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Sample records for 5300-year-old tyrolean iceman

  1. Nanostructure and mechanics of mummified type I collagen from the 5300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman.

    PubMed

    Janko, Marek; Zink, Albert; Gigler, Alexander M; Heckl, Wolfgang M; Stark, Robert W

    2010-08-07

    Skin protects the body from pathogens and degradation. Mummified skin in particular is extremely resistant to decomposition. External influences or the action of micro-organisms, however, can degrade the connective tissue and lay the subjacent tissue open. To determine the degree of tissue preservation in mummified human skin and, in particular, the reason for its durability, we investigated the structural integrity of its main protein, type I collagen. We extracted samples from the Neolithic glacier mummy known as 'the Iceman'. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed collagen fibrils that had characteristic banding patterns of 69 +/- 5 nm periodicity. Both the microstructure and the ultrastructure of dermal collagen bundles and fibrils were largely unaltered and extremely well preserved by the natural conservation process. Raman spectra of the ancient collagen indicated that there were no significant modifications in the molecular structure. However, AFM nanoindentation measurements showed slight changes in the mechanical behaviour of the fibrils. Young's modulus of single mummified fibrils was 4.1 +/- 1.1 GPa, whereas the elasticity of recent collagen averages 3.2 +/- 1.0 GPa. The excellent preservation of the collagen indicates that dehydration owing to freeze-drying of the collagen is the main process in mummification and that the influence of the degradation processes can be addressed, even after 5300 years.

  2. Deposits of different origin in the lungs of the 5,300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman.

    PubMed

    Pabst, M; Hofer, F

    1998-09-01

    Deposits in the lung of the Late Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman were studied with a combination of different methods of analytical electron microscopy. Numerous anthracotic areas with plentiful inhaled soot particles were found in the lung; these most probably derived from open fires in houses. Between the soot particles tiny mineral crystals (mainly muscovite) were identified, which may indicate that the Tyrolean Iceman lived in a muscoviterich area. Furthermore, illite, quartz, and a plagioclase (andesine), which are also minerals in the crystalline rocks of the Otztal Alps, were found. Additionally, organic material, which may represent inhaled threshing residues, was present in the anthracotic areas. As threshing residues and seeds in husk also were detected in the Iceman's belongings, some kind of rustic occupation seems probable. Outside of the anthracotic areas, vivianite and hydroxyapatite crystals were detected. Because of their separate location, and as vivianite is also described in the Iceman's skin, these minerals seem to have crystallized during his 5,300 years of storage in the high mountains.

  3. The 5300-year-old Helicobacter pylori genome of the Iceman.

    PubMed

    Maixner, Frank; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Turaev, Dmitrij; Herbig, Alexander; Hoopmann, Michael R; Hallows, Janice L; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Vigl, Eduard Egarter; Malfertheiner, Peter; Megraud, Francis; O'Sullivan, Niall; Cipollini, Giovanna; Coia, Valentina; Samadelli, Marco; Engstrand, Lars; Linz, Bodo; Moritz, Robert L; Grimm, Rudolf; Krause, Johannes; Nebel, Almut; Moodley, Yoshan; Rattei, Thomas; Zink, Albert

    2016-01-08

    The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years.

  4. The 5,300-year-old Helicobacter pylori genome of the Iceman

    PubMed Central

    Hoopmann, Michael R.; Hallows, Janice L.; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Vigl, Eduard Egarter; Malfertheiner, Peter; Megraud, Francis; O'Sullivan, Niall; Cipollini, Giovanna; Coia, Valentina; Samadelli, Marco; Engstrand, Lars; Linz, Bodo; Moritz, Robert L.; Grimm, Rudolf; Krause, Johannes; Nebel, Almut; Moodley, Yoshan; Rattei, Thomas; Zink, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5,300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The “Iceman” H. pylori is a nearly-pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe prior to hybridization, suggesting the African population arrived in Europe within the last few thousand years. PMID:26744403

  5. Nanostructure and mechanics of mummified type I collagen from the 5300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman

    PubMed Central

    Janko, Marek; Zink, Albert; Gigler, Alexander M.; Heckl, Wolfgang M.; Stark, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Skin protects the body from pathogens and degradation. Mummified skin in particular is extremely resistant to decomposition. External influences or the action of micro-organisms, however, can degrade the connective tissue and lay the subjacent tissue open. To determine the degree of tissue preservation in mummified human skin and, in particular, the reason for its durability, we investigated the structural integrity of its main protein, type I collagen. We extracted samples from the Neolithic glacier mummy known as ‘the Iceman’. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed collagen fibrils that had characteristic banding patterns of 69 ± 5 nm periodicity. Both the microstructure and the ultrastructure of dermal collagen bundles and fibrils were largely unaltered and extremely well preserved by the natural conservation process. Raman spectra of the ancient collagen indicated that there were no significant modifications in the molecular structure. However, AFM nanoindentation measurements showed slight changes in the mechanical behaviour of the fibrils. Young's modulus of single mummified fibrils was 4.1 ± 1.1 GPa, whereas the elasticity of recent collagen averages 3.2 ± 1.0 GPa. The excellent preservation of the collagen indicates that dehydration owing to freeze-drying of the collagen is the main process in mummification and that the influence of the degradation processes can be addressed, even after 5300 years. PMID:20356896

  6. Glycosylated proteins preserved over millennia: N-glycan analysis of Tyrolean Iceman, Scythian Princess and Warrior

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Sureyya; Kim, Bum Jin; Ro, Grace; Kim, Jae-Han; Bereuter, Thomas L.; Reiter, Christian; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Garrido, Daniel; Mills, David A.; Grimm, Rudolf; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; An, Hyun Joo

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of glycosylation will provide new insights into many biological processes. In the analysis of oligosaccharides from biological samples, a strict regime is typically followed to ensure sample integrity. However, the fate of glycans that have been exposed to environmental conditions over millennia has not yet been investigated. This is also true for understanding the evolution of the glycosylation machinery in humans as well as in any other biological systems. In this study, we examined the glycosylation of tissue samples derived from four mummies which have been naturally preserved: – the 5,300 year old “Iceman called Oetzi”, found in the Tyrolean Alps; the 2,400 year old “Scythian warrior” and “Scythian Princess”, found in the Altai Mountains; and a 4 year old apartment mummy, found in Vienna/Austria. The number of N-glycans that were identified varied both with the age and the preservation status of the mummies. More glycan structures were discovered in the contemporary sample, as expected, however it is significant that glycan still exists in the ancient tissue samples. This discovery clearly shows that glycans persist for thousands of years, and these samples provide a vital insight into ancient glycosylation, offering us a window into the distant past. PMID:24831691

  7. Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Martin; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Henn, Brenna M.; Underhill, Peter A.; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Zara, Ilenia; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Angius, Andrea; Jones, Chris; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Nekhrizov, Georgi; Dimitrova, Diana; Theodossiev, Nikola; Harkins, Timothy T.; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Abecasis, Goncalo; Sanna, Serena; Cucca, Francesco; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, including genome sequence data from over 400 Sardinians and two ancient Thracians from Bulgaria, to investigate this result in greater detail and determine its implications for the genetic structure of Neolithic Europe. Using whole-genome sequencing data, we confirm that the Iceman is, indeed, most closely related to Sardinians. Furthermore, we show that this relationship extends to other individuals from cultural contexts associated with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic transition, in contrast to individuals from a hunter-gatherer context. We hypothesize that this genetic affinity of ancient samples from different parts of Europe with Sardinians represents a common genetic component that was geographically widespread across Europe during the Neolithic, likely related to migrations and population expansions associated with the spread of agriculture. PMID:24809476

  8. Whole mitochondrial DNA sequencing in Alpine populations and the genetic history of the Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman.

    PubMed

    Coia, V; Cipollini, G; Anagnostou, P; Maixner, F; Battaggia, C; Brisighelli, F; Gómez-Carballa, A; Destro Bisol, G; Salas, A; Zink, A

    2016-01-14

    The Tyrolean Iceman is an extraordinarily well-preserved natural mummy that lived south of the Alpine ridge ~5,200 years before present (ybp), during the Copper Age. Despite studies that have investigated his genetic profile, the relation of the Iceman´s maternal lineage with present-day mitochondrial variation remains elusive. Studies of the Iceman have shown that his mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) belongs to a novel lineage of haplogroup K1 (K1f) not found in extant populations. We analyzed the complete mtDNA sequences of 42 haplogroup K bearing individuals from populations of the Eastern Italian Alps - putatively in genetic continuity with the Tyrolean Iceman-and compared his mitogenome with a large dataset of worldwide K1 sequences. Our results allow a re-definition of the K1 phylogeny, and indicate that the K1f haplogroup is absent or rare in present-day populations. We suggest that mtDNA Iceman´s lineage could have disappeared during demographic events starting in Europe from ~5,000 ybp. Based on the comparison of our results with published data, we propose a scenario that could explain the apparent contrast between the phylogeographic features of maternal and paternal lineages of the Tyrolean Iceman within the context of the demographic dynamics happening in Europe from 8,000 ybp.

  9. Whole mitochondrial DNA sequencing in Alpine populations and the genetic history of the Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman

    PubMed Central

    Coia, V.; Cipollini, G.; Anagnostou, P.; Maixner, F.; Battaggia, C.; Brisighelli, F.; Gómez-Carballa, A; Destro Bisol, G.; Salas, A.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Tyrolean Iceman is an extraordinarily well-preserved natural mummy that lived south of the Alpine ridge ~5,200 years before present (ybp), during the Copper Age. Despite studies that have investigated his genetic profile, the relation of the Iceman´s maternal lineage with present-day mitochondrial variation remains elusive. Studies of the Iceman have shown that his mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) belongs to a novel lineage of haplogroup K1 (K1f) not found in extant populations. We analyzed the complete mtDNA sequences of 42 haplogroup K bearing individuals from populations of the Eastern Italian Alps – putatively in genetic continuity with the Tyrolean Iceman—and compared his mitogenome with a large dataset of worldwide K1 sequences. Our results allow a re-definition of the K1 phylogeny, and indicate that the K1f haplogroup is absent or rare in present-day populations. We suggest that mtDNA Iceman´s lineage could have disappeared during demographic events starting in Europe from ~5,000 ybp. Based on the comparison of our results with published data, we propose a scenario that could explain the apparent contrast between the phylogeographic features of maternal and paternal lineages of the Tyrolean Iceman within the context of the demographic dynamics happening in Europe from 8,000 ybp. PMID:26764605

  10. The omnivorous Tyrolean Iceman: colon contents (meat, cereals, pollen, moss and whipworm) and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, J H; Oeggl, K; Holden, T G; Handley, L L; O'Connell, T C; Preston, T

    2000-01-01

    The contents of the colon of the Tyrolean Iceman who lived ca. 5300 years ago include muscle fibres, cereal remains, a diversity of pollen, and most notably that of the hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) retaining cellular contents, as well as a moss leaf (Neckera complanata) and eggs of the parasitic whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). Based almost solely on stable isotope analyses and ignoring the work on the colon contents, two recently published papers on the Iceman's diet draw ill-founded conclusions about vegetarianism and even veganism. Neither the pollen nor the moss is likely to have been deliberately consumed as food by the Iceman. All the available evidence concerning the Iceman's broad-based diet is reviewed and the significance of the colon contents for matters other than assessment of food intake is outlined. PMID:11205345

  11. miRNAs in Ancient Tissue Specimens of the Tyrolean Iceman.

    PubMed

    Keller, Andreas; Kreis, Stephanie; Leidinger, Petra; Maixner, Frank; Ludwig, Nicole; Backes, Christina; Galata, Valentina; Guerriero, Gea; Fehlmann, Tobias; Franke, Andre; Meder, Benjamin; Zink, Albert; Meese, Eckart

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of nucleic acids in ancient samples is largely limited to DNA. Small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs) are known to be evolutionary conserved and stable. To gain knowledge on miRNAs measured from ancient samples, we profiled microRNAs in cryoconserved mummies. First, we established the approach on a World War One warrior, the "Kaiserjäger", which has been preserved for almost one century. Then, we profiled seven ancient tissue specimens including skeletal muscle, stomach mucosa, stomach content and two corpus organ tissues of the 5,300-year-old copper age mummy Iceman and compared these profiles to the presence of organ-specific miRNAs in modern tissues. Our analyses suggest the presence of specific miRNAs in the different Iceman's tissues. Of 1,066 analyzed human miRNAs, 31 were discovered across all biopsies and 87 miRNAs were detected only in a single sample. To check for potential microbiological contaminations, all miRNAs detected in Iceman samples and not present in ancient samples were mapped to 14,582 bacterial and viral genomes. We detected few hits (3.9% of miRNAs compared with 3.6% of miRNAs). Interestingly, the miRNAs with higher abundance across all ancient tissues were significantly enriched for Guanine (P value of 10-13) and Cytosine (P value of 10-7). The same pattern was observed for modern tissues. Comparing miRNAs measured from ancient organs to modern tissue patterns highlighted significant similarities, e.g., for miRNAs present in the muscle. Our first comprehensive analysis of microRNAs in ancient human tissues indicates that these stable molecules can be detected in tissue specimens after 5,300 years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Positioning the red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Ermini, Luca; Fusco, Letizia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia.

  13. Positioning the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Ermini, Luca; Fusco, Letizia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350–5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia. PMID:24988290

  14. Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies: Application to the Tyrolean Iceman.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Stephanie; Pernter, Patrizia; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Zesch, Stephanie; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Hotz, Gerhard; Zink, Albert R

    2017-08-23

    Purpose Soft tissues make a skeleton into a mummy and they allow for a diagnosis beyond osteology. Following the approach of structured reporting in clinical radiology, a recently developed checklist was used to evaluate the soft tissue preservation status of the Tyrolean Iceman using computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to apply the "Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies" to the Tyrolean Iceman, and to compare the Iceman's soft tissue preservation score to the scores calculated for other mummies. Materials and Methods A whole-body (CT) (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) consisting of five scans, performed in January 2013 in the Department of Radiodiagnostics, Central Hospital, Bolzano, was used (slice thickness 0.6 mm; kilovolt ranging from 80 to 140). For standardized evaluation the "CT Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in Human Mummies" was used. Results All checkpoints under category "A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System" and more than half in category "B. Organs and Organ Systems" were observed. The scoring system accounted for a total score of 153 (out of 200). The comparison of the scores between the Iceman and three mummy collections from Vilnius, Lithuania, and Palermo, Sicily, as well as one Egyptian mummy resulted in overall higher soft tissue preservation scores for the Iceman. Conclusion Application of the checklist allowed for standardized assessment and documentation of the Iceman's soft tissue preservation status. The scoring system allowed for a quantitative comparison between the Iceman and other mummies. The Iceman showed remarkable soft tissue preservation. Key Points  · The approach of structured reporting can be transferred to paleoradiology.. · The checklist allowed for standardized soft tissue assessment and documentation.. · The scoring system facilitated a

  15. Analysis of bacterial DNA in skin and muscle of the Tyrolean iceman offers new insight into the mummification process.

    PubMed

    Rollo, F; Luciani, S; Canapa, A; Marota, I

    2000-02-01

    About 80 sequences (16s ribosomal RNA gene) of bacterial DNA in samples of skin and muscle taken directly from the Tyrolean iceman (3350-3100 years B.C.) or recovered during the 1992 archaeological expedition at the Alpine site were analyzed to obtain clues to the natural mummification process that allowed the corpse of the Neolithic shepherd/hunter to be preserved for more than 5,000 years. The investigation was made more complex by the fact that the surface of the mummy had been swabbed with phenol soon after the discovery (September 19, 1991). Our results show that no trace of microbial DNA is left on the actual surface of the body, while the untreated skin still bears the remains of large numbers of bacteria belonging to the genera Sphingomonas, Afipia, Curtobacterium, Microbacterium, Agromyces, and others. Compared to the untreated skin, the iceman's muscle is also very rich in bacterial DNA. However, this DNA comes, with few exceptions, from the species Clostridium algidicarnis. The sharp difference in the bacterial DNA composition of skin and muscle suggests that the remains of the original cadaveric microflora of the latter have not disappeared during the iceman's taphonomic history. On the other hand, the massive presence of C. algidicarnis, a cold-adapted sporigenous, the DNA of which was previously (Ubaldi et al. [1998] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 107:285-295) found in the soft tissue of a naturally desiccated Andean mummy, indicates that the hypothesis that the iceman's corpse underwent rapid dehydration by the effect of a warm wind (föhn) is no longer plausible. The results best fit with the hypothesis (Bereuter et al. [1997] Chem. Eur. J. 7:1032-1038) that the body was first covered by snow and ice, and then underwent thawing and, finally, desiccation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Tyrolean Iceman and excavated human remains as sources of information about the past, the present, and the future.

    PubMed

    Sjøvold, T

    1998-01-01

    The 5,200-year-old mummy of the so-called "Iceman" found in the Tyrolean Alps in September 1991 has not only provided unique information about the European Stone Age, but has also supported disciplines of glaciology and paleoclimatology, contributed to medical history, age-at-death determination, and plastic surgery. The Iceman is the oldest known case of medical tattooing. Since the body is unique, new noninvasive methods had to be developed to investigate it. Stereolithographic skull models were produced to study the skull. Age determination was partly based on computer tomography. These methods may even be used for present or future medical or forensic practice. Furthermore, a collection of identified skulls from a charnel house in Austria, dating from about 1780 AD to 1990 AD, has been used for testing and developing osteological methods, though the inclusion of the skulls in the charnel house is formally classified a second burial. These skulls have been studied by permission from the local Catholic church. Careful respect for the ancestors is crucial in both these and other cases. In return, access to the remains of ancestors provides information which may shed light upon the past, the present, and even help survival in the future.

  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multidimensional scaling, binary hierarchical cluster tree and selected diagnostic masses improves species identification of Neolithic keratin sequences from furs of the Tyrolean Iceman Oetzi.

    PubMed

    Hollemeyer, Klaus; Altmeyer, Wolfgang; Heinzle, Elmar; Pitra, Christian

    2012-08-30

    The identification of fur origins from the 5300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman's accoutrement is not yet complete, although definite identification is essential for the socio-cultural context of his epoch. Neither have all potential samples been identified so far, nor there has a consensus been reached on the species identified using the classical methods. Archaeological hair often lacks analyzable hair scale patterns in microscopic analyses and polymer chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are often inapplicable due to the lack of amplifiable ancient DNA. To overcome these drawbacks, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method was used exclusively based on hair keratins. Thirteen fur specimens from his accoutrement were analyzed after tryptic digest of native hair. Peptide mass fingerprints (pmfs) from ancient samples and from reference species mostly occurring in the Alpine surroundings at his lifetime were compared to each other using multidimensional scaling and binary hierarchical cluster tree analysis. Both statistical methods highly reflect spectral similarities among pmfs as close zoological relationships. While multidimensional scaling was useful to discriminate specimens on the zoological order level, binary hierarchical cluster tree reached the family or subfamily level. Additionally, the presence and/or absence of order, family and/or species-specific diagnostic masses in their pmfs allowed the identification of mammals mostly down to single species level. Red deer was found in his shoe vamp, goat in the leggings, cattle in his shoe sole and at his quiver's closing flap as well as sheep and chamois in his coat. Canid species, like grey wolf, domestic dog or European red fox, were discovered in his leggings for the first time, but could not be differentiated to species level. This is widening the spectrum of processed fur-bearing species to at least one member of the Canidae family. His fur cap was

  18. A whole mitochondria analysis of the Tyrolean Iceman’s leather provides insights into the animal sources of Copper Age clothing

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Niall J.; Teasdale, Matthew D.; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Maixner, Frank; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G.; Zink, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The attire of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old natural mummy from the Ötzal Italian Alps, provides a surviving example of ancient manufacturing technologies. Research into his garments has however, been limited by ambiguity surrounding their source species. Here we present a targeted enrichment and sequencing of full mitochondrial genomes sampled from his clothes and quiver, which elucidates the species of production for nine fragments. Results indicate that the majority of the samples originate from domestic ungulate species (cattle, sheep and goat), whose recovered haplogroups are now at high frequency in today’s domestic populations. Intriguingly, the hat and quiver samples were produced from wild species, brown bear and roe deer respectively. Combined, these results suggest that Copper Age populations made considered choices of clothing material from both the wild and domestic populations available to them. Moreover, these results show the potential for the recovery of complete mitochondrial genomes from degraded prehistoric artefacts. PMID:27537861

  19. Age of the Mt. Ortles ice cores, the Tyrolean Iceman and glaciation of the highest summit of South Tyrol since the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo; Bertagna, Giuliano; Bertó, Michele; Binder, Daniel; Carton, Alberto; Carturan, Luca; Cazorzi, Federico; Cozzi, Giulio; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Davis, Mary; De Blasi, Fabrizio; Dinale, Roberto; Dragà, Gianfranco; Dreossi, Giuliano; Festi, Daniela; Frezzotti, Massimo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Galos, Stephan P.; Ginot, Patrick; Heidenwolf, Petra; Jenk, Theo M.; Kehrwald, Natalie; Kenny, Donald; Magand, Olivier; Mair, Volkmar; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Lin, Ping Nan; Oeggl, Klaus; Piffer, Gianni; Rinaldi, Mirko; Schotterer, Ulrich; Schwikowski, Margit; Seppi, Roberto; Spolaor, Andrea; Stenni, Barbara; Tonidandel, David; Uglietti, Chiara; Zagorodnov, Victor; Zanoner, Thomas; Zennaro, Piero

    2016-11-01

    In 2011 four ice cores were extracted from the summit of Alto dell'Ortles (3859 m), the highest glacier of South Tyrol in the Italian Alps. This drilling site is located only 37 km southwest from where the Tyrolean Iceman, ˜ 5.3 kyrs old, was discovered emerging from the ablating ice field of Tisenjoch (3210 m, near the Italian-Austrian border) in 1991. The excellent preservation of this mummy suggested that the Tyrolean Iceman was continuously embedded in prehistoric ice and that additional ancient ice was likely preserved elsewhere in South Tyrol. Dating of the ice cores from Alto dell'Ortles based on 210Pb, tritium, beta activity and 14C determinations, combined with an empirical model (COPRA), provides evidence for a chronologically ordered ice stratigraphy from the modern glacier surface down to the bottom ice layers with an age of ˜ 7 kyrs, which confirms the hypothesis. Our results indicate that the drilling site has continuously been glaciated on frozen bedrock since ˜ 7 kyrs BP. Absence of older ice on the highest glacier of South Tyrol is consistent with the removal of basal ice from bedrock during the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum (6-9 kyrs BP), the warmest interval in the European Alps during the Holocene. Borehole inclinometric measurements of the current glacier flow combined with surface ground penetration radar (GPR) measurements indicate that, due to the sustained atmospheric warming since the 1980s, an acceleration of the glacier Alto dell'Ortles flow has just recently begun. Given the stratigraphic-chronological continuity of the Mt. Ortles cores over millennia, it can be argued that this behaviour has been unprecedented at this location since the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum.

  20. Genotyping human ancient mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms with a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay: the singular maternal history of the Tyrolean Iceman.

    PubMed

    Endicott, Phillip; Sanchez, Juan J; Pichler, Irene; Brotherton, Paul; Brooks, Jerome; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Cooper, Alan; Pramstaller, Peter

    2009-06-19

    Progress in the field of human ancient DNA studies has been severely restricted due to the myriad sources of potential contamination, and because of the pronounced difficulty in identifying authentic results. Improving the robustness of human aDNA results is a necessary pre-requisite to vigorously testing hypotheses about human evolution in Europe, including possible admixture with Neanderthals. This study approaches the problem of distinguishing between authentic and contaminating sequences from common European mtDNA haplogroups by applying a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay, containing both control and coding region sites, to DNA extracted from the Tyrolean Iceman. The multiplex assay developed for this study was able to confirm that the Iceman's mtDNA belongs to a new European mtDNA clade with a very limited distribution amongst modern data sets. Controlled contamination experiments show that the correct results are returned by the multiplex assay even in the presence of substantial amounts of exogenous DNA. The overall level of discrimination achieved by targeting both control and coding region polymorphisms in a single reaction provides a methodology capable of dealing with most cases of homoplasy prevalent in European haplogroups. The new genotyping results for the Iceman confirm the extreme fallibility of human aDNA studies in general, even when authenticated by independent replication. The sensitivity and accuracy of the multiplex Single-Base-Extension methodology forms part of an emerging suite of alternative techniques for the accurate retrieval of ancient DNA sequences from both anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals. The contamination of laboratories remains a pressing concern in aDNA studies, both in the pre and post-PCR environments, and the adoption of a forensic style assessment of a priori risks would significantly improve the credibility of results.

  1. Investigation of the triacylglycerol composition of iceman's mummified tissue by high-temperature gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B X; Reiter, C; Bereuter, T L

    1997-04-25

    The pattern of intact triacylglycerols of a skin sample from the 5300-year-old Iceman mummy (nicknamed Otzi) was resolved on a diphenyl-dimethylpolysiloxane stationary phase by high-temperature gas chromatography. Adipocere from a 64-year-old glacier mummy as well as recent human subcutaneous fat served as a comparison in this study. Qualitatively, the results for mummy samples were similar with well-preserved saturated, but decomposed unsaturated, triacylglycerols, the latter being predominant in subcutaneous fat. Excellent preservation of triacylglycerols with odd carbon numbers and branched acyl chains was observed. The results presented here shed new light on the process of mummification.

  2. Metagenomic analysis reveals presence of Treponema denticola in a tissue biopsy of the Iceman.

    PubMed

    Maixner, Frank; Thomma, Anton; Cipollini, Giovanna; Widder, Stefanie; Rattei, Thomas; Zink, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Ancient hominoid genome studies can be regarded by definition as metagenomic analyses since they represent a mixture of both hominoid and microbial sequences in an environment. Here, we report the molecular detection of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola in ancient human tissue biopsies of the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old Copper Age natural ice mummy. Initially, the metagenomic data of the Iceman's genomic survey was screened for bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) specific reads. Through ranking the reads by abundance a relatively high number of rRNA reads most similar to T. denticola was detected. Mapping of the metagenome sequences against the T. denticola genome revealed additional reads most similar to this opportunistic pathogen. The DNA damage pattern of specifically mapped reads suggests an ancient origin of these sequences. The haematogenous spread of bacteria of the oral microbiome often reported in the recent literature could already explain the presence of metagenomic reads specific for T. denticola in the Iceman's bone biopsy. We extended, however, our survey to an Iceman gingival tissue sample and a mouth swab sample and could thereby detect T. denticola and Porphyrimonas gingivalis, another important member of the human commensal oral microflora. Taken together, this study clearly underlines the opportunity to detect disease-associated microorganisms when applying metagenomics-enabled approaches on datasets of ancient human remains.

  3. The Iceman's last weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Konrad

    1994-06-01

    The author presents the archaeological, botanical and anatomical of medical evidence relating to the events of the last few days of the Iceman's life. The unfinished arrows and the half-completed bow indicate that he had lost his weapons and was in the process of re-arming himself. The quiver and the two primed arrows show clear signs of damage that has been proved to originate from before entombment in the ice of Hauslabjoch. An intravital series of fractured ribs and atrophic changes to the humerus on the same side of the body are also indicative of a violent conflict. The presence of threshing and winnowing fragments proves that, shortly before his death, the Iceman spent some time in a human settlement in which the grain crop was threshed. The theory is therefore proposed that shortly before his death the Iceman suffered some personal catastrophe involving damage to his possessions and physical injury. He fled in the direction of the inner Ötz Valley, a region of high alpine pastures he may have been familiar with from summer transhumance. Just beyond the ridge of the main Alpine chain he was caught by a sudden fall in temperature and snowfall, which he did not survive.

  4. The musculoskeletal abnormalities of the Similaun Iceman ("ÖTZI"): clues to chronic pain and possible treatments.

    PubMed

    Kean, Walter F; Tocchio, Shannon; Kean, Mary; Rainsford, K D

    2013-02-01

    In 1991, a deceased human male was found frozen in a glacier pool in the Italian Alps in north west Italy, and is now carefully preserved in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, in Bolzano, Italy. The bodily tissues of the 5,300 year old male (colloquially referred to as the Iceman or Ötzi) were well preserved despite damage related to freezing, and glacial movement. Associated articles of well-preserved clothing, tools, weapons and other devices were also present and have been studied in detail. Clinical examination and imaging investigations have also shown that the Icemen had experienced possible illnesses in his lifetime and had identifiable areas of arthritis and musculoskeletal injury. This report includes some key observations on the musculoskeletal state of Ötzi and reference to the involvement of tattoo markings. Some aspects about the aetiology of his abnormalities and inflammatory arthritis are considered along with possible treatments that he might have employed. We (WFK and MK) undertook a clinical musculoskeletal examination of the Iceman, details of which with available photographs and radiographic imaging pertaining to the musculoskeletal findings of the Iceman are reported here. The skin of the Iceman has numerous linear carbon tattoos, which are not of a decorative type. These have been presumed to possibly be "medicinal" tattoos administered for therapeutic reasons and may have been used in acupuncture-like treatment of pain. Spinal imaging identified areas of spinal damage and our observations have provided clues as to possible sites of spinal initiated pain and hence sites for administration of the "medicinal" tattoos. We observed body areas of the Iceman, in which imaging demonstrated arthritis and other forms of long-term musculoskeletal damage, but which do not have adjacent or corresponding "medicinal" tattoos. We contend that the back and leg "medicinal" tattoos correspond directly to sites of chronic right knee and right ankle pain

  5. Characterization of Nucleotide Misincorporation Patterns in the Iceman's Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Cristina; Ermini, Luca; Rizzi, Ermanno; Corti, Giorgio; Bonnal, Raoul; Luciani, Stefania; Marota, Isolina; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Background The degradation of DNA represents one of the main issues in the genetic analysis of archeological specimens. In the recent years, a particular kind of post-mortem DNA modification giving rise to nucleotide misincorporation (“miscoding lesions”) has been the object of extensive investigations. Methodology/Principal Findings To improve our knowledge regarding the nature and incidence of ancient DNA nucleotide misincorporations, we have utilized 6,859 (629,975 bp) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences obtained from the 5,350–5,100-years-old, freeze-desiccated human mummy popularly known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi. To generate the sequences, we have applied a mixed PCR/pyrosequencing procedure allowing one to obtain a particularly high sequence coverage. As a control, we have produced further 8,982 (805,155 bp) mtDNA sequences from a contemporary specimen using the same system and starting from the same template copy number of the ancient sample. From the analysis of the nucleotide misincorporation rate in ancient, modern, and putative contaminant sequences, we observed that the rate of misincorporation is significantly lower in modern and putative contaminant sequence datasets than in ancient sequences. In contrast, type 2 transitions represent the vast majority (85%) of the observed nucleotide misincorporations in ancient sequences. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a further contribution to the knowledge of nucleotide misincorporation patterns in DNA sequences obtained from freeze-preserved archeological specimens. In the Iceman system, ancient sequences can be clearly distinguished from contaminants on the basis of nucleotide misincorporation rates. This observation confirms a previous identification of the ancient mummy sequences made on a purely phylogenetical basis. The present investigation provides further indication that the majority of ancient DNA damage is reflected by type 2 (cytosine→thymine/guanine→adenine) transitions and

  6. Origin and migration of the Alpine Iceman.

    PubMed

    Müller, Wolfgang; Fricke, Henry; Halliday, Alex N; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Wartho, Jo-Anne

    2003-10-31

    The Alpine Iceman provides a unique window into the Neolithic-Copper Age of Europe. We compared the radiogenic (strontium and lead) and stable (oxygen and carbon) isotope composition of the Iceman's teeth and bones, as well as 40Ar/39Ar mica ages from his intestine, to local geology and hydrology, and we inferred his habitat and range from childhood to adult life. The Iceman's origin can be restricted to a few valleys within approximately 60 kilometers south(east) of the discovery site. His migration during adulthood is indicated by contrasting isotopic compositions of enamel, bones, and intestinal content. This demonstrates that the Alpine valleys of central Europe were permanently inhabited during the terminal Neolithic.

  7. Otzi, the iceman and his leather clothes.

    PubMed

    Püntener, Alois G; Moss, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Over 5000 years ago, a man climbed up to the icy heights of the glacier in South Tyrol, Italy and died. He was found by accident in 1991, with his clothes and equipment, mummified and frozen: an archaeological sensation and a unique snapshot of a Copper Age man. For several years highly specialised research teams have examined the mummy and all accompanying items. This paper describes how fur and leather clothes of the iceman could have been tanned. Details of the analytical tests undertaken on the 5000 year old leather samples and what they revealed are presented.

  8. The reconstruction of the last itinerary of “Ötzi”, the Neolithic Iceman, by pollen analyses from sequentially sampled gut extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Kofler, Werner; Schmidl, Alexandra; Dickson, James H.; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Gaber, Othmar

    2007-04-01

    The investigations of the Tyrolean Iceman "Ötzi" and his artefacts, discovered at a remote location high in the Eastern Alps, have contributed greatly to the knowledge of the lifestyle of Neolithic humankind. However, the events immediately prior to the Iceman's death have remained unclear and even the recently discovered arrowhead in his back does not explain conclusively the cause of death satisfactorily. From the pollen and macrofossil content of his gut, we reconstruct his travels just before his demise. Sequential sampling of the food residues in the digestive tract of the 5200 year old glacier mummy has made possible the analyses of a series of meals and, from the pollen content, the deduction of the environments in which the last meals were eaten. During his last 33 or so hours, Ötzi crossed different habitats in the Ötztal mountains over considerable distances from high up near the timber line (at about 2500 m), to low down in the zone of warmth-loving trees (about 1200 m or less), and finally very high in the zone of perennial ice (above 3000 m). These final journeys lend new weight to the "disaster" theory of Ötzi's death, which suggests that, returning from the high alpine pastures to his native village, he came into a severe conflict with his kin such that he had to flee from the community back to the high ground familiar to him, where he died.

  9. The Time before History: Thinking Like an Archaeologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a series of lesson plans for a seventh-grade world studies class. The lessons use the discovery of a 5,300-year-old "iceman" in the Austrian Alps as a starting point for a series of simulated archaeological activities. Includes descriptions and drawings of the iceman's remains and artifacts. (MJP)

  10. ``Isotope language'' of the Alpine Iceman investigated with AMS and MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, Walter; Müller, Wolfgang

    2003-05-01

    This paper reviews the use of stable and radioactive isotopes to elucidate an extraordinary archaeological find, the Alpine Iceman "Ötzi". In 1991 the body of this man was accidentally discovered in an ice-filled depression at a high-altitude mountain pass (Tisenjoch, 3210 m) of the Ötztal Alps. This location at the Austrian-Italian border apparently formed an ancient transition across the Alps from South to North. 14C dating of the body with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) revealed that the Iceman had lived some 5200 years ago, within the time period from 3370 to 3100 years BC (Before Christ). A variety of other materials from the discovery site were also dated with 14C AMS suggesting a use of the mountain pass at other time periods, and varying climatic conditions. Ongoing investigations with thermal ionization (TIMS), inductively-coupled plasma (ICP-MS) and gas mass spectrometry include isotope ratios of 18O/ 16O ( δ18O), 87Sr/ 86Sr and 206Pb/ 204Pb, in order to reveal the Iceman's origin and migrational behavior. Analyzed samples include tooth enamel, bones and contents of his intestine, which all represent different ontogenetic (developmental) stages. The isotopic composition of the Iceman is compared to both soils from archaeological sites and local waters. Taken together, the results point towards an origin of the Iceman in the Southeast of the finding site, consistent with archaeological and paleobotanical data.

  11. Genomic correlates of atherosclerosis in ancient humans.

    PubMed

    Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Thompson, Randall C; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Allam, Adel H; Finch, Caleb E; Frohlich, Bruno; Kaplan, Hillard; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Miyamoto, Michael I; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Thomas, Gregory S; Krause, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Paleogenetics offers a unique opportunity to study human evolution, population dynamics, and disease evolution in situ. Although histologic and computed x-ray tomographic investigations of ancient mummies have clearly shown that atherosclerosis has been present in humans for more than 5,000 years, limited data are available on the presence of genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease in ancient human populations. In a previous whole-genome study of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy from the Alps, an increased risk for coronary heart disease was detected. The Iceman's genome revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. Future genetic studies of ancient humans from various geographic origins and time periods have the potential to provide more insights into the presence and possible changes of genetic risk factors in our ancestors. The study of ancient humans and a better understanding of the interaction between environmental and genetic influences on the development of heart diseases may lead to a more effective prevention and treatment of the most common cause of death in the modern world.

  12. Differences among South Tyrolean suicides: a psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Giancarlo; Conca, Andreas; Innamorati, Marco; Forte, Alberto; Lester, David; Erbuto, Denise; Pycha, Roger; Girardi, Paolo; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Pompili, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to study gender differences in the suicides in South Tyrol. Between 2000 and 2009, the Department of Psychiatry of Bolzano administered questionnaires to the Provincial Departments of Public Health requesting information about causes and methods of completed suicides. Each suicide was then examined using a psychological autopsy methodology. There were 448 suicides studied (339 men and 109 women). Compared with men, women were more likely to live alone, have attempted suicide in the past, and to have contacted their general practitioners in the last weeks before dying. They were also less likely to have an alcohol use disorder, have used violent methods of suicide, and be 35 years or younger. The differences identified for South Tyrolean suicides confirmed previously reported gender differences in employment and marital status, history of a previous suicide attempt, and alcohol abuse. Appropriate gender-based preventive interventions are needed.

  13. Isotopic Composition of the Neolithic Alpine Iceman's Tooth Enamel and Clues to his Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, W.; Muller, W.; Halliday, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Five small enamel fragments from three teeth of the upper right jaw from the mummy of the Neolithic Alpine Iceman have been investigated for their isotopic composition in order to shed light on his geographic origins. Soils from approximately contemporaneous sites were sampled for comparison. Tooth enamel forms ontogenetically very early and is not re-mineralized during later lifetime (unlike with bone material). Therefore, unique insights into the Iceman's childhood can be acquired. Enamel also is the densest tissue of a human body and is thus less susceptible to post-mortem alteration. Both radiogenic (Sr, Pb, Nd) and stable isotopes (O, C) are investigated. Radiogenic isotopes allow reconstruction of the local geological background, because humans incorporate Sr, Pb and Nd from their local environment by eating local food. Stable isotopes provide information about altitude and/or position relative to the main Alpine watershed. High spatial-resolution laser-ablation ICPMS profiles reveal that most elements are distributed in a manner that is essentially similar to modern human teeth except of that La, Ce, Nd (LREE) show up to a 100-fold enrichment towards the outer enamel surface. These uptake-profiles may reflect interaction with melt water, consistent with data for the composition of samples of the Iceman's skin. Biogenic apatites (enamel, bone) have very low in-vivo LREE concentrations, but take up LREEs post-mortem from the burial environment. Ice core samples from the finding site show concentrations up to 400 ppt Ce. Such high uptake of the LREEs precludes the derivation of an in-vivo Nd isotopic signal, but both other radiogenic tracers, Sr and Pb, show pristine (in-vivo) concentrations of 87 ppm and 0.1 ppm, respectively. Strontium isotopic compositions were determined on fragments from the canine, the first and second premolar (1 - 9 mg) and two hip bone samples, utilizing three sequential leaching steps for each sample to detect possible alteration

  14. The utility of ancient human DNA for improving allele age estimates, with implications for demographic models and tests of natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Sams, Aaron J.; Hawks, John; Keinan, Alon

    2015-01-01

    The age of polymorphic alleles in humans is often estimated from population genetic patterns in extant human populations, such as allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium, and rate of mutations. Ancient DNA can improve the accuracy of such estimates, as well as facilitate testing the validity of demographic models underlying many population genetic methods. Specifically, the presence of an allele in a genome derived from an ancient sample testifies that the allele is at least as old as that sample. In this study, we consider a common method for estimating allele age based on allele frequency as applied to variants from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project. We view these estimates in the context of the presence or absence of each allele in the genomes of the 5300 year old Tyrolean Iceman, Ötzi, and of the 50,000 year old Altai Neandertal. Our results illuminate the accuracy of these estimates and their sensitivity to demographic events that were not included in the model underlying age estimation. Specifically, allele presence in the Iceman genome provides a good fit of allele age estimates to the expectation based on the age of that specimen. The equivalent based on the Neandertal genome leads to a poorer fit. This is likely due in part to the older age of the Neandertal and the older time of the split between modern humans and Neandertals, but also due to gene flow from Neandertals to modern humans not being considered in the underlying demographic model. Thus, the incorporation of ancient DNA can improve allele age estimation, demographic modeling, and tests of natural selection. Our results also point to the importance of considering a more diverse set of ancient samples for understanding the geographic and temporal range of individual alleles. PMID:25467111

  15. The utility of ancient human DNA for improving allele age estimates, with implications for demographic models and tests of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Sams, Aaron J; Hawks, John; Keinan, Alon

    2015-02-01

    The age of polymorphic alleles in humans is often estimated from population genetic patterns in extant human populations, such as allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium, and rate of mutations. Ancient DNA can improve the accuracy of such estimates, as well as facilitate testing the validity of demographic models underlying many population genetic methods. Specifically, the presence of an allele in a genome derived from an ancient sample testifies that the allele is at least as old as that sample. In this study, we consider a common method for estimating allele age based on allele frequency as applied to variants from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project. We view these estimates in the context of the presence or absence of each allele in the genomes of the 5300 year old Tyrolean Iceman, Ötzi, and of the 50,000 year old Altai Neandertal. Our results illuminate the accuracy of these estimates and their sensitivity to demographic events that were not included in the model underlying age estimation. Specifically, allele presence in the Iceman genome provides a good fit of allele age estimates to the expectation based on the age of that specimen. The equivalent based on the Neandertal genome leads to a poorer fit. This is likely due in part to the older age of the Neandertal and the older time of the split between modern humans and Neandertals, but also due to gene flow from Neandertals to modern humans not being considered in the underlying demographic model. Thus, the incorporation of ancient DNA can improve allele age estimation, demographic modeling, and tests of natural selection. Our results also point to the importance of considering a more diverse set of ancient samples for understanding the geographic and temporal range of individual alleles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Deletion in the EVC2 gene causes chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Tyrolean Grey cattle.

    PubMed

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Benazzi, Cinzia; Bolcato, Marilena; Brunetti, Barbara; Muscatello, Luisa Vera; Dittmer, Keren; Piffer, Christian; Gentile, Arcangelo; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2013 seven Italian Tyrolean Grey calves were born with abnormally short limbs. Detailed clinical and pathological examination revealed similarities to chondrodysplastic dwarfism. Pedigree analysis showed a common founder, assuming autosomal monogenic recessive transmission of the defective allele. A positional cloning approach combining genome wide association and homozygosity mapping identified a single 1.6 Mb genomic region on BTA 6 that was associated with the disease. Whole genome re-sequencing of an affected calf revealed a single candidate causal mutation in the Ellis van Creveld syndrome 2 (EVC2) gene. This gene is known to be associated with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Japanese Brown cattle, and dwarfism, abnormal nails and teeth, and dysostosis in humans with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a 2 bp deletion in exon 19 (c.2993_2994ACdel) that led to a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of bovine EVC2, and was concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier animals. This loss of function mutation confirms the important role of EVC2 in bone development. Genetic testing can now be used to eliminate this form of chondrodysplastic dwarfism from Tyrolean Grey cattle.

  17. Deletion in the EVC2 Gene Causes Chondrodysplastic Dwarfism in Tyrolean Grey Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Benazzi, Cinzia; Bolcato, Marilena; Brunetti, Barbara; Muscatello, Luisa Vera; Dittmer, Keren; Piffer, Christian; Gentile, Arcangelo; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2013 seven Italian Tyrolean Grey calves were born with abnormally short limbs. Detailed clinical and pathological examination revealed similarities to chondrodysplastic dwarfism. Pedigree analysis showed a common founder, assuming autosomal monogenic recessive transmission of the defective allele. A positional cloning approach combining genome wide association and homozygosity mapping identified a single 1.6 Mb genomic region on BTA 6 that was associated with the disease. Whole genome re-sequencing of an affected calf revealed a single candidate causal mutation in the Ellis van Creveld syndrome 2 (EVC2) gene. This gene is known to be associated with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Japanese Brown cattle, and dwarfism, abnormal nails and teeth, and dysostosis in humans with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a 2 bp deletion in exon 19 (c.2993_2994ACdel) that led to a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of bovine EVC2, and was concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier animals. This loss of function mutation confirms the important role of EVC2 in bone development. Genetic testing can now be used to eliminate this form of chondrodysplastic dwarfism from Tyrolean Grey cattle. PMID:24733244

  18. [Usage patterns of internet and computer games : Results of an observational study of Tyrolean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Riedl, David; Stöckl, Andrea; Nussbaumer, Charlotte; Rumpold, Gerhard; Sevecke, Kathrin; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The use of digital media such as the Internet and Computer games has greatly increased. In the western world, almost all young people regularly use these relevant technologies. Against this background, forms of use with possible negative consequences for young people have been recognized and scientifically examined. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of pathological use of these technologies in a sample of young Tyrolean people. 398 students (average age 15.2 years, SD ± 2.3 years, 34.2% female) were interviewed by means of the structured questionnaires CIUS (Internet), CSV-S (Computer games) and SWE (Self efficacy). Additionally, socio demographic data were collected. In line with previous studies, 7.7% of the adolescents of our sample showed criteria for problematic internet use, 3.3% for pathological internet use. 5.4% of the sample reported pathological computer game usage. The most important aspect to influence our results was the gender of the subjects. Intensive users in the field of Internet and Computer games were more often young men, young women, however, showed significantly less signs of pathological computer game use. A significant percentage of Tyrolean adolescents showed difficulties in the development of competent media use, indicating the growing significance of prevention measures such as media education. In a follow-up project, a sample of adolescents with mental disorders will be examined concerning their media use and be compared with our school-sample.

  19. Intergroup conflict, out-group derogation, and self-directed negative affect among Italian South Tyroleans.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Sandro; Colloca, Pasquale

    2004-04-01

    In South Tyrol, a multiethnic Italian province, the authors examined the self-directed negative affect that members of an Italian group experienced after they evaluated members of the German and Albanian groups. The authors examined the affect as a function of out-group derogation. The authors argued that to the extent that out-group derogation may run counter to norms toward intergroup fairness, such normative nonconformity will elicit negative affect directed at the self as a function of perceived intergroup conflict. The findings support the authors' line of reasoning: among Italian South Tyroleans, those who expressed greater out-group derogation were led to experience stronger negative self-directed affect when they rated a low-conflict out-group, but not when they rated a high-conflict out-group, compared to participants whose out-group derogation was less.

  20. Large interarcuate spaces in the cervical vertebral column of the tyrolean mountain sheep.

    PubMed

    Turkof, E; Jurasch, N; Grassberger, M; Schwendenwein, S; Habib, D; Knolle, E; Losert, U

    2003-02-01

    Large interarcual spaces have been described between the arcus vertebrae C5/C6 and C6/C7 in the cervical vertebral column of Nubian goats. This aperture enables direct access to spinal cord and rootlets without the need to perform a hemilaminectomy. The present study was performed in order to determine whether these large interarcual spaces can also be found in the vertebral column of the Tyrolean mountain sheep, as this small ruminant, which is anatomically very similar to the Nubian goat, is frequently used for experimental purposes at the Surgical University Clinic in Austria. The carcasses of 10 sheep (six females, four males; range of age: 2.5-6 years, range of weight: 52-89 kg) were dissected and the vertebral column was exposed. All 10 sheep showed elliptic openings between the fourth cervical and the first thoracal vertebrae. Three sheep had additional openings between the first and the second thoracal vertebrae. All openings were covered solitarily by the ligamentum flavum and under this ligamentum lay the spinal cord without any further osseous or ligamentous protection. These findings are not mentioned in the common textbooks of veterinary anatomy and deserve attention, as they can be a step forward towards non-traumatic experimental surgery on the spinal cord.

  1. Isolation and marriage patterns in four South Tyrolean villages (Italy) during the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Riegler, A; Marroni, F; Pattaro, C; Gueresi, P; Pramstaller, P P

    2008-09-01

    No information is currently available on the marriage patterns of German-speaking communities of the South Tyrol area. The aim of this study is to investigate the reproductive isolation of four South Tyrolean mountain villages during the 19th century. Data about 3953 marriages were drawn from existing pedigrees and completed with data from the parish registers of the studied villages to calculate the following indicators: age at marriage, endogamy, inbreeding from dispensations and from isonymy and repeated pairs of surnames among couples. The results show high levels of endogamy (78-87%) and an elevated age at marriage in all the studied villages. The percentages of consanguineous marriages (10-33%) vary considerably but result overall in relatively low inbreeding values (alpha 0.0015-0.0036; Ft 0.0098-0.0138). Levels of endogamy are consistent with the geographic characteristics of the area, while inbreeding values are lower than those observed in previous studies on Alpine communities. This is due to a low frequency of marriages between close relatives, probably related to the peculiar demographic and cultural characteristics of the studied populations that differentiate them from neighbouring Italian-speaking villages.

  2. Inbreeding trends and pedigree analysis of Bavarian mountain hounds, Hanoverian hounds and Tyrolean hounds.

    PubMed

    Voges, S; Distl, O

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse genetic diversity for the three scent-hound breeds Bavarian mountain hound (BMH), Hanoverian hound (HH) and Tyrolean hound (TH) using all available pedigree information from scent-hound kennel clubs for these three breeds throughout Europe. The pedigree data of the BMH and the HH date back to 1912 and 1894, respectively. Pedigree data of the TH were available from the 1960s onwards. The reference populations included all BMH (n = 3231), HH (n = 1371) and TH (n = 1167) dogs registered between 1992 and 2004. Average generation intervals were 5.3 years for the BMH and 5.0 years for the HH and TH. Average inbreeding coefficients for the reference populations were 4.5%, 6.8% and 9.5% for the BMH, HH and TH. The effective numbers of founders, ancestors and founder genomes were lowest for the TH and highest for the BMH. The effective numbers of founder genomes were 10.9, 5.6 and 4.3 for the BMH, HH and TH. Effective population size was largest for the BMH with 72.7 effective breeding animals, followed by the HH with 50.9 and TH with 26.5. The most important ten ancestors had genetic contributions to the reference populations of 54.4%, 65.2% and 77.9% in the BMH, HH and TH. The results of our study indicate the need for careful breed management in these highly specialized hound breeds to maintain genetic diversity. European stud books should be established for these dog breeds in order to avoid inbreeding due to missing pedigree records.

  3. The full spectrum of climate change adaptation: testing an analytical framework in Tyrolean mountain agriculture (Austria).

    PubMed

    Grüneis, Heidelinde; Penker, Marianne; Höferl, Karl-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our scientific view on climate change adaptation (CCA) is unsatisfying in many ways: It is often dominated by a modernistic perspective of planned pro-active adaptation, with a selective focus on measures directly responding to climate change impacts and thus it is far from real-life conditions of those who are actually affected by climate change. Farmers have to simultaneously adapt to multiple changes. Therefore, also empirical climate change adaptation research needs a more integrative perspective on real-life climate change adaptations. This also has to consider "hidden" adaptations, which are not explicitly and directly motivated by CCA but actually contribute to the sector's adaptability to climate change. The aim of the present study is to develop and test an analytic framework that contributes to a broader understanding of CCA and to bridge the gap between scientific expertise and practical action. The framework distinguishes three types of CCA according to their climate related motivations: explicit adaptations, multi-purpose adaptations, and hidden adaptations. Although agriculture is among the sectors that are most affected by climate change, results from the case study of Tyrolean mountain agriculture show that climate change is ranked behind other more pressing "real-life-challenges" such as changing agricultural policies or market conditions. We identified numerous hidden adaptations which make a valuable contribution when dealing with climate change impacts. We conclude that these hidden adaptations have not only to be considered to get an integrative und more realistic view on CCA; they also provide a great opportunity for linking adaptation strategies to farmers' realities.

  4. High prevalence of BRCA1 stop mutation c.4183C>T in the Tyrolean population: implications for genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Pölsler, Laura; Fiegl, Heidi; Wimmer, Katharina; Oberaigner, Willi; Amberger, Albert; Traunfellner, Pia; Morscher, Raphael J; Weber, Ingrid; Fauth, Christine; Wernstedt, Annekatrin; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Oberguggenberger, Anne; Hubalek, Michael; Marth, Christian; Zschocke, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Screening for founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 has been discussed as a cost-effective testing strategy in certain populations. In this study, comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing was performed in a routine diagnostic setting. The prevalence of the BRCA1 stop mutation c.4183C>T, p.(Gln1395Ter), was determined in unselected breast and ovarian cancer patients from different regions in the Tyrol. Cancer registry data were used to evaluate the impact of this mutation on regional cancer incidence. The mutation c.4183C>T was detected in 30.4% of hereditary BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer patients in our cohort. It was also identified in 4.1% of unselected (26% of unselected triple negative) Tyrolean breast cancer patients and 6.8% of unselected ovarian cancer patients from the Lower Inn Valley (LIV) region. Cancer incidences showed a region-specific increase in age-stratified breast and ovarian cancer risk with standardized incidence ratios of 1.23 and 2.13, respectively. We, thus, report a Tyrolean BRCA1 founder mutation that correlates to a local increase in the breast and ovarian cancer risks. On the basis of its high prevalence, we suggest that targeted genetic analysis should be offered to all women with breast or ovarian cancer and ancestry from the LIV region. PMID:26014432

  5. Factors associated with motor performance among overweight and nonoverweight Tyrolean primary school children.

    PubMed

    Ruedl, Gerhard; Greier, Klaus; Kirschner, Werner; Kopp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is often associated with motor deficits. Motor performance among children partly depends on modifiable factors, for example, weight status, electronic media use, sports club participation, and on nonmodifiable factors, for example, sex, age, migration background, or socio-economic status. To evaluate factors associated with motor performance among overweight and nonoverweight Tyrolean primary school children. Height, weight, and sport motor performance of primary school children were measured using the German motor performance test DMT 6-18. In addition, children were asked about migration background, sports club participation, and electronic media use in their room. A total of 304 children (48.7% girls) with a mean age of 8.0 ± 1.2 years were tested. In total, 61 (20.1%) children were overweight or obese. Regarding motor performance, nonoverweight children showed significantly higher total z-scores (106.8 ± 5.7 vs. 102.4 ± 6.8). For the total cohort, results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0.20) revealed that factors male sex (β = 0.12), nonoverweight children (β = 0.28), higher school grade (β = 0.23), sports club participation (β = 0.18),and > 2 weekly lessons of physical education (β = 0.26) were associated with an increased motor performance. For nonoverweight children results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0.09) found that a higher school grade (β = 0.17), sports club participation (β = 0.16),and more than 2 weekly lessons of physical education (β = 0.22) were associated with an increased motor performance. For the overweight children, results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0 .43) showed that no migration background (β = 0.23), a higher school grade (β = 0.55), sports club participation (β = 0.33) and more than 2 weekly lessons of physical

  6. Persistent organic pollutant accumulation in seasonal snow along an altitudinal gradient in the Tyrolean Alps.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Lourdes; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Pilar; Lopez, Jordi F; Nickus, Ulrike; Thies, Hansjoerg

    2014-11-01

    The snow capacity for storage of a large number of pollutants such as polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE), including BDE-209, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs; α- and γ-isomers), endosulfans (α- and β-isomers and the sulphate residue) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), in a steep altitudinal gradient (1,101-2,500 m above sea level (asl); maximum planar distance 16 km) in a typical European mountain system, the Tyrolean Alps (Austria), was studied here for the first time. Snow samples representing the whole snowpack accumulated at the end of the cold season were collected in all cases. The snow specific surface area (SSA) of these samples, 140-260 cm(2) g(-1), was characteristic of aged snow with low retention capacity. PAHs were the pollutant group in highest concentrations (500-8,400 pg L(-1)). PCBs and PBDEs were found in concentrations of 460-900 and 8.5-290 pg L(-1), respectively. From the fourteen investigated BDE congeners, only BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-209 were found above the detection limit, which is consistent with the results found in the only previous study in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia) which also involved a steep gradient (1,683-2,634 m asl; maximum planar distance 5 km; Arellano et al. 2011) and confirm the capacity of these low-volatile compounds for long-range transport from distant sources. HCB was found in a concentration range of 34-55 pg L(-1). Snow deposition fluxes of PCB-118, PCB-153, γ-HCH, α-endosulfan and BDE-47 showed statistically significant correlations with altitude, involving higher values at higher elevation. This trend may reflect cold trapping effects in view of the snow particle contents and SSA values. However, these gradients were only significant for this limited number of compounds within each pollutant group which may be explained by differences in physical-chemical properties of the compounds and the limited capacity of the aged snow for organic

  7. A high-resolution modelling approach on spatial wildfire distribution in the Tyrolean Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowerschnig, Bodo; Sass, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Global warming will cause increasing danger of wildfires in Austria, which can have long-lasting consequences on woodland ecosystems. The protective effect of forest can be severely diminished, leading to natural hazards like avalanches and rockfall. However, data on wildfire frequency and distribution have been sparse and incomplete for Austria. Long-lasting postfire degradation under adverse preconditions (steep slopes, limestone) was a common phenomenon in parts of the Tyrolean Alps several decades ago and should become relevant again under a changing fire frequency. The FIRIA project compiles historical wildfire data, information on fuel loads, fire weather indices (FWI) and vegetation recovery patterns. The governing climatic, topographic and socio-economic factors of forest fire distribution were assessed to trigger a distribution model of currently fire-prone areas in Tyrol. By collecting data from different sources like old newspapers archives and fire-fighter databases, we were able to build up a fire database of wildfire occurrences containing more than 1400 forest fires since the 15th century in Tyrol. For the period from 1993 to 2011, the database is widely complete and covers 482 fires. Using a non-parametrical statistical method it was possible to select the best suited fire weather index (FWI) for the prediction. The testing of 19 FWI's shows that it is necessary to use two discriminative indices to differentiate between summer and winter season. Together with compiled topographic, socio-economic, infrastructure and forest maps, the dataset was the base for a multifactorial analysis, performed by comparing the maximum entropy approach (Maxent) with an ensemble classifier (Random Forests). Both approaches have their background in the spatial habitat distribution and are easy to adapt to the requirements of a wildfire ignition model. The aim of this modelling approach was to determine areas which are particularly prone to wildfire. Due to the

  8. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Matysssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra at treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3, and 1.0 °C at 5, 10, and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapor, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ13C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment. PMID:25737326

  9. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment.

  10. Personal networks: a tool for gaining insight into the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean (Austrian) migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigations into knowledge about food and medicinal plants in a certain geographic area or within a specific group are an important element of ethnobotanical research. This knowledge is context specific and dynamic due to changing ecological, social and economic circumstances. Migration processes affect food habits and the knowledge and use of medicinal plants as a result of adaptations that have to be made to new surroundings and changing environments. This study analyses and compares the different dynamics in the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru. Methods A social network approach was used to collect data on personal networks of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyroleans who have migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru and their descendants. A statistical analysis of the personal network maps and a qualitative analysis of the narratives were combined to provide insight into the process of transmitting knowledge about food and medicinal plants. Results 56 personal networks were identified in all (food: 30; medicinal plants: 26) across all the field sites studied here. In both sets of networks, the main source of knowledge is individual people (food: 71%; medicinal plants: 68%). The other sources mentioned are print and audiovisual media, organisations and institutions. Personal networks of food knowledge are larger than personal networks of medicinal plant knowledge in all areas of investigation. Relatives play a major role as transmitters of knowledge in both domains. Conclusions Human sources, especially relatives, play an important role in knowledge transmission in both domains. Reference was made to other sources as well, such as books, television, the internet, schools and restaurants. By taking a personal network approach, this study reveals the mode of transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants within a migrational context. PMID:24398225

  11. Personal networks: a tool for gaining insight into the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean (Austrian) migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru.

    PubMed

    Haselmair, Ruth; Pirker, Heidemarie; Kuhn, Elisabeth; Vogl, Christian R

    2014-01-07

    Investigations into knowledge about food and medicinal plants in a certain geographic area or within a specific group are an important element of ethnobotanical research. This knowledge is context specific and dynamic due to changing ecological, social and economic circumstances. Migration processes affect food habits and the knowledge and use of medicinal plants as a result of adaptations that have to be made to new surroundings and changing environments. This study analyses and compares the different dynamics in the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru. A social network approach was used to collect data on personal networks of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyroleans who have migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru and their descendants. A statistical analysis of the personal network maps and a qualitative analysis of the narratives were combined to provide insight into the process of transmitting knowledge about food and medicinal plants. 56 personal networks were identified in all (food: 30; medicinal plants: 26) across all the field sites studied here. In both sets of networks, the main source of knowledge is individual people (food: 71%; medicinal plants: 68%). The other sources mentioned are print and audiovisual media, organisations and institutions. Personal networks of food knowledge are larger than personal networks of medicinal plant knowledge in all areas of investigation. Relatives play a major role as transmitters of knowledge in both domains. Human sources, especially relatives, play an important role in knowledge transmission in both domains. Reference was made to other sources as well, such as books, television, the internet, schools and restaurants. By taking a personal network approach, this study reveals the mode of transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants within a migrational context.

  12. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In ethnobotanical research, the investigation into traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the context of migration has been of increasing interest in recent decades since it is influenced and changed by new environmental and social conditions. It most likely undergoes transformation processes to match the different living circumstances in the new location. This study compares the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants held by Tyroleans – and their descendants – who emigrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru at different time scales. The study’s findings allow a discussion of the complexities and dynamics that influence this knowledge within the context of long-distance migration. Methods Information was obtained from 65 informants by free-listing, semi-structured interviews and non-participatory observation in Tyrol (Austria) and the migrants’ countries: Australia, Brazil and Peru. The collected data was analysed using different quantitative approaches, including statistical tests, and compared between the countries of investigation. Results All respondents in all four investigation areas claimed that they had knowledge and made use of medicinal plants to treat basic ailments in their day-to-day lives. Informants made 1,139 citations of medicinal plants in total in free lists, which correspond to 164 botanical taxa (genus or species level) in Tyrol, 87 in Australia, 84 in Brazil and 134 in Peru. Of all the botanical taxa listed, only five (1.1%) were listed in all four countries under investigation. Agreement among informants within free lists was highest in Tyrol (17%), followed by Peru (12.2%), Australia (11.9%) and Brazil (11.2%). The proportion of agreement differs significantly between informants in Australia and Tyrol (p = 0.001), Brazil and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and Peru and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and is similar between informants in the migrant countries, as indicated by statistical tests. We recorded 1,286 use citations

  13. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru.

    PubMed

    Pirker, Heidemarie; Haselmair, Ruth; Kuhn, Elisabeth; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2012-11-16

    In ethnobotanical research, the investigation into traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the context of migration has been of increasing interest in recent decades since it is influenced and changed by new environmental and social conditions. It most likely undergoes transformation processes to match the different living circumstances in the new location. This study compares the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants held by Tyroleans - and their descendants - who emigrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru at different time scales. The study's findings allow a discussion of the complexities and dynamics that influence this knowledge within the context of long-distance migration. Information was obtained from 65 informants by free-listing, semi-structured interviews and non-participatory observation in Tyrol (Austria) and the migrants' countries: Australia, Brazil and Peru. The collected data was analysed using different quantitative approaches, including statistical tests, and compared between the countries of investigation. All respondents in all four investigation areas claimed that they had knowledge and made use of medicinal plants to treat basic ailments in their day-to-day lives. Informants made 1,139 citations of medicinal plants in total in free lists, which correspond to 164 botanical taxa (genus or species level) in Tyrol, 87 in Australia, 84 in Brazil and 134 in Peru. Of all the botanical taxa listed, only five (1.1%) were listed in all four countries under investigation. Agreement among informants within free lists was highest in Tyrol (17%), followed by Peru (12.2%), Australia (11.9%) and Brazil (11.2%). The proportion of agreement differs significantly between informants in Australia and Tyrol (p = 0.001), Brazil and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and Peru and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and is similar between informants in the migrant countries, as indicated by statistical tests. We recorded 1,286 use citations according to 744 different uses (Tyrol: 552, Australia

  14. Sea-ice software: ICEMAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong

    1988-01-01

    An oceanographer's work bench which provides tools for ice data display, ice type classification, global and local ice motion analysis, and data enhancing is presented. The user interface; ice texture analysis; and ice motion analysis are described.

  15. Differences in urbanization degree and consequences on the diversity of conventional vs. rapidly mutating Y-STRs in five municipalities from a small region of the Tyrolean Alps in Austria.

    PubMed

    Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Kayser, Manfred; Parson, Walther

    2016-09-01

    In this study we set out to test at a micro-geographic scale for the potential effects of differences in urbanization degree on Y-chromosomal diversity and the paternal lineage differentiation of "conventional" and rapidly-mutating (RM) Y-STR markers. To avoid systematic underrepresentation of common lineages, 551 male samples were collected under a sampling regime allowing for the inclusion of paternal relatives. All participants came from a small, topographically highly structured, yet culturally homogeneous settlement area in the Tyrolean Alps of Austria, a region that is characterized by a longstanding coexistence of communities differing considerably in size and connection. The study participants reported provenance in one of the three rural villages Alpbach, Brandenberg, and Wildschönau - all being separated by topographical barriers from each other - or in one of the two more urban-like and better connected municipalities Kitzbühel and St. Johann in Tirol. When compared with the sample pools from the two larger communities, the three small villages showed distinctly higher rates of self-reported patrilocality since the paternal grandfather (85-95% vs. ∼42%), and featured evidence for a considerably higher proportion of close and cryptic paternal relationships among the study participants. We observed marked differences in the Y-SNP haplogroup frequency spectra and statistically significant Y-STR-based FST distances among the municipality samples, suggesting population sub-structuring along municipality borders. While for the two larger settlements a widely used "core" set of 17 conventional Y-STRs (Yfiler) provided reasonably high lineage resolution (Ĥ: 0.99515±0.00256, 0.99739±0.00224), a markedly reduced haplotype diversity was seen in samples from the rural villages (Ĥ: 0.96126±0.00701-0.98515±0.00278). This difference largely diminished when instead using a set of 13 RM Y-STRs (Ĥ: 0.99180±0.00380-0.99922±0.00187, for all groups). Most

  16. Long-distance connections in the Copper Age: New evidence from the Alpine Iceman’s copper axe

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Ivana; Kaufmann, Günther; Canovaro, Caterina; Dal Sasso, Gregorio; Villa, Igor Maria

    2017-01-01

    25 years after the discovery in the Ötztal Italian Alps, the 5,300-year-old mummy keeps providing key information on human biological and medical conditions, aspects of everyday life and societal organization in the Copper Age. The hand axe found with the body of the Alpine Iceman is one of the rare copper objects that is firmly dated to the early Copper Age because of the radiocarbon dating of the axe wooden shaft. Here we report the measurement of the lead isotope ratios of the copper blade. The results unambiguously indicate that the source of the metal is the ore-rich area of Southern Tuscany, despite ample evidence that Alpine copper ore sources were known and exploited at the time. The experimental results are discussed within the framework of all the available coeval archaeometallurgical data in Central-Southern Europe: they show that the Alps were a neat cultural barrier separating distinct metal circuits. The direct evidence of raw metal or object movement between Central Italy and the Alps is surprising and provides a new perspective on long-distance relocation of goods and relationships between the early Copper Age cultures in the area. The result is in line with the recent investigations re-evaluating the timing and extent of copper production in Central Italy in the 4th millennium BC. PMID:28678801

  17. 7000 year European climate record from the Ortles ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo; Bertagna, Giuliano; Bertó, Michele; Carturan, Luca; Dinale, Roberto; Dreossi, Giuliano; Festi, Daniela; Mair, Volkmar; Oeggl, Klaus; Seppi, Roberto; Stenni, Barbara; Tonidandel, David

    2017-04-01

    In 2011 four ice cores were extracted from the summit of Alto dell'Ortles (3859 m), the highest glacier of South Tyrol in the Italian Alps. This drilling site is located only 37 km southwest from where the 5.2 kyrs old Tyrolean Iceman was discovered emerging from the ablating ice field of Tisenjoch (3210 m, near the Italian-Austrian border) in 1991. The excellent preservation of this mummy suggested that the Tyrolean Iceman was continuously embedded in coeval prehistoric ice and that additional ancient ice was likely preserved elsewhere in South Tyrol. Dating of the ice cores from Alto dell'Ortles based on 210Pb, 3H, beta activity and 14C determinations, combined with an empirical model (COPRA), provides evidence of a chronologically ordered ice stratigraphy from the modern glacier surface down to the bottom ice layers with an age of ˜7 kyrs, which confirms that ancient ice is preserved in this area of the Alps. Our results indicate that the drilling site was continuously glaciated on frozen bedrock since ˜7 kyrs BP. Absence of older ice on the highest glacier of South Tyrol is consistent with removal of basal ice from bedrock during the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum (NHCO; 6-9 kyrs BP), the warmest interval in the European Alps during the Holocene. At the end of the NHCO temperatures started to decrease allowing the accumulation of cold ice on frozen bedrock. A short increase in precipitation at ˜7 kyrs BP could also have contributed to higher accumulation and ice thickening on Alto dell'Ortles. Although high precipitation did not persist during the mid-Holocene, progressively more favourable glacial conditions characterized the Eastern Alps at the end of the NHCO and glaciers extended in general to lower elevations, including the Tisenjoch (3210 m) where the Tyrolean Iceman was buried in snow and ice since 5.2 kyrs BP.

  18. The history of Helicobacter pylori: from phylogeography to paleomicrobiology.

    PubMed

    Mégraud, F; Lehours, P; Vale, F F

    2016-11-01

    The study of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori brought us interesting data on the history of mankind. Based on multi-locus sequence typing, it was possible to trace the migration of Homo sapiens all around the world, and to infer the time when he went Out of Africa. Beside these phylogeographic aspects, paleomicrobiology gave us important information on life in the Neolithic period, following the discovery of Ötzi, the Iceman, who was living in the Tyrolean Alps 5200 years ago, and from whom a Helicobacter pylori genome was sequenced. This review presents the data accumulated in these different fields. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Secrets of the Iceman. Technology Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    1993-01-01

    This learning activity asks students to use critical thinking skills to imagine life in the late stone age, including the tools and technology that would have existed. Presents the context, the challenge, objectives, resources, material and equipment needs, and evaluation methods. (SK)

  20. The Secrets of the Iceman. Technology Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    1993-01-01

    This learning activity asks students to use critical thinking skills to imagine life in the late stone age, including the tools and technology that would have existed. Presents the context, the challenge, objectives, resources, material and equipment needs, and evaluation methods. (SK)

  1. [The man in the ice under special consideration of paleo-pathological evidence].

    PubMed

    Spindler, K

    2001-01-01

    Dealing with archaeological findings, the physical condition of the 5000-year-old Man in the Ice will be discussed. Several research projects with autoscopical, radiological, computertomographical and laparoscopical methods present an overview of the state of health of the Tyrolean Iceman. The vascular network at the lower brain shows a slight hardening of the arteries. On the right side of the thorax the sixth and seventh ribs are fractured without callus formation. On the left side serial rib fractures can be seen which had healed well. The twelfth ribs are absent on both sides. The Iceman was suffering from arthrosis of the right hip of medium severity. Osteolysis of the little toe is indicative of frostbite. Some ecto- and endoparasites were found (Pulex irritans, Trichuris trichiura). The Iceman has a number of skin markings on various places. The location of these tattoos matches the X-ray findings of discrete to medium arthrotic changes in the corresponding joints. It seems reasonable to assume that the markings were applied for a therapeutic reason. The combination of thickening of the arteries, arthrosis of the joints, the healed fractures and frostbite lesions illustrates the hard life to be endured by the Man in the Ice and by Late Stone Age man in general.

  2. Some anthropological aspects of the prehistoric Tyrolean ice man.

    PubMed

    Seidler, H; Bernhard, W; Teschler-Nicola, M; Platzer, W; zur Nedden, D; Henn, R; Oberhauser, A; Sjøvold, T

    1992-10-16

    The corpse of a Late Neolithic individual found in a glacier in Oetztal is unusual because of the intact nature of all body parts that resulted from the characteristics of its mummification process and its protected geographical position with regard to glacier flow. Anthropological data indicate that the man was 25 to 40 years old, was between 156 and 160 centimeters in stature, had a cranial capacity of between 1500 and 1560 cubic centimeters, and likely died of exhaustion.

  3. An Obesity Paradox: Increased Body Mass Index Is Associated with Decreased Aortic Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Barth, Rolf F; Maximilian Buja, L; Cao, Lei; Brodsky, Sergey V

    2017-07-01

    Brodsky et al. (Cardiovasc Pathol 25(6), 515-520, 2016) recently have reported that there was an unexpected and highly significant inverse correlation between body mass index (BMI) and atherosclerosis of the aortas of morbidly obese decedents (BMI >40 kg/m(2)). In a series of 304 decedents, 65 of whom were morbidly obese, minimal or no atherosclerosis was seen in 46 of them (70%) versus 20 (30%) who had severe atherosclerosis (P = 0.008). This obesity paradox was unexpected and raises important questions about the etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which will be the subject of this commentary. The concept of healthy versus unhealthy adiposity may in part provide an explanation for the "obesity paradox." Another factor that will be considered is the possible role of adipokines and their genetic determinants that may significantly reduce the risk of developing aortic atherosclerosis in morbidly obese individuals. Considering the marked variability in the pattern and extent of atherosclerosis of the aorta, hemodynamic factors and endothelial cell shear stress may be the most important determinants that might explain the obesity paradox that we have observed. Finally, the possible role of gut microbiota and inflammation as factors in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis will be considered, but their importance is less clear than that of hemodynamic factors. We conclude with the remarkable finding that a 5300-year-old, well-preserved mummy of the "Iceman," Ötzi had atherosclerotic disease of a number of major arteries and the interesting questions that this raises.

  4. Genomic diversity and admixture differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian foragers and farmers.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Malmström, Helena; Omrak, Ayça; Raghavan, Maanasa; Valdiosera, Cristina; Günther, Torsten; Hall, Per; Tambets, Kristiina; Parik, Jüri; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Apel, Jan; Willerslev, Eske; Storå, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2014-05-16

    Prehistoric population structure associated with the transition to an agricultural lifestyle in Europe remains a contentious idea. Population-genomic data from 11 Scandinavian Stone Age human remains suggest that hunter-gatherers had lower genetic diversity than that of farmers. Despite their close geographical proximity, the genetic differentiation between the two Stone Age groups was greater than that observed among extant European populations. Additionally, the Scandinavian Neolithic farmers exhibited a greater degree of hunter-gatherer-related admixture than that of the Tyrolean Iceman, who also originated from a farming context. In contrast, Scandinavian hunter-gatherers displayed no significant evidence of introgression from farmers. Our findings suggest that Stone Age foraging groups were historically in low numbers, likely owing to oscillating living conditions or restricted carrying capacity, and that they were partially incorporated into expanding farming groups.

  5. Exploration of anthropological specimens by GC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Varmuza, Kurt; Makristathis, Athanasios; Schwarzmeier, Josef; Seidler, Horst; Mader, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Anthropological specimens combine a variety of unfavorable characteristics, rendering their evaluation an analytical challenge. Their remarkable status is primarily based on two characteristics: (i) these very rare samples of human origin are testimonies of human history and are, therefore, available only in minute amounts for analytical purposes, and (ii) the analysis of these samples is extremely limited by the decomposition of molecules, which are easily detected in living organisms, such as nucleic acids and proteins, but are subject to rapid post-mortem decay. In this article, we review the methods and results of archaeometry, emphasizing the role of MS combined with chemometrics. Focusing on experimental results for fatty acid profiles, specimens from mummies from different civilizations were compared. Considering in particular the Tyrolean Iceman, the application of chemometric methods to GC-MS data recovers essential information about the preservation and the storage conditions of mummies.

  6. Convinced, ambivalent or annoyed: Tyrolean ski tourism stakeholders and their perceptions of climate change☆

    PubMed Central

    Trawöger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Its focus on snow-dependent activities makes Alpine winter tourism especially sensitive to climate change. Stakeholder risk perceptions are a key factor in adaptation to climate change because they fundamentally drive or constrain stakeholder action. This paper examines climate change perceptions of winter tourism stakeholders in Tyrol (Austria). Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews were conducted. Four opinion categories reflecting different attitudes toward climate change issues were identified: convinced planners, annoyed deniers, ambivalent optimists, convinced wait-and-seers. Although the findings generally indicate a growing awareness of climate change, this awareness is mainly limited to perceiving the issue as a global phenomenon. Awareness of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change that lead to a demand for action could not be identified. Current technical strategies, like snowmaking, are not primarily climate-induced. At present, coping with climate change is not a priority for risk management. The findings point out the importance of gaining and transferring knowledge of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change in order to induce action at the destination level. PMID:27064520

  7. The Tyrolean Geriatric Fracture Center: an orthogeriatric co-management model.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, C; Gosch, M; Blauth, M; Lechleitner, M; Luger, T J; Roth, T

    2011-12-01

    The aging population is growing rapidly and this change results in an increase in the number of fragility fracture patients. Several reports describe their poor outcome. Integrated models of care have been published in order to improve quality of patient care. We established an orthogeriatric model of care at the Department of Trauma Surgery in Innsbruck in cooperation with the Department of Geriatric Medicine (Hochzirl) and the Department for Anesthesiology. This report describes our concept as well as initial experience. We included all geriatric patients according to the definition of the German Geriatric Society. In all patients, basic demographic data, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and type of fracture were recorded. Main principles of the newly implemented system are the integration of a geriatrician in our team of trauma surgeons and anesthesiologists, prioritization of patients, development of our own clinical treatment guidelines, regular interdisciplinary and interprofessional meetings, a special outpatient clinic for these patients, and the better cooperation with the nearby Department of Geriatric Medicine. A total of 529 patients met our inclusion criteria during 2010; 77.4% were female and the mean age was 84.1 years. The overall medical complication rate was 20.4%. Of the patients, 36.1% had hip fractures and 70.5% could be operated mainly using spinal anesthesia within 24 h and their mean length of stay was significantly shorter than operations performed 5 years previously. At 3 months, 86.7% of the patients had returned home and, thus, had reached their prefracture residency. A coordinated, multidisciplinary model for the treatment of fragility fractures has the potential to improve the quality of patient care. Several international studies report superior outcome and our own findings are promising as well. We could show that our major goals, e.g., reduction of complications, shortening the length of stay, and restoration of the prefracture residency, can be improved by implementing such a model.

  8. [Prevention of caries and periodontal disease--a pilot study in 2 Tyrolean kindergartens].

    PubMed

    Kulmer, S

    1989-04-01

    In a pilot study in 2 kindergardens, the Austrian Prevention Program was tested for efficacy. Information about a balanced nutrition, motivation and instructions for effective oral hygiene and fluoride treatment were taken care of by specially trained kindergarden nurses. Inspite of initial differences between urban and rural children, plaque and bleeding indexes were significantly reduced in both groups. The incidence of new caries lesions was extremely low.

  9. Convinced, ambivalent or annoyed: Tyrolean ski tourism stakeholders and their perceptions of climate change.

    PubMed

    Trawöger, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Its focus on snow-dependent activities makes Alpine winter tourism especially sensitive to climate change. Stakeholder risk perceptions are a key factor in adaptation to climate change because they fundamentally drive or constrain stakeholder action. This paper examines climate change perceptions of winter tourism stakeholders in Tyrol (Austria). Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews were conducted. Four opinion categories reflecting different attitudes toward climate change issues were identified: convinced planners, annoyed deniers, ambivalent optimists, convinced wait-and-seers. Although the findings generally indicate a growing awareness of climate change, this awareness is mainly limited to perceiving the issue as a global phenomenon. Awareness of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change that lead to a demand for action could not be identified. Current technical strategies, like snowmaking, are not primarily climate-induced. At present, coping with climate change is not a priority for risk management. The findings point out the importance of gaining and transferring knowledge of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change in order to induce action at the destination level.

  10. New methods and techniques in anthropology.

    PubMed

    Recheis, W; Weber, G W; Schäfer, K; Prossinger, H; Knapp, R; Seidler, H; zur Nedden, D

    1999-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991, advanced imaging and post-processing techniques have been successfully applied to anthropological research. Among the specific techniques are spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions, which include stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be produced using stereolithography; subsequently, it has been successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end performance graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions have become established as routine tools for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques enabled dramatically new insights to be gained in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without even touching--let alone damaging--them. Among the most precious are specimens from the genus Australopithecus (1.8 Myr-3.5 Myr), as well as representatives of Homo heidelbergensis (200 kyr-600 kyr) and Homo neanderthalensis (40 kyr-100 kyr); such fossils have been CT-scanned during the last five years. The fossils often are filled with a stone matrix or other encrustations. During the post-processing routines, highly advanced algorithms were used to remove these encrustations virtually (the concrete fossils remain untouched). Thus it has been possible to visualize the morphological structures that are hidden by the matrix layer. Some specimens have been partially destroyed, but it has been possible for the missing parts were reconstructed on the computer screen in order to get estimations of brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover, the data in computerized form allows new descriptions of morphological structures using geometric morphometrics. Some of the results may change aspects and

  11. Virtual reality and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Recheis, W; Weber, G W; Schäfer, K; Knapp, R; Seidler, H; zur Nedden, D

    1999-08-01

    Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991 advanced imaging and post processing techniques were successfully applied in anthropology. Specific techniques include spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions including stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be reproduced using stereolithography, before this method was successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions were established as a routine tool for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques opened totally new insights in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without damaging or even touching them. Many of the most precious specimens from the species Autralopithecus (1.8-3.5 Myears), Homo heidelbergensis (200-600 kyears) or Homo neanderthalensis (40-100 kyears) were scanned during the last 5 years. Often the fossils are filled with a stone matrix or other materials. During the postprocessing routines highly advanced algorithms were used to remove virtually these incrustations. Thus it was possible to visualize the morphological structures that lie beneath the matrix. Some specimen were partially destroyed, so the missing parts were reconstructed on computer screen in order to get estimations of the brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover the computerized form of the data allows new descriptions of morphologic structures by the means of 'geometric morphometrics'. Some of the results may change aspects and interpretations in human evolution. The introduction of new imaging and post processing techniques created a new field of research: Virtual Anthropology.

  12. Molecular paleontology.

    PubMed

    Marota, I; Rollo, F

    2002-01-01

    Molecular paleontology, i.e., the recovery of DNA from ancient human, animal, and plant remains is an innovative research field that has received progressively more attention from the scientific community since the 1980s. In the last decade, the field was punctuated by claims which aroused great interest but eventually turned out to be fakes--the most famous being the sequence of dinosaur DNA later shown to be of human origin. At present, the discipline is characterized by some certainties and many doubts. We know, for example, that we have reasonable chances to recover authentic DNA from a mammoth carcass, while our chances are negligible (or nonexistent) in the case of a dynastic mummy from Egypt. On the other hand, though we are developing convincing models of DNA decay in bone, we are not yet able to predict whether a certain paleontological or archeological site will yield material amenable to DNA analysis. This article reviews some of the most important and promising investigations using molecular paleontology approaches, such as studies on the conservation of DNA in human bone, the quest for ancient DNA in permafrost-frozen fauna, the Tyrolean iceman, and the Neandertals.

  13. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the TyroleanIceman.” PMID:22960212

  14. Scalable metagenomic taxonomy classification using a reference genome database

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Sasha K.; Hysom, David A.; Gardner, Shea N.; Lloyd, G. Scott; Gokhale, Maya B.; Allen, Jonathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Deep metagenomic sequencing of biological samples has the potential to recover otherwise difficult-to-detect microorganisms and accurately characterize biological samples with limited prior knowledge of sample contents. Existing metagenomic taxonomic classification algorithms, however, do not scale well to analyze large metagenomic datasets, and balancing classification accuracy with computational efficiency presents a fundamental challenge. Results: A method is presented to shift computational costs to an off-line computation by creating a taxonomy/genome index that supports scalable metagenomic classification. Scalable performance is demonstrated on real and simulated data to show accurate classification in the presence of novel organisms on samples that include viruses, prokaryotes, fungi and protists. Taxonomic classification of the previously published 150 giga-base Tyrolean Iceman dataset was found to take <20 h on a single node 40 core large memory machine and provide new insights on the metagenomic contents of the sample. Availability: Software was implemented in C++ and is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/lmat Contact: allen99@llnl.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23828782

  15. Phylogenetic position of a copper age sheep (Ovis aries) mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Cristina; Ermini, Luca; Rizzi, Ermanno; Corti, Giorgio; Luciani, Stefania; Marota, Isolina; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region about 9,000-8,000 years ago. Currently, few mitochondrial (mt) DNA studies are available on archaeological sheep. In particular, no data on archaeological European sheep are available. Here we describe the first portion of mtDNA sequence of a Copper Age European sheep. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the clothes of the so-called Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present). Mitochondrial DNA (a total of 2,429 base pairs, encompassing a portion of the control region, tRNA(Phe), a portion of the 12S rRNA gene, and the whole cytochrome B gene) was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplification and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We have compared the sequence with the corresponding sequence of 334 extant lineages. A phylogenetic network based on a new cladistic notation for the mitochondrial diversity of domestic sheep shows that the Ötzi's sheep falls within haplogroup B, thus demonstrating that sheep belonging to this haplogroup were already present in the Alps more than 5,000 years ago. On the other hand, the lineage of the Ötzi's sheep is defined by two transitions (16147, and 16440) which, assembled together, define a motif that has not yet been identified in modern sheep populations.

  16. Phylogenetic Position of a Copper Age Sheep (Ovis aries) Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Cristina; Ermini, Luca; Rizzi, Ermanno; Corti, Giorgio; Luciani, Stefania; Marota, Isolina; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Background Sheep (Ovis aries) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region about 9,000-8,000 years ago. Currently, few mitochondrial (mt) DNA studies are available on archaeological sheep. In particular, no data on archaeological European sheep are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the first portion of mtDNA sequence of a Copper Age European sheep. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the clothes of the so-called Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350 - 5,100 years before present). Mitochondrial DNA (a total of 2,429 base pairs, encompassing a portion of the control region, tRNAPhe, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene, and the whole cytochrome B gene) was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplification and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We have compared the sequence with the corresponding sequence of 334 extant lineages. Conclusions/Significance A phylogenetic network based on a new cladistic notation for the mitochondrial diversity of domestic sheep shows that the Ötzi's sheep falls within haplogroup B, thus demonstrating that sheep belonging to this haplogroup were already present in the Alps more than 5,000 years ago. On the other hand, the lineage of the Ötzi's sheep is defined by two transitions (16147, and 16440) which, assembled together, define a motif that has not yet been identified in modern sheep populations. PMID:22457789

  17. Funnel-shaped surface depressions - Indicator or accelerant of rapid glacier disintegration? A case study in the Tyrolean Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker-Waldhuber, Martin; Fischer, Andrea; Keller, Lorenz; Morche, David; Kuhn, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Alpine glaciers have been retreating at extreme and historically unprecedented rates. While the general course of regional retreat rates reflects long-term climatic change, individual extreme events are closely related to the geomorphological settings and processes of the specific glacier. Nevertheless, these extreme events also influence the regional means and might be an important feedback mechanism accelerating the response of glaciers to climate change. In 2009, during the recent disintegration of the terminus of Gepatschferner (46°52‧30″N, 10°45‧25″E), a shallow circular depression appeared at the glacier tongue with a decrease of surface ice flow velocity to almost nil. In 2015 the area was ice-free. During a heavy precipitation event in August 2012, a subglacial sediment layer of > 10 m was flushed out, which accelerated the subsidence of the ice surface. The development of this 15 to 30 m deep depression was monitored with a combination of methods in high detail, including direct ablation measurements and a time series of seven high-resolution airborne laser DEMs, plus recordings of ice flow velocity and surface elevation with DGPS. The thickness of ice and sediment layers was measured with vibroseismic soundings in 2012 and 2013. Similar developments were observed at three other glaciers with extreme retreat rates. Our investigation suggests that this mechanism has a major impact on and can be read as an indicator of a nonlinear increased response of glaciers to climate change.

  18. Patterns of Population Differentiation and Natural Selection on the Celiac Disease Background Risk Network

    PubMed Central

    Sams, Aaron; Hawks, John

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common small intestinal inflammatory condition induced by wheat gluten and related proteins from rye and barley. Left untreated, the clinical presentation of CD can include failure to thrive, malnutrition, and distension in juveniles. The disease can additionally lead to vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and osteoporosis. Therefore, CD potentially negatively affected fitness in past populations utilizing wheat, barley, and rye. Previous analyses of CD risk variants have uncovered evidence for positive selection on some of these loci. These studies also suggest the possibility that risk for common autoimmune conditions such as CD may be the result of positive selection on immune related loci in the genome to fight infection. Under this evolutionary scenario, disease phenotypes may be a trade-off from positive selection on immunity. If this hypothesis is generally true, we can expect to find a signal of natural selection when we survey across the network of loci known to influence CD risk. This study examines the non-HLA autosomal network of gene loci associated with CD risk in Europe. We reject the null hypothesis of neutrality on this network of CD risk loci. Additionally, we can localize evidence of selection in time and space by adding information from the genome of the Tyrolean Iceman. While we can show significant differentiation between continental regions across the CD network, the pattern of evidence is not consistent with primarily recent (Holocene) selection across this network in Europe. Further localization of ancient selection on this network may illuminate the ecological pressures acting on the immune system during this critically interesting phase of our evolution. PMID:23936230

  19. Patterns of population differentiation and natural selection on the celiac disease background risk network.

    PubMed

    Sams, Aaron; Hawks, John

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common small intestinal inflammatory condition induced by wheat gluten and related proteins from rye and barley. Left untreated, the clinical presentation of CD can include failure to thrive, malnutrition, and distension in juveniles. The disease can additionally lead to vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and osteoporosis. Therefore, CD potentially negatively affected fitness in past populations utilizing wheat, barley, and rye. Previous analyses of CD risk variants have uncovered evidence for positive selection on some of these loci. These studies also suggest the possibility that risk for common autoimmune conditions such as CD may be the result of positive selection on immune related loci in the genome to fight infection. Under this evolutionary scenario, disease phenotypes may be a trade-off from positive selection on immunity. If this hypothesis is generally true, we can expect to find a signal of natural selection when we survey across the network of loci known to influence CD risk. This study examines the non-HLA autosomal network of gene loci associated with CD risk in Europe. We reject the null hypothesis of neutrality on this network of CD risk loci. Additionally, we can localize evidence of selection in time and space by adding information from the genome of the Tyrolean Iceman. While we can show significant differentiation between continental regions across the CD network, the pattern of evidence is not consistent with primarily recent (Holocene) selection across this network in Europe. Further localization of ancient selection on this network may illuminate the ecological pressures acting on the immune system during this critically interesting phase of our evolution.

  20. New genetic evidence supports isolation and drift in the Ladin communities of the South Tyrolean Alps but not an ancient origin in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mark G; Barnes, Ian; Weale, Michael E; Jones, Abigail L; Forster, Peter; Bradman, Neil; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2008-01-01

    The Alps are one of the most significant geographical barriers in Europe and several isolated Swiss and Italian valleys retain the distinctive Ladin and Romansch languages, alongside the modern majority of Italian and German languages. Linguistically, Ladin belongs to the Romance languages, but some studies on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have suggested a major Middle Eastern component to their genealogical origin. Furthermore, an observed high degree of within-population diversity has been interpreted as reflecting long-standing differentiation from other European populations and the absence of a major bottleneck in Ladin population history. To explore these issues further, we examined Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in two samples of Ladin speakers, two samples of German speakers and one sample of metropolitan Italian speakers. Our results (1) indicate reduced diversity in the Ladin-speaking and isolated German-speaking populations when compared to a sample of metropolitan Italian speakers, (2) fail to identify haplotypes that are rare in other European populations that other researchers have identified, and (3) indicate different Middle Eastern components to Ladin ancestry in different localities. These new results, in combination with Bayesian estimation of demographic parameters of interest (population size, population growth rate, and Palaeolithic/Neolithic admixture proportions) and phylogeographic analysis, suggest that the Ladin groups under study are small genetically isolated populations (subject to strong genetic drift), having a predominantly European ancestry, and in one locality, may have a greater Palaeolithic component to that ancestry than their neighbours.

  1. Evaluation of West-Austrian junior athletes' knowledge regarding doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Fürhapter, Christina; Blank, Cornelia; Leichtfried, Veronika; Mair-Raggautz, Maria; Müller, David; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    An important factor while developing efficient doping prevention strategies is to identify relevant target groups, to evaluate the state of knowledge about this topic as well as to evaluate motivations behind using prohibited substances. Measures to prevent doping substances abuse have to be supported in early stages of childhood. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the knowledge of Tyrolean junior athletes about doping in sport. Next to the knowledge, their attitudes in regard to doping practices have also been a focus of this project. Within a prospective cross-sectional study, Tyrolean junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years (n = 408) were anonymously questioned by distributing questionnaires in three Tyrolean sport schools as well as two Tyrolean sport-training centers. To collect the data, an anonymous questionnaire with close-ended questions was used. Next to sociodemographic data, questions also evaluated the knowledge about prohibited substances as well as attitudes and behaviors towards doping. The concept was set up based on contents of comparable studies and publications. The knowledge about doping among junior athletes was moderate. The consumer behavior of the young athletes on the other hand has turned out to be satisfactory. Nevertheless, the overall knowledge especially regarding potential negative side effects of doping agents is poor. To incorporate an effective doping-prevention strategy, improved education, particularly in terms of side effects, is clearly needed. To achieve sustainable doping-prevention effects, focus has to be generally set on education within the frame of junior competitive sport.

  2. Meditation, the freud family and poets.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Lawrence M

    2008-09-01

    The savoring of yellow Tyrolean laburnum blossoms became a summer vacation rite of the Freud family. It was reminiscent of their paterfamilias's infantile "Dandelion in the Green Meadow" dream-scape. We may ponder whether Freud's adolescent olfactory memories were similarly "re-rooted" in Freiberg as a 17 year-old where many hours were "passed by him in solitary walks through the lovely woods" he had found once more.

  3. Natural products from Scorzonera aristata (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Jehle, Manuela; Bano, Johanna; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Zidorn, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The aerial parts of Scorzonera aristata Ramond ex DC., collected in the South Tyrolean Dolomites, yielded the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, and isoorientin, and the caffeic acid derivatives chlorogenic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid, and 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid. Sub-aerial parts contained caffeic acid methyl ester, 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid, and the triterpenes 3alpha-hydroxyolean-5-ene, lupeol, and magnificol. Chemosystematic implications of the isolated compounds are discussed briefly.

  4. Effect of cryotherapy devices in the postoperative setting.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Schinke, Theresa L; Canales, Michael B; Yu, Gerard V

    2007-01-01

    Sophisticated methods of cryotherapy, such as application of a water-circulating device, have recently been popularized to provide a constant or intermittent therapeutic source in the foot and ankle postoperative setting. In this study, the efficacy and safety of three selected cryotherapy devices (Iceman, EBIce, and Ankle Cryo/Cuff) were investigated. Each cryotherapy unit, in the coldest setting, was applied over standard surgical dressings in group I, over one layer of Jones compression bandage in group II, and over two layers of Jones compression bandage in group III on four individuals in excellent overall health. The skin temperature was then recorded every 15 min for 180 min in each trial. In group I, the Iceman was the only device that required discontinuation in one subject, and the EBIce and Cryo/Cuff were tolerated in all of the subjects. However, the temperatures in all of the devices continued to decrease at the end of the trials. In group II, all of the cryotherapy devices controlled temperatures between 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). In group III, no device significantly lowered the initial surface skin temperature. We achieved the safe and effective temperature range when the cryotherapy devices were applied over one layer of Jones compression dressing. The cryotherapy devices resulted in less predictable temperature declination when applied over the thinner surgical dressing. When the devices were applied over two layers of Jones compression dressing, surface skin temperature declination was minimal.

  5. Sustaining the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    Airlines JAL Thai Airways Japan Air System Tyrolean SN Brussels Airlines United TAM Brazil Varig Grupo Taca Mexicana Spanair Major International...radio and television 6.6 2.7 40.3% 8517 Electrical apparatus for line telephony or telegraphy 8.1 2.6 32.3% 6204 Women’s girls’ suits, jackets, dresses... television 6.5 5.1 78.6% 7108 Gold 5.1 4.9 95.1% 9030 Oscilloscopes, instruments for measuring rays 4.2 3.7 88.5% 8529 Aerials and other radio and TV

  6. [Teachers and attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study on the situation of teachers in Tyrol].

    PubMed

    Plattner, Barbara; Aglan, Anna Zeinab; Juen, Barbara; Conca, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of approximately 5% of Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder in children the level of knowledge of Tyrolean educators at selected educational institutions was examined. As part of the thesis of A. Aglan 170 questionnaires were distributed at selected Tyrolean schools from May to October 2010. The questionnaires were completed voluntarily and anonymously by educators working there and then turned in. The questionnaire consisted of 43 items and was evaluated by means of conventional statistical methods. 98 (58%) of the questionnaires sent out were returned. 93 questionnaires (55%) were evaluated using standard statistical methods. Teachers were well informed about generic aspects of Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder. Knowledge gaps could be identified regarding the underlying causes of the disorder and available treatment options. Teachers demonstrated great willingness to actively cooperate and to learn more about Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder through further education in order to improve the situation of all parties involved. Lack of knowledge was found regarding the subtopics "causes of Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Treatment Options". The majority of the teachers would appreciate specialized training and is willing to adapt their lessons to the requirements of children, pupils and students affected by Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder.

  7. Cattle-derived Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin Infections in Red Foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Tyrol, Austria.

    PubMed

    Glawischnig, Walter; Lazar, Judit; Wallner, Alice; Kornschober, Christian

    2017-01-31

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is endemic in the cattle population in some areas of the Austrian province Tyrol, and each year single dairy farms have experienced clinical infections. To ascertain if Tyrolean red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) act as a reservoir for Salmonella spp., we tested hepatic tissue and intestinal content from foxes hunted in the years 2015-2016 by using microbiological methods. In addition, we included several fox fecal samples collected on a mountain pasture near chamois carcasses in the investigation. Of 434 foxes tested, nine animals (2.1%) were positive for Salmonella spp. Serotyping revealed five foxes positive with S. Dublin, demonstrating that this serovar exists in the Tyrolean fox population. The fecal samples collected in the area surrounding skeletonized chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra ) also tested positive for S. Dublin. These chamois were probably victims of a waterborne outbreak caused by S. Dublin-shedding cattle. Our results indicate that the S. Dublin infections in red foxes were primarily acquired through ingestion of infected cattle material such as abortion tissues, but also by feeding on dead chamois. The findings underline the importance of interspecies transmission in this domestic/wildlife interface.

  8. Drawing the history of the Hutterite population on a genetic landscape: inference from Y-chromosome and mtDNA genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Irene; Fuchsberger, Christian; Platzer, Christa; Çalişkan, Minal; Marroni, Fabio; Pramstaller, Peter P; Ober, Carole

    2010-01-01

    Although the North American Hutterites trace their origins to South Tyrol, no attempts have been made to examine the genetic migration history of the Hutterites before emigrating to the United States in the 1870s. To investigate this, we studied 9 microsatellite loci and 11 unique event polymorphism (UEP) markers on the Y-chromosome, the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as well as the complete mtDNA genome of Hutterite and South Tyrolean samples. Only 6 out of 14 Y-chromosome UEP+microsatellite haplotypes and 3 out of 11 mitochondrial haplotypes that were present in the Hutterites were also present in the South Tyrolean population. The phylogenetic relationships inferred from Y-chromosome and mtDNA databases show that the Hutterites have a unique genetic background related to a similar extent to central and eastern European populations. An admixture analysis indicates, however, a relatively high genetic contribution of central European populations to the Hutterite gene pool. These results are consistent with historical records on Hutterite migrations and demographic history. In addition, our data reveal similar numbers of Y and mitochondrial haplotypes in Hutterite male and female founders, respectively. The Hutterite male and female gene pools are similar with respect to genetic diversity and genetic distance measures and comparable with respect to their origins, suggesting a similar evolutionary history. PMID:19844259

  9. [Women's complaint leadership in the Causa Kleinwächter. A contribution to patient history of the Innsbruck maternity hospital].

    PubMed

    Hilber, Marina

    On the basis of the Innsbruck Maternity Clinic this paper deals with the individual and collective worlds of experience of obstetric patients. However, not only the patient's view on the proceedings in this specific medical space is being reconstructed, also the prevailing conventions surrounding the treatment of pregnant, parturient and puerperal patients serving as clinical material in obstetric research and education are critically scrutinised. At the centre of this paper stands Dr. Ludwig Kleinwächter's period of duty, who acted as professor for obstetrics and gynaecology in Innsbruck between 1877 and 1881. During this period numerous conflicts regarding the treatment of patients are documented. Concerned about the good reputation of the Maternity Clinic, the Tyrolean State Committee, as the Clinic's provider, tried to solve the crisis. The existing letters of complaint and protocols do not only give a voice to the women concerned, but also to the medical professions as well as the local political representatives involved.

  10. Evaluating the effects of model structure and meteorological input data on runoff modelling in an alpine headwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattan, Paul; Bellinger, Johannes; Förster, Kristian; Schöber, Johannes; Huttenlau, Matthias; Kirnbauer, Robert; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Modelling water resources in snow-dominated mountainous catchments is challenging due to both, short concentration times and a highly variable contribution of snow melt in space and time from complex terrain. A number of model setups exist ranging from physically based models to conceptional models which do not attempt to represent the natural processes in a physically meaningful way. Within the flood forecasting system for the Tyrolean Inn River two serially linked hydrological models with differing process representation are used. Non- glacierized catchments are modelled by a semi-distributed, water balance model (HQsim) based on the HRU-approach. A fully-distributed energy and mass balance model (SES), purpose-built for snow- and icemelt, is used for highly glacierized headwater catchments. Previous work revealed uncertainties and limitations within the models' structures regarding (i) the representation of snow processes in HQsim, (ii) the runoff routing of SES, and (iii) the spatial resolution of the meteorological input data in both models. To overcome these limitations, a "strengths driven" model coupling is applied. Instead of linking the models serially, a vertical one-way coupling of models has been implemented. The fully-distributed snow modelling of SES is combined with the semi-distributed HQsim structure, allowing to benefit from soil and runoff routing schemes in HQsim. A monte-carlo based modelling experiment was set up to evaluate the resulting differences in the runoff prediction due to the improved model coupling and a refined spatial resolution of the meteorological forcing. The experiment design follows a gradient of spatial discretisation of hydrological processes and meteorological forcing data with a total of six different model setups for the alpine headwater basin of the Fagge River in the Tyrolean Alps. In general, all setups show a good performance for this particular basin. It is therefore planned to include other basins with differing

  11. European medicinal polypores--a modern view on traditional uses.

    PubMed

    Grienke, Ulrike; Zöll, Margit; Peintner, Ursula; Rollinger, Judith M

    2014-07-03

    In particular five polypore species, i.e. Laetiporus sulphureus, Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Piptoporus betulinus, and Laricifomes officinalis, have been widely used in central European folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases, e.g. dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, bladder disorders, pyretic diseases, treatment of coughs, cancer, and rheumatism. Prehistoric artefacts going back to over 5000 years underline the long tradition of using polypores for various applications ranging from food or tinder material to medicinal-spiritual uses as witnessed by two polypore species found among items of Ötzi, the Iceman. The present paper reviews the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activity of the five mentioned polypores. All available information on the selected polypore taxa used in traditional folk medicine was collected through evaluation of literature in libraries and searches in online databases using SciFinder and Web of Knowledge. Mycochemical studies report the presence of many primary (e.g. polysaccharides) and secondary metabolites (e.g. triterpenes). Crude extracts and isolated compounds show a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities. The investigated polypores possess a longstanding ethnomycological tradition in Europe. Here, we compile biological results which highlight their therapeutic value. Moreover, this work provides a solid base for further investigations on a molecular level, both compound- and target-wise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. "Brienzi" - The blue Vivianite man of Switzerland: Time since death estimation of an adipocere body.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Lux, Bettina; Lösch, Sandra; Rösing, Friedrich W; Hürlimann, Joachim; Feer, Philipp; Dirnhofer, Richard; Königsdorfer, Urs; Zollinger, Ulrich

    2011-09-10

    In 1996, a cadaver in adipocere condition was discovered in a bay of the Brienzer See in Switzerland. The torso was named "Brienzi" following the "Iceman" Ötzi. Several outer parts of the body were incrusted; the incrustation was in blue color. Further investigations showed that the bluish covering of parts of the adipocere torso were a mineral known as Vivianite. Vivianite (Fe(3)(PO(4))(2-)(H(2)O)(8)) is an iron phosphate mineral with needle lengths between 100 and 150μm. It is normally associated in a context with organic archaeological and geological materials (some hundreds to millions of years old). Hitherto, it is only described in three cases of human remains. We were able to reconstruct the following facts about 'Brienzi': The man drowned in Lake Brienz or in one of its tributaries during the 1700s. The body was subsequently covered with sedimentation and thus buried under water. An earthquake produced an underwater landslide which eventually exposed the corpse. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. CT-Based Assessment of Relative Soft-Tissue Alteration in Different Types of Ancient Mummies.

    PubMed

    Sydler, Christina; Öhrström, Lena; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Woitek, Ulrich; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Mummification leads to alteration of soft-tissue morphology. No research has focused specifically on differences in soft-tissue shrinkage depending on mummification type. This study evaluated whether soft-tissue alteration is dependent on type of mummification. A total of 17 human mummies have been investigated by computed tomography (CT). Samples included artificially embalmed ancient Egyptian mummies, naturally mummified South American corpses, ice mummies (including the Iceman, South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, Bolzano, Italy, ca. 3,300 BC), bog bodies and a desiccated mummy of possibly Asian provenance. The acquired data were compared to four contemporary bodies. The extent of soft-tissue shrinkage was evaluated using CT data. Shrinkage was defined as soft-tissue relative to area of bone (in number of voxels). Measurements were taken at 13 anatomically defined locations. Ice mummies show the highest degree of preservation. This finding is most likely explained due to frozen water within tissues. All other types of mummies show significantly (at P < 0.05) smaller relative area of preserved soft-tissue. Variation between different anatomical structures (e.g., upper lip vs. mid-femur) is significant, unlike variation within one compartment (e.g., proximal vs. distal humerus). Mummification type strongly affects the degree of soft-tissue alteration, surprisingly mostly independent of overall historical age. These results highlight the unique morphological impact of taphonomy on soft-tissue preservation and are of particular interest in tissue research as well as in forensics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Variations in atmospheric sulphate recorded in stalagmites by synchrotron micro-XRF and XANES analyses [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisia, Silvia; Borsato, Andrea; Fairchild, Ian J.; Susini, Jean

    2005-07-01

    We report here the first speleothem time-series of the variability of sulphate, a species whose abundance in catchments is strongly influenced by atmospheric anthropogenic and volcanic sources. Annually-resolved archives of S, Mg, Si and P were generated by applying synchrotron radiation micro X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to two speleothems from different sites in northern Italy. X-ray absorption-edge spectrometry proves that the S is in the form of sulphate and XRF mapping demonstrates that S is within calcite and enriched zones are predominantly as layers. A post-1850 A.D. record from the Ernesto cave shows a substantial rise in sulphate, interpreted as reflecting the largely anthropogenically-forced variation of sulphate of the atmospheric boundary layer, moderated by some ecosystem storage. Analysis of the circa 5.2 to circa 5.0 ka interval of a speleothem from Savi cave, where ecosystem retention of S is likely to have been minimal, shows a spiky sulphate record, resembling that of ice cores. A series of sulphate peaks suggest that multiple volcanic sulphate aerosol emissions at that time. This probably enhanced summer temperature cooling thus favouring the preservation of the human mummy of Neolithic-Copper age, the "Iceman" on the watershed between Italy and Austria. Both examples illustrate the power of speleothems to record atmospheric sulphate variability.

  15. UV-induced effects on growth, photosynthetic performance and sunscreen contents in different populations of the green alga Klebsormidium fluitans (Streptophyta) from alpine soil crusts.

    PubMed

    Kitzing, C; Pröschold, T; Karsten, U

    2014-02-01

    Members of the green algal genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical components of biological soil crust communities worldwide, which exert important ecological functions. Klebsormidium fluitans (F. Gay) Lokhorst was isolated from an aeroterrestrial biofilm as well as from four different biological soil crusts along an elevational gradient between 600 and 2350 m in the Tyrolean and South Tyrolean Alps (Austria, Italy), which are characterised by seasonally high solar radiation. Since the UVtolerance of Klebsormidium has not been studied in detail, an ecophysiological and biochemical study was applied. The effects of controlled artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR; <9 W m(-2) UV-A, <0.5 W m(-2) UV-B) on growth, photosynthetic performance and the capability to synthesise mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as potential sunscreen compounds were comparatively investigated to evaluate physiological plasticity and possible ecotypic differentiation within this Klebsormidium species. Already under control conditions, the isolates showed significantly different growth rates ranging from 0.42 to 0.74 μm day(-1). The UVR effects on growth were isolate specific, with only two strains affected by the UV treatments. Although all photosynthetic and respiratory data indicated strain-specific differences under control conditions, UV-A and UV-B treatment led only to rather minor effects. All physiological results clearly point to a high UV tolerance in the K. fluitans strains studied, which can be explained by their biochemical capability to synthesize and accumulate a putative MAA after exposure to UV-A and UV-B. Using HPLC, a UV-absorbing compound with an absorption maximum at 324 nm could be identified in all strains. The steady-state concentrations of this Klebsormidium MAA under control conditions ranged from 0.09 to 0.93 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW). While UV-A led to a slight stimulation of MAA accumulation, exposure to UV-B was accompanied by a strong but

  16. Benefit for the patient of a teleradiology process certified to meet an international standard.

    PubMed

    Soegner, P; Rettenbacher, T; Smekal, A; Buttinger, K; Oefner, B; zur Nedden, D

    2003-01-01

    To guarantee the quality of teleradiology services in Austria we have developed an easy-to-use and continuously re-evaluated teleradiology workflow model. This is based on the quality management model (ISO 9001:2000) of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and guarantees the quality of the process. From January 2002 to January 2003 we examined 544 emergency teleradiology computerized tomography studies transmitted to the Department of Radiology 2 in Innsbruck. The patients were from the rural hospital of Reutte. In 450 cases (83%) the sending of the written legal final report took less than 1 h. The numbers of mistakes (mostly minor workflow errors) were reduced from 23 errors per month in January 2002 to 9 errors per month in January 2003. The continuous cross-checking of the workflow and the training of the employees involved guaranteed a better standard of teleradiology in our department. Since December 2002, the whole Tyrolean teleradiology process has been ISO 9001:2000 certified.

  17. Fatal accidents on glaciers: forensic, criminological, and glaciological conclusions.

    PubMed

    Ambach, E; Tributsch, W; Henn, R

    1991-09-01

    The rare event of a corpse immersed in glacier ice becoming exposed on a glacier surface is closely connected with the glaciological conditions at the scene and the site of the accident. Provided that the time since death is known, certain questions relative to the circumstances of a mountain accident can only be answered by considering glaciological aspects. How the scene of an accident can be reconstructed by inference from the site of discovery is discussed by means of three exemplary cases that occurred on Tyrolean glaciers (Austria) during the past 40 years: (1) Two corpses were discovered close above the equilibrium line in the accumulation area after 25 years. The two victims had fallen down a rock face after the breaking off of a cornice and had come to rest in the uppermost part of the accumulation area. (2) A victim was discovered in the lower ablation area 8 years after falling down a crevasse in the middle part of the ablation area. (3) A female alpinist was discovered at the very end of the glacier after 29 years; it was concluded that the accident must have happened in the accumulation area.

  18. Hydrological modeling in alpine catchments: sensing the critical parameters towards an efficient model calibration.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, S; Rinderer, M; Kirnbauer, R

    2009-01-01

    For the Tyrolean part of the river Inn, a hybrid model for flood forecast has been set up and is currently in its test phase. The system is a hybrid system which comprises of a hydraulic 1D model for the river Inn, and the hydrological models HQsim (Rainfall-runoff-discharge model) and the snow and ice melt model SES for modeling the rainfall runoff form non-glaciated and glaciated tributary catchment respectively. Within this paper the focus is put on the hydrological modeling of the totally 49 connected non-glaciated catchments realized with the software HQsim. In the course of model calibration, the identification of the most sensitive parameters is important aiming at an efficient calibration procedure. The indicators used for explaining the parameter sensitivities were chosen specifically for the purpose of flood forecasting. Finally five model parameters could be identified as being sensitive for model calibration when aiming for a well calibrated model for flood conditions. In addition two parameters were identified which are sensitive in situations where the snow line plays an important role.

  19. Legal issues in governing genetic biobanks: the Italian framework as a case study for the implications for citizen's health through public-private initiatives.

    PubMed

    Piciocchi, Cinzia; Ducato, Rossana; Martinelli, Lucia; Perra, Silvia; Tomasi, Marta; Zuddas, Carla; Mascalzoni, Deborah

    2017-09-18

    This paper outlines some of the challenges faced by regulation of genetic biobanking, using case studies coming from the Italian legal system. The governance of genetic resources in the context of genetic biobanks in Italy is discussed, as an example of the stratification of different inputs and rules: EU law, national law, orders made by authorities and soft law, which need to be integrated with ethical principles, technological strategies and solutions. After providing an overview of the Italian legal regulation of genetic data processing, it considers the fate of genetic material and IP rights in the event of a biobank's insolvency. To this end, it analyses two case studies: a controversial bankruptcy case which occurred in Sardinia, one of the first examples of private and public partnership biobanks. Another case study considered is the Chris project: an example of partnership between a research institute in Bolzano and the South Tyrolean Health System. Both cases seem to point in the same direction, suggesting expediency of promoting and improving public-private partnerships to manage biological tissues and biotrust to conciliate patent law and public interest.

  20. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in remote European and Atlantic sites located above the boundary mixing layer.

    PubMed

    Van Drooge, Barend Leendert; Fernández, Pilar; Grimalt, Joan O; Stuchlík, Evzen; Torres García, Carlos J; Cuevas, Emilio

    2010-07-01

    Ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined at five elevated mountain sites on the European continent and the Atlantic Ocean. All sites can be considered remote background areas since they are situated above the timberline and they lack local emission sources of these compounds. Average gas phase concentrations of SigmaPAH were 165, 1,475, 1,553, 1,822 and 4,443 pg m(-3) for Tenerife, Pyrenees, Central Norway, Tyrolean Alps and High Tatras, respectively. Particulate phase concentrations were 55, 70, 383, 196 and 708 pg m(-3), respectively. The PAH profiles of samples from the different sites are very similar, being typical of PAH mixtures after long-range atmospheric transport. Part of the fluctuations in PAH concentrations are explained by the influence of temperature on the particulate/gas phase partitioning. The differences in PAH levels between sites, with the lowest concentrations found in Tenerife and the highest in the High Tatras, suggest the geographical influence of regional emissions on the sites, especially in the cold periods and for the sites in the eastern sector of the European continent. This is supported by air mass back-trajectories analysis for the samples on the different sites. The influence of the continent is not detectable in the case of the elevated site of Tenerife where the free troposphere has been sampled. The results in this study are consistent with the PAH levels found in soils and/or high mountain lake sediments from these areas.

  1. Spotted fever group--Rickettsiae in the Tyrols: evidence by seroepidemiology and PCR.

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, S T; Simeoni, J; Lang, S; Dobler, G; Speck, S; Zelger, R; Schennach, H; Lass-Flörl, C; Walder, G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the occurrence of Rickettsia in the inner-alpine valleys of the Eastern Alps and to determine the amount of seroreaction among the local human population. Ticks were investigated by PCR and the percentage of seropositives was determined among local blood donors by an in-house immunofluorescence assay. The local cut-off titre for screening of IgG was set at 1 : 128 with a well-characterised low-risk collective according to WHO-guidelines. Positive sera were confirmed by independent re-testing. Rickettsia is present in ticks north and south of the continental divide. Of 259 ticks investigated, 12.4% are positive for Rickettsia. Of over 1200 blood donors tested so far, 7.7% bear IgG at a titre of 1 : 128 or higher against R. helvetica. R. helvetica is present in the study area, causes immunoreaction among local residents and is associated with anamnestic erythema. Furthermore, screening with a second Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia indicates that significant parts of the Tyrolean population are exposed to a Rickettsia other than R. helvetica.

  2. Occurrence of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in Austria.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F; Liesegang, A; Grif, K; Prager, R; Danzl, J; Höck, F; Ottl, J; Dierich, M P; Berghold, C; Neckstaller, I; Tschäpe, H; Fisher, I

    2002-04-01

    In Austria, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin, a bovine-adapted serovar, rarely causes infections in humans. In 2000, Austria was within the European mean with an incidence of 0.1 per million inhabitants. Our data show that the vast majority of all serovar Dublin infections (human and non-human) can be traced epidemiologically to two districts in the Tyrol. This concentration of cases can be explained by a particularly traditional aspect of cattle farming in this area, the alpine pasture. There is an increased risk of cross infection due to the communal keeping of animals from various farms. Infected cattle are a source of infection for humans, and transmission usually occurs from eating beef and drinking cows milk. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and automated ribotyping, three out of five isolates from human infections could be traced to characteristic Tyrolean Dublin clones. Bacteriological screening for faecal carriage before the transfer of cattle from risk-herds to the alpine pastures and before the return from risk-pastures to the farms would be a possible starting point to prevent cross-contamination of large mixed herds and contamination of pasture through latently infected cattle. Appropriate research is necessary.

  3. Current insights into the molecular genetic basis of dwarfism in livestock.

    PubMed

    Boegheim, Iris J M; Leegwater, Peter A J; van Lith, Hein A; Back, Willem

    2017-06-01

    Impairment of bone growth at a young age leads to dwarfism in adulthood. Dwarfism can be categorised as either proportionate, an overall size reduction without changes in body proportions, or disproportionate, a size reduction in one or more limbs, with changes in body proportions. Many forms of dwarfism are inherited and result from structural disruptions or disrupted signalling pathways. Hormonal disruptions are evident in Brooksville miniature Brahman cattle and Z-linked dwarfism in chickens, caused by mutations in GH1 and GHR. Furthermore, mutations in IHH are the underlying cause of creeper achondroplasia in chickens. Belgian blue cattle display proportionate dwarfism caused by a mutation in RNF11, while American Angus cattle dwarfism is caused by a mutation in PRKG2. Mutations in EVC2 are associated with dwarfism in Japanese brown cattle and Tyrolean grey cattle. Fleckvieh dwarfism is caused by mutations in the GON4L gene. Mutations in COL10A1 and COL2A1 cause dwarfism in pigs and Holstein cattle, both associated with structural disruptions, while several mutations in ACAN are associated with bulldog-type dwarfism in Dexter cattle and dwarfism in American miniature horses. In other equine breeds, such as Shetland ponies and Friesian horses, dwarfism is caused by mutations in SHOX and B4GALT7. In Texel sheep, chondrodysplasia is associated with a deletion in SLC13A1. This review discusses genes known to be involved in these and other forms of dwarfism in livestock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Job Profiles of Biomedical Informatics Graduates. Results of a Graduate Survey.

    PubMed

    Ammenwerth, E; Hackl, W O

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical informatics programs exist in many countries. Some analyses of the skills needed and of recommendations for curricular content for such programs have been published. However, not much is known of the job profiles and job careers of their graduates. To analyse the job profiles and job careers of 175 graduates of the biomedical informatics bachelor and master program of the Tyrolean university UMIT. Survey of all biomedical informatics students who graduated from UMIT between 2001 and 2013. Information is available for 170 graduates. Eight percent of graduates are male. Of all bachelor graduates, 86% started a master program. Of all master graduates, 36% started a PhD. The job profiles are quite diverse: at the time of the survey, 35% of all master graduates worked in the health IT industry, 24% at research institutions, 9% in hospitals, 9% as medical doctors, 17% as informaticians outside the health care sector, and 6% in other areas. Overall, 68% of the graduates are working as biomedical informaticians. The results of the survey indicate a good job situation for the graduates. The job opportunities for biomedical informaticians who graduated with a bachelor or master degree from UMIT seem to be quite good. The majority of graduates are working as biomedical informaticians. A larger number of comparable surveys of graduates from other biomedical informatics programs would help to enhance our knowledge about careers in biomedical informatics.

  5. Temporal Changes and Altitudinal Distribution of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs in Mountain Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Čuperová, Zuzana; Holzer, Evelyn; Salka, Ivette

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are bacteriochlorophyll a-containing microorganisms that use organic substrates for growth but can supplement their energy requirements with light. They have been reported from various marine and limnic environments; however, their ecology remains largely unknown. Here infrared epifluorescence microscopy was used to monitor temporal changes in AAPs in the alpine lake Gossenköllesee, located in the Tyrolean Alps, Austria. AAP abundance was low (103 cells ml−1) until mid-July and reached a maximum of ∼1.3 × 105 cells ml−1 (29% of all prokaryotes) in mid-September. We compared the studied lake with other mountain lakes located across an altitudinal gradient (913 to 2,799 m above sea level). The concentration of dissolved organic carbon and water transparency seem to be the main factors influencing AAP abundance during the seasonal cycle as well as across the altitudinal gradient. While the AAP populations inhabiting the alpine lakes were composed of intensely pigmented large rods (5 to 12 μm), the lakes below the tree line were inhabited by a variety of smaller morphotypes. Analysis of pufM diversity revealed that AAPs in Gossenköllesee were almost exclusively Sphingomonadales species, which indicates that AAP communities inhabiting alpine lakes are relatively homogeneous compared to those in low-altitude lakes. PMID:23956384

  6. The 3D velocity structure beneath Iceland: Identifying melt pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R.

    2003-04-01

    The integration of various seismic datasets, recorded by the broadband HOTSPOT network deployed across Iceland, provides one of the highest resolution studies of the crust and mantle structure associated with a plume-ridge system. The mantle P- and S-velocity models (ICEMAN), derived from teleseismic body-wave and surface wave analysis, show a vertical, cylindrical low velocity anomaly ˜200 km in diameter extending from ˜400 km, the maximum depth of resolution, up to ˜200 km above which low velocity material is present beneath all of Iceland. The maximum P- and S-velocity anomalies of -2% and -4% respectively are found beneath the northwestern edge of Vatnajokull. The crustal S-velocity model (ICECRTb) is constrained by local surface waves, refraction experiments and receiver functions, and shows significant variation in crustal thickness. The thinnest, ˜15 km, crust is found around coastal regions, the thickest crust is beneath northwestern Vatnajokull where it reaches a thickness of 45 km. Within this thick crustal root is a vertical low velocity anomaly connecting the core of the mantle anomaly to horizontal low velocity regions that extend along the western and eastern volcanic zones but not the northern volcanic zone. These crustal low velocity zones are interpreted as regions through which melt is fed from the mantle to shallow magma chambers beneath the rift zones, where crustal formation occurs. The pipework between the core of the mantle anomaly and the southern rift zones is responsible for ˜30 km thick crust. Its absence to the north results in relatively thin, ˜20 km thick, crust.

  7. Insights from Characterizing Extinct Human Gut Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Tito, Raul Y.; Knights, Dan; Metcalf, Jessica; Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J.; Cleeland, Lauren; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Reinhard, Karl; Sobolik, Kristin; Belknap, Samuel; Foster, Morris; Spicer, Paul; Knight, Rob; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the ancestral state of the human distal gut microbiome, we examine feces retrieved from archaeological contexts (coprolites). To accomplish this, we pyrosequenced the 16S rDNA V3 region from duplicate coprolite samples recovered from three archaeological sites, each representing a different depositional environment: Hinds Cave (∼8000 years B.P.) in the southern United States, Caserones (1600 years B.P.) in northern Chile, and Rio Zape in northern Mexico (1400 years B.P.). Clustering algorithms grouped samples from the same site. Phyletic representation was more similar within sites than between them. A Bayesian approach to source-tracking was used to compare the coprolite data to published data from known sources that include, soil, compost, human gut from rural African children, human gut, oral and skin from US cosmopolitan adults and non-human primate gut. The data from the Hinds Cave samples largely represented unknown sources. The Caserones samples, retrieved directly from natural mummies, matched compost in high proportion. A substantial and robust proportion of Rio Zape data was predicted to match the gut microbiome found in traditional rural communities, with more minor matches to other sources. One of the Rio Zape samples had taxonomic representation consistent with a child. To provide an idealized scenario for sample preservation, we also applied source tracking to previously published data for Ötzi the Iceman and a soldier frozen for 93 years on a glacier. Overall these studies reveal that human microbiome data has been preserved in some coprolites, and these preserved human microbiomes match more closely to those from the rural communities than to those from cosmopolitan communities. These results suggest that the modern cosmopolitan lifestyle resulted in a dramatic change to the human gut microbiome. PMID:23251439

  8. Insights from characterizing extinct human gut microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Tito, Raul Y; Knights, Dan; Metcalf, Jessica; Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J; Cleeland, Lauren; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Reinhard, Karl; Sobolik, Kristin; Belknap, Samuel; Foster, Morris; Spicer, Paul; Knight, Rob; Lewis, Cecil M

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the ancestral state of the human distal gut microbiome, we examine feces retrieved from archaeological contexts (coprolites). To accomplish this, we pyrosequenced the 16S rDNA V3 region from duplicate coprolite samples recovered from three archaeological sites, each representing a different depositional environment: Hinds Cave (~8000 years B.P.) in the southern United States, Caserones (1600 years B.P.) in northern Chile, and Rio Zape in northern Mexico (1400 years B.P.). Clustering algorithms grouped samples from the same site. Phyletic representation was more similar within sites than between them. A Bayesian approach to source-tracking was used to compare the coprolite data to published data from known sources that include, soil, compost, human gut from rural African children, human gut, oral and skin from US cosmopolitan adults and non-human primate gut. The data from the Hinds Cave samples largely represented unknown sources. The Caserones samples, retrieved directly from natural mummies, matched compost in high proportion. A substantial and robust proportion of Rio Zape data was predicted to match the gut microbiome found in traditional rural communities, with more minor matches to other sources. One of the Rio Zape samples had taxonomic representation consistent with a child. To provide an idealized scenario for sample preservation, we also applied source tracking to previously published data for Ötzi the Iceman and a soldier frozen for 93 years on a glacier. Overall these studies reveal that human microbiome data has been preserved in some coprolites, and these preserved human microbiomes match more closely to those from the rural communities than to those from cosmopolitan communities. These results suggest that the modern cosmopolitan lifestyle resulted in a dramatic change to the human gut microbiome.

  9. Local reduction of decadal glacier thickness loss through mass balance management in ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay; Stocker-Waldhuber, Martin

    2016-11-01

    For Austrian glacier ski resorts, established in the 1970s and 1980s during a period of glacier advance, negative mass balances with resulting glacier area loss and decrease in surface elevation present an operational challenge. Glacier cover, snow farming, and technical snow production were introduced as adaptation measures based on studies on the effect of these measures on energy and mass balance. After a decade of the application of the various measures, we studied the transition from the proven short-term effects of the measures on mass balance to long-term effects on elevation changes. Based on lidar digital elevation models and differential GPS measurements, decadal surface elevation changes in 15 locations with mass balance management were compared to those without measures (apart from piste grooming) in five Tyrolean ski resorts on seven glaciers. The comparison of surface elevation changes presents clear local differences in mass change, and it shows the potential to retain local ice thickness over 1 decade. Locally up to 21.1 m ± 0.4 m of ice thickness was preserved on mass balance managed areas compared to non-maintained areas over a period of 9 years. In this period, mean annual thickness loss in 15 of the mass balance managed profiles is 0.54 ± 0.04 m yr-1 lower (-0.23 ± 0.04 m yr-1on average) than in the respective reference areas (-0.78 ± 0.04 m yr-1). At two of these profiles the surface elevation was preserved altogether, which is promising for a sustainable maintenance of the infrastructure at glacier ski resorts. In general the results demonstrate the high potential of the combination of mass balance management by snow production and glacier cover, not only in the short term but also for multi-year application to maintain the skiing infrastructure.

  10. Reducing Wound Tension with Undermining or Imbrication—Do They Work?

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Naveen M.; Brown, Benjamin J.; Davison, Steven P.; Mauskar, Neil; Mino, Matthew; Jordan, Marion H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: For the noncolonized wound, achieving tension-free, primary wound closure is ideal. Some surgeons advocate imbrication of deeper tissues rather than undermining, posing that imbrication preserves more dermal perfusion while still reducing tension at the wound edge. We sought to determine which technique most reliably reduced wound tension while preserving dermal wound perfusion. Methods: A total of 5 standardized, symmetrical pairs of full thickness wounds were created on Duroc swine. Wound tension was measured with a Tyrolean tensiometer before and after either method of closure, whereas a speckle contrast imager was used to assess dermal edge perfusion. Skin tension and dermal perfusion were evaluated for statistical significance via paired t tests and a multivariate analysis of variance. Results: There was a significant reduction in wound tension with undermining and imbrication relative to the raw wound tension (5 and 5.9 vs 7.1 N; P < 0.05) yet no significant difference between methods of closure (P > 0.05). There was a significant reduction in dermal perfusion between unwounded skin and the imbricated wound (222 perfusion units [PU] vs 48 PU; P < 0.05) and between the unwounded skin and the undermined wound (205 vs 63 PU; P < 0.05). Conclusions: We found no significant difference in wound tension between wound undermining or imbrication and a significant decrease in dermal perfusion after imbrication and undermining although the relative decrease in perfusion was greater with imbrication. Wound undermining reduces skin tension with greater relative dermal perfusion to the skin and should be selected over wound imbrication in standard primary wound closure. PMID:27536478

  11. The architecture of Norway spruce ectomycorrhizae: three-dimensional models of cortical cells, fungal biomass, and interface for potential nutrient exchange.

    PubMed

    Stögmann, Bernhard; Marth, Andreas; Pernfuß, Barbara; Pöder, Reinhold

    2013-08-01

    Gathering realistic data on actual fungal biomass in ectomycorrhized fine root systems is still a matter of concern. Thus far, observations on architecture of ectomycorrhizae (ECMs) have been limited to analyses of two-dimensional (2-D) images of tissue sections. This unavoidably causes stereometrical problems that lead to inadequate assumptions about actual size of cells and their arrangement within ECM's functional compartments. Based on extensive morphological investigations of field samples, we modeled the architectural components of an average-sized Norway spruce ECM. In addition to our comprehensive and detailed quantitative data on cell sizes, we studied actual shape and size, in vivo arrangement, and potential nutrient exchange area of plant cortical cells (CCs) using computer-aided three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions based on semithin serial sections. We extrapolated a factual fungal biomass in ECMs (Hartig net (HN) included) of 1.71 t ha(-1) FW (0.36 t ha(-1) DW) for the top 5 cm of soil for an autochthonous, montane, optimum Norway spruce stand in the Tyrolean Alps. The corresponding potential nutrient exchange area in ECMs including main axes of ECM systems, which is defined as the sum of interfaces between plant CCs and the HN, amounts to at least 3.2 × 10(5) m(2) ha(-1). This is the first study that determines the contribution of the HN to the total fungal biomass in ECMs as well as the quantification of its contact area. Our results may stimulate future research on fungal below-ground processes and their impact on the global carbon cycle.

  12. Pasture Names with Romance and Slavic Roots Facilitate Dissection of Y Chromosome Variation in an Exclusively German-Speaking Alpine Region

    PubMed Central

    Niederstätter, Harald; Rampl, Gerhard; Erhart, Daniel; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert; Neuhuber, Franz; Hausner, Isolde; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria) has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts about East Tyrol's colonization are rare, but spatial density-distribution analysis based on the etymology of place-names has facilitated accurate spatial mapping of the various language groups' former settlement regions. To test for present-day Y chromosome population substructure, molecular genetic data were compared to the information attained by the linguistic analysis of pasture names. The linguistic data were used for subdividing East Tyrol into two regions of former Romance (A) and Slavic (B) settlement. Samples from 270 East Tyrolean men were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal microsatellites (Y-STRs) and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs). Analysis of the probands' surnames revealed no evidence for spatial genetic structuring. Also, spatial autocorrelation analysis did not indicate significant correlation between genetic (Y-STR haplotypes) and geographic distance. Haplogroup R-M17 chromosomes, however, were absent in region A, but constituted one of the most frequent haplogroups in region B. The R-M343 (R1b) clade showed a marked and complementary frequency distribution pattern in these two regions. To further test East Tyrol's modern Y-chromosomal landscape for geographic patterning attributable to the early history of settlement in this alpine area, principal coordinates analysis was performed. The Y-STR haplotypes from region A clearly clustered with those of Romance reference populations and the samples from region B matched best with Germanic speaking reference populations. The combined use of onomastic and molecular genetic data revealed and mapped the marked structuring of the distribution of Y

  13. Reprint of: high resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria).

    PubMed

    Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Erhart, Daniel; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G2a (G-P15) in present-day paternal lineages in Tyrol (Austria) was analyzed by applying a high-density regional sampling scheme that also covered remote mountain areas. There is evidence from ancient genetic data for a high frequency of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G in prehistoric populations of Central Europe, whilst nowadays levels well below 10% are routinely observed. A population sample comprising ∼3700 specimens was analyzed for Y-chromosomal variation by genotyping Y-SNPs and Y-STRs. The set of binary markers included nine SNPs specific for sub-lineages of haplogroup G. The frequency of haplogroup G in 2379 unrelated men born in Tyrol amounted to 11.3%. Nearly all of these Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup G2a. The main sub-haplogroup within G2a was defined by the SNP L497 (G2a3b1c) and reached a population frequency of 8.6%. Although this average level is higher than reported for other countries the geographical distribution of haplogroup G-L497 showed a differentiated pattern with a clustered distribution within some alpine valleys, where maxima above 40% were found. Both, the estimation of coalescent times and a principle coordinates analysis based on RST values derived from Y-STR haplotypes from different sub-regions of Tyrol revealed evidence for an old settlement history associated with Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup G in the Tyrolean Alps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Endemic goiter in Austria's youth?].

    PubMed

    Riccabona, G; Glatzl, J; Platzer, S; Fill, H; Ehlich, P; Obendorf, L

    1981-01-01

    After 17 years the efficiency of iodine prophylaxis of endemic goiter (1 : 100000) in Austria was checked by control field studies in 3 Tyrolean towns n Austria. The data obtained there were compared with those of 123 school age children from the iodine deficient endemic goiter area of the province of Bolzano (Italy). The results show a reduction in goiter incidence from 50 to 35% in the total population in Austria, where goiter incidence in schoolchildren dropped from 45.9% to 12%. Urinary iodine/g creatinine was 65 micrograms in Austria, the 24 hr radioiodine uptake with 41.8% was normal. In comparison the ethnologically and geographically similar endemic goiter zone in the province of Bolzano showed a goiter incidence in schoolchildren of up to 46%, while urinary iodine/g creatinine was 35.9 micrograms and radioiodine uptake after 24 hr about 50%. Extensive studies of peripheral hormone parameters (T4, TBG, T3, TSH, rT3, FT3, FT4) revealed a significantly higher rT3 concentration of 24.7 ng/dl in Austria compared with a value of only 19.8 ng/dl in the province of Bolzano. These facts suggest an increased conversion of T4 to real T3 in iodine deficiency, which might contribute to the adaptation of the organism to this condition. No statement, however, can be presented regarding the regulation of this phenomenon. Even as endemic goiter is decreasing in Austria, an increase of salt iodization to 1 : 50000 according to the swiss procedure might eliminate definitely endemic goiter in Austria.

  15. [Safety in physical education - a teacher's perspective].

    PubMed

    Greier, K; Heinzle, A; Nepo, S; Ratschiller, J; Gafriller, R; Riechelmann, H

    2015-03-01

    A high percentage of all sports injuries occur during school sports. The aim of this study was to collect statements and opinions of sports teachers for safety in physical education. In a cross-sectional study, 296 teachers (202 with, 94 without a teaching qualification in "exercise and sports") at 77 Tyrolean "New Middle Schools" (former secondary schools) were interviewed. They judged various statements on school sports safety using a 5-point verbal rating scale. Irrespective of gender, teachers with a teaching qualification stated significantly more frequently (p = 0.015) that they have participated in continuing education on accident prevention than had their colleagues without qualification. The same applies to the checking of gymnastic and sports equipment before use (p < 0.001) and warming up at the beginning of the lesson (p < 0.001). Female sports teachers allowed their pupils more often (p = 0.002) to participate without adequate sportswear in physical education than did their male counterparts. Of all respondents, 57 % knew about technical faults in sports halls, which have also been reported to the school administration. In more than half (58 %) of these, reported defects were repaired completely and in one-third (36 %), a partial repair was reported. Participants estimated that the major risk for school sports injuries was due to the low motor skills of the pupils, inhomogeneous groups, large numbers of pupils, outdated sports equipment, and ball games. Since about a third of all surveyed teachers had no teaching qualification in exercise and sports, this group should come into the focus of regular continuing education in accident prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mutations in FKBP14 Cause a Variant of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome with Progressive Kyphoscoliosis, Myopathy, and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Matthias; Giunta, Cecilia; Krabichler, Birgit; Rüschendorf, Franz; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Colombi, Marina; Bittner, Reginald E.; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Muntoni, Francesco; Cirak, Sebahattin; Schreiber, Gudrun; Zou, Yaqun; Hu, Ying; Romero, Norma Beatriz; Carlier, Robert Yves; Amberger, Albert; Deutschmann, Andrea; Straub, Volker; Rohrbach, Marianne; Steinmann, Beat; Rostásy, Kevin; Karall, Daniela; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; Zschocke, Johannes; Fauth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    We report on an autosomal-recessive variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by severe muscle hypotonia at birth, progressive scoliosis, joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, myopathy, sensorineural hearing impairment, and normal pyridinoline excretion in urine. Clinically, the disorder shares many features with the kyphoscoliotic type of EDS (EDS VIA) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. Linkage analysis in a large Tyrolean kindred identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in FKBP14 in two affected individuals. Based on the cardinal clinical characteristics of the disorder, four additional individuals originating from different European countries were identified who carried either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in FKBP14. FKBP14 belongs to the family of FK506-binding peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). ER-resident FKBPs have been suggested to act as folding catalysts by accelerating cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds and to act occasionally also as chaperones. We demonstrate that FKBP14 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that deficiency of FKBP14 leads to enlarged ER cisterns in dermal fibroblasts in vivo. Furthermore, indirect immunofluorescence of FKBP14-deficient fibroblasts indicated an altered assembly of the extracellular matrix in vitro. These findings suggest that a disturbance of protein folding in the ER affecting one or more components of the extracellular matrix might cause the generalized connective tissue involvement in this disorder. FKBP14 mutation analysis should be considered in all individuals with apparent kyphoscoliotic type of EDS and normal urinary pyridinoline excretion, in particular in conjunction with sensorineural hearing impairment. PMID:22265013

  17. Mutations in FKBP14 cause a variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with progressive kyphoscoliosis, myopathy, and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Matthias; Giunta, Cecilia; Krabichler, Birgit; Rüschendorf, Franz; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Colombi, Marina; Bittner, Reginald E; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Muntoni, Francesco; Cirak, Sebahattin; Schreiber, Gudrun; Zou, Yaqun; Hu, Ying; Romero, Norma Beatriz; Carlier, Robert Yves; Amberger, Albert; Deutschmann, Andrea; Straub, Volker; Rohrbach, Marianne; Steinmann, Beat; Rostásy, Kevin; Karall, Daniela; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Zschocke, Johannes; Fauth, Christine

    2012-02-10

    We report on an autosomal-recessive variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by severe muscle hypotonia at birth, progressive scoliosis, joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, myopathy, sensorineural hearing impairment, and normal pyridinoline excretion in urine. Clinically, the disorder shares many features with the kyphoscoliotic type of EDS (EDS VIA) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. Linkage analysis in a large Tyrolean kindred identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in FKBP14 in two affected individuals. Based on the cardinal clinical characteristics of the disorder, four additional individuals originating from different European countries were identified who carried either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in FKBP14. FKBP14 belongs to the family of FK506-binding peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). ER-resident FKBPs have been suggested to act as folding catalysts by accelerating cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds and to act occasionally also as chaperones. We demonstrate that FKBP14 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that deficiency of FKBP14 leads to enlarged ER cisterns in dermal fibroblasts in vivo. Furthermore, indirect immunofluorescence of FKBP14-deficient fibroblasts indicated an altered assembly of the extracellular matrix in vitro. These findings suggest that a disturbance of protein folding in the ER affecting one or more components of the extracellular matrix might cause the generalized connective tissue involvement in this disorder. FKBP14 mutation analysis should be considered in all individuals with apparent kyphoscoliotic type of EDS and normal urinary pyridinoline excretion, in particular in conjunction with sensorineural hearing impairment.

  18. Pasture names with Romance and Slavic roots facilitate dissection of Y chromosome variation in an exclusively German-speaking alpine region.

    PubMed

    Niederstätter, Harald; Rampl, Gerhard; Erhart, Daniel; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert; Neuhuber, Franz; Hausner, Isolde; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria) has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts about East Tyrol's colonization are rare, but spatial density-distribution analysis based on the etymology of place-names has facilitated accurate spatial mapping of the various language groups' former settlement regions. To test for present-day Y chromosome population substructure, molecular genetic data were compared to the information attained by the linguistic analysis of pasture names. The linguistic data were used for subdividing East Tyrol into two regions of former Romance (A) and Slavic (B) settlement. Samples from 270 East Tyrolean men were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal microsatellites (Y-STRs) and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs). Analysis of the probands' surnames revealed no evidence for spatial genetic structuring. Also, spatial autocorrelation analysis did not indicate significant correlation between genetic (Y-STR haplotypes) and geographic distance. Haplogroup R-M17 chromosomes, however, were absent in region A, but constituted one of the most frequent haplogroups in region B. The R-M343 (R1b) clade showed a marked and complementary frequency distribution pattern in these two regions. To further test East Tyrol's modern Y-chromosomal landscape for geographic patterning attributable to the early history of settlement in this alpine area, principal coordinates analysis was performed. The Y-STR haplotypes from region A clearly clustered with those of Romance reference populations and the samples from region B matched best with Germanic speaking reference populations. The combined use of onomastic and molecular genetic data revealed and mapped the marked structuring of the distribution of Y

  19. High resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria).

    PubMed

    Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Erhart, Daniel; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-09-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G2a (G-P15) in present-day paternal lineages in Tyrol (Austria) was analyzed by applying a high-density regional sampling scheme that also covered remote mountain areas. There is evidence from ancient genetic data for a high frequency of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G in prehistoric populations of Central Europe, whilst nowadays levels well below 10% are routinely observed. A population sample comprising ∼3700 specimens was analyzed for Y-chromosomal variation by genotyping Y-SNPs and Y-STRs. The set of binary markers included nine SNPs specific for sub-lineages of haplogroup G. The frequency of haplogroup G in 2379 unrelated men born in Tyrol amounted to 11.3%. Nearly all of these Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup G2a. The main sub-haplogroup within G2a was defined by the SNP L497 (G2a3b1c) and reached a population frequency of 8.6%. Although this average level is higher than reported for other countries the geographical distribution of haplogroup G-L497 showed a differentiated pattern with a clustered distribution within some alpine valleys, where maxima above 40% were found. Both, the estimation of coalescent times and a principle coordinates analysis based on RST values derived from Y-STR haplotypes from different sub-regions of Tyrol revealed evidence for an old settlement history associated with Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup G in the Tyrolean Alps.

  20. Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of “local ethnicity” on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  1. Blood coagulation activation and fibrinolysis during a downhill marathon run.

    PubMed

    Sumann, Günther; Fries, Dietmar; Griesmacher, Andrea; Falkensammer, Gerda; Klingler, Anton; Koller, Arnold; Streif, Werner; Greie, Sven; Schobersberger, Beatrix; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Prolonged physical exercise is associated with multiple changes in blood hemostasis. Eccentric muscle activation induces microtrauma of skeletal muscles, inducing an inflammatory response. Since there is a link between inflammation and coagulation we speculated that downhill running strongly activates the coagulation system. Thirteen volunteers participated in the Tyrolean Speed Marathon (42,195 m downhill race, 795 m vertical distance). Venous blood was collected 3 days (T1) and 3 h (T2) before the run, within 30 min after finishing (T3) and 1 day thereafter (T4). We measured the following key parameters: creatine kinase, myoglobin, thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, D-dimer, plasmin-alpha(2)-antiplasmin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 antigen and thrombelastography with ROTEM [intrinsic pathway (InTEM) clotting time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, alpha angle]. Thrombin generation was evaluated by the Thrombin Dynamic Test and the Technothrombin TGA test. Creatine kinase and myoglobin were elevated at T3 and further increased at T4. Thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, D-dimer, plasmin-alpha(2)-antiplasmin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 antigen were significantly increased at T3. ROTEM analysis exhibited a shortening of InTEM clotting time and clot formation time after the marathon, and an increase in InTEM maximum clot firmness and alpha angle. Changes in TGA were indicative for thrombin generation after the marathon. We demonstrated that a downhill marathon induces an activation of coagulation, as measured by specific parameters for coagulation, ROTEM and thrombin generation assays. These changes were paralleled by an activation of fibrinolysis indicating a preserved hemostatic balance.

  2. Stalagmites from Spannagel cave (Austria) and holocene climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollweiler, N.; Mangini, A.; Spötl, C.; Scholz, D.; Mühlinghaus, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Spannagel cave is located around 2,500 m asl at the end of the Tux Valley in Tyrol (Austria) close to the Hintertux glacier. While the area above the cave is ice free at present, it was covered by ice during past glacials as well as during colder periods of Interglacials. Presently, the temperature inside the cave is between 1.8° and 2.0° C. We used the d18O time-series of three stalagmites which grew in small distance from each other. This speleothem record is not influenced by effects of kinetic isotope fractionation due to the low temperatures in the cave. The stalagmites were precisely dated with the U/Th-method. The combined record (COMNISPA, Vollweiler et al. 2006) shows substantial variability within the last 9 kyr with features like the Holocene Climatic Optimum between 7.5 and 6.5 kyr, the Mediaeval Warm Period between 1.2 and 0.7 kyr and the Roman Warm Period between 2.25 and 1.7 kyr. In contrast, periods of lower temperatures are visible between 7.9 and 7.5, 5.9 and 5.1, 3.5 and 3 kyr, and during the LIA between 600 and 150 yr. The period between 5.9 and 5.1 kyr has equivalence in many records from various regions in both hemispheres corresponding to global cooling. It also includes the time of the Alpine Iceman at 5.3 kyr. The timing of the climatic variations revealed by COMNISPA agrees approximately with that shown by other Alpine archives. Joerin et al. (2006) dated wood and peat samples which were released by melting Swiss Alpine glaciers located between Engadin and Valais. Both the d18O maxima and minima recorded in COMNISPA clearly have counterparts in the glacier recession record. Comparisons of COMNISPA with other archives have shown that our stalagmite curve does not only record local climate but also the history of European climate. The extremely high correlation to the Hematite Stained Grain record of Bond et al. (2001) suggests that COMNISPA is a good archive for climate in the North Atlantic region (Mangini et al. 2007). In addition

  3. Frequent Extreme Cold Exposure and Brown Fat and Cold-Induced Thermogenesis: A Study in a Monozygotic Twin

    PubMed Central

    Vosselman, Maarten J.; Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Kingma, Boris R. M.; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as ‘the Iceman’, who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a ‘normal’ sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. Methods The Iceman (subject A) and his brother (subject B) were studied during mild cold (13°C) and thermoneutral conditions (31°C). Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. Results Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal), within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G). CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%), but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. Conclusion No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the low

  4. Assessing soil hydraulic characteristics using HYPROP and BEST: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitinger, Georg; Obojes, Nikolaus; Lassabatère, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of ecohydrological characteristics with high spatial resolution is a prerequisite for large-scale hydrological modelling. Data on soil hydraulic characteristics are of major importance, but measurements are often seen as time consuming and costly. In order to accurately model grassland productivity and in particular evapotranspiration, soil sampling and infiltration experiments at 25 grassland sites ranging from 900m to 2300m a.s.l. were conducted in the long term socio-ecological research (LTSER) site Stubai Valley, Tyrolean Alps, Austria, covering 265 km². Here we present a comparison of two methods to determine important hydrological properties of soils: (1) the evaporation method HYPROP (Hydraulic Property Analyzer; UMS Munich, 2010), and (2) the BEST-model (Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer Parameters; Lassabatère et al. (2006)), each determining the soil hydraulic characteristics and in particular the water retention curve. For the most abundant soil types we compared the pf-curves calculated from HYPROP data suing the Van Genuchten equation to the ones resulting from the comparatively time efficient BEST approach to find out if the latter is a suitable method to determine pf curves of alpine grassland soils. Except for the soil type Rendzina, the comparison of HYPROP and BEST showed slightly variations in the pF curves and resulting hydraulic characteristics. At the starting point BEST curves presented a slower dehydration, HYPROP a fast and continuous water loss. HYPROP analyses showed the highest variability in the measured values of Rendzina. Regarding BEST, the Alluvial Soils showed the highest variability. To assess equivalence between HYPROP and BEST we deduced several hydraulic characteristics from the pF curves, e.g. saturated water content, field capacity, permanent wilting point, pore size distribution, and minimum water retention. The comparison of HYPROP and BEST revealed that the results of soil water characteristics may depend on

  5. Light, temperature, and desiccation effects on photosynthetic activity, and drought-induced ultrastructural changes in the green alga Klebsormidium dissectum (Streptophyta) from a high alpine soil crust.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Members of the cosmopolitan green algal genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical components of terrestrial microbiotic communities such as biological soil crusts, which have many important ecological functions. In the present study, Klebsormidium dissectum (Gay) Ettl & Gärtner was isolated from a high alpine soil crust in the Tyrolean Alps, Austria. Physiological performance in terms of growth and photosynthesis was investigated under different controlled abiotic conditions and compared with ultrastructural changes under the treatments applied. K. dissectum showed very low light requirements as reflected in growth patterns and photosynthetic efficiency. Increasing temperatures from 5°C to 40°C led to different effects on respiratory oxygen consumption and photosynthetic oxygen evolution. While at low temperatures (5-10°C), respiration was not detectable or on a very low level, photosynthesis was relatively high, Reversely, at the highest temperature, respiration was unaffected, and photosynthesis strongly inhibited pointing to strong differences in temperature sensitivity between both physiological processes. Although photosynthetic performance of K. dissectum was strongly affected under short-term desiccation and recovered only partly after rehydration, this species was capable to survive even 3 weeks at 5% relative air humidity. K. dissectum cells have a cell width of 5.6 ± 0.3 μm and a cell length of 8.4 ± 2.0 μm. Desiccated cells showed a strongly reduced cell width (46% of control) and cell length (65% of control). In addition, in desiccated cells, fewer mitochondria were stained by DIOC(6), and damaged plasma membranes were detected by FM 1-43 staining. High-pressure freeze fixation as well as chemical fixation allowed visualizing ultrastructural changes caused by desiccation. In such cells, the nucleus and chloroplast were still visibly intact, but the extremely thin cell walls (75-180 nm) were substantially

  6. Propagation of hydrological modeling uncertainties on bed load transport simulations in steep mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichner, Bernhard; Koller, Julian; Kammerlander, Johannes; Schöber, Johannes; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    transport in steep mountain streams, concentrating on the lower part of the main channel. Calibration of the sediment transport model was based on measured sediment data. This is obtained from settling basin connected to Tyrolean Weir type water intake, in which almost all sediments are deposited. Typical morphologic structures of this steep mountain stream, like step pool sequences, sudden changes of cross sections and armoring of the surface layer, and its characteristic flow regime lead to highly fluctuating transport rates. These are additionally strongly depending on preconditions of the river bed. Consequently, the different hydrographs of the hydrological model are causing significantly deviating results, which are induced by varying water volumes as well as temporal variations of the hydrographs.

  7. The potential of repeat airborne lidar for the analysis of geomorphic process dynamics in mountain terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, R.; Bollmann, E.; Ebe, V.; Girstmair, A.; Klug, C.; Rieg, L.; Spross, M.; Stötter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne lidar offers a wide range of applications in mountain geomorphology. While non-recurring lidar surveys provide base information on topography and surface characteristics, repeat airborne lidar datasets allow analysing processes and quantifying respective changes. At the Institute of Geography, University of Innsbruck, Austria, unique datasets with varying repeat cycles and spatial captures are available. Due to the high spatial resolution and accuracy these datasets facilitate not only the detection but also the quantification of geomorphic processes over large and often inaccessible mountainous regions. Hence, the focus of this study lies on the ability of airborne lidar data for the quantification of rock falls, debris flows and land slides as well as on permafrost related surface phenomena. Annual lidar surveys of the Rofental area (Ötztal, Tyrol; 32 km^2) started in 2001 aiming at the generation of geodetic mass balances of Hintereisferner and Kesselwandferner, two of the best investigated glaciers worldwide. Due to its high vertical accuracy (0.05 m on slopes <40°), these data allow inter-annual analyses of dead ice melting and permafrost degradation as well as rock falls and fluvial processes in the non-glaciated area. Even processes with very small changing rates of less than 0.10 m per year can be quantified on the basis of these multi-temporal airborne lidar datasets. In a larger area of the Tyrolean Central Alps (750 km^2), a bi-temporal lidar survey (2006 and 2010) allowed the detection and analysis of 189 gravitational events (rock falls, debris flows, land slides) affecting an area larger than 100 m^2. It has to be emphasized that the majority of these processes occurred in areas where permafrost conditions are likely. Regarding their permafrost content and thus their activity, the more than 400 rock glaciers in this area can be attributed with an activity index derived from this airborne lidar dataset, using both volumetric changes and

  8. A high altitude paleoclimate record from an ice core retrieved at the northern margin of the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, P.; Barbante, C.; Carturan, L.; Davis, M. E.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Dreossi, G.; Dinale, R.; Draga, G.; Gabrieli, J.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Mair, V.; Mikhalenko, V.; Oeggl, K.; Schotterer, U.; Seppi, R.; Spolaor, A.; Stenni, B.; Thompson, L. G.; Tonidandel, D.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric temperatures in the Alps are increasing at twice the global rate and this change may be amplified at the highest elevations. There is a scarcity of paleo-climate information from high altitudes to place this current rapid climate change in a paleo-perspective. The 'Ortles Project' is an international scientific effort gathering institutes from six nations with the primary goal of obtaining a high altitude paleo-climate record in the Mediterranean area. In 2011 four ice cores were extracted from Alto dell'Ortles (3859 m, South Tyrol, Italy) the highest glacier in the eastern Alps. This site is located ~30 km away from where the famous ~5.2 kyr old Tyrolean Ice Man was discovered emerging from an ablating ice field (Hauslabjoch, 3210 m) in 1991. The good state of conservation of this mummy suggested that the current warming trend is unprecedented in South Tyrol during the late Holocene and that unique prehistoric ice was still present in this region. During the ice core drilling operations we found that the glacier Alto dell'Ortles shows a very unusual thermic behavior as it is transitioning from a cold to a temperate state. In fact, below a 30 meter thick temperate firn portion, we observed cold ice layers sitting on a frozen bedrock (-2.8 C). These represent remnants of the colder climate before ~1980 AD, when an instrumental record indicates a ~2 C lower temperature in this area during the period 1864-1980 AD. By analyzing one of the Ortles cores for stable isotopes, dust and major ions, we found an annually preserved climatic signal embedded in the deep cold ice of this glacier. Alto dell'Ortles is therefore the first low-accumulation (850 mm w.e. per year) alpine drilling site where both winter and summer layers can be identified. Preliminary annual layer counting and two absolute time markers suggest that the time period covered by the Ortles ice cores spans from several centuries to a few millennia. In particular, a Larix (larch) leaf discovered at

  9. UAV-based Natural Hazard Management in High-Alpine Terrain - Case Studies from Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Adams, Marc; Lechner, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have become a standard tool for geodata collection, as they allow conducting on-demand mapping missions in a flexible, cost-effective manner at an unprecedented level of detail. Easy-to-use, high-performance image matching software make it possible to process the collected aerial images to orthophotos and 3D-terrain models. Such up-to-date geodata have proven to be an important asset in natural hazard management: Processes like debris flows, avalanches, landslides, fluvial erosion and rock-fall can be detected and quantified; damages can be documented and evaluated. In the Alps, these processes mostly originate in remote areas, which are difficult and hazardous to access, thus presenting a challenging task for RPAS data collection. In particular, the problems include finding suitable landing and piloting-places, dealing with bad or no GPS-signals and the installation of ground control points (GCP) for georeferencing. At the BFW, RPAS have been used since 2012 to aid natural hazard management of various processes, of which three case studies are presented below. The first case study deals with the results from an attempt to employ UAV-based multi-spectral remote sensing to monitor the state of natural hazard protection forests. Images in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) band were collected using modified low-cost cameras, combined with different optical filters. Several UAV-flights were performed in the 72 ha large study site in 2014, which lies in the Wattental, Tyrol (Austria) between 1700 and 2050 m a.s.l., where the main tree species are stone pine and mountain pine. The matched aerial images were analysed using different UAV-specific vitality indices, evaluating both single- and dual-camera UAV-missions. To calculate the mass balance of a debris flow in the Tyrolean Halltal (Austria), an RPAS flight was conducted in autumn 2012. The extreme alpine environment was challenging for both the mission and the evaluation of the aerial

  10. Estimation of the amount of telomere molecules in different human age groups and the telomere increasing effect of acupuncture and shiatsu on St.36, using synthesized basic units of the human telomere molecules as reference control substances for the bi-digital O-ring test resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y; Shimotsura, Y; Ooki, M; Noguchi, T

    1998-01-01

    who had exceptionally high telomere levels often had excellent physical conditions or mental acumen). The amounts of measured TTAGGG and CCCTAA molecules before and after acupuncture on St. 36 in adenocarcinomas and small cell carcinoma coexisting in the lung of a 54-yr.-old Asian male were: telomere in adenocarcinoma decreased from 950 ng to 750 ng and telomere in small cell carcinoma decreased from 770 ng to 600 ng. When the cancer treatment is effective, the amount of telomere is reduced towards the value of the normal internal organ. We found that acupuncture on St.36 on apparently normal subjects increased the telomere levels up to a maximum of more than 2 times their telomere levels prior to the treatment, depending on the method of treatment, but frequently increases were between 60% to 100%. Strong Shiatsu performed on St. 36 produced a somewhat lesser effect than acupuncture. We also determined the amounts of TTAGGG and CCCTAA molecules non-invasively in 3 mummified Egyptian sisters from the 8th Century BC on exhibit at the Museo Egizio in Turin, Italy in order to estimate their approximate ages (at the time of death). The amounts of body telomere were 500 ng, 550 ng, and 750 ng. For the prehistoric Iceman (about 3350 B.C. to 3310 B.C) discovered in 1991 in the Italian Otzal Alps at about 3,200 meters altitude, estimated body telomere was about 400 ng and telomere in brain and heart was 1600 ng, similar to that of a contemporary human being. Although these studies are preliminary, the findings may have potential applications not only in anti-aging, cancer treatments, and pathophysiology of brain and heart, but also for the estimation of the difference in the ages of cadavers studied in archeology and forensic medicine.