625-1 mg mL(-1)) attenuated the contractions induced by cumulative concentrations of CaCl2 (0.225-2.7 mM) concentration dependently (ANOVA, p<0.05). The incubation of the tissue preparation (20 or 30 min) with L-NAME (100 microM), naloxone (1 microM) or propranolol (1 microM) did not reduce the extract antispasmodic effect on KCl-induced ileum contraction. The extract spasmolytic effect was attenuated neither by glibenclamide (10 microM) nor by tetraethylammonium (1 mM). Present results suggest that the spasmolytic effect of the extract on rat ileum was possibly mediated via Ca2+ influx.

  13. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit, leaves and root extracts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F), leaves (Mc.Cr.L) and roots (Mc.Cr.R). Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339) and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia. PMID:20727145

  14. Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

  15. Silymarin BIO-C, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, induces hyperprolactinemia in intact female rats.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Savino, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A; Lembo, Francesca; Borrelli, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged to have important health benefits for infants and mothers. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum fruits) has been recently proposed to be used by nursing mothers for stimulating milk production; however, the mode of action of this herbal drug is still unknown. In this paper, we have evaluated the effect of a micronized standardized extract of S. marianum (Silymarin BIO-C=Piùlatte) on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C (25-200mg/kg, given orally) increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels. Moreover, after a 66-day discontinuation of Silymarin BIO-C treatment, prolactin levels were still significantly elevated although we observed a trend to decrease that was counteracted by a further 7-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, (1-10mg/kg, os) significantly and in a dose dependent manner, reduced the serum prolactin levels; bromocriptine, at the dose of 1mg/kg, significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silymarin BIO-C. In conclusion, we have shown that an extract from S. marianum fruits significantly increases circulating prolactin levels in female rats; this effect seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D(2) receptors.

  16. Effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on vascular complication in type 1 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the animals were equally divided into five groups (n = 8); Control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC) and diabetic group treated with metformin 150 g/kg (DM-Met). Oral administration of the MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg) was continued for 28 days. DM-MC group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the DM-Ctrl group. Aortic tissue NO level was significantly increased and malondialdehyde level was decreased in the DM-MC group. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in eNOS expression in the endothelial lining of the DM-MC group. Similarly, morphological deterioration of the aortic tissues was reverted to normal. In summary, treatment with the MC fruit extract exerted the significant vasculoprotective effect in the type 1 diabetic rat model. PMID:26417358

  17. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Bromeliaceae) fruit extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the family Bromeliaceae are characterized by the production of proteases in unusual amounts, especially in fruits. Bromelain, an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus L., and a few other proteases have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, but bromelain is still mainly being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to the treatment with glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract from Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms fruits (PPE(Pm)) is presented, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases. The effect of PPE(Pm) was assessed in carrageenan-induced and serotonin-induced rat paw edema, as well as in the cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of PPE(Pm) and bromelain produced significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses in the acute inflammatory models assayed, supporting the hypothesis that proteolytic activity could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. On the contrary, comparable anti-inflammatory effects of PPE(Pm) and bromelain in the chronic inflammatory assay required a much lower proteolytic activity content of PPE(Pm), which could be due to a differential affinity for the protein target involved in this process. PMID:24601082

  18. Analysis of carbendazim, benomyl, thiophanate methyl and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in fruits and vegetables after supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Anastassiades, M; Schwack, W

    1998-10-30

    Simple methods for the analysis of carbendazim, benomyl and thiophanate methyl in fruits and vegetables and of 2,4-D in citrus fruits are presented. Sample preparation involves supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide and further analysis is performed without any additional clean-up by GC-MS after derivatisation or directly by HPLC-diode array detection. The SFE methods presented are clearly faster and more cost effective than traditional solvent based approaches. The recoveries, detection limits and repeatabilities achieved, meet the needs of tolerance level monitoring of these compounds in fruits and vegetables. PMID:9830710

  19. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan. PMID:27561506

  20. Anticonvulsant Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis Fruit: Involvement of Benzodiazepine and Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shojaii, Asie; Pur, Sogol Attari; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the anticonvulsant activity of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract used traditionally in the treatment of convulsion. Albino mice were pretreated with extract in different doses (10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), prior to injection of pentylenetetrazole. Animals received pretreatments with naloxone and flumazenil to further clarify the mechanisms of anticonvulsant action. The total flavonoid content of Citrullus colocynthis extract was also determined. Citrullus colocynthis hydroalcoholic extract with doses 25 and 50 mg/kg prolonged the onset of seizures and decreased the duration compared with control group. Pretreatment by flumazenil could inhibit the effect of Citrullus colocynthis on latency of seizure to some extent and administration of naloxone significantly inhibited changes in latency and duration of seizure produced by Citrullus colocynthis This study showed that Citrullus colocynthis has significant anticonvulsant effect in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice, and these effects may be related to its effect on γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic and opioid systems. These results confirmed the traditional use of Citrullus colocynthis in Iranian traditional medicine.

  1. Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2014-12-15

    Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818 μg/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2,070 μg/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1,603 μg/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10 μg/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9 μg/g extracts) and all-trans-β-carotene (4-6 μg/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry.

  2. Protective Effect of Cornus mas Fruits Extract on Serum Biomarkers in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Banihabib, Nafiseh; Es. Haghi, Masoud; Panahi, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays attention to use herbs such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is increasing, which contains high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. Cornus mas fruits have been used for gastrointestinal and excretory disorders for many years in traditional medicine, also may improve liver and kidney functions, and have protective effects such as anti-allergic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihistamine and antimalarial properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of Cornus mas fruits extract on serum biomarkers in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (1 mL/kg i.p.) in 1:1 dilution with olive oil. To evaluate the effect of Cornus mas fruits extract on disease progression, serum marker enzymes, serum total protein and albumin and liver lipid peroxidation were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Results: Oral administration of Cornus mas fruits extract to rats for 14 days provided a significant (P < 0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing elevated serum level of enzymes, total serum protein, albumin and liver lipid peroxidation content. Conclusions: Cornus mas fruit extract effect may be due to including some antioxidant components, which caused membrane stabilizing and normalization of fluctuated biochemical profiles induced by CCl4 exposure. Our results validated the traditional use of Cornus mas in the treatment of liver disorders. PMID:24829584

  3. Ameliorating effects of Tamarindus indica fruit extract on anti-tubercular drugs induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohd; Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Ahmad, Sayeed; Akhtar, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica fruit against combination of two antitubercular drugs viz. Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of T. indica by DPPH-HPLC method was found to be 81.48%. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. indica significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, TBARS and increased the albumin level as well antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT and GSH in intoxicated rats. The biochemical changes were supported by histological observations. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. indica fruit protects against anti tuberculosis induced oxidative liver damage in rats and thus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. Further, it could be suggested that supplementation with this food extract might prove beneficial in the individuals on anti-TB drugs.

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control.

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. PMID:26212939

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds. PMID:25649443

  8. Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Butera, Daniela; Tesoriere, Luisa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Bongiorno, Antonino; Allegra, Mario; Pintaudi, Anna Maria; Kohen, Rohn; Livrea, Maria A

    2002-11-01

    Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) produce yellow, red, and white fruits, due to the combination of two betalain pigments, the purple-red betanin and the yellow-orange indicaxanthin. The betalain distribution in the three cultivars and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from edible pulp were investigated. In addition, the reducing capacity of purified betanin and indicaxanthin was measured. According to a spectrophotometric analysis, the yellow cultivar exhibited the highest amount of betalains, followed by the red and white ones. Indicaxanthin accounted for about 99% of betalains in the white fruit, while the ratio of betanin to indicaxanthin varied from 1:8 (w:w) in the yellow fruit to 2:1 (w:w) in the red one. Polyphenol pigments were negligible components only in the red fruit. When measured as 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) equivalents per gram of pulp, the methanolic fruit extracts showed a marked antioxidant activity. Vitamin C did not account for more than 40% of the measured activity. In addition, the extracts dose-dependently inhibited the organic hydroperoxide-stimulated red cell membrane lipid oxidation, as well as the metal-dependent and -independent low-density lipoprotein oxidation. The extract from the white fruit showed the highest protection in all models of lipid oxidation. Purified betanin and indicaxanthin were more effective than Trolox at scavenging the [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt cation radical. Cyclic voltammetric measurements show two anodic waves for betanin and indicaxanthin, and differential pulse voltammetry shows three anodic waves for betanin, with calculated peak potentials of 404, 616, and 998 mV, and two anodic waves for indicaxanthin, with peak potentials of 611 and 895 mV. Betanin underwent complex formation through chelation with Cu(2+), whereas indicaxanthin was not modified. These findings suggest that the above

  9. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoid Extracted from Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Sivakumar Thasma; Ganeshan, Ajay Krishna Palani Gounder; Chen, Cheng; Jin, Chao; Li, Shao-Hui; Chen, Hui-Juan; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many plants possess antioxidants that exhibit additive or synergistic activities. Objective: In this study, an ethanol-extracted flavonoid extracted from mulberry fruit (FEM) was evaluated for the antioxidant activity in vitro and the hemolysis in red blood cell (RBC) and lipid peroxidation in liver in vivo. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activities in vitro were measured by quantifying its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power, and Fe2+-chelating ability. FEM inhibits hemolysis in RBCs and effects of lipid peroxidation in the liver were estimated. Results: The total content of flavonoid compounds was 187.23 mg of quercetin equivalents per grams dried material. In the in vitro assays, FEM demonstrated a strong antioxidant effect, especially in DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. Mouse RBC hemolysis induced by H2O2 was significantly inhibited by FEM in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effects of FEM on lipid peroxidation in liver, mitochondria, and microsome were investigated. The percentage of inhibition at high concentration (100 μg/mL) of FEM was 45.51%, 39.36%, and 42.78% for liver, mitochondria, and microsomes, respectively. These results suggest that the FEM possesses a strong antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. SUMMARY The total content of flavonoid compounds in mulberry fruit was 187.23 mg/g dried materialFEM showed a strong antioxidant effect, especially in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and reducing powerMouse red blood cell hemolysis induced by H2O2 was significantly inhibited by FEM in a dose- and time-dependent mannerThe inhibition percentage at high concentration of FEM was 45.51%, 39.36%, and 42.78% for mouse’s liver, mitochondrial, and microsomes, respectively. Abbreviations used: FEM: Flavonoid Extracted from Mulberry fruit, H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide, DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, EDTA: Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, MDA: malondialdehyde, TBA

  10. One pot phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Genipa americana fruit extract and its biological applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Camacho, Javier; Hernández-Gallegos, Elisabeth; de Guadalupe Chávez-López, María; Grijalva, Marcelo; Andrade, Kleber

    2016-05-01

    In this article, rapid one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using an eco-friendly extract of Genipa americana L. fruit is described. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies demonstrated that small molecules such as genipin, genipaol, geniposide and ranolazine can act as reducer as well as stabilizers. The monodispersed, spherical GNPs were further characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy at λmax=535 nm, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. This synthetic approach offers a greener and alternate route to the preparation of GNPs free from toxic chemical components and stable for 6-7 months under room temperature. The green synthesized GNPs showed weak antioxidant efficacy against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and no cytotoxicity against A-549 and HeLa human cancer cell lines, from lung and cervix. This study opens a new industrial scope of G. americana fruit in nanoscience and as surface modified GNPs can be developed into a successful drug carrier for future pharmaceutical products.

  11. One pot phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Genipa americana fruit extract and its biological applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Camacho, Javier; Hernández-Gallegos, Elisabeth; de Guadalupe Chávez-López, María; Grijalva, Marcelo; Andrade, Kleber

    2016-05-01

    In this article, rapid one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using an eco-friendly extract of Genipa americana L. fruit is described. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies demonstrated that small molecules such as genipin, genipaol, geniposide and ranolazine can act as reducer as well as stabilizers. The monodispersed, spherical GNPs were further characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy at λmax=535 nm, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. This synthetic approach offers a greener and alternate route to the preparation of GNPs free from toxic chemical components and stable for 6-7 months under room temperature. The green synthesized GNPs showed weak antioxidant efficacy against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and no cytotoxicity against A-549 and HeLa human cancer cell lines, from lung and cervix. This study opens a new industrial scope of G. americana fruit in nanoscience and as surface modified GNPs can be developed into a successful drug carrier for future pharmaceutical products. PMID:26952478

  12. The dissipation kinetics of malathion in aqueous extracts of different fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Shahrzad; Talebi, Khalil; Torabi, Ehssan; Naveh, Vahid Hoseini

    2015-11-01

    The dissipation of malathion in 5% aqueous extracts of some fruits and vegetables including bell pepper, tomato, cucumber, cantaloupe, carrot, and also buffer (control) was investigated at 37 °C for 4 h. The dissipation trend of malathion in the fruit/vegetable samples and buffer followed first-order double-exponential decay (FODED) and simple first-order kinetic (SFOK) models, respectively. The initial dissipation rate of malathion in tomato (DT10=0.05 h), bell pepper (DT10=0.06 h), and carrot (DT10=0.07 h) was faster compared to the other samples. The slowest rate of pesticide decline belonged to cantaloupe (DT50=1.92 h) with a significant difference from the other samples (p≤0.01), whereas tomato (DT50=0.43 h) and carrot (DT50=0.53 h) showed the fastest dissipation rate. DT90 values derived from the models revealed no significant difference between the samples except for cantaloupe which had the slowest rate of dissipation (DT90=8.27 h) with a significant difference compared to others (p≤0.01). A direct correlation was observed between protein content of the samples and the rate of malathion decline which indicates the role of plant enzymes in degrading malathion residues. PMID:26483084

  13. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S

    2010-09-01

    Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Bari ilaichi" is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:21695005

  14. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  15. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-12

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S

    2010-09-01

    Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Bari ilaichi" is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  17. Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes.

  18. Antibacterial effects of biosynthesized MgO nanoparticles using ethanolic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Kalimuthan; Sundrarajan, Mahalingam

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium oxides nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Mg(NO3)(2)·6H2O through a simple greener route using fruit extract (Emblica officinalis). The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The XRD pattern shows the face centered cubic structure with 27 nm of crystalline size of MgO nanoparticles was confirmed by the Debye-Scherrer's Formula. The spherical in shape of MgO nanoparticles is confirmed by SEM analysis. MgO nanoparticles treated cotton fabric produced stronger antibacterial activity. These types of treated fabrics are used in medical application.

  19. Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Teng, Meiyu; Cai, Guangsheng; Xu, Hongkai; Guo, Hanxiao; Liu, Yang; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM) on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue. PMID:26351509

  20. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively

  1. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  2. D-chiro-inositol found in Cucurbita ficifolia (Cucurbitaceae) fruit extracts plays the hypoglycaemic role in streptozocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tao; Wang, Qin

    2006-11-01

    Cucurbita ficifolia is commonly used as an antihyperglycaemic agent in Asia. However, the mechanism of its action is unknown. Chemically synthesized D-chiro-inositol (D-CI), a component of an insulin mediator, has been demonstrated to have antihyperglycaemic effects in rats. In this study, we found that C. ficifolia contained fairly high levels of D-CI, thus, C. ficifolia may be a natural source of D-CI for reducing blood glucose concentrations in diabetics. We evaluated C. ficifolia fruit extract, containing D-CI, for its antihyperglycaemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of C. ficifolia fruit extract containing 10 or 20 mg D-CI kg(-1) body weight for 30 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose, and increased levels of hepatic glycogen, total haemoglobin and plasma insulin. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in fasted diabetic and normal rats, in which there was a significant improvement in blood glucose tolerance in the diabetic rats treated with C. ficifolia fruit extract. The effects were compared with 20 mg kg(-1) body weight chemically synthesized D-CI. Findings from this study demonstrated that C. ficifolia fruit extract was an effective source of D-CI for its hypoglycaemic effects in rats, and therefore may be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Yeast Extract: Sucrose Ratio Effects on Egg Load, Survival, and Mortality Caused by GF-120 in Western Cherry Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrinsic sources of nitrogen are needed by tephritid fruit flies for optimal nutrition. In this study, relationships between yeast extract diets containing 0, 0.109, 0.545, 1.09, 2.18, 3.27, and 5.45% nitrogen (N) and diet intake, survival, egg production, and responses to spinosad bait in western...

  4. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs.

  5. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  6. Antiurolithiatic Effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit Extract on Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, PK; Patel, MA; Saralai, MG; Gandhi, TR

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract in ethylene-glycol-induced urolithiasis in the male Wistar rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water for 28 days. Animals were divided into six groups, each containing six viz. Vehicle control, model control, S. xanthocarpum methanol extract in different doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o., Cystone (750 mg/kg, p.o.) served as a standard. Hyperoxaluria as well as an increase in the excretion of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and decrease in citrate and magnesium in urine, impairment of renal function and oxidative imbalance in kidney were observed in the calculi-induced group. Treatment with S. xanthocarpum decreases hyperoxaluria, calcium, and uric acid, improves renal function, and also produces antioxidant effects. Crystalluria was characterized by excretion calcium oxalate (CaOX) crystals, which were enormous in the lithogenic group but smaller in the drug-treated group. The histology showed that the calculi-induced group had a large deposition of CaOX crystals in kidney while the treated group had trivial and fewer deposits. The result indicates the antiurolithiatic activity of S. xanthocarpum mediated possibly by CaOX crystal inhibition, diuretic, antioxidant and maintaining balance between stone promoter and inhibitor constituents, and this study rationalized its medicinal use in urolithiasis. PMID:23112535

  7. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of Sudanese date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Rania M A; Fageer, Aisha S M; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral extractability, and antioxidant capacity of six date palm varieties grown in Sudan. The results showed that Sudanese date varieties contained significantly different (P < 0.05) amounts of moisture, ash, fiber, oil, and carbohydrates, but have almost similar amounts of protein. Moreover, results revealed that date varieties contained significantly varied (P < 0.05) amounts of total polyphenols and total flavonoids, which ranged between 35.82 and 99.34 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and 1.74–3.39 mg catechin equivalent/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the studied date varieties were as follows: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was within the range of 2.82–27.5 mmol/100 g, chelation of Fe2+ ion ranged from 54.31% to 94.98%, and scavenging of H2O2 ranged from 38.48% to 49.13%. There were many correlations (positive, negative, and weak) between antioxidant and mineral extractability of Sudanese date fruits. PMID:25473506

  8. BERBERIS VULGARIS FRUIT CRUDE EXTRACT AS A NOVEL ANTI-LEUKAEMIC AGENT.

    PubMed

    Saedi, T A; Ghafourian, S; Jafarlou, M; Sabariah, M N; Ismail, P; Eusni, R M T; Othman, F

    2015-01-01

    Tumor protein p53 encoded by the TP53 gene in humans is known as a cancer biomarker in patients diagnosed with cancer, and it plays an essential role in apoptosis, genomic stability, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Cancer therapies with common chemotherapy methods are effective, as known, but have some side effects. Berberis vulgaris is traditionally administrated as a cancer drug. The current research aims to evaluate p53 as a biomarker in WEHI-3 cell line and to demonstrate the Berberis vulgaris fruit crude extract (BVFCE) as a new anticancer drug. For this purpose, we evaluated the effect of BVFCE in different concentrations against WEHI-3cell line in vitro and determined the quantitative level of p53 gene in the treated WEHI-3 cells. The results demonstrated that even at only 1 mg/ml concentration of Berberis vulgaris crude extract, there was a low level of p53 biomarker expression on WEHI-3 cells in comparison with doxorubicin. Therefore, the current study suggests BVFCE as a reliable anti-leukaemic drug and candidate for anticancer therapy. However, further investigation need be carried out to confirm its efficiency in vivo.

  9. Antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Avello, Marcia

    2014-08-01

    Ugni molinae is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used as a medicinal plant in Southern Chile-Argentina. Total phenol concentration from its fruit extract was 10.64 ± 0.04 mM gallic acid equivalents. Analysis by means of HPLC/MS indicated the presence of the anthocyanins cyanidin and peonidin, and the flavonol quercitin, all in glycosylated forms. Its antioxidant properties were assessed in human erythrocytes in vitro exposed to HClO oxidative stress. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HClO induced an alteration in erythrocytes from a normal shape to echinocytes; however, this change was highly attenuated in samples containing U. molinae extracts. It also had a tendency in order to reduce the hemolytic effect of HClO. In addition, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers, classes of lipids preferentially located in the outer and inner monolayers, respectively, of the human erythrocyte membrane. It was observed that U. molinae only interacted with DMPC. Results by fluorescence spectroscopy on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles and isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes also showed that it interacted with the erythrocyte membrane and DMPC. It is possible that the location of U. molinae components into the membrane outer monolayer might hinder the diffusion of HClO and of free radicals into cell membranes and the consequent decrease of the kinetics of free radical reactions. PMID:24928227

  10. Anticancer activity of litchi fruit pericarp extract against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiujie . E-mail: xiujiewang@yahoo.com; Yuan Shulan; Wang Jing; Lin Ping; Liu Guanjian; Lu Yanrong; Zhang Jie; Wang, Wendong; Wei Yuquan . E-mail: yuquanwei@mail.sc.cninfo.net

    2006-09-01

    Litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract contains significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds and exhibits powerful antioxidative activity against fat oxidation in vitro. The purpose of this study is to confirm the anticancer activity of LFP extract on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, and to elucidate the mechanism of its activity. Human breast cancer cells were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, colony formation inhibition, BrdU incorporation, and gene expression profiling after treatment with LFP extract. Seven nude mice bearing human breast infiltrating duct carcinoma orthotopically were tested for its anticancer activity and expression of caspase-3 in vivo by oral administration of 0.3% (0.3 mg/ml) of LFP water-soluble crude ethanolic extract (CEE) for 10 weeks. LFP extract demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth (IC{sub 5} = 80 {mu}g/ml), and it significantly inhibited colony formation and BrdU incorporation of human breast cancer cells. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis identified 41(1.22%) up-regulated and 129 (3.84%) down-regulated genes after LFP water-soluble CEE treatment; the predominantly up-regulated genes were involved in various biological functions including cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, and extracellular matrix/adhesion molecules; and down-regulated genes were mainly associated with adhesion, invasion, and malignancy of cancer cells. A 40.70% tumor mass volume reduction and significant increase of casepase-3 protein expression were observed in vivo experiment. The findings in this study suggested that LFP extract might have potential anticancer activity on both ER positive and negative breast cancers, which could be attributed, in part, to its DNA damage effect, proliferating inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cells through up-regulation and down-regulation of multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell

  11. Microwave-assisted extraction followed by RP-HPLC for the simultaneous extraction and determination of forsythiaside A, rutin, and phillyrin in the fruits of Forsythia suspensa.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Yingzi; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xin

    2013-08-01

    An optimized microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method and RP-HPLC method were developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of rutin, forsythiaside A, and phillyrin in the fruits of Forsythia suspensa. The key parameters of the open-vessel MAE process were optimized. A mixed solvent of methanol and water (70:30, v/v) was most suitable for the simultaneous extraction of the three components. The sample was soaked for 10 min before extraction. The optimized conditions were: microwave power 400 W, temperature 70°C, solvent-to-material ratio 30 mL/g, and extraction time 1 min. Compared to conventional extraction methods, the proposed method can simultaneously extract the three components in high yields and was proved to be a more rapid method with a lower solvent consumption. The optimized HPLC-photodiode array detection analysis was validated to have good linearity, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. The developed MAE followed by RP-HPLC is a fast and appropriate method for the simultaneous extraction and determination of rutin, forsythiaside A, and phillyrin in the fruits of F. suspensa.

  12. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shahamat, Zahra; Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mohammadi Motamed, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum) has different pharmacological properties such as anticonvulsant, analgesic, tranquilizer, antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects. In this study the antidepressant-like effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum fruit in mice was investigated. Materials and Methods: Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant effects of P. anisum (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) fruit extracts. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs. Results: All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (except 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract in FST) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the immobility times in both FST and TST. All doses of extracts increased the swimming time dose-dependently, without any significant change in climbing time. In addition, all doses of ethanolic extract reduced immobility times and increased swimming time insignificantly higher than aqueous extract. But, the two extracts decreased the duration of climbing time similarly. Fluoxetine and imipramine decreased immobility time in both tests. Fluoxetine increased the swimming time without modifying climbing time. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that P. anisum possesses an antidepressant-like activity similar to that of fluoxetine, which has a potential clinical value for application in the management of depression. PMID:27462555

  13. In Vivo Assessment of Genotoxic, Antigenotoxic and Anticarcinogenic Activities of Solanum lycocarpum Fruits Glycoalkaloidic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Munari, Carla Carolina; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Leandro, Luis Fernando; Pimenta, Leandra Mara; Ferreira, Natália Helen; de Carvalho da Costa, Juliana; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of Solanum lycocarpum, known as wolf-fruit, are used in folk medicine, and because of that we have evaluated both the genotoxic potential of its glycoalkaloidic extract (SL) and its influence on the genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate. Furthermore, the potential blocking effect of SL intake in the initial stage of colon carcinogenesis in Wistar rats was investigated in a short-term (4-week) bioassay using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as biomarker. The genotoxic potential was evaluated using the Swiss mice peripheral blood micronucleus test. The animals were treated with different doses of SL (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days, and the peripheral blood samples were collected at 48 h, 7 days and 14 days after starting the treatment. For antigenotoxicity assessment, MMS was administered on the 14th day, and after 24 h the harvesting of bone marrow and liver cells was performed, for the micronucleus and comet assays, respectively. In the ACF assay, male Wistar rats were given four subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg b.w.), twice a week, during two weeks to induce ACF. The treatment with SL (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg b.w.) was given for four weeks during and after carcinogen treatment to investigate the potential beneficial effects of SL on DMH-induced ACF. The results demonstrated that SL was not genotoxic in the mouse micronucleus test. In animals treated with SL and MMS, the frequencies of micronucleus and extensions of DNA damage were significantly reduced in comparison with the animals receiving only MMS. Regarding the ACF assay, SL significantly reduced the frequency of ACF induced by DMH. PMID:25405606

  14. Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt), fruits (WSFEt) and leaves (WSLEt). Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition), whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi. PMID:23039061

  15. Antiadhesion and anti-inflammation effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extracts on AGS cells during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Ko, Chien-Hui; Yan, Yeong-Yu; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2014-03-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen that adheres to host cells and injects cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is found to possess antibacteria, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation activities, but its effect on H. pylori infection is still unknown. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of noni fruit were used in this study. The inhibitory effect on CagA and H. pylori-induced IL-8, iNOS, and COX-2 were determined. The coculture medium was collected for measuring neutrophil chemotaxis. Both extracts of noni fruit showed weak inhibition on H. pylori. Both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts provided antiadhesion of H. pylori to AGS cells and down-regulation on the CagA, IL-8, COX-2, and iNOS expressions. Results also indicated both extracts relieved neutrophil chemotaxis. Noni fruit extracts down-regulated inflammatory responses during H. pylori infection, and the phenolic compounds play key role in antiadhesion.

  16. Blue honeysuckle fruit (Lonicera caerulea L.) from eastern Russia: phenolic composition, nutritional value and biological activities of its polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Innocenti, Marzia; Bellumori, Maria; Fiorini, Dennis; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Buccioni, Michela; Santinelli, Claudia; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Lupidi, Giulio; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Beghelli, Daniela; Cavallucci, Clarita; Bistoni, Onelia; Trivisonno, Angelo; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we conducted a comprehensive chemical analysis of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea) spontaneously growing in eastern Russia. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis showed cyanidin-3-glucoside as the major constituent among phenolics, while nutritional analysis revealed fibre, protein, calcium and magnesium as the most important macro- and micronutrients, respectively. Fatty acid composition was dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid being the most abundant. Furthermore, we evaluated several in vitro biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, wound healing and immunomodulatory effects of blue honeysuckle aqueous and ethanolic extracts that are often incorporated in food and nutraceutical preparations. While the fruit extracts were revealed to be potent radical scavengers with significant inhibition of ABTS radical, thus confirming the literature data, their inhibitory effects against microbial pathogens and tumor cell lines were negligible. The fruit aqueous extract did not show toxicity to human fibroblasts, but 24 h treatment with 150-200 μg per mL of extract slightly enhanced the cell migration when tested by scratched wound assay. Worth mentioning was the inhibitory effect displayed by the blue honeysuckle fruit aqueous extract on human lymphocytes.

  17. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure.

  18. Evaluation of the use of Syzygium cumini fruit extract as an antioxidant additive in orange juice and its sensorial impact.

    PubMed

    Tobal, Thaise Mariá; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Bolini, Helena Maria André; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2012-05-01

    This work is an exploratory study of the possibility of promoting the consumption of Syzygium cumini fruit by adding its extract to orange juice making good use of its functional (antioxidant) properties. S. cumini fruit extract was characterized in terms of its anthocyanin content (2.11 g/100 g expressed in cyanidine-3-glucoside equivalents), total phenolic compounds (360 mg/100 g expressed in gallic acid equivalents) and antioxidant capacity evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method. The effects of the addition of S. cumini fruit crude extract as well as its chromatographic fractions on the juice were assessed chemically by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Only six compounds had their chromatographic peak intensities clearly changed and the results are discussed in terms of the inhibition of the formation of 2-octanone, hexanol, α-copaene, and α-panasinsene and the conservation of octyl acetate and p-menth-1-en-9-ol. Sensory evaluation of orange juice with and without S. cumini crude extract addition did not show any significant differences in the sensorial profile, discriminative and acceptance tests. PMID:21981004

  19. Blue honeysuckle fruit (Lonicera caerulea L.) from eastern Russia: phenolic composition, nutritional value and biological activities of its polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Innocenti, Marzia; Bellumori, Maria; Fiorini, Dennis; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Buccioni, Michela; Santinelli, Claudia; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Lupidi, Giulio; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Beghelli, Daniela; Cavallucci, Clarita; Bistoni, Onelia; Trivisonno, Angelo; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we conducted a comprehensive chemical analysis of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea) spontaneously growing in eastern Russia. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis showed cyanidin-3-glucoside as the major constituent among phenolics, while nutritional analysis revealed fibre, protein, calcium and magnesium as the most important macro- and micronutrients, respectively. Fatty acid composition was dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid being the most abundant. Furthermore, we evaluated several in vitro biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, wound healing and immunomodulatory effects of blue honeysuckle aqueous and ethanolic extracts that are often incorporated in food and nutraceutical preparations. While the fruit extracts were revealed to be potent radical scavengers with significant inhibition of ABTS radical, thus confirming the literature data, their inhibitory effects against microbial pathogens and tumor cell lines were negligible. The fruit aqueous extract did not show toxicity to human fibroblasts, but 24 h treatment with 150-200 μg per mL of extract slightly enhanced the cell migration when tested by scratched wound assay. Worth mentioning was the inhibitory effect displayed by the blue honeysuckle fruit aqueous extract on human lymphocytes. PMID:27040352

  20. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  1. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities.

  2. Molluscicidal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertner) G.Don ex Loudon Fruits, Bark and Leaves against Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails

    PubMed Central

    A Gohar, Ahmed; T Maatooq, Galal; R Gadara, Sahar; S Aboelmaaty, Walaa; M El-Shazly, Atef

    2014-01-01

    Methanol extracts of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. Ex Gaertner) G.Don Ex Loudon fruits, bark and leaves were tested for molluscicidal activity. Snails were collected and kept in dechlorinated water under standard condition. Ten adults Biomphalaria Alexandrina, of the same size, were introduced in plastic acquaria for each experiment. The fruits, barks and leaves were extracted with methanol and the methanol extracts were kept for testing as molluscicides. Different extracts proved to have molluscicidal activity against the vector of schistosomiasis, B. alexandrina snails. LC50 values for C. viminalis fruits, bark and leaves were 6.2, 32 and 40 ppm respectively. The C. viminalis fruits extract showed the highest effect against the tested snails. Histopathological studies proved that the site of action of all tested extracts was localized in the digestive system and hermaphrodite gland. PMID:25237345

  3. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Md. Rakib; Hossain, Md. Monir; Sarker, Arjyabrata; Hasan, A.H.M. Nazmul; Islam, A.F.M. Mahmudul; Chowdhury, Mohd. Motaher H.; Rana, Md. Sohel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr.fruit in α-amylase inhibitory activity (in vitro) and hypoglycemic activity in normal and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (in vivo). Methods Fruits of Citrus macroptera without rind was extracted with pure methanol following cold extraction and tested for presence of phytochemical constituents, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats. Results Presence of saponin, steroid and terpenoid were identified in the extract. The results showed that fruit extract had moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity [IC50 value=(3.638±0.190) mg/mL] as compared to acarbose. Moreover at 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg doses fruit extract significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) reduced fasting blood glucose level in normal rats as compared to glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). In oral glucose tolerance test, 500 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.05) at 2 h but 1 000 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level at 2 h and 3 h (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) whereas glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced glucose level at every hour after administration. Overall time effect is also considered extremely significant with F value=23.83 and P value=0.0001 in oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusion These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agent. PMID:25182949

  4. Evaluating the effect of four extracts of avocado fruit on esophageal squamous carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Vahedi Larijani, Laleh; Ghasemi, Maryam; AbedianKenari, Saeid; Naghshvar, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with gastrointestinal cancers refer to the health centers at advanced stages of the disease and conventional treatments are not significantly effective for these patients. Therefore, using modern therapeutic approaches with lower toxicity bring higher chance for successful treatment and reduced adverse effects in such patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of avocado fruit extracts on inhibition of the growth of cancer cells in comparison with normal cells. In an experimental study, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum extracts of avocado (Persea americana) fruit were prepared. Then, the effects if the extracts on the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated in comparison with the control group using the MTT test in the cell culture medium. Effects of the four extracts of avocado fruit on three cells lines of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma were tested. The results showed that avocado fruit extract is effective in inhibition of cancer cell growth in comparison with normal cells (P<0.05). Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers. PMID:24901722

  5. Evaluating the effect of four extracts of avocado fruit on esophageal squamous carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Vahedi Larijani, Laleh; Ghasemi, Maryam; AbedianKenari, Saeid; Naghshvar, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with gastrointestinal cancers refer to the health centers at advanced stages of the disease and conventional treatments are not significantly effective for these patients. Therefore, using modern therapeutic approaches with lower toxicity bring higher chance for successful treatment and reduced adverse effects in such patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of avocado fruit extracts on inhibition of the growth of cancer cells in comparison with normal cells. In an experimental study, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum extracts of avocado (Persea americana) fruit were prepared. Then, the effects if the extracts on the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated in comparison with the control group using the MTT test in the cell culture medium. Effects of the four extracts of avocado fruit on three cells lines of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma were tested. The results showed that avocado fruit extract is effective in inhibition of cancer cell growth in comparison with normal cells (P<0.05). Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers.

  6. Evaluation of In Vitro Uterotonic Activities of Fruit Extracts of Ficus asperifolia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Watcho, Pierre; Ngadjui, Esther; Alango Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin; Benoît Nguelefack, Telesphore; Kamanyi, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the uterotonic activities of Ficus asperifolia and investigate its mechanism. The effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried fruits of F. asperifolia (0.05–1.60 mg mL−1) were evaluated on estrogenized isolated rat uterus in the presence and absence of atropine (1.73–55.27 nM), pyrilamine maleate (1.25 × 10−3 to 40 × 10−3 M), indomethacin (0.06 × 10−5 to 2.00 × 10−5 M) or hexamethonium (0.66 × 10−4 to 21.43 × 10−4 M). Aqueous (EC50, 0.36 mg mL−1) and methanol (EC50, 0.22 mg mL−1) extracts as well as oxytocin (EC50, 0.02 nM), acetylcholine (EC50, 7.87 nM) and histamine (EC50, 0.76 nM) evoked concentration-dependent contractions of the uterus. Atropine, pyrilamine maleate and indomethacin concentration dependently blocked the response of the uterus to acetylcholine (IC50, 4.82 nM), histamine (IC50, 2.49 nM) and oxytocin (IC50, 0.07 nM), respectively, and to aqueous extract. Hexamethonium produced graded decreases in oxytocin-induced uterine contractions (IC50, 0.37 μM), but did not prevent the contractile effects of the aqueous extract (IC50, 9.88 μM). These results suggest that F. asperifolia-induced uterotonic effect is related to the release of prostaglandins and contraction of the myometrial cells through muscarinic, oxytocic and H1 histamine receptors. These data further give added value to the ethnic use of F. asperifolia for its abortificient and contraceptive properties. PMID:21799694

  7. [Rapid determination of six preservative residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography using dispersive solid phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Lin, Haidan; Zou, Zhifei; Qin, Yan; Xie, Shouxin; Chen, Yufang; Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Chen, Chuying

    2013-02-01

    A dispersive solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 2,4-D, thiabendazole, 2-naphthol, o-phenyl phenol, diphenyl ether and biphenyl in the fruits and vegetables. The samples were vortexed for extraction with acetonitrile containing sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate. The acetonitrile extraction was purified by acidic alumina dispersed solid phase extraction. The analysis was performed on an Agilent TC C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and an ultraviolet detector at 235 nm with a mobile phase of methanol-0.02 mol/L (pH 6) potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with gradient elution. Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.5-20 mg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The average recoveries of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables were in the range of 84.2% -99. 1% at three spiked levels of 1, 2 and 10 mg/kg (n = 6) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.67%-10.3%. The limits of quantification were 1 mg/kg. This method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables.

  8. In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23894592

  9. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied.

  10. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied. PMID:26158321

  11. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Objective: Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results: Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. Conclusion: The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. SUMMARY Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I PMID

  12. Aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Singh, S K

    2016-09-01

    Antifertility efficacy of oral administration of aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi (200, 400 and 600 mg kg(-1) body weight/day for 35 days) was evaluated in Parkes strain male mice. Various reproductive end points such as histopathology, sperm parameters, testosterone level, haematology, serum biochemistry and fertility indices were assessed; activities of 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and immunoblot expressions of StAR and P450scc in the testis were also assessed. Histologically, testes in Mimusops-treated mice showed nonuniform and diverse degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules; both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same sections of testis. The treatment had adverse effects on testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and StAR and P450scc, serum level of testosterone and on motility, viability and number of spermatozoa in cauda epididymis. However, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine, and haematological parameters were not affected by the treatment. Also, libido was not affected in treated males, but their fertility was markedly suppressed. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, the alterations caused in the above parameters recovered to control levels, suggesting that Mimusops treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Further, there were no detectable signs of toxicity in treated males. PMID:27489141

  13. Healing effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa fruit extract on experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Gautam, M K; Ghatule, R R; Singh, A; Purohit, V; Gangwar, M; Kumar, Mohan; Goel, R K

    2013-02-01

    Graded doses of 50% ethanolic extract of dried fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos (AME) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for 14 days in acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats showed 200 mg/kg of AME as an optimal effective dose against AA-induced colonic damage score and weight. This dose (200 mg/kg; po) was further studied in AA-induced colitis for its effects on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes), histology, antibacterial activity and biochemical parameters like free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and myeloperoxidase (acute-inflammatory marker) activities in rat colonic tissue. AME decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic), mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight affected in AA-induced colitis. AME showed significant antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities thereby decreasing tissue damage and inflammation and thus, affording ulcer healing. The above effects of A. marmelos authenticated its use in indigenous system of Medicine. PMID:23923609

  14. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior following 56Fe irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Jenkins, D.; Rabin, B. M.

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge HZE particles enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2 blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties This study evaluated the efficacy of these diets on irradiation-induced deficits in these parameters by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1 5 Gy of 1 GeV n high-energy 56 Fe particles Irradiation impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information a hippocampally-mediated behavior compared to controls The blueberry diet on the other hand seemed to improve reversal learning a behavior more dependent on intact striatal function These data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in behavior and signaling in rats which were ameliorated by an antioxidant diet and that the polyphenols in these fruits might be acting in different brain regions

  15. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit extract improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Yi; Huang, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Chung; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ho, Chin-Shan; Huang, Wen-Pei; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-09

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME) on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test) were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen) and release (as blood glucose), and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  16. Extraction and dissolution of cellulose from nypa fruit husk for nanofibers fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzee, Siti Norfatihah; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2013-11-01

    In this study, cellulose was extracted by alkali and acid protocols from nypa fruit husk, the agricultural waste in order to produce nanofiber. In acid protocol, the pretreated sample was hydrolyzed with 10 % and 17 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and then refluxed using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). Alkali protocol was a reverse process of acid protocol where the pretreated sample was refluxed and then hydrolyzed. The celluloses from both protocols were characterized and compared. The cellulose with high purity and crystallinity was then dissolved in NaOH/urea aqueous solution to prepare for electrospinning. In terms of yield based on mass, acid protocol is higher. However, since the celulose from the alkali protocol is pure, fibril and with low crystallinity, it was chosen for dissolution to be electrospun into nanofiber. Since the formation of nanofiber is very much affected by shear viscosity, few compositions of cellulose solution was prepared for further investigation.

  17. Passion fruit peel extract attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Manikonda, Pavan Kumar; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal lung disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, with no effective treatments. We investigated the efficacy of natural products with high anti-inflammatory activity, such as passion fruit peel extract (PFPE), in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to induce PF. Daily PFPE treatment significantly reduced loss of body mass and mortality rate in mice compared with those treated with bleomycin. While bleomycin-induced PF resulted in elevated total numbers of inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on both days 7 and 21, PFPE administration significantly attenuated these phenomena compared with bleomycin group. On day 7, the decreased superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities observed in the bleomycin group were significantly restored with PFPE treatment. On day 21, enhanced hydroxyproline deposition in the bleomycin group was also suppressed by PFPE administration. PFPE treatment significantly attenuated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of collagen in lung tissue sections of bleomycin-induced mice on days 7 and 21, respectively. Our results indicate that administration of PFPE decreased bleomycin-induced PF because of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. PMID:24933624

  18. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  19. Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of a New Polysaccharide Obtained from the Fresh Fruits of Abelmoschus Esculentus

    PubMed Central

    Emeje, Martins; Isimi, Christiana; Byrn, Stephen; Fortunak, Joseph; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first multi-scale characterization of the fluidize-dried gum extracted from the fresh fruits of the plant Abelmoschus esculentus. It describes the physical, thermal, sorptional and functional properties of this natural gum. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transmittance infra red (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the gum sample. Abelmoschus Esculentus Gum (AEG) had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 70°C and no melting peak. It showed a 14.91% loss in weight at 195°C. X-ray diffractogram showed numerous broad halos for AEG. Elemental analysis showed that AEG contains 39.5, 7.3, 51.8, and 1.4% carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen respectively. The results obtained in this study established the fundamental characteristics of AEG and suggests its potential application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors. PMID:24250349

  20. Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Teng, Meiyu; Cai, Guangsheng; Xu, Hongkai; Guo, Hanxiao; Liu, Yang; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM) on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue. PMID:26351509

  1. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  2. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Characterization of Nitraria tangutorum Fruit Extract by Rapid Bioassay-Directed Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jat; Missler, Stephen R; Persons, Kathryn; Han, Johnson; Li, Teric

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the role of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) in human disease has been the subject of considerable study. This has led to research on the potential benefit of natural products as dietary antioxidants to mitigate oxidative stress caused by increased RNOS associated with tissue damage. Five physiologically relevant reactive species include peroxyl radical, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite anion, superoxide radical anion, and singlet oxygen. Excessive amounts of these species can lead to the degradation of important biomolecules in vivo, and dietary antioxidants have been shown to inhibit damage both in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we have discovered that an extract of the fruit from Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. (Tangut white thorn) demonstrates significant antioxidant capacity against all five reactive species. Rapid bioassay-directed fractionation was used to identify antioxidant phytochemicals by collecting fractions from HPLC effluent into 96 well microplates and testing for antioxidant activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. Two different classes of phytochemicals, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were associated with antioxidant activity. Active components were further characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and high-resolution MS.

  3. Thin-layer chromatography-densitometric analysis of alpha-mangostin content in Garcinia mangostana fruit rind extracts.

    PubMed

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2008-01-01

    The fruit rinds of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) have long been used as traditional medicines for treatment of skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea. A simple thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of alpha-mangostin in the extracts from unripe and ripe fruit rinds of G. mangostana. It was found in the ranges of 10.48 +/- 0.83 and 16.65 +/- 0.38% (w/w) in the dried unripe and ripe fruit rinds, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The linearity was found over the range of 100-500 ng/spot with regression coefficient 0.999. Intraday and interday precision studies showed the relative standard deviation was <2%. Accuracy of the method was determined by a recovery study conducted at 3 different levels, and the average recovery was 99.49%. The LOD and LOQ were 40 and 100 ng, respectively. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate. This method can be used for routine quality control of raw material of G. mangostana fruit rind, extract, and its products. It also can be applied in quantifying this marker compound in other drugs.

  4. Optimization of Extraction Parameters by Using Response Surface Methodology, Purification, and Identification of Anthocyanin Pigments in Melastoma malabathricum Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Nordiyanah; Mohd Adnan, Ahmad Faris; Saat, Naziz; Aziz, Norkasmani; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins not just have various benefits in food industry but also have been used as natural colourants in cosmetic, coating products and as potential natural photosensitizers in solar cell. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to obtain information on the maximum yield of anthocyanin that can be recovered from Melastoma malabathricum fruit. Factors such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid to liquid ratio were identified to be significantly affecting anthocyanin extraction efficiency. By using three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design, the optimized conditions for anthocyanin extraction by acidified methanol (R2 = 0.972) were temperature of 60°C, time of 86.82 min, and 0.5 : 35 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio while the optimum extraction conditions by acidified ethanol (R2 = 0.954) were temperature of 60°C, time of 120 min, and 0.5 : 23.06 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio. The crude anthocyanin extract was further purified by using Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Identification of anthocyanins revealed the presence of cyanidin dihexoside, cyanidin hexoside, and delphinidin hexoside as the main anthocyanins in M. malabathricum fruit. PMID:24174918

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant interactions in combined extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti).

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti) are of known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. They provide substantial antioxidant activities but the possible antioxidant interaction between them has not been studied. In the present study first the bioactive compounds from these three plants were first extracted and thereafter assayed for total phenols, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and reducing power. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts individually and in combinations were evaluated in soy bean oil as food system. There was a direct relation between total phenolics and antioxidant activities of extracts. Green tea and oak fruit extracts had the highest and least activity, respectively. All three kinds of interactions (synergistic, antagonistic and additive) were observed. In soy bean oil, the only effect was antagonism but even with this effect, combined extract was significantly (P < 0.05) better than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control sample. Results showed that these three natural extracts and their combination can be effectively used as a substituent of synthetic antioxidant BHT.

  6. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Passiflora ligularis Juss. on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Anusooriya, Palanirajan; Malarvizhi, Deivasigamani; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Devaki, Kanakasabapathi

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy causing neurological disorders due to perturbation in utilization of glucose. Hypoglycemic activity was detected in aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis, a traditionally used medicinal plant, using streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rat model. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a decrease in blood glucose. The diabetic rats had decreased levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio as compared to control rats. In addition, the activities of hepatic and renal markers were significantly elevated in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Treatment with aqueous fruit extract of P. ligularis and glibenclamide reversed these parameters to near normal. Extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg given orally for 30 days showed significant elevation in enzymatic (SOD, catalase, and Gpx) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione). Plant extract treated groups showed significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis fruit can decrease the blood glucose and reduce the oxidative stress by removing free radicals in diabetes. PMID:27350966

  7. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Passiflora ligularis Juss. on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Anusooriya, Palanirajan; Malarvizhi, Deivasigamani; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Devaki, Kanakasabapathi

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy causing neurological disorders due to perturbation in utilization of glucose. Hypoglycemic activity was detected in aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis, a traditionally used medicinal plant, using streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rat model. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a decrease in blood glucose. The diabetic rats had decreased levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio as compared to control rats. In addition, the activities of hepatic and renal markers were significantly elevated in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Treatment with aqueous fruit extract of P. ligularis and glibenclamide reversed these parameters to near normal. Extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg given orally for 30 days showed significant elevation in enzymatic (SOD, catalase, and Gpx) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione). Plant extract treated groups showed significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis fruit can decrease the blood glucose and reduce the oxidative stress by removing free radicals in diabetes. PMID:27350966

  8. Optimization of extraction parameters by using response surface methodology, purification, and identification of anthocyanin pigments in Melastoma malabathricum fruit.

    PubMed

    Anuar, Nordiyanah; Mohd Adnan, Ahmad Faris; Saat, Naziz; Aziz, Norkasmani; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins not just have various benefits in food industry but also have been used as natural colourants in cosmetic, coating products and as potential natural photosensitizers in solar cell. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to obtain information on the maximum yield of anthocyanin that can be recovered from Melastoma malabathricum fruit. Factors such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid to liquid ratio were identified to be significantly affecting anthocyanin extraction efficiency. By using three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design, the optimized conditions for anthocyanin extraction by acidified methanol (R (2) = 0.972) were temperature of 60°C, time of 86.82 min, and 0.5 : 35 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio while the optimum extraction conditions by acidified ethanol (R (2) = 0.954) were temperature of 60°C, time of 120 min, and 0.5 : 23.06 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio. The crude anthocyanin extract was further purified by using Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Identification of anthocyanins revealed the presence of cyanidin dihexoside, cyanidin hexoside, and delphinidin hexoside as the main anthocyanins in M. malabathricum fruit. PMID:24174918

  9. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wandscheer, Carolina B; Duque, Jonny E; da Silva, Mario A N; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Wohlke, Jonathan L; Adelmann, Juliana; Fontana, José D

    2004-12-15

    Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats.

  10. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-03-02

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia.

  11. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Nafisa PC; Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; Panda, Vandana S; Naik, Suresh R

    2007-01-01

    Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) in acetate buffer (pH 4.5). MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg) orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also observed. Conclusion Our

  12. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Sridharan; Manickam, Shanti; RajaMohammed, Meher Ali

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by 'Isolation-induced aggression' model, sedation by 'Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer' and hypnotic activity by 'Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time'. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007). Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 ± 10.74, 123.16 ± 8.33, and 196.67 ± 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 ± 12.98, 49 ± 5.78, and 92 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001). Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 ± 0.22, 1.23 ± 0.05, and 2.23 ± 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 ± 0.59, 56.03 ± 1.34, and 50.57 ± 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.

  13. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Pierce, Dana R; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE) was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  14. Determination of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of methanol extracts obtained from the fruit and leaves of Tunisian Lycium intricatum Boiss.

    PubMed

    Abdennacer, Boulila; Karim, Mattoussi; Yassine, M'rabet; Nesrine, Rokbeni; Mouna, Dhouioui; Mohamed, Boussaid

    2015-05-01

    A comparative analysis of methanol extracts from fruit and leaves of Lycium intricatum Boiss., a Solanaceous shrubbery with the potential to become a high-value crop, was performed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection (LC/PDA/ESI-MS). The total phenolic (TPC), anthocyanin (TAC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents as well as the antioxidant capacity measured by four complementary methods were performed for each sample. The results showed the tested extracts to be rich sources of phenolics; in leaves polyphenols and flavonoids dominate, while in fruit anthocyanins dominate. Nineteen phenolic compounds were detected and fifteen were identified or tentatively characterised based on Photodiode-array ultraviolet visible (PDA) UV-Vis spectra, ESI-MS spectrometric data and spiking experiments with authentic standards. Rutin and chlorogenic acid are the major constituents of the leaves and fruit, respectively. Results obtained in this study have revealed that leaves exhibit better performance in all antioxidant assays. From these results it has been shown that extracts of L. intricatum have great potential as a source of phenolics for natural health products.

  15. Optimizing the extraction of anti-tumor polysaccharides from the fruit of Capparis spionosa L. by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Dong, Fang; Ma, Dong-Bin; Miao, Jing; Jin, Li-Na; Liu, Zhen-Feng; Zhang, Ling-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Capparis spionosa L. is a traditional medicinal plant in China and central Asia. In this study, an experiment was designed to investigate the optimization of the extraction of anti-tumor polysaccharides from the fruit of Capparis spionosa L. (CSPS) by response surface methodology (RSM). Four independent variables (extraction temperature, extraction time, ratio of water to sample and extraction cycles) were explored. Meanwhile, the in vivo anti-tumor activity of CSPS was investigated. The results showed that the experimental data could be fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 140 min, ratio of water to sample 26 mL/g, and three extraction cycle. Under these conditions, the yield of polysaccharides reached 13.01%, which was comparable to the predicted yield (12.94%, p > 0.05). This indicated that the model was adequate for the extraction process. Additionally, CSPS could prolong the survival time of H22 bearing mice in vivo. The anti-tumor activities of CSPS were dose-dependent.

  16. Behavioral and antennal responses of spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii, to volatiles from fruit extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to Southeast Asia, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, has become a serious pest of soft-skinned fruit crops since its introduction into North America and Europe in 2008. Current monitoring strategies use baits based on fermentation products; however, to date, no fruit-based vola...

  17. Assessment of the potential genotoxic risk of medicinal Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract using in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Silva, F M V; Leite, M F; Spadaro, A C C; Uyemura, S A; Maistro, E L

    2009-09-01

    Tamarindus indica has been used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic, a digestive aid, and a carminative, among other uses. Currently, there is no information in the toxicology literature concerning the safety of T. indica extract. We evaluated the clastogenic and/or genotoxic potential of fruit pulp extract of this plant in vivo in peripheral blood and liver cells of Wistar rats, using the comet assay, and in bone marrow cells of Swiss mice, using the micronucleus test. The extract was administered by gavage at doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Peripheral blood and liver cells from Wistar rats were collected 24 h after treatment, for the comet assay. The micronucleus test was carried out in bone marrow cells from Swiss mice collected 24 h after treatment. The extract made with T. indica was devoid of clastogenic and genotoxic activities in the cells of the rodents, when administered orally at these three acute doses.

  18. Aqueous extract of the pericarp of Sapindus trifoliatus fruits: a novel 'green' catalyst for the aldimine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pore, Santosh; Rashinkar, Gajanan; Mote, Kavita; Salunkhe, Rajeshri

    2010-07-01

    The catalytic efficiency in organic synthesis of the aqueous extract of the pericarp of Sapindus trifoliatus fruits was evaluated. The synthesis of a series of aldimines from aromatic aldehydes and amines was successfully catalyzed by the extract, whereas aromatic ketones and amines did not yield ketimines under comparable reaction conditions, indicating the chemoselective catalysis of the extract. The catalytic activity of the extract is due to saponins, which have a common structural skeleton containing a pentacyclic triterpenoid part substituted with different carbohydrate side chains. The mild conditions, high yields, and short reaction times not only make this protocol a valuable alternative to the conventional methods, but it also becomes significant under the roof of environmentally greener and safer processes.

  19. Modulation of human neutrophil oxidative metabolism and degranulation by extract of Tamarindus indica L. fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana S; Kabeya, Luciana M; Kanashiro, Alexandre; de Figueiredo, Andréa S G; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

    2009-01-01

    The tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is indigenous to Asian countries and widely cultivated in the American continents. The tamarind fruit pulp extract (ExT), traditionally used in spices, food components and juices, is rich in polyphenols that have demonstrated anti-atherosclerotic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. This study evaluated the modulator effect of a crude hydroalcoholic ExT on some peripheral human neutrophil functions. The neutrophil reactive oxygen species generation, triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ), n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and assessed by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL and LucCL, respectively), was inhibited by ExT in a concentration-dependent manner. ExT was a more effective inhibitor of the PMA-stimulated neutrophil function [IC50 (in microg/10(6)cells)=115.7+/-9.7 (LumCL) and 174.5+/-25.9 (LucCL)], than the OZ- [IC50=248.5+/-23.1 (LumCL) and 324.1+/-34.6 (LucCL)] or fMLP-stimulated cells [IC50=178.5+/-12.2 (LumCL)]. The ExT also inhibited neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity (evaluated by O2 consumption), degranulation and elastase activity (evaluated by spectrophotometric methods) at concentrations higher than 200 microg/10(6)cells, without being toxic to the cells, under the conditions assessed. Together, these results indicate the potential of ExT as a source of compounds that can modulate the neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  20. Parents' and children's acceptance of skim chocolate milks sweetened by monk fruit and stevia leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners. PMID:25847181

  1. Parents' and children's acceptance of skim chocolate milks sweetened by monk fruit and stevia leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners.

  2. Modulation of human neutrophil oxidative metabolism and degranulation by extract of Tamarindus indica L. fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana S; Kabeya, Luciana M; Kanashiro, Alexandre; de Figueiredo, Andréa S G; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

    2009-01-01

    The tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is indigenous to Asian countries and widely cultivated in the American continents. The tamarind fruit pulp extract (ExT), traditionally used in spices, food components and juices, is rich in polyphenols that have demonstrated anti-atherosclerotic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. This study evaluated the modulator effect of a crude hydroalcoholic ExT on some peripheral human neutrophil functions. The neutrophil reactive oxygen species generation, triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ), n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and assessed by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL and LucCL, respectively), was inhibited by ExT in a concentration-dependent manner. ExT was a more effective inhibitor of the PMA-stimulated neutrophil function [IC50 (in microg/10(6)cells)=115.7+/-9.7 (LumCL) and 174.5+/-25.9 (LucCL)], than the OZ- [IC50=248.5+/-23.1 (LumCL) and 324.1+/-34.6 (LucCL)] or fMLP-stimulated cells [IC50=178.5+/-12.2 (LumCL)]. The ExT also inhibited neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity (evaluated by O2 consumption), degranulation and elastase activity (evaluated by spectrophotometric methods) at concentrations higher than 200 microg/10(6)cells, without being toxic to the cells, under the conditions assessed. Together, these results indicate the potential of ExT as a source of compounds that can modulate the neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:19022329

  3. Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application.

    PubMed

    Ramful, Deena; Bahorun, Theeshan; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Tarnus, Evelyne; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2010-11-28

    The flavedo extracts of twenty-one varieties of citrus fruits (oranges, satsumah, clementine, mandarins, tangor, bergamot, lemon, tangelos, kumquat, calamondin and pamplemousses) grown in Mauritius were examined for their total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities. Total phenolics correlated strongly with the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging activity assays (r > 0.85). Based on their antioxidant activities in these three assays nine citrus fruits namely, one orange, clementine, tangor and pamplemousse variety, two tangelo varieties and three mandarin varieties, were further characterized for their flavanone, flavonol and flavone levels by HPLC and their antioxidant activities were assessed by the copper-phenanthroline and iron chelation assays. The flavanone, hesperidin, was present at the highest concentrations in all flavedo extracts except for pamplemousses where it was not detected. Contents in hesperidin ranged from 83 ± 0.06 to 234 ± 1.73 mg/g FW. Poncirin, didymin, diosmin, isorhoifolin and narirutin were also present in all extracts whereas naringin was present only in one mandarin variety. The nine flavedo extracts exhibited good DNA protecting ability in the cuphen assay with IC₅₀ values ranging from 6.3 ± 0.46 to 23.0 ± 0.48 mg FW/mL. Essentially the flavedos were able to chelate metal ions however, tangor was most effective with an IC₅₀ value of 9.1 ± 0.08 mg FW/mL. The flavedo extracts of citrus fruits represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants with potential prophylactic properties for the development of functional foods.

  4. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated. PMID:26466415

  5. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  6. Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extracts modulates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human liposarcoma SW872 cells.

    PubMed

    Ruhomally, Z; Somanah, J; Bahorun, T; Neergheen-Bhujun, V S

    2016-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni is used by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of pharmacological activities of its metabolites. In Mauritius, the fruits of M. citrifolia are used in folk medicine against a number of indications. The present study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of ripe and unripe noni fruit at both biochemical and cellular levels. Using an array of established assay systems, the fruit antioxidant propensity was assessed in terms of its radical scavenging, iron reducing and metal chelating potentials. Ascorbic acid, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the fruits were also determined. The ascorbic acid content of ripe noni was 76.24 ± 1.13 mg/100 g while total phenolics of ripe and unripe fruit extracts were 748.40 ± 8.85 μg and 770.34 ± 2.27 μg GAE g(-1) FW respectively. Both the ripe and unripe extracts of M. citrifolia were potent scavengers of nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The ferric reducing capacity ranged from 11.26 ± 0.33 to 11.90 ± 0.20 mM Fe(2+) g(-1) FW while the IC50 values for the iron (II) chelating power were 0.50 ± 0.01 and 1.74 ± 0.01 g FW/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit extracts respectively. Cellular studies additionally demonstrated that noni were able to dose-dependently counteract accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress, a potential obesogenic factor within human liposarcoma SW872 cells as well as significantly restore cell death within the concentration range of 0.106-0.813 g/mL. Results reported herein suggest noni as an interesting source of prophylactic antioxidants modulated by its polyphenol composition.

  7. Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extracts modulates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human liposarcoma SW872 cells.

    PubMed

    Ruhomally, Z; Somanah, J; Bahorun, T; Neergheen-Bhujun, V S

    2016-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni is used by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of pharmacological activities of its metabolites. In Mauritius, the fruits of M. citrifolia are used in folk medicine against a number of indications. The present study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of ripe and unripe noni fruit at both biochemical and cellular levels. Using an array of established assay systems, the fruit antioxidant propensity was assessed in terms of its radical scavenging, iron reducing and metal chelating potentials. Ascorbic acid, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the fruits were also determined. The ascorbic acid content of ripe noni was 76.24 ± 1.13 mg/100 g while total phenolics of ripe and unripe fruit extracts were 748.40 ± 8.85 μg and 770.34 ± 2.27 μg GAE g(-1) FW respectively. Both the ripe and unripe extracts of M. citrifolia were potent scavengers of nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The ferric reducing capacity ranged from 11.26 ± 0.33 to 11.90 ± 0.20 mM Fe(2+) g(-1) FW while the IC50 values for the iron (II) chelating power were 0.50 ± 0.01 and 1.74 ± 0.01 g FW/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit extracts respectively. Cellular studies additionally demonstrated that noni were able to dose-dependently counteract accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress, a potential obesogenic factor within human liposarcoma SW872 cells as well as significantly restore cell death within the concentration range of 0.106-0.813 g/mL. Results reported herein suggest noni as an interesting source of prophylactic antioxidants modulated by its polyphenol composition. PMID:27419097

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mahendra K; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Patel, Tejas K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Tripathi, C B

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan induced paw oedema in Wistar albino rats; analgesic activity with doses of 280 mg/kg and 560 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice; and antipyretic activity with doses of 110 mg/kg and 220 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbits by injecting gram -ve lipopolysaccharide obtained from E. coli. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnet's multiple comparison test. Pedalium murex Linn. showed significant anti-inflammatory activity from 15 min to 180 min as compared to vehicle treated animals. It was comparable to diclofenac sodium at 180 min. The extract did not prolong the reaction time on hot plate method but significantly reduced the number of writhing after acetic acid administration. Also the extract did not show any antipyretic activity on lipopolysaccharide induced pyrexia. It is therefore concluded that the ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits has an anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic effects.

  9. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by fruit and berry extracts and correlations with antioxidant levels.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Andersson, Staffan; Nilsson, Ake; Duan, Rui-Dong

    2004-12-01

    The effects of 10 different extracts of fruits and berries on cell proliferation of colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7 were investigated. The fruits and berries used were rosehips, blueberries, black currant, black chokeberries, apple, sea buckthorn, plum, lingonberries, cherries, and raspberries. The extracts decreased the proliferation of both colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7, and the effect was concentration dependent. The inhibition effect for the highest concentration of the extracts varied 2-3-fold among the species, and it was in the ranges of 46-74% (average = 62%) for the HT29 cells and 24-68% (average = 52%) for the MCF-7 cells. There were great differences in the content of the analyzed antioxidants in the extracts. The level of the vitamin C content varied almost 100-fold, and the content of total carotenoids varied almost 150-fold among the species. Also in the composition and content of flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and phenolics were found great differences among the 10 species. The inhibition of cancer cell proliferation seen in these experiments correlated with levels of some carotenoids and with vitamin C levels, present at levels that can be found in human tissues. The same inhibition of cell proliferation could not be found by ascorbate standard alone. This correlation might indicate a synergistic effect of vitamin C and other substances. In MCF-7 cells, the anthocyanins may contribute to the inhibition of proliferation. PMID:15563205

  10. Pharmacokinetic characterization of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit extract standardized to α-mangostin in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Li, Gongbo; Ramaiya, Atulkumar; Kumar, Anoop; Gill, Ravinder K; Saksena, Seema; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we have reported the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of α-mangostin in mice. For this study, we evaluated the PK profile of α-mangostin using a standardized mangosteen extract in C57BL/6 mice. The primary objective was to determine the PK properties of α-mangostin when administered as an extract. This experiment was designed to test our primary hypothesis that α-mangostin in an extract should achieve a desirable PK profile. This is especially relevant as dietary supplements of mangosteen fruit are regularly standardized to α-mangostin. Mice received 100 mg/kg of mangosteen fruit extract orally, equivalent to 36 mg/kg of α-mangostin, and plasma samples were analyzed over a 24-hour period. Concentrations of α-mangostin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, we evaluated the stability in the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes in liver and gastrointestinal microsomes. Furthermore, we identified evidence of phase II metabolism of α-mangostin. Further research will be required to determine if less abundant xanthones present in the mangosteen may modulate the PK parameters of α-mangostin.

  11. Different compounds are extracted with different time courses from fruits during microwave hydrodiffusion: examples and possible causes.

    PubMed

    Cendres, Aurélie; Hoerlé, Mélanie; Chemat, Farid; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2014-07-01

    We set out to determine how nutrients diffuse during extraction, using fractional collection. The highest concentrations of sugars (195.5, 64.8 and 60.8g/L, respectively for grape, 'Najbolia' plum and apricot) were found for the earliest stages of extraction, with a decrease in concentration (to 41.4g/L, 48.2g/L and 1.7g/L, respectively) at the end of extraction process. Total polyphenols showed the same trends for plum and apricot (from 4.1g/L to 2.9g/L for 'Najbolia' plum, from 2.2 to 0.2g/L for apricot) but highest concentrations of total polyphenols (for grape and cherry) were obtained at fraction 5 or 6 (out of 7). Carotenoids from cherry tomato also had highest concentrations (at circa 25mg/L) almost at the end of extraction. For volatile molecules from sweet cherry, hexanal, 2-hexenal and linalool had their highest concentrations at fractions 3-4 (out of 7). Diffusion of nutrients depended on fruit destructuring, molecule solubility and localization of the compounds. Fruit size seemed unimportant. PMID:24518331

  12. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  13. Antioxidant properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.): role of colorless phytochemicals from the methanolic extract of ripe fruits.

    PubMed

    Piccolella, Simona; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-03-26

    Many edible plant metabolites are known to be useful as cellular antioxidants. In the search for antioxidative chemicals from native fruits of the Campania region of Italy, Prunus cerasus L., an acidic cherry widely used for culinary purposes, has been studied. Fruit crude extracts (MeOH, EtOAc, and hexane) were submitted to an antioxidative screening using specific assay media characterized from the presence of highly reactive radical species (DPPH*, ABTS*+, O2*-, NO) or lipoperoxidation markers. The reducing power of the samples was also determined. It was observed that the most polar extracts in MeOH and EtOAc were able to exercise a massive and dose-increasing antioxidative capacity. The peculiar efficacy of the same extracts was revealed by investigating their protein and deoxyribose oxidation capacity. A preliminary analysis of total phenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents together with biological screening data put the basis on P. cerasus fruit phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract. Twenty secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic (especially 1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol-1,2-bis-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol-1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (4), epicatechin-3-malate (14), and epicatechin-3-(1''-methyl)malate (15) were isolated for the first time. All of the compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity on DPPH*, O2*-, and NO. Flavonoids and quinic acid derivatives were found to be the more antioxidative substances. PMID:18303821

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential of Dry FruitExtracts of Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Chhoti Elaichi).

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Purshotam; Goyal, Pankaj; Chauhan, Abhishek; Chauhan, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria against available antibiotics is posing a great challenge to the current world. Thus, there is a great need to discover novel antibiotics. Traditional plants have been proved to be novel source in the search of antimicrobial compounds. The current study pertained to the susceptibilities of some clinically significant bacterial species to various crude extracts of Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Chhoti elaichi) dry fruits by agar well diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of extracts were further evaluated against these bacteria. The study indicated that antibacterial activity of this plant is dependent on the type of extract and the organism evaluated. Ethanol extract was found to have comparatively higher activity than other organic and aqueous extracts. Gram-positive bacteria showed competent but variable susceptibilities to all the tested extracts. MIC data showed hopeful results as some of the extracts exhibited significant inhibitions of bacteria even at concentrations as low as 512 μg/mL. Overall, E. cardamomum seems to have significant antibacterial activity and to be very useful in the discovery of novel antibiotic. PMID:24363739

  15. Optimization extraction of polysaccharide from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruit by response surface methodology: Composition and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Mkadmini Hammi, Khaoula; Hammami, Majdi; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Ksouri, Riadh; Majdoub, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    Response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of water to material to obtain a maximum polysaccharide yield with high uronic acid content and antioxidant property from edible Zizyphus lotus fruit. The optimal conditions were: extraction time of 3h 15min, extraction temperature of 91.2°C and water to solid ratio of 39mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental extraction yield, uronic acid content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability (IC50) were 18.88%, 41.89 and 0.518mg/mL, respectively. Chemical analysis revealed that the extract was composed of 97.92% carbohydrate of which 41.89% is uronic acid. The extracted polysaccharides, with an average molecular weight of 2720kDa, are composed of arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose. Moreover, the polysaccharides exhibited a significant reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation activities.

  16. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential of Dry FruitExtracts of Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Chhoti Elaichi).

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Purshotam; Goyal, Pankaj; Chauhan, Abhishek; Chauhan, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria against available antibiotics is posing a great challenge to the current world. Thus, there is a great need to discover novel antibiotics. Traditional plants have been proved to be novel source in the search of antimicrobial compounds. The current study pertained to the susceptibilities of some clinically significant bacterial species to various crude extracts of Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Chhoti elaichi) dry fruits by agar well diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of extracts were further evaluated against these bacteria. The study indicated that antibacterial activity of this plant is dependent on the type of extract and the organism evaluated. Ethanol extract was found to have comparatively higher activity than other organic and aqueous extracts. Gram-positive bacteria showed competent but variable susceptibilities to all the tested extracts. MIC data showed hopeful results as some of the extracts exhibited significant inhibitions of bacteria even at concentrations as low as 512 μg/mL. Overall, E. cardamomum seems to have significant antibacterial activity and to be very useful in the discovery of novel antibiotic.

  18. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:19562373

  19. Determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obana, Hirotaka; Okihashi, Masahiro; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Kitagawa, Yoko; Hori, Shinjiro

    2003-04-23

    A rapid and simple extraction method for the simultaneous analysis of five neonicotinoid insecticides has been developed. Twelve different fruit and vegetable matrixes were extracted with methanol and cleaned up using a graphitized carbon solid phase extraction cartridge loading with a 20% methanol solution. The concentrated eluate after methanol elution was then analyzed for pesticide residues by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in the APCI positive mode. The five pesticides including nitenpyram, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid were recovered at 70-95% at spike levels of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg in bell pepper, cucumber, eggplant, grape, grapefruit, Japanese radish, peach, pear, potato, rice, and tomato. Relative standard deviations were less than 10% for all of the recovery tests. The proposed method is fast, easy to perform, and could be utilized for regular monitoring of pesticide residues. PMID:12696927

  20. Sub-chronic Administration of Methanolic Whole Fruit Extract of Lagenaria breviflora (Benth.) Roberty Induces Mild Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olorunnisola, Olubukola Sinbad; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Adetutu, Adewale

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of the methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora on vital organs and antioxidant enzymes was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: L. breviflora (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t./day/rat) was fed orally with the cannula to male albino rats for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the effect of the extract on histology of the liver, heart, lipid peroxidation, tissue and serum antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase) activities, glutathione, myocardial marker enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alanine transaminase [ALT], and aspartate transaminase [AST]) in serum, and heart homogenate were assessed. Results: The extract demonstrated mild organ doses dependent (500 and 1000 mg/kg) pathological alterations in the architectural section of the liver and heart. At 250 mg/kg/b.w.t., the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the level of thiobarbituric reacting acids substance and antioxidant enzyme activities, but causes (P < 0.05) decrease in serum and tissue antioxidant capacity at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t., respectively. Also on these two doses, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum activity of CK, LDH, ALT, and AST and concomitantly decrease (P < 0.05) in heart homogenate were also observed. Conclusion: The results suggested that the Fruit of L. breviflora may contain phytotoxic Substances(s) which may be hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution. SUMMARY Methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora demonstrate dose dependent mild toxicity on vital organs (Heart and liver) and anti-oxidant enzymes. The fruit of Lagenaria breviflora may contain Phyto-toxic substance (s) which may be hepatotoxic, Cardio-toxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence

  1. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wandscheer, Carolina B; Duque, Jonny E; da Silva, Mario A N; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Wohlke, Jonathan L; Adelmann, Juliana; Fontana, José D

    2004-12-15

    Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats. PMID:15530964

  2. [Establishment of hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC(HE-HPLC) and application in analysis of active components in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides extract].

    PubMed

    Hong, Min; Ma, Hongyu; Zhu, Quan

    2009-02-01

    To screen effective principles from traditional Chinese medicine, a method named hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC (HE-HPLC) was establish in this study. The active principles in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis extract were combined with the hepatocytes under imitated physiological environments. Then the unattached substances were washed off by PBS with pH 7.4. After that the conjugated compounds were eluted by PBS with pH 4.0. These compounds released from target sites were collected and handled through SPE to be condensed, and analyzed by HPLC. The results indicated that two characteristic active compounds in the fruits of G. jasminoides extract binded to the hepatocytes. One of them is geniposide. The other is continued to be identified. It is showed that active principles which could bind to hepotocyte (through receptors, Channels, enzymes, etc.) could be detected, at least partly, by HE-HPLC analysis. There was a significant correlation between the retention properties of the active compounds which was obtained by HE-HPLC and their pharmacological effects on hepotocytes. PMID:19459310

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Wound Healing Properties of Jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana) Fruit Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Aline; Blasius, Mayara B.; Voytena, Ana Paula L.; Fanan, Simone; Trevisan, Adriana C. D.; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M.; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba is a fruit from a native tree to Brazil, Plinia peruviana. Jaboticaba peels are an important source of antioxidant molecules such as phenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of jaboticaba fruit peels (HEJFP) in wound healing processes and antioxidant activity in murine fibroblasts (L929 cell line). HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were tested in MTT assay and cell proliferation was verified at 100 µg/mL after 24 h and at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL after 48 h of extract exposure. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed at 0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL HEJFP concentrations. Cell treatment with HEJFP at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h followed by H2O2 exposure for 3 h showed a strong cytoprotective effect. In vitro scratch wound healing assay indicated that none of tested HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were capable of increasing migration rate after 12 h of incubation. These results demonstrate a positive effect of HEJFP on the wound healing process on L929 fibroblasts cell line, probably due to the antioxidant activity exhibited by phytochemicals in the extract.

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Wound Healing Properties of Jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana) Fruit Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract.

    PubMed

    Pitz, Heloisa da S; Pereira, Aline; Blasius, Mayara B; Voytena, Ana Paula L; Affonso, Regina C L; Fanan, Simone; Trevisan, Adriana C D; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba is a fruit from a native tree to Brazil, Plinia peruviana. Jaboticaba peels are an important source of antioxidant molecules such as phenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of jaboticaba fruit peels (HEJFP) in wound healing processes and antioxidant activity in murine fibroblasts (L929 cell line). HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were tested in MTT assay and cell proliferation was verified at 100 µg/mL after 24 h and at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL after 48 h of extract exposure. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed at 0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL HEJFP concentrations. Cell treatment with HEJFP at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h followed by H2O2 exposure for 3 h showed a strong cytoprotective effect. In vitro scratch wound healing assay indicated that none of tested HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were capable of increasing migration rate after 12 h of incubation. These results demonstrate a positive effect of HEJFP on the wound healing process on L929 fibroblasts cell line, probably due to the antioxidant activity exhibited by phytochemicals in the extract. PMID:27630758

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Wound Healing Properties of Jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana) Fruit Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Aline; Blasius, Mayara B.; Voytena, Ana Paula L.; Fanan, Simone; Trevisan, Adriana C. D.; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M.; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba is a fruit from a native tree to Brazil, Plinia peruviana. Jaboticaba peels are an important source of antioxidant molecules such as phenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of jaboticaba fruit peels (HEJFP) in wound healing processes and antioxidant activity in murine fibroblasts (L929 cell line). HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were tested in MTT assay and cell proliferation was verified at 100 µg/mL after 24 h and at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL after 48 h of extract exposure. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed at 0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL HEJFP concentrations. Cell treatment with HEJFP at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h followed by H2O2 exposure for 3 h showed a strong cytoprotective effect. In vitro scratch wound healing assay indicated that none of tested HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were capable of increasing migration rate after 12 h of incubation. These results demonstrate a positive effect of HEJFP on the wound healing process on L929 fibroblasts cell line, probably due to the antioxidant activity exhibited by phytochemicals in the extract. PMID:27630758

  6. Determination of alkylphenolic residues in fresh fruits and vegetables by extractive steam distillation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deng-Kai; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2005-09-23

    This study describes a simple and sensitive method for determining the alkylphenolic compounds, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol isomers (4-NPs), and their monoethoxylates (4-t-OP1EO and 4-NP1EOs), in fresh fruits and vegetables. The method involves extracting a sample by a modified Nielson-Kryger steam distillation extraction using n-hexane for 1 h. The alkylphenolic compounds were identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Various pH values and amounts of NaCl added to the sample solution were evaluated as extraction conditions. The quantitation limit of this method was less than 0.2 ng/g in 10 g (fresh weight) of sample. Recovery of alkylphenolic compounds in spiked samples exceeded 64% while R.S.D. ranged from 1.0 to 9.8%. Alkylphenolic residues were detected in fresh fruits and vegetables at concentrations of 4-NPs and 4-t-OP from n.d. to 16 ng/g and from n.d. to 4.8 ng/g (fresh weight), respectively. NP1EO and OP1EO were always below the quantitation limit.

  7. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  8. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  9. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in fruits and vegetables using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Lal, Asha; Tan, Guanhuat; Chai, Meekin

    2008-02-01

    A new extraction and cleanup procedure with gas chromatography was developed for the sensitive determination of acephate, dimethoate, malathion, diazinon, quinalphos, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, chlorothalonil and carbaryl using 1-chloro-4-fluorobenzene as an internal standard in fruits and vegetables. Several extracting and eluting solvents for solid-phase extraction were investigated. The overall extracting solvent with a mixture of acetone:ethyl acetate:hexane (10:80:10, v/v/v) and a eluting solvent of 5% acetone in hexane used with the RPC18 cartridge gave the best recovery for all of the investigated pesticides, and minimized the interference from co-extractants. Under the optimal extraction and clean-up conditions, recoveries of 85 - 99% with RSD < 5.0% (n = 3) for most of the pesticides at the 0.02 - 0.5 mg/kg level were obtained. The limit of detection was between 0.005 - 0.01 mg/kg and the limit of quantification was 0.01 mg/kg. This analytical procedure was characterized with high accuracy and acceptable sensitivity to meet requirements for monitoring pesticides in crops. PMID:18270414

  10. Effects of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract on abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins and their possible consequential impact on metabolism and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Ursula R W; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn H; Mat-Junit, Sarni

    2013-01-01

    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism.

  11. Effects of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract on Abundance of HepG2 Cell Lysate Proteins and Their Possible Consequential Impact on Metabolism and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Ursula R. W.; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S.; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn H.; Mat-Junit, Sarni

    2013-01-01

    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism. PMID:24455694

  12. Structural studies of a heteropolysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from hot water extract of fruits of Psidium guajava (Guava).

    PubMed

    Mandal, Soumitra; Sarkar, Ramsankar; Patra, Pradip; Nandan, Chanchal K; Das, Debsankar; Bhanja, Sunil K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-07-27

    A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from hot aqueous extracts of fruits of Psidium guajava. The polysaccharide was found to contain 2-O-methyl-l-arabinose, 2-O-acetyl-D-galactose, and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of approximately 1:1:1. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as [carbohydrate structure: see text].

  13. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P

  14. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  15. Extracts of Strawberry Fruits Induce Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells and Inhibits Tumor Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Somasagara, Ranganatha R.; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Musini, Anjaneyulu; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds and secondary metabolites that contribute to their biological properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Current study investigates the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB) fruits in leukaemia (CEM) and breast cancer (T47D) cell lines ex vivo, and its cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive potential in mice models. Results of MTT, trypan blue and LDH assays suggested that MESB can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, irrespective of origin, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of mice bearing breast adenocarcinoma with MESB blocked the proliferation of tumor cells in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Histological and immunohistochemical studies suggest that MESB treatment affected tumor cell proliferation by activating apoptosis and did not result in any side effects. Finally, we show that MESB can induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by activating p73 in breast cancer cells, when tumor suppressor gene p53 is mutated. Conclusions/Significance The present study reveals that strawberry fruits possess both cancer preventive and therapeutic values and we discuss the mechanism by which it is achieved. PMID:23071702

  16. Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A; Junit, Sarni M

    2010-12-01

    Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp.

  17. Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit extract induces apoptosis and cell senescence in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through upregulation of p21.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Du, Qin; Deng, Shan; An, Hong-Mei; Pan, Chuan-Fang; Shen, Ke-Ping; Xu, Ling; Wei, Meng-Meng; Wang, Shuang-Shuang

    2014-09-01

    Nü-zhen-zi, the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is one of the most frequently used liver Yin tonifying Chinese herbs for the treatment of liver cancer. However, the effect of Ligustrum lucidum fruit on hepatocarcinoma cells remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a Ligustrum lucidum fruit extract (LLFE) on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells. The results showed that LLFE inhibited the proliferation of the Bel-7402 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. LLFE induced apoptosis in Bel-7402 cells accompanied by activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. LLFE-induced apoptosis was completely abrogated by a pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. LLFE treatment also caused a large and flat morphologic cellular change, positive SA-β-gal staining, and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in the Bel-7402 cells, accompanied by upregulation of p21 and downregulation of RB phosphorylation. Specific knockdown of p21 expression by RNA interference partially abrogated LLFE-induced apoptosis, and significantly abrogated LLFE-induced cell senescence. These observations suggest that Nü-zhen-zi is a potential anticancer herb and support the traditional use of Nü-zhen-zi for hepatocarcinoma treatment. PMID:25017491

  18. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effect of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa Fruit Extracts in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Amran, Norliyana; Rani, Anis Najwa Abdul; Mahmud, Roziahanim; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy. Objective: This study aims to evaluate cytotoxic effect of B. racemosa and H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts toward human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and its antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Total antioxidant activities of extracts were assayed using 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Content of phytochemicals, total flavonoid content (TFC), and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined using aluminum chloride colorimetric method and Folin–Ciocalteu's reagent, respectively. Cytotoxic activity in vitro was investigated through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: B. racemosa extract exhibited high antioxidant activities compared to H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts in DPPH radical scavenging assay (inhibitory concentration [IC50] 15.26 ± 1.25 μg/mL) and ί-carotene bleaching assay (I% 98.13 ± 1.83%). B. racemosa also showed higher TPC (14.70 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g) and TFC (130 ± 1.18 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/g) compared to H. sabdariffa (3.80 ± 2.13 mg GAE/g and 40.75 ± 1.15 mg QE/g, respectively). In MTT assay, B. racemosa extract also showed a higher cytotoxic activity (IC50 57.61 ± 2.24 μg/mL) compared to H. sabdariffa. Conclusion: The present study indicated that phenolic and flavonoid compounds known for oxidizing activities indicated an important role among the contents of these plants extract. B. racemosa methanol extract have shown potent cytotoxic activity toward MCF-7. Following these promising results, further fractionation of the plant extract is underway to identify important phytochemical bioactives for the development of potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical use. SUMMARY The phenolic and flavonoid compounds were

  19. Simultaneous extraction of oil and antioxidant compounds from oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis) by an aqueous enzymatic process.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Camilo B; Macedo, Gabriela A; Macedo, Juliana A; da Silva, Luiza Helena M; da C Rodrigues, Antonio Manoel

    2013-02-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit was treated with enzymes to facilitate simultaneous recovery of oil and bioactive compounds. Tannase from Paecilomyces variotii, cellulase and pectinase were evaluated for their influence on oil recovery and antioxidant capacity (DPPH), oxidative stability (Rancimat), fatty acid profile, total phenols, total carotenoids and tocols of the oil. Maximum oil recovery (90-93% total oil) was obtained with central composite design using 4% of enzyme preparation (w/w) as 80 U of tannase, 240 U of cellulase and 178 U of pectinase, pH 4, ratio of solution to pulp of 2:1 and 30 min of incubation at 50 °C. Tannase improved the phenolic compounds extraction by 51% and pectinase plus cellulase improved carotene extraction by 153%. Samples treated with tannase showed a 27% and 53% higher antioxidant capacity for the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions.

  20. In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetes, Anti-Dementia, and Inflammation Inhibitory Effect of Trametes pubescens Fruiting Body Extracts.

    PubMed

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-01-01

    Trametes pubescens, white rot fungus, has been used for folk medicine in Asian countries to treat ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. This study was initiated to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-dementia, and anti-inflammatory activities of T. pubescens fruiting bodies. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities of T. pubescens methanol (ME) and hot water (HWE) extracts (2.0 mg/mL) were comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the positive control. However, the chelating effects of ME and HWE were significantly higher than that of BHT. The HWE (6 mg/mL) also showed comparable reducing power to BHT. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the ME and HWE of the mushroom were lower than Acarbose, the standard reference; however, the inhibitory effects of the mushroom extracts at 2.0 mg/mL were moderate. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory effects of ME and HWE were moderate and comparable with galanthamine, the standard drug to treat early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ME had a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced PC-12 cell cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 2-40 μg/mL. The mushroom extracts also showed inflammation inhibitory activities such as production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage-like cell lines (RAW 264.7) and significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced rat paw-edema. Therefore, fruiting body extracts of T. pubescens demonstrated antioxidant related anti-diabetes, anti-dementia and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27196881

  1. The Aqueous Extract of Withania coagulans Fruit Partially Reverses Nicotinamide/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Dikshit, Piyush; Shukla, Rimi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Withania coagulans fruit has been shown to possess antihyperglycemic properties and is used in the traditional Indian system of medicine. However, there has no systematic study of its mechanism of action. In a rat model diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (230 mg/kg of body weight) followed by streptozotocin at 55 mg/kg of body weight. After 96 h, mildly diabetic (MD) (fasting plasma glucose [FPG]=7–11.1 mmol/L) and severely diabetic (SD) (FPG>11.1 mmol/L) rats were treated with aqueous extract of W. coagulans fruit at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of body weight/day orally. FPG, postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma insulin, tissue glycogen, and glucose-metabolizing enzymes were assayed at Day 30. Treatment of diabetic animals (MD and SD) with different doses of aqueous W. coagulans resulted in significantly decreased FPG, PPPG, and HbA1c (P<.01), whereas serum insulin increased significantly compared with that in diabetic-untreated rats (P<.01). MD and SD animals treated with aqueous W. coagulans also showed significant increases in liver and muscle glycogen compared with diabetic-untreated animals (P<.01). Moreover, activities of glucokinase and phosphofructokinase were also significantly increased (P<.01), whereas glucose-6-phosphatase activity was significantly decreased (P<.01) in MD and SD groups treated with aqueous W. coagulans compared with diabetic-untreated groups. The most effective dose of aqueous W. coagulans was 250 mg/kg of body weight. These results show that the aqueous extract of W. coagulans fruit has significant antihyperglycemic effects, which may be through the modulation of insulin levels and related enzyme activities. PMID:22846078

  2. Antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging effect of polyphenol rich Mallotus philippenensis fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B; Goel, R K; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines. PMID:25525615

  3. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids disorder to normal level is clinically very important. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Berberis integerrima Bge. fruit aqueous extract (BIFAE) on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by fruit aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. at doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg bw) for 42 days by gavage. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. Total lipid levels were determined in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after administration of the BIFAE and glibenclamide for 42 days. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant (P<0.001) increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) while body weight and high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterolan (HDL-C) were significantly(P<0.001) decreased compared to normal rats. Daily administration of BIFAE did not possess the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activity in STZ- diabetic rats during 6-week treatment period. Results indicate the usage of BIFAE in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes may need more investigation. PMID:25587320

  4. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids disorder to normal level is clinically very important. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Berberis integerrima Bge. fruit aqueous extract (BIFAE) on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by fruit aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. at doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg bw) for 42 days by gavage. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. Total lipid levels were determined in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after administration of the BIFAE and glibenclamide for 42 days. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant (P<0.001) increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) while body weight and high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterolan (HDL-C) were significantly(P<0.001) decreased compared to normal rats. Daily administration of BIFAE did not possess the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activity in STZ- diabetic rats during 6-week treatment period. Results indicate the usage of BIFAE in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes may need more investigation.

  5. Antioxidant Capacity and Radical Scavenging Effect of Polyphenol Rich Mallotus philippenensis Fruit Extract on Human Erythrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B.; Goel, R. K.; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines. PMID:25525615

  6. Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.

    PubMed

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

    2010-02-01

    A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution. PMID:20645841

  7. Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

    2013-10-15

    Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55 °C and extraction time of 97 min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost.

  8. Microwave extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. using ionic liquid as the microwave absorption medium.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Shuo; Wang, Ziming; Cheng, Jianhua; Sun, Yantao; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Yupu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2009-10-01

    Ionic liquid was used as microwave absorption medium and applied to the extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of the Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. by microwave-assisted extraction. The extraction time is less than 15 min at the microwave power of 440 W. The constituents of essential oils obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained by hydrodistillation. There is no obvious difference in the constituents of essential oils obtained by the two methods.

  9. Smashing Tissue Extraction of Five Lignans From the Fruit of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Song, Haiyan; Yang, Yingjie; Zhou, Hongli; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Schisandra chinensis is one of the most famous herbal medicines in China, Korea and Japan. It has been widely used as a tonic, sedative, anti-aging and astringent agent. Lignans are one of its main bioactive components. The classical methods for extracting lignans, however, were tedious and energy-consuming. With the aim to develop an effective extraction method of lignans, the smashing tissue extraction (STE) technique was adopted and optimized in this study. Extraction conditions of STE have been optimized by the response surface methodology based on the Box-Behnken design. Results showed that 75% aqueous ethanol was the optimal extraction solvent, and the other optimal conditions were as follows: extraction voltage of 180 V, extraction time of 1 min, solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 19 and sample particle size of 120 mesh. Under these optimized conditions, the total content of the five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) in S. chinensis collected from Baishan City located in the northeast of China was 13.89 ± 0.014 mg/g, which was well matched with the value predicted by the model. Other techniques, including heat reflux, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction, were further compared. Results suggested that STE had the highest extraction efficiency of lignans with the shortest time. It indicates that the approach proposed in this study is a simple and efficient technique for the extraction of lignans in S. chinensis.

  10. Isolation and identification of new phytoconstituents from the fruit extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopal; Chauhan, Baby; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) (large cardamom), cultivated in the northern Himalayas, are used to treat stomach disorders, pulmonary diseases and liver complaints. Phytochemical investigation of the fruits led to the isolation of four new chemical compounds characterised as geranil-3(10)-en-9-olyl octadec-9-enoate, geranil-3(10)-en-9-carboxyl-β-D-arabinopyranoside, geranilan-9-carboxy-α-L-arabinopyranoside and stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-3β-D-arabinopyranosyl-2'-(3″-methoxy) benzoate-3'-octadec-9‴,12‴,15‴-trienoate, along with the known compounds oleodilinolein and glyceryl trilinoleniate on the basis of spectral data analysis. PMID:24274834

  11. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

    2014-01-01

    To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

  12. Mangifera indica fruit extract improves memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

    2014-01-01

    To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg · kg(-1) BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg · kg(-1) BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism.

  13. Influence of sonication treatments and extraction solvents on the phenolics and antioxidants in star fruits.

    PubMed

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Min-Tze, Liong; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of sonication treatments (time intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min.) on phenolics and other antioxidant compounds in starfruits extracted in methanol and water. Overall, methanolic extracts exhibited significantly higher extractability, percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) value, antioxidant capacity, flavonoids, total phenolics and tannins (p < 0.05) compared to control (0 min) and aqueous extracts. Methanolic extract obtained after 30 min of sonication proved to be the best treatment with regard to various parameters evaluated. Results of the present study clearly indicated sonication treatments to be effective in enhancing the antioxidant compounds in starfruit extracts and could be further explored for commercial purposes to benefit the consumers. PMID:23904662

  14. Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

  15. Influence of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extraction on phenolic contents, betacyanin contents, and antioxidant capacity of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.

  16. Remnant B-cell-stimulative and anti-oxidative effects of Persea americana fruit extract studied in rats introduced into streptozotocin - induced hyperglycaemic state.

    PubMed

    Rao, U S Mahadeva; Adinew, Bizuneh

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-stimulative and anti-oxidative effects of Persea americana fruit extract were evaluated using streptozotocin (STZ). Ethanol extract of P. americana in the concentration of 300 mg/kg body weight/rat /day was orally administered to rats introduced into STZ-induced hyperglycaemic state for a period of 30 days. After the treatment with avocado fruit extract, the elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood urea and serum creatinine seen in the hyperglycaemic rats, reverted back to near normal. Similarly, significantly decreased plasma insulin and haemoglobin levels went back to near normal after the treatment, suggesting the insulin-stimulative effect of P. americana fruit. Determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, confirmed the anti-oxidative potential of avocado fruit extract which, in turn, might be responsible for its hypoglycaemic potential. Changes in activities of enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) seen in the control and experimental rats, revealed the tissue-protective nature of Persea americana fruits, while all of the analysed biochemical parameters were comparable to those obtained with gliclazide as a standard reference drug.

  17. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Nur Akmal; Ismail, Maznah; Hamid, Muhajir; Ahmad, Zalinah; Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah

    2013-01-01

    Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD) and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats. PMID:23762147

  18. Effects of the Combined Extracts of Grape Pomace and Omija Fruit on Hyperglycemia and Adiposity in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Ryu, Ri; Ryoo, Jae Young; Moon, Byoung Seok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Grape products have been known to exert greater antioxidant and anti-obesity than anti-hyperglycemic effects in animals and humans. Omija is used as an ingredient in traditional medicine, and it is known to have an anti-hyperglycemic effect. We investigated whether the combined extracts of grape pomace and omija fruit (GE+OE) could reduce fat accumulation in adipose and hepatic tissues and provide beneficial effects against hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic mice. C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed either a normal control diet or GE+OE (0.5% grape pomace extract and 0.05% omija fruit extract, w/w) for 7 weeks. GE+OE decreased plasma leptin and resistin levels while increasing adiponectin levels and reducing the total white adipose tissue weight. Furthermore, GE+OE lowered plasma free fatty acid (FFA), triglyceride, and total-cholesterol levels as well as hepatic FFA and cholesterol levels. Hepatic fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were decreased in the GE+OE group, whereas hepatic β-oxidation activity was increased. Furthermore, GE+OE supplementation not only reduced hyperglycemia and pancreatic β-cell failure but also lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin levels. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels was also decreased and the decrease seems to be mediated by the lowered activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases. The present data suggest that GE+OE may have the potential to reduce hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26175996

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133 mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333 mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133 mg MLE and 67 mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333 mg MLE and 167 mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity.

  20. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Adansonia digitata L. fruit pulp extract, characterization, and its antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chennareddy Maruthi Kesava; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Savithramma, Nataru

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, we report a cost-effective, eco-friendly, and an efficient alternative method for large scale production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Adansonia digitata fruit pulp extract. The study mainly focused on the synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of AgNPs. Materials and Methods: Synthesis of AgNPs with the help of standard protocol and characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDAX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and explore their potential growth inhibitory effect on 07 bacterial and 05 fungal pathogens. Results: The synthesized AgNPs are characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry shows a broad peak at 434 nm. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis clearly reveals phenols and proteins are main responsible for reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD studies show the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature owing 44 nm in size. EDAX spectrum shows a 33.28 weight percentage of Ag metal in the reaction medium confirms the purity of AgNPs. High resolution and magnification studies with AFM, SEM, and TEM reveal the nanoparticles are polydispersed, spherical in shape, having the size range from 3 to 57 nm without any agglomeration between the particles. Further, the antimicrobial studies reveal the potentiality of nanoparticles against different microbial pathogens. Conclusion: The present study is mainly focused on the synthesis of AgNPs from A. digitata fruit pulp extract. Here, we succeed to synthesize a narrow range of particles and validate its potential antimicrobial activity on different microorganisms. Based on this, we conclude that A. digitata pulp extract is a good source toward the reduction of AgNPs and acts as environment benign antimicrobial agents. PMID:27069729

  1. Effects of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) oil extraction on the cell wall composition of almond fruits.

    PubMed

    Femenia, A; García-Marín, M; Simal, S; Rosselló, C; Blasco, M

    2001-12-01

    Extraction of oil from almond fruits using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) was carried out at 50 degrees C and 330 bar on three sets of almonds: raw almond seeds, raw almond kernels, and toasted almond seeds. Three different oil extraction percentages were applied on each set ranging from approximately 15 to 16%, from approximately 27 to 33%, and from approximately 49 to 64%. Although no major changes were detected in the fatty acid composition between fresh and partially defatted samples, carbohydrate analysis of partially defatted materials revealed important changes in cell wall polysaccharides from almond tissues. Thus, at low extraction percentages (up to approximately 33%), pectic polysaccharides and hemicellulosic xyloglucans were the main type of polymers affected, suggesting the modification of the cell wall matrix, although without breakage of the walls. Then, as supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) continues and higher extraction rates are achieved (up to approximately 64%), a major disruption of the cell wall occurred as indicated by the losses of all major types of cell wall polysaccharides, including cellulose. These results suggest that, under the conditions used for oil extraction using SC-CO(2), fatty acid chains are able to exit the cells through nonbroken walls; the modification of the pectin-hemicellulose network might have increased the porosity of the wall. However, as high pressure is being applied, there is a progressive breakage of the cell walls allowing the free transfer of the fatty acid chains from inside the cells. These findings might contribute to providing the basis for the optimization of SCFE procedures based on plant food sources.

  2. Effects of Ziziphus jujuba fruit extracts on cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2) activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin-Yue; Peng, Yun-Ru; Wang, Xin-Min; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-08-01

    Drug-drug interactions have become a serious problem in the clinic, since plant-based medicines are extensively used. The present study investigated the effects of Ziziphus jujuba fruit (ZJ) extract on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin, a typical substrate of a cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP 1A2, in rats. The rats were pretreated with the water extract (1.0 g · kg(-1)) or the ethanolic extract (3.6 g · kg(-1)) of ZJ for 10 days, and the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin was investigated after intravenous administration. In an in vitro assay, acetaminophen formation in the hepatic microsomes of ZJ-treated rats was investigated to assess CYP1A2 activity. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with the water and ethanolic extracts of ZJ decreased the plasma concentration of phenacetin and increased the plasma concentration of acetaminophen, resulting in a 43.2% and 15.5% reduction in the AUC0-120 of phenacetin, respectively, and a 53.2% and 64.9% increase in the AUC0-120 of acetaminophen, respectively after intravenous administration. The water or ethanolic extract of ZJ significantly increased the clearance of phenacetin and acetaminophen formation in hepatic microsomes. In conclusion, ZJ extracts displayed effects on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin and increased the CYP1A2 activity in rats. Therefore, precaution on drug-drug interactions should be taken when ZJ is co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, which may result in decreased concentrations of these drugs.

  3. Comparative study of the effect of auxiliary energies on the extraction of Citrus fruit components.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2015-11-01

    A comparative study of methods for ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and superheated liquid extraction (SHLE) of compounds from citrus has been performed. The suited conditions for each method were evaluated to maximize the concentration of 10 representative compounds (sugars, carboxylic acids, phenolic acids and flavonoids) by a desirability function approach based on the chromatographic peaks obtained by LC-DAD. Extracts obtained under the suited conditions were analyzed by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The ANOVA on the molecular entities showed 232 significant entities (p<0.01), and pairwise comparison revealed that USAE and MAE methods are the most similar (50 different entities), and USAE and SHLE the most dissimilar (224 different entities). A discrimination test by PCA showed a clear discrimination among the extraction methods, explaining 78.51% of the total variability. Similarities in the abundance of the monitored compounds was tested by ANOVA showing that the extraction of carboxylic acids (malic and citric acids) was equal by all methods; while for each of the other eight compounds, at least one extraction method is different from the others. Under the evaluated conditions the SHLE method is the less favorable to extract metabolites from citrus, being the best the USAE method.

  4. Evaluation of antigout activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sarvaiya, Vaidehi N.; Sadariya, Kamlesh A.; Pancha, Prakash G.; Thaker, Aswin M.; Patel, Aashish C.; Prajapati, Ankit S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate antigout activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica fruits following its 28 days repeated oral administration on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 42 male Sprague-Dawely rats dividing them in seven groups having six rats in each group. Groups I, II, and III served as vehicle control group, gout control group, and standard treatment control group, respectively. Rats of all the groups except vehicle control group were administered potassium oxonate at 250 mg/kg (IP), throughout the study period (28 days) for induction of gout. Groups IV and V received aqueous extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and Groups VI and VII received alcoholic extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). At the end of study, all the rats were subjected to blood collection; blood and serum sample were analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, respectively. After collection of blood samples on the 29th day, all the rats were sacrificed and subjected to post mortem examination to determine the presence or absence of gross and histopathological lesions in kidney tissues. Results: At the end of study, rats of gout control group showed increase in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme level along with alterations in kidney tissues as compared to vehicle control group. Gouty rats treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and standard treatment allopurinol at 5 mg/kg body weight showed reduction in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, BUN, and XO enzyme level along with significant improvements in histological structure of kidney as compared to rats of gout control group. Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica fruits for 28 days has shown protection against

  5. Protective effects of Ligustrum lucidum fruit extract on acute butylated hydroxytoluene-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, H M; Yen, F L; Ng, L T; Lin, C C

    2007-04-20

    Nuzhenzi, the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (Oleaceae), is commonly used as tonic for kidney and liver in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of Ligustrum lucidum fruits (ELL) and its effects on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Results showed that ELL possesses weak antioxidant activities. Compared to the BHT (1000mg/kg)-treated group, results showed that ELL at 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT), alkaline phosphatase (sALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglyceride (TG) and creatinine (Cr), as well as LDH in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). It also significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxides in liver and lung. In addition, ELL significantly enhanced the levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in these organs. Histopathological evaluation of the tissues revealed that ELL reduced the incidence of lung lesions, while the liver and kidney tissues were not affected by BHT administration. Taken together, the protective effect of ELL against acute BHT-induced oxidative stress in rats could be through the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

  6. Protective effects of Ligustrum lucidum fruit extract on acute butylated hydroxytoluene-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, H M; Yen, F L; Ng, L T; Lin, C C

    2007-04-20

    Nuzhenzi, the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (Oleaceae), is commonly used as tonic for kidney and liver in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of Ligustrum lucidum fruits (ELL) and its effects on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Results showed that ELL possesses weak antioxidant activities. Compared to the BHT (1000mg/kg)-treated group, results showed that ELL at 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT), alkaline phosphatase (sALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglyceride (TG) and creatinine (Cr), as well as LDH in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). It also significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxides in liver and lung. In addition, ELL significantly enhanced the levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in these organs. Histopathological evaluation of the tissues revealed that ELL reduced the incidence of lung lesions, while the liver and kidney tissues were not affected by BHT administration. Taken together, the protective effect of ELL against acute BHT-induced oxidative stress in rats could be through the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:17157464

  7. Extracts of passion fruit peel and seed of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) attenuate oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kandandapani, Salanee; Balaraman, Ashok K; Ahamed, Haja N

    2015-09-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the anti-diabetic potential of passion fruit Passiflora edulis (EPE) extracts in diabetic rats, following Streptozotocin (STZ) induced oxidative stress. Thirty adult Wistar rats were divided into five groups, with six rats in each group. The control rats were injected intraperitoneally with citrate buffer (pH 4.5). The remaining groups of rats were administered single dose of 45 mg·kg(-1) of STZ by intraperitoneal route to induce diabetes. The diabetic animals were treated with 250 and 500 mg·kg(-1) of EPE and glibenclamide 0.6 mg·kg(-1) for fifteen days by oral route. Blood glucose, end organ oxidative stress marker, and anti-oxidants were assayed. Further, histopathological investigation of pancreas was studied at the end of the experimentation. The results revealed that subacute administration of EPE significantly (P < 0.001) controlled the blood glucose level in the diabetic rats. In addition, EPE extract protected the end organs by restoring the anti-oxidants enzyme, significantly increasing super oxide dismutase level (SOD) and decreasing catalase (CAT) and TBARS level in visceral organs. In conclusion, that EPE extracts showed anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant potential against streptozotocin-induced diabetes. PMID:26412428

  8. Sensory quality of functional beverages: bitterness perception and bitter masking of olive leaf extract fortified fruit smoothies.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Peter; Braun, Nina; Schulze, Nadine; Kunz, Benno

    2010-08-01

    Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains high amounts of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of these polyphenols makes OLE a promising ingredient for functional food. OLE causes very strong bitterness perception and can therefore only be formulated in low concentrations. In this research, bitter detection and recognition thresholds of OLE-fortified fruit smoothies were determined by a trained sensory panel (n = 11). Masking of the OLE's bitter taste was investigated with addition of sodium cyclamate, sodium chloride, and sucrose by means of a standardized ranking method and a scale test. Detection (5.78 mg/100 g) and recognition thresholds (8.05 mg/100 g) of OLE polyphenols confirmed the low formulation limits when bitterness was not masked by other substances. At higher polyphenol levels of 20 mg/100 g, sodium cyclamate and sucrose were able to reduce bitter taste perception by 39.9% and 24.9%, respectively, whereas sodium chloride could not effectively mask bitterness. Practical Application: Development of functional food poses new challenges for the food industry. A major problem in this field is the high bitterness of natural polyphenol-containing extracts with potential health benefits. This research was conducted to understand the sensory impact of olive leaf extract (OLE), a novel food ingredient with very bitter taste. In product development, the data of this research can be considered for formulation limits and the general sensory quality of OLE-fortified food and beverages.

  9. Investigation of fruit peel extracts as sources for compounds with antioxidant and antiproliferative activities against human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khonkarn, Ruttiros; Okonogi, Siriporn; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Anuchapreeda, Songyot

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against human cell lines of fruit peel extracts from rambutan, mangosteen and coconut. The highest antioxidant activity was found from rambutan peel crude extract where the highest radical scavenging capacity via ABTS assay was from its ethyl acetate fraction with a TEAC value of 23.0mM/mg and the highest ferric ion reduction activity via FRAP assay was from its methanol fraction with an EC value of 20.2mM/mg. Importantly, using both assays, these fractions had a higher antioxidant activity than butylated hydroxyl toluene and vitamin E. It was shown that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel had the highest polyphenolic content with a gallic acid equivalent of 2.3mg/mL. The results indicate that the polyphenolic compounds are responsible for the observed antioxidant activity of the extracts. Interestingly, the hexane fraction of coconut peel showed a potent cytotoxic effect on KB cell line by MTT assay (IC(50)=7.7 microg/mL), and no detectable cytotoxicity toward normal cells. We concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel is a promising resource for potential novel antioxidant agents whereas the hexane fraction of coconut peel may contain novel anticancer compounds. PMID:20510336

  10. The protective effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and its lignans against cardiovascular disease: a review of the molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jung Nyeo; Cho, Minsoo; So, Insuk; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SCE) has traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Advances in scientific knowledge and analytical technologies provide opportunities for translational research involving S. chinensis; such research may contribute to future drug discovery. To date, emerging experimental evidence supports the therapeutic effects of the SCE or its bioactive lignan ingredients in cardiovascular disease, unraveling the mechanistic basis for their pharmacological actions. In the present review, we highlight SCE and its lignans as promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against cardiovascular disease. Moreover, we offer novel insight into future challenges and perspective on S. chinensis research to future clinical investigations and healthcare strategies.

  11. Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays for cyprodinil residue analysis in QuEChERS-based fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Quiñones-Reyes, Guillermo; Agulló, Consuelo; Mercader, Josep V; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2015-11-15

    Cyprodinil is among the most common agrochemical residues found in highly perishable fruits, such as strawberries. In the present study, high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to this anilinopyrimidine fungicide were raised for the first time with the aim to produce valuable immunochemical analytical assays. Cyprodinil bioconjugates and the generated novel monoclonal antibodies were employed for sensitive competitive immunoassay development in two different formats. The limits of detection of the optimized assays were 20 and 30 ng L(-1) for the indirect and direct assay, respectively. Influence over assay parameters of different physicochemical factors was studied. Strawberry samples were extracted following the recommended QuEChERS procedure for pesticide residues in food, and analyzed by the optimized immunoassays. Recoveries and coefficients of variation from fortified samples were within standard values. In addition, the obtained immunochemical results with naturally contaminated samples were statistically comparable, according to Deming regression analysis, to those of a reference chromatographic method.

  12. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2014-03-01

    Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops. PMID:24321691

  13. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2014-03-01

    Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops.

  14. Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with extracts from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani as sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2013-03-01

    Natural dyes extracted from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies indicated the presence of β-carotene in the fruits of ivy gourd and anthocyanins in the flowers of red frangipani. The extract of the flowers of red frangipani exhibits higher photosensitized performance compared to the fruits of ivy gourd and this is due to the better charge transfer between the dyes of flowers of red frangipani and the TiO2 photoanode surface.

  15. Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with extracts from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani as sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2013-03-01

    Natural dyes extracted from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies indicated the presence of β-carotene in the fruits of ivy gourd and anthocyanins in the flowers of red frangipani. The extract of the flowers of red frangipani exhibits higher photosensitized performance compared to the fruits of ivy gourd and this is due to the better charge transfer between the dyes of flowers of red frangipani and the TiO(2) photoanode surface.

  16. Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, A.; Hajhashemi, V.; Abrishami, R.

    2012-01-01

    Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities. This study was designed to evaluate its effect on suppression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs. Hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts were prepared according to the standard methods. Male mice (25-30 g) were made dependent by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses (30-90 mg/kg) of morphine. Withdrawal syndrome was elicited by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and number of jumpings and also presence of ptosis, hyperventilation, piloerection, tremor and diarrhea were evaluated during a 30 min period started immediately after naloxone injection. The hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg and the polyphenolic extract at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg significantly (P<0.05) inhibited jumpings. Both extracts inhibited tremor significantly (P<0.01). Also the maximum applied dose of the extracts significantly (P<0.05) reduced ptosis. These results clearly show that Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal and further studies are needed to find out the responsible constituents and also the mechanism of their actions. PMID:23181090

  17. Chemical composition, protoscolicidal effects and acute toxicity of Pistacia atlantica Desf. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Ghasemi Kia, Mehdi; Tavakoli Kareshk, Amir; Yarahmadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and scolicidal effects of Pistacia atlantica Desf. extract against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and its acute toxicity in mice model. Various concentrations of the methanolic extract (5-50 mg/mL) were used for 10-60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1%). Acute toxicity was also determined in mice model. The main components were β-myrcene (41.4%), α-pinene (32.48%) and limonene (4.66%). Findings demonstrated that P. atlantica extract at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL after 20 and 10 min of exposure killed 100% protoscoleces. The LD50 of the intraperitoneal injection of the P. atlantica methanolic extract was 2.43 g/kg and the maximum non-fatal dose was 1.66 g/kg. Obtained results showed the potential of P. atlantica extract as a natural source with no significant toxicity for the production of new scolicidal agent to use in hydatid cyst surgery. PMID:26252652

  18. Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghannadi, A; Hajhashemi, V; Abrishami, R

    2012-07-01

    Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities. This study was designed to evaluate its effect on suppression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs. Hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts were prepared according to the standard methods. Male mice (25-30 g) were made dependent by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses (30-90 mg/kg) of morphine. Withdrawal syndrome was elicited by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and number of jumpings and also presence of ptosis, hyperventilation, piloerection, tremor and diarrhea were evaluated during a 30 min period started immediately after naloxone injection. The hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg and the polyphenolic extract at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg significantly (P<0.05) inhibited jumpings. Both extracts inhibited tremor significantly (P<0.01). Also the maximum applied dose of the extracts significantly (P<0.05) reduced ptosis. These results clearly show that Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal and further studies are needed to find out the responsible constituents and also the mechanism of their actions.

  19. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC's were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC's are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  20. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Dasan, Y. K. Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-22

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  1. Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-04-15

    Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days.

  3. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Javidnia, K; Dastgheib, L; Mohammadi Samani, S; Nasiri, A

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. In this study we evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a plant, which has been used as an estrogenic agent. The ethanolic extract of Fennel was obtained by using a soxhlete apparatus. In a double blind study, 38 patients were treated with creams containing 1%, 2% of Fennel extract and placebo. Hair diameter was measured and rate of growth was considered. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% Fennel is better than the cream containing 1% Fennel and these two were more potent than placebo. The mean values of hair diameter reduction was 7.8%, 18.3% and -0.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%, 2% and 0% (placebo) respectively.

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  5. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. PMID:25911166

  6. Extraction and purification of polysaccharides from pine medicinal mushroom, Tricholoma matsutake (higher Basidiomycetes) fruit bodies.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping; Jiang, Zhonghai

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction, purification, and characterization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Tricholoma matsutake were carried out. On the basis of the results of a single-factor test, three independent and main variables, including extraction time (X1: 130-170 s), ultrasonic power (X2: 340-380 W), and ratio of water to raw material (X3: 45-55 mL/g) were studied by Box-Behnken design. The optimum extraction conditions are as follows: extraction time 160 s, ultrasonic power 365 W, and ratio of water to raw material 53.5 mL/g. Under the optimized conditions, the yield of T. matsutake polysaccharides (TMP) was 7.97±0.31%. The crude TMP was purified by DEAE-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography to afford two fractions, TMP-1 and TMP-2. The crude TMP contained 85.76% carbohydrates, 3.57% proteins, and 0.13% uronic acids. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, fucose, and glucuronic acid residues.

  7. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-10-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  8. Potential natural sensitizers extracted from the skin of Canarium odontophyllum fruits for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Andery; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Tan, Ai Ling; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Chandrakanthi, R. L. N.; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Ming, Lim Chee; Senadeera, G. K. R.; Ekanayake, Piyasiri

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of use of dye extract from skin samples of a seasonal, indigenous fruit from Borneo, namely Canarium odontophyllum, in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are explored. Three main groups of flavonoid pigments are detected and these pigments exhibit different UV-vis absorption properties, and hence showing different light harvesting capabilities. When applied in DSSCs. The detected pigment constituents of the extract consist of aurone (maritimein), anthocyanidin (pelargonidin) and anthocyanidin (cyanidin derivatives). When tested in DSSC, the highest conversion efficiency of 1.43% is exhibited by cyanidin derivatives, and this is followed by conversion efficiencies of 0.51% and 0.79% for aurone and pelargonidin, respectively. It is shown that individual pigments, like cyanidin derivatives and pelargonidin, exhibit higher power conversion efficiency when compared to that of C.odontophyllum skin pigment mixture (with a conversion efficiency of only 0.68%). The results indicate a possibility of masking effects of the pigments when used as a mixture. The acidification of C.odontophyllum skin pigments with concentrated hydrochloric acid improves the conversion efficiency of the mixture from 0.68% to 0.99%. The discussion in this paper will draw data and observations from the variation in absorption and adsorption properties, the HOMO-LUMO levels, the energy band gaps and the functional group compositions of the detected flavonoids.

  9. Efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asgar; Hei, Goh Kar; Keat, Yeoh Wei

    2016-03-01

    Effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (GO) and 1.5 % ginger extract (GE) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (GA) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of Eksotika II papaya fruit during storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 80-85 % RH. Antifungal compounds present in GO and GE were analyzed using gas chromatography and GO was found to contain α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole and borneol, while only borneol was present in GE due to different extraction methods applied. The highest antifungal activity was shown in 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA, which significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited spore germination by 93 %. Based on the physicochemical properties tested, 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA significantly delayed the ripening of papaya. These results show that 10.0 % GA combined with 2.0 % GO is an effective postharvest biofungicide for papaya. PMID:27570268

  10. Potential natural sensitizers extracted from the skin of Canarium odontophyllum fruits for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Andery; Kumara, N T R N; Tan, Ai Ling; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Chandrakanthi, R L N; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Ming, Lim Chee; Senadeera, G K R; Ekanayake, Piyasiri

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of use of dye extract from skin samples of a seasonal, indigenous fruit from Borneo, namely Canarium odontophyllum, in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are explored. Three main groups of flavonoid pigments are detected and these pigments exhibit different UV-vis absorption properties, and hence showing different light harvesting capabilities. When applied in DSSCs. The detected pigment constituents of the extract consist of aurone (maritimein), anthocyanidin (pelargonidin) and anthocyanidin (cyanidin derivatives). When tested in DSSC, the highest conversion efficiency of 1.43% is exhibited by cyanidin derivatives, and this is followed by conversion efficiencies of 0.51% and 0.79% for aurone and pelargonidin, respectively. It is shown that individual pigments, like cyanidin derivatives and pelargonidin, exhibit higher power conversion efficiency when compared to that of C.odontophyllum skin pigment mixture (with a conversion efficiency of only 0.68%). The results indicate a possibility of masking effects of the pigments when used as a mixture. The acidification of C.odontophyllum skin pigments with concentrated hydrochloric acid improves the conversion efficiency of the mixture from 0.68% to 0.99%. The discussion in this paper will draw data and observations from the variation in absorption and adsorption properties, the HOMO-LUMO levels, the energy band gaps and the functional group compositions of the detected flavonoids.

  11. Modulatory effect of coffee fruit extract on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania; Nemzer, Boris; Shu, Cynthia; Huynh, Lan; Argumedo, Ruby; Keller, Robert; Pietrzkowski, Zb

    2013-08-28

    The present single-dose study was performed to assess the effect of whole coffee fruit concentrate powder (WCFC), green coffee caffeine powder (N677), grape seed extract powder (N31) and green coffee bean extract powder (N625) on blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Randomly assorted groups of fasted subjects consumed a single, 100mg dose of each material. Plasma samples were collected at time zero (T0) and at 30 min intervals afterwards, up to 120 min. A total of two control groups were included: subjects treated with silica dioxide (as placebo) or with no treatment. The collected data revealed that treatments with N31 and N677 increased levels of plasma BDNF by about 31% under these experimental conditions, whereas treatment with WCFC increased it by 143% (n 10), compared with baseline. These results indicate that WCFC could be used for modulation of BDNF-dependent health conditions. However, larger clinical studies are needed to support this possibility.

  12. Antioxidant, free radical-scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of different solvent extracts and their phenolic constituents from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).

    PubMed

    Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopi, Praneet; Sukma, Monrudee; Sittisombut, Chavalit; Kat, Atsushi; Adachi, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidative, skin protective activities, and cytotoxicity of three extracts (water, methanol, and hexane) from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Guttiferae)) and their phenolic constituents such as alpha-mangostin, epicatechin, and tannin, were evaluated. The amounts of alpha-mangostin, total flavonoid, and total tannin were different among the three extracts, except those of total tannin in methanol and hexane extracts. For the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical-scavenging, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation experiment, the water extract showed higher activity than the methanol extract and hexane extract. alpha-Mangostin, epicatechin, and tannin also revealed these antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. When added simultaneously with H(2)O(2) (200 microM) to keratinocyte cells, the water extract (50 microg/mL), epicatechin (200 microM), and tannin (200 microM) effectively protected cells from oxidative damage, but the methanol extract, hexane extract, and alpha-mangostin did not. The methanol extract and hexane extract exhibited moderate cytotoxicity, whereas alpha-mangostin showed strong cytotoxicity. The present study provides the evidence that Garcinia mangostana extracts, especially the G. mangostana water extract, act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage, which is at least partly due to its phenolic compounds in mangosteen.

  13. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results.

  14. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results. PMID:25694147

  15. Aqueous extract of dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris L. in acne vulgaris, a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Rohollah F

    2012-12-01

    Berberis vulgaris L. (barberry) is a very well-known herb in traditional medicine. Apart from its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the antilipogenic effect of barberry on the sebaceous glands in animals may further suggest it could be employed as an anti-acne agent. This study examined the effect of oral aqueous extract of barberry on acne vulgaris. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were randomly given oral gelatin capsules containing either aqueous extract of dried barberry (600 mg daily for 4 weeks, n = 25) or placebo (n = 24). Counts of facial noninflamed, inflamed, and total acne lesions, as well as the Michaelson's acne severity score were documented at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Both groups were comparable in terms of the patients' characteristics and baseline variables. After 4 weeks, the mean number of noninflamed, inflamed, and total lesions as well as mean Michaelson's acne severity score declined significantly by 43.25 ± 10.88% (median: 42.11%), 44.53 ± 11.78% (median: 45.45%), 44.64 ± 8.46% (median: 46.15%), and 44.38 ± 8.25% (median: 44.07%), respectively, among the extract receivers (p <.001 for all the changes). Similar changes were not significant in the placebo group. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to barberry. In conclusion, oral aqueous extract of dried barberry is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in teenagers with moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

  16. Comparative analysis of Tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.

    PubMed

    Belkhir, Manel; Rebai, Olfa; Dhaouadi, Karima; Congiu, Francesca; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Amri, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-10-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (≈168 and 79 μmol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (≈378 and 161 μmol Fe(2+)/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content. PMID:24070066

  17. Anti-inflammatory properties of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium: the effect of gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar

    2013-03-01

    Enrichment of fruit juices with pine bark extract (PBE) could be a strategy to compensate for phenolic losses during the gastrointestinal digestion. A coculture system with Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages was established as an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium for evaluating the anti-inflammatory capacity of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g L(-1)) before and after in vitro digestion. The digestion of both PBE-enriched pineapple and red fruit juice led to significant changes in most of the analysed phenolic compounds. The in vitro inflammatory state showed cell barrier dysfunction and overproduction of IL-8, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the inflamed cells, incubation with nondigested samples reduced (P<0.05) the production of IL-8 and NO compared with digested samples. ROS production increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested commercial red fruit juice (86.8±1.3%) compared with fresh juice (77.4±0.8%) and increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested enriched red fruit juice (82.6±1.6%) compared with the fresh enriched juice (55.8±6%). The anti-inflammatory properties of PBE-enriched fruit juices decreased after digestion; further research on the bioavailability of the assayed compounds is needed to properly assess their usefulness for the treatment of gut inflammation.

  18. A single-step solid phase extraction for the simultaneous determination of 8 mycotoxins in fruits by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Jiang, Nan; Xian, Hong; Wei, Dizhe; Shi, Lei; Feng, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-15

    A simple and rapid extraction procedure for the simultaneous determination of eight mycotoxins (Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, citrinin) in a variety of fruit matrices has been developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The procedure involves a one-step cleanup using homemade solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. By comparative evaluation among six various adsorbents (C18, PSA, HLB, MCX, Silica, NH2), the combination of MCX and NH2 was found to provide the most effective cleanup, removing the greatest number of matrix interferences and also allowing the quantification of all analyzed mycotoxins in fruits. The optimized extraction conditions including acidified aqueous acetonitrile and an additional salt-out step using NaCl were employed before SPE cleanup. Method validation was performed by analyzing samples spiked at three levels (LOQ, 2 LOQ and 10 LOQ). Four fruits including apple, sweet cherry, tomato and orange fruits were selected, and accuracy (recovery%), precision (RSD%), limits of quantification (LOQ), linearity and matrix effect were evaluated during validation. Matrix-matched linearity with correlation coefficients ≥ 0.9921 was established in the range of 5-200 ng mL(-1) for patulin and 1-200 ng mL(-1) for other mycotoxins, respectively. Recoveries between 74.2% and 102.4% and relative standard deviations lower than 4.7% were obtained for all tested fruits. The matrix effect observed was low (≤ ± 17%) in all three fruit matrixes with the exception of orange, for which strong ion suppression was observed for alternariol (25.3%), ochratoxin A (31.6%) and citrinin (40.3%). Therefore, matrix-matched calibration was used for a correct quantification in order to compensate for matrix effect. The limits of quantification (LOQ), ranging from 1 to 5 μg kg(-1) depending on mycotoxins type, were always lower than maximum permitted levels for every regulated mycotoxin by the current European

  19. Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Croteau, R

    1984-11-15

    Ascaridole, an asymmetric monoterpene endoperoxide with anthelmintic properties, occurs as a major constituent (60-80%) in the volatile oil of American wormseed fruit (Chenopodium ambrosioides: Chenopodiaceae), and as a lesser component in the leaf pocket oil of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus: Monimiaceae). Determination of optical activity and chromatographic resolution of naturally occurring ascaridole, and several synthetic derivatives, showed that both wormseed and boldo produce ascaridole in racemic form. The biosynthesis of ascaridole from the conjugated, symmetrical diene alpha-terpinene (a major component of the oil from wormseed) was shown to be catalyzed by a soluble iodide peroxidase isolated from homogenates of C. ambrosioides fruit and leaves. The enzymatic synthesis of ascaridole was confirmed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the product, which was also shown to be racemic. Optimal enzymatic activity occurred at pH 4.0 in the presence of 2.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM NaI. Soluble enzyme extracts were fractionated by gel filtration on both Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-100, and were shown to consist of a high-molecular-weight peroxidase component (Mr greater than 1,000,000, 30% of total activity) and two other peroxidase species having apparent molecular weights of 62,000 and 45,000 (major component). Peroxidase activity was susceptible to proteolytic destruction only after periodate treatment, suggesting an association of the enzyme(s) with polysaccharide material. Ascaridole biosynthesis from alpha-terpinene was inhibited by cyanide, catalase, and reducing agents, but not by compounds that trap superoxide or quench singlet oxygen. A peroxide transfer reaction initiated by peroxidase-generated I+ is proposed for the conversion of alpha-terpinene to ascaridole. PMID:6497393

  20. Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Croteau, R

    1984-11-15

    Ascaridole, an asymmetric monoterpene endoperoxide with anthelmintic properties, occurs as a major constituent (60-80%) in the volatile oil of American wormseed fruit (Chenopodium ambrosioides: Chenopodiaceae), and as a lesser component in the leaf pocket oil of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus: Monimiaceae). Determination of optical activity and chromatographic resolution of naturally occurring ascaridole, and several synthetic derivatives, showed that both wormseed and boldo produce ascaridole in racemic form. The biosynthesis of ascaridole from the conjugated, symmetrical diene alpha-terpinene (a major component of the oil from wormseed) was shown to be catalyzed by a soluble iodide peroxidase isolated from homogenates of C. ambrosioides fruit and leaves. The enzymatic synthesis of ascaridole was confirmed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the product, which was also shown to be racemic. Optimal enzymatic activity occurred at pH 4.0 in the presence of 2.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM NaI. Soluble enzyme extracts were fractionated by gel filtration on both Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-100, and were shown to consist of a high-molecular-weight peroxidase component (Mr greater than 1,000,000, 30% of total activity) and two other peroxidase species having apparent molecular weights of 62,000 and 45,000 (major component). Peroxidase activity was susceptible to proteolytic destruction only after periodate treatment, suggesting an association of the enzyme(s) with polysaccharide material. Ascaridole biosynthesis from alpha-terpinene was inhibited by cyanide, catalase, and reducing agents, but not by compounds that trap superoxide or quench singlet oxygen. A peroxide transfer reaction initiated by peroxidase-generated I+ is proposed for the conversion of alpha-terpinene to ascaridole.

  1. Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasmin; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2016-01-01

    Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence. PMID:27729866

  2. Biofabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using fruit extract of Rosa canina and their toxic potential against bacteria: A mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Jafarirad, Saeed; Mehrabi, Meysam; Divband, Baharak; Kosari-Nasab, Morteza

    2016-02-01

    The use of plant extract in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) can be an eco-friendly approach and have been suggested as a possible alternative to classic methods namely physical and chemical procedures. In this study, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs by both "conventional heating" (CH) and "microwave irradiation" (MI) methods has been reported. Stable and spherical ZnONPs were produced using zinc nitrate and flesh extract of Rosa canina fruit (rosehip) which was used as a precursor. The flesh extract acts as a reducing and capping agent for generation of ZnONPs. The structural, morphological and colloidal properties of the as-synthesized NPs have been confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). In comparison with the CH method, the MI method has some advantages such as significantly short reaction time (within 8min) owing to the high heating rate and thus the accelerated reaction rate. Both methods led to the synthesis of nearly identical NPs with respect to shape and size according to the results of DLS, XRD and SEM techniques. The possible mechanism for synthesis pathway has been proposed based on FT IR results, XRD patterns, potentiometric data and antioxidant activity. In addition, the antibacterial activity of as-prepared ZnONPs was investigated against several bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium. Moreover, the efficacy of ZnONPs to treat cancer cell lines were measured by means of cell viability test via MTT assay in which concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1mg/mL of ZnONPs induced a very low toxicity. Thus, the present investigation reveals that ZnONPs have the potential for various medical and industrial applications. PMID:26652376

  3. Biofabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using fruit extract of Rosa canina and their toxic potential against bacteria: A mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Jafarirad, Saeed; Mehrabi, Meysam; Divband, Baharak; Kosari-Nasab, Morteza

    2016-02-01

    The use of plant extract in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) can be an eco-friendly approach and have been suggested as a possible alternative to classic methods namely physical and chemical procedures. In this study, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs by both "conventional heating" (CH) and "microwave irradiation" (MI) methods has been reported. Stable and spherical ZnONPs were produced using zinc nitrate and flesh extract of Rosa canina fruit (rosehip) which was used as a precursor. The flesh extract acts as a reducing and capping agent for generation of ZnONPs. The structural, morphological and colloidal properties of the as-synthesized NPs have been confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). In comparison with the CH method, the MI method has some advantages such as significantly short reaction time (within 8min) owing to the high heating rate and thus the accelerated reaction rate. Both methods led to the synthesis of nearly identical NPs with respect to shape and size according to the results of DLS, XRD and SEM techniques. The possible mechanism for synthesis pathway has been proposed based on FT IR results, XRD patterns, potentiometric data and antioxidant activity. In addition, the antibacterial activity of as-prepared ZnONPs was investigated against several bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium. Moreover, the efficacy of ZnONPs to treat cancer cell lines were measured by means of cell viability test via MTT assay in which concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1mg/mL of ZnONPs induced a very low toxicity. Thus, the present investigation reveals that ZnONPs have the potential for various medical and industrial applications.

  4. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry.

  5. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry. PMID:25271983

  6. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    1999-08-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

  7. Biological activity of the methanol and water extracts of the fruits of anthocyanin-rich plants grown in south-west Poland.

    PubMed

    Strugala, Paulina; Dudra, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokól-Lętowska, Anna; Wojnicz, Dorota; Cisowska, Agnieszka; Walkowski, Stefan; Sroka, Zbigniew; Gabrielska, Janina; Hendrich, Andrzej B

    2015-03-01

    In this study we focused on the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of methanol and water extracts of fruits of six species grown in south-west Poland: blackberry, blackcurrant, chokeberry, cherry, gooseberry and raspberry. No general correlation could be drawn between extract chemical properties (i.e. antioxidant and free radical scavenging) and observed biological effects. However, blackcurrant and blackberry extracts (both methanol and water) appeared to be good antioxidants and free radical scavengers, as well as effective inhibitors of E. coli adhesion to the uroepithelial cells. On the other hand, the poorest antioxidants and free radical scavengers, cherry and gooseberry extracts, also poorly affected bacterial growth, swimming ability and adhesion to epithelial cells. Surprisingly, gooseberry extracts, which showed generally weak effects, appearedto be the most effective inhibitor of bacterial biofilm formation. Additionally, most of the studied extracts showed reasonably strong anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25924531

  8. Inhibition of the mechanical activity of mouse ileum by cactus pear (Opuntia Ficus Indica, L, Mill.) fruit extract and its pigment indicaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Baldassano, S; Tesoriere, L; Rotondo, A; Serio, R; Livrea, M A; Mulè, F

    2010-07-14

    We investigated, using an organ bath technique, the effects of a hydrophilic extract from Opuntia ficus indica fruit pulp (cactus fruit extract, CFE) on the motility of mouse ileum, and researched the extract component(s) responsible for the observed responses. CFE (10-320 mg of fresh fruit pulp equivalents/mL of organ bath) reduced dose-dependently the spontaneous contractions. This effect was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, a neuronal blocker, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase blocker, tetraethylammonium, a potassium channel blocker, or atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. CFE also reduced the contractions evoked by carbachol, without affecting the contractions evoked by high extracellular potassium. Indicaxanthin, but not ascorbic acid, assayed at concentrations comparable with their content in CFE, mimicked the CFE effects. The data show that CFE is able to exert direct antispasmodic effects on the intestinal motility. The CFE inhibitory effects do not involve potassium channels or voltage-dependent calcium channels but rather pathways of calcium intracellular release. The fruit pigment indicaxanthin appears to be the main component responsible for the CFE-induced effects.

  9. Identification of evodiamine as the bioactive compound in evodia (Evodia rutaecarpa Benth.) fruit extract that activates human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

    PubMed

    Rebhun, John F; Roloff, Samantha J; Velliquette, Rodney A; Missler, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    The dried unripe fruit from Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., known as Wu zhu yu in China, has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this research, we provide evidence that evodia fruit extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and, as identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy, the activating phytochemical is evodiamine. Evodiamine was shown to bind to and activate PPARγ. It was also shown to activate PPARγ-regulated gene expression in human hepatoma cells similar to known PPARγ ligands and that the expression was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of polyphenol extract from Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Hanamura, T; Aoki, H

    2008-05-01

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is known to be one of the best fruits rich in ascorbic acid and polyphenols. Acerola polyphenols (APs) were found to have radical scavenging activities and inhibitory effects on both alpha-glucosidase and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) production. While polyphenols from several foodstuffs have been shown to be safe, APs, which differ from those of other foodstuffs, have not been evaluated for their toxicological properties. Here, we report preliminary toxicological and safety evaluations of crude APs (C-AP), which were obtained by eluting an XAD7HP column-adsorbed fraction of APs with 70% ethanol containing malic acid. The total polyphenol content of C-AP was 57.7% with the main polyphenols being proanthocyanidin and cyanidin-3-alpha-O-rhamnoside. For toxicological evaluations, C-AP was administered orally to rats at doses of 2000 mg/kg body weight (acute) or 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg body weight/d for 28 (subacute) and 90 (subchronic) d. In the acute oral toxicological test, no deaths or abnormalities at necropsy on day 14 were observed, confirming that the minimum fatal dose of C-AP is greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight. In both subacute and subchronic toxicological tests, no death was recorded and the body weights and food intakes of the rats did not differ significantly from the control groups. Besides, there were no abnormal clinical signs related to administration of C-AP in any of the experimental animals. These results provide an important reference for the safety of APs as a food supplement for human consumption.

  11. Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

    2013-11-01

    The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds. PMID:23769702

  12. Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

    2013-11-01

    The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds.

  13. Role of Aqueous Extract of Morinda Citrifolia (Indian Noni) Ripe Fruits in Inhibiting Dental Caries-Causing Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Mitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasamy, Barani; Manipal, Sunayana; Duraisamy, Prabu; Ahmed, Adil; Mohanaganesh, SP; Jeevika, C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Use of alternative medicine to control oral streptococci is a new topic worthy of further investigation. This study aimed to elucidate the dose-dependent anti-bacterial activity of crude aqueous extract of ripe Morinda citrifolia L. (Family: Rubiaceae) fruits against oral streptococci i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis, that cause dental caries in humans. Methods: Fresh ripe M. citrifolia fruits (750g) were ground in an electronic blender with sterile water (500ml). The crude aqueous extract was lyophilized to yield a brown colored powder. Various concentrations (1000-100μg/ ml) of the extract were tested for its antibacterial activity (Kirby and Bauer method) against whole cells of S. mutans and S. mitis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined by micro-dilution method, using serially diluted (2 folds) fruit extract, according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results: Crude aqueous extract (1000μg/ ml) of ripe M. citrifolia fruits effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans (19±0.5 mm) and S. mitis (18.6±0.3 mm) compared to the streptomycin control (21.6±0.3 mm). The growth inhibition was clearly evident with “nil” bacteriostasis, even after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. The MIC of the extract for S. mutans and S. mitis was 125 μg and 62.5 μg, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that phytochemicals naturally synthesized by M. citrifolia have an inhibitory effect on oral streptococci. Furthermore, purification and molecular characterization of the “bioactive principle” would enable us to formulate a sustainable oral hygiene product. PMID:25628701

  14. Toxicological Evaluation of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract and its Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

    PubMed Central

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Lokesh, Prakash; Yardi, Varsha; Mojamdar, Lavanya; Keni, Deepthi Sudhir; Babu, Dinesh; Usha, Talambedu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Indian gooseberry or “Amla” in India, is used in Ayurveda as “rejuvenating herb” since ancient times. Objective: This study was carried out to estimate toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative property of MEO was assessed by in vitro assays such as phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azino-bis and 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (DPPH and ABTS method) and lipid peroxidation assay (LPO). The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats by measuring rat paw volume at different time intervals and toxicological analysis using mice. Results and Discussion: High performance liquid chromatography studies revealed the presence of gallic acid (2.10%), mucic acid (4.90%), ellagic acid (2.10%), quercetin (28.00%), rutin (3.89%), and β-glucogallin (1.46%). MEO showed highest antioxidant activities by using DPPH (17.33–89.00%), ABTS (23.03–94.16%), nitric oxide scavenging activity (12.94–70.16%), LPO (56.54%), and phosphomolybdenum assay (142 ± 6.09 μg/ml). The LD50 was found to be approximately 1125 mg/kg (p.o). High dose of MEO showed significant reduction (72.71%) in the inflammation after 4 h of treatment, which was comparable to diclofenac (10 mg/kg) (61.57%) treated group. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) markers were also observed (57.25% and 35.41%, respectively) in serum of MEO treated animals as compared to control. Conclusion: Taken together, phenolic compounds of MEO may serve as a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation due to their modulatory action on free radicals. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of Emblica

  15. Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract of the shaggy inc cap medicinal mushroom, Coprinus comatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) fruit bodies on cell growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rouhana-Toubi, Amal; Wasser, Solomon P; Agbarya, Abed; Fares, Fuad

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we screened organic extracts of different mushroom mycelia and picked ethyl acetate extract of Coprinus comatus as one of the most active extracts against human ovarian cancer cells. In the current study, we extracted a dry powder of C. comatus fruit bodies using ethyl acetate and examined its effect on the viability of three cell lines originated from human ovarian cancer (ES-2, SKOV-3, and SW-626). This extract was active against all tested cell lines, in a dose-dependent manner (concentrations 50-200 µg/mL, P<0.01). In an attempt to segregate the active fraction, we subjected the extract to chromatography on a silica gel column. The effect of six different fractions and of the crude extract on the viability of ES-2 cells was examined after exposure time of 24 h. Fraction F (last eluted) was significantly more effective than crude extract in the reduction of cell viability (P<0.01). Fraction F was also significantly more active than crude extract in the reduction of viability of SKOV-3 cells. We next identified some of the compounds of fraction F (mainly fatty acids) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In summary, ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus reduced viability of three lines of human ovarian cancer. Fractionation of this extract by a silica gel column enabled the selection of a fraction significantly more active than the original extract. PMID:24266371

  16. Extraction Optimization of Polyphenols from Waste Kiwi Fruit Seeds (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jianjun; Liu, Qingqing; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Wei; Fan, Daidi; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) seeds, present as a by-product in the food and pharmaceutical industries, remain underutilized. In this study the extraction conditions for the maximum recovery of total phenolic content (TPC) with high DPPH scavenging capacities (DPPHsc) were analyzed for kiwi fruit seed polyphenols (KSP) by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest yield of TPC (53.73 mg GAE/g DW) with 63.25% DPPHsc was found by using an extraction time of 79.65 min with an eluent containing 59.45% acetone at 38.35 °C and a 1:11.52 (w/v) solid/liquid ratio. Compared with butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT), a synthetic antioxidant, the extracted KSP showed higher DPPHsc and ferric reducing antioxidant power, but was less efficient than grape seed polyphenols extracted under the same optimum conditions. We also showed that the extracted KSP exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) analysis of the extracted KSP under optimized conditions revealed that the extract was mainly composed of five polyphenolic compounds. Our work showed the development of an optimal extraction process of the KSP, which presented excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, indicating that kiwi fruit seeds may further be utilized as a potential source of natural biological active compounds. PMID:27347920

  17. Characterization of fruit products by capillary zone electrophoresis and liquid chromatography using the compositional profiles of polyphenols: application to authentication of natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Meritxell; Núñez, Oscar; Saurina, Javier; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Puignou, Lluis

    2014-02-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were applied to the authentication of fruit products based on the compositional profiles of polyphenols. Various sample treatments were used to maximize the overall recovery of polyphenols or specific fractions, such as phenolic acids or anthocyanins. The resulting CZE and HPLC data were treated with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showing that samples were mainly clustered according to the fruit of origin, with cranberry- and grape-based products clearly separated in groups. A possible adulterated cranberry extract was analyzed more deeply by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to identify the presence of A-type proanthocyanidins, which are characteristic and more abundant in cranberry-based products. In accordance with PCA interpretation, HRMS results indicated that the suspicious sample was not a cranberry-based product, allowing us to validate and demonstrate the suitability of both CZE- and HPLC-proposed methods for the characterization of fruit-based products.

  18. Accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in fruit, leaves and shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following foliar applications of guaiacol or oak extract to grapevines.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract. Fruit, shoot and leaf samples were then collected at 3 time points between veraison and maturity, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to quantify guaiacol and its glycoconjugates, respectively. Guaiacol glycoconjugates were observed in fruit and leaves in particular, demonstrating glycosylation occurred after grapevine treatment; however, different glycoconjugate profiles were apparent.

  19. Accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in fruit, leaves and shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following foliar applications of guaiacol or oak extract to grapevines.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract. Fruit, shoot and leaf samples were then collected at 3 time points between veraison and maturity, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to quantify guaiacol and its glycoconjugates, respectively. Guaiacol glycoconjugates were observed in fruit and leaves in particular, demonstrating glycosylation occurred after grapevine treatment; however, different glycoconjugate profiles were apparent. PMID:27664698

  20. High-performance countercurrent chromatography separation of Peucedanum cervaria fruit extract for the isolation of rare coumarin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Mroczek, Tomasz; Kozioł, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, rare major and minor compounds from fruits of Peucedanum cervaria were isolated. High-performance countercurrent chromatography with two different solvent systems, heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:2:3:2 and 2:1:2:1, v/v), was successfully used in the reversed-phase mode. A scale-up process from analytical to semipreparative in a very short time was developed. The structures of isolated compounds were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. (8S,9R)-9-(3-Methylbutenoyloxy)-O-acetyl-8,9-dihydrooroselol (compound B), (8S,9R)-9-(2-methyl-Z-butenoyloxy)-O-acetyl-8,9-dihydrooroselol (edultin, compound C), and (8S,9R)-9-acetoxy-O-(2α-methylbutyryl)-8,9-dihydrooroselol (compound D) were obtained using heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:1:2:1, v/v) in <40 min. The method yielded 4.6 mg of a mixture of compounds B and C (11:89) and 3.7 mg of compound D. These amounts were obtained from the crude extract (0.5 g) in a single run. Although the compounds are known, their isolation by countercurrent chromatography and the analysis of their relative stereochemistry by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy have been performed for the first time. Additionally, heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:2:3:2, v/v) led to the isolation of oxypeucedanin (1.2 mg; compound A). This is the first time that angular dihydrofuranocoumarin was isolated from plant extract by countercurrent chromatography.

  1. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. fruit hair extract for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity

    PubMed Central

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Ghildiyal, Shivani; Nath, Gopal; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recently, we observed wound healing activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (MP) fruit hairs extract (MPE). In several intestinal infections, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we evaluated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE in different rat experimental models. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan (acute) and turpentine oil induced formalin (subacute) induced paw edema and while granuloma pouch (subacute) in rats. Analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE was undertaken by tail-flick, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests while pentobarbitone-induced hypnotic potentiation in rats. Results: MPE at a dose of 200 mg/kg at 3 h after their administration showed inhibition of formalin-induced paw edema by 41.60% (P < 0.001) and carrageenan-induced paw edema by 55.30% (P < 0.001). After 7 days of treatments, MPE showed 38.0% (P < 0.001) inhibition against formalin-induced paw edema and reduced weight of turpentine-induced granuloma pouch by 29.6% (P < 0.01) and volume of exudates by 26.1% (P < 0.01), respectively. MPE (200 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 120 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail flick method and increased reaction time in the hot-plate test while the reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 45.7% (P < 0.001). The pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis model showed potentiation, as defined by increased duration of sleep in treated group rats as compared to control. Conclusion: Thus, the study revealed MPE is effective in reducing acute and subacute inflammation and showed effective and similar analgesic activity. This seemed to be safe in the treatment of pain and inflammation. PMID:27069718

  2. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples.

  3. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples. PMID:26695329

  4. Effects of Rhus tripartitum fruit extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Nizar; Feriani, Anouar; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Saadoui, Ezzeddine; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Nasri, Nizar

    2016-08-01

    Rhus tripartitum D.C., Anacardiaceae, has traditionally been used in Tunisia against many illnesses. The present study investigates, for the first time, the protective effects of the methanol extract of Rhus tripartitum fruit (MERT) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicty in Wistar rats. ALT, AST, LDH, GGT, creatinin, urea, and uric acid levels were studied. The changes in antioxidant parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents were also determined. The increased levels of MDA (30.97 and 11.50 nmol MDA/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively) and protein carbonyls (13.4 and 17.95 nmol/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively) were attenuated by MERT pretreatment (19.35 and 6.1 nmol MDA/mg protein and 9.15 and 12 nmol/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively). The MERT pretreatment significantly reduced the increased biochemical parameters of liver and kidney caused by CCl4 and cisplatin treatment. The histopathologic observation showed that MERT pretreatment restores the altered tissues. The observed results could be due to the high phenolic content and to MERT's important antioxidant potential. This study supports the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of R. tripartitum.

  5. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a natural antioxidant/antimicrobial for high pressure processed fruit extract: processing parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components.

  6. Quantitative Screening of Agrochemical Residues in Fruits and Vegetables by Buffered Ethyl Acetate Extraction and LC-MS/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Manjusha R; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2015-05-13

    A buffered ethyl acetate extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous analysis of 296 agrochemicals in a wide range of fruit and vegetable matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The optimized quantity of acetate buffer (1% acetic acid + 0.5 g of sodium acetate per 10 g of sample) adjusted the pH of each test matrix to 5-6, which in turn significantly improved recoveries of acidic and basic compounds. The role of diethylene glycol (used in the evaporation step) on signal suppression of certain compounds was evaluated, and its quantity was optimized to minimize such an effect. The method was validated in grape, mango, drumstick, bitter gourd, capsicum, curry leaf, and okra as per the DG-SANCO/12571/2013 guidelines. Recoveries in the fortification range of 1-40 μg/kg were within 70-120% with associated relative standard deviations below 20% for most of the compounds. The method has potential for regulatory and commercial applications with a generic approach. PMID:25639652

  7. Skin-lightening effect of a polyphenol extract from Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit on UV-induced pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Takayuki; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the physiological functions of polyphenols from acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit, the effects on melanogenesis were studied. The crude polyphenol concentrated extract from acerola (C-AP) was used to examine the skin-lightening effect on brownish guinea pigs which had been subjected to controlled UVB irradiation. The results show that C-AP significantly lightened the UVB-irradiated skin pigmentation. Furthermore, treatment with C-AP reduced the content of melanin in B16 melanoma cells, suggesting that the in vivo skin-lightening effect of C-AP was due to the suppression of melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes. In addition, we found that C-AP could effectively inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity, the main constituents responsible for this effect being thought to be such anthocyanins as cyanidin-3-alpha-O-rhamnoside (C3R) and pelargonidin-3-alpha-O-rhamnoside (P3R). This result indicates that the skin-lightening effect of C-AP can be partly attributed to the suppression of melanogenesis through the inhibition of tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. An oral ingestion of C-AP may therefore be efficacious for reducing UVB-induced hyper-pigmentation by inhibiting the tyrosinase in melanocytes.

  8. The mitigating effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) fruit extract against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in mice bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Chabra, Aroona; Naghshvar, Farshad; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) (CCT) fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-)induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70 mg/kg b.w.) 1 hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24 hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs). In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P < 0.0001). At 200 mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy.

  9. Effects of Rhus tripartitum fruit extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Nizar; Feriani, Anouar; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Saadoui, Ezzeddine; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Nasri, Nizar

    2016-08-01

    Rhus tripartitum D.C., Anacardiaceae, has traditionally been used in Tunisia against many illnesses. The present study investigates, for the first time, the protective effects of the methanol extract of Rhus tripartitum fruit (MERT) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicty in Wistar rats. ALT, AST, LDH, GGT, creatinin, urea, and uric acid levels were studied. The changes in antioxidant parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents were also determined. The increased levels of MDA (30.97 and 11.50 nmol MDA/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively) and protein carbonyls (13.4 and 17.95 nmol/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively) were attenuated by MERT pretreatment (19.35 and 6.1 nmol MDA/mg protein and 9.15 and 12 nmol/mg protein in liver and kidney, respectively). The MERT pretreatment significantly reduced the increased biochemical parameters of liver and kidney caused by CCl4 and cisplatin treatment. The histopathologic observation showed that MERT pretreatment restores the altered tissues. The observed results could be due to the high phenolic content and to MERT's important antioxidant potential. This study supports the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of R. tripartitum. PMID:27351070

  10. Protective effects of vitamin E and Cornus mas fruit extract on methotrexate-induced cytotoxicity in sperms of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Leila; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Malekinejad, Hassan; Eilkhanizadeh, Behroz; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) and vitamin E (Vit E) on sperm quality parameters in the methotrexate (MTX)-treated mice. Forty-eight young adult male mice (8-12 weeks) were randomly divided into six groups including control and test groups. The control group received normal saline orally , and the test groups were treated MTX (20 mg kg-1, ip, once weekly), MTX + CMFE (250 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (500 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (1000 mg kg-1), and MTX + Vit E (100 IU kg-1, po) for 35 consecutive days. On day 35, after euthanasia the epididymal sperms were isolated. Then the total mean sperm count, sperm viability and motility were determined. The total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) of all experimental groups were also evaluated. The MTX-treated animals showed a significant changes in all parameters of sperm quality assessment compared to the control group. Both Vit E and CMFE were able to protect from MTX-induced effects on sperm maturity and DNA damage. Co-administration of MTX and CMFE and/or Vit E resulted in protection from MTX-reduced TAOC. In conclusion, these data suggested that MTX administration could adversely affect the sperm quality. Moreover, the protective effect of Vit E and CMFE on MTX-induced sperm toxicity was also documented. PMID:25568688

  11. Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K; Shah, Rajendra S; Tirgar, Pravin R; Jadav, Pinakin D

    2013-10-01

    Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

  12. Optimization of the extraction of anthocyanins from the fruit skin of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk and identification of anthocyanins in the extract using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Ling; Guo, Hong-Hui; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants. In this study, the extraction of anthocyanins from freeze-dried fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk var. Gangren) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Using 60% ethanol containing 0.1% (v/v) hydrochloric acid as extraction solvent, the optimal conditions for maximum yields of anthocyanin (4.358 ± 0.045 mg/g) were 15.7:1 (v/w) liquid to solid ratio, 64.38 °C with a 116.88 min extraction time. The results showed good fits with the proposed model for the anthocyanin extraction (R(2) = 0.9944). Furthermore, the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis of the anthocyanins extracted from the fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle revealed the presence of five anthocyanin components, which were tentatively identified as delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside.

  13. Extracts of Opuntia humifusa Fruits Inhibit the Growth of AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Park, Jieun; Park, Kun-Young; Son, Yong-Suk; Han, Hyungchul

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia humifusa (OHF) has been used as a nutraceutical source for the prevention of chronic diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extracts of OHF on the proliferation of AGS human gastric cancer cells and the mode of action were investigated. To elucidate the antiproliferative mechanisms of OHF in cancer cells, the expression of genes related to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined with real-time PCR and western blot. The cytotoxic effect of OHF on AGS cells was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to OHF (100 μg/mL) significantly induced (P<0.05) the G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Additionally, the apoptotic cell population was greater (P<0.05) in OHF (200 μg/mL) treated AGS cells when compared to the control. The expression of genes associated with cell cycle progression (Cdk4, Cdk2, and cyclin E) was significantly downregulated (P<0.05) by the OHF treatment. Moreover, the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in OHF treated cells was higher (P<0.05) than in the control. These findings suggest that OHF induces the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in AGS human gastric cancer cells. PMID:27069903

  14. Nephroprotective effect of date fruit extract against dichloroacetic acid exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    El Arem, Amira; Thouri, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous date extract (ADE) on dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced nephrotoxicity. In vitro, total phenolic content estimated in the ADE were 417.71mg gallic acid equivalents/100g fresh weights (FW), while total flavonoid and tannins contents were 285.23 and 73.65mg catechin equivalents/100g FW, respectively. The ADE has strong scavenging activity. Ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids are the major's compounds. Nephrotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of 0.5 and 2g/L DCA as drinking water. Some of these rats received also by gavage ADE (4mL/kg) before the administration of DCA. After two months of experiment, DCA administration caused elevated levels of renal MDA, significant depletion of GSH levels, altered the antioxidant enzyme activities and deteriorated the renal functions as assessed by the increased plasma urea, uric acid and creatinine levels compared to control rats. The treatment with the ADE significantly normalized the increased plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid, reduced the elevated MDA levels, significantly normalized the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level and restored the altered kidney histology in rats treated with DCA. Therefore, it was speculated that ADE protects rats from kidney damage through its antioxidant capacity.

  15. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of fruit of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Dikshit, Piyush; Shukla, Rimi; Sharma, Sonal; Gambhir, Jasvinder K

    2014-09-01

    Withania coagulans (family: Solanaceae, English: Indian Cheese Maker, Hindi: Doda Paneer) fruit is known for its ethanopharmacological significance in health care system of India. Diet rich in high-fat is an important risk factor for diabetes, atherosclerosis and macro and microvascular complications. Treatment with aqueous extract of fruit of W. coagulans (aqWC; 250 mg/kg body weight) in cholesterol-fed animals resulted in significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein, tissue lipid content and acetyl CoA carboxylase activity whereas, the level of high density lipoprotein and activity of HMGCoA reductase also recovered partially. Treatment with aqWC also significantly decreased plasma lipid peroxide levels and increased reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of W. coagulans has potent lipid lowering and antioxidant activities.

  16. Mechanisms of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Fruit Extract in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ishola, Ismail O.; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with NG-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  17. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  18. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  19. Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Type 2 Diabetes and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats’ Pancreas by Phenolic Extracts of Avocado Pear Leaves and Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats’ pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties PMID:25324703

  20. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas by phenolic extracts of avocado pear leaves and fruit.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-09-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties. PMID:25324703

  1. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas by phenolic extracts of avocado pear leaves and fruit.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-09-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties.

  2. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    PubMed Central

    Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Jung, Un Sun; Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Young Hoon; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Chang, Moon Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract. Methods Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2−) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow’s feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo. Results In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively. Conclusion The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin. PMID:26203268

  3. Purification of Flavonoids from Chinese Bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Fruit Extracts and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Different Fractionations.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuxia; Zhang, Xianan; Wen, Xin; Lv, Qiang; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1), myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (3), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (4), from Chinese bayberry pulp was established by the combination of solid phase extract (SPE) by C18 Sep-Pak(®) cartridge column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC (Prep-HPLC), which was followed by HPLC and LC-MS identification. The purified flavonoid glycosides, as well as different fractions of fruit extracts of six bayberry cultivars, were investigated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The flavonol extracts (50% methanol elution fraction) of six cultivars showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 15.4-69.5 μg/mL), which were higher than that of positive control acarbose (IC50 = 383.2 μg/mL). Four purified compounds 1-4 exerted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1444.3 μg/mL, 418.8 μg/mL, 556.4 μg/mL, and 491.8 μg/mL, respectively. Such results may provide important evidence for the potential anti-diabetic activity of different cultivars of Chinese bayberry fruit and the possible bioactive compounds involved. PMID:27589714

  4. In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude root and fruit extracts of Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in mice.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Laychiluh Bantie

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbiaceae (Croton macrostachyus H.; bā dòu) is used in Ethiopian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria, gonorrhea, diabetes, wounds, fungal infections, and helminths. No scientific investigations have been performed to substantiate these claims. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 80% methanol extract of the fruit and the root of Croton macrostachyus H. in a rodent model of malaria. The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei was used to inoculate healthy 8-week-old male Swiss albino mice weighing 23-27 g. Each of the hydroalcoholic crude extracts (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of mice. The parameters of parasitemia, survival time, body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume were determined using Peter's test and Rane's test. Both extracts significantly inhibited parasitemia and increased survival time in infected mice. Maximum suppression and prolongation were obtained at the highest doses used in the study. The crude extracts prevented loss of weight and temperature, but did not affect the packed cell volume. This study suggests that the root and fruit extracts of the plant both have promising antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei in a dose-dependent manner, which supports the folkloric use of the plant for treating malaria.

  5. Extracts from Vatica diospyroides type SS fruit show low dose activity against MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell-line via apoptotic action.

    PubMed

    Srisawat, Theera; Sukpondma, Yaowapa; Chimplee, Siriphon; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt; Tedasen, Aman; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2014-01-01

    Very strong antiproliferative action of V. diospyroides type SS fruit extracts (IC50 range of 1.60-17.45 µg/mL) in MDA-MB-468 cell-line was observed in an MTT assay. After dosing of an extract concentration at half IC50 to cell line for 24 to 72 hours, treated cells were subjected to Annexin V-FITC/PI binding assay, followed by FACS and western blot analyses. Significant apoptotic death was observed with all extract treatments and both exposure times. Dosing with acetone extract of pericarp and cotyledon induced the highest apoptotic populations (33 and 32%, resp.), with the lowest populations of viable cells (65 and 67%, resp.). During 24 to 72 hours of dosing with methanolic extract of pericarp, the populations of viable and early apoptotic cells decreased significantly from 72.40 to 71.32% and from 12.00 to 6.36%, respectively, while the late apoptotic and nonviable cell populations continuously increased from 15.30 to 19.18% and from 0.30 to 3.14%, respectively. The expression of Bax increased within 12-48 hours of dosing, confirming apoptosis induced by time-dependent responses. The mutant p53 of MDA-MB-468 cells was expressed. Our results indicate that apoptosis and time-dependent therapeutic actions contribute to the cytotoxic effects of V. diospyroides type SS fruit on MDA-MB-468 cell.

  6. Simple and effective large-scale preparation of geniposide from fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis using a liquid-liquid two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Zhuo, Jiaxiong; Wei, Wanxing; Zhu, Jianwen; Ling, Xiurong

    2012-12-01

    Geniposide was prepared on a large-scale using a selective two-phase liquid-liquid extraction. The aqueous residue from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis was treated with sodium carbonate and extracted with n-butanol several times. The n-butanol extracts were treated with activated granular charcoal to remove pigments and were then concentrated to produce a residue with a high solid content. The residue was crystallized to obtain geniposide with 98% purity. For large-scale synthesis, the residue (solid content 45%, geniposide 5.5%) was extracted to generate 70g of geniposide with 98% purity and 84.8% recovery using 1500g residue. PMID:22975161

  7. Final report of the safety assessment of Acacia catechu gum, Acacia concinna fruit extract, Acacia dealbata leaf extract, Acacia dealbata leaf wax, Acacia decurrens extract, Acacia farnesiana extract, Acacia farnesiana flower wax, Acacia farnesiana gum, Acacia senegal extract, Acacia senegal gum, and Acacia senegal gum extract.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    These ingredients are derived from various species of the acacia plant. Only material derived from Acacia senegal are in current use according to industry data. The concentration at which these ingredients are reported to be used ranges from 9% in mascara to 0.0001% in tonics, dressings, and other hair-grooming aids. Gum arabic is a technical name for Acacia Senegal Gum. Gum arabic is comprised of various sugars and glucuronic acid residues in a long chain of galactosyl units with branched oligosaccharides. Gum arabic is generally recognized as safe as a direct food additive. Little information is available to characterize the extracts of other Acacia plant parts or material from other species. Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract was generally described as containing saponins, alkaloids, and malic acid with parabens and potassium sorbate added as preservatives. Cosmetic ingredient functions have been reported for Acacia Decurrens Extract (astringent; skin-conditioning agent--occlusive) and Acacia Farnesiana Extract (astringent), but not for the other Acacias included in this review. Toxicity data on gum arabic indicates little or no acute, short-term, or subchronic toxicity. Gum arabic is negative in several genotoxicity assays, is not a reproductive or developmental toxin, and is not carcinogenic when given intraperitoneally or orally. Clinical testing indicated some evidence of skin sensitization with gum arabic. The extensive safety test data on gum arabic supports the safety of Acacia Senegal Gum and Acacia Senegal Gum Extract, and it was concluded that these two ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. It was not possible, however, to relate the data on gum arabic to the crude Acacias and their extracts from species other than Acacia senegal. Therefore, the available data were considered insufficient to support the safety of Acacia Catechu Gum, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Wax, Acacia Decurrens

  8. Analysis of nine compounds from Alpinia oxyphylla fruit at different harvest time using UFLC-MS/MS and an extraction method optimized by orthogonal design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dried fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq have been widely used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of diarrhea and enuresis in China. Medicinal chemistry studies revealed that the tepenes, diphenylheptanes and flavones were the main components. Therefore, these three kinds of components should be chosen as the bioactive marker compounds for the quality control of A. oxyphylla fruits. Moreover, multiple active components has been widely recognized to be a more feasible method for the quality control of herbal medicines. This study firstly provided a better method for comprehensive component analysis of A. oxyphylla fruits. Meanwhile, the different harvest time was also evaluated. Results The solvent-to-sample ratio was the most important factor comparing with solvent, extraction time and temperature. The highest yield of nine compounds was achieved with 70% ethanol-water and a solvent-to-sample ratio of 20:1 at 60°C for 30 min. The optimized analytical method for ultra fast high performance liquid chromatography (UFLC) was a gradient elution using water containing 0.04‰ formic acid (A) and methanol containing 0.04‰ formic acid (B), at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Using this optimized method, nine compounds were simultaneously separated and quantified by UFLC coupled with tandem electro-spray ionized mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Conclusions The contents of the six bioactive compounds were reported in A. oxyphylla for the first time. The contents of nine compounds of different harvest time fruits of A. oxyphylla were assessed under the optimized extraction and UFLC-MS/MS analytical conditions, and the 45-day culture fruit had the highest content levels. PMID:23915886

  9. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of gardenia fruit oil with bioactive components and their identification and quantification by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2).

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Ying; He, Jingren; Li, Shuyi; Zhu, Zhenzhou; Liu, Gang; Liu, Zhiwei; Yang, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Compounds in Fructus Gardeniae have been shown to possess a wide array of biological activities. However, Gardenia oil extracted from its fruit is less reported and its composition remains uncertain. To completely characterize lipophilic compounds in Gardenia oil, three conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods were investigated. The oil extraction yield obtained by UAE was 51.8% higher than that acquired by cold-pressed extraction (CPE). The fatty acid profile in UAE oil with different solvents was characterized by GC-MS. Petroleum ether was observed to be an ideal solvent with 8.59% extraction yield and 78.88% recovery rate and with a ratio of 3.11 of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids. Response surface methodology (RSM) with Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was applied to optimize conditions in UEA of oil to maximize extraction yield. Furthermore, the bioactive components in oil extracted by UAE were qualitatively identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2) and HPLC-DAD analysis. The eight compounds in Gardenia oil, including geniposide, trans/cis-crocin-1, crocin-2, crocin-3, crocin-4, and trans/cis-crocetin, were structurally revealed. The corresponding transfer rates of the bioactive components showed that the lipophilic trans/cis-crocetin could be completely transferred from fruit to oil, with the highest concentration of 11.38 μg g(-1) oil among all compounds quantified. These findings could deliver potential application to a large-scale production of functional Gardenia oil whose bioactive components possess health benefits. PMID:26040554

  10. Effect of dragon fruit extract on oxidative stress and aortic stiffness in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Anand Swarup, Kolla R. L.; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Abdullah, Nor A.; Abdulla, Mohammed H.; Salman, Ibrahim M.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are consistently observed in diabetic patients across all age groups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of the fruit pulp of Hylocereus undatus (DFE) on aortic stiffness and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Twenty-four male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: I (control), II (diabetic), III (DFE, 250 mg/kg) and IV (DFE 500 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced in groups II, III and IV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (40 mg/kg). After confirmation of diabetes, group III and IV received DFE for 5 weeks. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as a marker of aortic stiffness and was determined at the end of 5 weeks. DFE significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, but not to normal levels. Systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and PWV were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats at the end of 5 weeks in comparison with control group. DFE treatment significantly decreased (P < 0.05) these elevations. Oxidative damage was observed in group II after 5 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased (P < 0.05) with DFE treatment in comparison with group II. These data demonstrate that DFE treatment was effective in controlling oxidative damage and decreasing the aortic stiffness measured by PWV in STZ-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:21808536

  11. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  12. Effect of dragon fruit extract on oxidative stress and aortic stiffness in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Anand Swarup, Kolla R L; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdullah, Nor A; Abdulla, Mohammed H; Salman, Ibrahim M; Rathore, Hassaan A; Johns, Edward J

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are consistently observed in diabetic patients across all age groups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of the fruit pulp of Hylocereus undatus (DFE) on aortic stiffness and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Twenty-four male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: I (control), II (diabetic), III (DFE, 250 mg/kg) and IV (DFE 500 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced in groups II, III and IV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (40 mg/kg). After confirmation of diabetes, group III and IV received DFE for 5 weeks. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as a marker of aortic stiffness and was determined at the end of 5 weeks. DFE significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, but not to normal levels. Systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and PWV were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats at the end of 5 weeks in comparison with control group. DFE treatment significantly decreased (P < 0.05) these elevations. Oxidative damage was observed in group II after 5 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased (P < 0.05) with DFE treatment in comparison with group II. These data demonstrate that DFE treatment was effective in controlling oxidative damage and decreasing the aortic stiffness measured by PWV in STZ-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:21808536

  13. Enantioseparation and determination of triticonazole enantiomers in fruits, vegetables, and soil using efficient extraction and clean-up methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Shi, Haiyan; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua

    2016-01-15

    An efficient and novel enantioseparation and determination method was developed to quantify the enantiomers of chiral triazole fungicide triticonazole in fruit, vegetable, and soil samples. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, the enantiomers of triticonazole were completely enantioseparated on a cellulose tris(3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) column with relatively good resolution (Rs=14.04). Two cleanup methods were compared to quantify the enantiomers of triticonazole. The modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction procedure was achieved with sufficient recoveries and low detection limits. Good recoveries were obtained for the two enantiomers ranging from 84.1% to 103.2% in the six matrices, and the relative standard deviation values ranged from 1.7% to 8.4%. Under the optimal conditions, the obtained limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.0012-0.0031mg/kg for the two enantiomers, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.0036-0.0091mg/kg, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. In addition, the stereochemical structure of triticonazole enantiomers were determined for the first time using a combination of experimental and predicted electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The first eluted enantiomer was confirmed to be (+)-(S)-triticonazole. These results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of triticonazole in authentic samples. The proposed method could be widely applicable for investigating the stereoselective degradation of triticonazole in food and environmental matrices, providing additional information for reliable risk assessment of triazole fungicides. PMID:26724558

  14. Effect of dragon fruit extract on oxidative stress and aortic stiffness in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Anand Swarup, Kolla R L; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdullah, Nor A; Abdulla, Mohammed H; Salman, Ibrahim M; Rathore, Hassaan A; Johns, Edward J

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are consistently observed in diabetic patients across all age groups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of the fruit pulp of Hylocereus undatus (DFE) on aortic stiffness and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Twenty-four male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: I (control), II (diabetic), III (DFE, 250 mg/kg) and IV (DFE 500 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced in groups II, III and IV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (40 mg/kg). After confirmation of diabetes, group III and IV received DFE for 5 weeks. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as a marker of aortic stiffness and was determined at the end of 5 weeks. DFE significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, but not to normal levels. Systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and PWV were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats at the end of 5 weeks in comparison with control group. DFE treatment significantly decreased (P < 0.05) these elevations. Oxidative damage was observed in group II after 5 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased (P < 0.05) with DFE treatment in comparison with group II. These data demonstrate that DFE treatment was effective in controlling oxidative damage and decreasing the aortic stiffness measured by PWV in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.

  15. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  16. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

  17. Therapeutic effect of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, on prostate hyperplasia induced in rats.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Mas, R; Arruzazabala, M L

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant growth of prostate leading to difficulty in urinating. Drug therapy, phytotherapy included, is frequently used to treat BPH. D-004 is a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, and previous studies have shown that oral treatment with D-004 for 14 days prevented prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced by testosterone in rats. No information is available, however; about the effects of D-004 in reverting already established PH. This study investigated whether D-004 could improve PH after oral dosing with testosterone in rats. Rats were distributed in five groups (10 rats/group). One group was injected with soy oil (negative control) and four groups were injected with testosterone: one was orally treated with the vehicle (positive control), two with D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) and the other with Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). At study completion, the rats were sacrificed and the prostates were removed and weighed. D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently decreased prostate enlargement by 85% and 98%, respectively, versus the positive control. Likewise, Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg) significantly reduced prostate weight by 73% versus the positive control. D-004 (400 mg/kg) was more effective (p < 0.05) than Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg) in lowering prostate enlargement. D-004 and Saw palmetto also decreased the prostate weight to body weight ratio, but did not affect body weight. In conclusion, D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) orally administered was effective for reducing PH after testosterone dosing. D-004 (400 mg/kg) was more effective than Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). Further studies, however, are needed to corroborate the present results.

  18. Tryptophan depletion and formation of alpha-aminoadipic and gamma-glutamic semialdehydes in porcine burger patties with added phenolic-rich fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ganhão, Rui; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2010-03-24

    The effect of added fruit extracts on the oxidation of muscle proteins in porcine burger patties subjected to cooking and chill storage was studied. Extracts from arbutus berries (Arbutus unedo L., AU), common hawthorns (Crataegus monogyna L., CM), dog roses (Rosa canina L., RC), and elm-leaf blackberries (Rubus ulmifolius Schott, RU) were prepared, characterized, added to burger patties (3% of total weight), and evaluated as inhibitors of protein oxidation. Negative (no added extract, C) and positive control (added quercetin, 230 mg/kg, Q) groups were also included in the design. Protein oxidation was assessed by means of tryptophan loss using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and formation of the specific protein carbonyls alpha-aminoadipic (AAS) and gamma-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Both advanced methodologies (FS and LC-MS) were found to be reliable and specific protein oxidation measurements that allow us to gain chemical insight into protein oxidation. The mechanisms likely involved in the oxidative reactions affecting proteins during cooking and storage of burger patties are profusely discussed. Phenolic-rich fruit extracts protected tryptophan residues against oxidation and inhibited the formation of both semialdehydes in burger patties during cooking and subsequent chill storage. In general, RC, RU, and AU were the most effective inhibitors of protein oxidation, with this effect being more intense than that of pure polyphenols like quercetin. These fruit extracts could be considered functional ingredients as their antioxidant actions contribute to the enhancement of the nutritional value of the meat products. PMID:20170109

  19. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya (dragon fruit) peel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits, and pitaya fruits have gained popularity in many countries all over the world. However, studies on chemical composition and the nutritional quality of pitaya flesh peel are limited. Results Extracts of pitaya (H. polyrhizus and H. undatus) peel were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities were investigated. The main components of H. polyrhizus extract were β-amyrin (15.87%), α-amyrin (13.90%), octacosane (12.2%), γ-sitosterol (9.35%), octadecane (6.27%), 1-tetracosanol (5.19%), stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.65%), and campesterol (4.16%), whereas H. undatus were β-amyrin (23.39%), γ-sitosterol (19.32%), and octadecane (9.25%), heptacosane (5.52%), campesterol (5.27%), nonacosane (5.02%), and trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester (5.21%). Both of the two extracts possessed good cytotoxic activities against PC3, Bcap-37, and MGC-803 cells (IC50 values ranging from 0.61 to 0.73 mg/mL), and the activities of their main components were also studied. Furthermore, these extracts also presented some radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 0.83 and 0.91 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion This paper provides evidence for studying the chemical composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya peel and their biological activity. PMID:24386928

  20. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm).

  1. Effects of three different doses of a fruit extract of Terminalia chebula on metabolic components of metabolic syndrome, in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderjeet; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Bhansali, Shobhit; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, Samir; Pandhi, Promila; Pal Singh, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    There is documented evidence of the use of Terminalia chebula for various ailments in the Ayurvedic literature. The extract has been shown to possess glucose lowering activity and to improve insulin sensitivity in animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to study the dose response relationship of this extract in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Six groups of rats were fed a high fructose diet (HFD) for a period of 20 days to induce metabolic syndrome. Three doses of fruit extract of T. chebula 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were administered orally and pioglitazone 2.7 mg/kg was used as a positive control. Blood samples were collected at days 0, 20 and 40 from the tail vein. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using the tail cuff method and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done on the day of blood collection. Administration of HFD for 20 days significantly increased fasting blood glucose (FBG), SBP and the area under the curve of OGTT. On day 40 the FBG in the 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg group was 97.33 +/- 5.82 (NS), 86.83 +/- 5.08 (p = 0.038) and 85.67 +/- 6.74 (p = 0.15), respectively. These results show that the fruit extract of T. chebula exerts a significant and dose-dependent glucose lowering effect in the rat model of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19475706

  2. Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

    2014-10-31

    A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500μgL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100μgL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100μgL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3μgL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

  3. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  4. Effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana Mill. on high fat diet induced obesity: A dose response study in rats.

    PubMed

    Monika, Padmanabhan; Geetha, Arumugam

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Persea Americana Mill., commonly known as Avocado, are traditionally consumed for various health benefits including weight reduction. Here, we studied the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana (HAEPA) on high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding HFD for 14 wk. The hypolipidemic effect was evaluated by co-administering 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. of HAEPA. There was a significant increase in weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, low density lipoproteins (LDL), lipid peroxides (LPO) and serum transaminases in HFD fed rats. HFD+HAEPA fed rats showed a significant decrease in blood lipids, LPO, liver lipids and increase in antioxidant status when compared to HFD control rats. The activity of lipid metabolic key enzymes such as fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase in liver were also found to be decreased significantly in HAEPA co-administered rats. Lipoprotein lipase activity was found increased in HFD+HAEPA rats. Among the 4 doses studied, 100 mg of HAEPA/kg body wt. exhibited optimum hypolipidemic activity. Histopathological observations in liver and visceral adipose tissue added more evidence for the lipid lowering effect of HAEPA. It can be concluded that avocado fruit extract can act as hypolipidemic agent probably by modulating the activities of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase in liver. PMID:27468463

  5. Effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana Mill. on high fat diet induced obesity: A dose response study in rats.

    PubMed

    Monika, Padmanabhan; Geetha, Arumugam

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Persea Americana Mill., commonly known as Avocado, are traditionally consumed for various health benefits including weight reduction. Here, we studied the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana (HAEPA) on high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding HFD for 14 wk. The hypolipidemic effect was evaluated by co-administering 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. of HAEPA. There was a significant increase in weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, low density lipoproteins (LDL), lipid peroxides (LPO) and serum transaminases in HFD fed rats. HFD+HAEPA fed rats showed a significant decrease in blood lipids, LPO, liver lipids and increase in antioxidant status when compared to HFD control rats. The activity of lipid metabolic key enzymes such as fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase in liver were also found to be decreased significantly in HAEPA co-administered rats. Lipoprotein lipase activity was found increased in HFD+HAEPA rats. Among the 4 doses studied, 100 mg of HAEPA/kg body wt. exhibited optimum hypolipidemic activity. Histopathological observations in liver and visceral adipose tissue added more evidence for the lipid lowering effect of HAEPA. It can be concluded that avocado fruit extract can act as hypolipidemic agent probably by modulating the activities of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase in liver.

  6. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  7. An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T.; Fedder, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4–8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1′S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by

  8. Chrysin, Abundant in Morinda citrifolia Fruit Water-EtOAc Extracts, Combined with Apigenin Synergistically Induced Apoptosis and Inhibited Migration in Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Ma-Ching; Tu, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Chia-Chi; Huang, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-06-01

    The composition of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the anticancer effects of M. citrifolia extract evaluated in HepG2, Huh7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. M. citrifolia fruit extracts were obtained by using five different organic solvents, including hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethanol (EtOH). The water-EtOAc extracts from M. citrifolia fruits was found to have the highest anticancer activity. HPLC data revealed the predominance of chrysin in water-EtOAc extracts of M. citrifolia fruit. Furthermore, the combined effects of cotreatment with apigenin and chrysin on liver and breast cancer were investigated. Treatment with apigenin plus chrysin for 72-96 h reduced HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell viability and induced apoptosis through down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression. However, the combination treatment for 36 h synergistically decreased MDA-MB-231 cell motility but not cell viability through down-regulation of MMP2, MMP9, fibronectin, and snail in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, chrysin combined with apigenin also suppressed tumor growth in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells xenograft through down-regulation of ki-67 and Skp2 protein. The experimental results showed that chrysin combined with apigenin can reduce HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 proliferation and cell motility and induce apoptosis. It also offers opportunities for exploring new drug targets, and further investigations are underway in this regard.

  9. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid. PMID:23248562

  10. Study on ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Wang, Shu-ya; Zhang, Rong-rui

    2011-03-01

    The ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE) has been successfully applied in extracting four biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill. Seventeen different types of ionic liquids with different cations and anions have been investigated. 0.8 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C12mim]Br) solution was selected as solvent. In addition, the ultrasonic parameters including ultrasonic power, time for ultrasonic treatment and solid-liquid ratio have been optimized by Response Surface Method (RSM). Compared with the conventional solvent extraction, the efficiency of the approach proposed in this work is about 3.5 times as much as that of the conventional solvent extraction method. With the proposed extraction method, the extraction time has been reduced to 30 min, whereas the conventional extraction method requires about 6.0 h. The experimental results presented in this work indicate that the ILUAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. The proposed method is reproducible.

  11. A new selective liquid membrane extraction method for the determination of basic herbicides in agro-processed fruit juices and Ethiopian honey wine (Tej) samples.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Negussie; Kassahun, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction was optimised for trace extraction and enrichment of selected triazine herbicides from a variety of agro-processed fruit juices and Ethiopian honey wine (Tej) samples. In the extraction process, a 1:1 mixture of n-undecane and di-n-hexylether was immobilised in a thin porous PTFE membrane that forms a barrier between two aqueous phases (the donor and acceptor phases) in a flow system. The extracts constitute the selectively enriched analytes collected from the acceptor phase and were analysed by transferring to a HPLC-UV system using a diode array detector at 235 nm. High enrichment factors were obtained with very good repeatability of results, and the detection limit was lower than 3.00 µg l⁻¹ for ametryn in apple juice. The optimised method showed very good linearity of over 50-500 µg l⁻¹ with a correlation coefficient of >0.990 or better for triplicate analysis. All chromatograms gave well resolved peaks with no interfering peaks at the retention times of the selected triazines, showing high selectivity of the SLM extraction method in combination with HPLC-UV for the selected matrices. The optimised method can be used as an alternative solventless extraction method for microgram-level extraction of other triazine herbicides and a variety of pesticides from liquid and semi-liquid environmental, biological and food matrices. PMID:22324905

  12. Extraction of carbamate pesticides in fruit samples by graphene reinforced hollow fibre liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxing; Wang, Juntao; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-08-15

    Graphene reinforced hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection was developed for the determination of some carbamate pesticides (metolcarb, carbaryl, isoprocarb, and diethofencarb) in fruit samples. The main parameters that affect the extraction efficiency for the carbamates were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity was observed in the range of 1.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for carbaryl and 3.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for the other three analytes, with the correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9965-0.9993. The limits of detection of the method ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviations were in the range from 6.2% to 7.8%. The results indicated that the developed method is sensitive and efficient for the determination of the carbamate pesticides in fruit samples.

  13. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  14. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  15. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  16. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  17. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  18. HPLC-DAD Analysis and In-Vitro Property of Polyphenols Extracts from (Solanum Aethiopium) Fruits on α -Amylase, α -Glucosidase and Angiotensin - 1- Converting Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Nwanna, E. E; Ibukun, E. O; Oboh, G.; Ademosun, A. O.; Boligon, A. A.; Athayde, M.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Garden egg (Solanum aethiopium) is an edible fruits vegetable with  different species.This study investigated characterisation and the effect of the phenolics extracts from S. aethiopium species with enzymes linked with type -2-diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE)]. METHODS: Fresh samples of the 5 species of the garden egg namely, [Solanum gilo (PW), Solanum torvum (TWS), Solanum kumba (PGR), Solanum incanum (GSB), and Solanum indicum (WSB)] were oven-dried at 50°C and milled into flour. The aqueous extracts were prepared (1:50 w/v). The phenolic contents (total phenol and total flavonoid), vitamin C and 1,1-diphenyl–2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated. The ability of the extracts to inhibit diabetes enzymes in rat pancreas as well as the inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting (ACE) enzyme in lungs homogenates in vitro were investigated. Furthermore, the fruits polyphenols were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD. RESULTS: The phenolic contents ranged from 2.70-3.76 mgGAE/g, while there were no significant (P>0.05) differences in their flavonoid content and ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+. The vitamin C contents of the species ranged from 4.01-6.52 mg/ml. The extracts scavenged DPPH in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 values ranging from 3.23-4.20 mg/ml. Furthermore, the extracts showed strong inhibition of α-glucosidase, mild inhibition of α-amylase and strong inhibition of ACE activities. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the inhibition of the key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension could be part of the mechanisms by which garden egg manage/prevent the degenerative conditions. PMID:25598760

  19. Additive insulinogenic action of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin extract and leucine after exercise in healthy males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced insulin stimulation after exercise is of the same magnitude than the stimulation by other insulinogenic agents like leucine as well as whether OFI can interact with those agents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to compare the degree of insulin stimulation by OFI with the effect of leucine administration; 2) to determine whether OFI and leucine have an additive action on insulin stimulation post-exercise. Methods Eleven subjects participated in a randomized double-blind cross-over study involving four experimental sessions. In each session the subjects successively underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 30-min cycling bout at ~70% VO2max. At t0 and t60 during the OGTT, subjects ingested 75 g glucose and capsules containing either 1) a placebo; 2) 1000 mg OFI; 3) 3 g leucine; 4) 1000 mg OFI + 3 g leucine. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals during the OGTT for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. Results Whereas no effect of leucine was measured, OFI reduced blood glucose at t90 by ~7% and the area under the glucose curve by ~15% and increased serum insulin concentration at t90 by ~35% compared to placebo (P<0.05). From t60 to the end of the OGTT, serum insulin concentration was higher in OFI+leucine than in placebo which resulted in a higher area under the insulin curve (+40%, P<0.05). Conclusion Carbohydrate-induced insulin stimulation post-exercise can be further increased by the combination of OFI with leucine. OFI and leucine could be interesting ingredients to include together in recovery drinks to resynthesize muscle glycogen faster post

  20. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Fança-Berthon, Pascale; Roller, Marc; Zafrilla, Pilar; Issaly, Nicolas; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2015-12-11

    The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae) which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or) microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives.

  1. Solid-phase extraction for selective determination of bisphenol A in drinks and fruits by dummy surface molecularly imprinted polymer with direct synthetic method.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Yu-Xin; Yan, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Ye-Ping; Liu, Shao-Min

    2014-01-01

    A reliable and selective method was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in drinks and fruit using dummy surface molecularly imprinted polymer (DSMIP) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE)-enrichment and separation sorbent coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), whose structure is similar to BPA, was selected as a dummy template molecule. DSMIP has a higher selectivity for BPA than surface non-imprinted polymer (SNIP) when used as sorbents for SPE. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including conditioning, sample loading, washing and elution, and the breakthrough volume were optimised. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the recoveries of BPA in drinks and fruit were in the range from 98% to 105% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 7%, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 3 ng ml(-1). The developed extraction protocol eliminated the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis and could be applied to the trace determination of BPA in complicated functional samples.

  2. Fast, simple and efficient salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction of naringenin from fruit juice samples prior to their enantioselective determination by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kwietniowska, Ewelina

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an easy, simple and efficient method for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in fruit juices after salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. The sample treatment is based on the use of water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant and acetonitrile phase separation under high-salt conditions. After extraction, juice samples were incubated with hydrochloric acid in order to achieve hydrolysis of naringin to naringenin. The hydrolysis parameters were optimized by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). After sample preparation, chromatographic separation was obtained on a Chiralcel® OJ-RH column using the mobile phase consisting of 10mM aqueous ammonium acetate:methanol:acetonitrile (50:30:20; v/v/v) with detection at 288nm. The average recovery of the analyzed compounds ranged from 85.6 to 97.1%. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in various fruit juices samples.

  3. Combined anti-ages and antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanacea) fruits during ripening and related to their phytochemical compositions

    PubMed Central

    Houda, Mejri; Derbré, Séverine; Jedy, Ahmed; Tlili, Nizar; Legault, Jean; Richomme, Pascal; Limam, Ferid; Saidani-Tounsi, Moufida

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known as key factors for the development of diabetic complications such as retinopathy, cataract as well as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s diseases. In this context, natural products have been previously identified as promising sources for antioxidant and anti-glycation compounds. The current study focuses on the evaluation of antioxidant and glycation inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanaceae) fruits at different ripening stages. The results showed that antioxidant and anti-AGEs activities were significantly influenced by solvents polarities and ripening stages of S. elaeagnifolium Cav. With one exception, methanolic extract of overripe S. elaeagnifolium Cav fruit showed important protective effects against cellular oxidative stress. The aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS+ scavenging ability. Principal component analysis showed that total phenolic and flavonoid contents correlated well with observed antioxidants and anti-glycation activities. These results bring attention to the possible use of S. elaeagnifolium Cav as a valuable source of bioactive compounds exhibiting antioxidant effects and potentially alleviating diabetic complications. PMID:26417319

  4. Fast, simple and efficient salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction of naringenin from fruit juice samples prior to their enantioselective determination by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kwietniowska, Ewelina

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an easy, simple and efficient method for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in fruit juices after salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. The sample treatment is based on the use of water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant and acetonitrile phase separation under high-salt conditions. After extraction, juice samples were incubated with hydrochloric acid in order to achieve hydrolysis of naringin to naringenin. The hydrolysis parameters were optimized by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). After sample preparation, chromatographic separation was obtained on a Chiralcel® OJ-RH column using the mobile phase consisting of 10mM aqueous ammonium acetate:methanol:acetonitrile (50:30:20; v/v/v) with detection at 288nm. The average recovery of the analyzed compounds ranged from 85.6 to 97.1%. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in various fruit juices samples. PMID:27283626

  5. Structural Characterization and Antioxidative Activity of Low-Molecular-Weights Beta-1,3-Glucan from the Residue of Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Pai-Feng; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Hung, Wei-Ting; Liao, Yu-Han; Lin, Chun-Mao; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2012-01-01

    The major cell wall constituent of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is β-1,3-glucan. This study examined the polysaccharide from the residues of alkaline-extracted fruiting bodies using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), and it employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) to confirm the structures. We have successfully isolated low-molecular-weight β-1,3-glucan (LMG), in high yields, from the waste residue of extracted fruiting bodies of G. lucidum. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay evaluated the capability of LMG to suppress H2O2-induced cell death in RAW264.7 cells, identifying that LMG protected cells from H2O2-induced damage. LMG treatment decreased H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LMG also influenced sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity, stimulated by cell death to induce ceramide formation, and then increase cell ROS production. Estimation of the activities of neutral and acid SMases in vitro showed that LMG suppressed the activities of both neutral and acid SMases in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LMG, a water-soluble β-1,3-glucan recycled from extracted residue of G. lucidum, possesses antioxidant capability against H2O2-induced cell death by attenuating intracellular ROS and inhibiting SMase activity. PMID:22187536

  6. Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ben-Guo; Wang, Sa; Dou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Su; Li, Mao-Ye; Hua, Ri-Mao; Li, Shi-Guang; Lin, Hua-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae. PMID:26826651

  7. Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ben-Guo; Wang, Sa; Dou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Su; Li, Mao-Ye; Hua, Ri-Mao; Li, Shi-Guang; Lin, Hua-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae.

  8. Generation of decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betacyanins in thermally treated purified fruit extract from purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) monitored by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2005-08-24

    Pigments of purple pitaya [Hylocereus polyrhizus (F.A.C. Weber) Britton and Rose] fruits were submitted to extraction and were decarboxylated during heating experiments in acidified ethanolic and aqueous solutions. Groups of betacyanins with different decarboxylation levels were identified in the heating products by LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS. The main decarboxylation products were 2-decarboxy-betacyanins, 17-decarboxy-betacyanins, and 2,17-bidecarboxy-betacyanins. The structures of other compounds were assigned to 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-betacyanins and 14,15-dehydrogenated derivatives (neo-derivatives) of all decarboxylated betacyanins found.

  9. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Solanum trilobatum fruits extract and its antibacterial, cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramar, Manikandan; Manikandan, Beulaja; Marimuthu, Prabhu Narayanan; Raman, Thiagarajan; Mahalingam, Anjugam; Subramanian, Palanisamy; Karthick, Saravanan; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles by a simple and eco-friendly method using unripe fruits of Solanum trilobatum. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to unripe fruits extract were reduced and stabilized over long time resulting in biosynthesis of surface functionalized silver nanoparticles. The bio-reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested for its antibacterial activity against few human pathogenic bacteria including Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. In addition, we also demonstrated anticancer activity of these nanoparticles in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7) using MTT, nuclear morphology assay, Western blot and RT-PCR expression. These results taken together show the potential applications of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using S. trilobatum fruits.

  10. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmán, Luis; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 ± 0.8, 33.3 ± 00.5, and 17.6 ± 0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 ± 0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 ± 0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities. PMID:23476707

  11. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmán, Luis; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 ± 0.8, 33.3 ± 00.5, and 17.6 ± 0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 ± 0.9  μ mol Fe(+2)/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 ± 0.2%, 1000  μ g/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  12. Down-Regulation of Glycosyl Transferase Genes in Streptococcus Mutans by Punica Granatum L. Flower and Rhus Coriaria L. Fruit Water Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vahid-Dastjerdi, Elahe; Monadi, Elham; Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Torshabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effects of Punica granatum L. flower and Rhus coriaria L. fruit water extracts on dental plaque accumulation by several bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), on orthodontic wire by in-vitro assays. In this study, the anti-cariogenic properties of the extracts were evaluated by assessing their effects on expression of glycosyltransferase (gtf) genes, which are responsible for initial biofilm formation by S. mutans. In this study, the effect of herbal extracts on expression of gtfB, C (encoding enzymes that produce water-insoluble glucans) and D (encoding enzymes that produce water-soluble glucans) genes in S. mutans growing in planktonic state was evaluated quantitatively by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of understudied herbal water extracts significantly suppressed gtfB, C and D gene expression by 85.3 ± 7.5%, 33.3 ± 6.4% and 25 ± 14%, respectively for Punica granatum L. extract and 73.4 ± 7.3%, 93.8 ± 2.7% and 59.3 ± 9.8%, respectively for Rhus coriaria L. extract compared to the non-treated control group (P < 0.05). Also, the real-rime PCR showed that the inhibitory effect of Rhus coriaria L. extract on gtfC and D was significantly greater (10.8 and 1.8 fold, respectively) than that of Punica granatum L. extract. These findings suggest that Punica granatum L. and especially Rhus coriaria L. maybe used as novel, natural antiplaque agents since they inhibit specific genes associated with bacterial biofilm formation without necessarily affecting the growth of oral bacteria. PMID:27642322

  13. Down-Regulation of Glycosyl Transferase Genes in Streptococcus Mutans by Punica Granatum L. Flower and Rhus Coriaria L. Fruit Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Vahid-Dastjerdi, Elahe; Monadi, Elham; Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Torshabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effects of Punica granatum L. flower and Rhus coriaria L. fruit water extracts on dental plaque accumulation by several bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), on orthodontic wire by in-vitro assays. In this study, the anti-cariogenic properties of the extracts were evaluated by assessing their effects on expression of glycosyltransferase (gtf) genes, which are responsible for initial biofilm formation by S. mutans. In this study, the effect of herbal extracts on expression of gtfB, C (encoding enzymes that produce water-insoluble glucans) and D (encoding enzymes that produce water-soluble glucans) genes in S. mutans growing in planktonic state was evaluated quantitatively by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of understudied herbal water extracts significantly suppressed gtfB, C and D gene expression by 85.3 ± 7.5%, 33.3 ± 6.4% and 25 ± 14%, respectively for Punica granatum L. extract and 73.4 ± 7.3%, 93.8 ± 2.7% and 59.3 ± 9.8%, respectively for Rhus coriaria L. extract compared to the non-treated control group (P < 0.05). Also, the real-rime PCR showed that the inhibitory effect of Rhus coriaria L. extract on gtfC and D was significantly greater (10.8 and 1.8 fold, respectively) than that of Punica granatum L. extract. These findings suggest that Punica granatum L. and especially Rhus coriaria L. maybe used as novel, natural antiplaque agents since they inhibit specific genes associated with bacterial biofilm formation without necessarily affecting the growth of oral bacteria. PMID:27642322

  14. Optimization of Phenolics Extracted from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue and Its Antioxidant and Depigmenting Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao-Shan; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of phenolics from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue was optimized by the maximization of the yield in total phenolics, using the response surface methodology. The optimized conditions were 50% ethanol, 5 h extraction time, 1 : 40 liquid to solid ratio, and 80°C extraction temperature. The experimental average total phenolics yield was 54.49 ± 4.26 mg/g. These antioxidant properties of phenolics were comprehensively analyzed for the first time. All the extracts not only demonstrated the significant free radical scavenging activities and metal chelating activity but also inhibited lipid, lipoprotein peroxidation and revealed reducing power activity. Ethyl acetate extraction (EAE) also inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity and significantly increased the average skin-whitening index (L value) of the skin of C57BL/6 mice, indicating its potential use for skin hyperpigmentation in humans. The results of cell experiments showed EAE could strongly inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity, which had led to the decrease of melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Overall, EAE is an excellent natural antioxidant and depigmenting agent, which can be developed as a new food additive, medicine, and cosmetic. PMID:25045392

  15. In vitro neuroprotective effects of the leaf and fruit extracts of Juglans regia L. (walnut) through enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Suntar, Ipek Pesin; Akkol, Esra Kupeli

    2011-12-01

    Several extracts of the leaves and fruits of Juglans regia L. were assessed for their neuroprotective effects through antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase methods. Anticholinesterase activity was determined against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the enzymes vital for Alzheimer's disease, at 50, 100 and 200 μg ml(-1). Antioxidant activity was tested using radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD), superoxide (SO), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) radicals, as well as ferric ion-chelating capacity, ferric- and phosphomolybdenum-reducing antioxidant power at 500, 1000 and 2000 μg ml(-1). Total phenol and flavonoid quantification of the extracts was calculated. The extracts scavenged DPPH radical in varying degrees; however, they did not scavenge DPMD and H(2)O(2). Only the dichloromethane and water extracts were able to quench SO (10.09 ± 1.38%) and NO (24.09 ± 2.19%) radicals, respectively, at low level. The extracts showed either low or no BChE inhibition and no AChE inhibition.

  16. Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Leaves and Fruit Residues of Brazilian Savanna Plants Aiming Its Use as Safe Fungicides.

    PubMed

    Breda, Caroline Alves; Gasperini, Alessandra Marcon; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    The increasing demand for safe food without preservatives or pesticides residues has encouraged several studies on natural products with antifungal activity and low toxicity. In this study, ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruit residues (peel and seeds) of three Brazilian savanna species (Acrocomia aculeata, Campomanesia adamantium and Caryocar brasiliense) were evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, the most active extract was chemically characterized by ESI-MS and its oral acute toxicity was evaluated. Extracts from C. brasiliense (pequi) peel and leaves were active against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani and Venturia pirina with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 350 and 1000 µg/mL. When incorporated in solid media, these extracts extended the lag phase of A. alternata and A. solani and reduced the growth rate of A. solani. Pequi peel extract showed better antifungal activity and their ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of substances widely reported as antifungal such as gallic acid, quinic acid, ellagic acid, glucogalin and corilagin. The oral acute toxicity was relatively low, being considered safe for use as a potential natural fungicide. PMID:27169570

  17. Determination of the major constituents in fruit of Arctium lappa L. by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction coupled with HPLC separation and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Zhang, Yupu; Sun, Yantao; Wang, Xue; Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Ye; Sun, Shuo; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Yinghua

    2010-10-15

    The arctiin and arctigenin in the fruit of Arctium lappa L. were extracted by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The experimental conditions for the MSPD were optimized. Silica gel was selected as dispersion adsorbent and methanol as elution solvent. The calibration curve showed good relationship (r>0.9998) in the concentration range of 0.010-5.0μgmL(-1) for arctiin and 0.025-7.5μgmL(-1) for arctigenin. The recoveries were between 74.4% and 100%. The proposed method consumed less sample, time and solvent compared with conventional methods, including ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction.

  18. Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Priya, Kanagaraj Mohana; Saral, Antoneyraj Mary; Khan, Fazlur Rahman Nawaz; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Velayutham, Kannaiyaram; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-11-01

    Plant products may be alternative sources of parasitic control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are eco-friendly and nontoxic products. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) extracted by immersion method exhibited adulticidal activity against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of A. squamosa fruit peel aqueous extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent of peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa was identified as 1H- cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-[1ar-(1aα,4aα, 7β, 7 a, β, 7bα)] (28.55%) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The other major constituents present in the aqueous extract were retinal 9-cis- (12.61%), 3,17-dioxo-4-androsten-11alpha-yl hydrogen succinate (6.86%), 1-naphthalenepentanol decahydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-y,2-bis(methylene)-(1α,4aβ,5α,8aα) (14.83%), 1-naphthalenemethanol decahydro -5-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 1,4a-di methyl - 6-methylene -(1S-[1α, 4aα, 5α(E), 8aβ] (4.44%), (-)-spathulenol (20.75%), podocarp-7-en-3-one13β-methyl-13-vinyl- (5.98%), and 1-phenanthrene carboxaldehyde 7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,4a,7-trimethyl-[1R-(1α,4aβ.4bα,7β, 10aα)]-(5.98%). The adult and larval parasitic mortalities observed in fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa were 31, 59, 80, 91, and100%; 27, 42, 66, 87, and 100%; and 33, 45, 68, 92, and 100% at the concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm, respectively, against

  19. Simultaneous determination of sixteen amide fungicides in vegetables and fruits by dispersive solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin-Liang; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Ting

    2015-05-01

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-dSPE) material combined with ultra-high liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 novel amide fungicides in vegetables and fruits. After extraction with acetonitrile, a dSPE cleanup procedure, which was developed after the optimization of the type and amount of MWCNTs, the pH value of the extract, the extraction time for MWCNTs, and the type of eluent with MWCNTs material, was conducted. The determination of the target compounds was conducted in less than 7.0 min while the specificity is ensured through the MRM acquisition mode. The linearity of the analytical response across the studied range of concentrations (0.25-500 μg/L) was excellent, obtaining correlation coefficients higher than 0.997. The samples were quantified with the matrix matched standard solutions. The average recoveries in cabbage, celery, strawberry, and grape at three spiked levels (0.01, 0.5, and 5.0mg/kg) were ranged from 72.4 to 98.5% with all RSDs lower than 10%. The limits of detection were below 0.003 mg/kg and the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.01 mg/kg in all matrices. The method demonstrated to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of 16 novel amide fungicides in vegetables and fruits. PMID:25797718

  20. Evaluation of the effect of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. fruit extract on serum inflammatory biomarkers in adult hyperlipidemic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Soltani, Rasool; Mirvakili, Saeide; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition. Many pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. The plants of genus Vaccinium are rich in anthocyanins with anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract on the serum level of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia to detect its possible inhibitory effects on progression of atherosclerosis. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, eligible hyperlipidemic patients were randomly and equally divided in to two groups of study drug or placebo control to receive either the Vaccinium extract or placebo capsules, respectively, twice daily for four consecutive weeks. Each drug capsule contained 0.8 mg of anthocyanins. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured before and after the interventions and finally were compared.A total of 8 men and 12 women in drug group as well as 11 men and 9 women in placebo group completed the study (P = 0.527). The use of Vaccinium extract significantly reduced only the IL-6 level (P = 0.037); however, this reduction was not significant compared to placebo (P = 0.062). Consumption of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract with the dose of 500 mg twice daily did not show any significant effect on serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult hyperlipidemic patients. However, considering slight decrease in the level of IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, the use of higher doses with longer duration might have significant effects on these factors. PMID:27651815

  1. Evaluation of the effect of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. fruit extract on serum inflammatory biomarkers in adult hyperlipidemic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Soltani, Rasool; Mirvakili, Saeide; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition. Many pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. The plants of genus Vaccinium are rich in anthocyanins with anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract on the serum level of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia to detect its possible inhibitory effects on progression of atherosclerosis. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, eligible hyperlipidemic patients were randomly and equally divided in to two groups of study drug or placebo control to receive either the Vaccinium extract or placebo capsules, respectively, twice daily for four consecutive weeks. Each drug capsule contained 0.8 mg of anthocyanins. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured before and after the interventions and finally were compared.A total of 8 men and 12 women in drug group as well as 11 men and 9 women in placebo group completed the study (P = 0.527). The use of Vaccinium extract significantly reduced only the IL-6 level (P = 0.037); however, this reduction was not significant compared to placebo (P = 0.062). Consumption of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract with the dose of 500 mg twice daily did not show any significant effect on serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult hyperlipidemic patients. However, considering slight decrease in the level of IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, the use of higher doses with longer duration might have significant effects on these factors. PMID:27651815

  2. Evaluation of the effect of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. fruit extract on serum inflammatory biomarkers in adult hyperlipidemic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Soltani, Rasool; Mirvakili, Saeide; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition. Many pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. The plants of genus Vaccinium are rich in anthocyanins with anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract on the serum level of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia to detect its possible inhibitory effects on progression of atherosclerosis. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, eligible hyperlipidemic patients were randomly and equally divided in to two groups of study drug or placebo control to receive either the Vaccinium extract or placebo capsules, respectively, twice daily for four consecutive weeks. Each drug capsule contained 0.8 mg of anthocyanins. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured before and after the interventions and finally were compared.A total of 8 men and 12 women in drug group as well as 11 men and 9 women in placebo group completed the study (P = 0.527). The use of Vaccinium extract significantly reduced only the IL-6 level (P = 0.037); however, this reduction was not significant compared to placebo (P = 0.062). Consumption of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract with the dose of 500 mg twice daily did not show any significant effect on serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult hyperlipidemic patients. However, considering slight decrease in the level of IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, the use of higher doses with longer duration might have significant effects on these factors.

  3. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites.

  4. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects and potential mechanisms of action of the caffeoylquinic acid-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaopo; Wu, Chongming; Wu, Haifeng; Sheng, Linghui; Su, Yan; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Tian, Yu; Ji, Yubin; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD). The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b) was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol) in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPARα and PPARα-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPARγ was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPARα and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities.

  5. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  6. Application of solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to the determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Di Muccio, Alfonso; Fidente, Paola; Barbini, Danilo Attard; Dommarco, Roberto; Seccia, Serenella; Morrica, Patrizia

    2006-03-01

    A rapid and simple method for simultaneous analysis of four neonicotinoid insecticides including acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam in fruit and vegetable matrices has been developed. For instance, ready-to-use cartridges filled with a macroporous diatomaceous material were used to extract in a single step insecticide residues with dichloromethane from aqueous-acetone extracts of fruits and vegetables. The eluate was evaporated, the residue redissolved with methanol and then analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode. Average recoveries of the four pesticides were between 74.5 and 105% at both spiking levels 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) in peach, pear, courgette, celery and apricot. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10% for all of the recovery tests. The calculated limits of quantitation (LOQs) (0.1-0.5 mg kg(-1)) were equal or lower then the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by European legislation (0.1-0.5 mg kg(-1)). The proposed method is fast, easy to perform and could be utilized for monitoring of pesticides residues. PMID:16448655

  7. Vascular Protective Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Camellia japonica Fruit: Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Coronary Artery and Reduction of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Hee; Shim, Bong-Sup; Yoon, Jun-Seong; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Hye-Won; Yoo, Seok-Bong; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wok; Oak, Min-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica is a popular garden plant in Asia and widely used as cosmetic sources and traditional medicine. However, the possibility that C. japonica affects cardiovascular system remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular effects of an extract of C. japonica. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ baths using porcine coronary arteries and inhibition of proliferation and migration were assessed using human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). All four different parts, leaf, stem, flower, and fruits, caused concentration-dependent relaxations and C. japonica fruit (CJF) extract showed the strongest vasorelaxation and its effect was endothelium dependent. Relaxations to CJF were markedly reduced by inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inhibitor of PI3-kinase, but not affected by inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated response. CJF induced activated a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. Altogether, these studies have demonstrated that CJF is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator and this effect was involved in, at least in part, PI3K-eNOS-NO pathway. Moreover, CJF attenuated TNF-α induced proliferation and PDGF-BB induced migration of VSMCs. The present findings indicate that CJF could be a valuable candidate of herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:26697138

  8. Evaluation of lemon fruit extract as an antioxidant agent against histopathological changes induced by cyclophosphamide in the testes of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Quita, Salwa Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of lemon fruit extracts (LFE) against histopathological changes induced in the testes of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods Thirty male mice were divided evenly into six groups: 1) group 1: the controls, 2) group 2: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg b wt.), 3) group 3: treated with CP (10 mg/kg b wt.), 4) group 4: treated with CP (20 mg/kg b wt.), 5) group 5: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (10 mg/kg), 6) group 6: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (20 mg/kg). Results Histological examination of the testes of mice treated with CP revealed histopathological changes, such as atrophy, degeneration, incomplete spermatogenic series in most seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic necrosis with pyknotic nuclei. Advanced degree of improvement was seen in testes of mice treated with LFE co-administered with CP. Most of the seminiferous tubules restored their normal structure and spermatogenic layers appeared semi-normal with complete spermatogenic series. Conclusion Lemon fruit extract in conjunction with drug treatment protects the testicular tissue against CP-induced testicular injury in mice. PMID:26955455

  9. Efficient determination of protocatechuic acid in fruit juices by selective and rapid magnetic molecular imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

    2014-08-13

    Magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have been prepared as solid phase material to selectively extract protocatechuic acid (PCA) from fruit juices with high capacity and fast binding kinetics. The resulting MMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and VSM. The adsorption process between PCA and MMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 7.5 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding kinetics (equilibrium time at 40 min). In addition, the prepared MMIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and reusability (retained 94.9% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMIPs were successfully applied for selective enrichment and determination of PCA from fruit juices (0.45 μg/mL in grape juice but not detected in apple juice, pineapple juice, orange juice, and peach juice) with satisfactory recoveries (92-107%). The results indicated that synthesized MMIPs can be used for efficient and selective extraction of PCA from complex matrices. PMID:25075753

  10. Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ben-Guo; Wang, Sa; Dou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Su; Li, Mao-Ye; Hua, Ri-Mao; Li, Shi-Guang; Lin, Hua-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae. PMID:26826651

  11. Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongli; Hu, Haobin

    2014-08-01

    A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was collected. Finally, second extraction was performed to obtained lignans from the water-insoluble residue with ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) method. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the UMAE parameters, the optimal conditions were as follows: microwave power 430W, ethanol concentration 84%, particle size of sample 120-mesh sieves, ratio of water to raw material 15 and extraction time 2.1min. Under these optimized conditions, the total extraction yields of five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) had reached 14.22±0.135mg/g. Compared with the traditional method of direct extraction of different bioactive components in respective procedure, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and the five lignans had reached 99% and 95%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the 5 lignan compounds and polysaccharides were 97.75-101.08% and their RSD value was less than 3.88%.The approach proposed in this study not only improved the extraction yield of lignans, but also elevated the utilization of Schisandra resources.

  12. Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongli; Hu, Haobin

    2014-08-01

    A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was collected. Finally, second extraction was performed to obtained lignans from the water-insoluble residue with ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) method. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the UMAE parameters, the optimal conditions were as follows: microwave power 430W, ethanol concentration 84%, particle size of sample 120-mesh sieves, ratio of water to raw material 15 and extraction time 2.1min. Under these optimized conditions, the total extraction yields of five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) had reached 14.22±0.135mg/g. Compared with the traditional method of direct extraction of different bioactive components in respective procedure, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and the five lignans had reached 99% and 95%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the 5 lignan compounds and polysaccharides were 97.75-101.08% and their RSD value was less than 3.88%.The approach proposed in this study not only improved the extraction yield of lignans, but also elevated the utilization of Schisandra resources. PMID:24755113

  13. Determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in fruits by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chunqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Chenglan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple and low-organic-solvent-consuming method combining an acetonitrile-partitioning extraction procedure followed by "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" cleanup with ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in grapes and pears. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was performed using the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent. The main factors influencing the efficiency of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were evaluated, including the extractive solvent type and volume and the dispersive solvent volume. The validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of benzoylurea insecticides in a large number of samples. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 98.6 and 109.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.2%. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg for the two insecticides. The proposed method was successfully used for the rapid determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron residues in real fruit samples. PMID:26097091

  14. Effects of multiple oral dosing on IgE synthesis in mice: oral sensitization by albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) containing lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Restum-Miguel, N; Prouvost-Danon, A

    1985-01-01

    The IgE antibody response was studied in DBA/2 mice; the mice were pretreated orally with albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Jackalbumin) and subsequently immunized subcutaneously with Jackalbumin mixed with ovalbumin (OA) and a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The allergenicity of Jackalbumin was evaluated by its capacity to induce a specific IgE response which was measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and by degranulation of washed peritoneal mast cells following antigen challenge (Jackalbumin or OA). Antibody against the crude extracts and anti-lectin (FIISP) IgE responses were also tested by PCA. After being fed eight doses of 1 mg Jackalbumin, DBA/2 mice became immunized: i.e. specific IgE antibody responses were observed and the peritoneal mast cells became sensitized. An increase in IgE response was verified in mice that were pre-fed and subsequently immunized. The results indicated that: the albumin extracts from Jack seeds, containing lectins, can be allergenic by the oral route; multiple oral doses with these extracts can induce an enhancement of the IgE response on subsequent subcutaneous immunization; antigenically, Jackalbumin does not seem to cross-react with OA; the lectins contained in the albumin fraction from Artocarpus seeds were also shown to be allergenic; the IgE titres showed an inverse correlation to the degree of purification of the lectin used for PCA challenge. PMID:3972438

  15. Methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits improves memory impairment by decreasing brain oxidative stress in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Noumedem, Jaurès A; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Kuete, Victor; Mihasan, Marius

    2014-04-01

    The present study analyzed the possible memory-enhancing and antioxidant proprieties of the methanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. fruits (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally, for 21 days) in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The memory-enhancing effects of the plant extract were studied by means of in vivo (Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks) approaches. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using superoxide dismutase-, catalase-, glutathione peroxidase-specific activities and the total content of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels. The amyloid beta(1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working memory and reference memory errors within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the plant extract significantly improved memory performance and exhibited antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the plant extract ameliorates amyloid beta(1-42)-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  16. Chemical characterization of a red raspberry fruit extract and evaluation of its pharmacological effects in experimental models of acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Figueira, M E; Câmara, M B; Direito, R; Rocha, J; Serra, A T; Duarte, C M M; Fernandes, A; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Marques, M C; Bronze, M R; Sepodes, B

    2014-12-01

    Berries are an important dietary source of fibres, vitamins, minerals and some biologically active non-nutrients. A red raspberry fruit extract was characterized in terms of phenolic content and the anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects were evaluated in two experimental models of inflammation. The antioxidant potential of the extract, the cellular antioxidant activity and the effects over neutrophils' oxidative burst were also studied to provide a mechanistic insight for the anti-inflammatory effects observed. The extract was administered in a dose of 15 mg kg(-1), i.p. and significantly inhibited paw oedema formation in the rat. The same dose was administered via i.p. and p.o. routes in the collagen-induced arthritis model in the rat. The extract showed pharmacological activity and was able to significantly reduce the development of clinical signs of arthritis and markedly reduce the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, preventing articular destruction in treated animals.

  17. Effects of multiple oral dosing on IgE synthesis in mice: oral sensitization by albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) containing lectins.

    PubMed

    Restum-Miguel, N; Prouvost-Danon, A

    1985-03-01

    The IgE antibody response was studied in DBA/2 mice; the mice were pretreated orally with albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Jackalbumin) and subsequently immunized subcutaneously with Jackalbumin mixed with ovalbumin (OA) and a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The allergenicity of Jackalbumin was evaluated by its capacity to induce a specific IgE response which was measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and by degranulation of washed peritoneal mast cells following antigen challenge (Jackalbumin or OA). Antibody against the crude extracts and anti-lectin (FIISP) IgE responses were also tested by PCA. After being fed eight doses of 1 mg Jackalbumin, DBA/2 mice became immunized: i.e. specific IgE antibody responses were observed and the peritoneal mast cells became sensitized. An increase in IgE response was verified in mice that were pre-fed and subsequently immunized. The results indicated that: the albumin extracts from Jack seeds, containing lectins, can be allergenic by the oral route; multiple oral doses with these extracts can induce an enhancement of the IgE response on subsequent subcutaneous immunization; antigenically, Jackalbumin does not seem to cross-react with OA; the lectins contained in the albumin fraction from Artocarpus seeds were also shown to be allergenic; the IgE titres showed an inverse correlation to the degree of purification of the lectin used for PCA challenge.

  18. Effects of process parameters on supercritical CO2 extraction of total phenols from strawberry (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits: An optimization study.

    PubMed

    Akay, Seref; Alpak, Ilknur; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize total phenolic yield of Arbutus unedo fruits using supercritical fluid extraction. A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of various values of pressure (50-300 bar), temperature (30-80°C) and concentration of ethanol as co-solvent (0-20%) by CO2 flow rate of 15 g/min for 60 min. The most effective variable was co-solvent ratio (p<0.005). Evaluative criteria for both dependent variables (total phenols and radical scavenging activity) in the model were assigned maximum. Optimum extraction conditions were elicited as 60 bar, 48°C and 19.7% yielding 25.72 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) total phenols/g extract and 99.9% radical scavenging capacity, which were higher than the values obtained by conventional water (24.89 mg/g; 83.8%) and ethanol (15.12 mg/g; 95.8%) extractions demonstrating challenges as a green separation process with improved product properties for industrial applications. PMID:21695688

  19. Determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in fruits by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chunqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Chenglan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple and low-organic-solvent-consuming method combining an acetonitrile-partitioning extraction procedure followed by "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" cleanup with ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in grapes and pears. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was performed using the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent. The main factors influencing the efficiency of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were evaluated, including the extractive solvent type and volume and the dispersive solvent volume. The validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of benzoylurea insecticides in a large number of samples. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 98.6 and 109.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.2%. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg for the two insecticides. The proposed method was successfully used for the rapid determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron residues in real fruit samples.

  20. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-01

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22018714

  1. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-01

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  2. Combined Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Extract Improved Early Stage of Cutaneous Wound Healing in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a pandemic that causes many health challenges, including difficulties in achieving proper wound healing without complications. The current study investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in the early stages of cutaneous wound healing and the effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) on cutaneous NLRP inflammasome involvement in delayed wound healing mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. After obesity was induced by HFD for 10 weeks, the mice were supplemented with MLFE (at a dose of 500 mg/kg containing 333.3 mg/kg of mulberry leaf extract and 166.7 mg/kg of mulberry fruit extract) by gavage, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. MLFE supplementation ameliorated delayed wound closure in obese mice. While wound size was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose level during the early stage of wound healing, it was strongly correlated with body weight gain and body fat mass during the later stage of wound healing. Under obese conditions, the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome and its related markers (pro-caspase-1 and precursor/mature interleukin 1 beta) were increased at a basal level, but the NLRP3 inflammasome was suppressed during the inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing. However, MLFE supplementation stimulated cutaneous NLRP3 inflammasome in HFD-induced obese mice (day 3). Taken together, stimulating the NLRP3 inflammasome might be beneficial in the early inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing and MLFE could be a potential therapeutic intervention in delayed wound healing through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in obesity.

  3. Study of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Feijoa sellowiana Fruits Against MDMA using the Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Sodabah; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    liver injury induced by viruses, chemicals and drugs can be protected by different medicinal plants. Feijoa sellowiana (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen bush native to southern areas of South America, as well as Iran where the fruits are very popular. Feijoa has shown a potent antimicrobial effect. Morever, the antioxidant activity of total Feijoa extract has also been reported. MDMA or ecstasy is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative which has been abused as a widespread recreational drug by the young generation. Liver is a target organ for MDMA toxicity. In fact, this sense MDMA is metabolized by cytochromes P4502D, 2B and 3Aand reactive metabolites are readily oxidized to the corresponding o-qiuinones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated whether methanilic Feijoa sellowiana fruits can produce biochemical changes using the Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion (IRLP) system. The, the liver was perfused with different concentrations of the extract (10, 20, 40, 50,100 mg/kg), added to the buffer and perfused within 2 h. During the perfusion we tried to find out the antioxidant activity or liver protective effect of Feijoa, by determinining amino-transferases activities (SGOT and SGPT ) and glutathione reductase (GSH) level in comparison with the positive and negative controls. Subsequently, sections of liver tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. The results revealed that the activities of SGOT and SGPT were seriously decreased and GSH level was significantly increased by the Feijoa extract. Overall, necrosis in the liver parenchyma was decreased. These findings revealed that Feijoa sellowiana is an effective hepatoprotective plant. PMID:24250575

  4. Study of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Feijoa sellowiana Fruits Against MDMA using the Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Sodabah; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    liver injury induced by viruses, chemicals and drugs can be protected by different medicinal plants. Feijoa sellowiana (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen bush native to southern areas of South America, as well as Iran where the fruits are very popular. Feijoa has shown a potent antimicrobial effect. Morever, the antioxidant activity of total Feijoa extract has also been reported. MDMA or ecstasy is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative which has been abused as a widespread recreational drug by the young generation. Liver is a target organ for MDMA toxicity. In fact, this sense MDMA is metabolized by cytochromes P4502D, 2B and 3Aand reactive metabolites are readily oxidized to the corresponding o-qiuinones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated whether methanilic Feijoa sellowiana fruits can produce biochemical changes using the Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion (IRLP) system. The, the liver was perfused with different concentrations of the extract (10, 20, 40, 50,100 mg/kg), added to the buffer and perfused within 2 h. During the perfusion we tried to find out the antioxidant activity or liver protective effect of Feijoa, by determinining amino-transferases activities (SGOT and SGPT ) and glutathione reductase (GSH) level in comparison with the positive and negative controls. Subsequently, sections of liver tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. The results revealed that the activities of SGOT and SGPT were seriously decreased and GSH level was significantly increased by the Feijoa extract. Overall, necrosis in the liver parenchyma was decreased. These findings revealed that Feijoa sellowiana is an effective hepatoprotective plant. PMID:24250575

  5. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa). PMID:27112879

  6. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa).

  7. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Lectin Extracted from Fruiting Bodies of the Korean Cauliflower Medicinal Mushroom, Sparassis latifolia (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Hyun; Wu, Yuanzheng; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel lectin from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Sparassis latifolia. The antibacterial activity of the purified lectin against Escherichia coli and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the antifungal activity against Candida and Fusarium species were determined. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and the tryptophan blue shift assay indicated that the lectin interacts with microbial surfaces. This suggests the potential of the lectin isolated from S. latifolia, a valuable source of bioactive constituents, as a therapeutic in pharmaceutical agent. PMID:27481295

  8. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    PubMed

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus.

  9. Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

  10. Possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-01-01

    Hitherto unknown efficacy of the peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Cucumis melo (CM) and Citrullus vulgaris (CV) fruits in ameliorating the diet-induced alterations in dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus have been investigated in rats. In one study, out of 4 different doses (50-300 mg/kg), 200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for other two peel extracts could inhibit lipidperoxidation (LPO) maximally in liver. In the second experiment rats were maintained on pre-standardized atherogenic diet CCT (supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% 2-thiouracil) to induce dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus and the effects of the test peel extracts (200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for CM and CV for 10 consecutive days) were studied by examining the changes in tissue LPO (in heart, liver and kidney), concentrations of serum lipids, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose. Rats, treated simultaneously with either of the peel extracts reversed the CCT-diet induced increase in the levels of tissue LPO, serum lipids, glucose, creatinine kinase-MB and decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones and insulin indicating their potential to ameliorate the diet induced alterations in serum lipids, thyroid dysfunctions and hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus. A phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of a high amount of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the test peel extracts suggesting that the beneficial effects could be the result of the rich content of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the studied peels.

  11. Preparation of a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer by atom-transfer radical polymerization for the extraction of parabens from fruit juices.

    PubMed

    You, Xiaoxiao; Piao, Chungying; Chen, Ligang

    2016-07-01

    A silica-based surface magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective recognition of parabens was prepared using a facile and general method that combined atom-transfer radical polymerization with surface imprinting technique. The prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and physical property measurement. The isothermal adsorption experiment and kinetics adsorption experiment investigated the adsorption property of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer to template molecule. The four parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben were used to assess the rebinding selectivity. An extraction method, which used magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer as adsorbents coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of the four parabens in fruit juice samples was developed. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detections of the four parabens were 0.028, 0.026, 0.021, and 0.026 mg/L, respectively. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation ranging from 2.6 to 8.9% was obtained. In all three fortified levels, recoveries of parabens were in the range of 72.5-89.4%. The proposed method has been applied to different fruit juice samples including orange juice, grape juice, apple juice and peach juice, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:27214157

  12. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from fruit extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. an endemic, endangered medicinal tree taxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugandhar, P.; Savithramma, N.

    2016-02-01

    In nanotechnology, the plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has terrific application in biomedicine due to its novel properties and its eco-friendly nature. The present study deals with the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of S. alternifolium an endemic medicinal plant to Eastern Ghats. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, AFM, SEM with EDAX and TEM. Colour change from brown to grey indicates the formation of nanoparticles and UV-VIS surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy observed at 442 nm further confirms the synthesized nanoparticles are SNPs. FTIR studies reveal that the phenols and primary amines of proteins are main responsible for reduction, stabilization and capping agents towards these SNPs. The XRD data show crystalline nature of nanoparticles and EDAX measurements reveal the (12.74 %) percentage presence of Ag metal. AFM, SEM and TEM microscopic analyses revealed that the size of synthesized SNPs ranging from 5 to 68 nm has spherical shape and they are in polydispersed condition. Further, the antimicrobial studies of synthesized SNPs show high toxicity towards different bacterial and fungal isolates. This is the first report on fruit mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from S. alternifolium.